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Sample records for armed replicating adenoviruses

  1. shRNA-armed conditionally replicative adenoviruses: a promising approach for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Ding, Meng; Xu, Kai; Mao, Lijun; Zheng, Junian

    2016-01-01

    The small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been employed to knockdown the expression of cancer-associated genes and shown some promise in cancer therapy. However, synthetic siRNA duplexes or plasmid mediated delivery of siRNAs have several problems, such as short half-life, low transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity associated with transfection. Conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAds) as the delivery vector for short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) could overcome these limitations and have shown augmented anti-tumor effects in experimental studies and preclinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the development of CRAds-shRNA for cancer treatment. Combination of CRAds-shRNA with chemotherapeutics, radiation, dendritic cells, monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors will be necessary to eradicate cancer cells and cancer stem cells and achieve superior outcomes. The use of CRAd platform for efficient delivery of shRNAs and foreign genes will open a new avenue for cancer therapy. PMID:26980708

  2. Combination therapy with conditionally replicating adenovirus and replication defective adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon-Taek; Park, Kyung-Ho; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yasushi; Ohm, Joyce E; Nadaf, Sorena; Dikov, Mikhail M; Curiel, David T; Carbone, David P

    2004-09-15

    Low gene transfer rate is the most substantial hurdle in the practical application of gene therapy. One strategy to improve transfer efficiency is the use of a conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD) that can selectively replicate in tumor cells. We hypothesized that conventional E1-deleted adenoviruses (ad) can become replication-competent when cotransduced with a CRAD to selectively supply E1 in trans in tumors. The resulting selective production of large numbers of the E1-deleted ad within the tumor mass will increase the transduction efficiency. We used a CRAD (Delta24RGD) that produces a mutant E1 without the ability to bind retinoblastoma but retaining viral replication competence in cancer cells with a defective pRb/p16. Ad-lacZ, adenovirus-luciferase (ad-luc), and adenovirus insulin-like growth factor-1R/dominant-negative (ad-IGF-1R/dn; 482, 950) are E1-deleted replication-defective adenoviruses. The combination of CRAD and ad-lacZ increased the transduction efficiency of lacZ to 100% from 15% observed with ad-lacZ alone. Transfer of media of CRAD and ad-lacZ cotransduced cells induced the transfer of lacZ (media transferable bystander effect). Combination of CRAD and ad-IGF-1R/dn increased the production of truncated IGF-1R or soluble IGF-1R > 10 times compared with transduction with ad-IGF-1R/dn alone. Combined intratumoral injection of CRAD and ad-luc increased the luciferase expression about 70 times compared with ad-luc alone without substantial systemic spread. Combined intratumoral injection of CRAD and ad-IGF-1R/482 induced stronger growth suppression of established lung cancer xenografts than single injections. The combination of CRAD and E1-deleted ad induced tumor-specific replication of CRAD and E1-deleted ad and increased the transduction rate and therapeutic efficacy of these viruses in model tumors.

  3. Selective effects of a fiber chimeric conditionally replicative adenovirus armed with hep27 gene on renal cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Wenshun; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Liantao; Liu, Junjie; Zheng, Junnian

    2016-06-02

    ASBTARCT Adenoviruses mediated cancer gene therapies are widely investigated and show a promising effect on cancer treatment. However, efficient gene transfer varies among different cancer cell lines based on the expression of coxsakie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Hep27, a member of dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, can bind to Mdm2, resulting in the attenuation of Mdm2-mediated p53 degradation. Here we constructed a fiber chimeric adenovirus carrying hep27 gene (F5/35-ZD55-Hep27), in which the fiber protein of 5-serotype adenovirus (Ad5) was substituted by that of 35-serotype adenovirus (Ad35), aiming to facilitate the infection for renal cancer cells and develop the role of hep27 in cancer therapy. We evaluated the CAR and CD46 (a membrane cofactor protein for Ad35) expression in four kinds of renal cancer cells and assessed the relationship between receptors and infection efficiency. 5/35 fiber-modified adenovirus had a much promising infectivity compared with Ad5-based vector in renal cancer cells. F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 had enhanced antitumor activity against human renal cancer cells compared to the other groups. Further, hep27 mediated p53 and cleaved-PARP upregulation and mdm2 downregulation was involved and caused increased apoptosis. Moreover, F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 significantly suppressed tumor growth in subcutaneous renal cancer cell xenograft models. Our data demonstrated that 5/35 fiber-modified adenovirus F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 transferred into renal cancers efficiently and increased p53 to induce cancer cell apoptosis. Thus 5/35 fiber-modified adenoviral vector F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 might a promising vector and antitumor reagent for renal cancer gene therapy.

  4. Suppression of Adenovirus Replication by Cardiotonic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Filomena; Stoilov, Peter; Lingwood, Clifford; Brown, Martha; Cochrane, Alan

    2017-02-01

    The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Both drugs reduced the yields of four human adenoviruses (HAdV-A31, -B35, and -C5 and a species D conjunctivitis isolate) by at least 2 to 3 logs by affecting one or more steps needed for genome replication. Immediate early E1A protein levels are unaffected by the drugs, but synthesis of the delayed protein E4orf6 and the major late capsid protein hexon is compromised. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that both drugs altered E1A RNA splicing (favoring the production of 13S over 12S RNA) early in infection and partially blocked the transition from 12S and 13S to 9S RNA at late stages of virus replication. Expression of multiple late viral protein mRNAs was lost in the presence of either drug, consistent with the observed block in viral DNA replication. The antiviral effect was dependent on the continued presence of the drug and was rapidly reversible. RIDK34, a derivative of convallotoxin, although having more potent antiviral activity, did not show an improved selectivity index. All three drugs reduced metabolic activity to some degree without evidence of cell death. By blocking adenovirus replication at one or more steps beyond the onset of E1A expression and prior to genome replication, digoxin and digitoxin show potential as antiviral agents for treatment of serious adenovirus infections. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism(s) by which digoxin and digitoxin inhibit adenovirus replication will guide the development of novel antiviral therapies.

  5. Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-01-01

    Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies.

  6. The Dual Nature of Nek9 in Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Richard; Radko, Sandi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To successfully replicate in an infected host cell, a virus must overcome sophisticated host defense mechanisms. Viruses, therefore, have evolved a multitude of devices designed to circumvent cellular defenses that would lead to abortive infection. Previous studies have identified Nek9, a cellular kinase, as a binding partner of adenovirus E1A, but the biology behind this association remains a mystery. Here we show that Nek9 is a transcriptional repressor that functions together with E1A to silence the expression of p53-inducible GADD45A gene in the infected cell. Depletion of Nek9 in infected cells reduces virus growth but unexpectedly enhances viral gene expression from the E2 transcription unit, whereas the opposite occurs when Nek9 is overexpressed. Nek9 localizes with viral replication centers, and its depletion reduces viral genome replication, while overexpression enhances viral genome numbers in infected cells. Additionally, Nek9 was found to colocalize with the viral E4 orf3 protein, a repressor of cellular stress response. Significantly, Nek9 was also shown to associate with viral and cellular promoters and appears to function as a transcriptional repressor, representing the first instance of Nek9 playing a role in gene regulation. Overall, these results highlight the complexity of virus-host interactions and identify a new role for the cellular protein Nek9 during infection, suggesting a role for Nek9 in regulating p53 target gene expression. IMPORTANCE In the arms race that exists between a pathogen and its host, each has continually evolved mechanisms to either promote or prevent infection. In order to successfully replicate and spread, a virus must overcome every mechanism that a cell can assemble to block infection. On the other hand, to counter viral spread, cells must have multiple mechanisms to stifle viral replication. In the present study, we add to our understanding of how the human adenovirus is able to circumvent cellular roadblocks

  7. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Nikitenko, N. A.; Speiseder, T.; Lam, E.; Rubtsov, P. M.; Tonaeva, Kh. D.; Borzenok, S. A.; Dobner, T.; Prassolov, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy. PMID:26483965

  8. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference.

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, N A; Speiseder, T; Lam, E; Rubtsov, P M; Tonaeva, Kh D; Borzenok, S A; Dobner, T; Prassolov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy.

  9. Development of replication-deficient adenovirus malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hollingdale, Michael R; Sedegah, Martha; Limbach, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Malaria remains a major threat to endemic populations and travelers, including military personnel to these areas. A malaria vaccine is feasible, as radiation attenuated sporozoites induce nearly 100% efficacy. Areas covered: This review covers current malaria clinical trials using adenoviruses and pre-clinical research. Heterologous prime-boost regimens, including replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 (HuAd5) carrying malaria antigens, are efficacious. However, efficacy appears to be adversely affected by pre-existing anti-HuAd5 antibodies. Current strategies focus on replacing HuAd5 with rarer human adenoviruses or adenoviruses isolated from non-human primates (NHPs). The chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 is undergoing evaluation in clinical trials including infants in malaria-endemic areas. Key antigens have been identified and are being used alone, in combination, or with protein subunit vaccines. Gorilla adenoviruses carrying malaria antigens are also currently being evaluated in preclinical models. These replacement adenovirus vectors will be successfully used to develop vaccines against malaria, as well as other infectious diseases. Expert commentary: Simplified prime-boost single shot regimens, dry-coated live vector vaccines or silicon microneedle arrays could be developed for malaria or other vaccines. Replacement vectors with similar or superior immunogenicity have rapidly advanced, and several are now in extensive Phase 2 and beyond in malaria as well as other diseases, notably Ebola.

  10. Exploiting features of adenovirus replication to support mammalian kinase production

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, Matt; Stegmueller, Kerstin; Eickhoff, Jan; Hanke, Miriam; Herzberger, Katrin; Herget, Thomas; Choidas, Axel; Daub, Henrik; Godl, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Faced with the current wealth of genomic data, it is essential to have robust and reliable methods of converting DNA sequences into their functional gene products. We demonstrate here that when conditions are established that take advantage of the replication-associated virus amplification, the virus-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis as well as the activation of signalling pathways that normally occur during virus replication, adenovirus biology can be exploited to generate a potent kinase expression system. Residual virus in the protein production has always been a limitation for adenovirus systems and we describe a DNA intercalator/ultraviolet light treatment that eliminates residual adenovirus in protein preparations that has no deleterious effect on enzyme activity. The use of mammalian cells in combination with adenovirus generated a variety of active enzymes which could not be produced in Escherichia coli or baculovirus-infected insect cells. Thus, the utility of adenovirus-mediated enzyme expression as a versatile alternative to established protein production technologies is demonstrated. PMID:14576328

  11. Exploiting features of adenovirus replication to support mammalian kinase production.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Matt; Stegmueller, Kerstin; Eickhoff, Jan; Hanke, Miriam; Herzberger, Katrin; Herget, Thomas; Choidas, Axel; Daub, Henrik; Godl, Klaus

    2003-11-01

    Faced with the current wealth of genomic data, it is essential to have robust and reliable methods of converting DNA sequences into their functional gene products. We demonstrate here that when conditions are established that take advantage of the replication-associated virus amplification, the virus-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis as well as the activation of signalling pathways that normally occur during virus replication, adenovirus biology can be exploited to generate a potent kinase expression system. Residual virus in the protein production has always been a limitation for adenovirus systems and we describe a DNA intercalator/ultraviolet light treatment that eliminates residual adenovirus in protein preparations that has no deleterious effect on enzyme activity. The use of mammalian cells in combination with adenovirus generated a variety of active enzymes which could not be produced in Escherichia coli or baculovirus-infected insect cells. Thus, the utility of adenovirus-mediated enzyme expression as a versatile alternative to established protein production technologies is demonstrated.

  12. Inhibition of adenovirus replication in vitro by trifluridine.

    PubMed

    Lennette, D A; Eiferman, R A

    1978-09-01

    At present, there is no effective chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Recent evidence suggests that trifluridine (3FT) may effectively inhibit the replication of some adenovirus serotypes known to cause keratoconjunctivitis. The ability of 3FT to inhibit two reference strains of adenoviruses, type 8 and type 19, was examined using cell cultures. Two second-passage isolates of adenoviruses, identified as serotype 13, were also tested. Compared with untreated, virusinfected cell cultures, drug-treated cell cultures developed a lesser degree of cytopathic effect following infection with all three serotypes. Virus production was reduced in the drug-treated cell cultures: approximately tenfold for type 8, more than 1,000-fold for type 19, and 5,000-fold for the type 13 isolates.

  13. Therapy of Breast Cancers Using Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    virotherapy on breast cancer cells in vitro. We have developed a CRAd using the fit-I promoter element for specific EIA gene expression (CRAdflt), RGD...replicating adenoviruses (CRAd) and investigate effects of CRAd virotherapy on endothelial cells and breast cancer cells in vitro. Vascular targeting...determined the capacity of CRAdRGDflt-mda-7 virotherapy to induce breast cancer cell death. To verify the levels of MDA-7/IL-24 protein expression in vitro

  14. Effect of CD4 gene expression on adenovirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, J; Shi, L; Ginsberg, H S

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding the CD4 receptor was introduced into KB cells to establish the KBT4 cell line, a cell line susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Adenovirus replication was found to be significantly less in these cells than in the parental KB cells. Similar decreased adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication occurred in HeLaT4 cells compared with the original HeLa cells. The presence of CD4 did not alter the cell surface population of KB cell adenovirus receptors, since viral adsorption was similar in the two cell lines. Moreover, addition of soluble CD4 did not reduce viral replication in either KB or KBT4 infected cells. Uncoating of viral DNA was also unchanged in KBT4 cells compared with the parental KB cells. In contrast, migration to or entrance of viral DNA into nuclei and synthesis of early viral RNAs was delayed and reduced in KBT4 cells. These effects were more pronounced for Ad7 than for Ad5. The yields of infectious viruses were the same in both cell lines, however, after transfection of naked viral DNAs to initiate infection. These results imply that the expression of the CD4 gene in KBT4 cells interfered with passage of uncoated virus across endosomal vesicles and/or transfer of uncoated core viral DNA into the nucleus. Images PMID:7933112

  15. Effect of CD4 gene expression on adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Hotta, J; Shi, L; Ginsberg, H S

    1994-11-01

    The gene encoding the CD4 receptor was introduced into KB cells to establish the KBT4 cell line, a cell line susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Adenovirus replication was found to be significantly less in these cells than in the parental KB cells. Similar decreased adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication occurred in HeLaT4 cells compared with the original HeLa cells. The presence of CD4 did not alter the cell surface population of KB cell adenovirus receptors, since viral adsorption was similar in the two cell lines. Moreover, addition of soluble CD4 did not reduce viral replication in either KB or KBT4 infected cells. Uncoating of viral DNA was also unchanged in KBT4 cells compared with the parental KB cells. In contrast, migration to or entrance of viral DNA into nuclei and synthesis of early viral RNAs was delayed and reduced in KBT4 cells. These effects were more pronounced for Ad7 than for Ad5. The yields of infectious viruses were the same in both cell lines, however, after transfection of naked viral DNAs to initiate infection. These results imply that the expression of the CD4 gene in KBT4 cells interfered with passage of uncoated virus across endosomal vesicles and/or transfer of uncoated core viral DNA into the nucleus.

  16. Silencing E1A mRNA by RNA interference inhibits adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-S; Kim, M-K; Lee, W-J; Kang, C

    2007-01-01

    The adenovirus family contains 51 human serotypes, and most human adenoviruses cause widespread respiratory tract infections. Adenovirus infections can result in severe complications in some cases, such as in adenovirus type 11 infection in immunocompromised patients. However, effective treatment methods for adenovirus infections are currently unavailable. This prompted the search for antiviral agents effective against adenovirus infections. In the present study, adenovirus E1A was targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) using synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in an attempt to inhibit viral replication, since adenovirus E1A proteins are known to be involved in the transcriptional activation of the viral and cellular genes necessary for controlling the cell cycle and viral replication. The results indicated that the siRNAs effectively reduced the amount of adenovirus E1A mRNA and the levels of replicative intermediates. Additionally, siRNA-mediated gene silencing inhibited adenovirus replication by suppressing the E1A mRNA. These results suggest that the RNAi-mediated targeting of adenovirus E1A may have a potentially therapeutic effect in controlling adenovirus infections.

  17. The ATP requirements of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication and cellular DNA replication.

    PubMed

    De Jong, P J; Kwant, M M; van Driel, W; Jansz, H S; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-15

    Several in vitro DNA replication systems were employed to characterize the ATP dependency of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA replication. Ad5 DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, representing the elongation of nascent DNA chains, was slightly ATP dependent. Reduction of the ATP concentration from the optimum (8 mM) to the endogenous value (0.16 microM) reduced Ad5 DNA replication only to 70%. No change in the pattern of replication was observed as indicated by the analysis of replicative intermediates using agarose gel electrophoresis. ATP could be replaced by dATP, but not by GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. By contrast, cellular DNA replication in isolated nuclei from HeLa cells was reduced to 12% by the omission of ATP. These differences could not be explained by different ATP pools or by effects of ATP on dNTP pools. Cellular DNA replication in contrast to viral DNA replication was sensitive to low concentrations of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). Inhibition by this ATP analog was competitive with ATP (Ki = 0.4 mM). Adenovirus DNA replication by DNA-free nuclear extracts, representing initiation plus elongation (Challberg and Kelly, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 655-659, 1979), exhibited a nearly absolute requirement for ATP. ATP could be substituted not only by dATP, but also by GTP and dGTP and to a lesser extent by pyrimidine triphosphates. Similar results were found when the formation of a covalent complex between dCTP and the precursor terminal protein was studied. This reaction is essential for the initiation of Ad5 DNA replication. The results indicate that different ATP-requiring functions are employed during the initiation and elongation stages of adenovirus DNA replication.

  18. Template requirements for the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Challberg, M D; Rawlins, D R

    1984-01-01

    The first step in the replication of the adenovirus genome is the covalent attachment of the 5'-terminal nucleotide, dCMP, to the virus-encoded terminal protein precursor (pTP). This reaction can be observed in vitro and has been previously shown to be dependent upon either viral DNA or linearized plasmid DNA containing viral terminal sequences. Plasmids containing deletions or point mutations within the viral terminal sequence were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. In the case of linear double-stranded templates, pTP-dCMP formation required sequences located within the first 18 base pairs of the viral genome. This sequence contains a segment of 10 base pairs that is conserved in all human adenovirus serotypes. Point mutations within the conserved segment greatly reduced the efficiency of initiation, while a point mutation at a nonconserved position within the first 18 base pairs had little effect. Single-stranded DNAs can also support pTP-dCMP formation in vitro. In contrast to the results obtained with duplex templates, experiments with a variety of single-stranded templates, including phage M13-adenovirus recombinants, denatured plasmids, and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, failed to reveal any requirements for specific nucleotide sequences. With single-stranded templates containing no dG residues, the specific deoxynucleoside triphosphate requirements of the initiation reaction were altered. Images PMID:6320160

  19. Role of preterminal protein processing in adenovirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A; Leith, I R; Nicholson, J; Hounsell, J; Hay, R T

    1997-01-01

    Preterminal protein (pTP), the protein primer for adenovirus DNA replication, is processed at two sites by the virus-encoded protease to yield mature terminal protein (TP). Here we demonstrate that processing to TP, via an intermediate (iTP), is conserved in all serotypes sequenced to date; and in determining the sites cleaved in Ad4 pTP, we extend the previously published substrate specificity of human adenovirus proteases to include a glutamine residue at P4. Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies raised against pTP, we show that processing to iTP and TP are temporally separated in the infectious cycle, with processing to iTP taking place outside the virus particles. In vitro and in vivo studies of viral DNA replication reveal that iTP can act as a template for initiation and elongation and argue against a role for virus-encoded protease in switching off DNA replication. Virus DNA with TP attached to its 5' end (TP-DNA) has been studied extensively in in vitro DNA replication assays. Given that in vivo pTP-DNA, not TP-DNA, is the template for all but the first round of replication, the two templates were compared in vitro and shown to have different properties. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that a region spanning the TP cleavage site is involved in defining the subnuclear localization of pTP. Therefore, a likely role for the processing of pTP-DNA is to create a distinct template for early transcription (TP-DNA), while the terminal protein moiety, be it TP or pTP, serves to guide the template to the appropriate subcellular location through the course of infection. PMID:9261355

  20. Role of preterminal protein processing in adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Webster, A; Leith, I R; Nicholson, J; Hounsell, J; Hay, R T

    1997-09-01

    Preterminal protein (pTP), the protein primer for adenovirus DNA replication, is processed at two sites by the virus-encoded protease to yield mature terminal protein (TP). Here we demonstrate that processing to TP, via an intermediate (iTP), is conserved in all serotypes sequenced to date; and in determining the sites cleaved in Ad4 pTP, we extend the previously published substrate specificity of human adenovirus proteases to include a glutamine residue at P4. Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies raised against pTP, we show that processing to iTP and TP are temporally separated in the infectious cycle, with processing to iTP taking place outside the virus particles. In vitro and in vivo studies of viral DNA replication reveal that iTP can act as a template for initiation and elongation and argue against a role for virus-encoded protease in switching off DNA replication. Virus DNA with TP attached to its 5' end (TP-DNA) has been studied extensively in in vitro DNA replication assays. Given that in vivo pTP-DNA, not TP-DNA, is the template for all but the first round of replication, the two templates were compared in vitro and shown to have different properties. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that a region spanning the TP cleavage site is involved in defining the subnuclear localization of pTP. Therefore, a likely role for the processing of pTP-DNA is to create a distinct template for early transcription (TP-DNA), while the terminal protein moiety, be it TP or pTP, serves to guide the template to the appropriate subcellular location through the course of infection.

  1. Luciferase imaging for evaluation of oncolytic adenovirus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guse, K; Dias, J D; Bauerschmitz, G J; Hakkarainen, T; Aavik, E; Ranki, T; Pisto, T; Särkioja, M; Desmond, R A; Kanerva, A; Hemminki, A

    2007-06-01

    Oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells by tumor-selective replication. Clinical data have established the safety of the approach but also the need of improvements in potency. Efficacy of oncolysis is linked to effective infection of target cells and subsequent productive replication. Other variables include intratumoral barriers, access to target cells, uptake by non-target organs and immune response. Each of these aspects relates to the location and degree of virus replication. Unfortunately, detection of in vivo replication has been difficult, labor intensive and costly and therefore not much studied. We hypothesized that by coinfection of a luciferase expressing E1-deleted virus with an oncolytic virus, both viruses would replicate when present in the same cell. Photon emission due to conversion of D-Luciferin is sensitive and penetrates tissues well. Importantly, killing of animals is not required and each animal can be imaged repeatedly. Two different murine xenograft models were used and intratumoral coinjections of luciferase encoding virus were performed with eight different oncolytic adenoviruses. In both models, we found significant correlation between photon emission and infectious virus production. This suggests that the system can be used for non-invasive quantitation of the amplitude, persistence and dynamics of oncolytic virus replication in vivo, which could be helpful for the development of more effective and safe agents.

  2. Noninvasive visualization of adenovirus replication with a fluorescent reporter in the E3 region.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hidetaka A; Le, Long P; Davydova, Julia G; Gavrikova, Tatyana; Yamamoto, Masato

    2005-11-15

    To overcome the inefficacy and undesirable side effects of current cancer treatment strategies, conditionally replicative adenoviruses have been developed to exploit the unique mechanism of oncolysis afforded by tumor-specific viral replication. Despite rapid translation into clinical trials and the established safety of oncolytic adenoviruses, the in vivo function of these agents is not well understood due to lack of a noninvasive detection system for adenovirus replication. To address this issue, we propose the expression of a reporter from the adenovirus E3 region as a means to monitor replication. Adenovirus replication reporter vectors were constructed with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene placed in the deleted E3 region under the control of the adenoviral major late promoter while retaining expression of the adenovirus death protein to conserve the native oncolytic capability of the virus. Strong EGFP fluorescence was detected from these vectors in a replication-dependent manner, which correlated with viral DNA replication. Fluorescence imaging in vivo confirmed the ability to noninvasively detect fluorescent signal during replication, which generally corresponded with the underlying level of viral DNA replication. EGFP representation of viral replication was further confirmed by Western blot comparison with the viral DNA content in the tumors. Imaging reporter expression controlled by the adenoviral major late promoter provides a viable approach to noninvasively monitor adenovirus replication in preclinical studies and has the potential for human application with clinically relevant imaging reporters.

  3. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viral mRNA export, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  4. Recruitment of wild-type and recombinant adeno-associated virus into adenovirus replication centers.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, M D; Fisher, K J; Wilson, J M

    1996-01-01

    Replication of a human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is facilitated by coinfection with adeno-virus to provide essential helper functions. We have used the techniques of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to characterize the localization of AAV replication within infected cells, Previous studies have shown that adenovirus establishes foci called replication centers within the nucleus, where adenoviral replication and transcription occur. Our studies indicate that AAV is colocalized with the adenovirus replication centers, where it may utilize adenovirus and cellular proteins for its own replication. Expression of the AAV Rep protein inhibits the normal maturation of the adenovirus centers. Similar experiments were performed with recombinant AAV (rAAV) to establish a relationship between intranuclear localization and rAAV transduction. rAAV efficiently entered the cell, and its genome was faintly detectable in a perinuclear distribution and was mobilized to replication centers when the cell was infected with adenovirus. The recruitment of the replication-defective genome into the intranuclear adenovirus domains resulted in enhanced transduction. These studies illustrate the importance of intracellular compartmentalization for such complex interactions as the relationship between AAV and adenovirus. PMID:8627709

  5. Recruitment of wild-type and recombinant adeno-associated virus into adenovirus replication centers.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, M D; Fisher, K J; Wilson, J M

    1996-03-01

    Replication of a human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is facilitated by coinfection with adeno-virus to provide essential helper functions. We have used the techniques of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to characterize the localization of AAV replication within infected cells, Previous studies have shown that adenovirus establishes foci called replication centers within the nucleus, where adenoviral replication and transcription occur. Our studies indicate that AAV is colocalized with the adenovirus replication centers, where it may utilize adenovirus and cellular proteins for its own replication. Expression of the AAV Rep protein inhibits the normal maturation of the adenovirus centers. Similar experiments were performed with recombinant AAV (rAAV) to establish a relationship between intranuclear localization and rAAV transduction. rAAV efficiently entered the cell, and its genome was faintly detectable in a perinuclear distribution and was mobilized to replication centers when the cell was infected with adenovirus. The recruitment of the replication-defective genome into the intranuclear adenovirus domains resulted in enhanced transduction. These studies illustrate the importance of intracellular compartmentalization for such complex interactions as the relationship between AAV and adenovirus.

  6. Tetracycline-inducible promoter-based conditionally replicative adenoviruses for the control of viral replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Takayama, K; Zhang, L; Uchino, J; Harada, A; Harada, T; Hisasue, J; Nakagaki, N; Zhou, C; Nakanishi, Y

    2009-05-01

    The use of conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) as a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy has been developed to overcome inefficient transduction of solid tumor masses by replication-deficient adenoviruses. Many modifications have been made to CRAds to enlarge tropism, increase selectivity and lytic ability, and improve safety. However, safety is still a concern in the context of future clinical application of CRAds. Particularly, after injection into the body, viral replication cannot be controlled externally. Therefore, we constructed a novel CRAd using a tetracycline-inducible promoter system to realize external pharmacological control of its replication. The effect of this CRAd in vitro was measured at the levels of viral DNA replication, cell death and progeny production. We showed that CRAd replication was tightly controlled by the presence or absence of doxycycline (Dox). Moreover, this system showed a significant gene expression in vivo, in which the viral replication was controlled by the oral administration of Dox. This strategy may help improve the safety of cancer gene therapy.

  7. Going viral: a review of replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Fanger, Gary R.; Stirn, Meaghan; Oronsky, Arnold; Reid, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses have had a tumultuous course, from the initial anecdotal reports of patients having antineoplastic effects after natural viral infections a century ago to the development of current cutting-edge therapies in clinical trials. Adenoviruses have long been the workhorse of virotherapy, and we review both the scientific and the not-so-scientific forces that have shaped the development of these therapeutics from wild-type viral pathogens, turning an old foe into a new friend. After a brief review of the mechanics of viral replication and how it has been modified to engineer tumor selectivity, we give particular attention to ONYX-015, the forerunner of virotherapy with extensive clinical testing that pioneered the field. The findings from those as well as other oncolytic trials have shaped how we now view these viruses, which our immune system has evolved to vigorously attack, as promising immunotherapy agents. PMID:26280277

  8. Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Wildner, Oliver; Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C.; Ramanan, Vijay; Prince, Gregory A.; Morris, John C.

    2007-12-05

    Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

  9. Location of the Origin of DNA Replication in Adenovirus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing the isolated left and right halves of both adenovirus type 2 and the nondefective adenovirus simian virus 40 hybrid (Ad2+ND1), studies were undertaken to find the site on the DNA molecules at which replication begins. The data are consistent with several models which include an initiation event at both ends and bidirectional growth. PMID:4363250

  10. Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...

  11. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with non-replicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding a H7 hemagglutinin gene from a low pathogenic North American isolate (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinate...

  12. Inhibitory effect of interferon-gamma on adenovirus replication and late transcription.

    PubMed

    Mistchenko, A S; Diez, R A; Falcoff, R

    1989-06-15

    We have previously shown that human interferon-gamma inhibited adenovirus multiplication in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion. This action was previous to capsid proteins synthesis and did not involve virus adsorption nor penetration. In this report we have analysed viral mRNA levels at early (7 hr post infection (p.i.)) or late (20 hr p.i.) times, as well as DNA replication in Wish cells pretreated with interferon-gamma and infected with adenovirus 5. Controls included untreated cells as well as cells treated with interferon-alpha, to which adenovirus are reported to be resistant. Transcription of adenovirus regions E1, E4, L1 and L2 has been analysed by Northern blot. Adenovirus DNA replication was determined by DNA-DNA hybridization with total adenovirus 2 DNA. We have also searched for adenovirus E1A proteins by immunoblot with a specific monoclonal antibody. Although pretreatment of cells with either interferon-alpha or interferon-gamma resulted in reduced amounts of E1 and E4 mRNA in the early phase of infection (7 hr p.i.), the near complete inhibition of viral DNA and late transcription was only achieved by interferon-gamma. Immunoblot has shown the absence of the 48-kD E1A protein in cells pretreated with interferon-gamma. The lack of this regulatory adenovirus protein may be involved in the inhibitory mechanism of interferon-gamma on adenovirus.

  13. A replicating adenovirus capsid display recombinant elicits antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in Aotus nancymaae monkeys.

    PubMed

    Karen, Kasey A; Deal, Cailin; Adams, Robert J; Nielsen, Carolyn; Ward, Cameron; Espinosa, Diego A; Xie, Jane; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Decades of success with live adenovirus vaccines suggest that replication-competent recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) could serve as effective vectors for immunization against other pathogens. To explore the potential of a live rAd vaccine against malaria, we prepared a viable adenovirus 5 (Ad5) recombinant that displays a B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum on the virion surface. The recombinant induced P. falciparum sporozoite-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Human adenoviruses do not replicate in mice. Therefore, to examine immunogenicity in a system in which, as in humans, the recombinant replicates, we constructed a similar recombinant in an adenovirus mutant that replicates in monkey cells and immunized four Aotus nancymaae monkeys. The recombinant replicated in the monkeys after intratracheal instillation, the first demonstration of replication of human adenoviruses in New World monkeys. Immunization elicited antibodies both to the Plasmodium epitope and the Ad5 vector. Antibodies from all four monkeys recognized CSP on intact parasites, and plasma from one monkey neutralized sporozoites in vitro and conferred partial protection against P. falciparum sporozoite infection after passive transfer to mice. Prior enteric inoculation of two animals with antigenically wild-type adenovirus primed a response to the subsequent intratracheal inoculation, suggesting a route to optimizing performance. A vaccine is not yet available against P. falciparum, which induces the deadliest form of malaria and kills approximately one million children each year. The live capsid display recombinant described here may constitute an early step in a critically needed novel approach to malaria immunization.

  14. Restriction of human adenovirus replication in Chinese hamster cell lines and their hybrids with human cells.

    PubMed

    Radna, R L; Foellmer, B; Feldman, L A; Francke, U; Ozer, H L

    1987-11-01

    We have found that the replication of human adenovirus (Ad2) is restricted in multiple Chinese hamster cell lines including CHO and V79. The major site of restriction involves differential accumulation of late viral proteins as demonstrated by immunofluorescence assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with and without prior immunoprecipitation. Synthesis of fiber and penton base are markedly reduced, whereas others, such as the 100K polypeptide, are synthesized efficiently. This pattern of restriction is similar to that previously reported for Ad2 infection of several monkey cell lines; however, the restriction is more marked in the Chinese hamster cell lines. The restriction is most likely due to a deficient cellular function since stable cell hybrids between V79 or CHO and human cells are permissive for virus replication. By analysis of a series of hybrids with reduced numbers of human chromosomes, fiber synthesis was correlated with the presence of the short arm of human chromosome 3. More hybrids showed restoration of fiber synthesis than production of progeny virus, suggesting that more than one unlinked function is required for the latter.

  15. Replication of adenovirus type 4 DNA by a purified fraction from infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Temperley, S M; Hay, R T

    1991-01-01

    An extract from Adenovirus type 4 infected HeLa cells was fractionated by ion-exchange and DNA affinity chromatography. One fraction, which bound tightly to single stranded DNA, contained predominantly a protein of apparent molecular weight 65,000 and three less abundant proteins. Immunological cross-reactivity with adenovirus type 2 proteins confirmed the presence of preterminal protein and indicated that the abundant species was the virus coded DNA binding protein. This fraction contained an aphidicolin resistant DNA polymerase activity and in the presence of a linearised plasmid containing the adenovirus type 4 origin of DNA replication efficient transfer of dCMP onto preterminal protein, indicative of initiation, was observed. Furthermore, addition of all four deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and an ATP regenerating system resulted in the elongation of initiated molecules to generate plasmid molecules covalently attached to preterminal protein. Adenovirus type 4 DNA binding protein was extensively purified from crude adenovirus-4 infected HeLa extract by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody raised against adenovirus type 2 DNA binding protein. A low level of initiation of DNA replication was detected in the fraction depleted of DNA binding protein but activity was restored by addition of purified DNA binding protein. DNA binding protein therefore plays an important role in the initiation of Ad4 DNA replication. Images PMID:1829516

  16. Adenovirus DNA template for late transcription is not a replicative intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Brison, O; Kédinger, C; Chambon, P

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between adenovirus replication and late transcription has been investigated using viral replication and transcription complexes isolated from infected HeLa cell nuclei. These two types of complexes extracted from adenovirus type 2-infected cell nuclei did not sediment at the same rate on sucrose gradients. Viral replicative intermediates were quantitatively precipitated by immunoglobulins raised against purified 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein, whereas viral transcription complexes remained in the supernatant. These results show that late transcription does not occur on active replication complexes or on 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein-containing replicative intermediates inactive in DNA synthesis. Additional evidence is presented indicating that it is very unlikely that replicative intermediates lacking the 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein could be the template for late transcription. PMID:232191

  17. Human papillomavirus E6E7-mediated adenovirus cell killing: selectivity of mutant adenovirus replication in organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Balagué, C; Noya, F; Alemany, R; Chow, L T; Curiel, D T

    2001-08-01

    Replication-competent adenoviruses are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. Exclusive virus replication in cancer cells has been proposed as a safety trait to be considered in the design of oncolytic adenoviruses. From this perspective, we have investigated several adenovirus mutants for their potential to conditionally replicate and promote the killing of cells expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which are present in a high percentage of anogenital cancers. For this purpose, we have employed an organotypic model of human stratified squamous epithelium derived from primary keratinocytes that have been engineered to express HPV-18 oncoproteins stably. We show that, whereas wild-type adenovirus promotes a widespread cytopathic effect in all infected cells, E1A- and E1A/E1B-deleted adenoviruses cause no deleterious effect regardless of the coexpression of HPV18 E6E7. An adenovirus deleted in the CR2 domain of E1A, necessary for binding to the pRB family of pocket proteins, shows no selectivity of replication as it efficiently kills all normal and E6E7-expressing keratinocytes. Finally, an adenovirus mutant deleted in the CR1 and CR2 domains of E1A exhibits preferential replication and cell killing in HPV E6E7-expressing cultures. We conclude that the organotypic keratinocyte culture represents a distinct model to evaluate adenovirus selectivity and that, based on this model, further modifications of the adenovirus genome are required to restrict adenovirus replication to tumor cells.

  18. Human Papillomavirus E6E7-Mediated Adenovirus Cell Killing: Selectivity of Mutant Adenovirus Replication in Organotypic Cultures of Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Balagué, Cristina; Noya, Francisco; Alemany, Ramon; Chow, Louise T.; Curiel, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Replication-competent adenoviruses are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. Exclusive virus replication in cancer cells has been proposed as a safety trait to be considered in the design of oncolytic adenoviruses. From this perspective, we have investigated several adenovirus mutants for their potential to conditionally replicate and promote the killing of cells expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which are present in a high percentage of anogenital cancers. For this purpose, we have employed an organotypic model of human stratified squamous epithelium derived from primary keratinocytes that have been engineered to express HPV-18 oncoproteins stably. We show that, whereas wild-type adenovirus promotes a widespread cytopathic effect in all infected cells, E1A- and E1A/E1B-deleted adenoviruses cause no deleterious effect regardless of the coexpression of HPV18 E6E7. An adenovirus deleted in the CR2 domain of E1A, necessary for binding to the pRB family of pocket proteins, shows no selectivity of replication as it efficiently kills all normal and E6E7-expressing keratinocytes. Finally, an adenovirus mutant deleted in the CR1 and CR2 domains of E1A exhibits preferential replication and cell killing in HPV E6E7-expressing cultures. We conclude that the organotypic keratinocyte culture represents a distinct model to evaluate adenovirus selectivity and that, based on this model, further modifications of the adenovirus genome are required to restrict adenovirus replication to tumor cells. PMID:11462032

  19. Selective Modification of Adenovirus Replication Can Be Achieved through Rational Mutagenesis of the Adenovirus Type 5 DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Capella, Cristina; Beltejar, Michael-John; Brown, Caitlin; Fong, Vincent; Daddacha, Waaqo; Kim, Baek

    2012-01-01

    Mutations that reduce the efficiency of deoxynucleoside (dN) triphosphate (dNTP) substrate utilization by the HIV-1 DNA polymerase prevent viral replication in resting cells, which contain low dNTP concentrations, but not in rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells, which contain high levels of dNTPs. We therefore tested whether mutations in regions of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA polymerase that interact with the dNTP substrate or DNA template could alter virus replication. The majority of the mutations created, including conservative substitutions, were incompatible with virus replication. Five replication-competent mutants were recovered from 293 cells, but four of these mutants failed to replicate in A549 lung carcinoma cells and Wi38 normal lung cells. Purified polymerase proteins from these viruses exhibited only a 2- to 4-fold reduction in their dNTP utilization efficiency but nonetheless could not be rescued, even when intracellular dNTP concentrations were artificially raised by the addition of exogenous dNs to virus-infected A549 cells. The fifth mutation (I664V) reduced biochemical dNTP utilization by the viral polymerase by 2.5-fold. The corresponding virus replicated to wild-type levels in three different cancer cell lines but was significantly impaired in all normal cell lines in which it was tested. Efficient replication and virus-mediated cell killing were rescued by the addition of exogenous dNs to normal lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells), confirming the dNTP-dependent nature of the polymerase defect. Collectively, these data provide proof-of-concept support for the notion that conditionally replicating, tumor-selective adenovirus vectors can be created by modifying the efficiency with which the viral DNA polymerase utilizes dNTP substrates. PMID:22811532

  20. Selective modification of adenovirus replication can be achieved through rational mutagenesis of the adenovirus type 5 DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Capella, Cristina; Beltejar, Michael-John; Brown, Caitlin; Fong, Vincent; Daddacha, Waaqo; Kim, Baek; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Mutations that reduce the efficiency of deoxynucleoside (dN) triphosphate (dNTP) substrate utilization by the HIV-1 DNA polymerase prevent viral replication in resting cells, which contain low dNTP concentrations, but not in rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells, which contain high levels of dNTPs. We therefore tested whether mutations in regions of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA polymerase that interact with the dNTP substrate or DNA template could alter virus replication. The majority of the mutations created, including conservative substitutions, were incompatible with virus replication. Five replication-competent mutants were recovered from 293 cells, but four of these mutants failed to replicate in A549 lung carcinoma cells and Wi38 normal lung cells. Purified polymerase proteins from these viruses exhibited only a 2- to 4-fold reduction in their dNTP utilization efficiency but nonetheless could not be rescued, even when intracellular dNTP concentrations were artificially raised by the addition of exogenous dNs to virus-infected A549 cells. The fifth mutation (I664V) reduced biochemical dNTP utilization by the viral polymerase by 2.5-fold. The corresponding virus replicated to wild-type levels in three different cancer cell lines but was significantly impaired in all normal cell lines in which it was tested. Efficient replication and virus-mediated cell killing were rescued by the addition of exogenous dNs to normal lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells), confirming the dNTP-dependent nature of the polymerase defect. Collectively, these data provide proof-of-concept support for the notion that conditionally replicating, tumor-selective adenovirus vectors can be created by modifying the efficiency with which the viral DNA polymerase utilizes dNTP substrates.

  1. Replication-competent human adenovirus 11p vectors can propagate in Vero cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gokumakulapalle, Madhuri; Mei, Ya-Fang

    2016-08-15

    The use of continuous cell lines derived from the African green monkey kidney (AGMK) has led to major advances in virus vaccine development. However, to date, these cells have not been used to facilitate the creation of human adenoviruses because most human adenoviruses undergo abortive infections in them. Here, we report the susceptibility of AGMK-derived cells to adenovirus 11p (Ad11p) infection. First, we showed that CD46 molecules, which act as receptors for Ad11p, are expressed in AGMK cells. We then monitored Ad11p replication by measuring GFP expression as an indicator of viral transcription. We found that AGMK-derived cells were as capable as carcinoma cells at propagating full-length replication-competent Ad11p (RCAd11p) DNA. Of the AGMK cell lines tested, Vero cells had the greatest capacity for adenovirus production. Thus, AGMK cells can be used to evaluate RCAd11p-mediated gene delivery, and Vero cells can be used for the production of RCAd11pGFP vectors at relatively high yields. - Highlights: • Africa green monkey cell lines were monitored for human adenovirus 11p GFP vector infection. • Human CD46 molecules were detectable in these monkey cell lines. • Adenovirus 11p GFP vector can be propagated in Vero cells increases the safety of Ad11p-based vectors for clinical trials. • To use Vero cells for preparation of Ad11p vector avoids the potential inclusion of oncogenes from tumor cells.

  2. Insulated hsp70B' promoter: stringent heat-inducible activity in replication-deficient, but not replication-competent adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Rohmer, Stanimira; Mainka, Astrid; Knippertz, Ilka; Hesse, Andrea; Nettelbeck, Dirk M

    2008-04-01

    Key to the realization of gene therapy is the development of efficient and targeted gene transfer vectors. Therapeutic gene transfer by replication-deficient or more recently by conditionally replication-competent/oncolytic adenoviruses has shown much promise. For specific applications, however, it will be advantageous to provide vectors that allow for external control of gene expression. The efficient cellular heat shock system in combination with available technology for focused and controlled hyperthermia suggests heat-regulated transcription control as a promising tool for this purpose. We investigated the feasibility of a short fragment of the human hsp70B' promoter, with and without upstream insulator elements, for the regulation of transgene expression by replication-deficient or oncolytic adenoviruses. Two novel adenoviral vectors with an insulated hsp70B' promoter were developed and showed stringent heat-inducible gene expression with induction ratios up to 8000-fold. In contrast, regulation of gene expression from the hsp70B' promoter without insulation was suboptimal. In replication-competent/oncolytic adenoviruses regulation of the hsp70B' promoter was lost specifically during late replication in permissive cells and could not be restored by the insulators. We developed novel adenovirus gene transfer vectors that feature improved and stringent regulation of transgene expression from the hsp70B' promoter using promoter insulation. These vectors have potential for gene therapy applications that benefit from external modulation of therapeutic gene expression or for combination therapy with hyperthermia. Furthermore, our study reveals that vector replication can deregulate inserted cellular promoters, an observation which is of relevance for the development of replication-competent/oncolytic gene transfer vectors. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ganciclovir Inhibits Human Adenovirus Replication and Pathogenicity in Permissive Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E.; Spencer, Jacqueline F.; Balakrishnan, Lata; Dewhurst, Stephen; Capella, Cristina; Buller, R. Mark L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients can develop into deadly multiorgan or systemic disease. The virus is especially threatening for pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients; according to some studies, 10% or more of these patients succumb to disease resulting from adenovirus infection. At present, there is no drug approved for the treatment or prevention of adenovirus infections. Compounds that are approved to treat other virus infections are used off-label to combat adenovirus, but only anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of these drugs exists. Ganciclovir, a drug approved for the treatment of herpesvirus infection, was previously reported to be effective against human adenoviruses in vitro. To model adenovirus infections in immunocompromised humans, we examined ganciclovir's efficacy in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters intravenously infected with type 5 human adenovirus (Ad5). This animal model is permissive for Ad5 replication, and the animals develop symptoms similar to those seen in humans. We demonstrate that ganciclovir suppresses Ad5 replication in the liver of infected hamsters and that it mitigates the consequences of Ad5 infections in these animals when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. We show that ganciclovir inhibits Ad5 DNA synthesis and late gene expression. The mechanism of action for the drug is not clear; preliminary data suggest that it exerts its antiadenoviral effect by directly inhibiting the adenoviral DNA polymerase. While more extensive studies are required, we believe that ganciclovir is a promising drug candidate to treat adenovirus infections. Brincidofovir, a drug with proven activity against Ad5, was used as a positive control in the prophylactic experiment. PMID:25224011

  4. Ganciclovir inhibits human adenovirus replication and pathogenicity in permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Balakrishnan, Lata; Dewhurst, Stephen; Capella, Cristina; Buller, R Mark L; Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S M

    2014-12-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients can develop into deadly multiorgan or systemic disease. The virus is especially threatening for pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients; according to some studies, 10% or more of these patients succumb to disease resulting from adenovirus infection. At present, there is no drug approved for the treatment or prevention of adenovirus infections. Compounds that are approved to treat other virus infections are used off-label to combat adenovirus, but only anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of these drugs exists. Ganciclovir, a drug approved for the treatment of herpesvirus infection, was previously reported to be effective against human adenoviruses in vitro. To model adenovirus infections in immunocompromised humans, we examined ganciclovir's efficacy in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters intravenously infected with type 5 human adenovirus (Ad5). This animal model is permissive for Ad5 replication, and the animals develop symptoms similar to those seen in humans. We demonstrate that ganciclovir suppresses Ad5 replication in the liver of infected hamsters and that it mitigates the consequences of Ad5 infections in these animals when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. We show that ganciclovir inhibits Ad5 DNA synthesis and late gene expression. The mechanism of action for the drug is not clear; preliminary data suggest that it exerts its antiadenoviral effect by directly inhibiting the adenoviral DNA polymerase. While more extensive studies are required, we believe that ganciclovir is a promising drug candidate to treat adenovirus infections. Brincidofovir, a drug with proven activity against Ad5, was used as a positive control in the prophylactic experiment.

  5. Model-driven Approaches for in Vitro Combination Therapy using ONYX-015 Replicating Oncolytic Adenovirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Zurakowski, Ryan; Wodarz, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses have shown promise as a new treatment approach against cancer. Recombinant adenoviruses replicate only in cancer cells which contain certain mutations, such as the loss of functional p53, as is the case in the virus ONYX-015. The successful entry of the viral particle into target cells is strongly dependent on the presence of the main receptor for adenovirus, the coxsackie- and adeno-virus receptor (CAR). This receptor is frequently down-regulated in highly malignant cells, rendering this population less vulnerable to viral attack. It has been shown that use of MEK inhibitors can up-regulate CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into the cells. However, inhibition of MEK results in G1 cell cycle arrest, rendering infected cells temporarily unable to produce virus. This forces a tradeo1. While drug mediated up-regulation of CAR enhances virus entry into cancer cells, the consequent cell cycle arrest inhibits production of new virus particles and the replication of the virus. Optimal control-based schedules of MEK inhibitor application should increase the efficacy of this treatment, maximizing the overall tumor toxicity by exploiting the dynamics of CAR expression and viral production. We introduce a mathematical model of these dynamics and show simple optimal control based strategies which motivate this approach. PMID:17095020

  6. p53/E1b58kDa complex regulates adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, P J; Hall, A R; Myers, C J; Braithwaite, A W

    1997-10-27

    We have explored a role for the adenovirus (Ad5) E1b58kDa/p53 protein complex in adenovirus replication. This was done by using virus mutants containing different defects in the E1b58kDa gene and cell lines that express either a wild-type p53 protein or a mutant p53 protein. We find that infection of wild-type p53-containing cells with wild-type Ad5 causes a shutoff of p53 and alpha-actin protein synthesis by distinct mechanisms, but neither occurs in mutant p53 cells. Our data also indicate that the shutoff is dependent on formation of the p53/E1b complex and may also involve another virus protein, E4ORF6. Following from these observations we asked whether failure to form the complex resulted in impaired adenovirus replication. Our experiments showed that neither wild-type Ad5 nor the E1b mutant dl338 could replicate in cells expressing a mutant p53 protein, but that wild-type adenovirus replicated well in wild-type p53-expressing cells. Collectively, our data suggest that the interaction between p53 and the E1b58kDa protein is necessary for efficient adenovirus replication. This is the first time such a direct link between the complex and virus replication has been demonstrated. These data raise serious questions about the usefulness of E1b-defective viruses in tumor therapy.

  7. Estramustine phosphate reversibly inhibits an early stage during adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Everitt, E; Ekstrand, H; Boberg, B; Hartley-Asp, B

    1990-01-01

    Estramustine phosphate, an estradiol-mustard conjugate, was shown to reversibly inhibit a stage during the first hour of productive adenovirus 2 infection of HeLa cells. This drug, employed in the therapy of advanced prostatic cancer, specifically interacts with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) of the cytoskeleton. The results obtained under physiological conditions in vivo suggest a MAPs-interference with the microtubule-mediated vectorial migration of the virus inoculum to the nucleus. Virus attachment, uncoating kinetics and the appearance of established uncoating intermediates were not affected.

  8. Mouse polyoma virus and adenovirus replication in mouse cells temperature-sensitive in DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sheinin, R; Fabbro, J; Dubsky, M

    1985-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus multiplies, apparently without impediment, in temperature-inactivated ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 mouse fibroblasts. Thus, the DNA of mouse adenovirus can replicate in the absence of functional DNA topoisomerase II, a DNA-chain-elongation factor, and a protein required for traverse of the G1/S interface, respectively, encoded in the ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 genetic loci. These results are compared with those obtained with polyoma virus.

  9. Replicating Single-Cycle Adenovirus Vectors Generate Amplified Influenza Vaccine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Catherine M.; Matchett, William E.; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie S.; Parks, Christopher A.; Weaver, Eric A.; Pease, Larry R.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Head-to-head comparisons of conventional influenza vaccines with adenovirus (Ad) gene-based vaccines demonstrated that these viral vectors can mediate more potent protection against influenza virus infection in animal models. In most cases, Ad vaccines are engineered to be replication-defective (RD-Ad) vectors. In contrast, replication-competent Ad (RC-Ad) vaccines are markedly more potent but risk causing adenovirus diseases in vaccine recipients and health care workers. To harness antigen gene replication but avoid production of infectious virions, we developed “single-cycle” adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors. Previous work demonstrated that SC-Ads amplify transgene expression 100-fold and produce markedly stronger and more persistent immune responses than RD-Ad vectors in Syrian hamsters and rhesus macaques. To test them as potential vaccines, we engineered RD and SC versions of adenovirus serotype 6 (Ad6) to express the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. We show here that it takes approximately 33 times less SC-Ad6 than RD-Ad6 to produce equal amounts of HA antigen in vitro. SC-Ad produced markedly higher HA binding and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers than RD-Ad in Syrian hamsters. SC-Ad-vaccinated cotton rats had markedly lower influenza titers than RD-Ad-vaccinated animals after challenge with influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. These data suggest that SC-Ads may be more potent vaccine platforms than conventional RD-Ad vectors and may have utility as “needle-free” mucosal vaccines. IMPORTANCE Most adenovirus vaccines that are being tested are replication-defective adenoviruses (RD-Ads). This work describes testing newer single-cycle adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors that replicate transgenes to amplify protein production and immune responses. We show that SC-Ads generate markedly more influenza virus hemagglutinin protein and require substantially less vector to generate the same immune responses as RD-Ad vectors. SC-Ads therefore hold

  10. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro is stimulated by RNA from uninfected HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    van der Vliet, P C; van Dam, D; Kwant, M M

    1984-06-04

    Adenovirus DNA replication was studied in a partially reconstituted system consisting of purified viral proteins (DNA-binding protein, precursor terminal protein and Ad DNA polymerase) and a nuclear extract from uninfected HeLa cells. Optimal DNA replication required the presence of a heat-stable, ribonuclease-sensitive fraction from the cytosol of uninfected cells. This fraction stimulated the initiation about 3-fold and the replication of origin fragments 5-10-fold. Sedimentation analysis indicated the presence of a fast-sedimenting and a slow-sedimenting component which complemented each other. At least part of the stimulation was caused by low-molecular-mass RNA.

  11. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  12. Adenovirus replication is coupled with the dynamic properties of the PML nuclear structure.

    PubMed

    Doucas, V; Ishov, A M; Romo, A; Juguilon, H; Weitzman, M D; Evans, R M; Maul, G G

    1996-01-15

    Wild-type PML and at least four other novel proteins are localized within discrete nuclear structures known as PODs. We demonstrate here that during adenovirus infection, immediate early viral proteins from the E1 and E4 transcription units associate with the POD, which in turn undergoes a dramatic morphological change. During this process, the auto-antigen Sp-100 and NDP55 but not PML, relocate from the POD to the viral inclusion bodies, the sites of adenovirus DNA replication and late RNA transcription. The E4-ORF3 11-kD protein alone will induce this reorganization and reciprocally, viruses carrying mutations in the E4-domain fail to do so. These same viral mutants are defective in viral replication as well as the accumulation of late viral mRNAs and host cell transcription shutoff. We show that interferon (INF) treatment enhances the expression of PML, reduces or blocks PODs reorganization, and inhibits BrdU incorporation into viral inclusion bodies. In addition, cell lines engineered to overexpress PML prevent PODs from viral-induced reorganization and block or severely delay adenovirus replication. These results suggest that viral replication relies on components of the POD and that the structure is a target of early viral proteins.

  13. Replication of origin containing adenovirus DNA fragments that do not carry the terminal protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, B G; van der Ley, P A; van Driel, W; van Mansfeld, A D; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infected HeLa cells were used to study the template requirements for adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. When XbaI digested Ad5 DNA, containing the parental terminal protein (TP), was used as a template preferential synthesis of the terminal fragments was observed. The newly synthesized DNA was covalently bound to the 82 kD preterminal protein (pTP). Plasmid DNAs containing the Ad2 origin sequence or the Ad12 origin sequence with small deletions were analyzed for their capacity to support pTP-primed DNA replication. Circular plasmid DNAs were inactive. When plasmids were linearized to expose the adenovirus origin, both Ad2 and Ad12 TP-free fragments could support initiation and elongation similarly as Ad5 DNA-TP, although with lower efficiency. These observations indicate that the parental terminal protein is dispensable for initiation in vitro. The presence of 29 nucleotides ahead of the molecular end or a deletion of 14 base pairs extending into the conserved sequence (9-22) destroyed the template activity. DNA with a large deletion within the first 8 base pairs could still support replication while a small deletion could not. The results suggest that only G residues at a distance of 4-8 nucleotides from the start of the conserved sequence can be used as template during initiation of DNA replication. Images PMID:6300787

  14. Replication-competent human adenovirus 11p vectors can propagate in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gokumakulapalle, Madhuri; Mei, Ya-Fang

    2016-08-01

    The use of continuous cell lines derived from the African green monkey kidney (AGMK) has led to major advances in virus vaccine development. However, to date, these cells have not been used to facilitate the creation of human adenoviruses because most human adenoviruses undergo abortive infections in them. Here, we report the susceptibility of AGMK-derived cells to adenovirus 11p (Ad11p) infection. First, we showed that CD46 molecules, which act as receptors for Ad11p, are expressed in AGMK cells. We then monitored Ad11p replication by measuring GFP expression as an indicator of viral transcription. We found that AGMK-derived cells were as capable as carcinoma cells at propagating full-length replication-competent Ad11p (RCAd11p) DNA. Of the AGMK cell lines tested, Vero cells had the greatest capacity for adenovirus production. Thus, AGMK cells can be used to evaluate RCAd11p-mediated gene delivery, and Vero cells can be used for the production of RCAd11pGFP vectors at relatively high yields.

  15. Valganciclovir Inhibits Human Adenovirus Replication and Pathology in Permissive Immunosuppressed Female and Male Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Karoly; Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E.; Spencer, Jacqueline F.; Balakrishnan, Lata; Sagartz, John E.; Buller, Robert Mark L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients can develop into serious and often deadly multi-organ disease. There are no drugs approved for adenovirus infections. Cidofovir (an analog of 2-deoxycytidine monophosphate) is used at times but it can be nephrotoxic and its efficacy has not been proven in clinical trials. Brincidofovir, a promising lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, is in clinical trials. Ganciclovir, an analog of 2-deoxyguanosine, has been employed occasionally but with unknown efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we evaluated valganciclovir against disseminated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection in our permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. We administered valganciclovir prophylactically, beginning 12 h pre-infection or therapeutically starting at Day 1, 2, 3, or 4 post-infection. Valganciclovir significantly increased survival, reduced viral replication in the liver, and mitigated the pathology associated with Ad5 infection. In cultured cells, valganciclovir inhibited Ad5 DNA replication and blocked the transition from early to late stage of infection. Valganciclovir directly inhibited Ad5 DNA polymerase in vitro, which may explain, at least in part, its mechanism of action. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are approved to treat infections by certain herpesviruses. Our results support the use of valganciclovir to treat disseminated adenovirus infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:25807051

  16. Valganciclovir inhibits human adenovirus replication and pathology in permissive immunosuppressed female and male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Toth, Karoly; Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Balakrishnan, Lata; Sagartz, John E; Buller, Robert Mark L; Wold, William S M

    2015-03-23

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients can develop into serious and often deadly multi-organ disease. There are no drugs approved for adenovirus infections. Cidofovir (an analog of 2-deoxycytidine monophosphate) is used at times but it can be nephrotoxic and its efficacy has not been proven in clinical trials. Brincidofovir, a promising lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, is in clinical trials. Ganciclovir, an analog of 2-deoxyguanosine, has been employed occasionally but with unknown efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we evaluated valganciclovir against disseminated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection in our permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. We administered valganciclovir prophylactically, beginning 12 h pre-infection or therapeutically starting at Day 1, 2, 3, or 4 post-infection. Valganciclovir significantly increased survival, reduced viral replication in the liver, and mitigated the pathology associated with Ad5 infection. In cultured cells, valganciclovir inhibited Ad5 DNA replication and blocked the transition from early to late stage of infection. Valganciclovir directly inhibited Ad5 DNA polymerase in vitro, which may explain, at least in part, its mechanism of action. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are approved to treat infections by certain herpesviruses. Our results support the use of valganciclovir to treat disseminated adenovirus infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  17. Therapy of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Replicative Adenovirus Expressing Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 and Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Lacey R.; Rosenthal, Eben L.; Zhang, Wenyue; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have demonstrated efficacy of targeted therapy combined with radiotherapy in HNSCC. We hypothesized that a combination treatment including a replicating adenovirus armed with tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), radiation, and Cisplatin will augment treatment response and reduce tumor growth in vivo of HNSCC xenografts. Design Both single-agent (TIMP-2 virus, radiation, and Cisplatin) and the combination therapies were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of both single agent and combination therapies in vivo was determined by monitoring of tumor growth and immunohistochemistry. Results Treatment with replicative Ad-TIMP-2 virus and radiation decreased cell viability in vitro and resulted in an additional anti-angiogenic response in vivo. Tumor response rates to treatment with replicative Ad-TIMP-2, radiation, Cisplatin, or combination therapies ranged from limited inhibition of tumor growth of the single-agent therapy to a statistically significant additive anti-tumor response with the combination therapies. Replicative Ad-TIMP-2 + radiation + Cisplatin in the SCC1 nude mice demonstrated the greatest response rates in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Conclusions Combination Ad-TIMP-2 gene therapy with radiation and the triple treatment group resulted in an augmented therapeutic response. This is the first report of the potential benefits of combining radiation and MMP inhibitor treatment. PMID:18846112

  18. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran-Yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Huang, Bi-Jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-Min; Li, Li-Xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-Xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  19. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Krömmelbein, Natascha; Wiebusch, Lüder; Schiedner, Gudrun; Büscher, Nicole; Sauer, Caroline; Florin, Luise; Sehn, Elisabeth; Wolfrum, Uwe; Plachter, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP) is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production. PMID:26848680

  20. Adenovirus replication and transcription sites are spatially separated in the nucleus of infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pombo, A; Ferreira, J; Bridge, E; Carmo-Fonseca, M

    1994-01-01

    We have visualized the intranuclear topography of adenovirus replication and transcription in infected HeLa cells. The results show that viral DNA replication occurs in multiple foci that are highly organized in the nucleoplasm. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that newly synthesized viral double-stranded DNA molecules are displaced from the replication foci and spread throughout the nucleoplasm, while the single-stranded DNA replication intermediates accumulate in adjacent sites. Double-labelling experiments and confocal microscopy show that replication occurs in foci localized at the periphery of the sites where single-stranded DNA accumulates. The simultaneous visualization of viral replication and transcription reveals that the sites of transcription are predominantly separated from the sites of replication. Transcription is detected adjacent to the replication foci and extends around the sites of single-stranded DNA accumulation. These data indicate that newly synthesized double-stranded DNA molecules are displaced from the replication foci and spread in the surrounding nucleoplasm, where they are used as templates for transcription. Splicing snRNPs are shown to co-localize with the sites of transcription and to be excluded from the sites of replication. This provides evidence that splicing of viral RNAs occurs co-transcriptionally and that the sites of viral DNA replication are spatially distinct from the sites of RNA transcription and processing. Images PMID:7957073

  1. Adenovirus replication and transcription sites are spatially separated in the nucleus of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Pombo, A; Ferreira, J; Bridge, E; Carmo-Fonseca, M

    1994-11-01

    We have visualized the intranuclear topography of adenovirus replication and transcription in infected HeLa cells. The results show that viral DNA replication occurs in multiple foci that are highly organized in the nucleoplasm. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that newly synthesized viral double-stranded DNA molecules are displaced from the replication foci and spread throughout the nucleoplasm, while the single-stranded DNA replication intermediates accumulate in adjacent sites. Double-labelling experiments and confocal microscopy show that replication occurs in foci localized at the periphery of the sites where single-stranded DNA accumulates. The simultaneous visualization of viral replication and transcription reveals that the sites of transcription are predominantly separated from the sites of replication. Transcription is detected adjacent to the replication foci and extends around the sites of single-stranded DNA accumulation. These data indicate that newly synthesized double-stranded DNA molecules are displaced from the replication foci and spread in the surrounding nucleoplasm, where they are used as templates for transcription. Splicing snRNPs are shown to co-localize with the sites of transcription and to be excluded from the sites of replication. This provides evidence that splicing of viral RNAs occurs co-transcriptionally and that the sites of viral DNA replication are spatially distinct from the sites of RNA transcription and processing.

