Science.gov

Sample records for army cold regions

  1. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  2. Cold Dust in Hot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Dunlop, James S.; Gibb, Andy; Greaves, Jane S.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Jenness, Tim; Robson, Ian; Scott, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm-2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ~10 to 103 M ⊙. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r -2.36 ± 0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  3. Acoustic-to-seismic coupling variations in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Donald G.

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the variations that may occur in acoustic-to-seismic coupling arising from changes in local near-surface conditions. The emphasis of the investigations was on cold regions, where many different surface conditions exist and where conditions may change over a short time period from wind, precipitation, freezing, or thawing. The measurements were conducted by recording blank pistol shots with surface geophones and microphones. Results are presented for grassland, thin and thick seasonal snow covers, polar firn, thin grounded ice, thick glacier ice, and floating river ice. The ratio of induced ground motion to acoustic pressure ranged from 0.5 to 20 micro-meters per second per Pascal. Often two arrivals were detected on the geophones, a high-speed seismic compressional wave followed by the air wave. [Work funded by the U.S. Army.

  4. Application of Heat Pipes in Cold Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Masataka

    Recently, there has been put into practical use of heat pipes as space application, electronics cooling, and waste heat recovery. Especially, the low temperature heat pipe which can be used in below atmospheric temperature are also actively developed and applied in terrestrial field. These are based on utilization of natural energy in cold region. This paper is described about application of snow melting and deicing system on a road and roof, snow damage prevention system for electric pole branch wire, artificial permafrost storage system as a reverse utilization of cold atmosphere, and cryo-anchor applied in Alaska and northern Canada.

  5. Remedial investigation report cold regions research and engineering laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    On 1 August 1991 the United States Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) assigned Delivery Order No. 0002 to Ecology and Environment, Inc., (E and E). This delivery order tasked E and E to plan for and conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The purpose of RI is to characterize the extent to contamination at 16 areas of potential concern at the CRREL site. To achieve the goal, E and E completed various field activities including a passive soil gas survey, soil borings, monitoring well installation, and the collection of soil, sediment, surfaces water, and ground water samples. The samples were then submitted for laboratory analysis to determine the type and amount of contamination.

  6. Early winter cold spells over the Euro-Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg

    2016-04-01

    In a changing climate context, temperature extremes are expected to heavily impact societies and economies. Projected changes in warm extremes have been extensively investigated, while less efforts are devoted to cold extremes. Despite the projected warming of the climate system, cold extremes could still occur and have an impact on several sectors, such as human health and agriculture. Here, we focus on cold spells that have a potential high impact, i.e. early winter cold spells occurring after a mild-to-warm autumn. Projected changes of these events over the Euro-Mediterranean region are analysed by using the latest Euro-Cordex simulations under the scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In terms of spatial extension of cold spells, a significant reduction can be seen only at the end of the 21st century and under the RCP8.5 scenario. As for the changes in intensity in the mid-century, no consistency is found among models over large areas. At the end of the century, the north-eastern part of the domain and northern Africa are projected to be early-cold-spell free under the RCP4.5 scenario, while, almost the entire domain is projected to be early-cold-spell free under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  7. What caused the 2009 cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Brandt, Peter; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic (TA) exhibits sea surface temperature (SST) variability on seasonal to inter-annual time scales. This variability is associated with changes of atmospheric dynamics, linking it to severe flooding or droughts in South America and West Africa. This study investigates processes in the TA that might have caused the extreme cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) region in 2009. During boreal spring, a strong negative Atlantic meridional mode event developed in the TA associated with northwesterly wind anomalies along the equator. Contrary to what would be expected from ENSO-like dynamics, these wind anomalies did not lead to a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in boreal summer. Instead, from May to August 2009, an abrupt cooling took place in the ACT region resulting in the coldest August ACT SST on record. In the literature, two processes - equatorial wave reflection and meridional advection of subsurface temperatures - are discussed as potential causes of such an event. Whereas previous studies are mainly based on satellite data, reanalysis products and model output, we here use in situ measurements (data from Argo floats, PIRATA buoys, and TACE moorings, as well as CTD data of various ship cruises) in addition to satellite and reanalysis products to investigate the contribution of both processes to the strong surface cooling in the ACT region in 2009. Results based on the Argo float data confirm previous findings that equatorial wave reflection contributed to the cold event in the ACT region in 2009. They further indicate that higher baroclinic mode waves played an important role. The analysis of in situ and reanalysis temperature and velocity data does not suggest a significant contribution of meridional advection of subsurface temperatures for the onset of the 2009 cold event. The results indicate an asymmetry in the importance of meridional advection for non-ENSO-like cold and warm events with warm events more strongly affected