  2. RNAi suppressor P19 can be broadly exploited for enhanced adenovirus replication and microRNA knockdown experiments.

    PubMed

    Rauschhuber, Christina; Mueck-Haeusl, Martin; Zhang, Wenli; Nettelbeck, Dirk M; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a key regulator of various biological systems including viral infection. Within a virus life cycle gene products can be modulated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway which can crucially impact productive virus replication. Herein we explored the RNA interference suppressor protein P19 derived from a plant virus and we found that P19 enhanced adenovirus replication up to 100-fold. Critical factors responsible for this observation were overexpression of adenovirus encoded genes on mRNA and protein levels. To investigate the impact of this phenomenon on recombinant viruses, we exploited its feasibility for therapeutic and genomic applications. We found that P19 significantly increased recombinant adenovirus yields enabling up-scaling for preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, adenoviruses possessed significantly higher oncolytic activity by expression of P19. Finally, we show that introducing a p19 expression cassette into high-capacity adenovirus provides a strategy to analyze RNAi knockdown in a tissue-specific manner.

  3. An Ago2-associated capped transcriptional start site small RNA suppressing adenovirus DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Wael; Akusjärvi, Göran

    2017-08-24

    Here we show that the adenovirus major late promoter produces a 31-nucleotide transcriptional start site small RNA (MLP-TSS-sRNA) that retains the 7-methylguanosine (m7G)-cap and is incorporated onto Ago2-containing RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) in human adenovirus-37 infected cells. RNA polymerase II CLIP (UV-cross linking immunoprecipitation) experiments suggest that the MLP-TSS-sRNA is produced by promoter proximal stalling/termination of RNA polymerase II transcription at the site of the small RNA 3'end. The MLP-TSS-sRNA is highly stable in cells and functionally active, downregulating complementary targets in a sequence and dose dependent manner. The MLP-TSS-sRNA is transcribed from the opposite strand to the adenoviral DNA polymerase and pre-terminal protein mRNAs, two essential viral replication proteins. We show that the MLP-TSS-sRNA act in trans to reduce DNA polymerase and pre-terminal protein mRNA expression. As a consequence of this the MLP-TSS-sRNA has an inhibitory effect on the efficiency of viral DNA replication. Collectively, our results suggest that this novel sRNA may serve a regulatory function controlling viral genome replication during a lytic and/or persistent adenovirus infection in its natural host. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  5. Analysis of the viral replication cycle of adenovirus serotype 2 after inactivation by free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Gall, Aimee M; Shisler, Joanna L; Mariñas, Benito J

    2015-04-07

    Free chlorine is effective at inactivating a wide range of waterborne viral pathogens including human adenovirus (HAdV), but the mechanisms by which free chlorine inactivates HAdV and other human viruses remain to be elucidated. Such advances in fundamental knowledge are key for development of new disinfection technologies and novel sensors to detect infectious viruses in drinking water. We developed and tested a quantitative assay to analyze several steps in the HAdV replication cycle upon increasing free chlorine exposure. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect HAdV genomic DNA as a means to quantify attachment and genome replication of untreated and treated virions. Also, we used quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify the transcription of E1A (first early protein) and hexon mRNA. We compared these replication cycle events to virus inactivation kinetics to determine what stage of the virus replication cycle was inhibited as a function of free chlorine exposure. We observed that adenovirus inactivated at levels up to 99.99% by free chlorine still attached to host cells; however, viral DNA synthesis and early E1A and late hexon gene transcription were inhibited. We conclude that free chlorine exposure interferes with a replication cycle event occurring postbinding but prior to early viral protein synthesis.

  6. Requirement of Sur2 for Efficient Replication of Mouse Adenovirus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lei; Stevens, Jennitte L.; Berk, Arnold J.; Spindler, Katherine R.

    2004-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) early region 1A (E1A) encodes a virulence gene in viral infection of mice. To broaden our understanding of the functions of E1A in MAV-1 pathogenesis, an unbiased experimental approach, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown, was used to screen for cellular proteins that interact with E1A protein. We identified mouse Sur2, a subunit of Mediator complex, as a protein that binds to MAV-1 E1A. The interaction between Sur2 and MAV-1 E1A was confirmed in virus-infected cells. Conserved region 3 (CR3) of MAV-1 E1A was mapped as the region required for Sur2-E1A interaction, as is the case for human adenovirus E1A. Although it has been proposed that human adenovirus E1A recruits the Mediator complex to transactivate transcription of viral early genes, Sur2 function in adenovirus replication has not been directly tested previously. Studies on the functions of Sur2 with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed that there was a multiplicity-dependent growth defect of MAV-1 in Sur2−/− MEFs compared to Sur2+/+ MEFs. Comparison of the viral DNA and viral mRNA levels in Sur2+/+ and Sur2−/− MEFs confirmed that Sur2 was important for efficient viral replication. The viral replication defects in Sur2−/− MEFs appeared to be due at least in part to a defect in viral early gene transcription. PMID:15542641

  7. MicroRNA-Mediated Suppression of Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ylösmäki, Erkko; Lavilla-Alonso, Sergio; Jäämaa, Sari; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; af Hällström, Taija; Hemminki, Akseli; Arola, Johanna; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Saksela, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important and ubiquitous regulators of gene expression that can suppress their target genes by translational inhibition as well as mRNA destruction. Cell type-specific miRNA expression patterns have been successfully exploited for targeting the expression of experimental and therapeutic gene constructs, for example to reduce pathogenic effects of cancer virotherapy in normal tissues. In order to avoid liver damage associated with systemic or intrahepatic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses we have introduced the concept of suppressing adenovirus replication in hepatic cells by inserting target elements for the liver-specific miR122 into the viral genome. Here we show using ex vivo cultured tissue specimens that six perfectly complementary miR122 target sites in the 3′ untranslated region of the viral E1A gene are sufficient in the absence of any other genetic modifications to prevent productive replication of serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) in normal human liver. This modification did not compromise the replicative capacity of the modified virus in cancer tissue derived from a colon carcinoma liver metastasis or its oncolytic potency in a human lung cancer xenograft mouse model. Unlike wild-type Ad5, the modified virus did not result in increased serum levels of liver enzymes in infected mice. These results provide a strong preclinical proof of concept for the use of miR122 target sites for reducing the risk of liver damage caused by oncolytic adenoviruses, and suggest that ectopic miR122 target elements should be considered as an additional safety measure included in any therapeutic virus or viral vector posing potential hazard to the liver. PMID:23349911

  8. MicroRNA-mediated suppression of oncolytic adenovirus replication in human liver.

    PubMed

    Ylösmäki, Erkko; Lavilla-Alonso, Sergio; Jäämaa, Sari; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; af Hällström, Taija; Hemminki, Akseli; Arola, Johanna; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Saksela, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important and ubiquitous regulators of gene expression that can suppress their target genes by translational inhibition as well as mRNA destruction. Cell type-specific miRNA expression patterns have been successfully exploited for targeting the expression of experimental and therapeutic gene constructs, for example to reduce pathogenic effects of cancer virotherapy in normal tissues. In order to avoid liver damage associated with systemic or intrahepatic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses we have introduced the concept of suppressing adenovirus replication in hepatic cells by inserting target elements for the liver-specific miR122 into the viral genome. Here we show using ex vivo cultured tissue specimens that six perfectly complementary miR122 target sites in the 3' untranslated region of the viral E1A gene are sufficient in the absence of any other genetic modifications to prevent productive replication of serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) in normal human liver. This modification did not compromise the replicative capacity of the modified virus in cancer tissue derived from a colon carcinoma liver metastasis or its oncolytic potency in a human lung cancer xenograft mouse model. Unlike wild-type Ad5, the modified virus did not result in increased serum levels of liver enzymes in infected mice. These results provide a strong preclinical proof of concept for the use of miR122 target sites for reducing the risk of liver damage caused by oncolytic adenoviruses, and suggest that ectopic miR122 target elements should be considered as an additional safety measure included in any therapeutic virus or viral vector posing potential hazard to the liver.

  9. Infectivity and expression of the early adenovirus proteins are important regulators of wild-type and DeltaE1B adenovirus replication in human cells.

    PubMed

    Steegenga, W T; Riteco, N; Bos, J L

    1999-09-09

    An adenovirus mutant lacking the expression of the large E1B protein (DeltaE1B) has been reported to replicate selectively in cells lacking the expression of functionally wild-type (wt) p53. Based on these results the DeltaE1B or ONYX-015 virus has been proposed to be an oncolytic virus which might be useful to treat p53-deficient tumors. Recently however, contradictory results have been published indicating that p53-dependent cell death is required for productive adenovirus infection. Since there is an urgent need for new methods to treat aggressive, mutant p53-expressing primary tumors and their metastases we carefully examined adenovirus replication in human cells to determine whether or not the DeltaE1B virus can be used for tumor therapy. The results we present here show that not all human tumor cell lines take up adenovirus efficiently. In addition, we observed inhibition of the expression of adenovirus early proteins in tumor cells. We present evidence that these two factors rather than the p53 status of the cell determine whether adenovirus infection results in lytic cell death. Furthermore, the results we obtained by infecting a panel of different tumor cell lines show that viral spread of the DeltaE1B is strongly inhibited in almost all p53-proficient and -deficient cell lines compared to the wt virus. We conclude that the efficiency of the DeltaE1B virus to replicate efficiently in tumor cells is determined by the ability to infect cells and to express the early adenovirus proteins rather than the status of p53.

  10. Replication of type 5 adenovirus promotes middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla model of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Murrah, Kyle A.; Turner, Roberta L.; Pang, Bing; Perez, Antonia C.; Reimche, Jennifer L.; King, Lauren B.; Wren, John; Gandhi, Uma; Swords, W. Edward; Ornelles, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviral infection is a major risk factor for otitis media. We hypothesized that adenovirus promotes bacterial ascension into the middle ear through the disruption of normal function in the Eustachian tubes due to inflammation-induced changes. An intranasal infection model of the chinchilla was used to test the ability of type 5 adenovirus to promote middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The hyperinflammatory adenovirus mutant dl327 and the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP were used to test the role of inflammation and viral replication, respectively, in promotion of pneumococcal middle ear infection. Precedent infection with adenovirus resulted in a significantly greater incidence of middle ear disease by S. pneumoniae as compared to nonadenovirus infected animals. Infection with the adenovirus mutant dl327 induced a comparable degree of bacterial ascension into the middle ear as did infection with the wild-type virus. By contrast, infection with the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP resulted in less extensive middle ear infection compared to the wild-type adenovirus. We conclude that viral replication is necessary for adenoviral-induced pneumococcal middle ear disease. PMID:25251686

  11. The cellular Mre11 protein interferes with adenovirus E4 mutant DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2007-09-01

    Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) relocalizes and degrades the host DNA repair protein Mre11, and efficiently initiates viral DNA replication. Mre11 associates with Ad E4 mutant DNA replication centers and is important for concatenating viral genomes. We have investigated the role of Mre11 in the E4 mutant DNA replication defect. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mre11 dramatically rescues E4 mutant DNA replication in cells that do or do not concatenate viral genomes, suggesting that Mre11 inhibits DNA replication independent of genome concatenation. The mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) protein is involved in recruiting and sustaining Mre11 at sites of DNA damage following ionizing radiation. We observe foci formation by Mdc1 in response to viral infection, indicating that this damage response protein is activated. However, knockdown of Mdc1 does not prevent Mre11 from localizing at viral DNA replication foci or rescue E4 mutant DNA replication. Our results are consistent with a model in which Mre11 interferes with DNA replication when it is localized at viral DNA replication foci.

  12. Application of conditionally replicating adenoviruses in tumor early diagnosis technology, gene-radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; Ou, Mengting; Wang, Guixue; Tang, Liling

    2016-10-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or known as replication-selective adenoviruses, were discovered as oncolytic gene vectors several years ago. They have a strong ability of scavenging tumor and lesser toxicity to normal tissue. CRAds not only have a tumor-killing ability but also can combine with gene therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy to induce tumor cell apoptosis. In this paper, we review the structure of CRAds and CRAd vectors and summarize the current application of CRAds in tumor detection as well as in radiotherapy and suicide gene-mediating chemotherapy. We also propose further research strategies that can improve the application value of CRAds, including enhancing tumor destruction effect, further reducing toxic effect, reducing immunogenicity, constructing CRAds that can target tumor stem cells, and trying to use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as the carriers for oncolytic adenoviruses. As their importance to cancer diagnosis, gene-radiation, and chemotherapy, CRAds may play a considerable role in clinical diagnosis and various cancer treatments in the future.

  13. Bak and Bax Function To Limit Adenovirus Replication through Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Cuconati, Andrea; Degenhardt, Kurt; Sundararajan, Ramya; Anschel, Alan; White, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Adenovirus infection and expression of E1A induces both proliferation and apoptosis, the latter of which is blocked by the adenovirus Bcl-2 homologue E1B 19K. The mechanism of apoptosis induction and the role that it plays in productive infection are not known. Unlike apoptosis mediated by death receptors, infection with proapoptotic E1B 19K mutant viruses did not induce cleavage of Bid but nonetheless induced changes in Bak and Bax conformation, Bak-Bax interaction, caspase 9 and 3 activation, and apoptosis. In wild-type-adenovirus-infected cells, in which E1B 19K inhibits apoptosis, E1B 19K was bound to Bak, precluding Bak-Bax interaction and changes in Bax conformation. Infection with E1B 19K mutant viruses induced apoptosis in wild-type and Bax- or Bak-deficient baby mouse kidney cells but not in those deficient for both Bax and Bak. Furthermore, Bax and Bak deficiency dramatically increased E1A expression and virus replication. Thus, Bax- and Bak-mediated apoptosis severely limits adenoviral replication, demonstrating that Bax and Bak function as an antiviral response at the cellular level. PMID:11932420

  14. Bak and Bax function to limit adenovirus replication through apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Cuconati, Andrea; Degenhardt, Kurt; Sundararajan, Ramya; Anschel, Alan; White, Eileen

    2002-05-01

    Adenovirus infection and expression of E1A induces both proliferation and apoptosis, the latter of which is blocked by the adenovirus Bcl-2 homologue E1B 19K. The mechanism of apoptosis induction and the role that it plays in productive infection are not known. Unlike apoptosis mediated by death receptors, infection with proapoptotic E1B 19K mutant viruses did not induce cleavage of Bid but nonetheless induced changes in Bak and Bax conformation, Bak-Bax interaction, caspase 9 and 3 activation, and apoptosis. In wild-type-adenovirus-infected cells, in which E1B 19K inhibits apoptosis, E1B 19K was bound to Bak, precluding Bak-Bax interaction and changes in Bax conformation. Infection with E1B 19K mutant viruses induced apoptosis in wild-type and Bax- or Bak-deficient baby mouse kidney cells but not in those deficient for both Bax and Bak. Furthermore, Bax and Bak deficiency dramatically increased E1A expression and virus replication. Thus, Bax- and Bak-mediated apoptosis severely limits adenoviral replication, demonstrating that Bax and Bak function as an antiviral response at the cellular level.

  15. Targeting lung cancer stem-like cells with TRAIL gene armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Xu, Haineng; Huang, Weidan; Ding, Miao; Xiao, Jing; Yang, Dongmei; Li, Huaguang; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Chu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer stem cell (LCSC) is critical in cancer initiation, progression, drug resistance and relapse. Disadvantages showed in conventional lung cancer therapy probably because of its existence. In this study, lung cancer cell line A549 cells propagated as spheroid bodies (named as A549 sphere cells) in growth factors-defined serum-free medium. A549 sphere cells displayed CSC properties, including chemo-resistance, increased proportion of G0/G1 cells, slower proliferation rate, ability of differentiation and enhanced tumour formation ability in vivo. Oncolytic adenovirus ZD55 carrying EGFP gene, ZD55-EGFP, infected A549 sphere cells and inhibited cell growth. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) armed oncolytic adenovirus, ZD55-TRAIL, exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and induced A549 sphere cells apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, small molecules embelin, LY294002 and resveratrol improved the cytotoxicity of ZD55-TRAIL. In the A549 sphere cells xenograft models, ZD55-TRAIL significantly inhibited tumour growth and improved survival status of mice. These results suggested that gene armed oncolytic adenovirus is a potential approach for lung cancer therapy through targeting LCSCs. PMID:25683371

  16. A Multi Targeting Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus Displays Enhanced Oncolysis while Maintaining Expression of Immunotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, G. Clement; Ugai, Hideyo; Curiel, David T.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that oncolytic adenoviruses based on a 24 base pair deletion in the viral E1A gene (D24) may be promising therapeutics for treating a number of cancer types. In order to increase the therapeutic potential of these oncolytic viruses, a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus targeting multiple receptors upregulated on tumors was generated by incorporating an Ad5/3 fiber with a carboxyl terminus RGD ligand. The virus displayed full cytopathic effect in all tumor lines assayed at low titers with improved cytotoxicity over Ad5-RGD D24, Ad5/3 D24 and an HSV oncolytic virus. The virus was then engineered to deliver immunotherapeutic agents such as GM-CSF while maintaining enhanced heterogenic oncolysis. PMID:26689910

  17. Recombinant interferon-γ lentivirus co-infection inhibits adenovirus replication ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yin, Sen; Tan, Wanlong; Xiao, Dong; Weng, Yunceng; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Tingting; Shi, Junwen; Shuai, Lifang; Li, Hongwei; Zhou, Jianhua; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in cultured lentivirus (LV) was explored for inhibition of target virus in cells co-infected with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). The ability of three different promoters of CMV, EF1α and Ubiquitin initiating the enhanced green fluorescence protein (GFP) activities within lentiviruses was systematically assessed in various cell lines, which showed that certain cell lines selected the most favorable promoter driving a high level of transgenic expression. Recombinant IFNγ lentivirus carrying CMV promoter (LV-CMV-IFNγ) was generated to co-infect 293A cells with a viral surrogate of recombinant GFP Ad5 in parallel with LV-CMV-GFP control. The best morphologic conditions were observed from the two lentiviruses co-infected cells, while single adenovirus infected cells underwent clear pathologic changes. Viral load of adenoviruses from LV-CMV-IFNγ or LV-CMV-GFP co-infected cell cultures was significantly lower than that from adenovirus alone infected cells (P=0.005-0.041), and the reduction of adenoviral load in the co-infected cells was 86% and 61%, respectively. Ad5 viral load from LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infected cells was significantly lower than that from LV-CMV-GFP co-infection (P=0.032), which suggested that IFNγ rather than GFP could further enhance the inhibition of Ad5 replication in the recombinant lentivirus co-infected cells. The results suggest that LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infection could significantly inhibit the target virus replication and might be a potential approach for alternative therapy of severe viral diseases.

  18. Recombinant Interferon-γ Lentivirus Co-Infection Inhibits Adenovirus Replication Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yin, Sen; Tan, Wanlong; Xiao, Dong; Weng, Yunceng; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Tingting; Shi, Junwen; Shuai, Lifang; Li, Hongwei; Zhou, Jianhua; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in cultured lentivirus (LV) was explored for inhibition of target virus in cells co-infected with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). The ability of three different promoters of CMV, EF1α and Ubiquitin initiating the enhanced green fluorescence protein (GFP) activities within lentiviruses was systematically assessed in various cell lines, which showed that certain cell lines selected the most favorable promoter driving a high level of transgenic expression. Recombinant IFNγ lentivirus carrying CMV promoter (LV-CMV-IFNγ) was generated to co-infect 293A cells with a viral surrogate of recombinant GFP Ad5 in parallel with LV-CMV-GFP control. The best morphologic conditions were observed from the two lentiviruses co-infected cells, while single adenovirus infected cells underwent clear pathologic changes. Viral load of adenoviruses from LV-CMV-IFNγ or LV-CMV-GFP co-infected cell cultures was significantly lower than that from adenovirus alone infected cells (P = 0.005–0.041), and the reduction of adenoviral load in the co-infected cells was 86% and 61%, respectively. Ad5 viral load from LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infected cells was significantly lower than that from LV-CMV-GFP co-infection (P = 0.032), which suggested that IFNγ rather than GFP could further enhance the inhibition of Ad5 replication in the recombinant lentivirus co-infected cells. The results suggest that LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infection could significantly inhibit the target virus replication and might be a potential approach for alternative therapy of severe viral diseases. PMID:22916129

  19. Role of DNA polymerase gamma in adenovirus DNA replication. Mechanism of inhibition by 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates.

    PubMed

    van der Vliet, P C; Kwant, M M

    1981-04-28

    In contrast to cellular or SV40 DNA replication, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) or type 2 (Ad2) DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei is strongly inhibited by low concentrations of 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (ddTTP). On the basis of differential sensitivity of cellular DNA polymerases, a role of DNA polymerase gamma in adenovirus DNA replication has been proposed. We have investigated the mechanism of inhibition of adenovirus DNA synthesis, using [alpha-32P]ddTTP and other dNTP analogues. Both ddATP and ddGTP were as inhibitory as ddTTP, while ddCTP had an even stronger effect on adenovirus DNA replication. DNA polymerase alpha was resistant to all four ddNTP's, while DNA polymerase gamma was very sensitive. The inhibition by ddTTP in isolated infected nuclei was slowly reversible. [alpha-32P]ddTTP was incorporated into Ad5 DNA as a chain-terminating nucleotide, and the analogue could be used as a substrate by DNA polymerase gamma. Under similar conditions, incorporation in cellular DNA or using DNA polymerase alpha was not observed. The nucleoside analogues ddA and ddC suppressed adenovirus. DNA replication in intact cells and reduced plaque formation. These results provide further evidence for a function of DNA polymerase gamma in adenovirus DNA synthesis.

  20. A novel tetracycline-controlled transactivator-transrepressor system enables external control of oncolytic adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Fechner, H; Wang, X; Srour, M; Siemetzki, U; Seltmann, H; Sutter, A P; Scherübl, H; Zouboulis, C C; Schwaab, R; Hillen, W; Schultheiss, H-P; Poller, W

    2003-09-01

    The use of restricted replication-competent adenoviruses (RRCAs) inducing tumor cell-specific lysis is a promising approach in cancer gene therapy. However, the use of RRCAs in humans carries considerable risk, since after injection into the patient, further regulation or inhibition of virus replication from the outside is impossible. Therefore, we have developed a novel system allowing external pharmacological control of RRCA replication. We show here that a tumor-selective E1B-deleted RRCA can be tightly regulated by use of doxycycline (dox)-controlled adenoviral E1A gene expression, which in turn determines vector replication. RRCA replication is switched on by addition and switched off by withdrawal of dox. The system results in efficient tumor cell killing after induction by dox, whereas cells are unaffected by the uninduced system. It was also employed for efficient external control of transgene expression from cotransfected replication-deficient adenovectors. Furthermore, the use of a liver cell-specific human alpha1-antitrypsin (hAAT)-promoter driving a tetracycline-controlled transcriptional silencer allowed specific protection of cells with hAAT-promoter activity in the absence of dox in vitro and in vivo, delineating a new principle of 'tissue protective' gene therapy. The concept of external control of RRCAs may help to improve the safety of cancer gene therapy.

  1. Reconstruction of adenovirus replication origins with a human nuclear factor I binding site.

    PubMed

    Adhya, S; Shneidman, P S; Hurwitz, J

    1986-03-05

    Nuclear factor I is a host-coded DNA-binding protein that stimulates initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. To understand the mechanism of action of nuclear factor I, we have constructed, by recombinant DNA techniques, origins of replication in which the adenovirus type 5 nuclear factor I binding site (FIB site) has been replaced by a FIB site isolated from human genomic DNA (Gronostajski, R. M., Nagata, K., and Hurwitz, J. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 81, 4013-4017). Assays of such recombinants for initiation and elongation in vitro showed that nuclear factor I was active only when the FIB site was relatively close to the DNA terminus, i.e. the FIB site was centered at nucleotides 30-36 from the end of the DNA. Nuclear factor I was active in either orientation within this distance range. The presence of one or two additional FIB sites in the downstream region had no effect. The implications of these results for the mechanism of nuclear factor I action are discussed.

  2. Adenovirus replication as an in vitro probe for drug sensitivity in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Parsons, P G; Maynard, K R; Little, J H; McLeod, G R

    1986-04-01

    The feasibility of using adenovirus 5 as an in vitro probe for chemosensitivity in short-term cultures of human tumors was evaluated using human melanoma cell lines and primary cultures of melanoma biopsies. A convenient immunoperoxidase method was developed for quantitating viral replication 2 days after infection. Two different approaches were explored: the host cell reactivation assay (HCR) using drug-treated virus; and the viral capacity assay using drug-treated cells. The HCR assay detected sensitivity to 5-(3-methyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC) in Mer- (methyl excision repair deficient) cell lines as decreased ability of the cells to replicate MTIC-treated virus. This test should be applicable to DNA-damaging agents and repair-deficient tumors. Adenovirus replicated readily in nonproliferating primary cultures of melanoma biopsies; application of the HCR assays to this material identified one Mer- sample of 11 tested. Herpes viruses were not suitable for use in HCR because herpes simplex virus type 1 failed to distinguish Mer- from Mer+ melanoma cells; and nonproductive infection of MTIC-sensitive lymphoid cells with Epstein-Barr virus yielded an MTIC-resistant cell line. The second assay (viral capacity) involved determination of the inhibition of replication of untreated virus in treated cells. This approach correctly predicted sensitivity to hydroxyurea and deoxyadenosine in melanoma cell lines when compared with clonogenic survival assay. Viral capacity was also inhibited by cytosine arabinoside, fluorouracil, vincristine, adriamycin, 6-mercaptopurine and ionising radiation, and may therefore be useful for detecting sensitivity to a wide range of antitumor agents.

  3. Heat shock protein 72 expression allows permissive replication of oncolytic adenovirus dl1520 (ONYX-015) in rat glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Madara, Jonathan; Krewet, James A; Shah, Maulik

    2005-01-01

    In this study we have made novel observations with regards to potentiation of the tumoricidal activity of the oncolytic adenovirus, dl1520 (ONYX-015) in rat glioblastoma cell lines expressing heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) due to permissive virus replication. ONYX-015 is a conditionally replicating adenovirus that is deleted for the E1B 55 kDA gene product whose normal function is to interact with cell-cycle regulatory proteins to permit virus replication. However, many murine and rodent cell lines are not permissive for adenovirus replication. Previously, it has been reported that the heat shock response is necessary for adenovirus replication and that induction of heat shock proteins is mediated by E1 region gene products. Therefore, we hypothesized that HSP72 expression may allow for permissive replication of ONYX-015 in previously non-permissive cells. Rat glioma cell lines 9L and RT2 were transfected with a plasmids expressing HSP72 or GFP. After infection with ONYX-015, no tumoricidal activity is observed in GFP expressing cell lines despite adequate transduction. In contrast, HSP72 transfected cells show cytopathic effects by 72 hours and greater than 75% loss of viability by 96 hours. Burst assays show active virus replication in the HSP72 expressing cell lines. Therefore, 9L-HSP72 and RT2-HSP72 are ideal models to evaluate the efficacy of ONYX-015 in an immunocompetent rat model. Our study has implications for creating rodent tumor models for pre-clinical studies with E1 region deleted conditionally replicating adenovirus. PMID:15762988

  4. Differential Activation of Cellular DNA Damage Responses by Replication-Defective and Replication-Competent Adenovirus Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anand; Jayaram, Sumithra

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) mutants that lack early region 4 (E4) activate the phosphorylation of cellular DNA damage response proteins. In wild-type Ad type 5 (Ad5) infections, E1b and E4 proteins target the cellular DNA repair protein Mre11 for redistribution and degradation, thereby interfering with its ability to activate phosphorylation cascades important during DNA repair. The characteristics of Ad infection that activate cellular DNA repair processes are not yet well understood. We investigated the activation of DNA damage responses by a replication-defective Ad vector (AdRSVβgal) that lacks E1 and fails to produce the immediate-early E1a protein. E1a is important for activating early gene expression from the other viral early transcription units, including E4. AdRSVβgal can deliver its genome to the cell, but it is subsequently deficient for viral early gene expression and DNA replication. We studied the ability of AdRSVβgal-infected cells to induce cellular DNA damage responses. AdRSVβgal infection does activate formation of foci containing the Mdc1 protein. However, AdRSVβgal fails to activate phosphorylation of the damage response proteins Nbs1 and Chk1. We found that viral DNA replication is important for Nbs1 phosphorylation, suggesting that this step in the viral life cycle may provide an important trigger for activating at least some DNA repair proteins. PMID:23015708

  5. In vivo imaging of human cancer with telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-specific replication-competent viruses represent a novel approach for the treatment of neoplastic disease. These vectors can be used to directly label tumor cells in vivo, as they are designed to selectively replicate within such cells. To target cancer cells, there is a need for tissue- or cell-specific promoters that are expressed in diverse tumor types and are silent in normal cells. Telomerase activation is considered to be a critical step in carcinogenesis through the maintenance of telomeres, and its activity is closely correlated with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression. We constructed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing attenuated adenovirus-5 vector, in which the hTERT promoter regulates viral replication (TelomeScan, OBP-401). We used TelomeScan to establish a new approach for visualizing metastatic or disseminated human tumors in vivo. Visualization is achieved via illumination with an -excitation lamp under a three-chip color-cooled charged-coupled device camera following injection of TelomeScan into primary tumors or tumor-disseminated cavities. TelomeScan infection increases the -signal-to-background ratio as a tumor-specific probe, because the fluorescent signals are only amplified in tumor cells by viral replication. This technology is adaptable to detect tumor metastasis and/or dissemination in vivo as a preclinical model of surgical navigation.

  6. Synthetic riboswitches for external regulation of genes transferred by replication-deficient and oncolytic adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ketzer, Patrick; Haas, Simon F.; Engelhardt, Sarah; Hartig, Jörg S.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic gene transfer by replication-defective viral vectors or, for cancer treatment, by replication-competent oncolytic viruses shows high promise for treatment of major diseases. To ensure safety, timing or dosing in patients, external control of therapeutic gene expression is desirable or even required. In this study, we explored the potential of artificial aptazymes, ligand-dependent self-cleaving ribozymes, as an innovative tool for regulation of therapeutic gene expression. Importantly, aptazymes act on RNA intrinsically, independent of regulatory protein–nucleic acid interactions and stoichiometry, are non-immunogenic and of small size. These are key advantages compared with the widely used inducible promoters, which were also reported to lose regulation at high copy numbers, e.g. after replication of oncolytic viruses. We characterized aptazymes in therapeutic gene transfer utilizing adenovectors (AdVs), adeno-associated vectors (AAVs) and oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds), which are all in advanced clinical testing. Our results show similar aptazyme-mediated regulation of gene expression by plasmids, AdVs, AAVs and OAds. Insertion into the 5′-, 3′- or both untranslated regions of several transgenes resulted in ligand-responsive gene expression. Notably, aptazyme regulation was retained during OAd replication and spread. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the fidelity of aptazymes in viral vectors and oncolytic viruses and highlights the potency of riboswitches for medical applications. PMID:22885302

  7. Morphological, Biochemical, and Functional Study of Viral Replication Compartments Isolated from Adenovirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Paloma; Anzures, Lourdes; Hernández-Mendoza, Armando; Guerrero, Adán; Wood, Christopher D.; Valdés, Margarita; Dobner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus (Ad) replication compartments (RC) are nuclear microenvironments where the viral genome is replicated and a coordinated program of late gene expression is established. These virus-induced nuclear sites seem to behave as central hubs for the regulation of virus-host cell interactions, since proteins that promote efficient viral replication as well as factors that participate in the antiviral response are coopted and concentrated there. To gain further insight into the activities of viral RC, here we report, for the first time, the morphology, composition, and activities of RC isolated from Ad-infected cells. Morphological analyses of isolated RC particles by superresolution microscopy showed that they were indistinguishable from RC within infected cells and that they displayed a dynamic compartmentalization. Furthermore, the RC-containing fractions (RCf) proved to be functional, as they directed de novo synthesis of viral DNA and RNA as well as RNA splicing, activities that are associated with RC in vivo. A detailed analysis of the production of viral late mRNA from RCf at different times postinfection revealed that viral mRNA splicing occurs in RC and that the synthesis, posttranscriptional processing, and release from RC to the nucleoplasm of individual viral late transcripts are spatiotemporally separate events. The results presented here demonstrate that RCf are a powerful system for detailed study into RC structure, composition, and activities and, as a result, the determination of the molecular mechanisms that induce the formation of these viral sites of adenoviruses and other nuclear-replicating viruses. IMPORTANCE RC may represent molecular hubs where many aspects of virus-host cell interaction are controlled. Here, we show by superresolution microscopy that RCf have morphologies similar to those of RC within Ad-infected cells and that they appear to be compartmentalized, as nucleolin and DBP display different localization in the

  8. Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and Together with E1B-55K Remodels SUMO Interactions in the Nucleus and at Virus Genome Replication Domains.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Jennifer M; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2015-10-01

    Adenovirus E4-ORF3 and E1B-55K converge in subverting critical overlapping cellular pathways to facilitate virus replication. Here, we show that E1B-55K and E4-ORF3 induce sumoylation and the assembly of SUMO2/3 viral genome replication domains. Using a conjugation-deficient SUMO2 construct, we demonstrate that SUMO2/3 is recruited to E2A viral genome replication domains through noncovalent interactions. E1B-55K and E4-ORF3 have critical functions in inactivating MRN and ATM to facilitate viral genome replication. We show that ATM kinase inhibitors rescue ΔE1B-55K/ΔE4-ORF3 viral genome replication and that the assembly of E2A domains recruits SUMO2/3 independently of E1B-55K and E4-ORF3. However, the morphology and organization of SUMO2/3-associated E2A domains is strikingly different from that in wild-type Ad5-infected cells. These data reveal that E1B-55K and E4-ORF3 specify the nuclear compartmentalization and structure of SUMO2/3-associated E2A domains, which could have important functions in viral replication. We show that E4-ORF3 specifically targets and sequesters the cellular E3 SUMO ligase PIAS3 but not PIAS1, PIAS2, or PIAS4. The assembly of E4-ORF3 into a multivalent nuclear matrix is required to target PIAS3. In contrast to MRN, PIAS3 is targeted by E4-ORF3 proteins from disparate adenovirus subgroups. Our studies reveal that PIAS3 is a novel and evolutionarily conserved target of E4-ORF3 in human adenovirus infections. Furthermore, we reveal that viral proteins not only disrupt but also usurp SUMO2/3 to transform the nucleus and assemble novel genomic domains that could facilitate pathological viral replication. SUMO is a key posttranslational modification that modulates the function, localization, and assembly of protein complexes. In the ever-escalating host-pathogen arms race, viruses have evolved strategies to subvert sumoylation. Adenovirus is a small DNA tumor virus that is a global human pathogen and key biomedical agent in basic research and

  9. Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and Together with E1B-55K Remodels SUMO Interactions in the Nucleus and at Virus Genome Replication Domains

    PubMed Central

    Higginbotham, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus E4-ORF3 and E1B-55K converge in subverting critical overlapping cellular pathways to facilitate virus replication. Here, we show that E1B-55K and E4-ORF3 induce sumoylation and the assembly of SUMO2/3 viral genome replication domains. Using a conjugation-deficient SUMO2 construct, we demonstrate that SUMO2/3 is recruited to E2A viral genome replication domains through noncovalent interactions. E1B-55K and E4-ORF3 have critical functions in inactivating MRN and ATM to facilitate viral genome replication. We show that ATM kinase inhibitors rescue ΔE1B-55K/ΔE4-ORF3 viral genome replication and that the assembly of E2A domains recruits SUMO2/3 independently of E1B-55K and E4-ORF3. However, the morphology and organization of SUMO2/3-associated E2A domains is strikingly different from that in wild-type Ad5-infected cells. These data reveal that E1B-55K and E4-ORF3 specify the nuclear compartmentalization and structure of SUMO2/3-associated E2A domains, which could have important functions in viral replication. We show that E4-ORF3 specifically targets and sequesters the cellular E3 SUMO ligase PIAS3 but not PIAS1, PIAS2, or PIAS4. The assembly of E4-ORF3 into a multivalent nuclear matrix is required to target PIAS3. In contrast to MRN, PIAS3 is targeted by E4-ORF3 proteins from disparate adenovirus subgroups. Our studies reveal that PIAS3 is a novel and evolutionarily conserved target of E4-ORF3 in human adenovirus infections. Furthermore, we reveal that viral proteins not only disrupt but also usurp SUMO2/3 to transform the nucleus and assemble novel genomic domains that could facilitate pathological viral replication. IMPORTANCE SUMO is a key posttranslational modification that modulates the function, localization, and assembly of protein complexes. In the ever-escalating host-pathogen arms race, viruses have evolved strategies to subvert sumoylation. Adenovirus is a small DNA tumor virus that is a global human pathogen and key biomedical agent in

  10. Transgene Expression and Host Cell Responses to Replication-Defective, Single-Cycle, and Replication-Competent Adenovirus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Catherine M.; Barry, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Most adenovirus (Ad) vectors are E1 gene deleted replication defective (RD-Ad) vectors that deliver one transgene to the cell and all expression is based on that one gene. In contrast, E1-intact replication-competent Ad (RC-Ad) vectors replicate their DNA and their transgenes up to 10,000-fold, amplifying transgene expression markedly higher than RD-Ad vectors. While RC-Ad are more potent, they run the real risk of causing adenovirus infections in vector recipients and those that administer them. To gain the benefits of transgene amplification, but avoid the risk of Ad infections, we developed “single cycle” Ad (SC-Ad) vectors. SC-Ads amplify transgene expression and generated markedly stronger and more persistent immune responses than RD-Ad as expected. However, they also unexpectedly generated stronger immune responses than RC-Ad vectors. To explore the basis of this potency here, we compared gene expression and the cellular responses to infection to these vectors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, in primary human lung epithelial cells, SC- and RC-Ad amplified their genomes more than 400-fold relative to RD-Ad with higher replication by SC-Ad. This replication translated into higher green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression for 48 h by SC- and RC-Ad than by RD-Ad. In vitro, in the absence of an immune system, RD-Ad expression became higher by 72 h coincident with cell death mediated by SC- and RC-Ad and release of transgene product from the dying cells. When the vectors were compared in human THP-1 Lucia- interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) cells, which are a human monocyte cell line that have been modified to quantify ISG activity, RC-Ad6 provoked significantly stronger ISG responses than RD- or SC-Ad. In mice, intravenous or intranasal injection produced up to 100-fold genome replication. Under these in vivo conditions in the presence of the immune system, luciferase expression by RC and SC-Ad was markedly higher than that by RD-Ad. In immunodeficient mice, SC

  11. Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Toro, Haroldo; Suarez, David L; Tang, De-chu C; van Ginkel, Frederik W; Breedlovea, Cassandra

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial, layer-type chicken groups were either singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, singly vaccinated via spray at 5 days of age, or ocularly primed at 5 days and ocularly boosted at 15 days of age. Only chickens primed and boosted via the ocular route developed AI systemic antibodies with maximum hemagglutination inhibition mean titers of 3.9 log2 at 32 days of age. In contrast, single vaccination via the ocular or spray routes maintained an antibody status similar to unvaccinated controls. All chickens (16/16) subjected to ocular priming and boosting with AdTW68.H5ck survived challenge with highly pathogenic AI virus A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2). Single ocular vaccination resulted in 63% (10/16) of birds surviving the challenge followed by a 44% (7/16) survival of single-sprayed vaccinated birds. Birds vaccinated twice via the ocular route also showed significantly lower (P < 0.05) AI virus RNA concentrations in oropharyngeal swabs compared to unvaccinated-challenged controls.

  12. Protection of Chickens against Avian Influenza with Non-Replicating Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C.; Suarez, David L.; Shi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding an H7 AI hemagglutinin (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinated in ovo with an Ad vector encoding an AI H5 (AdTW68.H5) previously described, which were subsequently vaccinated intramuscularly with AdChNY94.H7 post-hatch, responded with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. Antibody responses to Ad vector in ovo vaccination follow a dose-response kinetic. The use of a synthetic AI H5 gene codon optimized to match the chicken cell tRNA pool was more potent than the cognate H5 gene. The use of Ad-vectored vaccines to increase resistance of chicken populations against multiple AI strains could reduce the risk of an avian-originating influenza pandemic in humans. PMID:18384919

  13. Use of replication-defective adenoviruses to develop vaccines and biotherapeutics against foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have developed a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) vectored foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine platform that with one inoculation protects both swine and cattle from subsequent challenge with homologous virus. This Ad5-FMD vaccine delivery system has undergone testing following the r...

  14. Poly ICLC increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the FMDV capsid coding region of serotype A24 Cruzeiro (Ad5-CI-A24-2B) protects swine and cattle against FM...

  15. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Cespedes, Javier; Moyer, Crystal L.; Whitby, Landon R.; Boger, Dale L.; Nemerow, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    The number of disseminated adenovirus (Ad) infections continues to increase mostly due to the growing use of immunosuppressive treatments. Recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, mainly in pediatric units, exhibit a high morbidity and mortality due to these infections. Unfortunately, there are no Ad-specific antiviral drugs currently approved for medical use. To address this situation, we used high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic small molecule libraries to identify compounds that restrict Ad infection. Among the more than 25,000 compounds screened, we identified a hit compound that significantly inhibited Ad infection. The compound (15D8) is a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative that showed substantial antiviral activity with little or no cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Compound 15D8 selectively inhibits Ad DNA replication in the nucleus, providing a potential candidate for the development of a new class of antiviral compounds to treat Ad infections. PMID:24907427

  16. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cespedes, Javier; Moyer, Crystal L; Whitby, Landon R; Boger, Dale L; Nemerow, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    The number of disseminated adenovirus (Ad) infections continues to increase mostly due to the growing use of immunosuppressive treatments. Recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, mainly in pediatric units, exhibit a high morbidity and mortality due to these infections. Unfortunately, there are no Ad-specific antiviral drugs currently approved for medical use. To address this situation, we used high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic small molecule libraries to identify compounds that restrict Ad infection. Among the more than 25,000 compounds screened, we identified a hit compound that significantly inhibited Ad infection. The compound (15D8) is a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative that showed substantial antiviral activity with little or no cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Compound 15D8 selectively inhibits Ad DNA replication in the nucleus, providing a potential candidate for the development of a new class of antiviral compounds to treat Ad infections.

  17. The long repeat region is dispensable for fowl adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ojkic, D; Nagy, E

    2001-05-10

    Two regions containing tandemly repeated sequences are present in the fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) genome. The longer repeat region (TR-2) is composed of 13 contiguous 135-bp-long direct repeats, the function of which is unknown. An infectious FAdV-9 genomic clone, constructed by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, was used for engineering of recombinant viruses. The enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) coding sequence was cloned in both rightward and leftward orientations so as to replace TR-2. Replication-competent recombinant FAdVs were recovered, demonstrating that TR-2 was dispensable for FAdV-9 propagation in vitro. The expression of EGFP in infected cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation, and RT-PCR.

  18. RNAi suppressor P19 can be broadly exploited for enhanced adenovirus replication and microRNA knockdown experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rauschhuber, Christina; Mueck-Haeusl, Martin; Zhang, Wenli; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a key regulator of various biological systems including viral infection. Within a virus life cycle gene products can be modulated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway which can crucially impact productive virus replication. Herein we explored the RNA interference suppressor protein P19 derived from a plant virus and we found that P19 enhanced adenovirus replication up to 100-fold. Critical factors responsible for this observation were overexpression of adenovirus encoded genes on mRNA and protein levels. To investigate the impact of this phenomenon on recombinant viruses, we exploited its feasibility for therapeutic and genomic applications. We found that P19 significantly increased recombinant adenovirus yields enabling up-scaling for preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, adenoviruses possessed significantly higher oncolytic activity by expression of P19. Finally, we show that introducing a p19 expression cassette into high-capacity adenovirus provides a strategy to analyze RNAi knockdown in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:23455436

  19. Mechanism of host restriction of adenovirus-associated virus replication in African green monkey kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Buller, R M; Straus, S E; Rose, J A

    1979-06-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) serotypes provide an early factor(s) that is necessary for adenovirus-associated virus (AAV) multiplication in human cell lines. However, little, if any, AAV production occurs in primary African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells co-infected with AAV and a helper human Ad (non-permissive infection), unless cells are additionally infected with SV40 (permissive infection). To determine the basis of the host restriction of AAV replication in AGMK cells, AAV DNA, RNA and protein synthesis were analyzed under various conditions of infection. Hybridization reactions revealed no detectable AAV-specific DNA or RNA in infections with AAV alone or in combination with SV40. In co-infections with AAV and Ad5 or Ad7, the synthesis of both AAV- and Ad-specific DNA and RNA occurred without a significant rise in titre of either virus. During non-permissive infection, however, AAV DNA synthesis was abnormal in that an expected accumulation of single-stranded progeny molecules was not observed. Finally, although intact 20S AAV transcripts were present in the cytoplasm of AGMK cells during non-permissive infection (in amounts ranging from 50 to 80% of that found during permissive infection), AAV-specific polypeptides were not demonstrable by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Taken together, these experiments indicate that the host restriction of AAV replication in AGMK cells is exerted at the level of translation of the single AAV messenger RNA. In addition, it appears that one or more of the AAV polypeptides specified by this message is required for the production of single-stranded AAV progeny DNA.

  20. Effects of antimetabolites on adenovirus replication in sensitive and resistant human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Musk, P; Stowers, A; Parsons, P G

    1990-02-15

    Methotrexate (MTX), 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) inhibited the replication of adenovirus (viral capacity) more in drug-sensitive than in resistant human melanoma cell lines. By comparison, inhibition of cellular DNA and RNA synthesis after short treatment periods (less than 48 hr) was not a good predictor of cellular sensitivity. MTX, an inhibitor of de novo nucleotide synthesis, was most effective when added to cells just before infection with virus and inhibited viral capacity at doses 10-1000-fold lower than those required to affect cell survival. The MTX-sensitive cell lines, members of a DNA repair deficient group sensitive also to killing by methylating agents (the Mer- phenotype), were not deficient in dihydrofolate reductase but exhibited DNA fragmentation after treatment with MTX for 48 hr. 6-TG and ara-C, inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine salvage, were most inhibitory to viral capacity when added greater than 36 hr before virus infection and were less effective than MTX (doses 5-7-fold and 4-24-fold higher than for cell survival respectively). No correlation was found between MTX sensitivity and sensitivity to 6-TG or ara-C. These results indicate that (i) inhibition of viral capacity is a more comprehensive test of antimetabolite cytotoxicity than inhibition of cellular DNA or RNA synthesis; (ii) the viral capacity assay correctly predicts cellular sensitivity to MTX, 6-TG and ara-C and therefore has potential for application to primary cultures of human tumours; and (iii) MTX-sensitive cell lines and adenovirus replication rely heavily on de novo nucleotide synthesis, which in Mer- cells appears to be linked to a DNA repair defect as yet undefined.

  1. Unabated Adenovirus Replication following Activation of the cGAS/STING-Dependent Antiviral Response in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cGAS/STING DNA sensing complex has recently been established as a predominant pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for DNA-directed type I interferon (IFN) innate immune activation. Using replication-defective adenovirus vectors and replication-competent wild-type adenovirus, we have modeled the influence of the cGAS/STING cascade in permissive human cell lines (A549, HeLa, ARPE19, and THP1). Wild-type adenovirus induced efficient early activation of the cGAS/STING cascade in a cell-specific manner. In all responsive cell lines, cGAS/STING short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown resulted in a loss of TBK1 and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) activation, a lack of beta interferon transcript induction, loss of interferon-dependent STAT1 activation, and diminished induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Adenoviruses that infect through the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) (Ad2 and Ad5) and the CD46 (Ad35) and desmoglein-2 (Ad7) viral receptors all induce the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade. The magnitude of the IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response was strongly influenced by serotype, with Ad35>Ad7>Ad2. For each serotype, no enhancement of viral DNA replication or virus production occurred in cGAS or STING shRNA-targeted cell line pools. We found no replication advantage in permissive cell lines that do not trigger the cGAS/STING cascade following infection. The cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade was not a direct target of viral antihost strategies, and we found no evidence that Ad stimulation of the cGAS/STING DNA response had an impact on viral replication efficiency. IMPORTANCE This study shows for the first time that the cGAS DNA sensor directs a dominant IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response to adenovirus in human cell lines. Activation of cGAS occurs with viruses that infect through different high-affinity receptors (CAR, CD46, and desmoglein-2), and the magnitude of the cGAS/STING DNA response cascade is influenced by serotype-specific functions

  2. Transforming genes among three different oncogenic subgroups of human adenoviruses have similar replicative functions.

    PubMed Central

    Brusca, J S; Chinnadurai, G

    1981-01-01

    We have examined the functional similarity of the transforming genes for replicative functions among three different subgroups of human adenoviruses (A, B, and C), using mutant complementation as an assay. A host range deletion mutant (dl201.2) of Ad2 (nononcogenic subgroup C) lacking about 5% of the viral DNA covering two early gene blocks (E1a and E1b) involved in cellular transformation was isolated and tested for its ability to replicate in nonpermissive KB cells in the presence of Ad7 (weakly oncogenic group B) or ad12 (highly oncogenic group A). The complementation of the mutant defect was demonstrated by cleaving the viral DNA extracted from mixed infected cells or the DNA extracted from purified virions from mixed infected cells with restriction endonuclease BamHI, which produces a different cleavage pattern with the DNA of each serotype. It was found that the defects in E1a plus E1b of dl201.2 could be complemented by Ad7 and Ad12, indicating that these genes in Ad2, Ad7, and Ad12 have similar functions during productive infection. Images PMID:7277578

  3. Immunosuppression Enhances Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication and Antitumor Efficacy in the Syrian Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Maria A; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Toth, Karoly; Sagartz, John E; Phillips, Nancy J; Wold, William SM

    2012-01-01

    We recently described an immunocompetent Syrian hamster model for oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) that permits virus replication in tumor cells as well as some normal tissues. This model allows exploration of interactions between the virus, tumor, normal organs, and host immune system that could not be examined in the immunodeficient or nonpermissive animal models previously used in the oncolytic Ad field. Here we asked whether the immune response to oncolytic Ad enhances or limits antitumor efficacy. We first determined that cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in the Syrian hamster and that CP alone had no effect on tumor growth. Importantly, we found that the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic Ads was significantly enhanced in immunosuppressed animals. In animals that received virus therapy plus immunosuppression, significant differences were observed in tumor histology, and in many cases little viable tumor remained. Notably, we also determined that immunosuppression allowed intratumoral virus levels to remain elevated for prolonged periods. Although favorable tumor responses can be achieved in immunocompetent animals, the rate of virus clearance from the tumor may lead to varied antitumor efficacy. Immunosuppression, therefore, allows sustained Ad replication and oncolysis, which leads to substantially improved suppression of tumor growth. PMID:18665155

  4. Immunosuppression enhances oncolytic adenovirus replication and antitumor efficacy in the Syrian hamster model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria A; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Toth, Karoly; Sagartz, John E; Phillips, Nancy J; Wold, William S M

    2008-10-01

    We recently described an immunocompetent Syrian hamster model for oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) that permits virus replication in tumor cells as well as some normal tissues. This model allows exploration of interactions between the virus, tumor, normal organs, and host immune system that could not be examined in the immunodeficient or nonpermissive animal models previously used in the oncolytic Ad field. Here we asked whether the immune response to oncolytic Ad enhances or limits antitumor efficacy. We first determined that cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in the Syrian hamster and that CP alone had no effect on tumor growth. Importantly, we found that the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic Ads was significantly enhanced in immunosuppressed animals. In animals that received virus therapy plus immunosuppression, significant differences were observed in tumor histology, and in many cases little viable tumor remained. Notably, we also determined that immunosuppression allowed intratumoral virus levels to remain elevated for prolonged periods. Although favorable tumor responses can be achieved in immunocompetent animals, the rate of virus clearance from the tumor may lead to varied antitumor efficacy. Immunosuppression, therefore, allows sustained Ad replication and oncolysis, which leads to substantially improved suppression of tumor growth.

  5. Replicating adenovirus vector prime/protein boost strategies for HIV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, L. Jean; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    Background In the last few years the HIV vaccine field has moved forward a number of promising vaccine candidates into human clinical trials. Objective In this review we briefly discuss the advances made in vaccine development and HIV pathogenesis and give an overview of the body of work our lab has generated in multiple animal models on replication-competent Ad recombinant vaccines. Methods Emphasis is placed on comparative examination of vaccine components, routes of immunization and challenge models using replicating Ad vectors. Results/conclusion The overall findings make the case that replicating Ad vectors are superior in priming multiple arms of the immune system, and in conjunction with protein boosting, have resulted in dramatic protective efficacy leading to their advancement to phase 1 trials. Implications of the recent halting of the Merck Ad5-HIV phase 2b clinical trial for our vaccine approach and other vectored vaccines are discussed. PMID:18694354

  6. Mechanism of inhibition of adenovirus DNA replication by the acyclic nucleoside triphosphate analogue (S)-HPMPApp: influence of the adenovirus DNA binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Y M; van Miltenburg, R T; De Clercq, E; van der Vliet, P C

    1989-01-01

    The acyclic adenosine analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine [S]-HPMPA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of adenovirus (Ad) replication in cell culture. We studied the mechanism of inhibition using a reconstituted in vitro DNA replication system. The diphosphoryl derivative (S)-HPMPApp, but not (S)-HPMPA, inhibited the DNA replication of origin containing fragments strongly. The inhibitory effect was exerted at the level of elongation, while initiation was resistant to the drug. Remarkably, the elongation of short strands was only slightly impaired, while inhibition was maximal upon synthesis of long DNA fragments. (S)-HPMPApp appeared to be competitive with dATP, suggesting that the Ad DNA polymerase is the prime target for the drug. We purified the Ad DNA polymerase in complex to the precursor terminal protein to homogeneity from cells infected with overproducing recombinant vaccinia viruses. Employing gapped DNA or poly(dT).oligo(dA) templates, only a weak inhibition was observed. However, inhibition was strongly enhanced in the presence of the adenovirus DNA binding protein (DBP). We interpret this to mean that the increased processivity of the polymerization reaction in the presence of DBP leads to increased drug sensitivity. Images PMID:2587248

  7. Eliminating established tumor in nu/nu nude mice by a TRAIL-armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fengqin; Wang, Li; Davis, John J.; Hu, Wenxian; Zhang, Lidong; Guo, Wei; Teraishi, Fuminori; Ji, Lin; Fang, Bingliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and oncolytic viruses have recently been investigated extensively for cancer therapy. However, preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that their clinical application is hampered by either weak anticancer activity or systemic toxicity. We examined whether the weaknesses of the two strategies can be overcome by integrating the TRAIL gene into an oncolytic vector. Experimental Design We constructed a TRAIL-expressing oncolytic adenovector designated Ad/TRAIL-E1. The expression of both the TRAIL and viral E1A genes is under the control of a synthetic promoter consisting of sequences from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and a minimal cytomegalovirus early promoter. The transgene expression, apoptosis induction, viral replication, antitumor activity and toxicity of Ad/TRAIL-E1 were determined in vitro and in vivo in comparison with control vectors. Results Ad/TRAIL-E1 elicited enhanced viral replication and/or stronger oncolytic effect in vitro in various human cancer cell lines than a TRAIL-expressing replication-defective adenovector or an oncolytic adenovector expressing green fluorescent protein. Intralesional administration of Ad/TRAIL-E1 eliminated all subcutaneous xenograft tumors established from a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299, on nu/nu nude mice, resulting in long-term tumor-free survival. Furthermore, we found no treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions Viral replication and antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus can be enhanced by the TRAIL gene and Ad/TRAIL-E1 could become a potent therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:16951242

  8. Adenovirus-mediated shRNA interference against HSV-1 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Liu, Xinjing; Wang, Qingzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Ting; Han, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yuming

    2016-12-01

    The UL29 and UL28 proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are critical for its replication and packaging, respectively. Research has demonstrated that synthesized siRNA molecules targeting the UL29 gene are able to suppress HSV-2 replication and the UL28-null HSV-1 gene cannot form infectious viruses in vitro. Silencing the UL28 and UL29 genes by RNAi might lead to the development of novel antiviral agents for the treatment of HSV-1 infections. Two kinds of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the UL29 and UL28 genes were chemically synthesized and then delivered into cells by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Adv5) vector. (-) shRNAs targeting none of the genome of HSV-1 were used as the control. Vero cells were inoculated with Ad-UL28shRNA or Ad-UL29shRNA at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 and challenged 24 h later with HSV-1 at an MOI of 0.01 to inhibit HSV-1 replication, as measured by the level of the corresponding RNA and proteins. In addition, the amount of progeny virus was assessed at daily intervals. The antiviral effects of Ad-shRNAs at ongoing HSV-1 infection were explored at 12 h after inoculation of the HSV-1. The results showed that the shRNAs delivered by Adv5 significantly suppressed HSV-1 replication in vitro, as determined by the levels of viral RNA transcription, viral protein synthesis, and viral production. The Ad-UL28shRNA and Ad-UL29shRNA suppressed the replication of HSV-1, respectively, compared with the control group (P < 0.001). When Ad-UL28shRNA and Ad-UL29shRNA were combined, a synergistic effect was observed. The antiviral effects could sustain for at least 4 days after the HSV-1 infection (P < 0.001). Furthermore, antiviral effects were achieved 12 h prior to inoculation of Adv5-shRNAs (P < 0.001). Our data demonstrated comparable antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus by shRNAs targeting either UL29 or UL28 sites in vitro and the effectiveness of using the Adv5

  9. Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Prostate-Restricted Replication Competent Adenovirus-Ad-IU-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    was performed using monoclonal antibodies against Ad5E1a or polyclonal HSV1 -TK antiserum. Ad5E1a and HSV1 -TK proteins expression were detected in...which are prominently expressed in androgen independent (AI) prostate cancers. The goal of this research is to develop a novel therapeutic agent, Ad...IU-1, using PSES to control the replication of adenovirus and the expression of a therapeutic gene, herpes simplex thymidine kinase (TK). AD-IU-1

  10. Addition of Polyadenylate Sequences to Virus-Specific RNA during Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, L.; Wall, R.; Glickman, G.; Darnell, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Adenovirus-specific nuclear and polysomal RNA, both early and late in the infectious cycle, contain a covalently linked region of polyadenylic acid 150-250 nucleotides long. A large proportion of the adenovirus-specific messenger RNA contains poly(A). As revealed by hybridization experiments, the poly(A) is not transcribed from adenovirus DNA. Furthermore, an adenosine analogue, cordycepin, blocks the synthesis of poly(A) and also inhibits the accumulation of adenovirus messenger RNA on polysomes. Addition of poly(A) to viral RNA may involve a host-controlled mechanism that regulates the processing and transport of messenger RNA. PMID:5315962

  11. Addition of polyadenylate sequences to virus-specific RNA during adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Philipson, L; Wall, R; Glickman, G; Darnell, J E

    1971-11-01

    Adenovirus-specific nuclear and polysomal RNA, both early and late in the infectious cycle, contain a covalently linked region of polyadenylic acid 150-250 nucleotides long. A large proportion of the adenovirus-specific messenger RNA contains poly(A). As revealed by hybridization experiments, the poly(A) is not transcribed from adenovirus DNA. Furthermore, an adenosine analogue, cordycepin, blocks the synthesis of poly(A) and also inhibits the accumulation of adenovirus messenger RNA on polysomes. Addition of poly(A) to viral RNA may involve a host-controlled mechanism that regulates the processing and transport of messenger RNA.

  12. Effect of exposure to UV-C irradiation and monochloramine on adenovirus serotype 2 early protein expression and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Shisler, Joanna L; Mariñas, Benito J

    2008-06-01

    The mechanisms of adenovirus serotype 2 inactivation with either UV light (with a narrow emission spectrum centered at 254 nm) or monochloramine were investigated by assessing the potential inhibition of two key steps of the adenovirus life cycle, namely, E1A protein synthesis and viral genomic replication. E1A early protein synthesis was assayed by using immunoblotting, while the replication of viral DNA was analyzed by using slot blotting. Disinfection experiments were performed in phosphate buffer solutions at pH 8 and room temperature (UV) or 20 degrees C (monochloramine). Experimental results revealed that normalized E1A levels at 12 h postinfection (p.i.) were statistically the same as the corresponding decrease in survival ratio for both UV and monochloramine disinfection. Normalized DNA levels at 24 h p.i. were also found to be statistically the same as the corresponding decrease in survival ratio for monochloramine disinfection. In contrast, for UV disinfection, genomic DNA levels were much lower than E1A or survival ratios, possibly as a result of a delay in DNA replication for UV-treated virions compared to that for controls. Future efforts will determine the pre-E1A synthesis step in the adenovirus life cycle affected by exposure to UV and monochloramine, with the goal of identifying the viral molecular target of these two disinfectants.

  13. Effects of adeno-associated virus on adenovirus replication and gene expression during coinfection.

    PubMed

    Timpe, Jennifer M; Verrill, Kristin C; Trempe, James P

    2006-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic parvovirus that requires adenovirus (Ad) or another helper virus for a fully permissive infection. AAV-mediated inhibition of Ad is well documented, yet many details of this interaction remain unclear. In this study, we observed a maximum 50-fold decrease in infectious virus production and a 10- to 40-fold reduction in Ad DNA synthesis during coinfections with AAV. With the exception of the E3 gene, AAV decreased all steady-state Ad mRNA levels at 24 h postinfection (hpi) in a dose-dependent manner. However, not all transcription units were affected equally. E4 and late transcription were the most strongly inhibited, and E1A and E2A were the least affected. The temporal effects of AAV on Ad mRNA transcript levels also varied among the Ad genes. Ad protein expression paralleled mRNA levels at 24 hpi, suggesting that coinfecting AAV does not exert substantial effects on translation. In plasmid transfection assays, Rep78 protein most effectively limited Ad amplification, while Rep40 had no effect. Since E2a and E4 proteins are essential for efficient Ad DNA amplification, we examined the relationship between reduced E2A and E4 expression and decreased DNA amplification. Transfected Rep78 did not reduce E2A and E4 transcript levels prior to DNA replication. Also, AAV-induced inhibition of E2A and E4 mRNA production did not occur in the presence of hydroxyurea. It is therefore unlikely that decreased early gene expression is solely responsible for AAV's suppression of Ad DNA replication. Our results suggest that AAV amplification and/or Rep gene expression inhibits Ad DNA synthesis.

  14. Effects of Adeno-Associated Virus on Adenovirus Replication and Gene Expression during Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Timpe, Jennifer M.; Verrill, Kristin C.; Trempe, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic parvovirus that requires adenovirus (Ad) or another helper virus for a fully permissive infection. AAV-mediated inhibition of Ad is well documented, yet many details of this interaction remain unclear. In this study, we observed a maximum 50-fold decrease in infectious virus production and a 10- to 40-fold reduction in Ad DNA synthesis during coinfections with AAV. With the exception of the E3 gene, AAV decreased all steady-state Ad mRNA levels at 24 h postinfection (hpi) in a dose-dependent manner. However, not all transcription units were affected equally. E4 and late transcription were the most strongly inhibited, and E1A and E2A were the least affected. The temporal effects of AAV on Ad mRNA transcript levels also varied among the Ad genes. Ad protein expression paralleled mRNA levels at 24 hpi, suggesting that coinfecting AAV does not exert substantial effects on translation. In plasmid transfection assays, Rep78 protein most effectively limited Ad amplification, while Rep40 had no effect. Since E2a and E4 proteins are essential for efficient Ad DNA amplification, we examined the relationship between reduced E2A and E4 expression and decreased DNA amplification. Transfected Rep78 did not reduce E2A and E4 transcript levels prior to DNA replication. Also, AAV-induced inhibition of E2A and E4 mRNA production did not occur in the presence of hydroxyurea. It is therefore unlikely that decreased early gene expression is solely responsible for AAV's suppression of Ad DNA replication. Our results suggest that AAV amplification and/or Rep gene expression inhibits Ad DNA synthesis. PMID:16873238

  15. Imaging of viral thymidine kinase gene expression by replicating oncolytic adenovirus and prediction of therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Ji Young; Choi, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Keun-Jae; Lee, Jong-Doo; Yun, Chae-Ok; Yun, Mijin

    2008-10-31

    We have used a genetically attenuated adenoviral vector which expresses HSVtk to assess the possible additive role of suicidal gene therapy for enhanced oncolytic effect of the virus. Expression of TK was measured using a radiotracer-based molecular counting and imaging system. Replication-competent recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-DeltaE1B19/55) was used in this study, whereas replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad-DeltaE1A) was generated as a control. Both Ad-DeltaE1B19/55-TK and Ad-DeltaE1A-TK comprise the HSVtk gene inserted into the E3 region of the viruses. YCC-2 cells were infected with the viruses and incubated with 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (I-131 FIAU) to measure amount of radioactivity. The cytotoxicity of the viruses was determined, and gamma ray imaging of HSVtk gene was performed. MTT assay was also performed after GCV treatment. On gamma counter-analyses, counts/ minute (cpm)/microg of protein showed MOIs dependency with DeltaE1B19/55-TK infection. On MTT assay, Ad-DeltaE1B19/55-TK led to more efficient cell killing than Ad-DeltaE1A-TK. On plate imaging by gamma camera, both Ad-DeltaE1B19/55-TK and Ad-DeltaE1A-TK infected cells showed increased I-131 FIAU uptake in a MOI dependent pattern, and with GCV treatment, cell viability of DeltaE1B19/55-TK infection was remarkably reduced compared to that of Ad-DeltaE1A-TK infection. Replicating Ad-DeltaE1B19/55-TK showed more efficient TK expression even in the presence of higher-cancer cell killing effects compared to non-replicating Ad-DeltaE1A-TK. Therefore, GCV treatment still possessed an additive role to oncolytic effect of Ad-DeltaE1B19/55-TK. The expression of TK by oncolytic viruses could rapidly be screened using a radiotracer-based counting and imaging technique.

  16. Stimulation of adenovirus replication in simian cells in the absence of a helper virus by pretreatment of the cells with iododeoxyuridine.

    PubMed Central

    Jerkofsky, M; Rapp, F

    1975-01-01

    Pretreatment of African green monkey kidney cells with 50 mu g of 5'-iododeoxyruidine (IUdR) per ml can modify their susceptibility to the replication of human adenovirus type 7 in the absence of simian virus 40 (SV40) although this enhancement of adenovirus replication is not as efficient as that of the helper SV40 virus. Since the number of infectious centers remains unchanged after IUdR pretreatment whereas the burst size of virus from each infected cell increases, the IUdR appears to allow each infected cell to produce more virus. Cell DNA synthesis appears to be stimulated in IUdR pretreated cells infected with adenovirus 7, but the host cell DNA synthesized is small enough to remain in the Hirt supernatant fluid. The modification of susceptibility to adenovirus replication and the changed pattern of cell DNA synthesis is stable for at least two additional cell passages of the pretreated cells. PMID:163353

  17. Stimulation of adenovirus replication in simian cells in the absence of a helper virus by pretreatment of the cells with iododeoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Jerkofsky, M; Rapp, F

    1975-02-01

    Pretreatment of African green monkey kidney cells with 50 mu g of 5'-iododeoxyruidine (IUdR) per ml can modify their susceptibility to the replication of human adenovirus type 7 in the absence of simian virus 40 (SV40) although this enhancement of adenovirus replication is not as efficient as that of the helper SV40 virus. Since the number of infectious centers remains unchanged after IUdR pretreatment whereas the burst size of virus from each infected cell increases, the IUdR appears to allow each infected cell to produce more virus. Cell DNA synthesis appears to be stimulated in IUdR pretreated cells infected with adenovirus 7, but the host cell DNA synthesized is small enough to remain in the Hirt supernatant fluid. The modification of susceptibility to adenovirus replication and the changed pattern of cell DNA synthesis is stable for at least two additional cell passages of the pretreated cells.

  18. Pathology in Permissive Syrian Hamsters after Infection with Species C Human Adenovirus (HAdV-C) Is the Result of Virus Replication: HAdV-C6 Replicates More and Causes More Pathology than HAdV-C5.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Sagartz, John E; Wold, William S M; Toth, Karoly

    2017-05-15

    Syrian hamsters are permissive for the replication of species C human adenoviruses (HAdV-C). The virus replicates to high titers in the liver of these animals after intravenous infection, while respiratory infection results in virus replication in the lung. Here we show that two types belonging to species C, HAdV-C5 and HAdV-C6, replicate to significantly different extents and cause pathology with significantly different severities, with HAdV-C6 replicating better and inducing more severe and more widespread lesions. The virus burdens in the livers of HAdV-C6-infected hamsters are higher than the virus burdens in HAdV-C5-infected ones because more of the permissive hepatocytes get infected. Furthermore, when hamsters are infected intravenously with HAdV-C6, live, infectious virus can be isolated from the lung and the kidney, which is not seen with HAdV-C5. Similarly to mouse models, in hamsters, HAdV-C6 is sequestered by macrophages to a lesser degree than HAdV-C5. Depletion of Kupffer cells from the liver greatly increases the replication of HAdV-C5 in the liver, while it has only a modest effect on the replication of HAdV-C6. Elimination of Kupffer cells also dramatically increases the pathology induced by HAdV-C5. These findings indicate that in hamsters, pathology resulting from intravenous infection with adenoviruses is caused mostly by replication in hepatocytes and not by the abortive infection of Kupffer cells and the following cytokine storm.IMPORTANCE Immunocompromised human patients can develop severe, often lethal adenovirus infections. Respiratory adenovirus infection among military recruits is a serious problem, in some cases requiring hospitalization of the patient. Furthermore, adenovirus-based vectors are frequently used as experimental viral therapeutic agents. Thus, it is imperative that we investigate the pathogenesis of adenoviruses in a permissive animal model. Syrian hamsters are susceptible to infection with certain human adenoviruses, and

  19. The organotypic multicellular spheroid is a relevant three-dimensional model to study adenovirus replication and penetration in human tumors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Grill, Jacques; Lamfers, Martine L M; van Beusechem, Victor W; Dirven, Clemens M; Pherai, D Shareen; Kater, Mathijs; Van der Valk, Paul; Vogels, Ronald; Vandertop, W Peter; Pinedo, Herbert M; Curiel, David T; Gerritsen, Winald R

    2002-11-01

    The use of adenoviruses for gene transfer and as oncolytic agents is currently receiving widespread attention. As specific constraints to adenovirus distribution and spread cannot be studied in cell cultures, there is a need for an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model mimicking the in vivo biology of tumors. We studied the interactions between tumor and adenoviruses using multicellular spheroids grown from primary brain tumor material. Using beta-galactosidase and luciferase reporter genes expressed by replication-defective adenoviruses, we showed that infection was restricted to the first layer of cells. Using a replication-competent adenovirus expressing the luciferase gene, we showed that transgene expression in the spheroid was considerably enhanced and that viral spreading deep into the 3D structure took place. In addition, a tetrazolium salt-based metabolic assay could be used to compare the oncolytic activity of different concentrations of replication-competent adenoviruses. We can conclude that organotypic spheroids offer a versatile in vitro system for studying distribution, spread, and oncolysis by adenoviruses in a clinically relevant model.

  20. Stable delivery of physiologic levels of recombinant erythropoietin to the systemic circulation by intramuscular injection of replication-defective adenovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, S K; Goldwasser, E; Lu, M M; Barr, E; Leiden, J M

    1994-01-01

    A number of inherited and acquired serum protein deficiencies including hemophilias A and B, diabetes mellitus, and the erythropoietin-responsive anemias are currently treated with repeated subcutaneous or intravenous infusions of purified or recombinant proteins. The development of an in vivo gene-transfer approach to deliver physiologic levels of recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would represent a significant advance in the treatment of these disorders. Here we describe the construction of a replication-defective adenovirus (AdEF1hEpo) containing the human erythropoietin (hEpo) cDNA under the transcriptional control of the cellular elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha) promoter and the 4F2 heavy chain (4F2HC) enhancer. Neonatal CD-1 and adult SCID mice injected once intramuscularly (i.m.) with 10(7) to 10(9) plaque-forming units (pfu) of this virus displayed significant dose-dependent elevations of serum hEpo levels and increased hematocrits, which were stable over the 4-month time course of these experiments. Adenovirus injected i.m. remained localized at the site of injection and there was no evidence of either systemic infection or a localized inflammatory response. These results suggest that i.m. injection of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vectors may serve as a paradigm for the treatment of human serum protein deficiencies. Images PMID:7972101

  1. Adenovirus E4ORF1-induced MYC activation promotes host cell anabolic glucose metabolism and virus replication.

    PubMed

    Thai, Minh; Graham, Nicholas A; Braas, Daniel; Nehil, Michael; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kurdistani, Siavash K; McCormick, Frank; Graeber, Thomas G; Christofk, Heather R

    2014-04-01

    Virus infections trigger metabolic changes in host cells that support the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of viral replication. Although recent studies have characterized virus-induced changes in host cell metabolism (Munger et al., 2008; Terry et al., 2012), the molecular mechanisms by which viruses reprogram cellular metabolism have remained elusive. Here, we show that the gene product of adenovirus E4ORF1 is necessary for adenovirus-induced upregulation of host cell glucose metabolism and sufficient to promote enhanced glycolysis in cultured epithelial cells by activation of MYC. E4ORF1 localizes to the nucleus, binds to MYC, and enhances MYC binding to glycolytic target genes, resulting in elevated expression of specific glycolytic enzymes. E4ORF1 activation of MYC promotes increased nucleotide biosynthesis from glucose intermediates and enables optimal adenovirus replication in primary lung epithelial cells. Our findings show how a viral protein exploits host cell machinery to reprogram cellular metabolism and promote optimal progeny virion generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the effect of aphidicolin on adenovirus DNA replication: evidence in support of a protein primer model of initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, S; Robertson, W; Rekosh, D

    1981-01-01

    Adenovirus DNA replication is inhibited by aphidicolin but the inhibition clearly has different parameters than the inhibition of purified DNA polymerase alpha. In adenovirus infected Hela cells, 10 micrograms/ml of aphidicolin reduced viral DNA synthesis by 80%. Cellular DNA synthesis was inhibited by 97% at 0.1 microgram/ml. 10 micrograms/ml of drug had no effect on virus yield or late protein synthesis though higher concentrations of drug (50 micrograms/ml) caused an abrupt cessation of late protein synthesis and 100 micrograms/ml reduced virus yield by 3 logs. Concentrations of the drug from 0.5 microgram/ml to 10 micrograms/ml were found to dramatically slow the rate of DNA chain elongation in vitro but not stop it completely, so that over a long period of time net incorporation was reduced only slightly compared to the control. 50 micrograms/ml or 100 micrograms/ml of drug completely inhibited incorporation in vitro. Initiation of viral DNA replication - covalent attachment of dCMP to the preterminal protein - occurs in vitro. This reaction was found to be insensitive to inhibition by aphidicolin. We thus conclude that aphidicolin exerts its effect on adenovirus DNA chain elongation, but not on the primary initiation event of protein priming. Images PMID:6796938

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor promoter-based conditionally replicative adenoviruses effectively suppress growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akiko; Uchino, Junji; Harada, Taishi; Nakagaki, Noriaki; Hisasue, Junko; Fujita, Masaki; Takayama, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) incidence is increasing drastically worldwide as an occupational disease resulting from asbestos exposure. However, no curative treatment for MM of advanced stage is available. Thus, new therapeutic approaches for MM are required. Because malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells spread along the pleural surface in most patients, MPM can be targeted using intrapleural therapeutic approaches. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of the intrapleural instillation of a replication-competent adenovirus as an oncolytic agent against MPM. We constructed a vascular endothelial growth factor promoter-based conditionally replicative adenovirus (VEGF-CRAd) that replicates exclusively in VEGF-expressing cells. All of the MM cell lines that we tested expressed VEGF mRNA, and VEGF-CRAd selectively replicated in these MM cells and exerted a direct concentration-dependent oncolytic effect in vitro. Furthermore, our in vivo studies showed that pre-infection of MM cells with VEGF-CRAd potently suppressed MPM tumor formation in nude mice, and that intrapleural instillation of VEGF-CRAd prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicate that VEGF-CRAd exerts an oncolytic effect on MM cells and that intrapleural instillation of VEGF-CRAd is safe and might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for MPM. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Tumor promoters alter the temporal program of adenovirus replication in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, P B; Young, C S; Weinstein, I B; Carter, T H

    1981-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the kinetics of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication in human cells. When added at the time of infection, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) accelerated the appearance of an early virus antigen (72,000-molecular-weight [72K] deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein), the onset of viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, and the production of infectious virus. The appearance of an Ad5-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) was also accelerated in infected cultures exposed to TPA, whereas phorbol, 4 alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate and 4-OmeTPA, which are inactive as tumor promoters, were ineffective in inducing this morphological change. The acceleration of the CPE seen in TPA-treated Ad5-infected cells was not caused by TPA induction of the protease plasminogen activator, since the protease inhibitors leupeptin and antipain do not inhibit the earlier onset of this CPE and, in contrast, epidermal growth factor, which induces plasminogen activator in HeLa cells, does not induce an earlier CPE. Evidence for a direct effect of TPA on viral gene expression was obtained by analyzing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis. TPA accelerated the appearance of mRNA from all major early regions of Ad5, transiently stimulated the accumulation of region III mRNA, and accelerated the appearance of late Ad5 mRNA. Thus, TPA altered the temporal program of Ad5 mRNA production and accelerated the appearance of at least some Ad5-specific polypeptides during lytic infection of human cells. These effects presumably explain the earlier onset of the Ad5-specific CPE in TPA-treated cells and may have relevance to the effects of TPA on viral gene expression in nonpermissive cells carrying integrated viral deoxyribonucleic acid sequences. Images PMID:6965103

  5. Tumor promoters alter the temporal program of adenovirus replication in human cells.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P B; Young, C S; Weinstein, I B; Carter, T H

    1981-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the kinetics of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication in human cells. When added at the time of infection, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) accelerated the appearance of an early virus antigen (72,000-molecular-weight [72K] deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein), the onset of viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, and the production of infectious virus. The appearance of an Ad5-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) was also accelerated in infected cultures exposed to TPA, whereas phorbol, 4 alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate and 4-OmeTPA, which are inactive as tumor promoters, were ineffective in inducing this morphological change. The acceleration of the CPE seen in TPA-treated Ad5-infected cells was not caused by TPA induction of the protease plasminogen activator, since the protease inhibitors leupeptin and antipain do not inhibit the earlier onset of this CPE and, in contrast, epidermal growth factor, which induces plasminogen activator in HeLa cells, does not induce an earlier CPE. Evidence for a direct effect of TPA on viral gene expression was obtained by analyzing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis. TPA accelerated the appearance of mRNA from all major early regions of Ad5, transiently stimulated the accumulation of region III mRNA, and accelerated the appearance of late Ad5 mRNA. Thus, TPA altered the temporal program of Ad5 mRNA production and accelerated the appearance of at least some Ad5-specific polypeptides during lytic infection of human cells. These effects presumably explain the earlier onset of the Ad5-specific CPE in TPA-treated cells and may have relevance to the effects of TPA on viral gene expression in nonpermissive cells carrying integrated viral deoxyribonucleic acid sequences.

  6. Separation of the adenovirus terminal protein precursor from its associated DNA polymerase: role of both proteins in the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Lichy, J H; Field, J; Horwitz, M S; Hurwitz, J

    1982-01-01

    A complex containing the 80,000-dalton precursor to the adenovirus (Ad)-encoded terminal protein (pTP) and a 140,000-dalton protein is required for Ad DNA replication in vitro. This complex has been separated into subunits by glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of urea. The isolated 140,000-dalton subunit contains a DNA polymerase activity which can be differentiated from all host DNA polymerases. No enzyme activity was detected with the isolated pTP. The requirements for reactions involved in the initiation of Ad DNA replication were determined by using the isolated subunits. The covalent addition of dCMP, the first nucleotide in the DNA chain, to the pTP, which serves as the primer for replication, required the DNA polymerase subunit as well as the pTP. Synthesis of viral DNA in vitro also required both subunits. The properties of the DNA polymerase suggest that it may be a viral gene product. Images PMID:6957861

  7. STAT2 Knockout Syrian Hamsters Support Enhanced Replication and Pathogenicity of Human Adenovirus, Revealing an Important Role of Type I Interferon Response in Viral Control.

    PubMed

    Toth, Karoly; Lee, Sang R; Ying, Baoling; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Tollefson, Ann E; Sagartz, John E; Kong, Il-Keun; Wang, Zhongde; Wold, William S M

    2015-08-01

    Human adenoviruses have been studied extensively in cell culture and have been a model for studies in molecular, cellular, and medical biology. However, much less is known about adenovirus replication and pathogenesis in vivo in a permissive host because of the lack of an adequate animal model. Presently, the most frequently used permissive immunocompetent animal model for human adenovirus infection is the Syrian hamster. Species C human adenoviruses replicate in these animals and cause pathology that is similar to that seen with humans. Here, we report findings with a new Syrian hamster strain in which the STAT2 gene was functionally knocked out by site-specific gene targeting. Adenovirus-infected STAT2 knockout hamsters demonstrated an accentuated pathology compared to the wild-type control animals, and the virus load in the organs of STAT2 knockout animals was 100- to 1000-fold higher than that in wild-type hamsters. Notably, the adaptive immune response to adenovirus is not adversely affected in STAT2 knockout hamsters, and surviving hamsters cleared the infection by 7 to 10 days post challenge. We show that the Type I interferon pathway is disrupted in these hamsters, revealing the critical role of interferon-stimulated genes in controlling adenovirus infection. This is the first study to report findings with a genetically modified Syrian hamster infected with a virus. Further, this is the first study to show that the Type I interferon pathway plays a role in inhibiting human adenovirus replication in a permissive animal model. Besides providing an insight into adenovirus infection in humans, our results are also interesting from the perspective of the animal model: STAT2 knockout Syrian hamster may also be an important animal model for studying other viral infections, including Ebola-, hanta-, and dengue viruses, where Type I interferon-mediated innate immunity prevents wild type hamsters from being effectively infected to be used as animal models.

  8. STAT2 Knockout Syrian Hamsters Support Enhanced Replication and Pathogenicity of Human Adenovirus, Revealing an Important Role of Type I Interferon Response in Viral Control

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Jacqueline F.; Tollefson, Ann E.; Sagartz, John E.; Kong, Il-Keun; Wang, Zhongde; Wold, William S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Human adenoviruses have been studied extensively in cell culture and have been a model for studies in molecular, cellular, and medical biology. However, much less is known about adenovirus replication and pathogenesis in vivo in a permissive host because of the lack of an adequate animal model. Presently, the most frequently used permissive immunocompetent animal model for human adenovirus infection is the Syrian hamster. Species C human adenoviruses replicate in these animals and cause pathology that is similar to that seen with humans. Here, we report findings with a new Syrian hamster strain in which the STAT2 gene was functionally knocked out by site-specific gene targeting. Adenovirus-infected STAT2 knockout hamsters demonstrated an accentuated pathology compared to the wild-type control animals, and the virus load in the organs of STAT2 knockout animals was 100- to 1000-fold higher than that in wild-type hamsters. Notably, the adaptive immune response to adenovirus is not adversely affected in STAT2 knockout hamsters, and surviving hamsters cleared the infection by 7 to 10 days post challenge. We show that the Type I interferon pathway is disrupted in these hamsters, revealing the critical role of interferon-stimulated genes in controlling adenovirus infection. This is the first study to report findings with a genetically modified Syrian hamster infected with a virus. Further, this is the first study to show that the Type I interferon pathway plays a role in inhibiting human adenovirus replication in a permissive animal model. Besides providing an insight into adenovirus infection in humans, our results are also interesting from the perspective of the animal model: STAT2 knockout Syrian hamster may also be an important animal model for studying other viral infections, including Ebola-, hanta-, and dengue viruses, where Type I interferon-mediated innate immunity prevents wild type hamsters from being effectively infected to be used as animal models. PMID

  9. A Ubiquitin-specific Protease Possesses a Decisive Role for Adenovirus Replication and Oncogene-mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Arbelo-Roman, Christina; Hartl, Barbara; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Speiseder, Thomas; Meier, Chris; Dobner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviral replication depends on viral as well as cellular proteins. However, little is known about cellular proteins promoting adenoviral replication. In our screens to identify such proteins, we discovered a cellular component of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway interacting with the central regulator of adenoviral replication. Our binding assays mapped a specific interaction between the N-terminal domains of both viral E1B-55K and USP7, a deubiquitinating enzyme. RNA interference-mediated downregulation of USP7 severely reduced E1B-55K protein levels, but more importantly negatively affected adenoviral replication. We also succeeded in resynthesizing an inhibitor of USP7, which like the knockdown background reduced adenoviral replication. Further assays revealed that not only adenoviral growth, but also adenoviral oncogene-driven cellular transformation relies on the functions of USP7. Our data provide insights into an intricate mechanistic pathway usurped by an adenovirus to promote its replication and oncogenic functions, and at the same time open up possibilities for new antiviral strategies. PMID:23555268

  10. Efficient genome replication of hepatitis B virus using adenovirus vector: a compact pregenomic RNA-expression unit

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mariko; Kondo, Saki; Yamasaki, Manabu; Matsuda, Norie; Nomoto, Akio; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Saito, Izumu; Kanegae, Yumi

    2017-01-01

    The complicated replication mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have impeded HBV studies and anti-HBV therapy development as well. Herein we report efficient genome replication of HBV applying adenovirus vectors (AdVs) showing high transduction efficiency. Even in primary hepatocytes derived from humanized mice the transduction efficiencies using AdVs were 450-fold higher compared than those using plasmids. By using an expression unit consisting of the CMV promoter, 1.03-copy HBV genome and foreign poly(A) signal, we successfully generated an improved AdV (HBV103-AdV) that efficiently provided 58 times more pregenomic RNA than previously reported AdVs. The HBV103-AdV-mediated HBV replication was easily and precisely detected using quantitative real-time PCR in primary hepatocytes as well as in HepG2 cells. Notably, when the AdV containing replication-defective HBV genome of 1.14 copy was transduced, we observed that HBV DNA-containing circular molecules (pseudo-ccc DNA) were produced, which were probably generated through homologous recombination. However, the replication-defective HBV103-AdV hardly yielded the pseudo-ccc, probably because the repeated sequences are vey short. Additionally, the efficacies of entecavir and lamivudine were quantitatively evaluated using this system at only 4 days postinfection with HBV103-AdVs. Therefore, this system offers high production of HBV genome replication and thus could become used widely. PMID:28157182

  11. A ubiquitin-specific protease possesses a decisive role for adenovirus replication and oncogene-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Ching, Wilhelm; Koyuncu, Emre; Singh, Sonia; Arbelo-Roman, Christina; Hartl, Barbara; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Speiseder, Thomas; Meier, Chris; Dobner, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Adenoviral replication depends on viral as well as cellular proteins. However, little is known about cellular proteins promoting adenoviral replication. In our screens to identify such proteins, we discovered a cellular component of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway interacting with the central regulator of adenoviral replication. Our binding assays mapped a specific interaction between the N-terminal domains of both viral E1B-55K and USP7, a deubiquitinating enzyme. RNA interference-mediated downregulation of USP7 severely reduced E1B-55K protein levels, but more importantly negatively affected adenoviral replication. We also succeeded in resynthesizing an inhibitor of USP7, which like the knockdown background reduced adenoviral replication. Further assays revealed that not only adenoviral growth, but also adenoviral oncogene-driven cellular transformation relies on the functions of USP7. Our data provide insights into an intricate mechanistic pathway usurped by an adenovirus to promote its replication and oncogenic functions, and at the same time open up possibilities for new antiviral strategies.

  12. Adenovirus replication-competent vectors (KD1, KD3) complement the cytotoxicity and transgene expression from replication-defective vectors (Ad-GFP, Ad-Luc).

    PubMed

    Habib, Nagy A; Mitry, Ragai; Seth, Prem; Kuppuswamy, Mohan; Doronin, Konstantin; Toth, Karoly; Krajcsi, Peter; Tollefson, Ann E; Wold, William S M

    2002-08-01

    The successful clinical application of adenovirus (Ad) in cancer control has been of limited success because of the current inability to infect the majority of cancer cells with a large amount of vector. In this study, we show that when human lung tumors growing in immunodeficient nude mice were coinfected with a replication-defective (RD) Ad vector expressing green fluorescent protein and a replication-competent (RC) Ad vector named KD3, KD3 enhanced the expression of green fluorescent protein throughout the tumor. Also, KD3 and another RC vector named KD1 complemented the expression of luciferase from a RD vector in a human liver tumor xenotransplant in nude mice. Altogether, these results suggest that the combination of a RD vector with a RC vector might be a more effective treatment for cancer than either vector alone due to more widespread dissemination of the virus.

  13. Adenine arabinoside inhibition of adenovirus replication enhanced by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wigand, R

    1979-01-01

    The inhibition of adenovirus multiplication by adenine arabinoside was determined by yield reduction in one-step multiplication cycle. Inhibition was greatly enhanced by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (2-deoxycoformycin) in concentrations down to 10 ng/ml. Adenovirus types from four subgroups showed similar results. However, the enhancing effect of adenosine deaminase inhibitor was great in HeLa cells, moderate in human fibroblasts, and negligible in Vero cells. This difference could be explained by different concentrations of adenosine deaminase found in cell homogenates.

  14. Adenovirus Vectors Block Human Immunodeficiency Virus–1 Replication in Human Alveolar Macrophages by Inhibition of the Long Terminal Repeat

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Robert J.; Santiago, Francisco; Rahaghi, Franck; Michaels, Elizabeth; Moore, John P.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Heterologous viruses may transactivate or suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 replication. An adenovirus type 5 gene transfer vector (Ad5) HIV-1 vaccine was recently evaluated in a clinical trial, without efficacy. In this context, it is relevant to ask what effect Ad vectors have on HIV-1 replication, particularly in cells that are part of the innate immune system. Infection of HIV-1–infected human alveolar macrophages (AMs) obtained from HIV-1+ individuals with an Ad vector containing no transgene (AdNull) resulted in dose-responsive inhibition of endogenous HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 replication in normal AMs infected with HIV-1 in vitro was inhibited by AdNull with a similar dose response. Ad reduced AM HIV-1 replication up to 14 days after HIV-1 infection. Fully HIV-1–infected AMs were treated with 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine, after which Ad infection still inhibited HIV-1 replication, suggesting a postentry step was affected. Substantial HIV-1 DNA was still produced after Ad infection, as quantified by TaqMan real-time PCR, suggesting that the replication block occurred after reverse transcription. AdNull blocked HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) transcription, as assessed by an vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped HIV-1 LTR luciferase construct. The formation of HIV-1 DNA integrated into the host chromosome was not inhibited by Ad, as quantified by a two-step TaqMan real-time PCR assay, implying a postintegration block to HIV-1 replication. These data indicate that Ad vectors are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in human AMs based, in part, on their ability to inhibit LTR-driven transcription. PMID:19805482

  15. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by the E1A antisense transcript initiated from hsp70 and VA-1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, O I; Borisenko, A S; Ponomareva, T I; Tikhonenko, T I

    1990-03-01

    The E1A region of the adenoviral genome, important for initiation of virus infection and activation of other viral genes, was chosen as a target for engineering antisense RNA (asRNA) to inhibit adenovirus 5 (Ad5) replication in COS-1 cell culture in vitro. The hsp70 promoter, taken from the appropriate heat-shock-protein gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and the VA-1 RNA promoter, derived from the Ad5 gene coding for low-molecular-mass VA-1 RNA and recognized by RNA polymerase III were used as regulatory elements of transcription. The two types of recombinant constructs contained E1A fragments of 710 bp (hsp70 constructs) or 380 or 740 bp (VA-1 RNA constructs) in reverse orientation relative to the promoter position, as well as a transcription termination signal, the SV40 ori, and the gene controlling Geneticin (antibiotic G418) resistance (G418R). After selection of transfected COS-1 cells in the presence of G418, a number of stable G418R cell lines were raised which expressed engineered asRNAs. Plating of Ad5 suspensions of known titre on monolayers of transfected COS-1 cells clearly showed strong inhibition of adenovirus replication by asRNAs: 75% with the hsp70 promoter and 90% with the VA-1 RNA promoter.

  16. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs.

  17. Nbs1-dependent binding of Mre11 to adenovirus E4 mutant viral DNA is important for inhibiting DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2008-04-25

    Adenovirus (Ad) infections stimulate the activation of cellular DNA damage response and repair pathways. Ad early regulatory proteins prevent activation of DNA damage responses by targeting the MRN complex, composed of the Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 proteins, for relocalization and degradation. In the absence of these viral proteins, Mre11 colocalizes with viral DNA replication foci. Mre11 foci formation at DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation depends on the Nbs1 component of the MRN complex and is stabilized by the mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (Mdc1). We find that Nbs1 is required for Mre11 localization at DNA replication foci in Ad E4 mutant infections. Mre11 is important for Mdc1 foci formation in infected cells, consistent with its role as a sensor of DNA damage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that both Mre11 and Mdc1 are physically bound to viral DNA, which could account for their localization in viral DNA containing foci. Efficient binding of Mre11 to E4 mutant DNA depends on the presence of Nbs1, and is correlated with a significant E4 mutant DNA replication defect. Our results are consistent with a model in which physical interaction of Mre11 with viral DNA is mediated by Nbs1, and interferes with viral DNA replication.

  18. Avian Influenza Vaccination in Chickens and Pigs with Replication-Competent Adenovirus–Free Human Recombinant Adenovirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Haroldo; van Ginkel, Frederik W.; Tang, De-chu C.; Schemera, Bettina; Rodning, Soren; Newton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Protective immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding AI virus H5 (AdTW68.H5) or H7 (AdCN94.H7) hemagglutinins. We evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with AdTW68.H5 and AdCN94.H7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to both H5 and H7 AI strains. Additionally, we evaluated immune responses of 1-day-old chickens vaccinated via spray with AdCN94.H7. These birds showed increased immunoglobulin A responses in lachrymal fluids and increased interleukin-6 expression in Harderian gland–derived lymphocytes. However, specific HI antibodies were not detected in the sera of these birds. Because pigs might play a role as a “mixing vessel” for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses we explored the use of RCA-free adenovirus technology to immunize pigs against AI virus. Weanling piglets vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of RCA-free AdTW68.H5 developed strong systemic antibody responses 3 wk postvaccination. Intranasal application of AdTW68.H5 in piglets resulted in reduced vaccine coverage, i.e., 33% of pigs (2/6) developed an antibody response, but serum antibody levels in those successfully immunized animals were similar to intramuscularly vaccinated animals. PMID:20521636

  19. Functional interactions of antiapoptotic proteins and tumor necrosis factor in the context of a replication-competent adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-C; Wang, Y; Hallden, G; Brooks, G; Francis, J; Lemoine, N R; Kirn, D

    2005-09-01

    Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses hold promise, but novel mechanisms must be identified to maximize intratumoral virus persistence, spread and therapeutic transgene-carrying capacity while maintaining safety. One of the main approaches to engineering cancer-selectivity has been to delete a viral gene that is theoretically expendable in cancer cells. Results with this approach have been mixed, however, as evidenced by controversy over Onyx-015 (E1B-55kD(-)) selectivity. We hypothesized that the functional redundancy between viral gene products might limit selectivity and/or potency with this approach. Antiviral immune inducers of apoptosis (eg TNF-alpha) have not been thoroughly investigated in previous studies. We therefore explored whether deletion of functionally redundant viral genes, E1B-19kD and E3B, both independently antagonize TNF-alpha, could lead to enhanced oncolytic potency while maintaining selectivity. Since tumors have numerous blocks in apoptotic pathways, we hypothesized that deletion of one or both gene regions would result in cancer-selectivity in the presence of TNF-alpha. We have previously shown that the E1B-19kD deletion resulted in enhanced viral spread in vitro and in immunocompetent tumor models in vivo. In contrast, the impact of E3B deletion, especially its in vitro selectivity and potency, was not thoroughly characterized, although it resulted in rapid immune-mediated viral clearance in vivo. Furthermore, previous publications indicated that double-deleted mutants have selectivity but unsatisfactory efficacy. We compared the selectivity and potency of E1B-19kD(-), E3B(-) and E1B-19kD(-)/E3B(-) mutants to wild-type adenovirus. In cancer cells, the E1B-19kD(-) mutant had superior replication, spread and cytolysis (+) or (-) TNF-alpha; deletion of both E1B-19kD and E3B was relatively deleterious. In normal cells without TNF-alpha, similar results were obtained. In contrast, all three mutants were significantly inhibited in the

  20. Functionally inactivated dominant viral antigens of human cytomegalovirus delivered in replication incompetent adenovirus type 6 vectors as vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Aimin; Freed, Daniel C; Li, Fengsheng; Meschino, Steve; Prokop, Michael; Bett, Andrew; Casimiro, Danilo; Wang, Dai; Fu, Tong-Ming

    2017-05-11

    T cell immunity is critical in controlling human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in transplant recipients, and T cells targeting viral immediate early proteins such as IE1, IE2 and pp65 have been speculated to be more effective against reactivation. Here we report efforts to construct replication incompetent adenovirus 6 vectors expressing these viral antigens as vaccine candidates. To reduce the potential liabilities of these viral proteins as vaccine antigens, we introduced mutations to inactivate their reported functions including their nuclear localization signals. The modifications greatly reduced their localization to the nuclei, thus limiting their interactions with cellular proteins important for cell cycle modulation and transactivation. The immunogenicity of modified pp65, IE1 and IE2 vaccines was comparable to their wild-type counterparts in mice and the immunogenicity of the modified antigens was demonstrated in non-human primates.

  1. Tumor Associated Stromal Cells Play a Critical Role on the Outcome of the Oncolytic Efficacy of Conditionally Replicative Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, M. Verónica; Viale, Diego L.; Cafferata, Eduardo G. A.; Bravo, Alicia I.; Carbone, Cecilia; Gould, David; Chernajovsky, Yuti; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of conditionally replicative oncolytic adenoviruses (CRAd) is still limited by the inefficient infection of the tumor mass. Since tumor growth is essentially the result of a continuous cross-talk between malignant and tumor-associated stromal cells, targeting both cell compartments may profoundly influence viral efficacy. Therefore, we developed SPARC promoter-based CRAds since the SPARC gene is expressed both in malignant cells and in tumor-associated stromal cells. These CRAds, expressing or not the Herpes Simplex thymidine kinase gene (Ad-F512 and Ad(I)-F512-TK, respectively) exerted a lytic effect on a panel of human melanoma cells expressing SPARC; but they were completely attenuated in normal cells of different origins, including fresh melanocytes, regardless of whether cells expressed or not SPARC. Interestingly, both CRAds displayed cytotoxic activity on SPARC positive-transformed human microendothelial HMEC-1 cells and WI-38 fetal fibroblasts. Both CRAds were therapeutically effective on SPARC positive-human melanoma tumors growing in nude mice but exhibited restricted efficacy in the presence of co-administered HMEC-1 or WI-38 cells. Conversely, co-administration of HMEC-1 cells enhanced the oncolytic efficacy of Ad(I)-F512-TK on SPARC-negative MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, conditioned media produced by stromal cells pre-infected with the CRAds enhanced the in vitro viral oncolytic activity on pancreatic cancer cells, but not on melanoma cells. The whole data indicate that stromal cells might play an important role on the outcome of the oncolytic efficacy of conditionally replicative adenoviruses. PMID:19337591

  2. Midkine promoter-driven suicide gene expression and -mediated adenovirus replication produced cytotoxic effects to immortalised and tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Hamada, K; Namba, M; Kadomatsu, K; Muramatsu, T; Matsubara, S; Tagawa, M

    2004-07-01

    We examined possible application of a regulatory region of midkine (MK) gene, which is frequently upregulated in a number of human tumours but not in normal cells, to cancer gene therapy. We examined transcriptional activity of the MK genomic fragments in paired cell lines, immortalized cells and their parental normal fibroblasts, and found that the MK fragments activated a fused reporter or a suicide gene preferentially in the immortalized cells. Recombinant adenoviruses (Ad), in which the MK fragment was inserted upstream to the E1A gene (AdMK), replicated preferentially in the immortalized cells and were cytotoxie to them. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were significantly susceptible to AdMK compared with human normal fibroblasts in vitro and the replication of AdMK was less than that of wild-type Ad in the infected fibroblasts. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells infected with AdMK did not form tumours in immunocompromised mice and intratumoural injection of AdMK into the hepatocellular carcinoma developed in mice retarded the subsequent tumour growth. Expression of E1A and necrosis of tumours were detected in AdMK-injected but not control Ad-injected cases. The MK promoter-driven suicide gene therapy and -mediated replicative Ad can thereby produce cytotoxic effects to immortalized and tumour cells with minimal damage to normal cells.

  3. Immunological effects of a tumor necrosis factor alpha-armed oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Hirvinen, Mari; Rajecki, Maria; Kapanen, Mika; Parviainen, Suvi; Rouvinen-Lagerström, Noora; Diaconu, Iulia; Nokisalmi, Petri; Tenhunen, Mikko; Hemminki, Akseli; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    For long it has been recognized that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) has anticancer characteristics, and its use as a cancer therapeutic was proposed already in the 1980s. However, its systemic toxicity has limited its usability. Oncolytic viruses, selectively cancer-killing viruses, have shown great potency, and one of their most useful aspects is their ability to produce high amounts of transgene products locally, resulting in high local versus systemic concentrations. Therefore, the overall magnitude of tumor cell killing results from the combination of oncolysis, transgene-mediated direct effect such as TNFa-mediated apoptosis, and, perhaps most significantly, from activation of the host immune system against the tumor. We generated a novel chimeric oncolytic adenovirus expressing human TNFa, Ad5/3-D24-hTNFa, whose efficacy and immunogenicity were tested in vitro and in vivo. The hTNFa-expressing adenovirus showed increased cancer-eradicating potency, which was shown to be because of elevated apoptosis and necrosis rates and induction of various immune responses. Interestingly, we saw increase in immunogenic cell death markers in Ad5/3-d24-hTNFa-treated cells. Moreover, tumors treated with Ad5/3-D24-hTNFa displayed enhanced presence of OVA-specific cytotoxic T cells. We thus can conclude that tumor eradication and antitumor immune responses mediated by Ad5/3-d24-hTNFa offer a new potential drug candidate for cancer therapy.

  4. The effect of purine and pyrimidine analogues and virazole on adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, P; Haghchenas, D; Wigand, R

    1975-04-01

    The multiplication of adenovirus 19 in HeLa cells was inhibited by various purine and pyrimidine analogues and by virazole. The formation of infectious virus and of capsid proteins (haemagglutin, group-specific complement-fixing antigen) was inhibited to the same degree, while the viral cytopathic effect (CPE) was not inhibited. The reversibility of the inhibition after removal of the substances was more complete for purine than for pyrimidine analogues. The inhibition was counteracted by simulataneous addition of the corresponding nucleosides. Adenosine was more effected than guanosine against purine analogues; both were partially effective against virazole, but none of them against arabinofuranosyladenine. The time-dependence of inhibition, the ensuing eclipse period after removal of the inhibitors, and the successive application of two inhibitors led to the conclusion that most of them affect the viral multiplication mainly by inhibition of DNA synthesis. Azacytidine inhibits the synthesis of structural proteins as well.

  5. Ether lipid-ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: activity against adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Caroll B; Gustin, Kortney M; Wan, William B; Ciesla, Stephanie L; Beadle, James R; Hostetler, Karl Y; Kern, Earl R

    2005-02-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV) and its closely related analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine ([S]-HPMPA) have been reported to have activity against many adenovirus (AdV) serotypes. A new series of orally active ether lipid-ester prodrugs of CDV and of (S)-HPMPA that have slight differences in the structure of their lipid esters were evaluated, in tissue-culture cells, for activity against 5 AdV serotypes. The results indicated that, against several AdV serotypes, the most active compounds were 15-2500-fold more active than the unmodified parent compounds and should be evaluated further for their potential to treat AdV infections in humans.

  6. The influence of extracts from Peucedanum salinum on the replication of adenovirus type 5

    PubMed Central

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to examine the cytotoxicity and evaluate the antiviral and virucidal activity of methanol and methanol/H2O extracts from the herb of Peucedanum salinum. Plants belonging to the genus Peucedanum (Apiaceae family) have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Material and methods The examination of the cytotoxicity of the extracts in the concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mg/ml was carried out on the cell culture line HEK-293. Cytotoxicity of the examined extracts was measured by the colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) method. After determination of the highest non-toxic concentration of examined extracts, antiviral and virucidal activity against adenovirus type 5 (Adenoviridae) was established. Results The non-toxic doses were as follows: 1 mg/ml of methanol extract and 2 mg/ml of methanol/H2O extract (1 : 1 v/v). Antiviral activity was observed for the methanol extract of Peucedanum salinum in concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg/ml. The extract caused the decrease of titre of the virus by 2 log and 1.33 log, respectively. The methanol/H2O extract (1 : 1 v/v) decreased the titre of the virus by 1.33 log and 1.5 log in concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/ml, respectively. The examined extracts had no virucidal activity against adenovirus type 5. Conclusions The examined extract is a new, potentially active source of active substances possessing antiviral activity and further studies are needed. PMID:22457673

  7. Anti-tumor efficacy of a transcriptional replication-competent adenovirus, Ad-OC-E1a, for osteosarcoma pulmonary metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Jung, Chaeyong; Liu, You-Hong; Bae, Kyung-Hee; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Hong-Ji; Vanderputten, Dale; Jeng, Meei-Huey; Gardner, Thomas A; Kao, Chinghai

    2006-06-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most frequent type of primary malignant bone tumor and is apt to occur in children and young adults. Pulmonary metastasis (OSPM) is the major reason for its fatal outcome. Osteocalcin (OC) is a major noncollagenous bone protein whose expression is limited almost exclusively to bone marrow and osteotropic tumors. OC is also known to express in cell lines with bone metastasis feathers. Gene therapy strategies with the OC promoter directing the replication of adenovirus in a tumor-specific manner are a potential modality for OSPM therapy. We detected OC mRNA expression by RNA in situ hybridization in OSA and OSPM samples from patients, and tested OC promoter transcriptional activity in OSA and non-OSA cell lines. Then we used a transcriptional replication-competent adenovirus, Ad-OC-E1a, to treat OSPM, and evaluated its tumor-specific replication and killing activities in vitro as well as anti-OSPM efficacy in vivo via systemic delivery. OC mRNA was detected in all types of OSA tissues, including OSPM tissues. The transcriptional activity of the OC promoter was much higher in a OSPM cell line SAOS-2LM7 and primary OSA cell line MG63 than in non-OSA cell lines, including cell lines from breast cancer, colon cancer, and liver cancer. Ad-OC-E1a expressed E1a protein only in MG63 and SAOS-2LM7, which indicated that adenovirus E1a was under strict control by the OC promoter. Ad-OC-E1a demonstrated killing and viral replication activity close to wild-type adenovirus levels in MG63 and SAOS-2LM7, but the killing and viral replication activities were attenuated significantly in cells expressing low OC transcriptional activity. To test whether Ad-OC-E1a could be used to target human OSPM in vivo, SAOS-2LM7 pulmonary metastasis models in nude mice were induced and treated by tail-vein injection with Ad-OC-E1a. Compared to tumor nodules in the lung in groups treated with PBS or control virus, the quantity of metastasized tumor nodules decreased

  8. Development of a novel recombinant adenovirus containing gfp-zeocin fusion expression cassette for conditional replication in p53-deficient human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baoli; Joshua, Mallam Nock; Dong, Changyuan; Qi, Yipeng

    2004-05-01

    Two obstacles limiting the efficacy of nearly all cancer gene therapy trails are low gene transduction efficiency and the lack of tumor specificity. Fortunately, a replication-competent, E1B-deficient adenovirus (dl1520) was developed that could overcome these limitations, because it was capable of efficiently and selectively destroying tumor cells lacking functional p53. In an attempt to appraise the efficiency and safety of this approach, a novel recombinant adenovirus, r3/Ad, containing a gfp-zeocin expression cassette was constructed in this work. The study in vitro demonstrated that r3/Ad has the ability to replicate in and lyse only the p53-deficient human tumor cells such as the human glioblastoma cells (U251) and human bladder cells (EJ) but not in the human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) with functional p53. Importantly, this gfp-zeocin fusion gene driven by the bipromoter (CMV and EM-7) could be used as an effective selective marker and reporter in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and also zeocin as a selective marker could minimize contamination of the recombinant virus by the wt-Ad5. Additionally, it was found that the r3/Ad could be useful for studying the selective replication of E1B-deficient adenovirus in vivo, it could be used as a "guide" to study the ability of the recombinant adenovirus to spread and to infect distant tumor cells in any tumor bearing animal model by GFP as a reporter. This may help determine the safety of using any E1B-deficient adenovirus in cancer gene therapy.

  9. A novel helper-dependent adenovirus-based cell culture model for Hepatitis C virus replication and production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background By using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a JFH-1 or its chimeric strains, a HCV infection system has been previously developed through several methods– such as in vitro-transcribed JFH1-RNA transfection or stable transfection of the JFH1 cDNA into human hepatoma Huh-7 cell line or its derivatives. However, other reliable methods for delivery of the HCV genome into cells are still worth trying. The helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) is devoid of all viral coding sequences and has a package capacity of 37 kb, which is suitably large for the delivery of the HCV genome. Here we report a new method for delivery of the HCV genome into Huh-7 and HepG2 cells by using the HDAd vector. Results Our results demonstrated that the infection of Huh-7 cells with the HDAdJFH1 virus led to efficient HCV replication and virion production. We found that the HCV viral RNA levels could reach 107 copies per milliliter (ml) in the culture medium. HDAdJFH1-infected Huh-7 cells could be cultured for 8 passages with the culture medium remaining infectious for naïve Huh-7 cells throughout this period. This infection system proved effective for evaluating the anti-HCV effects of IFN-α in Huh-7 cells. Co-infection of HepG2 cells with the HDAdJFH1 and HDAdmiR-122 virus also resulted in HCV expression and replication. Conclusion This is the first report of an HDAd-based strategy for HCV replication and production in vitro. PMID:23987099

  10. Improvement of antitumor activity by gene amplification with a replicating but nondisseminating adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, Denis; Lau, Cara Jean; Jaime, Jairo; Koty, Zafiro; Zehntner, Simone P; Lavoie, Geneviève; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Nalbantoglu, Josephine; Massie, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, efficacy of current vectors remains insufficient. To improve the success of suicide gene therapy, we constructed a replication-competent adenoviral vector that has its protease gene deleted and expresses bacterial cytosine deaminase fused with bacterial uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CU). The prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine, is transformed into the highly toxic and tissue-diffusible 5-fluorouracil by CU in infected cells. This vector is incapable of producing infectious particles but is able to undergo a single round of replication, thereby increasing transgene copy number and expression. In the presence of 5-FC, compared with the first-generation vector (AdCU), the replication-competent vector, Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A, was significantly more efficacious for in vitro tumor cell killing and in bystander assays, whereas 25-fold fewer viral particles were required in a three-dimensional spheroid model. For in vivo experiments, in which virus was injected into preestablished intracranial glioma xenografts, followed by 5-FC treatment, mice receiving Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A had significantly smaller tumors at 35 days postinjection as well as significantly longer median survival than mice treated with the replication-deficient, protease-deleted vector [Ad(dPS)CU]. In an immunocompetent syngeneic model, Ad(dPS)CU + 5-FC-treated mice had a median survival of only 23 days, whereas Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A + 5-FC-treated animals had a survival of 57.1% at 365 days. In conclusion, Ad(dPS)CU-IRES-E1A in the presence of 5-FC produces more potent tumoricidal effects than its replication-deficient counterparts.

  11. ONYX-015: mechanisms of action and clinical potential of a replication-selective adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ries, S; Korn, W M

    2002-01-01

    Accumulated knowledge in the molecular processes of tumour development combined with the availability of genetically modified viruses resemble the basis for new promising cancer therapeutics. The main advantages of employing replication-competent viruses are achievement of tumour selective killing and amplification of their oncolytic potential within the tumour mass. In this review, we describe the development of ONYX-015, one of the first and most advanced replication-competent viruses for cancer therapy. We discuss the molecular biology of this therapeutic approach and the interesting results obtained with this virus in clinical trials. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 5–11. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600006 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11857003

  12. Poly ICLC increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Dias, Camila C; Moraes, Mauro P; Weiss, Marcelo; Perez-Martin, Eva; Salazar, Andres M; Grubman, Marvin J; de los Santos, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the FMDV capsid coding region of serotype A24 Cruzeiro (Ad5-CI-A24-2B) protects swine and cattle against FMDV challenge by 7 days post-vaccination. However, since relatively large amounts of Ad5-CI-A24-2B are required to induce protection this strategy could be costly for livestock production. Poly ICLC is a synthetic double stranded RNA that activates multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways. In this study, we have tested for the first time, the adjuvant effect of poly ICLC in combination with Ad5-CI-A24-2B in swine. We found that the combination resulted in a reduction of the vaccine protective dose by 80-fold. Interestingly, the lowest dose of Ad5-CI-A24-2B plus 1mg of poly ICLC protected animals against challenge even in the absence of detectable FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge.

  13. A Phase I Study of Telomerase-specific Replication Competent Oncolytic Adenovirus (Telomelysin) for Various Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nemunaitis, John; Tong, Alex W; Nemunaitis, Michael; Senzer, Neil; Phadke, Anagha P; Bedell, Cynthia; Adams, Ned; Zhang, Yu-An; Maples, Phillip B; Chen, Salina; Pappen, Beena; Burke, James; Ichimaru, Daiju; Urata, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    A phase I clinical trial was conducted to determine the clinical safety of Telomelysin, a human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter driven modified oncolytic adenovirus, in patients with advanced solid tumors. A single intratumoral injection (IT) of Telomelysin was administered to three cohorts of patients (1 × 1010, 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012 viral particles). Safety, response and pharmacodynamics were evaluated. Sixteen patients with a variety of solid tumors were enrolled. IT of Telomelysin was well tolerated at all dose levels. Common grade 1 and 2 toxicities included injection site reactions (pain, induration) and systemic reactions (fever, chills). hTERT expression was demonstrated at biopsy in 9 of 12 patients. Viral DNA was transiently detected in plasma in 13 of 16 patients. Viral DNA was detectable in four patients in plasma or sputum at day 7 and 14 post-treatment despite below detectable levels at 24 h, suggesting viral replication. One patient had a partial response of the injected malignant lesion. Seven patients fulfilled Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) definition for stable disease at day 56 after treatment. Telomelysin was well tolerated. Evidence of antitumor activity was suggested. PMID:19935775

  14. Potent anti-tumour activity of a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus for melanoma via inhibition of migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, G; Yang, C-S; Xu, D; Sun, C; Zheng, J-N; Lei, T-C; Liu, Y-Q

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) represent a novel class of oncological therapeutic agents. One strategy to ensure tumour targeting is to place the essential viral genes under the control of tumour-specific promoters. Ki67 has been selected as a cancer gene therapy target, as it is expressed in most malignant cells but is barely detectable in most normal cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a Ki67 promoter-controlled CRAd (Ki67-ZD55-IL-24) on the proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cells. Methods: Melanoma cells were independently treated with Ki67-ZD55-IL-24, ZD55-IL-24, Ki67-ZD55, and ZD55-EGFP. The cytotoxic potential of each treatment was assessed using cell viability measurements. Cell migration and invasion were assayed using cell migration and invasion assays. Apoptosis was assayed using the annexin V-FITC assay, western blotting, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT–PCR), haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and the TUNEL assay. Results: Our results showed that Ki67-ZD55-IL-24 had significantly enhanced anti-tumour activity as it more effectively induced apoptosis in melanoma cells than the other agents. Ki67-ZD55-IL-24 also caused the most significant inhibition of cell migration and invasion of melanoma cells. Furthermore, apoptosis was induced more effectively in melanoma xenografts in nude mice. Conclusions: This strategy holds promising potential for the further development of an effective approach to treat malignant melanoma. PMID:24714752

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-mediated syncytium formation is compatible with adenovirus replication and facilitates efficient dispersion of viral gene products and de novo-synthesized virus particles.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Haviv, Y S; Derdeyn, C A; Lam, J; Coolidge, C; Hunter, E; Curiel, D T; Blackwell, J L

    2001-12-10

    Conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) vectors are designed for specific oncolytic replication in tumor tissues with concomitant sparing of normal cells. As such, CRAds offer an unprecedented level of anticancer potential for malignancies that have been refractory to previous cancer gene therapy interventions. CRAd efficacy may, however, be compromised by inefficient dispersion of the replicating vector within the tumor tissue. To address this issue, we evaluated the utility of a fusogenic membrane glycoprotein (FMG), which induces the fusion of neighboring cellular membranes to form multinucleated syncytia. We hypothesized that the FMG-mediated syncytia would facilitate dispersion of the adenovirus (Ad) gene products and viral progeny. To test this, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, which induce syncytia in the presence of CD4+ target cells, were expressed by an Ad (Ad5HIVenv) in permissive (CD4-positive) and nonpermissive (CD4-negative) cell lines. After validating this Ad-FMG model, the efficiency of Ad replication in the presence or absence of syncytia was evaluated. The results demonstrated that syncytium formation was compatible with Ad replication and dramatically increased the dispersion of virus gene products within the cytoplasm of the syncytia as well as viral particles in the nuclei of the syncytial mass. Moreover, progeny virions were released more efficiently from syncytia compared with nonsyncytial cells. These data demonstrate the utility of FMGs as a dispersion agent and suggest that FMGs can improve the efficacy of CRAd gene therapy.

  16. An adenoviral vector-based expression and delivery system for the inhibition of wild-type adenovirus replication by artificial microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ibrišimović, Mirza; Kneidinger, Doris; Lion, Thomas; Klein, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Human adenoviruses are rarely associated with life-threatening infections in healthy individuals. However, immunocompromised patients, and particularly allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, are at high risk of developing disseminated and potentially fatal disease. The efficacy of commonly used drugs to treat adenovirus infections (i.e., cidofovir in most cases) is limited, and alternative treatment options are needed. Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) are a class of synthetic RNAs resembling cellular miRNAs, and, similar to their natural relatives, can mediate the knockdown of endogenous gene expression. This process, termed RNA interference, can be harnessed to target and potentially silence both cellular and viral genes. In this study, we designed amiRNAs directed against adenoviral E1A, DNA polymerase, and preterminal protein (pTP) mRNAs in order to inhibit adenoviral replication in vitro. For the expression of amiRNA-encoding sequences, we utilized replication-deficient adenoviral vectors. In cells transduced with the recombinant vectors and infected with the wild-type (wt) adenovirus, one particular amiRNA that was directed against the pTP mRNA was capable of decreasing the output of infectious wt virus progeny by 2.6 orders of magnitude. This inhibition rate could be achieved by concatemerizing amiRNA-encoding sequences to allow for high intracellular amiRNA concentrations. Because superinfecting wt virus induces the replication and amplification of the recombinant adenoviral vector, amiRNA concentrations were increased in cells infected with wt adenovirus. Furthermore, a combination of amiRNA expression and treatment of infected cells with cidofovir resulted in additive effects that manifested as a total reduction of infectious virus progeny by greater than 3 orders of magnitude. PMID:23127366

  17. An adenoviral vector-based expression and delivery system for the inhibition of wild-type adenovirus replication by artificial microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ibrišimović, Mirza; Kneidinger, Doris; Lion, Thomas; Klein, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Human adenoviruses are rarely associated with life-threatening infections in healthy individuals. However, immunocompromised patients, and particularly allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, are at high risk of developing disseminated and potentially fatal disease. The efficacy of commonly used drugs to treat adenovirus infections (i.e., cidofovir in most cases) is limited, and alternative treatment options are needed. Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) are a class of synthetic RNAs resembling cellular miRNAs, and, similar to their natural relatives, can mediate the knockdown of endogenous gene expression. This process, termed RNA interference, can be harnessed to target and potentially silence both cellular and viral genes. In this study, we designed amiRNAs directed against adenoviral E1A, DNA polymerase, and preterminal protein (pTP) mRNAs in order to inhibit adenoviral replication in vitro. For the expression of amiRNA-encoding sequences, we utilized replication-deficient adenoviral vectors. In cells transduced with the recombinant vectors and infected with the wild-type (wt) adenovirus, one particular amiRNA that was directed against the pTP mRNA was capable of decreasing the output of infectious wt virus progeny by 2.6 orders of magnitude. This inhibition rate could be achieved by concatemerizing amiRNA-encoding sequences to allow for high intracellular amiRNA concentrations. Because superinfecting wt virus induces the replication and amplification of the recombinant adenoviral vector, amiRNA concentrations were increased in cells infected with wt adenovirus. Furthermore, a combination of amiRNA expression and treatment of infected cells with cidofovir resulted in additive effects that manifested as a total reduction of infectious virus progeny by greater than 3 orders of magnitude.

  18. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer.

    PubMed

    Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo

    2011-06-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high

  19. ONYX-411, a conditionally replicative oncolytic adenovirus, induces cell death in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines and suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddi, HV; Madde, P; Reichert-Eberhardt, AJ; Galanis, EC; Copland, JA; McIver, B; Grebe, SKG; Eberhardt, NL

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive thyroid cancer variant, accounting for 1–2% of all cases, but 33% of deaths, and exhibiting an average life expectancy of 5 months. ATC is largely unresponsive to radioactive iodine, chemotherapy, external beam radiation or surgery, underscoring the need for new and effective therapies. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of an oncolytic adenovirus, ONYX-411, that replicates selectively in and kills cells with dysfunction of the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway. In the present study, we report that ONYX-411 is able to induce cell death in eight human anaplastic carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The cytopathic effect of the virus is specific to cells with RB dysfunction, which appears to be frequent in ATC. We confirmed the expression of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor, CAR, in all ATC cell lines, demonstrating the potentially universal application of this oncolytic viral therapy to ATC. In addition, the growth of xenograft tumors induced in athymic mice with the ARO and DRO cell lines was significantly reduced by ONYX-411 treatment. These results indicate that ONYX-411 can be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ATC, rendering this class of conditionally replicating adenoviruses an attractive candidate for clinical trials. PMID:18583996

  20. B23/nucleophosmin is involved in regulation of adenovirus chromatin structure at late infection stages, but not in virus replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Samad, Mohammad Abdus; Komatsu, Tetsuro; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-06-01

    B23/nucleophosmin has been identified in vitro as a stimulatory factor for replication of adenovirus DNA complexed with viral basic core proteins. In the present study, the in vivo function of B23 in the adenovirus life cycle was studied. It was found that both the expression of a decoy mutant derived from adenovirus core protein V that tightly associates with B23 and small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of B23 impeded the production of progeny virions. However, B23 depletion did not significantly affect the replication and transcription of the virus genome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that B23 depletion significantly increased the association of viral DNA with viral core proteins and cellular histones. These results suggest that B23 is involved in the regulation of association and/or dissociation of core proteins and cellular histones with the virus genome. In addition, these results suggest that proper viral chromatin assembly, regulated in part by B23, is crucial for the maturation of infectious virus particles.

  1. Selective inhibitory effect of (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine and 2'-nor-cyclic GMP on adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baba, M; Mori, S; Shigeta, S; De Clercq, E

    1987-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of 20 selected antiviral compounds on the replication of adenoviruses (types 1 to 8) in vitro were investigated. While 18 compounds were ineffective, 2 compounds, namely (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine [(S)-HPMPA] and 9-[(2-hydroxy-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)oxymethyl]guanine P-oxide (2'-nor-cyclic GMP), were highly effective against all adenovirus types assayed in human embryonic fibroblast cultures. Their 50% inhibitory doses were 1.1 microgram/ml for (S)-HPMPA and 4.1 micrograms/ml for 2'-nor-cyclic GMP. They were nontoxic for the host cells at the effective antiviral doses.

  2. Selective inhibitory effect of (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine and 2'-nor-cyclic GMP on adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Baba, M; Mori, S; Shigeta, S; De Clercq, E

    1987-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of 20 selected antiviral compounds on the replication of adenoviruses (types 1 to 8) in vitro were investigated. While 18 compounds were ineffective, 2 compounds, namely (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine [(S)-HPMPA] and 9-[(2-hydroxy-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)oxymethyl]guanine P-oxide (2'-nor-cyclic GMP), were highly effective against all adenovirus types assayed in human embryonic fibroblast cultures. Their 50% inhibitory doses were 1.1 microgram/ml for (S)-HPMPA and 4.1 micrograms/ml for 2'-nor-cyclic GMP. They were nontoxic for the host cells at the effective antiviral doses. PMID:3566256

  3. Replication-deficient adenovirus vector transfer of gfp reporter gene into supraoptic nucleus and subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, E. C.; Johnson, R. F.; Beltz, T. G.; Haskell, R. E.; Davidson, B. L.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The present studies used defined cells of the subfornical organ (SFO) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as model systems to demonstrate the efficacy of replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) for gene transfer. The studies investigated the effects of both direct transfection of the SON and indirect transfection (i.e., via retrograde transport) of SFO neurons. The SON of rats were injected with Ad (2 x 10(6) pfu) and sacrificed 1-7 days later for cell culture of the SON and of the SFO. In the SON, GFP fluorescence was visualized in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells while only neurons in the SFO expressed GFP. Successful in vitro transfection of cultured cells from the SON and SFO was also achieved with Ad (2 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(8) pfu). The expression of GFP in in vitro transfected cells was higher in nonneuronal (approximately 28% in SON and SFO) than neuronal (approximately 4% in SON and 10% in SFO) cells. The expression of GFP was time and viral concentration related. No apparent alterations in cellular morphology of transfected cells were detected and electrophysiological characterization of transfected cells was similar between GFP-expressing and nonexpressing neurons. We conclude that (1) GFP is an effective marker for gene transfer in living SON and SFO cells, (2) Ad infects both neuronal and nonneuronal cells, (3) Ad is taken up by axonal projections from the SON and retrogradely transported to the SFO where it is expressed at detectable levels, and (4) Ad does not adversely affect neuronal viability. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using adenoviral vectors to deliver genes to the SFO-SON axis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Replication-deficient adenovirus vector transfer of gfp reporter gene into supraoptic nucleus and subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, E. C.; Johnson, R. F.; Beltz, T. G.; Haskell, R. E.; Davidson, B. L.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The present studies used defined cells of the subfornical organ (SFO) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as model systems to demonstrate the efficacy of replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) for gene transfer. The studies investigated the effects of both direct transfection of the SON and indirect transfection (i.e., via retrograde transport) of SFO neurons. The SON of rats were injected with Ad (2 x 10(6) pfu) and sacrificed 1-7 days later for cell culture of the SON and of the SFO. In the SON, GFP fluorescence was visualized in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells while only neurons in the SFO expressed GFP. Successful in vitro transfection of cultured cells from the SON and SFO was also achieved with Ad (2 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(8) pfu). The expression of GFP in in vitro transfected cells was higher in nonneuronal (approximately 28% in SON and SFO) than neuronal (approximately 4% in SON and 10% in SFO) cells. The expression of GFP was time and viral concentration related. No apparent alterations in cellular morphology of transfected cells were detected and electrophysiological characterization of transfected cells was similar between GFP-expressing and nonexpressing neurons. We conclude that (1) GFP is an effective marker for gene transfer in living SON and SFO cells, (2) Ad infects both neuronal and nonneuronal cells, (3) Ad is taken up by axonal projections from the SON and retrogradely transported to the SFO where it is expressed at detectable levels, and (4) Ad does not adversely affect neuronal viability. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using adenoviral vectors to deliver genes to the SFO-SON axis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro: site-directed mutagenesis of the nuclear factor I binding site of the Ad2 origin.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, E; van Driel, W; Tromp, M; van Boom, J; van der Vliet, P C

    1985-01-01

    The template requirements for efficient adenovirus DNA replication were studied in vitro in a reconstituted system with cloned DNA fragments, containing the Ad2 origin region, as templates. Replication is enhanced by nuclear factor I, a cellular protein that binds specifically to the Ad2 origin. This stimulation is shown to be strongly dependent on the concentration of the adenovirus DNA binding protein. Using synthetic oligonucleotides we have constructed plasmids with base substitutions in the nuclear factor I binding region. Footprint analysis and competition filter binding studies show that two of the three small blocks of conserved nucleotides in this region are involved in the binding of nuclear factor I. The binding affinity can be influenced by the base composition of the degenerate region just outside these two blocks. In vitro initiation and DNA chain elongation experiments with the mutants demonstrate that binding of nuclear factor I to the Ad2 origin is necessary for stimulation. However, binding alone is not always sufficient since a mutation which only slightly disturbs binding is strongly impaired in stimulation of DNA replication by nuclear factor I. Images PMID:4040630

  6. Efficacy and toxicity of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated double suicide gene therapy in combination with radiation therapy in an orthotopic mouse prostate cancer model.

    PubMed

    Freytag, Svend O; Paielli, Dell; Wing, Mark; Rogulski, Ken; Brown, Steve; Kolozsvary, Andy; Seely, John; Barton, Ken; Dragovic, Alek; Kim, Jae Ho

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated double suicide gene therapy in an adjuvant setting with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in an experimental prostate cancer model in preparation for a Phase I clinical study in humans. For efficacy studies, i.m. DU145 and intraprostatic LNCaP C4-2 tumors were established in immune-deficient mice. Tumors were injected with the lytic, replication-competent Ad5-CD/TKrep adenovirus containing a cytosine deaminase (CD)/herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) fusion gene. Two days later, mice were administered 1 week of 5-fluorocytosine + ganciclovir (GCV) prodrug therapy and fractionated doses of EBRT (trimodal therapy). Tumor control rate of trimodal therapy was compared to that of EBRT alone. For toxicology studies, immune-competent male mice received a single intraprostatic injection (10(10) vp) of the replication-competent Ad5-CD/TKrep adenovirus. Two days later, mice were administered 4 weeks of 5-fluorocytosine + GCV prodrug therapy and 56 Gy EBRT to the pelvic region. The toxicity of trimodal therapy was assessed by histopathologic analysis of major organs and clinical chemistries. In both the i.m. DU145 and intraprostatic LNCaP C4-2 tumor models, trimodal therapy significantly improved primary tumor control beyond that of EBRT alone. In the DU145 model, trimodal therapy resulted in a tumor growth delay (70 days) that was more than twice that (32 days) of EBRT alone. Whereas EBRT failed to eradicate DU145 tumors, trimodal therapy resulted in 25% tumor cure. In the LNCaP C4-2 tumor model, EBRT slowed the growth of intraprostatic tumors, but resulted in no tumor cures, and 57% of the mice developed retroperitoneal lymph node metastases at 3 months. By contrast, trimodal therapy resulted in 44% tumor cure and reduced significantly the percentage (13%) of lymph node metastases relative to EBRT alone. Overall, trimodal therapy was associated

  7. Novel replication-incompetent vector derived from adenovirus type 11 (Ad11) for vaccination and gene therapy: low seroprevalence and non-cross-reactivity with Ad5.

    PubMed

    Holterman, Lennart; Vogels, Ronald; van der Vlugt, Remko; Sieuwerts, Martijn; Grimbergen, Jos; Kaspers, Jorn; Geelen, Eric; van der Helm, Esmeralda; Lemckert, Angelique; Gillissen, Gert; Verhaagh, Sandra; Custers, Jerome; Zuijdgeest, David; Berkhout, Ben; Bakker, Margreet; Quax, Paul; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo

    2004-12-01

    A novel plasmid-based adenovirus vector system that enables manufacturing of replication-incompetent (DeltaE1) adenovirus type 11 (Ad11)-based vectors is described. Ad11 vectors are produced on PER.C6/55K cells yielding high-titer vector batches after purification. Ad11 seroprevalence proves to be significantly lower than that of Ad5, and neutralizing antibody titers against Ad11 are low. Ad11 seroprevalence among human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV(+)) individuals is as low as that among HIV(-) individuals, independent of the level of immune suppression. The low level of coinciding seroprevalence between Ad11 and Ad35 in addition to a lack of correlation between high neutralizing antibody titers towards either adenovirus strongly suggest that the limited humoral cross-reactive immunity between these two highly related B viruses appears not to preclude the use of both vectors in the same individual. Ad11 transduces primary cells including smooth muscle cells, synoviocytes, and dendritic cells and cardiovascular tissues with higher efficiency than Ad5. Ad11 and Ad35 appear to have a similar tropism as judged by green fluorescent protein expression levels determined by using a panel of cancer cell lines. In addition, Ad5 preimmunization did not significantly affect Ad11-mediated transduction in C57BL/6 mice. We therefore conclude that the Ad11-based vector represents a novel and useful candidate gene transfer vehicle for vaccination and gene therapy.

  8. Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, T.; Zhao, Ling-jun; Chinnadurai, G.

    2013-09-01

    Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP–E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP–E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. - Highlights: • Adenovirus E1A C-terminal region suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation. • This E1A region binds with FOXK, DYRK1/HAN11 and CtBP cellular protein complexes. • We found that E1A–CtBP interaction suppresses immortalization and transformation. • The interaction enhances viral replication in human cells.

  9. A Tumor-stroma Targeted Oncolytic Adenovirus Replicated in Human Ovary Cancer Samples and Inhibited Growth of Disseminated Solid Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, M Veronica; Rivera, Angel A; Viale, Diego L; Benedetti, Lorena; Cuneo, Nicasio; Kimball, Kristopher J; Wang, Minghui; Douglas, Joanne T; Zhu, Zeng B; Bravo, Alicia I; Gidekel, Manuel; Alvarez, Ronald D; Curiel, David T; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L

    2012-01-01

    Targeting the tumor stroma in addition to the malignant cell compartment is of paramount importance to achieve complete tumor regression. In this work, we modified a previously designed tumor stroma-targeted conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) based on the SPARC promoter by introducing a mutated E1A unable to bind pRB and pseudotyped with a chimeric Ad5/3 fiber (Ad F512v1), and assessed its replication/lytic capacity in ovary cancer in vitro and in vivo. AdF512v1 was able to replicate in fresh samples obtained from patients: (i) with primary human ovary cancer; (ii) that underwent neoadjuvant treatment; (iii) with metastatic disease. In addition, we show that four intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 5 × 1010 v.p. eliminated 50% of xenografted human ovary tumors disseminated in nude mice. Moreover, AdF512v1 replication in tumor models was enhanced 15–40-fold when the tumor contained a mix of malignant and SPARC-expressing stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells). Contrary to the wild-type virus, AdF512v1 was unable to replicate in normal human ovary samples while the wild-type virus can replicate. This study provides evidence on the lytic capacity of this CRAd and highlights the importance of targeting the stromal tissue in addition to the malignant cell compartment to achieve tumor regression. PMID:22948673

  10. A tumor-stroma targeted oncolytic adenovirus replicated in human ovary cancer samples and inhibited growth of disseminated solid tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M Veronica; Rivera, Angel A; Viale, Diego L; Benedetti, Lorena; Cuneo, Nicasio; Kimball, Kristopher J; Wang, Minghui; Douglas, Joanne T; Zhu, Zeng B; Bravo, Alicia I; Gidekel, Manuel; Alvarez, Ronald D; Curiel, David T; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L

    2012-12-01

    Targeting the tumor stroma in addition to the malignant cell compartment is of paramount importance to achieve complete tumor regression. In this work, we modified a previously designed tumor stroma-targeted conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) based on the SPARC promoter by introducing a mutated E1A unable to bind pRB and pseudotyped with a chimeric Ad5/3 fiber (Ad F512v1), and assessed its replication/lytic capacity in ovary cancer in vitro and in vivo. AdF512v1 was able to replicate in fresh samples obtained from patients: (i) with primary human ovary cancer; (ii) that underwent neoadjuvant treatment; (iii) with metastatic disease. In addition, we show that four intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 5 × 10(10) v.p. eliminated 50% of xenografted human ovary tumors disseminated in nude mice. Moreover, AdF512v1 replication in tumor models was enhanced 15-40-fold when the tumor contained a mix of malignant and SPARC-expressing stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells). Contrary to the wild-type virus, AdF512v1 was unable to replicate in normal human ovary samples while the wild-type virus can replicate. This study provides evidence on the lytic capacity of this CRAd and highlights the importance of targeting the stromal tissue in addition to the malignant cell compartment to achieve tumor regression.

  11. Replication-incompetent adenovirus vector-mediated MDA-7/IL-24 selectively induces growth suppression and apoptosis of hepatoma cell Line SMMC-7721.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congjun; Xue, Xinbo; Yi, Jilin; Wu, Zaide; Chen, Kun; Zheng, Jianwei; Ji, Wenwei; Yu, Yuan

    2008-02-01

    In order to investigate the effect of replication-incompetent adenovirus vector expressing MDA-7/IL-24 on tumor growth and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line SMMC-7721 and normal liver cell line L02, the recombinant replication-incompetent Ad.mda-7 virus vector was constructed and infected into the HCC cell line SMMC-7721 and normal liver cell line L02. RT-PCR was performed to examine the expression of MDA-7 mRNA. The concentrations of MDA-7/IL-4 in culture supernatants were determined by using ELISA. MTT and Hoechst staining assay were applied to observe the inhibitory and killing effects of MDA-7 on the HCC cells. By using flow cytometry, the apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation of SMMC-7721 and L02 cells were measured. The results showed recombinant replication-incompetent virus expressing MDA-7/IL-24 was constructed successfully, and RT-PCR revealed that it could mediate the high expression of the exogenous gene MDA-7/IL-24 in SMMC-7721 and L02 cells. The expression of MDA-7/IL-24 proteins in the culture supernatant was detectable by ELISA. Ad.mda-7 infection induced apoptosis and growth suppression in SMMC-7721 cells and an increased percentage of HCC cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, but not in L02 cells. It was concluded that mda-7/IL-24 gene, mediated with replication-incompetent adenovirus vector, could selectively induce growth suppression and apoptosis in HCC cell line SMMC-7721 but without any toxic side-effect on normal liver line L02.

  12. Relationships between resistance to cross-linking agents and glutathione metabolism, aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes and adenovirus replication in human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Parsons, P G; Lean, J; Kable, E P; Favier, D; Khoo, S K; Hurst, T; Holmes, R S; Bellet, A J

    1990-12-15

    In a panel of 10 human tumour cell lines with no prior exposure to drugs in vitro, resistance to cisplatin correlated with resistance to the nitrogen mustard derivatives Asta Z-7557 (mafosfamide, an activated form of cyclophosphamide), melphalan and chlorambucil. Simultaneous treatment with DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine did not enhance the toxicity of cisplatin or Asta Z-7557, and no correlation was found between drug resistance and cellular levels of metallothioneins (as judged by sensitivity to cadmium chloride), glutathione (GSH), GSH reductase, GSH transferase, or gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. The two cell lines most resistant to Asta Z-7557 expressed aldehyde dehydrogenase cytosolic isozyme 1, found also in normal ovary, but not isozyme 3. Treatment of resistant cells with cisplatin or Asta Z-7557 inhibited cellular DNA synthesis and replication of adenovirus 5 to a lesser extent than in sensitive cells. The virus could be directly inactivated by both drugs prior to infection, subsequent replication being inhibited to the same extent in sensitive and resistant cells. In contrast to Asta Z-7557 and other DNA damaging agents, cisplatin was much more toxic to adenovirus (D37 0.022-0.048 microM) than to cells (D37 0.25-2.5 microM). The adenovirus 5 mutant Ad5ts125 having a G----A substitution was even more sensitive to cisplatin (D37 7-8 nM) than wild type virus and another mutant. Cisplatin was detoxified less by sonicated resistant resistant cells than sensitive cells, as judged by inactivation of Ad5ts125 added to the reaction mixture. It can be inferred that (i) the major differences in cellular resistance to cisplatin and Asta Z-7557 in the present material did not involve enhanced DNA repair or protection by metallothioneins or GSH, but were associated with the ability to continue cellular and viral DNA synthesis during treatment, (ii) resistance was not associated with less template damage, and (iii) the adenovirus genome may be a suitable probe for

  13. Acceleration of adenovirus replication and increased virion production by treatment with the steroid hormone 17 beta-estradiol.

    PubMed

    James, C B; Vanderpool, E A; Roane, P

    1992-01-01

    We report here that concentration of an estrogen known to promote enhanced transformation and to increase oncogenicity of rat embryo cells, accelerate the production and increase the yield of progeny virions in adenovirus type 12 (Ad 12)-infected HEp-2 cells. Further, measurement of the incorporation of radioactive RNA and DNA precursors indicated that macromolecular synthesis in the estrogen-treated, infected cells was accelerated. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

  14. [Construction of replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector with hTFPI-2 gene by AdMax system and expression in U937 monocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Pan, Junjie; Shi, Haiming; Luo, Xinping; Ma, Duan; Liang, Wang; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Jun; Li, Jian

    2011-04-01

    We tried to construct and identify the recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus vector coding for human tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (hTFPI-2) gene by AdMax system in HEK293 cells. Firstly, we obtained hTFPI-2 gene from the recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-TFPI-2 by PCR using primers with restriction endonuclease site of EcoRI or SacI. After digesting the hTFPI-2 gene and plasmid PDC316-IRES-EGFP shuttle vector, we ligated them with T4 ligase and formed the recombinant shuttle vector PDC316-IRES-EGFP-hTFPI-2. It was confirmed that the ligation product was inserted the gene of hTFPI-2 correctly by sequencing. Then we took cotransfection of HEK293 cells with the recombinant shuttle vector and genomic plasmid pBHGloxdeltaE1,3Cre by liposome lipofectamine2000, and finished the package of recombinant adenovirus Ad-hTFPI-2. The results of the PCR test and restriction endonuclease digestion confirmed the successful construction of the recombinants Ad-hTFPI-2. Furthermore, we measured the titre of Ad-hTFPI-2 with the aid of green fluorescence protein expression after multiplication and purification. The titre was 0.931 x 10(12) pfu/ml. Finally, we infected U937 monocytes by purified Ad-hTFPI-2, and determined the infection efficiency and the TFPI-2's level and activity. The efficiency of Ad-hTFPI-2 infection in U937 cells was 89.33%. After infected by Ad-hTFPI-2, the TFPI-2's level in supernatant increased about 7 fold. Also the TFPI-2 in supernatant had activities of inhibiting trypsin and plasmin. The recombinant adenovirus with the hTFPI-2 gene was constructed successfully. It will be helpful for the further investigation of its potentiality to be applied in antiatherosclerosis.

  15. Unusual composition of a yeast chromosome arm is associated with its delayed replication

    PubMed Central

    Payen, Célia; Fischer, Gilles; Marck, Christian; Proux, Caroline; Sherman, David James; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Johnston, Mark; Dujon, Bernard; Neuvéglise, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    The 11.3-Mb genome of the yeast Lachancea (Saccharomyces) kluyveri displays an intriguing compositional heterogeneity: a region of ∼1 Mb, covering almost the whole left arm of chromosome C (C-left), has an average GC content of 52.9%, which is significantly higher than the 40.4% global GC content of the rest of the genome. This region contains the MAT locus, which remains normal in composition. The excess of GC base pairs affects both coding and noncoding sequences, and thus is not due to selective pressure acting on protein sequences. It leads to a strong codon usage bias and alters the amino acid composition of the 457 proteins encoded on C-left that do not show obvious bias for functional categories, or the presence of paralogs or orthologs of essential genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They share significant synteny conservation with other species of the Saccharomycetaceae, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that C-left originates from a Lachancea species. In contrast, there is a complete absence of transposable elements in C-left, whereas 18 elements per megabase are distributed across the rest of the genome. Comparative hybridization of synchronized cells using high-density genome arrays reveals that C-left is replicated later during S phase than the rest of the genome. Two possible primary causes of this major compositional heterogeneity are discussed: an ancient hybridization of two related species with very distinct GC composition, or an intrinsic mechanism, possibly associated with the loss of the silent cassettes from C-left that progressively increased the GC content and generated the delayed replication of this chromosomal arm. PMID:19592681

  16. Ad-mTERT-delta19, a conditional replication-competent adenovirus driven by the human telomerase promoter, selectively replicates in and elicits cytopathic effect in a cancer cell-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Joo-Hang; Shin, Ha-Youn; Lee, Hansaem; Yang, Jai Myung; Kim, Jungho; Sohn, Joo-Hyuk; Kim, Hoguen; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2003-10-10

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, functions to stabilize telomere length during chromosomal replication. Previous studies have shown that hTERT promoter is highly active in most tumor and immortal cell lines but inactive in normal somatic cell types. The use of wild-type hTERT promoter, however, may be limited by its inability to direct high level and cancer cell-specific expression necessary for effective targeted gene therapy. To improve cancer cell specificity and the strength of the hTERT promoter, a modified hTERT, m-hTERT promoter was generated in which additional copies of c-Myc and Sp1 binding sites were incorporated adjacent to the promoter. As assessed using relative lacZ expression, hTERT and m-hTERT promoter activity was significantly upregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells, and within these upregulated cancer cells, m-hTERT promoter strength was substantially higher than that of the wild-type hTERT. Next, to restrict viral replication to tumor cells, a conditional replication-competent adenoviruses, Ad-TERT-Delta19 and Ad-mTERT-delta19 were generated in which the E1A gene, which is essential for viral replication, was placed under the control of the hTERT and m-hTERT promoter, respectively. While the wild-type Ad-TERT-delta19 replicated in and induced cytopathic effect in cancer and in some normal cell lines, Ad-mTERT-delta19 enhanced viral replication and cytopathic effect only in cancer cells. Furthermore, the growth of established human cervical carcinoma in nude mice was significantly suppressed by intratumoral injection of Ad-mTERT-delta19. Taken together, present results strongly suggest that the use of the m-hTERT promoter is not only useful in the regulation of therapeutic gene expression but also that replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus under the control of the m-hTERT promoter may be a new promising tool for the treatment of human malignancies.

  17. Vaccine-Induced Immunity in Baboons by Using DNA and Replication-Incompetent Adenovirus Type 5 Vectors Expressing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gag Gene

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro, Danilo R.; Tang, Aimin; Chen, Ling; Fu, Tong-Ming; Evans, Robert K.; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Freed, Daniel C.; Hurni, William; Aste-Amezaga, Jose M.; Guan, Liming; Long, Romnie; Huang, Lingyi; Harris, Virginia; Nawrocki, Denise K.; Mach, Henryk; Troutman, Robert D.; Isopi, Lynne A.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Rice, Karen; Wilson, Keith A.; Volkin, David B.; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The cellular immunogenicity of formulated plasmid DNA and replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vaccine vectors expressing a codon-optimized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene was examined in baboons. The Ad5 vaccine was capable of inducing consistently strong, long-lived CD8+-biased T-cell responses and in vitro cytotoxic activities. The DNA vaccine-elicited immune responses were weaker than those elicited by the Ad5 vaccine and highly variable; formulation with chemical adjuvants led to moderate increases in the levels of Gag-specific T cells. Increasing the DNA-primed responses with booster doses of either Ad5 or modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccines suggests a difference in the relative levels of cytotoxic and helper responses. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:12805466

  18. A bidirectional Tet-dependent promotor construct regulating the expression of E1A for tight control of oncolytic adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Henry; Wang, Xiaomin; Picó, Almudena Hurtado; Wildner, Judith; Suckau, Lennart; Pinkert, Sandra; Sipo, Isaac; Weger, Stefan; Poller, Wolfgang

    2007-01-20

    Tight regulation of oncolytic adenoviruses (oAdV) represents an important requirement for their safe application. Here we describe a new doxycycline (Dox)-dependent oAdV with a bidirectional expression cassette, which drives the expression of the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA(s)-M2) from a lung tumor-specific promoter and, in the opposite direction, the expression of the adenoviral E1A gene from a second generation TetO(7) sequence linked to an isolated TATA box. In H441 lung cancer cells, this oAdV showed a strictly Dox-dependent E1A expression, adenoviral replication, cell killing activity and a 450-fold induction of progeny virus production. The virus could be shut off again by withdrawal of Dox and, in contrast to a control oAdV expressing E1A directly from the SP-B promoter, did not replicate in non-target cells. However, the absolute values of virus production and the cell killing activity in the presence of the inducer were still reduced as compared to the control oAdV. The results demonstrate, for the first time, Dox-dependent oAdV replication from a single adenoviral vector genome. Future improvement of the Dox-dependent E1A regulation cassette should lead to the generation of an oAdV well suited to meet the demands for a highly regulated and efficient oncolytic virus for in vivo applications.

  19. Recognition site of nuclear factor I, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein from HeLa cells that stimulates adenovirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Leegwater, P A; van Driel, W; van der Vliet, P C

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear factor I is a 47-kd protein, isolated from nuclei of HeLa cells, that binds specifically to the inverted terminal repeat of the adenovirus (Ad) DNA and enhances Ad DNA replication in vitro. We have studied the DNA sequence specificity of nuclear factor I binding using cloned terminal fragments of the Ad2 genome and a set of deletion mutants. Binding of nuclear factor I protects nucleotides 19-42 of Ad2 DNA against DNase I digestion. Filter binding assays show that deletion of the first 23 nucleotides does not impair binding while a deletion of 24 nucleotides reduces binding severely. However, binding studies on Ad12 DNA indicate that nucleotide 24 can be mutated. Fragments containing the first 40 bp are bound normally while the first 38 bp are insufficient to sustain binding. Taken together, these results indicate that the minimal recognition site of nuclear factor I contains 15 or 16 nucleotides, located from nucleotide 25 to nucleotide 39 or 40 of the Ad2 DNA. This site contains two of the four conserved nucleotide sequences in this region. Sequences flanking the minimal recognition site may reduce the binding affinity of nuclear factor I. In accordance with these binding studies, DNA replication of a fragment that carries the sequence of the terminal 40 nucleotides of Ad2 at one molecular end is enhanced by nuclear factor I in an in vitro replication system. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:4040852

  20. Adenovirus-based vaccines for fighting infectious diseases and cancer: progress in the field.

    PubMed

    Majhen, Dragomira; Calderon, Hugo; Chandra, Naresh; Fajardo, Carlos Alberto; Rajan, Anandi; Alemany, Ramon; Custers, Jerome

    2014-04-01

    The field of adenovirology is undergoing rapid change in response to increasing appreciation of the potential advantages of adenoviruses as the basis for new vaccines and as vectors for gene and cancer therapy. Substantial knowledge and understanding of adenoviruses at a molecular level has made their manipulation for use as vaccines and therapeutics relatively straightforward in comparison with other viral vectors. In this review we summarize the structure and life cycle of the adenovirus and focus on the use of adenovirus-based vectors in vaccines against infectious diseases and cancers. Strategies to overcome the problem of preexisting antiadenovirus immunity, which can hamper the immunogenicity of adenovirus-based vaccines, are discussed. When armed with tumor-associated antigens, replication-deficient and oncolytic adenoviruses can efficiently activate an antitumor immune response. We present concepts on how to use adenoviruses as therapeutic cancer vaccines and consider some of the strategies used to further improve antitumor immune responses. Studies that explore the prospect of adenoviruses as vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer are underway, and here we give an overview of the latest developments.

  1. n-Butyrate, a cell cycle blocker, inhibits the replication of polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses but not that of adenoviruses and herpesviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Shadan, F F; Cowsert, L M; Villarreal, L P

    1994-01-01

    Small DNA viruses are dependent on the interaction of early proteins (such as large T antigen) with host p53 and Rb to bring about the G1-to-S cell cycle transition. The large DNA viruses are less dependent on host regulatory genes since additional early viral proteins (such as viral DNA polymerase, DNA metabolic enzymes, and other replication proteins) are involved in DNA synthesis. A highly conserved domain of large T antigen (similar to the p53-binding region) exclusively identifies papovavirus, parvovirus, and papillomaviruses from all other larger DNA viruses and implies a conserved interaction with host regulatory genes. In this report, we show that 3 to 6 mM butyrate, a general cell cycle blocker implicated in inhibition of the G1-to-S transition, inhibits DNA replication of polyomavirus and human papillomavirus type 11 but not the replication of larger DNA viruses such as adenovirus types 2 and 5, herpes simplex virus type 1, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus, which all bypass the butyrate-mediated cell cycle block. This butyrate effect on polyomavirus replication is not cell type specific, nor does it depend on the p53 or Rb gene, as inhibition was seen in fibroblasts with intact or homozygous deleted p53 or Rb, 3T6 cells, keratinocytes, C2C12 myoblasts, and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, butyrate did not inhibit expression of polyomavirus T antigen. The antiviral effect of butyrate involves a form of imprinted state, since pretreatment of cells with 3 mM butyrate inhibits human papillomavirus type 11 DNA replication for at least 96 h after its removal. Butyrate, therefore, serves as a molecular tool in dissecting the life cycle of smaller DNA viruses from that of the larger DNA viruses in relation to the cell cycle. Images PMID:8035479

  2. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  3. Innate immunity to adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Greber, Urs F

    2014-04-01

    Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features.

  4. E4orf6 variants with separate abilities to augment adenovirus replication and direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kilodalton protein.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Joseph S; Ornelles, David A

    2002-02-01

    The E4orf6 protein of group C adenovirus is an oncoprotein that, in association with the E1B 55-kDa protein and by E1B-independent means, promotes virus replication. An arginine-faced amphipathic alpha-helix in the E4orf6 protein is required for the E4orf6 protein to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and to enhance replication of an E4 deletion virus. In this study, E4orf6 protein variants containing arginine substitutions in the amphipathic alpha-helix were analyzed. Two of the six arginine residues within the alpha-helix, arginine-241 and arginine-243, were critical for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein. The four remaining arginine residues appear to provide a net positive charge for the E4orf6 protein to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein. The molecular determinants of the arginine-faced amphipathic alpha-helix that were required for the functional interaction between the E4orf6 and E1B 55-kDa proteins seen in the transfected cell differed from those required to support a productive infection. Several E4orf6 protein variants with arginine-to-glutamic acid substitutions that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein restored replication of an E4 deletion virus. Additionally, a variant containing an arginine-to-alanine substitution at position 243 that directed nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance virus replication. These results indicate that the ability of the E4orf6 protein to relocalize the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus can be separated from the ability of the E4orf6 protein to support a productive infection.

  5. A pRb-responsive, RGD-modified, and Hyaluronidase-armed Canine Oncolytic Adenovirus for Application in Veterinary Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Laborda, Eduardo; Puig-Saus, Cristina; Rodriguez-García, Alba; Moreno, Rafael; Cascalló, Manel; Pastor, Josep; Alemany, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Human and canine cancer share similarities such as genetic and molecular aspects, biological complexity, tumor epidemiology, and targeted therapeutic treatment. Lack of good animal models for human adenovirotherapy has spurred the use of canine adenovirus 2-based oncolytic viruses. We have constructed a canine oncolytic virus that mimics the characteristics of our previously published human adenovirus ICOVIR17: expression of E1a controlled by E2F sites, deletion of the pRb-binding site of E1a, insertion of an RGD integrin-binding motif at the fiber Knob, and expression of hyaluronidase under the major late promoter/IIIa protein splicing acceptor control. Preclinical studies showed selectivity, increased cytotoxicity, and strong hyaluronidase activity. Intratumoral treatment of canine osteosarcoma and melanoma xenografts in mice resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival. Moreover, we treated six dogs with different tumor types, including one adenoma, two osteosarcomas, one mastocitoma, one fibrosarcoma, and one neuroendocrine hepatic carcinoma. No virus-associated adverse effects were observed, but toxicity associated to tumor lysis, including disseminated intravascular coagulation and systemic failure, was found in one case. Two partial responses and two stable diseases warrant additional clinical testing. PMID:24448161

  6. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E1B 55 kDa Protein Obstructs Inhibition of Viral Replication by Type I Interferon in Normal Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Jasdave S.; Qi, Ji; Flint, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Vectors derived from human adenovirus type 5, which typically lack the E1A and E1B genes, induce robust innate immune responses that limit their therapeutic efficacy. We reported previously that the E1B 55 kDa protein inhibits expression of a set of cellular genes that is highly enriched for those associated with anti-viral defense and immune responses, and includes many interferon-sensitive genes. The sensitivity of replication of E1B 55 kDa null-mutants to exogenous interferon (IFN) was therefore examined in normal human fibroblasts and respiratory epithelial cells. Yields of the mutants were reduced at least 500-fold, compared to only 5-fold, for wild-type (WT) virus replication. To investigate the mechanistic basis of such inhibition, the accumulation of viral early proteins and genomes was compared by immunoblotting and qPCR, respectively, in WT- and mutant-infected cells in the absence or presence of exogenous IFN. Both the concentration of viral genomes detected during the late phase and the numbers of viral replication centers formed were strongly reduced in IFN-treated cells in the absence of the E1B protein, despite production of similar quantities of viral replication proteins. These defects could not be attributed to degradation of entering viral genomes, induction of apoptosis, or failure to reorganize components of PML nuclear bodies. Nor was assembly of the E1B- and E4 Orf6 protein- E3 ubiquitin ligase required to prevent inhibition of viral replication by IFN. However, by using RT-PCR, the E1B 55 kDa protein was demonstrated to be a potent repressor of expression of IFN-inducible genes in IFN-treated cells. We propose that a primary function of the previously described transcriptional repression activity of the E1B 55 kDa protein is to block expression of IFN- inducible genes, and hence to facilitate formation of viral replication centers and genome replication. PMID:22912576

  7. Efficient detection of human circulating tumor cells without significant production of false-positive cells by a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Fuminori; Narii, Nobuhiro; Tomita, Kyoko; Togo, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Masashi; Ouchi, Masaaki; Katagiri, Nobuyoshi; Urata, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising biomarkers in several cancers, and thus methods and apparatuses for their detection and quantification in the blood have been actively pursued. A novel CTC detection system using a green fluorescence protein (GFP)–expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus (Ad) (rAd-GFP) was recently developed; however, there is concern about the production of false-positive cells (GFP-positive normal blood cells) when using rAd-GFP, particularly at high titers. In addition, CTCs lacking or expressing low levels of coxsackievirus–adenovirus receptor (CAR) cannot be detected by rAd-GFP, because rAd-GFP is constructed based on Ad serotype 5, which recognizes CAR. In order to suppress the production of false-positive cells, sequences perfectly complementary to blood cell–specific microRNA, miR-142-3p, were incorporated into the 3′-untranslated region of the E1B and GFP genes. In addition, the fiber protein was replaced with that of Ad serotype 35, which recognizes human CD46, creating rAdF35-142T-GFP. rAdF35-142T-GFP efficiently labeled not only CAR-positive tumor cells but also CAR-negative tumor cells with GFP. The numbers of false-positive cells were dramatically lower for rAdF35-142T-GFP than for rAd-GFP. CTCs in the blood of cancer patients were detected by rAdF35-142T-GFP with a large reduction in false-positive cells. PMID:26966699

  8. A Replication-Defective Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trivalent Vaccine Confers Complete Protection against Plague in Mice and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; Klages, Curtis; Erova, Tatiana E; Telepnev, Maxim; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Baze, Wallace B; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K; Lawrence, William S; Patrikeev, Igor; Peel, Jennifer E; Andersson, Jourdan A; Kozlova, Elena V; Tiner, Bethany L; Peterson, Johnny W; McWilliams, David; Patel, Snehal; Rothe, Eric; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no plague vaccine exists in the United States for human use. The capsular antigen (Caf1 or F1) and two type 3 secretion system (T3SS) components, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) and the needle protein YscF, represent protective antigens of Yersinia pestis We used a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) vector and constructed recombinant monovalent and trivalent vaccines (rAd5-LcrV and rAd5-YFV) that expressed either the codon-optimized lcrV or the fusion gene designated YFV (consisting of ycsF, caf1, and lcrV). Immunization of mice with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by either the intramuscular (i.m.) or the intranasal (i.n.) route provided protection superior to that with the monovalent rAd5-LcrV vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague when animals were challenged with Y. pestis CO92. Preexisting adenoviral immunity did not diminish the protective response, and the protection was always higher when mice were administered one i.n. dose of the trivalent vaccine (priming) followed by a single i.m. booster dose of the purified YFV antigen. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by the prime-boost strategy provided 100% protection against a stringent aerosol challenge dose of CO92 to animals that had preexisting adenoviral immunity. The vaccinated and challenged macaques had no signs of disease, and the invading pathogen rapidly cleared with no histopathological lesions. This is the first report showing the efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored trivalent vaccine against pneumonic plague in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. A Replication-Defective Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trivalent Vaccine Confers Complete Protection against Plague in Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kirtley, Michelle L.; Klages, Curtis; Erova, Tatiana E.; Telepnev, Maxim; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C.; Baze, Wallace B.; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Lawrence, William S.; Patrikeev, Igor; Peel, Jennifer E.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Tiner, Bethany L.; Peterson, Johnny W.; McWilliams, David; Patel, Snehal; Rothe, Eric; Motin, Vladimir L.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, no plague vaccine exists in the United States for human use. The capsular antigen (Caf1 or F1) and two type 3 secretion system (T3SS) components, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) and the needle protein YscF, represent protective antigens of Yersinia pestis. We used a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) vector and constructed recombinant monovalent and trivalent vaccines (rAd5-LcrV and rAd5-YFV) that expressed either the codon-optimized lcrV or the fusion gene designated YFV (consisting of ycsF, caf1, and lcrV). Immunization of mice with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by either the intramuscular (i.m.) or the intranasal (i.n.) route provided protection superior to that with the monovalent rAd5-LcrV vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague when animals were challenged with Y. pestis CO92. Preexisting adenoviral immunity did not diminish the protective response, and the protection was always higher when mice were administered one i.n. dose of the trivalent vaccine (priming) followed by a single i.m. booster dose of the purified YFV antigen. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by the prime-boost strategy provided 100% protection against a stringent aerosol challenge dose of CO92 to animals that had preexisting adenoviral immunity. The vaccinated and challenged macaques had no signs of disease, and the invading pathogen rapidly cleared with no histopathological lesions. This is the first report showing the efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored trivalent vaccine against pneumonic plague in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models. PMID:27170642

  10. Efficient detection of human circulating tumor cells without significant production of false-positive cells by a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Fuminori; Narii, Nobuhiro; Tomita, Kyoko; Togo, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Masashi; Ouchi, Masaaki; Katagiri, Nobuyoshi; Urata, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising biomarkers in several cancers, and thus methods and apparatuses for their detection and quantification in the blood have been actively pursued. A novel CTC detection system using a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus (Ad) (rAd-GFP) was recently developed; however, there is concern about the production of false-positive cells (GFP-positive normal blood cells) when using rAd-GFP, particularly at high titers. In addition, CTCs lacking or expressing low levels of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) cannot be detected by rAd-GFP, because rAd-GFP is constructed based on Ad serotype 5, which recognizes CAR. In order to suppress the production of false-positive cells, sequences perfectly complementary to blood cell-specific microRNA, miR-142-3p, were incorporated into the 3'-untranslated region of the E1B and GFP genes. In addition, the fiber protein was replaced with that of Ad serotype 35, which recognizes human CD46, creating rAdF35-142T-GFP. rAdF35-142T-GFP efficiently labeled not only CAR-positive tumor cells but also CAR-negative tumor cells with GFP. The numbers of false-positive cells were dramatically lower for rAdF35-142T-GFP than for rAd-GFP. CTCs in the blood of cancer patients were detected by rAdF35-142T-GFP with a large reduction in false-positive cells.

  11. Adenovirus vectors lacking virus-associated RNA expression enhance shRNA activity to suppress hepatitis C virus replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zheng; Shi, Guoli; Kondo, Saki; Ito, Masahiko; Maekawa, Aya; Suzuki, Mariko; Saito, Izumu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kanegae, Yumi

    2013-12-01

    First-generation adenovirus vectors (FG AdVs) expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) effectively downregulate the expressions of target genes. However, this vector, in fact, expresses not only the transgene product, but also virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs) that disturb cellular RNAi machinery. We have established a production method for VA-deleted AdVs lacking expression of VA RNAs. Here, we showed that the highest shRNA activity was obtained when the shRNA was inserted not at the popularly used E1 site, but at the E4 site. We then compared the activities of shRNAs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) expressed from VA-deleted AdVs or conventional AdVs. The VA-deleted AdVs inhibited HCV production much more efficiently. Therefore, VA-deleted AdVs were more effective than the currently used AdVs for shRNA downregulation, probably because of the lack of competition between VA RNAs and the shRNAs. These VA-deleted AdVs might enable more effective gene therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  12. Efficient antitumor effects of carrier cells loaded with a fiber-substituted conditionally replicating adenovirus on CAR-negative tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, K; Sakurai, F; Tomita, K; Katayama, K; Yamaguchi, T; Kawabata, K; Tagawa, M; Kawabata, M; Shirakawa, T; Mizuguchi, H

    2012-02-01

    Carrier cells delivering a conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd), which selectively replicates in tumor cells and induces tumor cell lysis, have promising potential for treatment of cancer because CRAd-loaded carrier cells evade inhibition by neutralizing anti-adenovirus (Ad) antibodies and because the carrier cells are locally retained at the injection point after local injection. A previous study by Hamada et al. demonstrated that carrier cells (CRAd-containing cell fragments derived from the carrier cells) are engulfed into the target cells, probably through a pathway independent of the primary receptor for Ad, the coxsackievirus and Ad receptor (CAR) (Mol Ther, 15: 1121-1128; 2007); however, it remains to be elucidated whether carrier cells infected with a conventional CRAd, which is composed of subgroup-C Ad serotype-5 (Ad5), mediate antitumor effects on CAR-negative cells. In order to examine whether carrier cells delivering a conventional CRAd (Carrier-F5) induce lysis of CAR-negative tumor cells, CAR-positive and CAR-negative tumor cells were incubated with Carrier-F5. Carrier-F5 mediated efficient killing of CAR-positive tumor cells; however, CAR-negative tumor cells were almost refractory to Carrier-F5. On the other hand, carrier cells loaded with a fiber-substituted CRAd containing fiber proteins of Ad serotype-35 (Ad35) (CRAd-F35), which binds to human CD46 for infection, showed efficient killing of both CAR-positive and CAR-negative tumor cells. Intra-tumoral injection of carrier cells loaded with CRAd-F35 (Carrier-F35) also resulted in efficient regression of both CAR-positive and CAR-negative tumors. These results demonstrated that the expression levels of receptors for Ad are an important factor for CRAd-loaded carrier cell-mediated cancer therapy, and that Carrier-F35 would have potential as a cancer treatment for not only CAR-positive tumors but also CAR-negative tumors.

  13. A Dual-Action Armed Replicating Adenovirus for the Treatment of Osteoblastic Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    America, 91, 8802–8806. 69417. Chartier , C., Degryse, E., Gantzer, M., Dieterle, A., Pavirani, A., 695& Mehtali, M. (1996). Efficient generation of...Biophysica Acta. 82847. Douglas, J. T., Rogers , B. E., Rosenfeld, M. E., Michael, S. I., 829Feng, M., & Curiel, D. T. (1996). Targeted gene delivery...by 830tropism-modified adenoviral vectors. Nature Biotechnology, 14, 8311574–1578. 83248. Dmitriev, I., Kashentseva, E., Rogers , B. E., Krasnykh, V

  14. A Dual-Action Armed Replicating Adenovirus for the Treatment of Osteoblastic Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 91, 8802-8806. 23 17. Chartier , C., Degryse, E., Gantzer, M., Dieterle, A., Pavirani, A., and Mehtali, M. (1996...47. Douglas, J. T., Rogers , B. E., Rosenfeld, M. E., Michael, S. I., Feng, M., and Curiel, D. T. (1996) Targeted gene delivery by tropism-modified...adenoviral vectors. Nat. Biotechnol. 14, 1574-1578. 48. Dmitriev, I., Kashentseva, E., Rogers , B. E., Krasnykh, V., and Curiel, D. T. (2000

  15. Temperature-sensitive initiation and elongation of adenovirus DNA replication in vitro with nuclear extracts from H5ts36-, H5ts149-, and H5ts125-infected HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, B G; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-01

    Adenovirus DNA replication was studied in vitro in nuclear extracts prepared from HeLa cells infected at the permissive temperature with H5ts125, H5ts36, or H5ts149, three DNA-negative mutants belonging to two different complementation groups. At the restrictive temperature, H5ts125 extracts, containing a thermolabile 72-kilodalton DNA-binding protein, enable the formation of an initiation complex between the 82-kilodalton terminal protein precursor (pTP) and dCTP, but further elongation of this complex is inhibited. Wild-type DNA-binding protein or a 47-kilodalton chymotryptic DNA-binding fragment can complement the mutant protein in the elongation reaction. No difference in heat inactivation was observed between wild-type extracts and H5ts36 or H5ts149 extracts when the replication of terminal XbaI fragments of adenovirus type 5 DNA-terminal protein complex was studied. In contrast, the formation of a pTP-dCMP initiation complex, as well as the partial elongation reaction up to nucleotide 26, were consistently more temperature sensitive in mutant extracts. The results suggest that the H5ts36/H5ts149 gene product is required for initiation of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication and that the 72-kilodalton DNA-binding protein functions early in elongation. Images PMID:6302326

  16. Enhanced anti-tumor activity by the combination of a conditionally replicating adenovirus mediated interleukin-24 and dacarbazine against melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guan; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhi-Ping; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Li-Jun; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2010-08-28

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most lethal and aggressive human malignancies. It is notoriously resistant to all of the current therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are the distinctive features that contribute to the malignancy of melanoma. Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been considered as the gold standard for melanoma treatment with a response rate of 15-20%. Unfortunately, the resistance to this chemotherapeutic agent occurs frequently. ZD55-IL-24 is a selective conditionally replicating adenovirus that can mediate the expression of interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene, which has a strong anti-tumor effect. In this study, we hypothesized that a combination of ZD55-IL-24-mediated gene virotherapy and chemotherapy using DTIC would produce an increased cytotoxicity against human melanoma cells in comparison with these agents alone. Our results showed that the combination of ZD55-IL-24 and DTIC significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity by more effectively inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells than either agent used alone without any overlapping toxicity against normal cells. This additive or synergistic effect of ZD55-IL-24 in combination with DTIC in killing human malignant melanoma cells implies a promising novel approach for melanoma therapy.

  17. Expression of the fusogenic p14 FAST protein from a replication-defective adenovirus vector does not provide a therapeutic benefit in an immunocompetent mouse model of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C M; Nash, L A; Del Papa, J; Poulin, K L; Falls, T; Bell, J C; Parks, R J

    2016-01-01

    When injected directly into a tumor mass, adenovirus (Ad) vectors only transduce cells immediately along the injection tract. Expression of fusogenic proteins from the Ad vector can lead to syncytium formation, which efficiently spreads the therapeutic effect. Fusogenic proteins can also cause cancer cell death directly, and enhance the release of exosome-like particles containing tumor-associated antigens, which boosts the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we have examined whether delivery of an early region 1 (E1)-deleted, replication-defective Ad vector encoding the reptilian reovirus p14 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein can provide therapeutic efficacy in an immunocompetent mouse tumor model. A high multiplicity of infection of AdFAST is required to induce cell fusion in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro, and FAST protein expression caused a modest reduction in cell membrane integrity and metabolic activity compared with cells infected with a control vector. Cells expressing FAST protein released significantly higher quantities of exosomes. In immunocompetent Balb/C mice harboring subcutaneous 4T1 tumors, AdFAST did not induce detectable cancer cell fusion, promote tumor regression or prolong mouse survival compared with untreated mice. This study suggests that in the context of the 4T1 model, Ad-mediated FAST protein expression did not elicit a therapeutic effect. PMID:27740615

  18. Tamoxifen-regulated adenoviral E1A chimeras for the control of tumor selective oncolytic adenovirus replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sipo, I; Wang, X; Hurtado Picó, A; Suckau, L; Weger, S; Poller, W; Fechner, H

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacological control is a desirable safety feature of oncolytic adenoviruses (oAdV). It has recently been shown that oAdV replication may be controlled by drug-dependent transcriptional regulation of E1A expression. Here, we present a novel concept that relies on tamoxifen-dependent regulation of E1A activity through functional linkage to the mutated hormone-binding domain of the murine estrogen receptor (Mer). Four different E1A-Mer chimeras (ME, EM, E(DeltaNLS)M, MEM) were constructed and inserted into the adenoviral genome under control of a lung-specific surfactant protein B promoter. The highest degree of regulation in vitro was seen for the corresponding oAdVs Ad.E(DeltaNLS)M and Ad.MEM, which exhibited an up to 100-fold higher oAdV replication in the presence as compared with the absence of 4-OH-tamoxifen. Moreover, destruction of nontarget cells was six- and 13-fold reduced for Ad.E(DeltaNLS)M and Ad.MEM, respectively, as compared with Ad.E. Further investigations supported tamoxifen-dependent regulation of Ad.E(DeltaNLS)M and Ad.MEM in vivo. Induction of Ad.E(DeltaNLS)M inhibited growth of H441 lung tumors as efficient as a control oAdV expressing E1A. E(DeltaNLS)M and the MEM chimeras can be easily inserted into a single vector genome, which extends their application to existing oAdVs and strongly facilitates in vivo application.

  19. The Repression Domain of the E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Participates in Countering Interferon-Induced Inhibition of Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Jasdave S.; Gallagher, Courtney; DeHart, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    To begin to investigate the mechanism by which the human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55-kDa protein protects against the antiviral effects of type 1 interferon (IFN) (J. S. Chahal, J. Qi, and S. J. Flint, PLoS Pathog. 8:e1002853, 2012 [doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002853]), we examined the effects of precise amino acid substitution in this protein on resistance of viral replication to the cytokine. Only substitution of residues 443 to 448 of E1B for alanine (E1B Sub19) specifically impaired production of progeny virus and resulted in a large defect in viral DNA synthesis in IFN-treated normal human fibroblasts. Untreated or IFN-treated cells infected by this mutant virus (AdEasyE1Sub19) contained much higher steady-state concentrations of IFN-inducible GBP1 and IFIT2 mRNAs than did wild-type-infected cells and of the corresponding newly transcribed pre-mRNAs, isolated exploiting 5′-ethynyluridine labeling and click chemistry. These results indicated that the mutations created by substitution of residues 443 to 448 for alanine (Sub19) impair repression of transcription of IFN-inducible genes, by the E1B, 55-kDa protein, consistent with their location in a segment required for repression of p53-dependent transcription. However, when synthesized alone, the E1B 55-kDa protein inhibited expression of the p53-regulated genes BAX and MDM2 but had no impact whatsoever on induction of IFIT2 and GBP1 expression by IFN. These observations correlate repression of transcription of IFN-inducible genes by the E1B 55-kDa protein with protection against inhibition of viral genome replication and indicate that the E1B 55-kDa protein is not sufficient to establish such transcriptional repression. PMID:23388716

  20. The repression domain of the E1B 55-kilodalton protein participates in countering interferon-induced inhibition of adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Jasdave S; Gallagher, Courtney; DeHart, Caroline J; Flint, S J

    2013-04-01

    To begin to investigate the mechanism by which the human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55-kDa protein protects against the antiviral effects of type 1 interferon (IFN) (J. S. Chahal, J. Qi, and S. J. Flint, PLoS Pathog. 8:e1002853, 2012 [doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002853]), we examined the effects of precise amino acid substitution in this protein on resistance of viral replication to the cytokine. Only substitution of residues 443 to 448 of E1B for alanine (E1B Sub19) specifically impaired production of progeny virus and resulted in a large defect in viral DNA synthesis in IFN-treated normal human fibroblasts. Untreated or IFN-treated cells infected by this mutant virus (AdEasyE1Sub19) contained much higher steady-state concentrations of IFN-inducible GBP1 and IFIT2 mRNAs than did wild-type-infected cells and of the corresponding newly transcribed pre-mRNAs, isolated exploiting 5'-ethynyluridine labeling and click chemistry. These results indicated that the mutations created by substitution of residues 443 to 448 for alanine (Sub19) impair repression of transcription of IFN-inducible genes, by the E1B, 55-kDa protein, consistent with their location in a segment required for repression of p53-dependent transcription. However, when synthesized alone, the E1B 55-kDa protein inhibited expression of the p53-regulated genes BAX and MDM2 but had no impact whatsoever on induction of IFIT2 and GBP1 expression by IFN. These observations correlate repression of transcription of IFN-inducible genes by the E1B 55-kDa protein with protection against inhibition of viral genome replication and indicate that the E1B 55-kDa protein is not sufficient to establish such transcriptional repression.

  1. E4orf6 Variants with Separate Abilities To Augment Adenovirus Replication and Direct Nuclear Localization of the E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Joseph S.; Ornelles, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The E4orf6 protein of group C adenovirus is an oncoprotein that, in association with the E1B 55-kDa protein and by E1B-independent means, promotes virus replication. An arginine-faced amphipathic α-helix in the E4orf6 protein is required for the E4orf6 protein to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and to enhance replication of an E4 deletion virus. In this study, E4orf6 protein variants containing arginine substitutions in the amphipathic α-helix were analyzed. Two of the six arginine residues within the α-helix, arginine-241 and arginine-243, were critical for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein. The four remaining arginine residues appear to provide a net positive charge for the E4orf6 protein to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein. The molecular determinants of the arginine-faced amphipathic α-helix that were required for the functional interaction between the E4orf6 and E1B 55-kDa proteins seen in the transfected cell differed from those required to support a productive infection. Several E4orf6 protein variants with arginine-to-glutamic acid substitutions that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein restored replication of an E4 deletion virus. Additionally, a variant containing an arginine-to-alanine substitution at position 243 that directed nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance virus replication. These results indicate that the ability of the E4orf6 protein to relocalize the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus can be separated from the ability of the E4orf6 protein to support a productive infection. PMID:11773420

  2. Overexpression of the Adenovirus Type 12 (Ad12) pTP or E1A Gene Facilitates Ad12 DNA Replication in Nonpermissive BHK21 Hamster Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hösel, Marianna; Webb, Dennis; Schröer, Jörg; Schmitz, Birgit; Doerfler, Walter

    2001-01-01

    In the adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) hamster cell system, abortive virus infection is one of the factors associated with the highly efficient oncogenesis in newborn Syrian hamsters. We have shown earlier that the replication and efficient late transcription of the Ad12 genome are blocked in Syrian hamster cells. Some of the early Ad12 functions are transcribed in these cells, although at a minimal rate. In the present study, we demonstrate that low expression levels of the E1A and precursor to terminal protein (pTP) genes of Ad12 seem to be responsible for the lack of Ad12 DNA replication in hamster cells. The Ad12 genes for the E1A functions or for pTP were tethered to the strong early promoter of the human cytomegalovirus and transfected into BHK21 cells. Subsequently, these cells were infected with Ad12 virions. In Ad12-infected BHK21 cells, which overexpressed pTP or E1A, full-length Ad12 DNA was de novo synthesized, as documented by metabolic labeling with [3H]thymidine and by zone velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients followed by gel electrophoresis of the 3H-labeled DNA and Southern blot hybridization to 32P-labeled Ad12 DNA. Transfection of the cloned E1A region of Ad2 yielded similar results. The newly synthesized Ad12 DNA was covalently linked to pTP. The Ad12 DNA binding protein (DBP) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes were transcribed at levels similar to those in merely Ad12-infected cells. In pTP or E1A gene-transfected and Ad12-infected BHK21 cells, marginal levels of late Ad12 mRNA were detectable. Late Ad12 proteins were, however, not synthesized. Apparently, Ad12 DNA replication in hamster cells is rendered impossible due to insufficient threshold levels of the viral E1A and/or pTP. PMID:11581373

  3. Adenovirus Early Proteins and Host Sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sook-Young

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human adenovirus genome is transported into the nucleus, where viral gene transcription, viral DNA replication, and virion assembly take place. Posttranslational modifications by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, particularly nuclear events. It is not surprising, therefore, that adenovirus modulates and utilizes the host sumoylation system. Adenovirus early proteins play an important role in establishing optimal host environments for virus replication within infected cells by stimulating the cell cycle and counteracting host antiviral defenses. Here, we review findings on the mechanisms and functional consequences of the interplay between human adenovirus early proteins and the host sumoylation system. PMID:27651358

  4. Waterborne adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2009-01-01

    Adenoviruses are associated with numerous disease outbreaks, particularly those involving d-cares, schools, children's camps, hospitals and other health care centers, and military settings. In addition, adenoviruses have been responsible for many recreational water outbreaks, including a great number of swimming pool outbreaks than any other waterborne virus (Gerba and Enriquez 1997). Two drinking water outbreaks have been documented for adenovirus (Divizia et al. 2004; Kukkula et al. 1997) but none for food. Of the 51 known adenovirus serotypes, one third are associated with human disease, while other infections are asymptomatic. Human disease associated with adenovirus infections include gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, eye infections, acute hemorrhagic cystitis, and meningoencephalitis (Table 2). Children and the immunocompromised are more severely impacted by adenovirus infections. Subsequently, adenovirus is included in the EPA's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), which is a list of unregulated contaminants found in public water systems that may pose a risk to public health (National Research Council 1999). Adenoviruses have been detected in various waters worldwide including wastewater, river water, oceans, and swimming pools (Hurst et al. 1988; Irving and Smith 1981; Pina et al. 1998). Adenoviruses typically outnumber the enteroviruses, when both are detected in surface waters. Chapron et al. (2000) found that 38% of 29 surface water samples were positive for infectious Ad40 and Ad41. Data are lacking regarding the occurrence of adenovirus in water in the US, particularly for groundwater and drinking water. Studies have shown, however, that adenoviruses survive longer in water than enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus (Enriquez et al. 1995), which may be due to their double-stranded DNA. Risk assessments have been conducted on waterborne adenovirus (Crabtree et al. 1997; van Heerden et al. 2005c). Using dose-response data for inhalation

  5. Immune responses induced by replication-defective adenovirus expressing the C-terminal portion of the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin.

    PubMed

    Okamba, F R; Moreau, E; Cheikh Saad Bouh, K; Gagnon, C A; Massie, B; Arella, M

    2007-06-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, colonizes the respiratory cilia of affected swine, causing significant economic losses to swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of this disease. The goal of this study was to design and evaluate a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus, rAdP97c, expressing the C-terminal portion of P97 adhesin (P97c), an important pathogenesis-associated protein of M. hyopneumoniae, as a new vaccine candidate against M. hyopneumoniae infection. P97c-specific immune responses were evaluated in BALB/c mice following intranasal and intramuscular inoculation with rAdP97c. Mice inoculated by both routes of immunization produced significant levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALs). Animals immunized intranasally also produced a significant level of P97c-specific IgA in BALs. Intramuscular inoculation of rAdP97c induced a systemic and mucosal Th1-type biased response, evidenced by the predominance of IgG2a in the serum and BALs, whereas intranasal inoculation resulted in a mixed Th1/Th2-type response (balanced levels of IgG1 and IgG2a) in both sytemic and mucosal compartments. P97c-specific antibodies were able to inhibit the growth of M. hyopneumoniae cells in vitro. These data suggest that rAdP97c vaccine may represent a new strategy for controlling infection by M. hyopneumoniae.

  6. Pre-Clinical Development of a Recombinant, Replication-Competent Adenovirus Serotype 4 Vector Vaccine Expressing HIV-1 Envelope 1086 Clade C

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeff; Mendy, Jason; Vang, Lo; Avanzini, Jenny B.; Garduno, Fermin; Manayani, Darly J.; Ishioka, Glenn; Farness, Peggy; Ping, Li-Hua; Swanstrom, Ronald; Parks, Robert; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia; Smith, Jonathan; Gurwith, Marc; Mayall, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a well-acknowledged need for an effective AIDS vaccine that protects against HIV-1 infection or limits in vivo viral replication. The objective of these studies is to develop a replication-competent, vaccine vector based on the adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4) virus expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env) 1086 clade C glycoprotein. Ad4 recombinant vectors expressing Env gp160 (Ad4Env160), Env gp140 (Ad4Env140), and Env gp120 (Ad4Env120) were evaluated. Methods The recombinant Ad4 vectors were generated with a full deletion of the E3 region of Ad4 to accommodate the env gene sequences. The vaccine candidates were assessed in vitro following infection of A549 cells for Env-specific protein expression and for posttranslational transport to the cell surface as monitored by the binding of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The capacity of the Ad4Env vaccines to induce humoral immunity was evaluated in rabbits for Env gp140 and V1V2-specific binding antibodies, and HIV-1 pseudovirus neutralization. Mice immunized with the Ad4Env160 vaccine were assessed for IFNγ T cell responses specific for overlapping Env peptide sets. Results Robust Env protein expression was confirmed by western blot analysis and recognition of cell surface Env gp160 by multiple bNAbs. Ad4Env vaccines induced humoral immune responses in rabbits that recognized Env 1086 gp140 and V1V2 polypeptide sequences derived from 1086 clade C, A244 clade AE, and gp70 V1V2 CASE A2 clade B fusion protein. The immune sera efficiently neutralized tier 1 clade C pseudovirus MW965.26 and neutralized the homologous and heterologous tier 2 pseudoviruses to a lesser extent. Env-specific T cell responses were also induced in mice following Ad4Env160 vector immunization. Conclusions The Ad4Env vaccine vectors express high levels of Env glycoprotein and induce both Env-specific humoral and cellular immunity thus supporting further development of this new Ad4 HIV-1 Env vaccine platform in Phase 1 clinical

  7. Armed Oncolytic Adenovirus-Expressing PD-L1 Mini-Body Enhances Antitumor Effects of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Kiyonori; Rosewell Shaw, Amanda; Watanabe, Norihiro; Porter, Caroline; Rana, Bhakti; Gottschalk, Stephen; Brenner, Malcolm; Suzuki, Masataka

    2017-04-15

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR T cells) produce proinflammatory cytokines that increase expression of T-cell checkpoint signals such as PD-L1, which may inhibit their functionality against solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated in human tumor xenograft models the proinflammatory properties of an oncolytic adenovirus (Onc.Ad) with a helper-dependent Ad (HDAd) that expresses a PD-L1 blocking mini-antibody (mini-body; HDPDL1) as a strategy to enhance CAR T-cell killing. Coadministration of these agents (CAd-VECPDL1) exhibited oncolytic effects with production of PD-L1 mini-body locally at the tumor site. On their own, HDPDL1 exhibited no antitumor effect and CAd-VECPDL1 alone reduced tumors only to volumes comparable to Onc.Ad treatment. However, combining CAd-VECPDL1 with HER2.CAR T cells enhanced antitumor activity compared with treatment with either HER2.CAR T cells alone or HER2.CAR T cells plus Onc.Ad. The benefits of locally produced PD-L1 mini-body by CAd-VECPDL1 could not be replicated by infusion of anti-PD-L1 IgG plus HER2.CAR T cells and coadministration of Onc.Ad in an HER2(+) prostate cancer xenograft model. Overall, our data document the superiority of local production of PD-L1 mini-body by CAd-VECPDL1 combined with administration of tumor-directed CAR T cells to control the growth of solid tumors. Cancer Res; 77(8); 2040-51. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Identification of the Adenovirus E4orf4 Protein Binding Site on the B55α and Cdc55 Regulatory Subunits of PP2A: Implications for PP2A Function, Tumor Cell Killing and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Melissa Z.; Kucharski, Michael; Miron, Marie-Joëlle; Hur, Woosuk Steve; Berghuis, Albert M.; Blanchette, Paola; Branton, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus E4orf4 protein induces the death of human cancer cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Binding of E4orf4 to the B/B55/Cdc55 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required, and such binding inhibits PP2AB55 activity leading to dose-dependent cell death. We found that E4orf4 binds across the putative substrate binding groove predicted from the crystal structure of B55α such that the substrate p107 can no longer interact with PP2AB55α. We propose that E4orf4 inhibits PP2AB55 activity by preventing access of substrates and that at high E4orf4 levels this inhibition results in cell death through the failure to dephosphorylate substrates required for cell cycle progression. However, E4orf4 is expressed at much lower and less toxic levels during a normal adenovirus infection. We suggest that in this context E4orf4 largely serves to recruit novel substrates such as ASF/SF2/SRSF1 to PP2AB55 to enhance adenovirus replication. Thus E4orf4 toxicity probably represents an artifact of overexpression and does not reflect the evolutionary function of this viral product. PMID:24244166

  9. A Regulatory Element Near the 3′ End of the Adeno-Associated Virus rep Gene Inhibits Adenovirus Replication in cis by Means of p40 Promoter-Associated Short Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Eva; Gonsior, Melanie; Stutika, Catrin; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has long been known to inhibit helper adenovirus (Ad) replication independently of AAV Rep protein expression. More recently, replication of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5)/AAV serotype 2 (AAV-2) hybrid vectors was shown to be inhibited in cis by a sequence near the 3′ end of AAV rep, termed the Rep inhibition sequence for adenoviral replication (RIS-Ad). RIS-Ad functions independently of Rep protein expression. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of adenoviral replication by RIS-Ad requires an active AAV p40 promoter and the 5′ half of the intron. In addition, Ad inhibition is critically dependent on the integrity of the p40 transcription start site (TSS) leading to short p40-associated transcripts. These do not give rise to effector molecules capable of inhibiting adenoviral replication in trans, like small polypeptides or microRNAs. Our data point to an inhibitory mechanism in which RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pauses directly downstream of the p40 promoter, leading to interference of the stalled Pol II transcription complex with the adenoviral replication machinery. Whereas inhibition by RIS-Ad is mediated exclusively in cis, it can be overcome by providing a replication-competent adenoviral genome in trans. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of RIS-Ad is not limited to AAV-2 but could also be shown for the corresponding regions of other AAV serotypes, including AAV-5. These findings have important implications for the future generation of Ad5/AAV hybrid vectors. IMPORTANCE Insertion of sequences from the 3′ part of the rep gene of adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the genome of its helper adenovirus strongly reduces adenoviral genome replication. We could show that this inhibition is mediated exclusively in cis without the involvement of trans-acting regulatory RNAs or polypeptides but nevertheless requires an active AAV-2 p40 promoter and p40-associated short transcripts. Our results suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism that has so

  10. Nuclear actin and myosins in adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host's transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian carcinomatosis using a replication-selective vaccinia virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase gene.

    PubMed

    Chalikonda, S; Kivlen, M H; O'Malley, M E; Eric Dong, X D; McCart, J A; Gorry, M C; Yin, X-Y; Brown, C K; Zeh, H J; Guo, Z S; Bartlett, D L

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the ability of a highly tumor-selective oncolytic vaccinia virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase gene to infect and lyse human and murine ovarian tumors both in vitro and in vivo. The virus vvDD-CD could infect, replicate in and effectively lyse both human and mouse ovarian cancer cells in vitro. In two different treatment schedules involving either murine MOSEC or human A2780 ovarian carcinomatosis models, regional delivery of vvDD-CD selectively targeted tumor cells and ovarian tissue, effectively delaying the development of either tumor or ascites and leading to significant survival advantages. Oncolytic virotherapy using vvDD-CD in combination with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine conferred an additional long-term survival advantage upon tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice. These findings demonstrate that a tumor-selective oncolytic vaccinia combined with gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a highly effective strategy for treating advanced ovarian cancers in both syngeneic mouse and human xenograft models. Given the biological safety, tumor selectivity and oncolytic potency of this armed oncolytic virus, this dual therapy merits further investigation as a promising new treatment for metastatic ovarian cancer.

  12. Anti-cancer effect of oncolytic adenovirus-armed shRNA targeting MYCN gene on doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zhuo, Baobiao; Yin, Yiyu; Han, Tao; Li, Shixian; Li, Zhengwei; Wang, Jian

    2017-09-09

    Chemotherapy is one of the few effective choices for patients with neuroblastoma. However, the development of muti-drug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy is a major obstacle to the effective treatment of advanced or recurrent neuroblastoma. The muti-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP), which encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein, is a key regulator of MDR. The expression of MRP is a close correlation with MYCN oncogene in neuroblastoma. We have recently shown ZD55-shMYCN (oncolytic virus armed with shRNA against MYCN) can down-regulate MYCN to inhibit tumor cells proliferation and induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Here we further report ZD55-shMYCN re-sensitized doxorubicin-resistant cells to doxorubicin (as shown by reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and inhibited cell migration), and reduced the in vivo growth rate of neuroblastoma xenografts by down-regulation of MRP expression. Sequential therapy with doxorubicin did not affect the replication of ZD55-shMYCN in doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma cells, but decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, MMP-1. Thus, this synergistic effect of ZD55-shMYCN in combination with doxorubicin provides a novel therapy strategy for doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma, and is a promising approach for further clinical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-expression of Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus completely protects pigs against virulent challenge with classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongke; Yang, Yuai; Zheng, Huanli; Xi, Dongmei; Lin, Mingxing; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yang, Linfu; Yan, Yulin; Chu, Xiaohui; Bi, Baoliang

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant adenovirus for future CSFV vaccines used in the pig industry for the reduction of losses involved in CSF outbreaks. The Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which encode the two main protective glycoproteins from the "Shimen" strain of CSFV, were combined and inserted into the replication-defective human adenovirus type-5 and named the rAd-Erns-E2. Nine pigs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (three pigs in each group) including the rAd-Erns-E2, hAd-CMV control and DMEM control. Intramuscular vaccination with 2×10(6) TCID(50) of the rAd-Erns-E2 was administered two times with an interval of 21 days. At 42 days post inoculation, pigs in all groups were challenged with a lethal dose of 1×10(3) TCID(50) CSFV "Shimen" strain. Observation of clinical signs was made and the existence of CSFV RNA was detected. Animals in the hAd-CMV and DMEM groups showed severe clinical CSF symptoms and were euthanized from 7 to 10 days after the challenge. However, no adverse clinical CSF signs were observed in vaccinated pigs after the administration of rAd-Erns-E2 and even after CSFV challenge. Neither CSFV RNA nor pathological changes were detected in the tissues of interest of the above vaccinated pigs. These results implied that the recombination adenovirus carrying the Erns-E2 genes could be used to prevent swine from classical swine fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control.

  15. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  16. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  17. Adenovirus structure.

    PubMed

    Rux, John J; Burnett, Roger M

    2004-12-01

    Structural studies continue to play an essential role as the focus of adenovirus research shifts in emphasis from basic biology to adenovirus-based vector technologies. A crucial step in developing novel therapeutics for gene replacement, cancer, and vaccines is often to modify the virion. Such engineered changes are designed to retarget the virus, or to reduce the immunological responses to infection. These efforts are far more effective when they are based on detailed structural knowledge. This minireview provides a brief summary of the wealth of information that has been obtained from the combined application of X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. This knowledge now includes a good working model for the architectural organization of the virion, and atomic resolution molecular structures for all the major capsid proteins, hexon, penton, and fiber. We highlight new developments, which include the structure of the penton base and the discovery that adenovirus has several relatives. We sketch how the structural information can be used to engineer novel virions and conclude with the prospects for future progress.

  18. Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-Kilodalton Proteins in Cell Cycle-Independent Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Goodrum, Felicia D.; Ornelles, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Adenoviruses bearing lesions in the E1B 55-kDa protein (E1B 55-kDa) gene are restricted by the cell cycle such that mutant virus growth is most impaired in cells infected during G1 and least restricted in cells infected during S phase (F. D. Goodrum and D. A. Ornelles, J. Virol. 71:548–561, 1997). A similar defect is reported here for E4 orf6-mutant viruses. An E4 orf3-mutant virus was not restricted for growth by the cell cycle. However, orf3 was required for enhanced growth of an E4 orf6-mutant virus in cells infected during S phase. The cell cycle restriction may be linked to virus-mediated mRNA transport because both E1B 55-kDa- and E4 orf6-mutant viruses are defective at regulating mRNA transport at late times of infection. Accordingly, the cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of late viral mRNA was reduced in G1 cells infected with the mutant viruses compared to that in G1 cells infected with the wild-type virus. By contrast, this ratio was equivalent among cells infected during S phase with the wild-type or mutant viruses. Furthermore, cells infected during S phase with the E1B 55-kDa- or E4 orf6-mutant viruses synthesized more late viral protein than did cells infected during G1. However, the total amount of cytoplasmic late viral mRNA was greater in cells infected during G1 than in cells infected during S phase with either the wild-type or mutant viruses, indicating that enhanced transport of viral mRNA in cells infected during S phase cannot account for the difference in yields in cells infected during S phase and in cells infected during G1. Thus, additional factors affect the cell cycle restriction. These results indicate that the E4 orf6 and orf3 proteins, in addition to the E1B 55-kDa protein, may cooperate to promote cell cycle-independent adenovirus growth. PMID:10438837

  19. Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, F D; Ornelles, D A

    1999-09-01

    Adenoviruses bearing lesions in the E1B 55-kDa protein (E1B 55-kDa) gene are restricted by the cell cycle such that mutant virus growth is most impaired in cells infected during G(1) and least restricted in cells infected during S phase (F. D. Goodrum and D. A. Ornelles, J. Virol. 71:548-561, 1997). A similar defect is reported here for E4 orf6-mutant viruses. An E4 orf3-mutant virus was not restricted for growth by the cell cycle. However, orf3 was required for enhanced growth of an E4 orf6-mutant virus in cells infected during S phase. The cell cycle restriction may be linked to virus-mediated mRNA transport because both E1B 55-kDa- and E4 orf6-mutant viruses are defective at regulating mRNA transport at late times of infection. Accordingly, the cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of late viral mRNA was reduced in G(1) cells infected with the mutant viruses compared to that in G(1) cells infected with the wild-type virus. By contrast, this ratio was equivalent among cells infected during S phase with the wild-type or mutant viruses. Furthermore, cells infected during S phase with the E1B 55-kDa- or E4 orf6-mutant viruses synthesized more late viral protein than did cells infected during G(1). However, the total amount of cytoplasmic late viral mRNA was greater in cells infected during G(1) than in cells infected during S phase with either the wild-type or mutant viruses, indicating that enhanced transport of viral mRNA in cells infected during S phase cannot account for the difference in yields in cells infected during S phase and in cells infected during G(1). Thus, additional factors affect the cell cycle restriction. These results indicate that the E4 orf6 and orf3 proteins, in addition to the E1B 55-kDa protein, may cooperate to promote cell cycle-independent adenovirus growth.

  20. Non-replicating adenovirus vectors expressing avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid proteins induce chicken specific effector, memory and effector memory CD8+ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailbala; Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-Chu; Briles, Worthie E.; Yates, Linda M.; Kopulos, Renee T.; Collisson, Ellen W.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses stimulated by intramuscular administration of an adenovirus (Ad) vector expressing either HA or NP were evaluated in chickens following ex vivo stimulation by non-professional antigen presenting cells. The CD8+ T lymphocyte responses were AIV specific, MHC-I restricted, and cross-reacted with heterologousH7N2 AIV strain. Specific effector responses, at 10 days post-inoculation (p.i.), were undetectable at 2 weeks p.i., and memory responses were detected from 3 to 8 weeks p.i. Effector memory responses, detected 1 week following a booster inoculation, were significantly greater than the primary responses and, within 7 days, declined to undetectable levels. Inoculation of an Ad-vector expressing human NP resulted in significantly greater MHC restricted, activation of CD8+ T cell responses specific for AIV. Decreases in all responses with time were most dramatic with maximum activation of T cells as observed following effector and effector memory responses. PMID:20557918

  1. Synergistic suppression effect on tumor growth of ovarian cancer by combining cisplatin with a manganese superoxide dismutase-armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shibing; Shu, Jing; Chen, Li; Chen, Xiaopan; Zhao, Jianhong; Li, Shuangshuang; Mou, Xiaozhou; Tong, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy on the basis of oncolytic adenovirus is a novel approach for human cancer therapeutics. We aim to investigate whether it will synergistically reinforce their antiovarian cancer activities when the combined use of ZD55-manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and cisplatin was performed. The experiments in vitro showed that ZD55-MnSOD enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis and causes remarkable ovarian cancer cell death. Apoptosis induction by treatment with ZD55-MnSOD and/or cisplatin was detected in SKOV-3 by apoptotic cell staining, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis. In addition, the cytotoxicity caused by ZD55-MnSOD to normal cells was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay and western blot analysis. Animal experiment further confirmed that combination of ZD55-MnSOD and cisplatin achieved significant inhibition of SKOV-3 ovarian tumor xenografted growth. In summary, we have demonstrated that ZD55-MnSOD can sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cell death and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate that the combined treatment with ZD55-MnSOD and cisplatin could represent a rational approach for antiovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27799786

  2. The HDAC inhibitor FK228 enhances adenoviral transgene expression by a transduction-independent mechanism but does not increase adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Angelika; Dzojic, Helena; Rashkova, Victoria; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Essand, Magnus

    2011-02-17

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor FK228 has previously been shown to enhance adenoviral transgene expression when cells are pre-incubated with the drug. Upregulation of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR), leading to increased viral transduction, has been proposed as the main mechanism. In the present study, we found that the highest increase in transgene expression was achieved when non-toxic concentrations of FK228 were added immediately after transduction, demonstrating that the main effect by which FK228 enhances transgene expression is transduction-independent. FK228 had positive effects both on Ad5 and Ad5/f35 vectors with a variety of transgenes and promoters, indicating that FK228 works mainly by increasing transgene expression at the transcriptional level. In some cases, the effects were dramatic, as demonstrated by an increase in CD40L expression by FK228 from 0.3% to 62% when the murine prostate cancer cell line TRAMP-C2 was transduced with Ad[CD40L]. One unexpected finding was that FK228 decreased the transgene expression of an adenoviral vector with the prostate cell-specific PPT promoter in the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-346C. This is probably a consequence of alteration of the adenocarcinoma cell lines towards a neuroendocrine differentiation after FK228 treatment. The observations in this study indicate that FK228 enhances adenoviral therapy by a transduction-independent mechanism. Furthermore, since histone deacetylase inhibitors may affect the differentiation of cells, it is important to keep in mind that the activity and specificity of tissue- and tumor-specific promoters may also be affected.

  3. The HDAC Inhibitor FK228 Enhances Adenoviral Transgene Expression by a Transduction-Independent Mechanism but Does Not Increase Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Angelika; Dzojic, Helena; Rashkova, Victoria; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Essand, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor FK228 has previously been shown to enhance adenoviral transgene expression when cells are pre-incubated with the drug. Upregulation of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR), leading to increased viral transduction, has been proposed as the main mechanism. In the present study, we found that the highest increase in transgene expression was achieved when non-toxic concentrations of FK228 were added immediately after transduction, demonstrating that the main effect by which FK228 enhances transgene expression is transduction-independent. FK228 had positive effects both on Ad5 and Ad5/f35 vectors with a variety of transgenes and promoters, indicating that FK228 works mainly by increasing transgene expression at the transcriptional level. In some cases, the effects were dramatic, as demonstrated by an increase in CD40L expression by FK228 from 0.3% to 62% when the murine prostate cancer cell line TRAMP-C2 was transduced with Ad[CD40L]. One unexpected finding was that FK228 decreased the transgene expression of an adenoviral vector with the prostate cell-specific PPT promoter in the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-346C. This is probably a consequence of alteration of the adenocarcinoma cell lines towards a neuroendocrine differentiation after FK228 treatment. The observations in this study indicate that FK228 enhances adenoviral therapy by a transduction-independent mechanism. Furthermore, since histone deacetylase inhibitors may affect the differentiation of cells, it is important to keep in mind that the activity and specificity of tissue- and tumor-specific promoters may also be affected. PMID:21379379

  4. A modified hTERT Promoter-directed Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication with Concurrent Inhibition of TGFβ Signaling for Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zebin; Robbins, John S.; Pister, Amanda; Zafar, M. Behzad; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Gupta, Janhavi; Lee, K. Jessica; Neuman, Kam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Guise, Theresa; Seth, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Our laboratory is interested to develop oncolytic adenoviral vectors that can be administered systemically for the treatment of breast cancer. To restrict viral replication in breast tumor cells, we have constructed mhTERTAd.sTβRFc, a 01/07 based adenoviral vector expressing the soluble form of TGFβ receptor II fused with human Fc IgG1 (sTGFβRIIFc) gene, in which viral replication is under the control of modified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (mhTERT) promoter. In addition, mhTERTAd.sTβRFc-mediated sTGFβRIIFc production would target growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway known to contribute to the tumor progression breast cancer metastasis. We chose to use mhTERT promoter because it was found to be relatively more active (approximately 20-times) in breast cancer cells compared to normal human cells. We showed that infection of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells for 48 hrs with mhTERTAd.sTβRFc produced high levels of sTGFβRIIFc (greater than 1 μg/ml) in the medium. Breast cancer cells produced nearly 6,000-fold increase in the viral titers during 48 hrs infection period. However, mhTERTAd.sTβRFc replication was attenuated in normal cells. Infection of breast cancer cells with a replication deficient virus Ad(E1-).sTβRFc also produced high levels of sTGFβRIIFc, but under these conditions no detectable viral replication was observed. Adenoviral-mediated production of sTGFβRIIFc was shown to bind with TGFβ-1, and abolished the effects of TGFβ-1 on downstream SMAD-3 phosphorylation. The administration of mhTERTAd.sTβRFc intravenously into MDA-MB-231 human xenograft bearing mice resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth, and production of sTGFβRIIFc in the blood. On the other hand, intravenous injection of Ad(E1-).sTβRFc did not exhibit significant inhibition of the tumor growth, but resulted in the sTGFβRIIFc in the blood, suggesting that viral replication along with sTGFβRIIFc protein production play a critical role in inducing

  5. A modified hTERT promoter-directed oncolytic adenovirus replication with concurrent inhibition of TGFbeta signaling for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Robbins, J S; Pister, A; Zafar, M B; Zhang, Z-W; Gupta, J; Lee, K J; Newman, K; Neuman, K; Yun, C-O; Guise, T; Seth, P

    2010-04-01

    We were interested in developing oncolytic adenoviral vectors that can be administered systemically for the treatment of breast cancer. To restrict viral replication in breast tumor cells, we constructed mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc, a 01/07-based adenoviral vector expressing the soluble form of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) receptor II fused with the human Fc IgG1 (sTGFbetaRIIFc) gene, in which viral replication is under the control of a modified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (mhTERT) promoter. In addition, mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc-mediated sTGFbetaRIIFc production targets the TGFbeta pathway known to contribute to the tumor progression of breast cancer metastasis. We chose to use the mhTERT promoter because it was found to be relatively more active (approximately 20 times) in breast cancer cells compared with normal human cells. We showed that infection of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells for 48 h with mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc produced high levels of sTGFbetaRIIFc (greater than 1 microg ml(-1)) in the medium. Breast cancer cells produced nearly a 6000-fold increase in viral titers during the 48 h infection period. However, mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc replication was attenuated in normal cells. Infection of breast cancer cells with a replication-deficient virus Ad(E1(-)).sTbetaRFc also produced high levels of sTGFbetaRIIFc, but under these conditions, no detectable viral replication was observed. Adenoviral-mediated production of sTGFbetaRIIFc was shown to bind with TGFbeta-1, and to abolish the effects of TGFbeta-1 on downstream SMAD-3 phosphorylation. The administration of mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc intravenously into MDA-MB-231 human xenograft-bearing mice resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth and production of sTGFbetaRIIFc in the blood. Conversely, intravenous injection of Ad(E1(-)).sTbetaRFc did not show a significant inhibition of tumor growth, but resulted in sTGFbetaRIIFc in the blood, suggesting that viral replication along with s

  6. Adenovirus sensing by the immune system.

    PubMed

    Atasheva, Svetlana; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M

    2016-12-01

    The host immune system developed multiple ways for recognition of viral pathogens. Upon disseminated adenovirus infection, the immune system senses adenovirus invasion from the moment it enters the bloodstream. The soluble blood factors, FX, antibodies, and complement, can bind and activate plethora of host-protective immune responses. Adenovirus binding to the cellular β3 integrin and endosomal membrane rupture trigger activation of IL-1α/IL-1R1 proinflammatory cascade leading to attraction of cytotoxic immune cells to the site of infection. Upon cell entry, adenovirus exposes its DNA genome in the cytoplasm and triggers DNA sensors signaling. Even when inside the nucleus, the specialized cellular machinery that recognizes the double-strand DNA breaks become activated and triggers viral DNA replication arrest. Thus, the host employs very diverse mechanisms to prevent viral dissemination.

  7. Sequential priming with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccines, with or without encoded cytokines, and a replicating adenovirus-SIV recombinant followed by protein boosting does not control a pathogenic SIVmac251 mucosal challenge.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Thorsten; Boyer, Jean D; Malkevich, Nina; Patterson, L Jean; Venzon, David; Summers, Ebonita L; Kalisz, Irene; Kalyanaraman, V S; Lee, Eun Mi; Weiner, David B; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2008-11-01

    Previously, combination DNA/nonreplicating adenovirus (Ad)- or poxvirus-vectored vaccines have strongly protected against SHIV(89.6P), DNAs expressing cytokines have modulated immunity elicited by DNA vaccines, and replication-competent Ad-recombinant priming and protein boosting has strongly protected against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge. Here we evaluated a vaccine strategy composed of these promising components. Seven rhesus macaques per group were primed twice with multigenic SIV plasmid DNA with or without interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA or IL-15 DNA. After a multigenic replicating Ad-SIV immunization, all groups received two booster immunizations with SIV gp140 and SIV Nef protein. Four control macaques received control DNA plasmids, empty Ad vector, and adjuvant. All vaccine components were immunogenic, but the cytokine DNAs had little effect. Macaques that received IL-15-DNA exhibited higher peak anti-Nef titers, a more rapid anti-Nef anamnestic response postchallenge, and expanded CD8(CM) T cells 2 weeks postchallenge compared to the DNA-only group. Other immune responses were indistinguishable between groups. Overall, no protection against intrarectal challenge with SIV(mac251) was observed, although immunized non-Mamu-A*01 macaques as a group exhibited a statistically significant 1-log decline in acute viremia compared to non-Mamu-A*01 controls. Possible factors contributing to the poor outcome include administration of cytokine DNAs to sites different from the Ad recombinants (intramuscular and intratracheal, respectively), too few DNA priming immunizations, a suboptimal DNA delivery method, failure to ensure delivery of SIV and cytokine plasmids to the same cell, and instability and short half-life of the IL-15 component. Future experiments should address these issues to determine if this combination approach is able to control a virulent SIV challenge.

  8. Core labeling of adenovirus with EGFP

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Long P.; Le, Helen N.; Nelson, Amy R.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T. . E-mail: curiel@uab.edu

    2006-08-01

    The study of adenovirus could greatly benefit from diverse methods of virus detection. Recently, it has been demonstrated that carboxy-terminal EGFP fusions of adenovirus core proteins Mu, V, and VII properly localize to the nucleus and display novel function in the cell. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the core proteins may serve as targets for labeling the adenovirus core with fluorescent proteins. To this end, we constructed various chimeric expression vectors with fusion core genes (Mu-EGFP, V-EGFP, preVII-EGFP, and matVII-EGFP) while maintaining expression of the native proteins. Expression of the fusion core proteins was suboptimal using E1 expression vectors with both conventional CMV and modified (with adenovirus tripartite leader sequence) CMV5 promoters, resulting in non-labeled viral particles. However, robust expression equivalent to the native protein was observed when the fusion genes were placed in the deleted E3 region. The efficient Ad-wt-E3-V-EGFP and Ad-wt-E3-preVII-EGFP expression vectors were labeled allowing visualization of purified virus and tracking of the viral core during early infection. The vectors maintained their viral function, including viral DNA replication, viral DNA encapsidation, cytopathic effect, and thermostability. Core labeling offers a means to track the adenovirus core in vector targeting studies as well as basic adenovirus virology.

  9. Potential use of a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector carrying the C-terminal portion of the P97 adhesin protein as a vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine.

    PubMed

    Okamba, Faust René; Arella, Maximilien; Music, Nedzad; Jia, Jian Jun; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Carl A

    2010-07-05

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide and the prevention of its related disease, enzootic porcine pneumonia, remains a challenge. The P97 adhesin protein of M. hyopneumoniae should be a good candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine because antibodies produced against P97 could prevent the adhesion of the pathogen to the respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. In the present study, a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 + or - 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 + or - 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was slightly improved in the rAdP97c vaccinated pigs (0.672 + or - 0.068 kg/day) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (0.568 + or - 0.104 kg/day). A bacterin-based commercial vaccine (Suvaxyn MH-one) was more efficient to induce a protective immune response than rAdP97c even if it did not evoke a P97 specific immune response. These results suggest that immunodominant antigens other than P97 adhesin are also important in the induction of a protective immune response and should be taken into account in the future development of M. hyopneumoniae subunit vaccines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oncolytic adenovirus expressing interleukin-18 improves antitumor activity of dacarbazine for malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunhua; Cao, Hang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Kai; Ding, Meng; Mao, Li-jun

    2016-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses have emerged as novel therapeutic agents for cancer. This study aimed to evaluate synergistic antitumor activity of replication-competent adenovirus armed with interleukin (IL)-18 (ZD55-IL-18) and dacarbazine (DTIC) against melanoma. Melanoma A375 cells or nude mouse tumor xenografts were treated with ZD55-IL-18 alone or together with DTIC. The results showed that ZD55-IL-18 competently replicated in A375 cells and expressed IL-18, and these were not affected by DTIC. ZD55-IL-18 enhanced the cytotoxicity of DTIC accompanied by increased apoptosis. Moreover, ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC synergistically inhibited the growth but promoted the apoptosis of A375 xenografts and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor expression and lung metastasis in xenografts of nude mice. In conclusion, this is the first study to show synergistic anticancer activity of ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC for malignant melanoma. Our results provide evidence that chemo-gene-viro therapeutic approach has greater potential for malignant cancers than conventional chemotherapy or gene therapy. PMID:27895465

  11. Oncolytic adenovirus expressing interleukin-18 improves antitumor activity of dacarbazine for malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunhua; Cao, Hang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Kai; Ding, Meng; Mao, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses have emerged as novel therapeutic agents for cancer. This study aimed to evaluate synergistic antitumor activity of replication-competent adenovirus armed with interleukin (IL)-18 (ZD55-IL-18) and dacarbazine (DTIC) against melanoma. Melanoma A375 cells or nude mouse tumor xenografts were treated with ZD55-IL-18 alone or together with DTIC. The results showed that ZD55-IL-18 competently replicated in A375 cells and expressed IL-18, and these were not affected by DTIC. ZD55-IL-18 enhanced the cytotoxicity of DTIC accompanied by increased apoptosis. Moreover, ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC synergistically inhibited the growth but promoted the apoptosis of A375 xenografts and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor expression and lung metastasis in xenografts of nude mice. In conclusion, this is the first study to show synergistic anticancer activity of ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC for malignant melanoma. Our results provide evidence that chemo-gene-viro therapeutic approach has greater potential for malignant cancers than conventional chemotherapy or gene therapy.

  12. Adenovirus dodecahedron, a new vector for human gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fender, P; Ruigrok, R W; Gout, E; Buffet, S; Chroboczek, J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus is one of most efficient delivery vehicles for gene therapy. However, the initial enthusiasm for the use of recombinant adenovirus for gene therapy has been tempered by strong immune responses that develop to the virus and virus-infected cells. Even though recombinant adenoviruses are replication-defective, they introduce into the recipient cell, together with the gene of interest, viral genetes that might lead to fortuitous recombination if the recipient is infected by wild-type adenovirus. We propose the use of a dodecahedron made of adenovirus pentons or penton bases as an alternative vector for human gene therapy. The penton is a complex of two oligomeric proteins, a penton base and fiber, involved in the cell attachment, internalization, and liberation of virus into the cytoplasm. The dodecahedron retains many of the advantages of adenovirus for gene transfer such as efficiency of entry, efficient release of DNA from endosomes, and wide range of cell and tissue targets. Because it consists of only one or two adenovirus proteins instead of the 11 contained in an adenovirus virion and it does not contain the viral genome, it is potentially a safer alternative to recombinant adenovirus.

  13. The CDK regulators Cdh1 and Sic1 promote efficient usage of DNA replication origins to prevent chromosomal instability at a chromosome arm

    PubMed Central

    Ayuda-Durán, Pilar; Devesa, Fernando; Gomes, Fábia; Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Ávila-Zarza, Carmelo; Gómez, María; Calzada, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Robustness and completion of DNA replication rely on redundant DNA replication origins. Reduced efficiency of origin licensing is proposed to contribute to chromosome instability in CDK-deregulated cell cycles, a frequent alteration in oncogenesis. However, the mechanism by which this instability occurs is largely unknown. Current models suggest that limited origin numbers would reduce fork density favouring chromosome rearrangements, but experimental support in CDK-deregulated cells is lacking. We have investigated the pattern of origin firing efficiency in budding yeast cells lacking the CDK regulators Cdh1 and Sic1. We show that each regulator is required for efficient origin activity, and that both cooperate non-redundantly. Notably, origins are differentially sensitive to CDK deregulation. Origin sensitivity is independent on normal origin efficiency, firing timing or chromosomal location. Interestingly, at a chromosome arm, there is a shortage of origin firing involving active and dormant origins, and the extent of shortage correlates with the severity of CDK deregulation and chromosome instability. We therefore propose that CDK deregulation in G1 phase compromises origin redundancy by decreasing the number of active and dormant origins, leading to origin shortage and increased chromosome instability. PMID:24753426

  14. Generation of an adenovirus-parvovirus chimera with enhanced oncolytic potential.

    PubMed

    El-Andaloussi, Nazim; Bonifati, Serena; Kaufmann, Johanna K; Mailly, Laurent; Daeffler, Laurent; Deryckère, François; Nettelbeck, Dirk M; Rommelaere, Jean; Marchini, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    In this study, our goal was to generate a chimeric adenovirus-parvovirus (Ad-PV) vector that combines the high-titer and efficient gene transfer of adenovirus with the anticancer potential of rodent parvovirus. To this end, the entire oncolytic PV genome was inserted into a replication-defective E1- and E3-deleted Ad5 vector genome. As we found that parvoviral NS expression inhibited Ad-PV chimera production, we engineered the parvoviral P4 early promoter, which governs NS expression, by inserting into its sequence tetracycline operator elements. As a result of these modifications, P4-driven expression was blocked in the packaging T-REx-293 cells, which constitutively express the tetracycline repressor, allowing high-yield chimera production. The chimera effectively delivered the PV genome into cancer cells, from which fully infectious replication-competent parvovirus particles were generated. Remarkably, the Ad-PV chimera exerted stronger cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines, compared with the PV and Ad parental viruses, while being still innocuous to a panel of tested healthy primary human cells. This Ad-PV chimera represents a novel versatile anticancer agent which can be subjected to further genetic manipulations in order to reinforce its enhanced oncolytic capacity through arming with transgenes or retargeting into tumor cells.

  15. Generation of an Adenovirus-Parvovirus Chimera with Enhanced Oncolytic Potential

    PubMed Central

    El-Andaloussi, Nazim; Bonifati, Serena; Kaufmann, Johanna K.; Mailly, Laurent; Daeffler, Laurent; Deryckère, François; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.; Rommelaere, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this study, our goal was to generate a chimeric adenovirus-parvovirus (Ad-PV) vector that combines the high-titer and efficient gene transfer of adenovirus with the anticancer potential of rodent parvovirus. To this end, the entire oncolytic PV genome was inserted into a replication-defective E1- and E3-deleted Ad5 vector genome. As we found that parvoviral NS expression inhibited Ad-PV chimera production, we engineered the parvoviral P4 early promoter, which governs NS expression, by inserting into its sequence tetracycline operator elements. As a result of these modifications, P4-driven expression was blocked in the packaging T-REx-293 cells, which constitutively express the tetracycline repressor, allowing high-yield chimera production. The chimera effectively delivered the PV genome into cancer cells, from which fully infectious replication-competent parvovirus particles were generated. Remarkably, the Ad-PV chimera exerted stronger cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines, compared with the PV and Ad parental viruses, while being still innocuous to a panel of tested healthy primary human cells. This Ad-PV chimera represents a novel versatile anticancer agent which can be subjected to further genetic manipulations in order to reinforce its enhanced oncolytic capacity through arming with transgenes or retargeting into tumor cells. PMID:22787235

  16. E1A RNA transcripts amplify adenovirus-mediated tumor reduction.

    PubMed

    Dion, L D; Goldsmith, K T; Strong, T V; Bilbao, G; Curiel, D T; Garver, R I

    1996-11-01

    Previous work by this group has established that E1-defective, recombinant adenoviruses can be replication-enabled by the codelivery of a plasmid encoding the deleted E1 functions, a strategy now designated conditional replication-enablement system for adenovirus (CRESA). In the studies reported here, the original replication-enabling plasmid was replaced by two separate plasmids that encoded the necessary E1A and E1B functions, respectively. An RNA transcript encoding the requisite E1A functions was shown to substitute functionally for the E1A plasmid without significant loss of new adenovirus production in in vitro experiments. No replication competent adenovirus was detectable in the cells treated with the plasmids, or the RNA and plasmid combinations. Subcutaneous human tumor nodules containing a fraction of cells cotransduced with the replication-enabling RNA + DNA and an adenovirus containing a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression cassette were reduced to a greater extent than control nodules containing the same fraction of cells cotransduced with the virus and an irrelevant plasmid. These experiments show that an E1-defective adenovirus can be conditionally replication-enabled by an RNA transcript encoding the required E1 functions, and that the replication-enablement is sufficient to produce an augmentation of an adenovirus-mediated therapeutic effect in vivo.

  17. Proinflammatory Effects of Interferon Gamma in Mouse Adenovirus 1 Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mary K.; Procario, Megan C.; Twisselmann, Nele; Wilkinson, J. Erby; Archambeau, Ashley J.; Michele, Daniel E.; Day, Sharlene M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenoviruses are frequent causes of pediatric myocarditis. Little is known about the pathogenesis of adenovirus myocarditis, and the species specificity of human adenoviruses has limited the development of animal models, which is a significant barrier to strategies for prevention or treatment. We have developed a mouse model of myocarditis following mouse adenovirus 1 (MAV-1) infection to study the pathogenic mechanisms of this important cause of pediatric myocarditis. Following intranasal infection of neonatal C57BL/6 mice, we detected viral replication and induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the hearts of infected mice. MAV-1 caused myocyte necrosis and induced substantial cellular inflammation that was composed predominantly of CD3+ T lymphocytes. Depletion of IFN-γ during acute infection reduced cardiac inflammation in MAV-1-infected mice without affecting viral replication. We observed decreased contractility during acute infection of neonatal mice, and persistent viral infection in the heart was associated with cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy in adulthood. IFN-γ is a proinflammatory mediator during adenovirus-induced myocarditis, and persistent adenovirus infection may contribute to ongoing cardiac dysfunction. IMPORTANCE Studying the pathogenesis of myocarditis caused by different viruses is essential in order to characterize both virus-specific and generalized factors that contribute to disease. Very little is known about the pathogenesis of adenovirus myocarditis, which is a significant impediment to the development of treatment or prevention strategies. We used MAV-1 to establish a mouse model of human adenovirus myocarditis, providing the means to study host and pathogen factors contributing to adenovirus-induced cardiac disease during acute and persistent infection. The MAV-1 model will enable fundamental studies of viral myocarditis, including IFN-γ modulation as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:25320326

  18. Adrenal Gland Infection by Serotype 5 Adenovirus Requires Coagulation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Philippe R.; Darcourt, Jacques; Cornilleau, Gaétan; Benihoud, Karim; Vassaux, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin) as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney) could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting. PMID:23638001

  19. Adenovirus (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the virus by holding hands or sharing a toy with an infected person. Adenovirus can survive on ... by sharing contaminated objects (such as towels or toys), or by touch. Once a child is exposed ...

  20. Temporal regulation of adenovirus major late alternative RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Akusjarvi, Goran

    2008-05-01

    Adenovirus makes extensive use of alternative RNA splicing to produce a complex set of spliced mRNAs during replication. The accumulation of viral mRNAs is subjected to a temporal regulation, a mechanism that ensures that proteins that are needed at certain stages of the virus life cycle are produced in a timely fashion. The complex interactions between the virus and the host cell RNA splicing machinery has been studied in detail during the last decade. These studies have resulted in the characterization of two viral proteins, E4-ORF4 and L4-33K, that adenovirus uses to remodel the host cell RNA splicing machinery. Here I will review the current knowledge of how mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit is controlled with a particular emphasis on how cis-acting sequence element, trans-acting factors and mechanisms regulating adenovirus major late L1 alternative RNA splicing is controlled.

  1. Retargeted oncolytic adenovirus displaying a single variable domain of camelid heavy-chain-only antibody in a fiber protein.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Elisabeth A; Kaliberova, Lyudmila N; Kaliberov, Sergey A; Curiel, David T

    2015-01-01

    Conditionally replicative adenoviruses are promising agents for oncolytic virotherapy. Various approaches have been attempted to retarget adenoviruses to tumor-specific antigens to circumvent deficiency of receptor for adenoviral binding and to provide an additional level of tumor specificity. Functional incorporation of highly specific targeting molecules into the viral capsid can potentially retarget adenoviral infection. However, conventional antibodies are not compatible with the cytoplasmic adenovirus capsid synthesis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of single variable domains derived from heavy chain camelid antibodies for retargeting of adenovirus infection. We have combined transcriptional targeting using a tumor-specific promoter with transductional targeting through viral capsid incorporation of antihuman carcinoembryonic antigen single variable domains. Obtained data demonstrated that employment of a single variable domain genetically incorporated into an adenovirus fiber increased specificity of infection and efficacy of replication of single variable domain-targeted oncolytic adenovirus. The double targeting, both transcriptional through the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 promoter and transductional using the single variable domain, is a promising means to improve the therapeutic index for these advanced generation conditionally replicative adenoviruses. A successful strategy to transductional retargeting of oncolytic adenovirus infection has not been shown before and therefore we believe this is the first employment of transductional targeting using single variable domains derived from heavy chain camelid antibodies to enhance specificity of conditionally replicative adenoviruses.

  2. Adenovirus DNA polymerase is a phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, M; Nakano, R; Mohan, P M; Rawitch, A B; Padmanabhan, R

    1993-01-05

    Biological activities of many of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins are modulated by protein phosphorylation. Investigations of the phosphorylation of adenovirus DNA polymerase (AdPol) have been difficult mainly because of its low level of synthesis in adenovirus-infected HeLa cells. However, when AdPol was overproduced using the recombinant vaccinia virus (RV-AdPol) and the baculovirus expression systems, or by a large scale metabolic labeling of adenovirus 2-infected HeLa cells (native AdPol), in vivo phosphorylation of AdPol could be demonstrated. Phosphoamino acid analysis of [32P]AdPol indicated the presence of phosphoserine independent of the source of AdPol. Comparison of tryptic peptide maps of native AdPol and RV-AdPol revealed that the majority of phosphopeptides were common. Fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography and sequencing of one of the major phosphopeptides revealed serine 67 as a site of phosphorylation. Interestingly, this site is located close to the nuclear localization signal of AdPol and has a consensus substrate recognition sequence for histone H1 (cdc2-related) kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Dephosphorylation of AdPol with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in significant decrease in its activity in the in vitro DNA replication initiation assay, suggesting that phosphorylation is important for its biological activity.

  3. Effects of cold atmospheric plasmas on adenoviruses in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. L.; Dumler, K.; Shimizu, T.; Morfill, G. E.; Wolf, A.; Boxhammer, V.; Schlegel, J.; Gansbacher, B.; Anton, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were performed with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) to inactivate adenovirus, a non-enveloped double stranded DNA virus, in solution. The plasma source used was a surface micro-discharge technology operating in air. Various plasma diagnostic measurements and tests were performed in order to determine the efficacy of CAPs and to understand the inactivation mechanism(s). Different stages of the adenovirus ‘life cycle’ were investigated—infectivity and gene expression as well as viral replication and spread. Within 240 s of CAP treatment, inactivation of up to 6 decimal log levels can be achieved.

  4. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  5. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  6. Characterization of a novel adenovirus isolated from a skunk.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Robert A; Ackford, James G; Slaine, Patrick; Li, Aimin; Carman, Susy; Campbell, Doug; Welch, M Katherine; Kropinski, Andrew M; Nagy, Éva

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are a ubiquitous group of viruses that have been found in a wide range of hosts. A novel adenovirus from a skunk suffering from acute hepatitis was isolated and its DNA genome sequenced. The analysis revealed this virus to be a new member of the genus Mastadenovirus, with a genome of 31,848 bp in length containing 30 genes predicted to encode proteins, and with a G+C content of 49.0%. Global genomic organization indicated SkAdV-1 was similar in organization to bat and canine adenoviruses, and phylogenetic comparison suggested these viruses shared a common ancestor. SkAdV-1 demonstrated an ability to replicate in several mammalian liver cell lines suggesting a potential tropism for this virus.

  7. 78 FR 3906 - Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Adenovirus-Based Controls and Calibrators for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... October 24, 2000, and entitled ``Replication Deficient Recombinant Adenovirus Vector'' to Life... recombinant constructs as controls and calibrators for molecular diagnostics for infectious disease agents...-0220; Email: Reichmau@mail.nih.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The invention relates to...

  8. IMMUNOFLUORESCENT STUDIES OF THE POTENTIATION OF AN ADENOVIRUS-ASSOCIATED VIRUS BY ADENOVIRUS 7

    PubMed Central

    Blacklow, Neil R.; Hoggan, M. David; Rowe, Wallace P.

    1967-01-01

    A quantitative immunofluorescent procedure for detection of viral antigen was used to study the potentiation of AAV-1 by Ad.7. AAV viral antigen formed only when the cells were also infected with adenovirus, and only in cell culture systems in which the adenovirus infection proceeded to completion. Ad. 7 infection of AGMK. cell cultures did not potentiate AAV unless the Ad. 7 infection was itself potentiated by SV40. Dose-response studies indicated that a single AAV particle and a single infectious Ad. 7 particle sufficed to initiate AAV antigen synthesis. Sequential inoculation studies showed that AAV antigen formed simultaneously with Ad. 7 viral antigen when the AAV was inoculated any time between 15 hr before to 10 hr after the Ad. 7, both antigens appearing about 15 hr after inoculation of Ad. 7. The AAV-1 antigen formation had a minimum latent period of 5 hr, as seen with Ad. 7 preinfection of 10 hr or more. When UV-irradiated Ad. 7 was used as helper, the AAV antigen still appeared simultaneously with the Ad. 7 viral antigen, even though the latter was delayed by 23 hr compared to nonirradiated virus. When the early replicative events of both viruses were allowed to proceed in FUDR-inhibited cells, and then the FUDR inhibition was reversed, AAV antigen formed within 2 hr, which was 3 hr before the Ad. 7 viral antigen appeared. It was inferred that the event in the adenovirus cycle that renders a cell competent to synthesize AAV occurs after the 10th hr and may be temporally associated with replication of the adenovirus DNA. PMID:4225814

  9. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  10. Adenovirus fiber disrupts CAR-mediated intercellular adhesion allowing virus escape.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert W; Freimuth, Paul; Moninger, Thomas O; Ganske, Ingrid; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J

    2002-09-20

    Adenovirus binds its receptor (CAR), enters cells, and replicates. It must then escape to the environment to infect a new host. We found that following infection, human airway epithelia first released adenovirus to the basolateral surface. Virus then traveled between epithelial cells to emerge on the apical surface. Adenovirus fiber protein, which is produced during viral replication, facilitated apical escape. Fiber binds CAR, which sits on the basolateral membrane where it maintains tight junction integrity. When fiber bound CAR, it disrupted junctional integrity, allowing virus to filter between the cells and emerge apically. Thus, adenovirus exploits its receptor for two important but distinct steps in its life cycle: entry into host cells and escape across epithelial barriers to the environment.

  11. Subgenomic viral DNA species synthesized in simian cells by human and simian adenoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, E

    1981-01-01

    DNA synthesized after infection of simian tissue culture cells (BSC-1 or CV-1) with human adenovirus type 2 or 5 or with simian adenovirus 7 was characterized. It was demonstrated that as much as 40% of the virus-specific DNA in nuclei of infected monkey cells consists of subgenomic pieces. No subgenomic viral DNA species were detected in the nuclei of human (HeLa) cells infected with these adenovirus types. Restriction analysis showed that these short viral DNA molecules contain normal amounts of the sequences from the ends of the viral genome, whereas internal regions are underrepresented. The production of subgenomic DNAs is not correlated with semipermissive infection. Although adenovirus types 2 and 5 are restricted in monkey cells, these cells are fully permissive for simian adenovirus 7. HR404, an adenovirus type 5 mutant which is not restricted in monkey cells, produced the same percentage of subgenomic DNAs as did its wild type (restricted) parent, and coinfection of monkey cells with adenovirus type 5 DNAs. The array of predominant size classes among the heterogeneously sized short DNAs is serotype specific. Extensive plaque purification and comparison of wild-type adenovirus type 5 with several viral mutants indicated that the distribution of aberrant sizes of DNA is characteristic of the virus and not a result of random replicative errors and then enrichment of particular species. Images PMID:6261009

  12. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4: A novel approach to marking circulating prostate tumor cells with a replication competent adenovirus controlled by PSA/PSMA transcription regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Eun; Joung, Jae Young; Shin, Seung-Phil; Choi, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Yon Hui; Park, Weon Seo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells serve as useful biomarkers with which to identify disease status associated with survival, metastasis and drug sensitivity. Here, we established a novel application for detecting PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells circulating in peripheral blood employing an adenovirus called Ad5/35E1aPSESE4. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 utilized PSES, a chimeric enhancer derived from PSA/PSMA promoters that is highly active with and without androgen. A fluorescence signal mediated by GFP expression upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection was selectively amplified in PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, for the in vivo model, blood drawn from TRAMP was tested for CTCs with Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection and was positive for CTCs at week 16. Validation was performed on patient blood at various clinical stages and found out 1-100 CTCs expressing GFP upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection. Interestingly, CTC from one patient was confirmed to be sensitive to docetaxel chemotherapeutic reagent and to abundantly express metastasis-related genes like MMP9, Cofilin1, and FCER1G through RNA-seq. Our study established that the usage of Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 is effective in marking PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in patient blood to improve the efficacy of utilizing CTCs as a biomarker.

  13. A novel immunocompetent murine model for replicating oncolytic adenoviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Hedjran, F; Larson, C; Perez, G L; Reid, T

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses are under investigation as a promising novel strategy for cancer immunotherapeutics. Unfortunately, there is no immunocompetent mouse cancer model to test oncolytic adenovirus because murine cancer cells are generally unable to produce infectious viral progeny from human adenoviruses. We find that the murine K-ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma cell line ADS-12 supports adenoviral infection and generates infectious viral progeny. ADS-12 cells express the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and infected ADS-12 cells express the viral protein E1A. We find that our previously described oncolytic virus, adenovirus TAV-255 (AdTAV-255), kills ADS-12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We investigated ADS-12 cells as an in-vivo model system for replicating oncolytic adenoviruses. Subcutaneous injection of ADS-12 cells into immunocompetent 129 mice led to tumor formation in all injected mice. Intratumoral injection of AdTAV-255 in established tumors causes a significant reduction in tumor growth. This model system represents the first fully immunocompetent mouse model for cancer treatment with replicating oncolytic adenoviruses, and therefore will be useful to study the therapeutic effect of oncolytic adenoviruses in general and particularly immunostimulatory viruses designed to evoke an antitumor immune response. PMID:25525035

  14. Molecular evolution of human species D adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Seto, Donald; Jones, Morris S.; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses are medium-sized double stranded DNA viruses that infect vertebrates. Human adenoviruses cause an array of diseases. Currently there are 56 human adenovirus types recognized and characterized within seven species (A-G). Of those types, a majority belongs to species D. In this review, the genomic conservation and diversity are examined amongst human adenoviruses within species D, particularly in contrast to other human adenovirus species. Specifically, homologous recombination is presented as a driving force for the molecular evolution of human adenoviruses and the emergence of new adenovirus pathogens. PMID:21570490

  15. Involvement of template-activating factor I/SET in transcription of adenovirus early genes as a positive-acting factor.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Hirohito; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Miyagishi, Makoto; Taira, Kazunari; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2006-01-01

    The adenovirus genome complexed with viral core protein VII (adenovirus DNA-protein VII complex) at least is the bona fide template for transcription of adenovirus early genes. It is believed that the highly basic protein VII, like cellular histones, is a negative regulator for genome functions. Analyses with in vitro replication and transcription systems using the adenovirus DNA-protein VII complex have revealed that remodeling of the complex is crucial for efficient DNA replication and transcription. We identified host acidic proteins, template-activating factor I (TAF-I), TAF-II, and TAF-III as stimulatory factors for replication from the adenovirus DNA-protein VII complex. Recently, it was reported that the adenovirus DNA interacts with TAF-I and pp32, another host acidic protein (Y. Xue, J. S. Johnson, D. A. Ornelles, J. Lieberman, and D. A. Engel, J. Virol. 79:2474-2483, 2005). We found that TAF-I interacts and colocalizes with protein VII in adenovirus-infected cells during the early phases of infection, but pp32 does not. Although pp32 had the potential ability to interact with protein VII, pp32 did not remodel the adenovirus DNA-protein VII complex in vitro. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of TAF-I expression leads to the delay of the transcription timing of early genes. These results provide evidence that TAF-I plays an important role in the early stages of the adenovirus infection cycle.

  16. Permissive growth of human adenovirus type 4 vaccine strain-based vector in porcine cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong-sheng; Li, Xiao-jing; Wan, Wen-yan; Li, Hong-jie; Wang, Xiao-xue; Yang, Xia; Li, Yong-tao; Chang, Hong-tao; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuan-qing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human Ad4 vaccine strain used as a vector in developing porcine vaccines, the growth properties of replication-competent human Ad4 vaccine strain recombinant encoding EGFP in different porcine cell lines were investigated. All tested cell lines are permissive for Ad4 vaccine strain vector with varied replication efficiency. Thus, human Ad4 based vectors would be promising supplement to adenovirus vectors as a delivery vehicle for recombinant vaccines in swine industry.

  17. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, G.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide.

  18. Chapter eight--Oncolytic adenoviruses for cancer immunotherapy: data from mice, hamsters, and humans.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Koski, Anniina; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy and two products have already been approved for treatment of cancer in China (Gendicine(R) and Oncorine(R)). An intriguing aspect of oncolytic adenoviruses is that by their very nature they potently stimulate multiple arms of the immune system. Thus, combined tumor killing via oncolysis and inherent immunostimulatory properties in fact make these viruses in situ tumor vaccines. When further engineered to express cytokines, chemokines, tumor-associated antigens, or other immunomodulatory elements, they have been shown in various preclinical models to induce antigen-specific effector and memory responses, resulting both in full therapeutic cures and even induction of life-long tumor immunity. Here, we review the state of the art of oncolytic adenovirus, in the context of their capability to stimulate innate and adaptive arms of the immune system and finally how we can modify these viruses to direct the immune response toward cancer.

  19. Analysis of the adenovirus type 5 terminal protein precursor and DNA polymerase by linker insertion mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Roovers, D J; van der Lee, F M; van der Wees, J; Sussenbach, J S

    1993-01-01

    A series of adenovirus type 5 precursor terminal protein (pTP) and DNA polymerase (Ad pol) genes with linker insertion mutations were separately introduced into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a late vaccinia virus promoter. The recombinant viruses were used for overexpression of the mutant genes in HeLa cells. In total, 22 different mutant pTP and 10 different Ad pol vaccinia virus recombinants were constructed, including some that expressed carboxyl-terminus-truncated forms of both proteins and one that produced the mutant H5ts149 Ad pol. To investigate the structure-function relationships of both proteins, extracts from cells infected with the recombinant viruses were tested for in vitro complementation of the initiation and elongation steps in adenovirus DNA replication. The results were in accordance with those of earlier in vivo experiments with these insertion mutants and indicate that multiple regions of both proteins are essential for adenovirus DNA replication. The carboxyl termini of both pTP and Ad pol were shown to be essential for proper functioning of these proteins during initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. Three different DNA replication-negative pTP mutants were shown to have residual activity in the initiation assay, suggesting not only that pTP is required for initiation but also that it may play a role in DNA replication after the deoxycytidylation step. Images PMID:8416372

  20. Oral priming with replicating adenovirus serotype 4 followed by subunit H5N1 vaccine boost promotes antibody affinity maturation and expands H5N1 cross-clade neutralization.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Surender; Coyle, Elizabeth M; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R; Ishioka, Glenn; Alexander, Jeff; Smith, Jon; Gurwith, Marc; Golding, Hana

    2015-01-01

    A Phase I trial conducted in 2009-2010 demonstrated that oral vaccination with a replication competent Ad4-H5 (A/Vietnam) vector with dosages ranging from 107-1011 viral particles was well tolerated. HA-specific T-cell responses were efficiently induced, but very limited hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) humoral responses were measured. However, a single boost of Ad4-H5-Vtn vaccinated individuals with a unadjuvanted licensed H5N1 (A/Vietnam) subunit vaccine resulted in superior HI titers compared with unprimed subjects. In the current study, the impact of Ad4-H5 priming on the quality of the polyclonal humoral immune response was evaluated using a real-time kinetics assay by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Total binding of serum polyclonal antibodies from the Ad4-H5-Vtn primed groups against both homologous H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (clade 1) and heterologous A/Indonesia-5/2005 (clade 2.1) HA1 head domain was significantly higher compared with sera from individuals that received subunit H5N1 vaccination alone. SPR measurements also demonstrated that the antigen-antibody complex dissociation rates (a surrogate for antibody affinity) of serum antibodies against the HA1 of H5N1-A/Vietnam were significantly higher in the Ad4-H5 primed groups compared with those from the unprimed group. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between the antibody affinities for HA1 (but not HA2) and the virus neutralization titers against the homologous strain and a panel of heterologous clade 2 H5N1 strains. These findings support the concept of oral prime-boost vaccine approaches against pandemic influenza to elicit long-term memory B cells with high affinity capable of rapid response to variant pandemic viruses likely to emerge and adapt to human transmissions.

  1. Adenovirus vector delivery stimulates natural killer cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tomasec, Peter; Wang, Eddie C. Y.; Groh, Veronika; Spies, Thomas; McSharry, Brian P.; Aicheler, Rebecca J.; Stanton, Richard J.; Wilkinson, Gavin W. G.

    2007-01-01

    We report that delivery of first-generation replication-deficient adenovirus (RDAd) vectors into primary human fibroblasts is associated with the induction of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytolysis in vitro. RDAd vector delivery induced cytolysis by a range of NK cell populations including the NK cell clone NKL, primary polyclonal NK lines and a proportion of NK clones (36 %) in autologous HLA-matched assays. Adenovirus-induced cytolysis was inhibited by antibody blocking of the NK-activating receptor NKG2D, implicating this receptor in this function. NKG2D is ubiquitously expressed on NK cells and CD8+ T cells. Significantly, γ-irradiation of the vector eliminated the effect, suggesting that breakthrough expression from the vector induces at least some of the pro-inflammatory responses of unknown aetiology following the application of RDAd vectors during in vivo gene delivery. PMID:17374753

  2. Combinatorial treatment with oncolytic adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus augments adenoviral cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Farzad, Lisa; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Yagyu, Shigeki; Bertin, Terry; Hemminki, Akseli; Rooney, Cliona; Lee, Brendan; Suzuki, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Onc.Ads) produce significant antitumor effects but as single agents they rarely eliminate tumors. Investigators have therefore incorporated sequences into these vectors that encode immunomodulatory molecules to enhance antitumor immunity. Successful implementation of this strategy requires multiple tumor immune inhibitory mechanisms to be overcome, and insertion of the corresponding multiple functional genes reduces the titer and replication of Onc.Ads, compromising their direct ant-tumor effects. By contrast, helper-dependent (HD) Ads are devoid of viral coding sequences, allowing inclusion of multiple transgenes. HDAds, however, lack replicative capacity. Since HDAds encode the adenoviral packaging signal, we hypothesized that the coadministration of Onc.Ad with HDAd would allow to be amplified and packaged during replication of Onc.Ad in transduced cancer cells. This combination could provide immunostimulation without losing oncolytic activity. We now show that coinfection of Onc.Ad with HDAd subsequently replicates HDAd vector DNA in trans in human cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, amplifying the transgenes the HDAd encode. This combinatorial treatment significantly suppresses the tumor growth compared to treatment with a single agent in an immunocompetent mouse model. Hence, combinatorial treatment of Onc.Ad with HDAd should overcome the inherent limitations of each agent and provide a highly immunogenic oncolytic therapy. PMID:27119096

  3. Crystal structure of the adenovirus DNA binding protein reveals a hook-on model for cooperative DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, P A; Tsernoglou, D; Tucker, A D; Coenjaerts, F E; Leenders, H; van der Vliet, P C

    1994-01-01

    The adenovirus single-stranded DNA binding protein (Ad DBP) is a multifunctional protein required, amongst other things, for DNA replication and transcription control. It binds to single- and double-stranded DNA, as well as to RNA, in a sequence-independent manner. Like other single-stranded DNA binding proteins, it binds ssDNA, cooperatively. We report the crystal structure, at 2.6 A resolution, of the nucleic acid binding domain. This domain is active in DNA replication. The protein contains two zinc atoms in different, novel coordinations. The zinc atoms appear to be required for the stability of the protein fold rather than being involved in direct contacts with the DNA. The crystal structure shows that the protein contains a 17 amino acid C-terminal extension which hooks onto a second molecule, thereby forming a protein chain. Deletion of this C-terminal arm reduces cooperativity in DNA binding, suggesting a hook-on model for cooperativity. Based on this structural work and mutant studies, we propose that DBP forms a protein core around which the single-stranded DNA winds. Images PMID:8039495

  4. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, Julie E; DeZure, Adam D; Stanley, Daphne A; Coates, Emily E; Novik, Laura; Enama, Mary E; Berkowitz, Nina M; Hu, Zonghui; Joshi, Gyan; Ploquin, Aurélie; Sitar, Sandra; Gordon, Ingelise J; Plummer, Sarah A; Holman, LaSonji A; Hendel, Cynthia S; Yamshchikov, Galina; Roman, Francois; Nicosia, Alfredo; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Bailer, Robert T; Schwartz, Richard M; Roederer, Mario; Mascola, John R; Koup, Richard A; Sullivan, Nancy J; Graham, Barney S

    2017-03-09

    The unprecedented 2014 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cAd3-EBO), encoding the glycoprotein from Zaire and Sudan species, that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of cAd3-EBO. Twenty healthy adults, in sequentially enrolled groups of 10 each, received vaccination intramuscularly in doses of 2×10(10) particle units or 2×10(11) particle units. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first 8 weeks after vaccination; in addition, longer-term vaccine durability was assessed at 48 weeks after vaccination. In this small study, no safety concerns were identified; however, transient fever developed within 1 day after vaccination in two participants who had received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were induced in all 20 participants; the titers were of greater magnitude in the group that received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose than in the group that received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose (geometric mean titer against the Zaire antigen at week 4, 2037 vs. 331; P=0.001). Glycoprotein-specific T-cell responses were more frequent among those who received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose than among those who received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose, with a CD4 response in 10 of 10 participants versus 3 of 10 participants (P=0.004) and a CD8 response in 7 of 10 participants versus 2 of 10 participants (P=0.07) at week 4. Assessment of the durability of the antibody response showed that titers remained high at week 48, with the highest titers in those who received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose. Reactogenicity and immune responses to cAd3-EBO vaccine were dose

  5. Adenoviruses in the immunocompromised host.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C

    1992-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the many pathogens and opportunistic agents that cause serious infection in the congenitally immunocompromised, in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for organ and tissue transplants and for cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Adenovirus infections in these patients tend to become disseminated and severe, and the serotypes involved are clustered according to the age of the patient and the nature of the immunosuppression. Over 300 adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients, with an overall case fatality rate of 48%, are reviewed in this paper. Children with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome and other primary immunodeficiencies are exposed to the serotypes of subgroups B and C that commonly infect young children, and thus their infections are due to types 1 to 7 and 31 of subgenus A. Children with bone marrow and liver transplants often have lung and liver adenovirus infections that are due to an expanded set of subgenus A, B, C, and E serotypes. Adults with kidney transplants have viruses of subgenus B, mostly types 11, 34, and 35, which cause cystitis. This review indicates that 11% of transplant recipients become infected with adenoviruses, with case fatality rates from 60% for bone marrow transplant patients to 18% for renal transplant patients. Patients with AIDS become infected with a diversity of serotypes of all subgenera because their adult age and life-style expose them to many adenoviruses, possibly resulting in antigenically intermediate strains that are not found elsewhere. Interestingly, isolates from the urine of AIDS patients are generally of subgenus B and comprise types 11, 21, 34, 35, and intermediate strains of these types, whereas isolates from stool are of subgenus D and comprise many rare, new, and intermediate strains that are untypeable for practical purposes. It has been estimated that adenoviruses cause active infection in 12% of AIDS patients and that 45% of

  6. Infectivity-selective Oncolytic Adenovirus Developed by High-throughput Screening of Adenovirus-formatted Library

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Davydova, Julia; Brown, Eric; Aoki, Kazunori; Vickers, Selwyn; Yamamoto, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is a potent gene-delivery vehicle and has frequently been used for designing oncolytic viruses. However, lack of selectivity on infection has hampered the achievement of sufficient in vivo efficiency. Here, we developed a novel oncolytic virus system, infectivity-selective oncolytic adenovirus (ISOAd), via direct high-throughput screening of a high-diversity targeting-ligand library in adenoviral format. Through our newly designed rescue virus system, the high-diversity Ad library carrying the random seven amino acid sequences ligand-library in the AB-loop of its fiber-knob region (5 × 109 diversity) was successfully generated. During the screening of this library with the cells expressing the target molecule (mesothelin, MSLN), the AB-loop sequence of the virus clones converged to one dominant sequence and a novel MSLN-targeting sequence was isolated. The virus with the isolated motif showed selective infectivity to MSLN-positive cells in vitro. In vivo, it exhibited a selective and potent antitumor effect resulted from the viral replication in MSLN-positive xenografts. The ISOAd is a novel class of oncolytic Ad, which has selectivity at the step of transduction. The selectivity at the stage of infection can open new perspectives in oncolytic Ad therapy for various diseases. PMID:23032977

  7. Replication-selective viruses for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Biederer, Carola; Ries, Stefan; Brandts, Christian H; McCormick, Frank

    2002-03-01

    Advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer and the availability of technology to genetically engineer viruses have led to the development of replication-competent viruses to treat cancer. In theory, replication-selective viruses offer several appealing properties as biological agents for cancer therapy: they kill tumor cells selectively, and their replication leads to amplification of their oncolytic potential. Most preclinical experiments in tissue culture and in animal models support this notion. Clinical data on the first generation of replication-selective viruses are now rapidly accruing. The therapeutic index, and ultimately the clinical outcome, will depend on a complex balance between host and viral factors. This review discusses strategies to kill cancer cells based on our understanding of their molecular defects and the progress being made using replication-competent viruses for tumor therapy. We focus our discussion on a replication-selective adenovirus called ONYX-015 that has recently demonstrated encouraging results in clinical trials

  8. Biobased monoliths for adenovirus purification.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Gonçalves, Bianca; Sousa, Margarida; Martins, Duarte L; Barroso, Telma; Pina, Ana Sofia; Peixoto, Cristina; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Roque, A Cecília A

    2015-04-01

    Adenoviruses are important platforms for vaccine development and vectors for gene therapy, increasing the demand for high titers of purified viral preparations. Monoliths are macroporous supports regarded as ideal for the purification of macromolecular complexes, including viral particles. Although common monoliths are based on synthetic polymers as methacrylates, we explored the potential of biopolymers processed by clean technologies to produce monoliths for adenovirus purification. Such an approach enables the development of disposable and biodegradable matrices for bioprocessing. A total of 20 monoliths were produced from different biopolymers (chitosan, agarose, and dextran), employing two distinct temperatures during the freezing process (-20 °C and -80 °C). The morphological and physical properties of the structures were thoroughly characterized. The monoliths presenting higher robustness and permeability rates were further analyzed for the nonspecific binding of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) preparations. The matrices presenting lower nonspecific Ad5 binding were further functionalized with quaternary amine anion-exchange ligand glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride hydrochloride by two distinct methods, and their performance toward Ad5 purification was assessed. The monolith composed of chitosan and poly(vinyl) alcohol (50:50) prepared at -80 °C allowed 100% recovery of Ad5 particles bound to the support. This is the first report of the successful purification of adenovirus using monoliths obtained from biopolymers processed by clean technologies.

  9. New Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus Vectors for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Baculovirus Construct Description of Mutation I664V Ad5 Pol – pAcgp67A Protein Production in SF9 insect cells I664M Ad5 Pol – pAcgp67A “” I664S...out in SF9 insect cells (Figure 3). Figure 3: Expression of Ad pol proteins in insect cells LEGEND: 3µg of recombinant baculovirus DNA was...transfected with Cellfectin (Invitrogen) in SF9 insect cells. Three days later the recombinant baculoviruses were collected and used for viral

  10. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into normal rabbit arteries results in prolonged vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K D; Dunn, P F; Owens, J W; Schulick, A H; Virmani, R; Sukhova, G; Libby, P; Dichek, D A

    1995-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are capable of high efficiency in vivo arterial gene transfer, and are currently in use as therapeutic agents in animal models of vascular disease. However, despite substantial data on the ability of viruses to cause vascular inflammation and proliferation, and the presence in current adenovirus vectors of viral open reading frames that are translated in vivo, no study has examined the effect of adenovirus vectors alone on the arterial phenotype. In a rabbit model of gene transfer into a normal artery, we examined potential vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal proliferation resulting from exposure to replication-defective adenovirus. Exposure of normal arteries to adenovirus vectors resulted in: (a) pronounced infiltration of T cells throughout the artery wall; (b) upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in arterial smooth muscle cells; (c) neointimal hyperplasia. These findings were present both 10 and 30 d after gene transfer, with no evidence of a decline in severity over time. Adenovirus vectors have pleiotropic effects on the arterial wall and cause significant pathology. Interpretation of experimental protocols that use adenovirus vectors to address either biological or therapeutic issues should take these observations into account. These observations should also prompt the design of more inert gene transfer vectors. Images PMID:8675667

  11. Effect of adenovirus infection on expression of human histone genes.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, S J; Plumb, M A; Yang, U C; Stein, G S; Stein, J L

    1984-01-01

    synthesis, observed when DNA replication is inhibited by a variety of drugs, is not maintained after adenovirus infection. Images PMID:6095065

  12. Comparison of human and monkey cells for the ability to attenuate transcripts that begin at the adenovirus major late promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiberg, M.; Aloni, Y. ); Levine, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Late transcription from the adenovirus major late promoter can terminate prematurely at a site 182 to 188 nucleotides downstream. Experiments have been designed, with run-on transcription in nuclei in vitro or riboprobe protection of RNA obtained both in vivo and in vitro, that demonstrate that the ratio of attenuator RNA to readthrough RNA is greater in monkey cells (CV-1) than in human cells (HeLa). This may explain, in part, why the human adenoviruses replicate more poorly in CV-1 cells than in HeLa cells. A mutant adenovirus that replicates better than wild-type virus in monkey cells produces less of the attenuator RNA than wild-type adenovirus does in monkey cells. Monkey cell extracts have been shown to contain a factor that, when added to human cell extracts transcribing adenovirus DNA in vitro, increases the production of attenuator RNA in these reactions. These observations help to explain a portion of the block to the production of infectious adenoviruses in monkey cells.

  13. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

  14. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  19. Viral Vector Production: Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julius W; Morshed, Ramin A; Kane, J Robert; Auffinger, Brenda; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have proven to be valuable resources in the development of novel therapies aimed at targeting pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and neoplastic brain lesions. Not only can some genetically engineered adenoviral vectors achieve remarkably efficient and specific gene delivery to target cells, but they also may act as anticancer agents by selectively replicating within cancer cells.Due to the great interest in using adenoviral vectors for various purposes, the need for a comprehensive protocol for viral vector production is especially apparent. Here, we describe the process of generating an adenoviral vector in its entirety, including the more complex process of adenoviral fiber modification to restrict viral tropism in order to achieve more efficient and specific gene delivery.

  20. Conditionally replicating oncolytic adenoviral vector expressing arresten and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand experimentally suppresses lung carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Shudong; Qi, Zongli; Li, Huijin; Hu, Jun; Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Xin; Feng, Zhenzhen

    2015-08-01

    Current methods of treatment for lung carcinoma are ineffective for the majority of patients. Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) represent a potential novel treatment for a number of neoplastic diseases, including lung carcinoma. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenesis gene, arresten, and the apoptosis-inducing gene, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), in order to evaluate their therapeutic potential in lung cancer. The two genes were expressed by CRAd, which was confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In vitro analyses demonstrated that CRAd adenoviruses are capable of selectively inhibiting A549 lung cancer cell growth and replication but not in that of healthy cells. In vivo analyses demonstrated that the infection of A549 cell lines using CRAd armed with the two genes (CRAd-arresten-TRAIL) enhanced the tumor inhibition, compared with cells infected with CRAd-arresten, CRAd-TRAIL or CRAd, and with the control group. CRAd-arresten-TRAIL may therefore be useful in the treatment of lung cancer.

  1. Studies on the Interaction of Tumor-Derived HD5 Alpha Defensins with Adenoviruses and Implications for Oncolytic Adenovirus Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vragniau, Charles; Hübner, Jens-Martin; Beidler, Peter; Gil, Sucheol; Saydaminova, Kamola; Lu, Zhuo-Zhuang; Yumul, Roma; Wang, Hongjie; Richter, Maximilian; Sova, Pavel; Drescher, Charles; Fender, Pascal; Lieber, André

    2017-03-15

    Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides capable of neutralizing human adenovirus (HAdV) in vitro by binding capsid proteins and blocking endosomal escape of virus. In humans, the alpha defensin HD5 is produced by specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal and genito-urinary tracts. Here, we demonstrate, using patient biopsy specimens, that HD5 is also expressed as an active, secreted peptide by epithelial ovarian and lung cancer cells in situ This finding prompted us to study the role of HD5 in infection and spread of replication-competent, oncolytic HAdV type 3 (HAdV3). HAdV3 produces large amounts of penton-dodecahedra (PtDd), virus-like particles, during replication. We have previously shown that PtDd are involved in opening epithelial junctions, thus facilitating lateral spread of de novo-produced virions. Here, we describe a second function of PtDd, namely, the blocking of HD5. A central tool to prove that viral PtDd neutralize HD5 and support spread of progeny virus was an HAdV3 mutant virus in which formation of PtDd was disabled (mut-Ad3GFP, where GFP is green fluorescent protein). We demonstrated that viral spread of mut-Ad3GFP was blocked by synthetic HD5 whereas that of the wild-type (wt) form (wt-Ad3GFP) was only minimally impacted. In human colon cancer Caco-2 cells, induction of cellular HD5 expression by fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) significantly inhibited viral spread and progeny virus production of mut-Ad3GFP but not of wt-Ad3GFP. Finally, the ectopic expression of HD5 in tumor cells diminished the in vivo oncolytic activity of mut-Ad3GFP but not of wt-Ad3GFP. These data suggest a new mechanism of HAdV3 to overcome innate antiviral host responses. Our study has implications for oncolytic adenovirus therapy.IMPORTANCE Previously, it has been reported that human defensin HD5 inactivates specific human adenoviruses by binding to capsid proteins and blocking endosomal escape of virus. The central new findings described in our

  2. Dicer functions as an antiviral system against human adenoviruses via cleavage of adenovirus-encoded noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Tomita, Kyoko; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-07

    In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs). The Dicer knockdown significantly increases the copy numbers of VA-RNAs, leading to the efficient inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and the subsequent promotion of Ad replication. Conversely, overexpression of Dicer significantly inhibits Ad replication. Transfection with mivaRNA does not affect eIF2α phosphorylation or Ad replication. These results indicate that Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs leads to loss of activity of VA-RNAs for enhancement of Ad replication and that Dicer functions as a defence system against Ad in mammalian cells.

  3. Dicer functions as an antiviral system against human adenoviruses via cleavage of adenovirus-encoded noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Tomita, Kyoko; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs). The Dicer knockdown significantly increases the copy numbers of VA-RNAs, leading to the efficient inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and the subsequent promotion of Ad replication. Conversely, overexpression of Dicer significantly inhibits Ad replication. Transfection with mivaRNA does not affect eIF2α phosphorylation or Ad replication. These results indicate that Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs leads to loss of activity of VA-RNAs for enhancement of Ad replication and that Dicer functions as a defence system against Ad in mammalian cells. PMID:27273616

  4. Adenovirus Core Protein pVII Is Translocated into the Nucleus by Multiple Import Receptor Pathways†

    PubMed Central

    Wodrich, Harald; Cassany, Aurelia; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A.; Guan, Tinglu; Nemerow, Glen; Gerace, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Adenoviruses are nonenveloped viruses with an ∼36-kb double-stranded DNA genome that replicate in the nucleus. Protein VII, an abundant structural component of the adenovirus core that is strongly associated with adenovirus DNA, is imported into the nucleus contemporaneously with the adenovirus genome shortly after virus infection and may promote DNA import. In this study, we evaluated whether protein VII uses specific receptor-mediated mechanisms for import into the nucleus. We found that it contains potent nuclear localization signal (NLS) activity by transfection of cultured cells with protein VII fusion constructs and by microinjection of cells with recombinant protein VII fusions. We identified three NLS-containing regions in protein VII by deletion mapping and determined important NLS residues by site-specific mutagenesis. We found that recombinant protein VII and its NLS-containing domains strongly and specifically bind to importin α, importin β, importin 7, and transportin, which are among the most abundant cellular nuclear import receptors. Moreover, these receptors can mediate the nuclear import of protein VII fusions in vitro in permeabilized cells. Considered together, these data support the hypothesis that protein VII is a major NLS-containing adaptor for receptor-mediated import of adenovirus DNA and that multiple import pathways are utilized to promote efficient nuclear entry of the viral genome. PMID:16973564

  5. Adenovirus core protein pVII is translocated into the nucleus by multiple import receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Wodrich, Harald; Cassany, Aurelia; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A; Guan, Tinglu; Nemerow, Glen; Gerace, Larry

    2006-10-01

    Adenoviruses are nonenveloped viruses with an approximately 36-kb double-stranded DNA genome that replicate in the nucleus. Protein VII, an abundant structural component of the adenovirus core that is strongly associated with adenovirus DNA, is imported into the nucleus contemporaneously with the adenovirus genome shortly after virus infection and may promote DNA import. In this study, we evaluated whether protein VII uses specific receptor-mediated mechanisms for import into the nucleus. We found that it contains potent nuclear localization signal (NLS) activity by transfection of cultured cells with protein VII fusion constructs and by microinjection of cells with recombinant protein VII fusions. We identified three NLS-containing regions in protein VII by deletion mapping and determined important NLS residues by site-specific mutagenesis. We found that recombinant protein VII and its NLS-containing domains strongly and specifically bind to importin alpha, importin beta, importin 7, and transportin, which are among the most abundant cellular nuclear import receptors. Moreover, these receptors can mediate the nuclear import of protein VII fusions in vitro in permeabilized cells. Considered together, these data support the hypothesis that protein VII is a major NLS-containing adaptor for receptor-mediated import of adenovirus DNA and that multiple import pathways are utilized to promote efficient nuclear entry of the viral genome.

  6. Directed adenovirus evolution using engineered mutator viral polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Uil, Taco G.; Vellinga, Jort; de Vrij, Jeroen; van den Hengel, Sanne K.; Rabelink, Martijn J. W. E.; Cramer, Steve J.; Eekels, Julia J. M.; Ariyurek, Yavuz; van Galen, Michiel; Hoeben, Rob C.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) are the most frequently used viruses for oncolytic and gene therapy purposes. Most Ad-based vectors have been generated through rational design. Although this led to significant vector improvements, it is often hampered by an insufficient understanding of Ad’s intricate functions and interactions. Here, to evade this issue, we adopted a novel, mutator Ad polymerase-based, ‘accelerated-evolution’ approach that can serve as general method to generate or optimize adenoviral vectors. First, we site specifically substituted Ad polymerase residues located in either the nucleotide binding pocket or the exonuclease domain. This yielded several polymerase mutants that, while fully supportive of viral replication, increased Ad’s intrinsic mutation rate. Mutator activities of these mutants were revealed by performing deep sequencing on pools of replicated viruses. The strongest identified mutators carried replacements of residues implicated in ssDNA binding at the exonuclease active site. Next, we exploited these mutators to generate the genetic diversity required for directed Ad evolution. Using this new forward genetics approach, we isolated viral mutants with improved cytolytic activity. These mutants revealed a common mutation in a splice acceptor site preceding the gene for the adenovirus death protein (ADP). Accordingly, the isolated viruses showed high and untimely expression of ADP, correlating with a severe deregulation of E3 transcript splicing. PMID:21138963

  7. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever.

    PubMed

    Warimwe, George M; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K; Al-dubaib, Musaad A; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-02-05

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A 'One Health' vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs.

  8. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Warimwe, George M.; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B. Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K.; Al-dubaib, Musaad A.; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A ‘One Health’ vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs. PMID:26847478

  9. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  10. Differential effect of aphidicolin on adenovirus DNA synthesis and cellular DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kwant, M M; van der Vliet, P C

    1980-09-11

    There is strong evidence for a participation of DNA polymerase gamma in the replication of adenovirus (Ad) DNA. To study a possible additional role of DNA polymerase alpha we measured the effect of aphidicolin on viral DNA replication. In intact cells, aphidicolin inhibits Ad DNA synthesis weakly. The drug concentration required for 50% inhibition of Ad DNA replication was 300-400 fold higher than for a similar effect on cellular DNA synthesis. Such a differential inhibition was also observed in AGMK cells doubly infected with SV40 and the simian adenovirus SA7. No evidence was found for modification of aphidicolin in infected cells or for a change in aphidicolin sensitivity of DNA polymerase alpha after infection. The extent of inhibition of purified DNA polymerase alpha was dependent upon the dCTP concentration. The same situation was observed when DNA synthesis was studied in isolated nuclei from uninfected cells. However, in nuclei from Ad infected cells no effect of dCTP on aphidicolin sensitivity was found. These results were taken as evidence that DNA polymerase alpha does not participate in the replication of adenovirus DNA.

  11. (13) C-metabolic flux analysis of human adenovirus infection: Implications for viral vector production.

    PubMed

    Carinhas, Nuno; Koshkin, Alexey; Pais, Daniel A M; Alves, Paula M; Teixeira, Ana P

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are human pathogens increasingly used as gene therapy and vaccination vectors. However, their impact on cell metabolism is poorly characterized. We performed carbon labeling experiments with [1,2-(13) C]glucose or [U-(13) C]glutamine to evaluate metabolic alterations in the amniocyte-derived, E1-transformed 1G3 cell line during production of a human adenovirus type 5 vector (AdV5). Nonstationary (13) C-metabolic flux analysis revealed increased fluxes of glycolysis (17%) and markedly PPP (over fourfold) and cytosolic AcCoA formation (nearly twofold) following infection of growing cells. Interestingly, infection of growth-arrested cells increased overall carbon flow even more, including glutamine anaplerosis and TCA cycle activity (both over 1.5-fold), but was unable to stimulate the PPP and was associated with a steep drop in AdV5 replication (almost 80%). Our results underscore the importance of nucleic and fatty acid biosynthesis for adenovirus replication. Overall, we portray a metabolic blueprint of human adenovirus infection, highlighting similarities with other viruses and cancer, and suggest strategies to improve AdV5 production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 195-207. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of fiber-modified adenovirus vector-vaccine against foot-and-mouth diseaes in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) include the use of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (Ad5) that contains the capsid encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). An Ad5.A24 has proven effective as a vaccine against FMD in swine and cattle. However, ther...

  13. A fatal case of neonatal adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Cynthia J

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus can produce severe disease and even death in the immunocompromised neonate. Symptoms of adenovirus infection are similar to those seen with bacterial infections in neonates, making early recognition and diagnosis difficult. Consideration of adenovirus as a causative agent is important to early diagnosis. Currently available culture techniques, particularly the shell vial culture technique, make more rapid identification of adenovirus infection possible. Early identification and treatment are necessary to improve patient outcomes and prevent the spread of infection to other neonates. Available agents for the treatment of adenovirus have had mixed results, yet their use is preferable to nontreatment of critical patients. This article presents the case of a preterm infant who became fatally ill from disseminated adenoviral infection.

  14. Characterization of transgenic mice containing adenovirus early region 3 genomic DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fejer, G; Gyory, I; Tufariello, J; Horwitz, M S

    1994-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (Ad) contain a complex transcription region (E3) which codes for proteins that interact with several arms of the immune system. However, E3 genes are not essential for replication in tissue culture. An E3-encoded 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) glycoprotein (gp19K) binds to the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the endoplasmic reticulum and prevents MHC transport to the cell surface. Three other E3 proteins are involved in the inhibition of apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor alpha. The entire E3 genomic DNA was utilized to produce transgenic mice to study the effect of the E3 proteins on pathogenesis of various infectious agents and to investigate the in vivo synthesis and processing of the multiple E3 mRNAs and proteins. There was basal expression of the E3 promoter in the thymus, kidneys, uterus, and testes and at all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the E3 promoter of the transgene could be activated in some other organs, including the liver, by infection of these animals with an E3-deficient Ad (Ad7001) which contains a functional E1A region. Transactivation in vivo could also be demonstrated by infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. There appeared to be differential ratios of expression between several of the E3 mRNAs in transgenic lung fibroblasts and primary kidney cells cultured from the transgenic animals. This observation suggested that there was differential mRNA splicing that was organ specific. These transgenic animals should provide a useful model for studying the effects of the E3 proteins on the immune system and on diseases affected either by control of MHC or by selected functions of tumor necrosis factor that are inhibitable by Ad E3 proteins. Images PMID:8057467

  15. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  16. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    DOE PAGES

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; ...

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  17. MYC-induced reprogramming of glutamine catabolism supports optimal virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Minh; Thaker, Shivani K.; Feng, Jun; Du, Yushen; Hu, Hailiang; Ting Wu, Ting; Graeber, Thomas G.; Braas, Daniel; Christofk, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses rewire host cell glucose and glutamine metabolism to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of viral propagation. However, the mechanism by which viruses reprogram glutamine metabolism and the metabolic fate of glutamine during adenovirus infection have remained elusive. Here, we show MYC activation is necessary for adenovirus-induced upregulation of host cell glutamine utilization and increased expression of glutamine transporters and glutamine catabolism enzymes. Adenovirus-induced MYC activation promotes increased glutamine uptake, increased use of glutamine in reductive carboxylation and increased use of glutamine in generating hexosamine pathway intermediates and specific amino acids. We identify glutaminase (GLS) as a critical enzyme for optimal adenovirus replication and demonstrate that GLS inhibition decreases replication of adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and influenza A in cultured primary cells. Our findings show that adenovirus-induced reprogramming of glutamine metabolism through MYC activation promotes optimal progeny virion generation, and suggest that GLS inhibitors may be useful therapeutically to reduce replication of diverse viruses. PMID:26561297

  18. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored Rift Valley Fever vaccine in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that historically affects livestock production and human health in sub-Saharan Africa, though epizootics have also occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. Whilst an effective live-attenuated vaccine is available for livestock, there is currently no licensed human RVF vaccine. Replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) vectors are an ideal platform for development of a human RVF vaccine, given the low prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against them in the human population, and their excellent safety and immunogenicity profile in human clinical trials of vaccines against a wide range of pathogens. Methods Here, in BALB/c mice, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAdOx1, encoding the RVF virus envelope glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are targets of virus neutralizing antibodies. The ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine was assessed in comparison to a replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector encoding Gn and Gc (HAdV5-GnGc), a strategy previously shown to confer protective immunity against RVF in mice. Results A single immunization with either of the vaccines conferred protection against RVF virus challenge eight weeks post-immunization. Both vaccines elicited RVF virus neutralizing antibody and a robust CD8+ T cell response. Conclusions Together the results support further development of RVF vaccines based on replication-deficient adenovirus vectors, with ChAdOx1-GnGc being a potential candidate for use in future human clinical trials. PMID:24304565

  19. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored Rift Valley fever vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Warimwe, George M; Lorenzo, Gema; Lopez-Gil, Elena; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Cottingham, Matthew G; Spencer, Alexandra J; Collins, Katharine A; Dicks, Matthew D J; Milicic, Anita; Lall, Amar; Furze, Julie; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2013-12-05

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that historically affects livestock production and human health in sub-Saharan Africa, though epizootics have also occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. Whilst an effective live-attenuated vaccine is available for livestock, there is currently no licensed human RVF vaccine. Replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) vectors are an ideal platform for development of a human RVF vaccine, given the low prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against them in the human population, and their excellent safety and immunogenicity profile in human clinical trials of vaccines against a wide range of pathogens. Here, in BALB/c mice, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAdOx1, encoding the RVF virus envelope glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are targets of virus neutralizing antibodies. The ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine was assessed in comparison to a replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector encoding Gn and Gc (HAdV5-GnGc), a strategy previously shown to confer protective immunity against RVF in mice. A single immunization with either of the vaccines conferred protection against RVF virus challenge eight weeks post-immunization. Both vaccines elicited RVF virus neutralizing antibody and a robust CD8+ T cell response. Together the results support further development of RVF vaccines based on replication-deficient adenovirus vectors, with ChAdOx1-GnGc being a potential candidate for use in future human clinical trials.

  20. Anti-Tumor Activity of a miR-199-dependent Oncolytic Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Elisa; Elamin, Bahaeldin K.; D’Abundo, Lucilla; Falzoni, Simonetta; Donvito, Giovanna; Moshiri, Farzaneh; Milazzo, Maddalena; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Giacomelli, Luciano; Fornari, Francesca; Hemminki, Akseli; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Gramantieri, Laura; Negrini, Massimo; Sabbioni, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The down-regulation of miR-199 occurs in nearly all primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and HCC cell lines in comparison with normal liver. We exploited this miR-199 differential expression to develop a conditionally replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-199T, and achieve tumor-specific viral expression and replication. To this aim, we introduced four copies of miR-199 target sites within the 3’ UTR of E1A gene, essential for viral replication. As consequence, E1A expression from Ad-199T virus was tightly regulated both at RNA and protein levels in HCC derived cell lines, and replication controlled by the level of miR-199 expression. Various approaches were used to asses in vivo properties of Ad-199T. Ad-199T replication was inhibited in normal, miR-199 positive, liver parenchyma, thus resulting in reduced hepatotoxicity. Conversely, the intrahepatic delivery of Ad-199T in newborn mice led to virus replication and fast removal of implanted HepG2 liver cancer cells. The ability of Ad-199T to control tumor growth was also shown in a subcutaneous xenograft model in nude mice and in HCCs arising in immune-competent mice. In summary, we developed a novel oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-199T, which could demonstrate a therapeutic potential against liver cancer without causing significant hepatotoxicity. PMID:24069256

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided.

  2. Use of macrophages to target therapeutic adenovirus to human prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Muthana, Munitta; Giannoudis, Athina; Scott, Simon D; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Coffelt, Seth B; Morrow, Fiona J; Murdoch, Craig; Burton, Julian; Cross, Neil; Burke, Bernard; Mistry, Roshna; Hamdy, Freddie; Brown, Nicola J; Georgopoulos, Lindsay; Hoskin, Peter; Essand, Magnus; Lewis, Claire E; Maitland, Norman J

    2011-03-01

    New therapies are required to target hypoxic areas of tumors as these sites are highly resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Monocytes continuously extravasate from the bloodstream into tumors where they differentiate into macrophages and accumulate in hypoxic areas, thereby opening up the possibility of using these cells as vehicles to deliver gene therapy to these otherwise inaccessible sites. We describe a new cell-based method that selectively targets an oncolytic adenovirus to hypoxic areas of prostate tumors. In this approach, macrophages were cotransduced with a hypoxia-regulated E1A/B construct and an E1A-dependent oncolytic adenovirus, whose proliferation is restricted to prostate tumor cells using prostate-specific promoter elements from the TARP, PSA, and PMSA genes. When such cotransduced cells reach an area of extreme hypoxia, the E1A/B proteins are expressed, thereby activating replication of the adenovirus. The virus is subsequently released by the host macrophage and infects neighboring tumor cells. Following systemic injection into mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic prostate tumors, cotransduced macrophages migrated into hypoxic tumor areas, upregulated E1A protein, and released multiple copies of adenovirus. The virus then infected neighboring cells but only proliferated and was cytotoxic in prostate tumor cells, resulting in the marked inhibition of tumor growth and reduction of pulmonary metastases. This novel delivery system employs 3 levels of tumor specificity: the natural "homing" of macrophages to hypoxic tumor areas, hypoxia-induced proliferation of the therapeutic adenovirus in host macrophages, and targeted replication of oncolytic virus in prostate tumor cells.

  3. Treatment of melanoma with a serotype 5/3 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus coding for GM-CSF: Results in vitro, in rodents and in humans.

    PubMed

    Bramante, Simona; Kaufmann, Johanna K; Veckman, Ville; Liikanen, Ilkka; Nettelbeck, Dirk M; Hemminki, Otto; Vassilev, Lotta; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Oksanen, Minna; Heiskanen, Raita; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Matikainen, Sampsa; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Koski, Anniina; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic melanoma is refractory to irradiation and chemotherapy, but amenable to immunological approaches such as immune-checkpoint-inhibiting antibodies or adoptive cell therapies. Oncolytic virus replication is an immunogenic phenomenon, and viruses can be armed with immunostimulatory molecules. Therefore, oncolytic immuno-virotherapy of malignant melanoma is an appealing approach, which was recently validated by a positive phase 3 trial. We investigated the potency of oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF on a panel of melanoma cell lines and animal models, and summarized the melanoma-specific human data from the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP). The virus effectively eradicated human melanoma cells in vitro and subcutaneous SK-MEL-28 melanoma xenografts in nude mice when combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide. Furthermore, virally-expressed granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated the differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages. In contrast to human cells, RPMI 1846 hamster melanoma cells exhibited no response to oncolytic viruses and the chimeric 5/3 fiber failed to increase the efficacy of transduction, suggesting limited utility of the hamster model in the context of viruses with this capsid. In ATAP, treatments appeared safe and well-tolerated. Four out of nine melanoma patients treated were evaluable for possible therapy benefit with modified RECIST criteria: one patient had minor response, two had stable disease, and one had progressive disease. Two patients were alive at 559 and 2,149 days after treatment. Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF showed promising efficacy in preclinical studies and possible antitumor activity in melanoma patients refractory to other forms of therapy. This data supports continuing the clinical development of oncolytic adenoviruses for treatment of malignant melanoma.

  4. Evolution and Cryo-electron Microscopy Capsid Structure of a North American Bat Adenovirus and Its Relationship to Other Mastadenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Hackenbrack, Nicole; Rogers, Matthew B.; Ashley, Robert E.; Keel, M. Kevin; Kubiski, Steven V.; Bryan, John A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C.; Hafenstein, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the first description of adenoviruses in bats in 2006, a number of micro- and megabat species in Europe, Africa, and Asia have been shown to carry a wide diversity of adenoviruses. Here, we report on the evolutionary, biological, and structural characterization of a novel bat adenovirus (BtAdV) recovered from a Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) in Kentucky, USA, which is the first adenovirus isolated from North American bats. This virus (BtAdV 250-A) exhibits a close phylogenetic relationship with Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A), as previously observed with other BtAdVs. To further investigate the relationships between BtAdVs and CAdVs, we conducted mass spectrometric analysis and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the BtAdV 250-A capsid and also analyzed the in vitro host ranges of both viruses. Our results demonstrate that BtAdV 250-A represents a new mastadenovirus species that, in contrast to CAdV, has a unique capsid morphology that contains more prominent extensions of protein IX and can replicate efficiently in a phylogenetically diverse range of species. These findings, in addition to the recognition that both the genetic diversity of BtAdVs and the number of different bat species from disparate geographic regions infected with BtAdVs appears to be extensive, tentatively suggest that bats may have served as a potential reservoir for the cross-species transfer of adenoviruses to other hosts, as theorized for CAdV. IMPORTANCE Although many adenoviruses are host specific and likely codiverged with their hosts over millions of years, other adenoviruses appear to have emerged through successful cross-species transmission events on more recent time scales. The wide geographic distribution and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats and their close phylogenetic relationship to Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A) has raised important questions about how CAdV A, and possibly other mammalian adenoviruses

  5. Evolution and Cryo-electron Microscopy Capsid Structure of a North American Bat Adenovirus and Its Relationship to Other Mastadenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hackenbrack, Nicole; Rogers, Matthew B; Ashley, Robert E; Keel, M Kevin; Kubiski, Steven V; Bryan, John A; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C; Hafenstein, Susan L; Allison, Andrew B

    2017-01-15

    Since the first description of adenoviruses in bats in 2006, a number of micro- and megabat species in Europe, Africa, and Asia have been shown to carry a wide diversity of adenoviruses. Here, we report on the evolutionary, biological, and structural characterization of a novel bat adenovirus (BtAdV) recovered from a Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) in Kentucky, USA, which is the first adenovirus isolated from North American bats. This virus (BtAdV 250-A) exhibits a close phylogenetic relationship with Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A), as previously observed with other BtAdVs. To further investigate the relationships between BtAdVs and CAdVs, we conducted mass spectrometric analysis and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the BtAdV 250-A capsid and also analyzed the in vitro host ranges of both viruses. Our results demonstrate that BtAdV 250-A represents a new mastadenovirus species that, in contrast to CAdV, has a unique capsid morphology that contains more prominent extensions of protein IX and can replicate efficiently in a phylogenetically diverse range of species. These findings, in addition to the recognition that both the genetic diversity of BtAdVs and the number of different bat species from disparate geographic regions infected with BtAdVs appears to be extensive, tentatively suggest that bats may have served as a potential reservoir for the cross-species transfer of adenoviruses to other hosts, as theorized for CAdV. Although many adenoviruses are host specific and likely codiverged with their hosts over millions of years, other adenoviruses appear to have emerged through successful cross-species transmission events on more recent time scales. The wide geographic distribution and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats and their close phylogenetic relationship to Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A) has raised important questions about how CAdV A, and possibly other mammalian adenoviruses, may have emerged

  6. Developing Novel Oncolytic Adenoviruses through Bioselection

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wen; Kitzes, Galila; Dormishian, Farid; Hawkins, Lynda; Sampson-Johannes, Adam; Watanabe, Josh; Holt, Jenny; Lee, Vivian; Dubensky, Thomas; Fattaey, Ali; Hermiston, Terry; Balmain, Allan; Shen, Yuqiao

    2003-01-01

    Mutants of human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) with enhanced oncolytic activity were isolated by using a procedure termed bioselection. Two mutants, ONYX-201 and ONYX-203, were plaque purified from a pool of randomly mutagenized Ad5 that was repeatedly passaged in the human colorectal cancer cell line HT29, and they were subsequently characterized. ONYX-201 and ONYX-203 replicated more rapidly in HT29 cells than wild-type Ad5, and they lysed HT29 cells up to 1,000-fold more efficiently. The difference was most profound when cells were infected at a relatively low multiplicity of infection, presumably due to the compounding effects of multiple rounds of infection. This enhanced cytolytic activity was observed not only in HT29 cells but also in many other human cancer cell lines tested. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of the bioselected mutants in a number of normal primary human cells was similar to that of wild-type Ad5, thus enhancing the therapeutic index (cytotoxicity in tumor cells versus that in normal cells) of these oncolytic agents. Both ONYX-201 and -203 contain seven single-base-pair mutations when compared with Ad5, four of which were common between ONYX-201 and -203. The mutation at nucleotide 8350, shared by both mutant viruses, was shown to be essential for the observed phenotypes. This mutation was mapped to the i-leader region of the major late transcription unit, resulting in the truncation of 21 amino acids from the C terminus of the i-leader protein. This work demonstrates that bioselection is a powerful tool for developing novel tumor-selective oncolytic viruses. Other potential applications of this technology are discussed. PMID:12552003

  7. Isolation and Characterization of an Avian Adenovirus-Associated Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Vance J.; El Mishad, Abla M.; McCormick, Kenneth J.; Trentin, John J.

    1973-01-01

    An 18- to 20-nm virus particle was isolated from the Olson strain of quail bronchitis, an avian adenovirus. On density gradient separation the small virions were primarily found at densities of 1.39 and 1.42 g/cm3. The majority of the infectious particles were at the heavier density. The virus had a hexagonal outline and contained single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. It was resistant to heating at 56 C for more than an hour and was not inactivated by treatment with chloroform or low pH. Purified virus did not agglutinate erythrocytes of various avian and mammalian species. Replication of the small particles occurred either in chicken embryos or in cultures of embryo kidney cells coinfected with an adenovirus helper. Antigenically the virus was distinct from the adeno-associated viruses types 1, 2, 3, and 4. The virus is the avian equivalent of the adeno-associated viruses of primates and lower animals. Images PMID:4351971

  8. Fluctuating expression of microRNAs in adenovirus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxing; Chen, Maoshan; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Pettersson, Ulf

    2015-04-01

    The changes in cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression during the course of an adenovirus type 2 infection in human lung fibroblast were studied by deep RNA sequencing. Expressions of 175 miRNAs with over 100 transcripts per million nucleotides were changed more than 1.5-fold. The expression patterns of these miRNAs changed dramatically during the course of the infection, from upregulation of the miRNAs known as tumor suppressors (such as miR-22, miR-320, let-7, miR-181b, and miR-155) and down-regulation of oncogenic miRNAs (such as miR-21 and miR-31) early to downregulation of tumor suppressor miRNAs (such as let-7 family, mir-30 family, 23/27 cluster) and upregulation of oncogenic miRNAs (include miR-125, miR-27, miR-191) late after infection. The switch in miRNA expression pattern occurred when adenovirus DNA replication started. Furthermore, deregulation of cellular miRNA expression was a step-wise and special sets of miRNAs were deregulated in different phases of infection.

  9. Adenovirus with DNA Packaging Gene Mutations Increased Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Wechman, Stephen L.; Rao, Xiao-Mei; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have been extensively manipulated for the development of cancer selective replication, leading to cancer cell death or oncolysis. Clinical studies using E1-modified oncolytic Ads have shown that this therapeutic platform was safe, but with limited efficacy, indicating the necessity of targeting other viral genes for manipulation. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic Ads, we treated the entire Ad genome repeatedly with UV-light and have isolated AdUV which efficiently lyses cancer cells as reported previously (Wechman, S. L. et al. Development of an Oncolytic Adenovirus with Enhanced Spread Ability through Repeated UV Irradiation and Cancer Selection. Viruses 2016, 8, 6). In this report, we show that no mutations were observed in the early genes (E1 or E4) of AdUV while several mutations were observed within the Ad late genes which have structural or viral DNA packaging functions. This study also reported the increased release of AdUV from cancer cells. In this study, we found that AdUV inhibits tumor growth following intratumoral injection. These results indicate the potentially significant role of the viral late genes, in particular the DNA packaging genes, to enhance Ad oncolysis. PMID:27999391

  10. Adenovirus Replaces Mitotic Checkpoint Controls

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Roberta L.; Groitl, Peter; Dobner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with adenovirus triggers the cellular DNA damage response, elements of which include cell death and cell cycle arrest. Early adenoviral proteins, including the E1B-55K and E4orf3 proteins, inhibit signaling in response to DNA damage. A fraction of cells infected with an adenovirus mutant unable to express the E1B-55K and E4orf3 genes appeared to arrest in a mitotic-like state. Cells infected early in G1 of the cell cycle were predisposed to arrest in this state at late times of infection. This arrested state, which displays hallmarks of mitotic catastrophe, was prevented by expression of either the E1B-55K or the E4orf3 genes. However, E1B-55K mutant virus-infected cells became trapped in a mitotic-like state in the presence of the microtubule poison colcemid, suggesting that the two viral proteins restrict entry into mitosis or facilitate exit from mitosis in order to prevent infected cells from arresting in mitosis. The E1B-55K protein appeared to prevent inappropriate entry into mitosis through its interaction with the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53. The E4orf3 protein facilitated exit from mitosis by possibly mislocalizing and functionally inactivating cyclin B1. When expressed in noninfected cells, E4orf3 overcame the mitotic arrest caused by the degradation-resistant R42A cyclin B1 variant. IMPORTANCE Cells that are infected with adenovirus type 5 early in G1 of the cell cycle are predisposed to arrest in a mitotic-like state in a p53-dependent manner. The adenoviral E1B-55K protein prevents entry into mitosis. This newly described activity for the E1B-55K protein appears to depend on the interaction between the E1B-55K protein and the tumor suppressor p53. The adenoviral E4orf3 protein facilitates exit from mitosis, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of cyclin B1. By preventing entry into mitosis and by promoting exit from mitosis, these adenoviral proteins act to prevent the infected cell from arresting in a

  11. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, G A; Anderson, C W

    1981-01-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. Cells reconstructed from infected human karyoplasts and monkey cytoplasts expressed fiber, whereas cells reconstructed from infected monkey karyoplasts and human cytoplasts did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide. Furthermore, they suggest that the translational apparatus of monkey cells is competent to translate functional fiber mRNA synthesized in human cells. Images PMID:7218436

  12. Suicide gene therapy using adenovirus vector for human oral squamous carcinoma cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hayashi, Yasushi; Kagami, Hideaki; Fukui, Takafumi; Fukuhara, Hirokazu; Tohnai, Iwai; Ueda, Minoru; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yoshida, Jun

    2005-06-01

    Recently, suicide gene therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene followed by ganciclovir (GCV) administration was evaluated for the treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of suicide gene therapy using the replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector for human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines. To evaluate transduction efficiency, each cell line was transduced in vitro with an adenovirus vector containing the beta-galactosidase gene. By 24 hours after transduction, nearly 100% of the cells were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10, and from 30 to 10% at an MOI of 1. Next, each cell line was transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the HSVtk gene, and a subsequent administration of GCV for the assessment of suicide gene therapy. A subsequent administration of GCV resulted in complete tumor cell death. In addition, we conducted a morphological analysis of that cell death using video-enhanced contrast differential interference contrast microscopy, and we observed that it included both apoptosis and necrosis after HSVtk gene and GCV treatment. These results suggest that adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy induced remarkable cytotoxicity with a bystander effect in human oral squamous cell carcinoma thus suggesting an effective treatment strategy for that tumor.

  13. Establishment of higher passage PER.C6 cells for adenovirus manufacture.

    PubMed

    Berdichevsky, Marina; Gentile, Marie-Pierre; Hughes, Benjamin; Meis, Peter; Peltier, Joseph; Blumentals, Ilse; Auniņs, John; Altaras, Nedim Emil

    2008-01-01

    PER.C6 cells, an industrially relevant cell line for adenovirus manufacture, were extensively passaged in serum-free suspension cell culture to better adapt them to process conditions. The changes in cell physiology that occurred during this passaging were characterized by investigating cell growth, cell size, metabolism, and cultivation of replication-deficient adenovirus. The changes in cell physiology occurred gradually as the population doubling level, the number of times the cell population had doubled, increased. Higher passage PER.C6 (HP PER.C6) proliferated at a specific growth rate of 0.043 h(-1), 2-fold faster than lower passage PER.C6, and were capable of proliferation from lower inoculation cell densities. HP PER.C6 cell volume was 16% greater, and cellular yields on glucose, lactate, oxygen, and amino acids were greater as well. In batch cultures, HP PER.C6 cells volumetrically produced 3-fold more adenovirus, confirmed with three different constructs. The increase in productivity was also seen on a cell-specific basis. Although HP PER.C6 were more sensitive to the "cell density effect", requiring lower infection cell densities for optimal specific productivity, they proliferated more after infection than lower passage PER.C6, increasing the number of cells available for virus production. The extensive passaging established HP PER.C6 cells with several desirable attributes for adenovirus manufacture.

  14. Pulmonary vasculature directed adenovirus increases epithelial lining fluid alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.

    PubMed

    Buggio, Maurizio; Towe, Christopher; Annan, Anand; Kaliberov, Sergey; Lu, Zhi Hong; Stephens, Calvin; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Curiel, David T

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy for inherited serum deficiency disorders has previously been limited by the balance between obtaining adequate expression and causing hepatic toxicity. Our group has previously described modifications of a replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 that increase pulmonary vasculature transgene expression. In the present study, we use a modified pulmonary targeted adenovirus to express human alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in C57BL/6 J mice. Using the targeted adenovirus, we were able to achieve similar increases in serum A1AT levels with less liver viral uptake. We also increased pulmonary epithelial lining fluid A1AT levels by more than an order of magnitude compared to that of untargeted adenovirus expressing A1AT in a mouse model. These gains are achieved along with evidence of decreased systemic inflammation and no evidence for increased inflammation within the vector-targeted end organ. In addition to comprising a step towards clinically viable gene therapy for A1AT, maximization of protein production at the site of action represents a significant technical advancement in the field of systemically delivered pulmonary targeted gene therapy. It also provides an alternative to the previous limitations of hepatic viral transduction and associated toxicities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Replicating vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  16. Crystal structure of raptor adenovirus 1 fibre head and role of the beta-hairpin in siadenovirus fibre head domains.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh H; Ballmann, Mónika Z; Do, Huyen T; Truong, Hai N; Benkő, Mária; Harrach, Balázs; van Raaij, Mark J

    2016-06-22

    Most adenoviruses recognize their host cells via an interaction of their fibre head domains with a primary receptor. The structural framework of adenovirus fibre heads is conserved between the different adenovirus genera for which crystal structures have been determined (Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus and Siadenovirus), but genus-specific differences have also been observed. The only known siadenovirus fibre head structure, that of turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), revealed a twisted beta-sandwich resembling the reovirus fibre head architecture more than that of other adenovirus fibre heads, plus a unique beta-hairpin embracing a neighbouring monomer. The TAdV-3 fibre head was shown to bind sialyllactose. Raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1) fibre head was expressed, crystallized and its structure was solved and refined at 1.5 Å resolution. The structure could be solved by molecular replacement using the TAdV-3 fibre head structure as a search model, despite them sharing a sequence identity of only 19 %. Versions of both the RAdV-1 and TAdV-3 fibre heads with their beta-hairpin arm deleted were prepared and their stabilities were compared with the non-mutated proteins by a thermal unfolding assay. The structure of the RAdV-1 fibre head contains the same twisted ABCJ-GHID beta-sandwich and beta-hairpin arm as the TAdV-3 fibre head. However, while the predicted electro-potential surface charge of the TAdV-3 fibre head is mainly positive, the RAdV-1 fibre head shows positively and negatively charged patches and does not appear to bind sialyllactose. Deletion of the beta-hairpin arm does not affect the structure of the raptor adenovirus 1 fibre head and only affects the stability of the RAdV-1 and TAdV-3 fibre heads slightly. The high-resolution structure of RAdV-1 fibre head is the second known structure of a siadenovirus fibre head domain. The structure shows that the siadenovirus fibre head structure is conserved, but differences in the predicted surface charge

  17. A simple method for the simultaneous detection of E1A and E1B in adenovirus stocks.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Erika; Murata, Takehide; Watanabe, Sanae; Kujime, Yukari; Hirose, Megumi; Pan, Jianzhi; Yamazaki, Takahito; Ugai, Hideyo; Yokoyama, Kazunari K

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors have been developed for use as therapeutic agents and for the introduction of exogenous genes into living cells. However, the occurrence of replication-competent adenoviruses (RCA) in adenovirus stocks produced in 293 cells remains a major problem in terms of the safe use of such vectors. To overcome the problems associated with the occurrence of RCA, we have established a simple method for the simultaneous detection of amplified E1A and E1B from RCA that might contaminate adenoviral stocks. The products amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were fractionated by regular electrophoresis on agarose gels and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. This method is rapid and inexpensive for detection of RCA in the preparation of adenoviruses.

  18. Inducible Overexpression of a Toxic Protein by an Adenovirus Vector with a Tetracycline-Regulatable Expression Cassette†

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Bernard; Couture, France; Lamoureux, Linda; Mosser, Dick D.; Guilbault, Claire; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bélanger, François; Langelier, Yves

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed two new adenovirus expression cassettes that expand both the range of genes which can be expressed with adenovirus vectors (AdV) and the range of cells in which high-level expression can be attained. By inclusion of a tetracycline-regulated promoter in the transfer vector pAdTR5, it is now possible to generate recombinant adenoviruses expressing proteins that are either cytotoxic or that interfere with adenovirus replication. We have used this strategy to generate a recombinant adenovirus encoding a deletion in the R1 subunit [R1(Δ2-357)] of the herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase. Cell lines expressing the tetracycline-regulated transactivator (tTA) from an integrated vector or following infection with an AdV expressing tTA are able to produce ΔR1 protein at a level approaching 10% total cell protein (TCP) when infected with Ad5TR5ΔR1 before they subsequently die. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the overexpression of a toxic gene product with AdV. We have also constructed a new constitutive adenovirus expression cassette based on an optimized cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-enhancer that allows the expression of recombinant proteins at a level greater than 20% TCP in nonpermissive cell lines. Together, these new expression cassettes significantly improve the utility of the adenovirus system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in animal cells and will undoubtedly find useful applications in gene therapy. PMID:9499088

  19. E1B and E4 oncoproteins of adenovirus antagonize the effect of apoptosis inducing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Roberta L.; Wilkinson, John C.; Ornelles, David A.

    2014-05-15

    Adenovirus inundates the productively infected cell with linear, double-stranded DNA and an abundance of single-stranded DNA. The cellular response to this stimulus is antagonized by the adenoviral E1B and E4 early genes. A mutant group C adenovirus that fails to express the E1B-55K and E4ORF3 genes is unable to suppress the DNA-damage response. Cells infected with this double-mutant virus display significant morphological heterogeneity at late times of infection and frequently contain fragmented nuclei. Nuclear fragmentation was due to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. The release of AIF was dependent on active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which appeared to be activated by viral DNA replication. Nuclear fragmentation did not occur in AIF-deficient cells or in cells treated with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The E1B-55K or E4ORF3 proteins independently prevented nuclear fragmentation subsequent to PARP-1 activation, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of PAR-modified proteins. - Highlights: • E1B-55K or E4orf3 prevents nuclear fragmentation. • Nuclear fragmentation requires AIF and PARP-1 activity. • Adenovirus DNA replication activates PARP-1. • E1B-55K or E4orf3 proteins alter the distribution of PAR.

  20. High expression of functional adenovirus DNA polymerase and precursor terminal protein using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Stunnenberg, H G; Lange, H; Philipson, L; van Miltenburg, R T; van der Vliet, P C

    1988-01-01

    Initiation of Adenovirus (Ad) DNA replication occurs by a protein-priming mechanism in which the viral precursor terminal protein (pTP) and DNA polymerase (pol) as well as two nuclear DNA-binding proteins from uninfected HeLa cells are required. Biochemical studies on the pTP and DNA polymerase proteins separately have been hampered due to their low abundance and their presence as a pTP-pol complex in Ad infected cells. We have constructed a genomic sequence containing the large open reading frame from the Ad5 pol gene to which 9 basepairs from a putative exon were ligated. When inserted behind a modified late promoter of vaccinia virus the resulting recombinant virus produced enzymatically active 140 kDa Ad DNA polymerase. The same strategy was applied to express the 80 kDa pTP gene in a functional form. Both proteins were overexpressed at least 30-fold compared to extracts from Adenovirus infected cells and, when combined, were fully active for initiation in an in vitro Adenovirus DNA replication system. Images PMID:3362670

  1. Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates from Previously Vaccinated Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ADENOVIRUS ISOLATES FROM PREVIOUSLY VACCINATED YOUNG ADULTS D. A. Blasiole...Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates From Previously Vaccinated Young Adults . 6. AUTHORS Daniel A Blasiole, David Metzgar, Luke T Daum, Margaret AK

  2. A genetic fiber modification to achieve matrix-metalloprotease-activated infectivity of oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    José, Anabel; Rovira-Rigau, Maria; Luna, Jeroni; Giménez-Alejandre, Marta; Vaquero, Eva; García de la Torre, Beatriz; Andreu, David; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2014-10-28

    Selective tumor targeting of oncolytic adenovirus at the level of cell entry remains a major challenge to improve efficacy and safety. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are overexpressed in a variety of tumors and in particular in pancreatic cancer. In the current work, we have exploited the expression of MMPs together with the penetration capabilities of a TAT-like peptide to engineer tumor selective adenoviruses. We have generated adenoviruses containing CAR-binding ablated fibers further modified with a C-terminus TAT-like peptide linked to a blocking domain by an MMP-cleavable sequence. This linker resulted in a MMP-dependent cell transduction of the reporter MMP-activatable virus AdTATMMP and in efficient transduction of neoplastic cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Intravenous and intraductal administration of AdTATMMP into mice showed very low AdTATMMP activity in the normal pancreas, whereas increased transduction was observed in pancreatic tumors of transgenic Ela-myc mice. Intraductal administration of AdTATMMP into mice bearing orthotopic tumors led to a 25-fold increase in tumor targeting compared to the wild type fiber control. A replication competent adenovirus, Ad(RC)MMP, with the MMP-activatable fiber showed oncolytic efficacy and increased antitumor activity compared to Adwt in a pancreatic orthotopic model. Reduced local and distant metastases were observed in Ad(RC)MMP treated-mice. Moreover, no signs of pancreatic toxicity were detected. We conclude that MMP-activatable adenovirus may be beneficial for pancreatic cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an adenovirus type 35-based circumsporozoite malaria vaccine in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Creech, C Buddy; Dekker, Cornelia L; Ho, Dora; Phillips, Shanda; Mackey, Sally; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Grazia Pau, Maria; Hendriks, Jenny; Brown, Valerie; Dally, Leonard G; Versteege, Isabella; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Malaria results in over 650 000 deaths each year; thus, there is an urgent need for an effective vaccine. Pre-clinical studies and recently reported human trials suggest that pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines can provide protection against infection. A Phase 1, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted with a vaccine composed of a replication-deficient adenovirus-35 backbone with P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) surface antigen (Ad35.CS.01). Healthy adult subjects received three doses of 108, 109, 1010, or 1011 vp/mL Ad35.CS.01 vaccine or saline placebo intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6-mo intervals. Adverse events were assessed and anti-CS antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Seventy-two individuals were enrolled, with age, gender, and ethnicity similar across each study arm. While the vaccine was generally well tolerated, adverse events were more frequent in the highest dose groups (1010 and 1011 vp/mL). More robust humoral responses were also noted at the highest doses, with 73% developing a positive ELISA response after the three dose series of 1011 vp/mL. The Ad35.CS.01 vaccine was most immunogenic at the highest dosages (1010 and 1011 vp/mL). Reactogenicity findings were more common after the 1011 vp/mL dose, although most were mild or moderate in nature and resolved without therapy. PMID:23955431

  4. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an adenovirus type 35-based circumsporozoite malaria vaccine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Creech, C Buddy; Dekker, Cornelia L; Ho, Dora; Phillips, Shanda; Mackey, Sally; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Grazia Pau, Maria; Hendriks, Jenny; Brown, Valerie; Dally, Leonard G; Versteege, Isabella; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2013-12-01

    Malaria results in over 650,000 deaths each year; thus, there is an urgent need for an effective vaccine. Pre-clinical studies and recently reported human trials suggest that pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines can provide protection against infection. A Phase 1, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted with a vaccine composed of a replication-deficient adenovirus-35 backbone with P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) surface antigen (Ad35.CS.01). Healthy adult subjects received three doses of 10 (8), 10 (9), 10 (10), or 10 (11) vp/mL Ad35.CS.01 vaccine or saline placebo intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6-mo intervals. Adverse events were assessed and anti-CS antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Seventy-two individuals were enrolled, with age, gender, and ethnicity similar across each study arm. While the vaccine was generally well tolerated, adverse events were more frequent in the highest dose groups (10 (10) and 10 (11) vp/mL). More robust humoral responses were also noted at the highest doses, with 73% developing a positive ELISA response after the three dose series of 10 (11) vp/mL. The Ad35.CS.01 vaccine was most immunogenic at the highest dosages (10 (10) and 10 (11) vp/mL). Reactogenicity findings were more common after the 10 (11) vp/mL dose, although most were mild or moderate in nature and resolved without therapy.

  5. Synthesis, cellular localization, and quantification of penton-dodecahedron in serotype 3 adenovirus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fender, P. . E-mail: fender@ibs.fr; Boussaid, A.; Mezin, P.; Chroboczek, J.

    2005-09-30

    Adenovirus penton is a non-covalent complex composed of the penton base and fiber proteins, localized at the twelve vertices of the icosahedral virus capsid. In cells infected by adenovirus serotype 3 (Ad3), penton is found not only in the virus capsid but also self-assembled in dodecahedra formed through interactions between the twelve penton bases. In this study, the intracellular trafficking of penton proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus has been followed, and the nuclear re-arrangement induced by viral infection has been observed by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. The amount of dodecahedra has been assessed in relation to the number of Ad3 infectious virions produced during the Ad3 replication cycle. It appears that dodecahedra are produced in a large excess over viral infectious particles and that they are located intranuclearly along the nuclear membrane of Ad3-infected cells at late times of infection.

  6. Synthesis, cellular localization, and quantification of penton-dodecahedron in serotype 3 adenovirus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Fender, P; Boussaid, A; Mezin, P; Chroboczek, J

    2005-09-30

    Adenovirus penton is a non-covalent complex composed of the penton base and fiber proteins, localized at the twelve vertices of the icosahedral virus capsid. In cells infected by adenovirus serotype 3 (Ad3), penton is found not only in the virus capsid but also self-assembled in dodecahedra formed through interactions between the twelve penton bases. In this study, the intracellular trafficking of penton proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus has been followed, and the nuclear re-arrangement induced by viral infection has been observed by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. The amount of dodecahedra has been assessed in relation to the number of Ad3 infectious virions produced during the Ad3 replication cycle. It appears that dodecahedra are produced in a large excess over viral infectious particles and that they are located intranuclearly along the nuclear membrane of Ad3-infected cells at late times of infection.

  7. Simian adenovirus type 35 has a recombinant genome comprising human and simian adenovirus sequences, which predicts its potential emergence as a human respiratory pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Shoaleh; Seto, Jason; Jones, Morris S.; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Seto, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Emergent human and simian adenoviruses (HAdVs) may arise from genome recombination. Computational analysis of SAdV type 35 reveals a genome comprising a chassis with elements mostly from two simian adenoviruses, SAdV-B21 and -B27, and regions of high sequence similarity shared with HAdV-B21 and HAdV-B16. Although recombination direction cannot be determined, the presence of these regions suggests prior infections of humans by an ancestor of SAdV-B35, and/or vice versa. Absence of this virus in humans may reflect non-optimal conditions for zoonosis. The presence of both a critical viral replication element found in HAdV genomes and genes that are highly similar to ones in HAdVs suggest the potential to establish in a human host. This allows a prediction that this virus may be a nascent human respiratory pathogen. The recombination potential of human and simian adenovirus genomes should be considered in the use of SAdVs as vectors for gene delivery in humans. PMID:24210123

  8. Rotavirus and adenovirus gastroenteritis: time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Cem; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Turkay, Hakan; Bakici, Mustafa Zahir; Güven, Ahmet Sami; Elaldi, Nazif

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of changes in weather conditions (monthly average temperature, monthly minimum temperature, monthly average humidity) on rotavirus and adenovirus gastroenteritis frequency and whether there was a seasonal correlation. Between 2006 and 2012, 4702 fecal samples were taken from patients ≤ 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis; these samples were analyzed in terms of rotavirus group A and adenovirus serotype 40-41 antigens using time-series and negative binomial regression analysis. Rotavirus antigens were found in 797 samples (17.0%), adenovirus antigens in 113 samples (2.4%), and rotavirus and adenovirus antigens together in 16 samples (0.3%). There was a seasonal change in rotavirus gastroenteritis (P < 0.001), and a 1°C decrease in average temperature increased the ratio of rotavirus cases in those with diarrhea by 0.523%. In addition, compared with data from other years, the number of patients was lower in the first month of 2008 and in the second month of 2012, when the temperature was below -20°C (monthly minimum temperature). There was no statistically significant relationship between adenovirus infection and change in weather conditions. Various factors such as change in weather conditions, as well as the population's sensitivity and associated changes in activity, play a role in the spread of rotavirus infection. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Elasticity and Binding of Adenovirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Garrett; Negishi, Atsuko; Seeger, Adam; McCarty, Doug; Taylor, Russell; Samulshi, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    1999-11-01

    Adenovirus was the first human virus found to cause the transformation of cells and is one of the more common vectors being used for the development of gene therapy. As such, much is known about the viral structure and genome; however, the events of the early infection cycle, such as binding of the virus to the cell membrane and the release of genetic material from the capsid, for this and other nonenveloped viruses, are not fully understood. With the atomic force microscope (AFM) we are able to image the virus in both air and liquids, allowing us to change the surrounding environment, varying such physiologically relevant parameters as osmolality or pH. We additionally have the ability to do manipulations on single virus particles in these environments using the nanoManipulator. The nanoManipulator is an advanced interface for AFM that allows real time three dimensional rendering of the topographical data, allows the sample surface to be non-destructively felt using a hand held stylus that responds to the information being sensed at the tip, and allows controlled modification of the surface. Using this tool we have translated single virions over various surfaces, allowing us to measure the adhesion between the capsid and these surfaces. Additionally, we are able to place the tip directly atop individual viruses and measure their elasticity under a compressive load being supplied by that tip. We can explore how this property changes as a function of the properties of the surrounding liquid.

  10. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  11. Adenovirus Serotype 14 Infection, New Brunswick, Canada, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Garceau, Richard; Thibault, Louise; Oussedik, Youcef; Bastien, Nathalie; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    We describe 3 culture-proven cases of adenovirus serotype 14 infection in New Brunswick, Canada, during the summer of 2011. Strains isolated from severely ill patients were closely related to strains of a genomic variant, adenovirus 14p1, circulating in the United States and Ireland. Physicians in Canada should be aware of this emerging adenovirus. PMID:23260201

  12. A Novel Psittacine Adenovirus Identified During an Outbreak of Avian Chlamydiosis and Human Psittacosis: Zoonosis Associated with Virus-Bacterium Coinfection in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wan-Mui; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Zhang, Anna J. X.; Sridhar, Siddharth; Wong, Sally C. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Chan, Andy S. F.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lo, Janice Y. C.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydophila psittaci is found worldwide, but is particularly common among psittacine birds in tropical and subtropical regions. While investigating a human psittacosis outbreak that was associated with avian chlamydiosis in Hong Kong, we identified a novel adenovirus in epidemiologically linked Mealy Parrots, which was not present in healthy birds unrelated to the outbreak or in other animals. The novel adenovirus (tentatively named Psittacine adenovirus HKU1) was most closely related to Duck adenovirus A in the Atadenovirus genus. Sequencing showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome consists of 31,735 nucleotides. Comparative genome analysis showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome contains 23 open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence similarity to known adenoviral genes, and six additional ORFs at the 3′ end of the genome. Similar to Duck adenovirus A, the novel adenovirus lacks LH1, LH2 and LH3, which distinguishes it from other viruses in the Atadenovirus genus. Notably, fiber-2 protein, which is present in Aviadenovirus but not Atadenovirus, is also present in Psittacine adenovirus HKU1. Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 had pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 50.3–54.0% for the DNA polymerase, 64.6–70.7% for the penton protein, and 66.1–74.0% for the hexon protein with other Atadenovirus. The C. psittaci bacterial load was positively correlated with adenovirus viral load in the lung. Immunostaining for fiber protein expression was positive in lung and liver tissue cells of affected parrots, confirming active viral replication. No other viruses were found. This is the first documentation of an adenovirus-C. psittaci co-infection in an avian species that was associated with a human outbreak of psittacosis. Viral-bacterial co-infection often increases disease severity in both humans and animals. The role of viral-bacterial co-infection in animal-to-human transmission of infectious agents has not received sufficient attention and should

  13. A novel psittacine adenovirus identified during an outbreak of avian chlamydiosis and human psittacosis: zoonosis associated with virus-bacterium coinfection in birds.

    PubMed

    To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Chan, Wan-Mui; Choi, Garnet K Y; Zhang, Anna J X; Sridhar, Siddharth; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Chan, Andy S F; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Lo, Janice Y C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydophila psittaci is found worldwide, but is particularly common among psittacine birds in tropical and subtropical regions. While investigating a human psittacosis outbreak that was associated with avian chlamydiosis in Hong Kong, we identified a novel adenovirus in epidemiologically linked Mealy Parrots, which was not present in healthy birds unrelated to the outbreak or in other animals. The novel adenovirus (tentatively named Psittacine adenovirus HKU1) was most closely related to Duck adenovirus A in the Atadenovirus genus. Sequencing showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome consists of 31,735 nucleotides. Comparative genome analysis showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome contains 23 open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence similarity to known adenoviral genes, and six additional ORFs at the 3' end of the genome. Similar to Duck adenovirus A, the novel adenovirus lacks LH1, LH2 and LH3, which distinguishes it from other viruses in the Atadenovirus genus. Notably, fiber-2 protein, which is present in Aviadenovirus but not Atadenovirus, is also present in Psittacine adenovirus HKU1. Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 had pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 50.3-54.0% for the DNA polymerase, 64.6-70.7% for the penton protein, and 66.1-74.0% for the hexon protein with other Atadenovirus. The C. psittaci bacterial load was positively correlated with adenovirus viral load in the lung. Immunostaining for fiber protein expression was positive in lung and liver tissue cells of affected parrots, confirming active viral replication. No other viruses were found. This is the first documentation of an adenovirus-C. psittaci co-infection in an avian species that was associated with a human outbreak of psittacosis. Viral-bacterial co-infection often increases disease severity in both humans and animals. The role of viral-bacterial co-infection in animal-to-human transmission of infectious agents has not received sufficient attention and should be

  14. Late-phase miRNA-controlled oncolytic adenovirus for selective killing of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fillat, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-specific detargeting by miRNAs has been demonstrated to be a potent strategy to restrict adenoviral replication to cancer cells. These studies have generated adenoviruses with miRNA target sites placed in the 3′UTR of early gene products. In this work, we have studied the feasibility of providing tissue-specific selectivity to replication-competent adenoviruses through the regulation of the late structural protein fiber (L5 gene). We have engineered a 3′UTR containing eight miR-148a binding sites downstream the L5 coding sequence (Ad-L5-8miR148aT). We present in vitro and in vivo evidences of Ad-L5-8miR148aT miRNA-dependent regulation. In vitro data show that at 72 hours post-infection miR-148a-regulation impaired fiber expression leading to a 70% reduction of viral release. The application of seven consecutive rounds of infection in miR-148a cells resulted in 10.000-fold reduction of viral genomes released. In vivo, liver production of infective viral particles was highly impaired, similarly to that triggered by an adenovirus with miRNA target sites regulating the early E1A gene. Noticeably, mice treated with Ad-L5-8miR148aT showed an attenuation of adenoviral-induced hepatotoxicity but retained full lytic activity in cancer cells and exhibited robust antitumoral responses in patient-derived xenografts. Thus, miRNA-control of late proteins constitutes a novel strategy to provide selectivity to adenoviruses. PMID:25714032

  15. Multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A24 subunit vaccine in cattle using direct homologous challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularl...

  16. Early detection and visualization of human adenovirus serotype 5-viral vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus or luciferase transgenes in cell lines and bovine tissues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vaccines containing capsid-coding regions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been demonstrated to induce effective immune responses and provide homologous protective immunity against FMDV in cattle. However, basic mechanisms ...

  17. Rapid Adenovirus typing method for species identification.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Fabienne; Wittkop, Linda; Bader, Clément; Kassab, Somar; Tumiotto, Camille; Berciaud, Sylvie; Wodrich, Harald; Lafon, Marie-Edith

    2017-11-01

    Adenoviruses are characterized by a large variability, reflected by their classification in species A to G. Certain species, eg A and C, could be associated with increased clinical severity, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts suggesting that in some instances species identification provides clinically relevant information. Here we designed a novel "pVI rapid typing method" to obtain quick, simple and cost effective species assignment for Adenoviruses, thanks to combined fusion temperature (Tm) and amplicon size analysis. Rapid typing results were compared to Sanger sequencing in the hexon gene for 140 Adenovirus-positive clinical samples included in the Typadeno study. Species A and C could be identified with a 100% positive predictive value, thus confirming the value of this simple typing method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational analysis of human adenovirus serotype 18

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael P.; Seto, Jason; Tirado, Damaris; Chodosh, James; Schnurr, David; Seto, Donald; Jones, Morris S.

    2010-01-01

    The genome of the sole remaining unsequenced member of species A, human adenovirus type 18 (HAdV-A18), has been sequenced and analyzed. Members of species A are implicated as gastrointestinal pathogens and were shown to be tumorigenic in rodents. These whole genome and in silico proteome data are important as references for re-examining and integrating earlier work and observations based on lower resolution techniques, such as restriction enzyme digestion patterns, particularly for hypotheses based on pre-genomics data. Additionally, the genome of HAdV-A18 will also serve as reference for current studies examining the molecular evolution and origins of human and simian adenoviruses, particularly genome recombination studies. Applications of this virus as a potential vector for gene delivery protocols may be practical as data accumulates on this and other adenovirus genomes. PMID:20542532

  19. HUMAN ADENOVIRUS TYPE 37 AND THE BALB/C MOUSE: PROGRESS TOWARD A RESTRICTED ADENOVIRUS KERATITIS MODEL (AN AMERICAN OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY THESIS)

    PubMed Central

    Chodosh, James

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To establish a mouse model of adenovirus keratitis in order to study innate immune mechanisms in the adenovirus-infected cornea. Methods Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts were inoculated with human adenovirus (HAdV) serotypes 8, 19, or 37 and observed for cytopathic effect. Viral growth titers were performed, and apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. Viral and host cytokine gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR in cultured Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and in the corneas of virus-injected Balb/c mice. Western blot analysis was performed to detect cell signaling in the virus-infected cornea. Results Only HAdV37 induced cytopathic effect in mouse cells. Viral gene expression was limited, and viral replication was not detected. Apoptotic cell death in HAdV37-infected Balb/c cells was evident 48 and 72 hours postinfection (P < .01). MCP-1, IL-6, KC, and IP-10 mRNA levels were increased maximally by 8.4, 9.6, 10.5, and 20.0-fold, respectively, at 30 to 90 minutes after HAdV37 infection. Similar cytokine elevations were observed in the corneas of Balb/c mice 4 hours after stromal injection of HAdV37, when viral gene expression for the viral capsid protein IIIa was not detected. Western blot showed increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at 4 and 24 hours after corneal infection. Conclusions Despite limited viral gene expression, HAdV37 infection of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts results in increased proinflammatory gene expression. A similar pattern of cytokine expression in the corneas of HAdV37-infected Balb/c mice suggests the mouse adenoviral keratitis model may be useful for the study of early innate immune responses in the adenovirus-infected corneal stroma. PMID:17471351

  20. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... your provider should weigh this risk against the benefits of getting a correct diagnosis for a medical ...

  1. Circumvention of Immunity to the Adenovirus Major Coat Protein Hexon

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumitra; Shirley, Pamela S.; McClelland, Alan; Kaleko, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Immunity to adenoviruses is an important hurdle to be overcome for successful gene therapy. The presence of antibodies to the capsid proteins prevents efficacious adenovirus vector administration in vivo. We tested whether immunity to a particular serotype of adenovirus (Ad5) may be overcome with a vector that encodes the hexon sequences from a different adenovirus serotype (Ad12). We successfully constructed an adenovirus vector with a chimeric Ad5-Ad12 hexon which was not neutralized by plasma from C57BL/6 mice immunized with Ad5. The vector was also capable of transducing the livers of C57BL/6 mice previously immunized with Ad5. PMID:9658137

  2. Lovastatin enhances adenovirus-mediated TRAIL induced apoptosis by depleting cholesterol of lipid rafts and affecting CAR and death receptor expression of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youhong; Chen, Lin; Gong, Zhicheng; Shen, Liangfang; Kao, Chinghai; Hock, Janet M; Sun, Lunquan; Li, Xiong

    2015-02-20

    Oncolytic adenovirus and apoptosis inducer TRAIL are promising cancer therapies. Their antitumor efficacy, when used as single agents, is limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have low infection activity, and cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we explored combining prostate-restricted replication competent adenovirus-mediated TRAIL (PRRA-TRAIL) with lovastatin, a commonly used cholesterol-lowering drug, as a potential therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Lovastatin significantly enhanced the efficacy of PRRA-TRAIL by promoting the in vivo tumor suppression, and the in vitro cell killing and apoptosis induction, via integration of multiple molecular mechanisms. Lovastatin enhanced PRRA replication and virus-delivered transgene expression by increasing the expression levels of CAR and integrins, which are critical for adenovirus 5 binding and internalization. Lovastatin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing death receptor DR4 expression. These multiple effects of lovastatin on CAR, integrins and DR4 expression were closely associated with cholesterol-depletion in lipid rafts. These studies, for the first time, show correlations between cholesterol/lipid rafts, oncolytic adenovirus infection efficiency and the antitumor efficacy of TRAIL at the cellular level. This work enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support use of lovastatin, in combination with PRRA-TRAIL, as a candidate strategy to treat human refractory prostate cancer in the future.

  3. Lovastatin enhances adenovirus-mediated TRAIL induced apoptosis by depleting cholesterol of lipid rafts and affecting CAR and death receptor expression of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhicheng; Shen, Liangfang; Kao, Chinghai; Hock, Janet M.; Sun, Lunquan; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus and apoptosis inducer TRAIL are promising cancer therapies. Their antitumor efficacy, when used as single agents, is limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have low infection activity, and cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we explored combining prostate-restricted replication competent adenovirus-mediated TRAIL (PRRA-TRAIL) with lovastatin, a commonly used cholesterol-lowering drug, as a potential therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Lovastatin significantly enhanced the efficacy of PRRA-TRAIL by promoting the in vivo tumor suppression, and the in vitro cell killing and apoptosis induction, via integration of multiple molecular mechanisms. Lovastatin enhanced PRRA replication and virus-delivered transgene expression by increasing the expression levels of CAR and integrins, which are critical for adenovirus 5 binding and internalization. Lovastatin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing death receptor DR4 expression. These multiple effects of lovastatin on CAR, integrins and DR4 expression were closely associated with cholesterol-depletion in lipid rafts. These studies, for the first time, show correlations between cholesterol/lipid rafts, oncolytic adenovirus infection efficiency and the antitumor efficacy of TRAIL at the cellular level. This work enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support use of lovastatin, in combination with PRRA-TRAIL, as a candidate strategy to treat human refractory prostate cancer in the future. PMID:25605010

  4. Characterization of human adenovirus 35 and derivation of complex vectors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vectors based on human serotype 35 (Ad35) are desirable due to the relatively low prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in the human population. The structure of the viral genome and life cycle of Ad35 differs from the better characterized Ad5 and these differences require differences in the strategies for the generation of vectors for gene delivery. Results Sequences essential for E1 and E4 function were identified and removed and the effects of the deletions on viral gene transcription were determined. In addition, the non-essential E3 region was deleted from rAd35 vectors and a sequence was found that did not have an effect on viability but reduced viral fitness. The packaging capacity of rAd35 was dependent on pIX and vectors were generated with stable genome sizes of up to 104% of the wild type genome size. These data were used to make an E1-, E3-, E4-deleted rAd35 vector. This rAd35 vector with multiple gene deletions has the advantages of multiple blocks to viral replication (i.e., E1 and E4 deletions) and a transgene packaging capacity of 7.6 Kb, comparable to rAd5 vectors. Conclusions The results reported here allow the generation of larger capacity rAd35 vectors and will guide the derivation of adenovirus vectors from other serotypes. PMID:20959004

  5. CENTRIOLE REPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Joseph G.

    1961-01-01

    This paper describes the replication of centrioles during spermatogenesis in the Prosobranch snail, Viviparus malleatus Reeve. Sections for electron microscopy were cut from pieces of testis fixed in OsO4 and embedded in the polyester resin Vestopal W. Two kinds of spermatocytes are present. These give rise to typical uniflagellate sperm carrying the haploid number of 9 chromosomes, and atypical multiflagellate sperm with only one chromosome. Two centrioles are present in the youngest typical spermatocyte. Each is a hollow cylinder about 160 mµ in diameter and 330 mµ long. The wall consists of 9 sets of triplet fibers arranged in a characteristic pattern. Sometime before pachytene an immature centriole, or procentriole as it will be called, appears next to each of the mature centrioles. The procentriole resembles a mature centriole in most respects except length: it is more annular than tubular. The daughter procentriole lies with its axis perpendicular to that of its parent. It presumably grows to full size during the late prophase, although the maturation stages have not been observed with the electron microscope. It is suggested that centrioles possess a constant polarization. The distal end forms the flagellum or other centriole products, while the proximal end represents the procentriole and is concerned with replication. The four centrioles of prophase (two parents and two daughters) are distributed by the two meiotic divisions to the four typical spermatids, in which they function as the basal bodies of the flagella. Atypical spermatocytes at first contain two normal centrioles. Each of these becomes surrounded by a cluster of procentrioles, which progressively elongate during the late prophase. After two aberrant meiotic divisions the centriole clusters give rise to the basal bodies of the multiflagellate sperm. These facts are discussed in the light of the theory, first proposed by Pollister, that the supernumerary centrioles in the atypical cells are

  6. Immunologic and Genetic Selection of Adenovirus Vaccine Strains: Synthesis and Characterization of Adenovirus Antigens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    exhibited strikingly different chromatographic characteristics. 2. Effect of proflavine on the synthesis of adenovirus, type 5, and associated soluble...antigens. The synthesis of type 5 adenovirus in HeLa cells was suppressed to a considerable extent by low concentrations of proflavine , an acridine dye...chemical. Addition of proflavine to infected cells at different times during the virus growth cycle revealed that the processes leading to the synthesis

  7. Effect of Exposure to UV-C Irradiation and Monochloramine on Adenovirus Serotype 2 Early Protein Expression and DNA Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Shisler, Joanna L.; Mariñas, Benito J.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of adenovirus serotype 2 inactivation with either UV light (with a narrow emission spectrum centered at 254 nm) or monochloramine were investigated by assessing the potential inhibition of two key steps of the adenovirus life cycle, namely, E1A protein synthesis and viral genomic replication. E1A early protein synthesis was assayed by using immunoblotting, while the replication of viral DNA was analyzed by using slot blotting. Disinfection experiments were performed in phosphate buffer solutions at pH 8 and room temperature (UV) or 20°C (monochloramine). Experimental results revealed that normalized E1A levels at 12 h postinfection (p.i.) were statistically the same as the corresponding decrease in survival ratio for both UV and monochloramine disinfection. Normalized DNA levels at 24 h p.i. were also found to be statistically the same as the corresponding decrease in survival ratio for monochloramine disinfection. In contrast, for UV disinfection, genomic DNA levels were much lower than E1A or survival ratios, possibly as a result of a delay in DNA replication for UV-treated virions compared to that for controls. Future efforts will determine the pre-E1A synthesis step in the adenovirus life cycle affected by exposure to UV and monochloramine, with the goal of identifying the viral molecular target of these two disinfectants. PMID:18424543

  8. Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with Hsp70 gene exerts effective antitumor efficacy in gastric cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiguo; Ji, Weidan; Hu, Huanzhang; Ma, Juming; Li, Xiaoya; Mei, Weiqun; Xu, Yang; Hu, Huizhen; Yan, Yan; Song, Qizhe; Li, Zhigang; Su, Changqing

    2014-01-15

    Gene therapy is a promising adjuvant therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. To overcome the limitations of current gene therapy, such as poor transfection efficiency of vectors, low levels of transgene expression and lack of tumor targeting, the Survivin promoter was used to regulate the selective replication of oncolytic adenovirus in tumor cells, and the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) gene was loaded as the anticancer transgene to generate an AdSurp-Hsp70 viral therapy system. The efficacy of this targeted immunotherapy was examined in gastric cancer. The experiments showed that the oncolytic adenovirus can selectively replicate in and lyse the Survivin-positive gastric cancer cells, without significant toxicity to normal cells. AdSurp-Hsp70 reduced viability of cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth of gastric cancer xenografts in immuno-deficient and immuno-reconstruction mouse models. AdSurp-Hsp70 produced dual antitumor effects due to viral replication and high Hsp70 expression. This therapeutic system used the Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus vector to mediate targeted expression of the Hsp70 gene and ensure safety and efficacy for subsequent gene therapy programs against a variety of cancers.

  9. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of an adenovirus-PEI-bile-acid complex in tumors with low coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cho-Hee; Kasala, Dayananda; Na, Youjin; Lee, Min Sang; Kim, Sung Wan; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2014-07-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is a potential vehicle for cancer gene therapy. However, cells that express low levels of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) demonstrate poor Ad infection efficiency. We developed a bile acid-conjugated poly(ethyleneimine) (DA3)-coated Ad complex (Ad/DA3) to enhance Ad transduction efficiency. The size distribution and zeta potential of Ad/DA3 increased to 324 ± 3.08 nm and 10.13 ± 0.21 mV, respectively, compared with those of naked Ad (108 ± 2.26 nm and -17.7 ± 1.5 mV). The transduction efficiency of Ad/DA3 increased in a DA3 polymer concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced gene transfer by Ad/DA3 was more evident in CAR-moderate and CAR-negative cancer cells. Competition assays with a CAR-specific antibody revealed that internalization of Ad/DA3 was not mediated primarily by CAR but involved clathrin-, caveolae-, and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis. Cancer cell death was significantly increased when oncolytic Ad and DA3 were complexed (RdB-KOX/DA3) compared to that of naked oncolytic Ad and was inversely proportional to CAR levels. Importantly, RdB-KOX/DA3 significantly enhanced apoptosis, reduced angiogenesis, reduced proliferation, and increased active viral replication in human tumor xenografts compared to that of naked Ad. These results demonstrate that a hybrid vector system can increase the efficacy of oncolytic Ad virotherapy, particularly in CAR-limited tumors.

  10. Proposed Nomenclature for Mutants of Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Harold S.; Williams, James F.; Doerfler, Walter H.; Shimojo, Hiroto

    1973-01-01

    In accord with the nomenclature proposed for mutants of simian virus 40 the same rules, with minor modifications, are recommended for naming mutants of adenoviruses. It is further suggested that these rules, which pertain to a system of classification based primarily upon complementation analysis, also be applied to mutants of other DNA-containing animal viruses. PMID:4355864

  11. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.; Scheres, S. H. W., Menendez-Conejero, R.; Dmitriev, I. P.; Curiel, D. T.; Flint, S. J.; San Martin, C.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particles as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.

  12. Inactivation of adenovirus type 5 by caustics.

    PubMed

    Jannat, Risat; Hsu, David; Maheshwari, Gargi

    2005-01-01

    Adenovirus shows significant promise as a vehicle for transfer of therapeutic genes into humans. Based on the importance of this viral vector, it is critical that adequate decontamination procedures are implemented during its large-scale production in multiproduct manufacturing facilities to prevent cross-product contamination and to reduce the risk of personnel exposure. Liquid decontamination procedures based on caustics are easily implemented in a manufacturing setting and are not corrosive to stainless steel surfaces at the concentrations found to inactivate viral proteins and nucleic acids. In this study, we have conducted small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of caustic inactivation procedures on adenovirus type 5 and have evaluated the robustness of the process to different sample matrices and adenovirus constructs. We find that the pH of a sample post-addition of caustic solution is a more accurate indicator of the effectiveness of the caustic than its concentration. We have demonstrated that a greater than 6 log reduction in the potency of adenovirus type 5 may be obtained upon exposure of the sample to sodium hydroxide and CIP-100 at concentrations greater than 0.09 M and 0.9%, respectively, at times greater than 10 min.

  13. A differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cell culture model for studying human adenovirus tropism and virulence.

    PubMed

    Lam, E; Ramke, M; Groos, S; Warnecke, G; Heim, A

    2011-12-01

    The species specificity of human adenoviruses (HAdV) almost precludes studying virulence and tropism in animal models, e.g. rodent models, or derived tissue and cell culture models. However, replication of HAdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) has been shown after intravenous injection in swine. In order to study adenovirus replication in airway tissue propagation of bronchial epithelial cells from porcine lungs was established. These primary cells proved to be fully permissive for HAdV-C5 infection in submerged culture, demonstrating efficient HAdV genome replication, infectious viral particle release (1.07×10(8) TCID(50)/ml±6.63×10(7)) and development of cytopathic effect (CPE). Differentiation of porcine bronchial epithelial cells was achieved at the air-liquid interface on collagen I coated 0.4μm polyester membranes. Morphology, expression of tubulin and occludin, the development of tight-junctions and cilia were similar to human bronchial epithelial cells. Infection with HAdV-C5 from the basolateral side resulted in release of infectious virus progeny (2.05×10(7) TCID(50)/ml±2.39×10(7)) to the apical surface as described recently in human bronchial epithelial cells, although complete CPE was not observed. Differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cells hold promise as a novel method for studying the virulence and pathophysiology of pneumonia associated HAdV types.

  14. Identification of FAM111A as an SV40 Host Range Restriction and Adenovirus Helper Factor

    PubMed Central

    Padi, Megha; Korkhin, Anna; James, Robert L.; Adelmant, Guillaume; Yoon, Rosa; Guo, Luxuan; Berrios, Christian; Zhang, Ying; Calderwood, Michael A.; Velmurgan, Soundarapandian; Cheng, Jingwei; Marto, Jarrod A.; Hill, David E.; Cusick, Michael E.; Vidal, Marc; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and FAM111A, a previously uncharacterized protein. Depletion of FAM111A recapitulated the effects of heterologous expression of the LT C-terminal region, including increased viral gene expression and lytic infection of SV40 host range mutants and adenovirus replication in restrictive cells. FAM111A functions as a host range restriction factor that is specifically targeted by SV40 LT. PMID:23093934

  15. Transduction of skin-migrating dendritic cells by human adenovirus 5 occurs via an actin-dependent phagocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Efrain; Taylor, Geraldine; Hope, Jayne; Herbert, Rebecca; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Charleston, Bryan

    2016-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are central to the initiation of immune responses, and various approaches have been used to target vaccines to DC in order to improve immunogenicity. Cannulation of lymphatic vessels allows for the collection of DC that migrate from the skin. These migrating DC are involved in antigen uptake and presentation following vaccination. Human replication-deficient adenovirus (AdV) 5 is a promising vaccine vector for delivery of recombinant antigens. Although the mechanism of AdV attachment and penetration has been extensively studied in permissive cell lines, few studies have addressed the interaction of AdV with DC. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bovine skin-migrating DC and replication-deficient AdV-based vaccine vectors. We found that, despite lack of expression of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known adenovirus receptors, AdV readily enters skin-draining DC via an actin-dependent endocytosis. Virus exit from endosomes was pH independent, and neutralizing antibodies did not prevent virus entry but did prevent virus translocation to the nucleus. We also show that combining adenovirus with adjuvant increases the absolute number of intracellular virus particles per DC but not the number of DC containing intracellular virus. This results in increased trans-gene expression and antigen presentation. We propose that, in the absence of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known receptors, AdV5-based vectors enter skin-migrating DC using actin-dependent endocytosis which occurs in skin-migrating DC, and its relevance to vaccination strategies and vaccine vector targeting is discussed.

  16. Elimination of both E1 and E2 from adenovirus vectors further improves prospects for in vivo human gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Gorziglia, M I; Kadan, M J; Yei, S; Lim, J; Lee, G M; Luthra, R; Trapnell, B C

    1996-01-01

    A novel recombinant adenovirus vector, Av3nBg, was constructed with deletions in adenovirus E1, E2a, and E3 regions and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Av3nBg can be propagated at a high titer in a corresponding A549-derived cell line, AE1-2a, which contains the adenovirus E1 and E2a region genes inducibly expressed from separate glucocorticoid-responsive promoters. Av3nBg demonstrated gene transfer and expression comparable to that of Av1nBg, a first-generation adenovirus vector with deletions in E1 and E3. Several lines of evidence suggest that this vector is significantly more attenuated than E1 and E3 deletion vectors. Metabolic DNA labeling studies showed no detectable de novo vector DNA synthesis or accumulation, and metabolic protein labeling demonstrated no detectable de novo hexon protein synthesis for Av3nBg in naive A549 cells even at a multiplicity of infection of up to 3,000 PFU per cell. Additionally, naive A549 cells infected by Av3nBg did not accumulate infectious virions. In contrast, both Av1nBg and Av2Lu vectors showed DNA replication and hexon protein synthesis at multiplicities of infection of 500 PFU per cell. Av2Lu has a deletion in E1 and also carries a temperature-sensitive mutation in E2a. Thus, molecular characterization has demonstrated that the Av3nBg vector is improved with respect to the potential for vector DNA replication and hexon protein expression compared with both first-generation (Av1nBg) and second-generation (Av2Lu) adenoviral vectors. These observations may have important implications for potential use of adenovirus vectors in human gene therapy. PMID:8648763

  17. Systemic Delivery of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Decorin for the Treatment of Breast Cancer Bone Metastases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuefeng; Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Hu, Zebin; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R; Guise, Theresa; Yun, Chae-Ok; Brendler, Charles B; Iozzo, Renato V; Seth, Prem

    2015-12-01

    The development of novel therapies for breast cancer bone metastasis is a major unmet medical need. Toward that end, we have constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad.dcn, and a nonreplicating adenovirus, Ad(E1-).dcn, both containing the human decorin gene. Our in vitro studies showed that Ad.dcn produced high levels of viral replication and the decorin protein in the breast tumor cells. Ad(E1-).dcn-mediated decorin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells downregulated the expression of Met, β-catenin, and vascular endothelial growth factor A, all of which are recognized decorin targets and play pivotal roles in the progression of breast tumor growth and metastasis. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited cell migration and induced mitochondrial autophagy in MDA-MB-231 cells. Mice bearing MDA-MB-231-luc skeletal metastases were systemically administered with the viral vectors, and skeletal tumor growth was monitored over time. The results of bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography indicated that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn significantly inhibited the progression of bone metastases. At the terminal time point, histomorphometric analysis, micro-computed tomography, and bone destruction biomarkers showed that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn reduced tumor burden and inhibited bone destruction. A nonreplicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).luc expressing the luciferase 2 gene had no significant effect on inhibiting bone metastases, and in several assays, Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn were better than Ad.luc, a replicating virus expressing the luciferase 2 gene. Our data suggest that adenoviral replication coupled with decorin expression could produce effective antitumor responses in a MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis model of breast cancer. Thus, Ad.dcn could potentially be developed as a candidate gene therapy vector for treating breast cancer bone metastases.

  18. Systemic Delivery of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Decorin for the Treatment of Breast Cancer Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuefeng; Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Hu, Zebin; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Guise, Theresa; Yun, Chae-Ok; Brendler, Charles B.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Seth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel therapies for breast cancer bone metastasis is a major unmet medical need. Toward that end, we have constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad.dcn, and a nonreplicating adenovirus, Ad(E1-).dcn, both containing the human decorin gene. Our in vitro studies showed that Ad.dcn produced high levels of viral replication and the decorin protein in the breast tumor cells. Ad(E1-).dcn-mediated decorin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells downregulated the expression of Met, β-catenin, and vascular endothelial growth factor A, all of which are recognized decorin targets and play pivotal roles in the progression of breast tumor growth and metastasis. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited cell migration and induced mitochondrial autophagy in MDA-MB-231 cells. Mice bearing MDA-MB-231-luc skeletal metastases were systemically administered with the viral vectors, and skeletal tumor growth was monitored over time. The results of bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography indicated that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn significantly inhibited the progression of bone metastases. At the terminal time point, histomorphometric analysis, micro-computed tomography, and bone destruction biomarkers showed that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn reduced tumor burden and inhibited bone destruction. A nonreplicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).luc expressing the luciferase 2 gene had no significant effect on inhibiting bone metastases, and in several assays, Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn were better than Ad.luc, a replicating virus expressing the luciferase 2 gene. Our data suggest that adenoviral replication coupled with decorin expression could produce effective antitumor responses in a MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis model of breast cancer. Thus, Ad.dcn could potentially be developed as a candidate gene therapy vector for treating breast cancer bone metastases. PMID:26467629

  19. Molecular replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The object of our research program is to understand how polynucleotide replication originated on the primitive Earth. This is a central issue in studies of the origins of life, since a process similar to modern DNA and RNA synthesis is likely to have formed the basis for the most primitive system of genetic information transfer. The major conclusion of studies so far is that a preformed polynucleotide template under many different experimental conditions will facilitate the synthesis of a new oligonucleotide with a sequence complementary to that of the template. It has been shown, for example, that poly(C) facilitates the synthesis of long oligo(G)s and that the short template CCGCC facilities the synthesis of its complement GGCGG. Very recently we have shown that template-directed synthesis is not limited to the standard oligonucleotide substrates. Nucleic acid-like molecules with a pyrophosphate group replacing the phosphate of the standard nucleic acid backbone are readily synthesized from deoxynucleotide 3'-5'-diphosphates on appropriate templates.

  20. Molecular replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The object of our research program is to understand how polynucleotide replication originated on the primitive Earth. This is a central issue in studies of the origins of life, since a process similar to modern DNA and RNA synthesis is likely to have formed the basis for the most primitive system of genetic information transfer. The major conclusion of studies so far is that a preformed polynucleotide template under many different experimental conditions will facilitate the synthesis of a new oligonucleotide with a sequence complementary to that of the template. It has been shown, for example, that poly(C) facilitates the synthesis of long oligo(G)s and that the short template CCGCC facilities the synthesis of its complement GGCGG. Very recently we have shown that template-directed synthesis is not limited to the standard oligonucleotide substrates. Nucleic acid-like molecules with a pyrophosphate group replacing the phosphate of the standard nucleic acid backbone are readily synthesized from deoxynucleotide 3'-5'-diphosphates on appropriate templates.

  1. "Armed" oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Todo, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for brain tumors and other solid cancers. They can replicate in situ, spread and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. One of the advantages of HSV-1 is the capacity to incorporate large and/or multiple transgenes within the viral genome. Oncolytic HSV-1 can therefore be "armed" to add certain functions. Recently, the field of armed oncolytic HSV-1 has drastically advanced, due to development of recombinant HSV-1 generation systems that utilize bacterial artificial chromosome and multiple DNA recombinases. Because antitumor immunity is induced in the course of oncolytic activities of HSV-1, transgenes encoding immunomodulatory molecules have been most frequently used for arming. Other armed oncolytic HSV-1 include those that express antiangiogenic factors, fusogenic membrane glycoproteins, suicide gene products, and proapoptotic proteins. Provided that the transgene product does not interfere with viral replication, such arming of oncolytic HSV-1 results in augmentation of antitumor efficacy. Immediate-early viral promoters are often used to control the arming transgenes, but strict-late viral promoters have been shown useful to restrict the expression in the late stage of viral replication when desirable. Some armed oncolytic HSV-1 have been created for the purpose of noninvasive in vivo imaging of viral infection and replication. Development of a wide variety of armed oncolytic HSV-1 will lead to an establishment of a new genre of therapy for brain tumors as well as other cancers.

  2. Labeling of Adenovirus Particles with PARACEST Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vasalatiy, Olga; Gerard, Robert D; Zhao, Piyu; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus type 5 particles (AdCMVLuc) were labeled with two different bifunctional ligands capable of forming stable complexes with paramagnetic lanthanide ions. The number of covalently attached ligands varied between 630 and 1960 per adenovirus particle depending upon the chemical reactivity of the bifunctional ligand (NHS ester versus isothiocyanide), the amount of excess ligand added, and the reaction time. The bioactivity of each labeled adenovirus derivative, as measured by the ability of the virus to infect cells and express luciferase, was shown to be highly dependent upon the number of covalently attached ligands. This indicates that certain amino groups, likely on the surface of the adenovirus fiber protein where cell binding is known to occur, are critical for viral attachment and infection. Addition of 177Lu3+ to chemically modified versus control viruses demonstrated a significant amount of nonspecific binding of 177Lu3+ to the virus particles that could not be sequestered by addition of excess DTPA. Thus, it became necessary to implement a prelabeling strategy for conjugation of preformed lanthanide ligand chelates to adenovirus particles. Using preformed Tm3+-L2, a large number of chelates having chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties were attached to the surface residues of AdCMVLuc without nonspecific binding of metal ions elsewhere on the virus particle. The potential of such conjugates to act as PARACEST imaging agents was tested using an on-resonance WALTZ sequence for CEST activation. A 12% decrease in bulk water signal intensity was observed relative to controls. This demonstrates that viral particles labeled with PARACEST-type imaging agents can potentially serve as targeted agents for molecular imaging. PMID:18254605

  3. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, E.; Avia, M.; Rangel, G.; de Molina, A.; Alejo, A.; Sevilla, N.

    2016-01-01

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. PMID:26739058

  4. Influence of the adenovirus 5 E1A oncogene on chromatin remodelling.

    PubMed

    Mymryk, J S; Smith, M M

    1997-01-01

    In the eukaryotic nucleus, compaction of DNA into chromatin can limit the access of trans-acting factors, providing an additional level of regulation to processes such as transcription, replication, and repair. Recent studies have suggested that the protein products of the adenovirus 5 E1A oncogene can influence SWI-SNF and histone acetylase activities, two cellular processes that facilitate transcription in the context of chromatin. This review focuses on the unexpected effects of E1A on cellular processes that remodel chromatin in relation to its transcriptional and transforming activities.

  5. Oncolytic Adenovirus With Temozolomide Induces Autophagy and Antitumor Immune Responses in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liikanen, Ilkka; Ahtiainen, Laura; Hirvinen, Mari LM; Bramante, Simona; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Nokisalmi, Petri; Hemminki, Otto; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Koski, Anniina; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Pesonen, Saila K; Oksanen, Minna; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Joensuu, Timo; Zhao, Fang; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses and certain chemotherapeutics can induce autophagy and immunogenic cancer cell death. We hypothesized that the combination of oncolytic adenovirus with low-dose temozolomide (TMZ) is safe, effective, and capable of inducing antitumor immune responses. Metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) was added to selectively reduce regulatory T-cells. Preclinically, combination therapy inhibited tumor growth, increased autophagy, and triggered immunogenic cell death as indicated by elevated calreticulin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, and nuclear protein high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) secretion. A total of 41 combination treatments given to 17 chemotherapy-refractory cancer patients were well tolerated. We observed anti- and proinflammatory cytokine release, evidence of virus replication, and induction of neutralizing antibodies. Tumor cells showed increased autophagy post-treatment. Release of HMGB1 into serum—a possible indicator of immune response—increased in 60% of treatments, and seemed to correlate with tumor-specific T-cell responses, observed in 10/15 cases overall (P = 0.0833). Evidence of antitumor efficacy was seen in 67% of evaluable treatments with a trend for increased survival over matched controls treated with virus only. In summary, the combination of oncolytic adenovirus with low-dose TMZ and metronomic CP increased tumor cell autophagy, elicited antitumor immune responses, and showed promising safety and efficacy. PMID:23546299

  6. Adenoviruses associated with acute diarrhea in children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liying; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, You; Deng, Jie; Jia, Liping; Dong, Huijin

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses have been recognized as important causal pathogens of community-acquired diarrhea (CAD) among children, but their role in hospital-acquired diarrhea (HAD) is not well-understood. Hospitalized children with acute diarrhea and children who visited the outpatient department due to diarrhea were investigated from 2011 to 2012. Adenovirus was detected in stool specimens by PCR and further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. SPSS software (version 19.0) was used for statistical analyses. A total of 2233 diarrheal children were enrolled in this study; this sample was comprised of 1371 hospitalized children, including 885 with CAD (IP-CAD) and 486 with HAD, and 862 outpatients with CAD (OP-CAD). Among these 2,233 patients, adenovirus was detected in 219 cases (9.8%). The positive rates for adenovirus were significantly different between the IP-CAD (9.3%), HAD (13.8%) and OP-CAD (8.1%) cases (X² = 11.76, p = 0.003). The positive rate of adenovirus was lower in infants under six months of age compared to the positive rates in the other age groups. Of the 219 of adenovirus positive patients, 91 (41.6%) were identified as having serotype 41. Although enteric adenovirus (group F) was the most frequently detected adenovirus among children with either CAD or HAD, the role of non-enteric adenoviruses, especially the adenovirus 31 type (19.7%), cannot be ignored in diarrheal children.

  7. Adenovirus core protein VII down-regulates the DNA damage response on the host genome.

    PubMed

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Della Fera, Ashley N; Otter, Clayton J; Herrmann, Christin; Pancholi, Neha J; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2017-08-09

    Viral manipulation of cellular proteins allows viruses to suppress host defenses and generate infectious progeny. Due to the linear double-stranded DNA nature of the adenovirus genome, the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is considered a barrier for successful infection. The adenovirus genome is packaged with protein VII, a viral-encoded histone-like core protein that is suggested to protect incoming viral genomes from detection by cellular DNA damage machinery. We showed that protein VII localizes to host chromatin during infection, leading us to hypothesize that protein VII may affect DNA damage responses on the cellular genome. Here, we show that protein VII at cellular chromatin results in a significant decrease in accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) following irradiation, indicating that protein VII inhibits DDR signaling. The oncoprotein SET was recently suggested to modulate the DDR by affecting access of repair proteins to chromatin. Since protein VII binds SET, we investigated a role for SET in DDR inhibition by protein VII. We show that knockdown of SET partially rescues the protein VII-induced decrease in γH2AX accumulation on the host genome, suggesting that SET is required for inhibition. Finally, we show that knockdown of SET also allows ATM to localize to incoming viral genomes bound by protein VII during infection with a mutant lacking early region E4. Together, our data suggest that the protein VII-SET interaction contributes to DDR evasion by adenovirus. Our results provide an additional example of a strategy used by adenovirus to manipulate the host DDR and show how viruses can modify cellular processes through manipulation of host chromatin.IMPORTANCE The DNA damage response (DDR) is a cellular network crucial for maintaining genome integrity. DNA viruses replicating in the nucleus challenge the resident genome and must overcome cellular responses, including the DDR. Adenoviruses are prevalent human pathogens that can cause a

  8. The Spatiotemporal Program of Replication in the Genome of Lachancea kluyveri

    PubMed Central

    Agier, Nicolas; Romano, Orso Maria; Touzain, Fabrice; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Fischer, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    We generated a genome-wide replication profile in the genome of Lachancea kluyveri and assessed the relationship between replication and base composition. This species diverged from Saccharomyces cerevisiae before the ancestral whole genome duplication. The genome comprises eight chromosomes among which a chromosomal arm of 1 Mb has a G + C-content much higher than the rest of the genome. We identified 252 active replication origins in L. kluyveri and found considerable divergence in origin location with S. cerevisiae and with Lachancea waltii. Although some global features of S. cerevisiae replication are conserved: Centromeres replicate early, whereas telomeres replicate late, we found that replication origins both in L. kluyveri and L. waltii do not behave as evolutionary fragile sites. In L. kluyveri, replication timing along chromosomes alternates between regions of early and late activating origins, except for the 1 Mb GC-rich chromosomal arm. This chromosomal arm contains an origin consensus motif different from other chromosomes and is replicated early during S-phase. We showed that precocious replication results from the specific absence of late firing origins in this chromosomal arm. In addition, we found a correlation between GC-content and distance from replication origins as well as a lack of replication-associated compositional skew between leading and lagging strands specifically in this GC-rich chromosomal arm. These findings suggest that the unusual base composition in the genome of L. kluyveri could be linked to replication. PMID:23355306

  9. Significant inhibition of Tembusu virus envelope and NS5 gene using an adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA delivery system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Feng, Qiang; Wei, Lei; Zhuo, Liling; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang; Tang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which was first isolated in the tropics during the 1970s. Recently, a disease characterized by ovarian haemorrhage and neurological symptoms was observed in ducks in China, which threatens poultry production. However, there is no suitable vaccination strategy or effective antiviral drugs to combat TMUV infections. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a new anti-TMUV therapy. In this study, we report an efficient short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery strategy for the inhibition of TMUV production using an adenovirus vector system. Using specifically designed shRNAs based on the E and NS5 protein genes of TMUV, the vector-expressed viral genes, TMUV RNA replication and infectious virus production were downregulated at different levels in Vero cells, where the shRNA (NS52) was highly effective in inhibiting TMUV. Using the human adenovirus type 5 shRNA delivery system, the recombinant adenovirus (rAd-NS52) inhibited TMUV multiplication with high efficiency. Furthermore, the significant dose-dependent inhibition of viral RNA copies induced by rAd-NS52 was found in TMUV-infected cells, which could last for at least 96h post infection. Our results indicated that the adenovirus-mediated delivery of shRNAs could play an active role in future TMUV antiviral therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. Methods/Results We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. Conclusion In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline. PMID:20927353

  11. Genetic delivery of an immunoRNase by an oncolytic adenovirus enhances anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Hammer, Katharina; Arndt, Michaela A E; Kaufmann, Johanna K; Dorer, Dominik; Engelhardt, Sarah; Kontermann, Roland E; Hess, Jochen; Allgayer, Heike; Krauss, Jürgen; Nettelbeck, Dirk M

    2015-05-01

    Antibody therapy of solid cancers is well established, but suffers from unsatisfactory tumor penetration of large immunoglobulins or from low serum retention of antibody fragments. Oncolytic viruses are in advanced clinical development showing excellent safety, but suboptimal potency due to limited virus spread within tumors. Here, by developing an immunoRNase-encoding oncolytic adenovirus, we combine viral oncolysis with intratumoral genetic delivery of a small antibody-fusion protein for targeted bystander killing of tumor cells (viro-antibody therapy). Specifically, we explore genetic delivery of a small immunoRNase consisting of an EGFR-binding scFv antibody fragment fused to the RNase Onconase (ONC(EGFR)) that induces tumor cell death by RNA degradation after cellular internalization. Onconase is a frog RNase that combines lack of immunogenicity and excellent safety in patients with high tumor killing potency due to its resistance to the human cytosolic RNase inhibitor. We show that ONC(EGFR) expression by oncolytic adenoviruses is feasible with an optimized, replication-dependent gene expression strategy. Virus-encoded ONC(EGFR) induces potent and EGFR-dependent bystander killing of tumor cells. Importantly, the ONC(EGFR)-encoding oncolytic adenovirus showed dramatically increased cytotoxicity specifically to EGFR-positive tumor cells in vitro and significantly enhanced therapeutic activity in a mouse xenograft tumor model. The latter demonstrates that ONC(EGFR) is expressed at levels sufficient to trigger tumor cell killing in vivo. The established ONC(EGFR)-encoding oncolytic adenovirus represents a novel agent for treatment of EGFR-positive tumors. This viro-antibody therapy platform can be further developed for targeted/personalized cancer therapy by exploiting antibody diversity to target further established or emerging tumor markers or combinations thereof. © 2014 UICC.

  12. Molecular characterization of adenoviruses among finnish military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, Markos; Hemmilä, Heidi; Rönkkö, Esa; Virkki, Maria; Nikkari, Simo; Ziegler, Thedi

    2016-04-01

    Although adenoviruses were identified as important respiratory pathogens many years ago, little information is available concerning the prevalence of different adenovirus serotypes, which are circulating and causing epidemics in Finnish military training centers. Over a period of five years from 2008 to 2012, 3577 respiratory specimens were collected from military conscripts presenting with symptoms compatible with acute respiratory tract infection. Upon initial testing for certain respiratory viruses by real-time PCR, 837 of these specimens were identified as adenovirus-positive. For 672 of these specimens, the serotype of the adenovirus responsible was successfully determined by DNA sequencing. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were detected in 1, 3, 181, and 487 samples, respectively. Adenovirus epidemics were observed during each year of this study. Based on these findings, adenovirus vaccination should be considered for military conscripts in the Finnish Defence Forces.

  13. Vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing the peste des petits ruminants virus F or H proteins overcomes viral immunosuppression and induces protective immunity against PPRV challenge in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rojas, José M; Moreno, Héctor; Valcárcel, Félix; Peña, Lourdes; Sevilla, Noemí; Martín, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by the Morbillivirus peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Two recombinant replication-defective human adenoviruses serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either the highly immunogenic fusion protein (F) or hemagglutinin protein (H) from PPRV were used to vaccinate sheep by intramuscular inoculation. Both recombinant adenovirus vaccines elicited PPRV-specific B- and T-cell responses. Thus, neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera from immunized sheep. In addition, we detected a significant antigen specific T-cell response in vaccinated sheep against two different PPRV strains, indicating that the vaccine induced heterologous T cell responses. Importantly, no clinical signs and undetectable virus shedding were observed after virulent PPRV challenge in vaccinated sheep. These vaccines also overcame the T cell immunosuppression induced by PPRV in control animals. The results indicate that these adenovirus constructs could be a promising alternative to current vaccine strategies for the development of PPRV DIVA vaccines.

  14. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  15. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOWITT,J.; ANDERSON,C.W.; FREIMUTH,P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10{sup 4} high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994).

  16. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    DOE PAGES

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core ismore » more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.« less

  17. Structure and uncoating of immature adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; Marabini, Roberto; Scheres, Sjors H. W.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Curiel, David T.; Mangel, Walter F.; Flint, S. Jane; Martín, Carmen San

    2009-01-01

    Summary Maturation via proteolytical processing is a common trait in the viral world, and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins, but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion; and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytical processing are not infectious. We present the 3D structure of immature adenovirus particles, as represented by the thermosensitive mutant Ad2 ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions, and compare it with the mature capsid. Our 3DEM maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the location of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help to define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged. PMID:19563809

  18. Structure, Function and Dynamics in Adenovirus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. Finally, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed. PMID:25421887

  19. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  20. General Strategy for Broadening Adenovirus Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Laura; Nuzzo, Maurizio; Urbanelli, Lorena; Monaci, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    In spite of its broad host range, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) transduces a number of clinically relevant tissues and cell types inefficiently, mostly because of low expression of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR). To improve gene transfer to such cells, we modified the Ad5 fiber knob to recognize novel receptors. We expressed a functional Ad5 fiber knob domain on the capsid of phage λ and employed this display system to construct a large collection of ligands in the HI loop of the Ad5 knob. Panning this library on the CAR-negative mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 resulted in the identification of three clones with increased binding to these cells. Adenoviruses incorporating these ligands in the fiber gene transduced NIH 3T3 cells 2 or 3 orders of magnitude better than the parent vector. The same nonnative tropism was revealed in other cell types, independently of CAR expression. These Ad5 derivatives proved capable of transducing mouse and human primary immature dendritic cells with up to 100-fold increased efficiency. PMID:14512557

  1. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation.

    PubMed

    Mangel, Walter F; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a "molecular sled" to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. Finally, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  2. Receptor-targeted recombinant adenovirus conglomerates: a novel molecular conjugate vector with improved expression characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzenberger, P; Hunt, J D; Robert, E; Theodossiou, C; Kolls, J K

    1997-01-01

    To develop improved strategies for gene transfer to hematopoietic cells, we have explored targeted gene transfer using molecular conjugate vectors (MCVs). MCVs are constructed by condensing plasmid DNA containing the gene of interest with polylysine (PL), PL linked to a replication-incompetent adenovirus (endosomolytic agent), and PL linked to streptavidin for targeting with biotinylated ligands. In this report, we compare gene transfer to K562 cells by using the previously described transferrin-targeted MCV (Trans-MCV) to a novel transferrin-targeted MCV. In the novel MCV, the transferred gene (luciferase) is in the genome of recombinant replication-incompetent adenovirus (recMCV), which also acts as the endosomolytic agent. The level of luciferase gene expression was fivefold higher in K562 cells transfected with Trans-recMCV than in cells transfected with Trans-MCV. Furthermore, targeted transfection with recMCV resulted in prolonged luciferase expression that declined 14 to 20 days after transfection, in comparison with Trans-MCV, where luciferase expression declined by 4 to 8 days. Moreover, targeted transfection of K562 cells with the Trans-recMCV resulted in persistent luciferase gene expression for 6 months. Analysis of luciferase gene expression in K562 single-cell clones that were subcloned 5 weeks after transfection with Trans-recMCV showed that 35 to 50% of the single-cell clones had intermediate to high levels of luciferase gene expression that was stable for 6 months, with the remaining clones showing low or no luciferase gene expression. Stable gene expression was associated with integration of adenovirus sequences into genomic DNA. PMID:9343214

  3. Novel Mutant AAV2 Rep Proteins Support AAV2 Replication without Blocking HSV-1 Helpervirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Seyffert, Michael; Glauser, Daniel L.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; de Oliveira, Anna-Paula; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Vogt, Bernd; Büning, Hildegard; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    As their names imply, parvoviruses of the genus Dependovirus rely for their efficient replication on the concurrent presence of a helpervirus, such as herpesvirus, adenovirus, or papilloma virus. Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is such an example, which in turn can efficiently inhibit the replication of each helpervirus by distinct mechanisms. In a previous study we have shown that expression of the AAV2 rep gene is not compatible with efficient replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In particular, the combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities of the Rep68/78 proteins have been shown to exert opposite effects on the replication of AAV2 and HSV-1. While essential for AAV2 DNA replication these protein activities account for the Rep-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 replication. Here, we describe a novel Rep mutant (Rep-D371Y), which displayed an unexpected phenotype. Rep-D371Y did not block HSV-1 replication, but still supported efficient AAV2 replication, at least when a double-stranded AAV2 genome template was used. We also found that the capacity of Rep-D371Y to induce apoptosis and a Rep-specific DNA damage response was significantly reduced compared to wild-type Rep. These findings suggest that AAV2 Rep-helicase subdomains exert diverging activities, which contribute to distinct steps of the AAV2 life cycle. More important, the novel AAV2 mutant Rep-D371Y may allow deciphering yet unsolved activities of the AAV2 Rep proteins such as DNA second-strand synthesis, genomic integration or packaging, which all involve the Rep-helicase activity. PMID:28125695

  4. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Infection of Natural Killer Cell-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Amanda R.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Spindler, Katherine R.

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the initial nonspecific response to viral infection, and viruses exhibit a range of sensitivities to NK cells in vivo. We investigated the role of NK cells in infection of mice by mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) using antibody-mediated depletion and knockout mice. MAV-1 causes encephalomyelitis and replicates to highest levels in brains. NK cell-depleted mice infected with MAV-1 showed brain viral loads 8-20 days p.i. that were similar to wild-type control non-depleted mice. Mice genetically deficient for NK cells behaved similarly to wild-type control mice with respect to brain viral loads and survival. We conclude that NK cells are not required to control virus replication in the brains of MAV-1-infected mice. PMID:18155121

  5. Vector systems for prenatal gene therapy: principles of adenovirus design and production.

    PubMed

    Alba, Raul; Baker, Andrew H; Nicklin, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Adenoviruses have many attributes, which have made them one of the most widely investigated vectors for gene therapy applications. These include ease of genetic manipulation to produce replication-deficient vectors, ability to readily generate high titer stocks, efficiency of gene delivery into many cell types, and ability to encode large genetic inserts. Recent advances in adenoviral vector engineering have included the ability to genetically manipulate the tropism of the vector by engineering of the major capsid proteins, particularly fiber and hexon. Furthermore, simple replication-deficient adenoviral vectors deleted for expression of a single gene have been complemented by the development of systems in which the majority of adenoviral genes are deleted, generating sophisticated Ad vectors which can mediate sustained transgene expression following a single delivery. This chapter outlines methods for developing simple transgene over expressing Ad vectors and detailed strategies to engineer mutations into the major capsid proteins.

  6. Oncolytic Adenovirus Loaded with L-carnosine as Novel Strategy to Enhance the Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Mariangela; Iovine, Barbara; Kuryk, Lukasz; Capasso, Cristian; Hirvinen, Mari; Vitale, Andrea; Yliperttula, Marjo; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Oncolytic viruses are able to specifically replicate, infect, and kill only cancer cells. Their combination with chemotherapeutic drugs has shown promising results due to the synergistic action of virus and drugs; the combinatorial therapy is considered a potential clinically relevant approach for cancer. In this study, we optimized a strategy to absorb peptides on the viral capsid, based on electrostatic interaction, and used this strategy to deliver an active antitumor drug. We used L-carnosine, a naturally occurring histidine dipeptide with a significant antiproliferative activity. An ad hoc modified, positively charged L-carnosine was combined with the capsid of an oncolytic adenovirus to generate an electrostatic virus-carnosine complex. This complex showed enhanced antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo in different tumor models. In HCT-116 colorectal and A549 lung cancer cell lines, the complex showed higher transduction ratio and infectious titer compared with an uncoated oncolytic adenovirus. The in vivo efficacy of the complex was tested in lung and colon cancer xenograft models, showing a significant reduction in tumor growth. Importantly, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of complex on tumor growth reduction. We found that complex induces apoptosis in both cell lines, by using two different mechanisms, enhancing viral replication and affecting the expression of Hsp27. Our system could be used in future studies also for delivery of other bioactive drugs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 651-60. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Efficient adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into primary T cells and thymocytes in a new coxsackie/adenovirus receptor transgenic model

    PubMed Central

    Hurez, Vincent; Dzialo-Hatton, Robin; Oliver, James; Matthews, R James; Weaver, Casey T

    2002-01-01

    Background Gene transfer studies in primary T cells have suffered from the limitations of conventional viral transduction or transfection techniques. Replication-defective adenoviral vectors are an attractive alternative for gene delivery. However, naive lymphocytes are not readily susceptible to infection with adenoviruses due to insufficient expression of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor. Results To render T cells susceptible to adenoviral gene transfer, we have developed three new murine transgenic lines in which expression of the human coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (hCAR) with a truncated cytoplasmic domain (hCARΔcyt) is limited to thymocytes and lymphocytes under direction of a human CD2 mini-gene. hCARΔcyt.CD2 transgenic mice were crossed with DO11.10 T cell receptor transgenic mice (DO11.hCARΔcyt) to allow developmental studies in a defined, clonal T cell population. Expression of hCARΔcyt enabled adenoviral transduction of resting primary CD4+ T cells, differentiated effector T cells and thymocytes from DO11.hCARΔcyt with high efficiency. Expression of hCARΔcyt transgene did not perturb T cell development in these mice and adenoviral transduction of DO11.hCARΔcyt T cells did not alter their activation status, functional responses or differentiative potential. Adoptive transfer of the transduced T cells into normal recipients did not modify their physiologic localization. Conclusion The DO11.hCARΔcyt transgenic model thus allows efficient gene transfer in primary T cell populations and will be valuable for novel studies of T cell activation and differentiation. PMID:12019030

  8. Evaluation of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) as a disinfectant for adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Eric G; Yates, Kathleen A; O'Connor, Katherine E; Mah, Francis S; Shanks, Robert M Q; Kowalski, Regis P

    2013-04-01

    Swimming pools can be a vector for transmission of adenovirus ocular infections. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a disinfectant used in swimming pools and hot tubs. To determine whether PHMB is an effective disinfectant against ocular adenovirus serotypes at a concentration used to disinfect swimming pools and hot tubs. In vitro laboratory study. The direct disinfecting activity of PHMB was determined in triplicate assays by incubating 9 human adenovirus types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37) with PHMB concentrations of 50 and 0 ppm (micrograms per milliliter) for 24 hours at room temperature to simulate swimming pool temperatures or 40oC to simulate hot tub temperatures. Plaque assays were performed to determine adenovirus titers after incubation. Titers were log10 converted and mean (SD) log10 reductions relative to controls were calculated. Virucidal (>99.9%) decreases in mean adenovirus titers after PHMB treatment were determined for each adenovirus type and temperature tested. RESULTS At room temperature, 50 ppm of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 log10 for all adenovirus types tested. At 40°C, 50 ppm of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 log10 for 2 adenovirus types and greater than 1 but less than 3 log10 for 7 of 9 adenovirus types. At a concentration of 50 ppm, PHMB was not virucidal against adenovirus at temperatures consistent with swimming pools or hot tubs. Recreational water maintained and sanitized with PHMB can serve as a vector for the transmission of ocular adenovirus infections.

  9. Chemical Modification with High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycol Reduces Transduction of Hepatocytes and Increases Efficacy of Intravenously Delivered Oncolytic Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Doronin, Konstantin; Shashkova, Elena V.; May, Shannon M.; Hofherr, Sean E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Oncolytic adenoviruses are anticancer agents that replicate within tumors and spread to uninfected tumor cells, amplifying the anticancer effect of initial transduction. We tested whether coating the viral particle with polyethylene glycol (PEG) could reduce transduction of hepatocytes and hepatotoxicity after systemic (intravenous) administration of oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). Conjugating Ad5 with high molecular weight 20-kDa PEG but not with 5-kDa PEG reduced hepatocyte transduction and hepatotoxicity after intravenous injection. PEGylation with 20-kDa PEG was as efficient at detargeting adenovirus from Kupffer cells and hepatocytes as virus predosing and warfarin. Bioluminescence imaging of virus distribution in two xenograft tumor models in nude mice demonstrated that PEGylation with 20-kDa PEG reduced liver infection 19- to 90-fold. Tumor transduction levels were similar for vectors PEGylated with 20-kDa PEG and unPEGylated vectors. Anticancer efficacy after a single intravenous injection was retained at the level of unmodified vector in large established prostate carcinoma xenografts, resulting in complete elimination of tumors in all animals and long-term tumor-free survival. Anticancer efficacy after a single intravenous injection was increased in large established hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts, resulting in significant prolongation of survival as compared with unmodified vector. The increase in efficacy was comparable to that obtained with predosing and warfarin pretreatment, significantly extending the median of survival. Shielding adenovirus with 20-kDa PEG may be a useful approach to improve the therapeutic window of oncolytic adenovirus after systemic delivery to primary and metastatic tumor sites. PMID:19469693

  10. Fc-gamma receptor polymorphisms as predictive and prognostic factors in patients receiving oncolytic adenovirus treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oncolytic viruses have shown potential as cancer therapeutics, but not all patients seem to benefit from therapy. Polymorphisms in Fc gamma receptors (FcgRs) lead to altered binding affinity of IgG between the receptor allotypes and therefore contribute to differences in immune defense mechanisms. Associations have been identified between FcgR polymorphisms and responsiveness to different immunotherapies. Taken together with the increasing understanding that immunological factors might determine the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy we studied whether FcgR polymorphisms would have prognostic and/or predictive significance in the context of oncolytic adenovirus treatments. Methods 235 patients with advanced solid tumors were genotyped for two FcgR polymorphisms, FcgRIIa-H131R (rs1801274) and FcgRIIIa-V158F (rs396991), using TaqMan based qPCR. The genotypes were correlated with patient survival and tumor imaging data. Results In patients treated with oncolytic adenoviruses, overall survival was significantly shorter if the patient had an FcgRIIIa-VV/ FcgRIIa-HR (VVHR) genotype combination (P = 0,032). In contrast, patients with FFHR and FFRR genotypes had significantly longer overall survival (P = 0,004 and P = 0,006, respectively) if they were treated with GM-CSF-armed adenovirus in comparison to other viruses. Treatment of these patients with unarmed virus correlated with shorter survival (P < 0,0005 and P = 0,016, respectively). Treating FFHH individuals with CD40L-armed virus resulted in longer survival than treatment with other viruses (P = 0,047). Conclusions Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that individual differences in effector cell functions, such as NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and tumor antigen presentation by APCs caused by polymorphisms in FcgRs could play role in the effectiveness of oncolytic virotherapies. If confirmed in larger populations, FcgR polymorphisms could

  11. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Can Mimic E1A Effects on E2F

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. We report here a new function of the adenovirus 5 (Ad5) viral ligase complex that, although at lower levels, mimics effects of E1A products on E2F transcription factors. When expressed in the absence of E1A, the E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K binds E2F, disrupts E2F/retinoblastoma protein (Rb) complexes, and induces hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny of E1/E3-defective adenovirus vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins, we found, very surprisingly, that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A, the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes, thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for the ligase in regulating adenovirus replication. PMID:27303679

  12. Cytoplasmic Viral Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    den Boon, Johan A.; Diaz, Arturo; Ahlquist, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm compartmentalize their genome replication and transcription in organelle-like structures that enhance replication efficiency and protection from host defenses. In particular, recent studies with diverse positive-strand RNA viruses have further elucidated the ultrastructure of membrane-bounded RNA replication complexes and their close coordination with virion assembly and budding. The structure, function and assembly of some positive-strand RNA virus replication complexes have parallels and potential evolutionary links with the replicative cores of double-strand RNA virus and retrovirus virions, and more general similarities with the replication factories of cytoplasmic DNA viruses. PMID:20638644

  13. Intramuscular delivery of adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing humanized protective antigen induces rapid protection against anthrax that may bypass intranasally originated preexisting adenovirus immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 10⁸ infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax.

  14. Expression of porcine fusion protein IRF7/3(5D) efficiently controls foot-and-mouth disease virus replication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several studies have demonstrated that administration of type I, II, or III interferons (IFN) delivered using a replication defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector is effective to control Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, high doses are requi...

  15. Capturing and concentrating adenovirus using magnetic anionic nanobeads

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated how various enveloped viruses can be efficiently concentrated using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the virus particles and anionic beads remains unclear. To further investigate whether these magnetic anionic beads specifically bind to the viral envelope, we examined their potential interaction with a nonenveloped virus (adenovirus). The beads were incubated with either adenovirus-infected cell culture medium or nasal aspirates from adenovirus-infected individuals and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thoroughly washing the beads, adsorption of adenovirus was confirmed by a variety of techniques, including immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and cell culture infection assays. These detection methods positively identified the hexon and penton capsid proteins of adenovirus along with the viral genome on the magnetic beads. Furthermore, various types of adenovirus including Types 5, 6, 11, 19, and 41 were captured using the magnetic bead procedure. Our bead capture method was also found to increase the sensitivity of viral detection. Adenovirus below the detectable limit for immunochromatography was efficiently concentrated using the magnetic bead procedure, allowing the virus to be successfully detected using this methodology. Moreover, these findings clearly demonstrate that a viral envelope is not required for binding to the anionic magnetic beads. Taken together, our results show that this capture procedure increases the sensitivity of detection of adenovirus and would, therefore, be a valuable tool for analyzing both clinical and experimental samples. PMID:27274228

  16. Adenovirus dodecahedron allows large multimeric protein transduction in human cells.

    PubMed

    Fender, P; Schoehn, G; Foucaud-Gamen, J; Gout, E; Garcel, A; Drouet, E; Chroboczek, J

    2003-04-01

    Adenovirus dodecahedron is a virus-like particle composed of only two viral proteins of human adenovirus serotype 3 that are responsible for virus attachment and internalization. We show here that this dodecameric particle, devoid of genetic information, efficiently penetrates human cells and can deliver large multimeric proteins such as immunoglobulins.

  17. A novel adenovirus in Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-05-07

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.

  18. The search for adenovirus 14 in children in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Laham, Federico R; Jewell, Alan M; Schoonover, Shauna L; Demmler, Gail J; Piedra, Pedro A

    2008-07-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)14 has recently emerged in the United States causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease. To determine if Ad14 circulated in Houston, Texas, during the same time as an outbreak in military recruits in nearby San Antonio, 215 pediatric adenovirus isolates were serotyped using microneutralization. None were Ad14; Ad1, Ad2, and Ad3 were the most common identified serotypes.

  19. Enhanced inactivation of adenovirus under polychromatic UV lamps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adenovirus is recognized as the most UV-resistant waterborne pathogen of concern to public health microbiologists. The US EPA has stipulated that a UV fluence (dose) of 186 mJ cm-2 is required for 4-log inactivation credit in water treatment. However, all adenovirus inactivation data to date publi...

  20. Enhanced Protection against Ebola Virus Mediated by an Improved Adenovirus-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kaylie N.; Croyle, Maria A.; Strong, James E.; Feldmann, Heinz; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with bodily fluids of infected individuals, eliciting death rates as high as 90% among infected humans. Currently, replication defective adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine is being studied in a phase I clinical trial. Another Ebola vaccine, based on an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus has shown efficacy in post-exposure treatment of nonhuman primates to Ebola infection. In this report, we modified the common recombinant adenovirus serotype 5-based Ebola vaccine expressing the wild-type ZEBOV glycoprotein sequence from a CMV promoter (Ad-CMVZGP). The immune response elicited by this improved expression cassette vector (Ad-CAGoptZGP) and its ability to afford protection against lethal ZEBOV challenge in mice was compared to the standard Ad-CMVZGP vector. Methodology/Principal Findings Ad-CMVZGP was previously shown to protect mice, guinea pigs and nonhuman primates from an otherwise lethal challenge of Zaire ebolavirus. The antigenic expression cassette of this vector was improved through codon optimization, inclusion of a consensus Kozak sequence and reconfiguration of a CAG promoter (Ad-CAGoptZGP). Expression of GP from Ad-CAGoptZGP was substantially higher than from Ad-CMVZGP. Ad-CAGoptZGP significantly improved T and B cell responses at doses 10 to 100-fold lower than that needed with Ad-CMVZGP. Additionally, Ad-CAGoptZGP afforded full protections in mice against lethal challenge at a dose 100 times lower than the dose required for Ad-CMVZGP. Finally, Ad-CAGoptZGP induced full protection to mice when given 30 minutes post-challenge. Conclusions/Significance We describe an improved adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine capable of affording post-exposure protection against lethal challenge in mice. The molecular modifications of the new improved vaccine also translated in the induction of significantly enhanced immune responses and complete protection at a dose 100 times lower than with the previous generation

  1. Time-dependent biodistribution and transgene expression of a recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5-luciferase vector as a surrogate agent for rAd5-FMDV vaccines in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5 (rAd5) vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) transgenes elicit a robust immune response to FMDV challenge in cattle; however vaccine function mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recent efforts addressing critical interactions of rAd5 ...

  2. Group C adenovirus DNA sequences in human lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.; Palkonyay, L.; Weber, J.

    1986-07-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy adults, cord blood lymphocytes, and lymphoblastoid cell lines were screened by hybridization for the presence of group C adenovirus DNA sequences. In 13 of 17 peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from adults, 1 of 10 cord blood samples, and seven of seven lymphoblastoid cell lines tested, results were positive for Group C adenovirus DNA (adenovirus 1 (Ad1), Ad2, Ad5, or Ad6). About 1 to 2% of the lymphocytes carried 50 to 100 viral genome copies per positive cell, as estimated by in situ hybridization. Infectious virus representing all members of group C were recovered, but cultivation in the presence of adenovirus antibody did not cure the cells of free viral genomes. Viral DNA was found in B, T, and N cells but only in 1 of 10 cord blood samples. The results suggest that group C adenovirus infectious in childhood result in the persistence of the viral genome in circulating lymphocytes.

  3. Replication of Tobamovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2016-08-04

    Tobacco mosaic virus and other tobamoviruses have served as models for studying the mechanisms of viral RNA replication. In tobamoviruses, genomic RNA replication occurs via several steps: (a) synthesis of viral replication proteins by translation of the genomic RNA; (b) translation-coupled binding of the replication proteins to a 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA; (c) recruitment of the genomic RNA by replication proteins onto membranes and formation of a complex with host proteins TOM1 and ARL8; (d) synthesis of complementary (negative-strand) RNA in the complex; and (e) synthesis of progeny genomic RNA. This article reviews current knowledge on tobamovirus RNA replication, particularly regarding how the genomic RNA is specifically selected as a replication template and how the replication proteins are activated. We also focus on the roles of the replication proteins in evading or suppressing host defense systems.

  4. Adenovirus DNA-binding protein forms a multimeric protein complex with double-stranded DNA and enhances binding of nuclear factor I.

    PubMed Central

    Stuiver, M H; van der Vliet, P C

    1990-01-01

    The 72-kilodalton adenovirus DNA-binding protein (DBP) binds to single-stranded DNA as well as to RNA and double-stranded DNA and is essential for the replication of viral DNA. We investigated the binding of DBP to double-stranded DNA by gel retardation analysis. By using a 114-base-pair DNA fragment, five or six different complexes were observed by gel retardation. The mobility of these complexes is dependent on the DBP concentration, suggesting that the complexes arise by sequential binding of DBP molecules to the DNA. In contrast to binding to single-stranded DNA, the binding of DBP to double-stranded DNA appears to be noncooperative. DBP binds to linear DNA as well as to circular DNA, while linear DNA containing the adenovirus terminal protein was also recognized. No specificity for adenovirus origin sequences was observed. To study whether the binding of DBP could influence initiation of DNA replication, we analyzed the effect of DBP on the binding of nuclear factor I (NFI) and NFIII, two sequence-specific origin-recognizing proteins that enhance initiation. At subsaturating levels of NFI, DBP increases the rate of binding of NFI considerably, while no effect was seen on NFIII. This stimulation of NFI binding is specific for DBP and was not observed with another protein (NFIV), which forms a similar DNA-multimeric protein complex. In agreement with enhanced NFI binding, DBP stimulates initiation of adenovirus DNA replication in vitro especially strongly at subsaturating NFI concentrations. We explain our results by assuming that DBP forms a complex with origin DNA that promotes formation of an alternative DNA structure, thereby facilitating the binding of NFI as well as the initiation of DNA replication via NFI. Images PMID:2293667

  5. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yueting; Stamminger, Thomas; Hearing, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad) replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT). IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib), a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection. PMID:26809031

  6. Bicalutamide Activated Oncolytic Adenovirus for the Adjuvant Therapy of High Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tamara Jane; Hoti, Naser Uddin; Liu, Chunyan; Chowdhury, Wasim H.; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yonggang; Lupold, Shawn E.; DeWeese, Theodore; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) utilize tissue specific promoters to control the expression of the early genes, E1A and E1B, to preferentially replicate and lyse tumor cells (oncolysis). Previous CRAds used in prostate cancer gene therapy require androgens to activate prostate specific promoters and induce viral replication. Unfortunately, these CRAds have reduced activity in patients on androgen suppressive therapy. We describe a novel prostate specific CRAd generated by fusing the E1A gene to the androgen receptor (AR) cDNA with a point mutation in codon 685 (C685Y). The E1A-AR fusion neutralizes the previously described mutual inhibition of E1A & AR, and the C685Y point mutation alters specificity of steroid ligand binding to the AR, such that both androgens and non-steroidal anti-androgens can activate viral replication. We demonstrate that the mutated E1A-AR retained the ability to function in regulating AR responsive genes and E1A responsive viral genes. In combination therapy of virus, bicalutamide (anti-androgen) and radiation, a profound impact on cell death by viral oncolysis was seen both in vitro and tumor xenografts. To our knowledge, this is the first gene therapy engineered to be enhanced by anti-androgens, and a particularly attractive adjuvant strategy for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of high-risk prostate cancers. PMID:23764901

  7. Mechanisms of pathogenesis of emerging adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cook, James; Radke, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of human adenovirus infections can cause severe illness in people with no known predisposing conditions. The reasons for this increased viral pathogenicity are uncertain. Adenoviruses are constantly undergoing mutation during circulation in the human population, but related phenotypic changes of the viruses are rarely detected because of the infrequency of such outbreaks and the limited biological studies of the emergent strains. Mutations and genetic recombinations have been identified in these new strains. However, the linkage between these genetic changes and increased pathogenicity is poorly understood. It has been observed recently that differences in virus-induced immunopathogenesis can be associated with altered expression of non-mutant viral genes associated with changes in viral modulation of the host innate immune response. Initial small animal studies indicate that these changes in viral gene expression can be associated with enhanced immunopathogenesis in vivo. Available evidence suggests the hypothesis that there is a critical threshold of expression of certain viral genes that determines both the sustainability of viral transmission in the human population and the enhancement of immunopathogenesis. Studies of this possibility will require extension of the analysis of outbreak viral strains from a sequencing-based focus to biological studies of relationships between viral gene expression and pathogenic responses. Advances in this area will require increased coordination among public health organizations, diagnostic microbiology laboratories, and research laboratories to identify, catalog, and systematically study differences between prototype and emergent viral strains that explain the increased pathogenicity that can occur during clinical outbreaks. PMID:28184296

  8. Isolation and Epidemiology of Falcon Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, J. Lindsay; Schrenzel, Mark; Rideout, Bruce; Sandfort, Cal

    2005-01-01

    An adenovirus was detected by electron microscopy in tissues from falcons that died during an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis and enteritis that affected neonatal Northern aplomado (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) and peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum) falcons. Molecular characterization has identified the falcon virus as a new member of the aviadenovirus group (M. Schrenzel, J. L. Oaks, D. Rotstein, G. Maalouf, E. Snook, C. Sandfort, and B. Rideout, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:3402-3413, 2005). In this study, the virus was successfully isolated and propagated in peregrine falcon embryo fibroblasts, in which it caused visible and reproducible cytopathology. Testing for serum neutralizing antibodies found that infection with this virus was limited almost exclusively to falcons. Serology also found that wild and captive peregrine falcons had high seropositivity rates of 80% and 100%, respectively, although clinical disease was rarely reported in this species. These data implicate peregrine falcons as the natural host and primary reservoir for the virus. Other species of North American falcons, including aplomado falcons, had lower seropositivity rates of 43 to 57%. Falcon species of tropical and/or island origin were uniformly seronegative, although deaths among adults of these species have been described, suggesting they are highly susceptible. Chickens and quail were uniformly seronegative and not susceptible to infection, indicating that fowl were not the source of infection. Based on the information from this study, the primary control of falcon adenovirus infections should be based on segregation of carrier and susceptible falcon species. PMID:16000467

  9. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2004-05-18

    Disclosed is a mutant adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have significantly weakened binding affinity for CARD1 relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type. In the method, residues of the adenovirus fiber protein knob domain which are predicted to alter D1 binding when mutated, are identified from the crystal structure coordinates of the AD12knob:CAR-D1 complex. A mutation which alters one or more of the identified residues is introduced into the genome of the adenovirus to generate a mutant adenovirus. Whether or not the mutant produced exhibits altered adenovirus-CAR binding properties is then determined.

  10. Identification of Excipients for Stabilizing Fiberless Adenovirus as Biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kupgan, Grit; Choudhari, Shyamal P; Flynn, Nicholas H; Nigatu, Adane; Vupputuri, Sravanthi; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; Ramsey, Joshua D

    2017-07-01

    Reducing the promiscuous tropism of native adenovirus by using fiberless adenovirus is advantageous toward its use as a gene therapy vector or vaccine component. The removal of the fiber protein on native adenovirus abrogates several undesirable interactions; however, this approach decreases the particle's physical stability. To create stable fiberless adenovirus for pharmaceutical use, the effects of temperature and pH on the particle's stability profile must be addressed. Our results indicate that the stability of fiberless adenovirus is increased when it is stored in mildly acidic conditions around pH 6. The stability of fiberless adenovirus can be further enhanced by using excipients. Excipient screening results indicate that the nonionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 and the amino acid glycine are potential stabilizers because of their ability to increase the thermal transition temperature of the virus particle and promote retention of biological activity after exposure to prolonged thermal stress. Our data indicate that the instability of fiberless adenovirus can be ameliorated by storing the virus in the appropriate environment, and it should be possible to further optimize the virus so that it can be used as a biopharmaceutical. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistance of Adenoviral DNA Replication to Aphidicolin Is Dependent on the 72-Kilodalton DNA-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David A.; Hantzopoulos, Petros; Zubay, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Aphidicolin is a highly specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase α and has been most useful for assessing the role of this enzyme in various replication processes (J. A. Huberman, Cell 23:647-648, 1981). Both nuclear DNA replication and simian virus 40 DNA replication are highly sensitive to this drug (Krokan et al., Biochemistry 18:4431-4443, 1979), whereas mitochondrial DNA synthesis is completely insensitive (Zimmerman et al., J. Biol. Chem. 255:11847-11852, 1980). Adenovirus DNA replication is sensitive to aphidicolin, but only at much higher concentrations. These patterns of sensitivity are seen both in vivo and in vitro (Krokan et al., Biochemistry 18:4431-4443, 1979). A temperature-sensitive mutant of adenovirus type 5 known as H5ts125 is able to complete but not initiate new rounds of replication at nonpermissive temperatures (P. C. van der Vliet and J. S. Sussenbach, Virology 67:415-426, 1975). When cells infected with H5ts125 were shifted from permissive (33°C) to nonpermissive (41°C) conditions, the residual DNA synthesis (elongation) showed a striking increase in sensitivity to aphidicolin. The temperature-sensitive mutation of H5ts125 is in the gene for the 72-kilodalton single-stranded DNA-binding protein. This demonstrated that the increased resistance to aphidicolin shown by adenovirus DNA replication was dependent on that protein. It also supports an elongation role for both DNA polymerase α and the 72-kilodalton single-stranded DNA-binding protein in adenovirus DNA replication. Further support for an elongation role of DNA polymerase α came from experiments with permissive temperature conditions and inhibiting levels of aphidicolin in which it was shown that newly initiated strands failed to elongate to completion. Images PMID:6809958

  12. T-cell subsets in peripheral blood and tumors of patients treated with oncolytic adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Kristian, Taipale; Ilkka, Liikanen; Juuso, Juhila; Aila, Karioja-Kallio; Minna, Oksanen; Riku, Turkki; Nina, Linder; Johan, Lundin; Ari, Ristimäki; Anna, Kanerva; Anniina, Koski; Timo, Joensuu; Markus, Vähä-Koskela; Akseli, Hemminki

    2015-05-01

    The quality of the antitumor immune response is decisive when developing new immunotherapies for cancer. Oncolytic adenoviruses cause a potent immunogenic stimulus and arming them with costimulatory molecules reshapes the immune response further. We evaluated peripheral blood T-cell subsets of 50 patients with refractory solid tumors undergoing treatment with oncolytic adenovirus. These data were compared to changes in antiviral and antitumor T cells, treatment efficacy, overall survival, and T-cell subsets in pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies. Treatment caused a significant (P < 0.0001) shift in T-cell subsets in blood, characterized by a proportional increase of CD8(+) cells, and decrease of CD4(+) cells. Concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and temozolomide resulted in less CD4(+) decrease (P = 0.041) than cyclophosphamide only. Interestingly, we saw a correlation between T-cell changes in peripheral blood and the tumor site. This correlation was positive for CD8(+) and inverse for CD4(+) cells. These findings give insight to the interconnections between peripheral blood and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) populations regarding oncolytic virotherapy. In particular, our data suggest that induction of T-cell response is not sufficient for clinical response in the context of immunosuppressive tumors, and that peripheral blood T cells have a complicated and potentially misleading relationship with TILs.

  13. Adenovirus type 5 exerts genome-wide control over cellular programs governing proliferation, quiescence, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel L; Myers, Chad L; Rickards, Brenden; Coller, Hilary A; Flint, S Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses, such as serotype 5 (Ad5), encode several proteins that can perturb cellular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, as well as those that mediate mRNA production and translation. However, a global view of the effects of Ad5 infection on such programs in normal human cells is not available, despite widespread efforts to develop adenoviruses for therapeutic applications. Results We used two-color hybridization and oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor changes in cellular RNA concentrations as a function of time after Ad5 infection of quiescent, normal human fibroblasts. We observed that the expression of some 2,000 genes, about 10% of those examined, increased or decreased by a factor of two or greater following Ad5 infection, but were not altered in mock-infected cells. Consensus k-means clustering established that the temporal patterns of these changes were unexpectedly complex. Gene Ontology terms associated with cell proliferation were significantly over-represented in several clusters. The results of comparative analyses demonstrate that Ad5 infection induces reversal of the quiescence program and recapitulation of the core serum response, and that only a small subset of the observed changes in cellular gene expression can be ascribed to well characterized functions of the viral E1A and E1B proteins. Conclusion These findings establish that the impact of adenovirus infection on host cell programs is far greater than appreciated hitherto. Furthermore, they provide a new framework for investigating the molecular functions of viral early proteins and information relevant to the design of conditionally replicating adenoviral vectors. PMID:17430596

  14. Reversing the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F. ); Sagdeev, R.Z. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains proceedings of Reversing The Arms Race. Topics covered include: Verifying Reductions of Nuclear Warheads; Verifying Limits on Nuclear-Armed Cruise Missiles; and The Technical Basis for Warhead Detection.

  15. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  16. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  17. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; ...

    2014-12-11

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β- catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle tomore » establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Finally, based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis.« less

  18. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; Hu, Zebin; Cleveland, Elyse; Wu, Ying; Hutten, Ryan; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Shevrin, Daniel; Kaul, Karen; Brendler, Charles; Iozzo, Renato V.; Seth, Prem

    2014-12-11

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β- catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Finally, based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis.

  19. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Neill, T; Yang, Y; Hu, Z; Cleveland, E; Wu, Y; Hutten, R; Xiao, X; Stock, S R; Shevrin, D; Kaul, K; Brendler, C; Iozzo, R V; Seth, P

    2015-03-01

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the antitumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia and an increase in the animal survival. Based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for PCa bone metastasis.

  20. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; Hu, Zebin; Cleveland, Elyse; Wu, Ying; Hutten, Ryan; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Shevrin, Daniel; Kaul, Karen; Brendler, Charles; Iozzo, Renato V.; Seth, Prem

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis. PMID:25503693

  1. Using a magnetic field to redirect an oncolytic adenovirus complexed with iron oxide augments gene therapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Park, Ji Won; Na, Youjin; Jung, Soo-Jung; Hwang, June Kyu; Choi, Dongho; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-10-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is a widely used vector for cancer gene therapy but its therapeutic efficacy is limited by low coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression in tumors and non-specifically targeted infection. Ad infectivity and specificity can be markedly improved by creating Ad-magnetic nanoparticles cluster complexes and directing their migration with an external magnetic field (MGF). We electrostatically complexed GFP-expressing, replication-incompetent Ad (dAd) with PEGylated and cross-linked iron oxide nanoparticles (PCION), generating dAd-PCION complexes. The dAd-PCION showed increased transduction efficiency, independent of CAR expression, in the absence or presence of an MGF. Cancer cell killing and intracellular oncolytic Ad (HmT)-PCION replication significantly increased with MGF exposure. Site-directed, magnetically-targeted delivery of the HmT-PCION elicited significantly greater therapeutic efficacy versus treatment with naked HmT or HmT-PCION without MGF in CAR-negative MCF7 tumors. Immunohistochemical tumor analysis showed increased oncolytic Ad replication in tumors following infection by HmT-PCION using an MGF. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging of tumor-bearing mice showed a 450-fold increased tumor-to-liver ratio for HmT-PCION with, versus without, MGF. These results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of external MGF-responsive PCION-coated oncolytic Ads as smart hybrid vectors for cancer gene therapy.

  2. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  5. Replication Restart in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Michel, Bénédicte; Sandler, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    In bacteria, replication forks assembled at a replication origin travel to the terminus, often a few megabases away. They may encounter obstacles that trigger replisome disassembly, rendering replication restart from abandoned forks crucial for cell viability. During the past 25 years, the genes that encode replication restart proteins have been identified and genetically characterized. In parallel, the enzymes were purified and analyzed in vitro, where they can catalyze replication initiation in a sequence-independent manner from fork-like DNA structures. This work also revealed a close link between replication and homologous recombination, as replication restart from recombination intermediates is an essential step of DNA double-strand break repair in bacteria and, conversely, arrested replication forks can be acted upon by recombination proteins and converted into various recombination substrates. In this review, we summarize this intense period of research that led to the characterization of the ubiquitous replication restart protein PriA and its partners, to the definition of several replication restart pathways in vivo, and to the description of tight links between replication and homologous recombination, responsible for the importance of replication restart in the maintenance of genome stability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Adenovirus hepatitis presenting as tumoral lesions in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Putra, Juan; Suriawinata, Arief A

    2014-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia on alemtuzumab presented with neutropenic fever, intermittent nausea, and multiple ill-defined low attenuation foci in the liver on abdominal computed tomography scan which were suspicious for metastatic disease. Histological examination revealed the diagnosis of adenovirus hepatitis. Patient responded well to cidofovir. Adenovirus hepatitis is a rare but important entity to be considered by the clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to improve the prognosis of adenovirus hepatitis in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a mutant CAR-DI-binding adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have a significantly weakened binding affinity for CAR-DI relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type.

  8. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  9. TCLS ARM for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupat, Jean-Luc; Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic "COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL".This paper presents the status on this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  10. Adenovirus DNA synthesized in the presence of aphidicolin.

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, M; Yamashita, T; Ariga, H; Nagano, H

    1984-01-01

    Adenovirus types 2 and 5 DNA synthesized in vivo and in vitro in the presence of aphidicolin were studied. Inhibition of adenoviral DNA synthesis by aphidicolin was only 70% even at a concentration of 30 micrograms/ml of aphidicolin, at which the cellular DNA synthesis was completely inhibited. When initiation of the viral DNA synthesis was synchronized with hydroxyurea and labeled with [3H]thymidine for 60 min, the viral DNA synthesized in the presence of 30 micrograms/ml of aphidicolin was not of full length (35 kb) but small (approximately 12 kb) by analysis of alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation. When initiation of the viral DNA synthesis was not synchronized, the viral DNAs ranging from full size to 12 kb were synthesized in the presence of aphidicolin, indicating that the nascent DNAs longer than about 12 kb can continue to elongate in the presence of aphidicolin. This 12 kb DNA was not derived from the degradation products of newly synthesized full size adenoviral DNA. The viral DNA synthesis was restored and the full size of adenoviral DNA was attained within 15 min following removal of aphidicolin. About 20% of the entire viral genome length from the 5'-end was not inhibited by aphidicolin, while the synthesis of interior fragments of the adenoviral DNA was markedly inhibited by aphidicolin, judging from the electrophoretic pattern on neutral agarose gel after digestion of DNA with Hind III. These results indicate that aphidicolin inhibits adenoviral DNA replication at the internal region located approximately 20-30% from both terminals. Images PMID:6420772

  11. Persistence and reactivation of human adenoviruses in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, K; Geiger, E; Vécsei, A; Huber, W-D; Rauch, M; Brenner, E; Wrba, F; Hammer, K; Innerhofer, A; Pötschger, U; Lawitschka, A; Matthes-Leodolter, S; Fritsch, G; Lion, T

    2016-04-01

    Reactivation of persistent human adenoviruses (HAdVs) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Although invasive HAdV infections mainly arise from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the specific sites of HAdV persistence are not well characterised. We prospectively screened biopsies from 143 non-HSCT paediatric patients undergoing GI endoscopy and monitored serial stool specimens from 148 paediatric HSCT recipients for the presence of HAdV by real-time PCR. Persistence of HAdV in the GI tract was identified in 31% of children, with the highest prevalence in the terminal ileum. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry identified HAdV persistence in lymphoid cells of the lamina propria, whereas biopsies from five transplant recipients revealed high numbers of replicating HAdV in intestinal epithelial cells. The prevalence of HAdV species, the frequencies of persistence in the GI tract and reactivations post transplant indicated a correlation of intestinal HAdV shedding pre-transplant with high risk of invasive infection. HAdV persistence in the GI tract is a likely origin of infectious complications in immunocompromised children. Intestinal lymphocytes represent a reservoir for HAdV persistence and reactivation, whereas the intestinal epithelium is the main site of viral proliferation preceding dissemination. The findings have important implications for assessing the risk of life-threatening invasive HAdV infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adenovirus Microsatellite Reveals Dynamics of Transmission during a Recent Epidemic of Human Adenovirus Serotype 14 Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Houng, Huo-Shu H.; Lott, Lisa; Gong, Heping; Kuschner, Robert A.; Lynch, Julia A.; Metzgar, David

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals diverse-length polymorphisms in long mononucleotide repeats (microsatellites) in several serotypes of epidemic human respiratory adenovirus. The length of one of these microsatellites, a homopolymeric thymidine [poly(T)] repeat, is measured in 68 isolates of adenovirus serotype 14. These isolates were collected during a series of sudden and sometimes fatal outbreaks among both military recruits and civilians as the virus emerged for the first time in the United States in 2006 and 2007. The results demonstrate the usefulness of adenoviral microsatellites as high-resolution molecular strain markers. The described homopolymer is hypervariable in length, varying from 12 to 17 bp in the analyzed sample set. All intermediate lengths were identified in at least one isolate. Furthermore, the specific length of the marker is stable for significant periods of time (up to 7 months) at individual sites where the virus is in consistent circulation. The microsatellite also can maintain specific length identity through site-to-site transmission events, as determined by the analysis of isolates from three advanced training sites that appeared to be subject to pathogen transfer from one of the affected recruit training installations. Public database searches revealed that the polymorphic nature of the microsatellite extends to other species B serotypes, and that other polymorphic microsatellites can be identified readily in a variety of epidemic respiratory adenovirus clades. This study shows that microsatellites are a ubiquitous source of polymorphic markers for human adenoviruses and demonstrates their use through an epidemiological analysis of isolates from a recent North American epidemic. PMID:19403773

  13. The Intracellular Domain of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Differentially Influences Adenovirus Entry.

    PubMed

    Loustalot, Fabien; Kremer, Eric J; Salinas, Sara

    2015-09-01

    The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule used as a docking molecule by some adenoviruses (AdVs) and group B coxsackieviruses. We previously proposed that the preferential transduction of neurons by canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) is due to CAR-mediated internalization. Our proposed pathway of CAV-2 entry is in contrast to that of human AdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) in nonneuronal cells, where internalization is mediated by auxiliary receptors such as integrins. We therefore asked if in fibroblast-like cells the intracellular domain (ICD) of CAR plays a role in the internalization of the CAV-2 fiber knob (FK(CAV)), CAV-2, or HAdV-C5 when the capsid cannot engage integrins. Here, we show that in fibroblast-like cells, the CAR ICD is needed for FK(CAV) entry and efficient CAV-2 transduction but dispensable for HAdV-C5 and an HAdV-C5 capsid lacking the RGD sequence (an integrin-interacting motif) in the penton. Moreover, the deletion of the CAR ICD further impacts CAV-2 intracellular trafficking, highlighting the crucial role of CAR in CAV-2 intracellular dynamics. These data demonstrate that the CAR ICD contains sequences important for the recruitment of the endocytic machinery that differentially influences AdV cell entry. Understanding how viruses interact with the host cell surface and reach the intracellular space is of crucial importance for applied and fundamental virology. Here, we compare the role of a cell adhesion molecule (CAR) in the internalization of adenoviruses that naturally infect humans and Canidae. We show that the intracellular domain of CAR differentially regulates AdV entry and trafficking. Our study highlights the mechanistic differences that a receptor can have for two viruses from the same family. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Preclinical safety assessment of Ad[I/PPT-E1A], a novel oncolytic adenovirus for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Ellen; Essand, Magnus; Kraaij, Robert; Adamson, Rachel; Maitland, Norman J; Bangma, Chris H

    2014-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in the Western world. Patients can be cured only when the tumor has not metastasized outside the prostate. However, treatment with curative intent fails in a significant number of men, often resulting in untreatable progressive disease with a fatal outcome. Oncolytic adenovirus therapy may be a promising adjuvant treatment to reduce local failure or the outgrowth of micrometastatic disease. Within the European gene therapy consortium GIANT, we have developed a novel prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus: Ad[I/PPT-E1A]. This adenovirus specifically kills prostate cells via prostate-specific replication. This article describes the clinical development of Ad[I/PPT-E1A] with particular reference to the preclinical safety assessment of this novel virus. The preclinical safety assessment involved an efficacy study in a human orthotopic xenograft mouse model, a specificity study in human primary cells, and a toxicity study in normal mice. These studies confirmed that Ad[I/PPT-E1A] efficiently kills prostate tumor cells in vivo, is not harmful to other organs, and is well tolerated in mice after systemic delivery. The safety, as well as the immunological effects of Ad[I/PPT-E1A] as a local adjuvant therapy, will now be studied in a phase I dose-escalating trial in patients with localized prostate cancer who are scheduled for curative radical prostatectomy and can be used as an updated paradigm for similar therapeutic viruses.

  15. Distinct temporal changes in host cell lncRNA expression during the course of an adenovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hongxing; Chen, Maoshan; Lind, Sara Bergström; Pettersson, Ulf

    2016-05-15

    The deregulation of cellular long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression during a human adenovirus infection was studied by deep sequencing. Expression of lncRNAs increased substantially following the progression of the infection. Among 645 significantly expressed lncRNAs, the expression of 398 was changed more than 2-fold. More than 80% of them were up-regulated and 80% of them were detected during the late phase. Based on the genomic locations of the deregulated lncRNAs in relation to known mRNAs and miRNAs, they were predicted to be involved in growth, structure, apoptosis and wound healing in the early phase, cell proliferation in the intermediate phase and protein synthesis, modification and transport in the late phase. The most significant functions of cellular RNA-binding proteins, previously shown to interact with the deregulated lncRNAs identified here, are involved in RNA splicing, nuclear export and translation events. We hypothesize that adenoviruses exploit the lncRNA network to optimize their reproduction. - Highlights: • The expression of 398 lncRNAs showed a distinct temporal pattern during Ad2 infection. • 80% of the deregulated lncRNAs were up-regulated during the late phase of infection. • The deregulated lncRNAs potentiallyinteract with 33 cellular RNA binding proteins. • These RBPs are involved in RNA splicing, nuclear export and translation. • Adenovirus exploits the cellular lncRNA network to optimize its replication.

  16. In vitro and in vivo genetic stability studies of a human adenovirus type 5 recombinant rabies glycoprotein vaccine (ONRAB).

    PubMed

    Knowles, M Kimberly; Roberts, Danielle; Craig, Sheona; Sheen, Mary; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Wandeler, Alexander I

    2009-05-05

    Investigation into the genetic stability of a replication-competent human adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant (ONRAB) developed for use as an oral vaccine for wildlife rabies prevention is of major importance due to the vaccine's intended placement in the environment. Using a collection of murine monoclonal antibodies directed to six distinct antigenic sites on the rabies glycoprotein, preservation of all main immunogenic epitopes of the protein after virus growth in vitro was established. A competition experiment which involved the in vitro passaging of a mixture of ONRAB and wild-type human adenovirus type 5 demonstrated that the two viruses do not exhibit noticeably different fitness levels in this environment. Nucleotide sequencing of the expression cassette of multiple viral clones recovered after 20 serial passages in cell culture and 5 serial passages in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), a species susceptible to human adenovirus infection, indicated no changes in comparison to the original virus. These trials demonstrated the stability of the insert gene of ONRAB during in vivo and in vitro passaging.

  17. An evaluation of ARM radiosonde operational performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lesht, B.M.

    1995-06-01

    Because the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program uses data from radiosondes for real-time quality control and sensitive modeling applications, it is important to have a quantitative measure of the quality of the radiosonde data themselves. Two methods have been tried for estimating the quality of radiosonde data: comparisons with known standards before launch and examination of pseudo-replicate samples by single sensors aloft. The ground check procedure showed that the ARM radiosondes are within manufacturer`s specifications for measuring relative humidity; procedural artifacts prevented verification for temperature. Pseudo-replicates from ascent and descent suggest that the temperature measurement is within the specified {minus_plus}0.2 C. On average ascent and descent data are similar, but detailed structure may be obscured on descent by loss of sampling density, and the descent involves other uncertainties.

  18. Adenovirus terminal protein protects single stranded DNA from digestion by a cellular exonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Dunsworth-Browne, M; Schell, R E; Berk, A J

    1980-01-01

    Adenovirus 5 DNA-protein complex is isolated from virions as a duplex DNA molecule covalently attached by the 5' termini of each strand to virion protein of unknown function. The DNA-protein complex can be digested with E. coli exonuclease III to generate molecules analogous to DNA replication intermediates in that they contain long single stranded regions ending in 5' termini bound to terminal protein. The infectivity of pronase digested Adenovirus 5 DNA is greatly diminished by exonuclease III digestion. However, the infectivity of the DNA-protein complex is not significantly altered when up to at least 2400 nucleotides are removed from the 3' ends of each strand. This indicates that the terminal protein protects 5' terminated single stranded regions from digestion by a cellular exonuclease. DNA-protein complex prepared from a host range mutant with a mutation mapping in the left 4% of the genome was digested with exonuclease III, hybridized to a wild type restriction fragment comprising the left 8% of the genome, and transfected into HeLa cells. Virus with wild type phenotype was recovered at high frequency. Images PMID:6255444

  19. Additives for vaccine storage to improve thermal stability of adenoviruses from hours to months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccia, Maria; Andreozzi, Patrizia; Paulose, Jayson; D'Alicarnasso, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Broeckel, Rebecca M.; Haese, Nicole; Jacob Silva, Paulo; Carney, Randy P.; Marjomäki, Varpu; Streblow, Daniel N.; Lembo, David; Stellacci, Francesco; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Krol, Silke

    2016-11-01

    Up to 80% of the cost of vaccination programmes is due to the cold chain problem (that is, keeping vaccines cold). Inexpensive, biocompatible additives to slow down the degradation of virus particles would address the problem. Here we propose and characterize additives that, already at very low concentrations, improve the storage time of adenovirus type 5. Anionic gold nanoparticles (10-8-10-6 M) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight ~8,000 Da, 10-7-10-4 M) increase the half-life of a green fluorescent protein expressing adenovirus from ~48 h to 21 days at 37 °C (from 7 to >30 days at room temperature). They replicate the known stabilizing effect of sucrose, but at several orders of magnitude lower concentrations. PEG and sucrose maintained immunogenicity in vivo for viruses stored for 10 days at 37 °C. To achieve rational design of viral-vaccine stabilizers, our approach is aided by simplified quantitative models based on a single rate-limiting step.

  20. Additives for vaccine storage to improve thermal stability of adenoviruses from hours to months

    PubMed Central

    Pelliccia, Maria; Andreozzi, Patrizia; Paulose, Jayson; D'Alicarnasso, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Broeckel, Rebecca M.; Haese, Nicole; Jacob Silva, Paulo; Carney, Randy P.; Marjomäki, Varpu; Streblow, Daniel N.; Lembo, David; Stellacci, Francesco; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Krol, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Up to 80% of the cost of vaccination programmes is due to the cold chain problem (that is, keeping vaccines cold). Inexpensive, biocompatible additives to slow down the degradation of virus particles would address the problem. Here we propose and characterize additives that, already at very low concentrations, improve the storage time of adenovirus type 5. Anionic gold nanoparticles (10−8–10−6 M) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight ∼8,000 Da, 10−7–10−4 M) increase the half-life of a green fluorescent protein expressing adenovirus from ∼48 h to 21 days at 37 °C (from 7 to >30 days at room temperature). They replicate the known stabilizing effect of sucrose, but at several orders of magnitude lower concentrations. PEG and sucrose maintained immunogenicity in vivo for viruses stored for 10 days at 37 °C. To achieve rational design of viral-vaccine stabilizers, our approach is aided by simplified quantitative models based on a single rate-limiting step. PMID:27901019

  1. Additives for vaccine storage to improve thermal stability of adenoviruses from hours to months.

    PubMed

    Pelliccia, Maria; Andreozzi, Patrizia; Paulose, Jayson; D'Alicarnasso, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Broeckel, Rebecca M; Haese, Nicole; Jacob Silva, Paulo; Carney, Randy P; Marjomäki, Varpu; Streblow, Daniel N; Lembo, David; Stellacci, Francesco; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Krol, Silke

    2016-11-30

    Up to 80% of the cost of vaccination programmes is due to the cold chain problem (that is, keeping vaccines cold). Inexpensive, biocompatible additives to slow down the degradation of virus particles would address the problem. Here we propose and characterize additives that, already at very low concentrations, improve the storage time of adenovirus type 5. Anionic gold nanoparticles (10(-8)-10(-6) M) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight ∼8,000 Da, 10(-7)-10(-4) M) increase the half-life of a green fluorescent protein expressing adenovirus from ∼48 h to 21 days at 37 °C (from 7 to >30 days at room temperature). They replicate the known stabilizing effect of sucrose, but at several orders of magnitude lower concentrations. PEG and sucrose maintained immunogenicity in vivo for viruses stored for 10 days at 37 °C. To achieve rational design of viral-vaccine stabilizers, our approach is aided by simplified quantitative models based on a single rate-limiting step.

  2. Tamoxifen improves cytopathic effect of oncolytic adenovirus in primary glioblastoma cells mediated through autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ulasov, Ilya V.; Shah, Nameeta; Kaverina, Natalya V.; Lee, Hwahyang; Lin, Biaoyang; Lieber, Andre; Kadagidze, Zaira G.; Yoon, Jae-Guen; Schroeder, Brett; Hothi, Parvinder; Ghosh, Dhimankrishna; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Y.; Cobbs, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic gene therapy using viral vectors may provide an attractive therapeutic option for malignant gliomas. These viral vectors are designed in a way to selectively target tumor cells and spare healthy cells. To determine the translational impact, it is imperative to assess the factors that interfere with the anti-glioma effects of the oncolytic adenoviral vectors. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of survivin-driven oncolytic adenoviruses pseudotyping with adenoviral fiber knob belonging to the adenoviral serotype 3, 11 and 35 in their ability to kill glioblastoma (GBM) cells selectively without affecting normal cells. Our results indicate that all recombinant vectors used in the study can effectively target GBM in vitro with high specificity, especially the 3 knob-modified vector. Using intracranial U87 and U251 GBM xenograft models we have also demonstrated that treatment with Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus (CRAd-S-5/3) vectors can effectively regress tumor. However, in several patient-derived GBM cell lines, cells exhibited resistance to the CRAd infection as evident from the diminishing effects of autophagy. To improve therapeutic response, tumor cells were pretreated with tamoxifen. Our preliminary data suggest that tamoxifen sensitizes glioblastoma cells towards oncolytic treatment with CRAd-S-5/3, which may prove useful for GBM in future experimental therapy. PMID:25738357

  3. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a modified human proinsulin gene reverses hyperglycemia in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Short, D K; Okada, S; Yamauchi, K; Pessin, J E

    1998-11-01

    The human proinsulin cDNA was introduced into a replication-defective adenovirus and was found to confer proinsulin expression to a hepatocyte (H4-II-E) cell line upon infection. A second virus was constructed in which the dibasic prohormone convertase recognition sequence was mutated to a tetrabasic furin cleavage site. Cells infected with this virus synthesized both proinsulin and mature insulin. Gel filtration chromatography, competition of insulin binding, and activation of the insulin receptor kinase activity demonstrated that this mature insulin was functionally identical to that of authentic processed insulin. Injection of these viral constructs into the external jugular vein of mice resulted in insulin gene expression in the liver. Expression from the mutated proinsulin virus dramatically improved the glycemic state of diabetic mice. However, the effects of the viral infection were transient, being maximal at approximately 5-7 days and returning to steady-state levels by 14-21 days. These data demonstrate that somatic cell insulin gene delivery by the use of recombinant adenovirus can be used to transiently reverse the diabetic state in mice.

  4. Inhibition of adenovirus multiplication by inosine pranobex and interferon α in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lasek, Witold; Janyst, Michał; Młynarczyk, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    There are no specific antivirals designed for adenoviral infections. Due to many cases of adenovirus infections worldwide, epidemic nature of some types of adenoviruses, and growing number of patients with severe adenoviral infections resulting from dysfunction the immune system, the need for searching an effective and safe therapy is increasing. Inosine pranobex exerts antiviral effects which are both direct and secondary to immunomodulatory activity. In the present study we evaluated in vitro effect of inosine pranobex and interferon α (IFN-α) on replication of HAdV-2 and HAdV-5. The effectiveness of inosine pranobex under these conditions has not been previously reported. In conducted study we reported that inosine pranobex reduced the titer of infectious HAdV-2 and HAdV-5 in vitro. Higher concentrations of IP strongly inhibited multiplication of viruses. Combination of inosine pranobex and IFN-α display higher efficacy than either treatment alone and suggest that both agents may increase therapeutic effectiveness without augmenting toxic effects. Combination index calculations showed that inosine pranobex and INF-α synergistically inhibit HAdV-2 and HAdV-5 titers in A549 cells. PMID:26862302

  5. Immunological effects of low-dose cyclophosphamide in cancer patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Rajecki, Maria; Escutenaire, Sophie; Koski, Anniina; Romano, Valentina; Rouvinen, Noora; Tuuminen, Tamara; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Kauppinen, Satu; Joensuu, Timo; Oksanen, Minna; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Haavisto, Elina; Karioja-Kallio, Aila; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Arstila, Petteri T; Hemminki, Akseli

    2011-09-01

    Patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to and progressing after conventional therapies were treated with three different regimens of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) in combination with oncolytic adenovirus. CP was given with oral metronomic dosing (50 mg/day, N = 21), intravenously (single 1,000 mg dose, N = 7) or both (N = 7). Virus was injected intratumorally. Controls (N = 8) received virus without CP. Treatments were well tolerated and safe regardless of schedule. Antibody formation and virus replication were not affected by CP. Metronomic CP (oral and oral + intravenous schedules) decreased regulatory T cells (T(regs)) without compromising induction of antitumor or antiviral T-cell responses. Oncolytic adenovirus given together with metronomic CP increased cytotoxic T cells and induced Th1 type immunity on a systemic level in most patients. All CP regimens resulted in higher rates of disease control than virus only (all P < 0.0001) and the best progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was seen in the oral + intravenous group. One year PFS and OS were 53 and 42% (P = 0.0016 and P < 0.02 versus virus only), respectively, both which are unusually high for chemotherapy refractory patients. We conclude that low-dose CP results in immunological effects appealing for oncolytic virotherapy. While these first-in-human data suggest good safety, intriguing efficacy and extended survival, the results should be confirmed in a randomized trial.

  6. The role of Cajal bodies in the expression of late phase adenovirus proteins.

    PubMed

    James, Nicola J; Howell, Gareth J; Walker, John H; Blair, G Eric

    2010-04-10

    Cajal bodies (CBs) are subnuclear structures involved in RNA metabolism. Here we show that, following infection of HeLa cells by adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), CBs fragment and form ordered structures, which we have termed "rosettes". Formation of CB rosettes was prevented by inhibition of viral DNA synthesis and preceded expression of the L4-33K protein. CB rosettes localised to the periphery of E2A-72K-containing replication centers and to the edges of ASF/SF2 and hnRNP A1 ring structures that demarcate sites of viral transcription and splicing. At later times of infection, CB rosettes were undetectable. Furthermore, knock-down of p80-coilin (the major structural protein of CBs) by RNA interference reduced the yield of infectious Ad5 and expression of the late proteins IIIa (from L1), hexon (from L3) and fiber (from L5), whereas the E2A-72K protein was unaffected. We conclude that CBs have an important role in the expression of adenovirus major late gene products.

  7. Ljungan virus and an adenovirus in Italian squirrel populations.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Ferrari, Nicola; Rossi, Chiara; Everest, David J; Grierson, Sylvia S; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas A; Hauffe, Heidi C

    2014-04-01

    We report Ljungan virus infection in Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) for the first time, and extend the known distribution of adenoviruses in both native red squirrels and alien gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) to southern Europe.

  8. Predicting the Next Eye Pathogen: Analysis of a Novel Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Zhou, Xiaohong; Rajaiya, Jaya; Yousuf, Mohammad A.; Singh, Gurdeep; DeSerres, Joshua J.; Walsh, Michael P.; Wong, Sallene; Seto, Donald; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Jones, Morris S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT For DNA viruses, genetic recombination, addition, and deletion represent important evolutionary mechanisms. Since these genetic alterations can lead to new, possibly severe pathogens, we applied a systems biology approach to study the pathogenicity of a novel human adenovirus with a naturally occurring deletion of the canonical penton base Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop, thought to be critical to cellular entry by adenoviruses. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a new highly recombinant species D human adenovirus (HAdV-D60). A synthesis of in silico and laboratory approaches revealed a potential ocular tropism for the new virus. In vivo, inflammation induced by the virus was dramatically greater than that by adenovirus type 37, a major eye pathogen, possibly due to a novel alternate ligand, Tyr-Gly-Asp (YGD), on the penton base protein. The combination of bioinformatics and laboratory simulation may have important applications in the prediction of tissue tropism for newly discovered and emerging viruses. PMID:23572555

  9. Automatic detection and measurement of viral replication compartments by ellipse adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Yasel; Guerrero, Adán; Hidalgo, Paloma; López, Raul Eduardo; Wood, Christopher D.; Gonzalez, Ramón A.; Rendón-Mancha, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to hijack cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific virus-induced cellular micro-environments. Adenoviruses (Ad) and other DNA viruses induce extensive reorganization of the cell nucleus and formation of nuclear Replication Compartments (RCs), where the viral genome is replicated and expressed. In this work an automatic algorithm designed for detection and segmentation of RCs using ellipses is presented. Unlike algorithms available in the literature, this approach is deterministic, automatic, and can adjust multiple RCs using ellipses. The proposed algorithm is non iterative, computationally efficient and is invariant to affine transformations. The method was validated over both synthetic images and more than 400 real images of Ad-infected cells at various timepoints of the viral replication cycle obtaining relevant information about the biogenesis of adenoviral RCs. As proof of concept the algorithm was then used to quantitatively compare RCs in cells infected with the adenovirus wild type or an adenovirus mutant that is null for expression of a viral protein that is known to affect activities associated with RCs that result in deficient viral progeny production.

  10. Automatic detection and measurement of viral replication compartments by ellipse adjustment.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Yasel; Guerrero, Adán; Hidalgo, Paloma; López, Raul Eduardo; Wood, Christopher D; Gonzalez, Ramón A; Rendón-Mancha, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-07

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to hijack cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific virus-induced cellular micro-environments. Adenoviruses (Ad) and other DNA viruses induce extensive reorganization of the cell nucleus and formation of nuclear Replication Compartments (RCs), where the viral genome is replicated and expressed. In this work an automatic algorithm designed for detection and segmentation of RCs using ellipses is presented. Unlike algorithms available in the literature, this approach is deterministic, automatic, and can adjust multiple RCs using ellipses. The proposed algorithm is non iterative, computationally efficient and is invariant to affine transformations. The method was validated over both synthetic images and more than 400 real images of Ad-infected cells at various timepoints of the viral replication cycle obtaining relevant information about the biogenesis of adenoviral RCs. As proof of concept the algorithm was then used to quantitatively compare RCs in cells infected with the adenovirus wild type or an adenovirus mutant that is null for expression of a viral protein that is known to affect activities associated with RCs that result in deficient viral progeny production.

  11. Automatic detection and measurement of viral replication compartments by ellipse adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Yasel; Guerrero, Adán; Hidalgo, Paloma; López, Raul Eduardo; Wood, Christopher D.; Gonzalez, Ramón A.; Rendón-Mancha, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to hijack cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific virus-induced cellular micro-environments. Adenoviruses (Ad) and other DNA viruses induce extensive reorganization of the cell nucleus and formation of nuclear Replication Compartments (RCs), where the viral genome is replicated and expressed. In this work an automatic algorithm designed for detection and segmentation of RCs using ellipses is presented. Unlike algorithms available in the literature, this approach is deterministic, automatic, and can adjust multiple RCs using ellipses. The proposed algorithm is non iterative, computationally efficient and is invariant to affine transformations. The method was validated over both synthetic images and more than 400 real images of Ad-infected cells at various timepoints of the viral replication cycle obtaining relevant information about the biogenesis of adenoviral RCs. As proof of concept the algorithm was then used to quantitatively compare RCs in cells infected with the adenovirus wild type or an adenovirus mutant that is null for expression of a viral protein that is known to affect activities associated with RCs that result in deficient viral progeny production. PMID:27819325

  12. Adenovirus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are an important cause of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, and they continue to provide clinical challenges pertaining to diagnostics and treatment. The growing number of HAdV types identified by genomic analysis, as well as the improved understanding of the sites of viral persistence and reactivation, requires continuous adaptions of diagnostic approaches to facilitate timely detection and monitoring of HAdV infections. In view of the clinical relevance of life-threatening HAdV diseases in the immunocompromised setting, there is an urgent need for highly effective treatment modalities lacking major side effects. The present review summarizes the recent progress in the understanding and management of HAdV infections. PMID:24982316

  13. [Gene engineering of the adenovirus vector].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Saki; Terashima, Miho; Fukuda, Hiromitsu; Saito, Izumu; Kanegae, Yumi

    2007-06-01

    The adenovirus vector is very attractive tool not only for the gene therapy but also for the basic sciences. However, because a construction method of this vector had been complex, only limited scientists had constructed and enjoyed the benefits. Recently, various methods were developed and the researchers came to be able to choose an efficient method, which is the COS-TPC method, or a concise procedure, which is the intact-genome transfection method (in vitro ligation method). Here we described not only these methods but also new method to construct the various Ads simultaneously using the recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by the site-specific recombinase. And also we want to refer the possibility to the worth of the vector, especially the vector of the expression-switch.

  14. Polymeric oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Lee, Young Sook; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors present a promising modality to treat cancer. Many clinical trials have been done with either naked oncolytic Ad or combination with chemotherapies. However, the systemic injection of oncolytic Ad in clinical applications is restricted due to significant liver toxicity and immunogenicity. To overcome these issues, Ad has been engineered physically or chemically with numerous polymers for shielding the Ad surface, accomplishing extended blood circulation time and reduced immunogenicity as well as hepatotoxicity. In this review, we describe and classify the characteristics of polymer modified oncolytic Ad following each strategy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, this review concludes with the highlights of various polymer-coated Ads and their prospects, and directions for future research. PMID:26453806

  15. Adenovirus-receptor interaction with human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mentel, R; Döpping, G; Wegner, U; Seidel, W; Liebermann, H; Döhner, L

    1997-03-01

    Lymphocytes play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and are host cells for several viral and bacterial pathogens. Their importance in adenovirus (Ad) infections is not yet fully understood. The initial event, the attachment of Ad to lymphocytes and their subsets, was examined using flow cytometry. The study included analysis of stimulated T cells in binding assays with FITC-labeled Ad fiber. The results confirm that native peripheral lymphocytes express very small amounts of Ad receptors. Stimulation with PHA and interleukin 2 induced the expression. The presence of Ad DNA as a sign of internalization in stimulated cells was demonstrated using the polymerase chain reaction. The findings suggest that lymphocytes after stimulation can turn into target cells for Ad. This is particularly important if there are indications for persistence of Ad, and in the case of immunocompromised patients severe, life-threatening diseases can develop.

  16. Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy Against Viral Biothreat Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-12

    disease has led to modify adenoviruses as vectors for vaccine development against other viral agents. Human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAd5) is the most...to contain the spread of viruses to the general population . Most licensed vaccines are made either by chemically inactivated whnle viruses or by...be catastrophic for viral biothreat agents that often cause the most lethal infections in humans . Therefore, new approaches are needed for the

  17. An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0629 TITLE: An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Igor P. Dmitriev...Aug 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1...epithelial cells, the origin of most human cancers. However, realization of the full potential of Ad vectors for targeted cancer treatment is currently

  18. Differential immunogenicity between HAdV-5 and chimpanzee adenovirus vector ChAdOx1 is independent of fiber and penton RGD loop sequences in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Matthew D. J.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Coughlan, Lynda; Bauza, Karolis; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Cottingham, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Replication defective adenoviruses are promising vectors for the delivery of vaccine antigens. However, the potential of a vector to elicit transgene-specific adaptive immune responses is largely dependent on the viral serotype used. HAdV-5 (Human adenovirus C) vectors are more immunogenic than chimpanzee adenovirus vectors from species Human adenovirus E (ChAdOx1 and AdC68) in mice, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences in immunogenicity remain poorly understood. In this study, superior immunogenicity was associated with markedly higher levels of transgene expression in vivo, particularly within draining lymph nodes. To investigate the viral factors contributing to these phenotypes, we generated recombinant ChAdOx1 vectors by exchanging components of the viral capsid reported to be principally involved in cell entry with the corresponding sequences from HAdV-5. Remarkably, pseudotyping with the HAdV-5 fiber and/or penton RGD loop had little to no effect on in vivo transgene expression or transgene-specific adaptive immune responses despite considerable species-specific sequence heterogeneity in these components. Our results suggest that mechanisms governing vector transduction after intramuscular administration in mice may be different from those described in vitro. PMID:26576856

  19. PED/PEA-15 modulates coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor expression and adenoviral infectivity via ERK-mediated signals in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Botta, Ginevra; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Libertini, Silvana; Cassese, Angela; Abagnale, Antonella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Portella, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive human brain tumor, and is highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. Selectively replicating oncolytic viruses represent a novel approach for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary receptor for adenoviruses, and loss or reduction of CAR greatly decreases adenoviral entry. Understanding the mechanisms regulating CAR expression and localization will contribute to increase the efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses. Two glioma cell lines (U343MG and U373MG) were infected with the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947. U373MG cells were more susceptible to cell death after viral infection, compared with U343MG cells. The enhanced sensitivity was paralleled by increased adenoviral entry and CAR mRNA and protein levels in U373MG cells. In addition, U373MG cells displayed a decreased ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2) nuclear-to-cytosolic ratio, compared with U343MG cells. Intracellular content of PED/PEA-15, an ERK1/2-interacting protein, was also augmented in these cells. Both ERK2 overexpression and genetic silencing of PED/PEA-15 by antisense oligonucleotides increased ERK nuclear accumulation and reduced CAR expression and adenoviral entry. Our data indicate that dl922-947 could represent an useful tool for the treatment of GBM and that PED/PEA-15 modulates CAR expression and adenoviral entry, by sequestering ERK1/2.

  20. An Adenovirus Type 5 Mutant with the Preterminal Protein Gene Deleted Efficiently Provides Helper Functions for the Production of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Ian H.; Maxwell, Francoise; Schaack, Jerome

    1998-01-01

    Production of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) requires helper functions that have routinely been provided by infection of the producer cells with adenovirus. Complete removal and/or inactivation of progeny adenovirus, present in such rAAV preparations, presents significant difficulty. Here, we report that an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) mutant with the preterminal protein (pTP) gene deleted can provide helper function for the growth of rAAV. At high multiplicity, Ad5dl308ΔpTP was as efficient as the phenotypically wild-type Ad5dl309 in permitting growth of rAAV. Use of Ad5dl308ΔpTP, which is incapable of replication in the absence of complementation for pTP, as a helper avoids the need to remove contaminating adenovirus infectious activity by heat inactivation or by purification. Comparison of the transducing ability of rAAV generated with either Ad5dl308ΔpTP or Ad5dl309 as a helper demonstrated that the heat inactivation protocol generally used does not remove all of the helper Ad5dl309 function. PMID:9733887

  1. Protection of guinea pigs and swine by a recombinant adenovirus expressing O serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus whole capsid and 3C protease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zengjun; Bao, Huifang; Cao, Yimei; Sun, Pu; Guo, Jianhun; Li, Pinghua; Bai, Xingwen; Chen, Yingli; Xie, Baoxia; Li, Dong; Liu, Zaixin; Xie, Qingge

    2008-12-19

    Two recombinant adenoviruses were constructed expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and 3C/3CD proteins in replicative deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector. Guinea pigs vaccinated with 1-3 x 10(8)TCID(50) Ad-P12x3C recombinant adenovirus were completely protected against 10,000GID(50) homologous virulent FMDV challenge 25 days post vaccination (dpv). Ad-P12x3CD vaccinated guinea pigs were only partially protected. Swine were vaccinated once with 1x10(9)TCID(50) Ad-P12x3C hybrid virus and challenged 28 days later. Three of four vaccinated swine were completely protected against 200 pig 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) of homologous FMDV challenge, and vaccinated pigs developed specific cellular and humoral immune responses. The immune effect of Ad-P12x3C in swine further indicated that the recombinant adenovirus was highly efficient in transferring the foreign gene. This approach may thus be a very hopeful tool for developing FMD live virus vector vaccine.

  2. Development of parallel line analysis criteria for recombinant adenovirus potency assay and definition of a unit of potency.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yasushi; Fawaz, Farah; Reyes, Candice; Lai, Julie; Pungor, Erno

    2007-01-01

    Parameter settings of a parallel line analysis procedure were defined by applying statistical analysis procedures to the absorbance data from a cell-based potency bioassay for a recombinant adenovirus, Adenovirus 5 Fibroblast Growth Factor-4 (Ad5FGF-4). The parallel line analysis was performed with a commercially available software, PLA 1.2. The software performs Dixon outlier test on replicates of the absorbance data, performs linear regression analysis to define linear region of the absorbance data, and tests parallelism between the linear regions of standard and sample. Width of Fiducial limit, expressed as a percent of the measured potency, was developed as a criterion for rejection of the assay data and to significantly improve the reliability of the assay results. With the linear range-finding criteria of the software set to a minimum of 5 consecutive dilutions and best statistical outcome, and in combination with the Fiducial limit width acceptance criterion of <135%, 13% of the assay results were rejected. With these criteria applied, the assay was found to be linear over the range of 0.25 to 4 relative potency units, defined as the potency of the sample normalized to the potency of Ad5FGF-4 standard containing 6 x 10(6) adenovirus particles/mL. The overall precision of the assay was estimated to be 52%. Without the application of Fiducial limit width criterion, the assay results were not linear over the range, and an overall precision of 76% was calculated from the data. An absolute unit of potency for the assay was defined by using the parallel line analysis procedure as the amount of Ad5FGF-4 that results in an absorbance value that is 121% of the average absorbance readings of the wells containing cells not infected with the adenovirus.

  3. Gene therapy of experimental