  8. HOT AND COLD DUST NEAR H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel

    2011-07-15

    We estimate the mass, temperature, and luminosity of the hot ({>=}100 K), cool (20-40 K), and cold ({<=}20 K) dust in the environs of Galactic H II regions using Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Submillimeter Common User Bolometric Array (SCUBA) data. A total of 83 clouds have been examined using IRAS data. A two-component model spectral energy distribution (SED) of hot and cool dust is used to fit the IRAS data. All of the SEDs use a graphite/silicate mix of grains in an MRN distribution. A three-component model SED is fitted to combined SCUBA and IRAS data for 15 clouds near H II regions to measure the cold dust component. Surprisingly, the ratio of the bolometric luminosity of the cool dust to the hot dust appears to be the same (2.8) in virtually all objects. The cool dust has typically four-five orders of magnitude greater mass than the hot dust. However, the mass in cold dust is much greater than the mass in cool and hot dust. We also find some evidence for a relationship between the cool and cold dust masses. These results may prove useful for using IR observations for estimating gas masses in extragalactic systems with active high-mass star formation.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Sacramento Army Depot, CA. (First remedial action), September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    The 485-acre Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) site, 7 miles southeast of downtown Sacramento, California, is surrounded by land zoned as commercial and light industrial property. SAAD is an electronic maintenance and repair depot consisting of storage, maintenance, and office facilities. Present operations include shelter repair, electro-optics equipment repair, metal plating, and treatment of metal-plating wastes. From approximately 1947 to 1972 paint sludges, oil, grease wood, trash, solvents and other industrial wastes were burned and disposed of onsite in burn pits. SAAD has since removed most of the burned material from the burn pits. The burn pits were subsequently covered with soil and revegetated. Ground-water samples, collected by SAAD from 1981 to 1984, indicated that several chemical compounds were present at levels above drinking-water standards in two areas. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including TCE and PCE.

  10. Bedrock fracture by ice segregation in cold regions.

    PubMed

    Murton, Julian B; Peterson, Rorik; Ozouf, Jean-Claude

    2006-11-17

    The volumetric expansion of freezing pore water is widely assumed to be a major cause of rock fracture in cold humid regions. Data from experiments simulating natural freezing regimes indicate that bedrock fracture results instead from ice segregation. Fracture depth and timing are also numerically simulated by coupling heat and mass transfer with a fracture model. The depth and geometry of fractures match those in Arctic permafrost and ice-age weathering profiles. This agreement supports a conceptual model in which ice segregation in near-surface permafrost leads progressively to rock fracture and heave, whereas permafrost degradation leads episodically to melt of segregated ice and rock settlement.

  11. Health assessment for Umatilla Army Depot, Hermiston, Oregon, Region 10. CERCLIS No. OR6213820917. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Umatilla Army Depot Site (UAS) is listed on the National Priorities List. The site covers 23 square miles and is located in Hermiston (Umatilla and Morrow Counties), Oregon. UAS is a storage depot for chemical warfare agents. Parts of the depot were contaminated with explosives as a result of past demilitarization and disposal operations. Preliminary on-site lagoon sampling results have identified 2,4,6-TNT (2,800 ppm in surface soil, 180 ppm in subsurface soil), RDX (350 ppm in surface soil, 260 ppm subsurface soil), dinitrotoluene (DNT) (10 ppm in surface soil) and tetryl (12 ppm in surface soil). Preliminary off-site ground water sampling results identified 2,4-DNT (trace to 400 ppb), 2,6-DNT (trace to 5 ppb), and 2,5,6-TNT (trace to 4,350 ppb). In addition, HMX (trace to 2,530 ppb) and RDX (trace to 7,480 ppb) were also identified in off-site ground water samples. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because on-site employees may be exposed by direct contact to site-related contaminants in soil and possible ingestion of site-related contaminants that bioaccumulate through the food chain. It may be prudent to restrict areas of known contamination to post personnel.

  12. Public health assessment for US Army, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin, Region 5: CERCLIS number WI9210020054. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-05-28

    Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) is located in Sauk County, Wisconsin, near the city of Baraboo. Over a 33 year period, until 1975, the plant operated intermittently to produce propellants for cannon, rocket, and small arms ammunition. Past industrial activities at this site have resulted in surface soil and groundwater contamination by organic and inorganic chemicals. A groundwater contamination plume originating from the Propellant Burning Ground extends beyond the plant's southern boundary. In April 1990, chloroform and/or carbon tetrachloride were found at concentrations above the Wisconsin Division of Health completed a public health assessment for the BAAP. The report documented the evaluation of investigations of environmental conditions and environmentally-related activities taking place at Badger. The Division concluded that people exposed to groundwater contaminants had a slight increased risk of developing cancer.

  13. A new water level gauge for cold region application

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, H.H.; Moss, M.K.; Dixon, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The traditional gas purging (bubbler) water level gauge has been widely sued because of its simplicity, ruggedness and ability to operate in areas of ice cover. However, its mechanically-based sensing and recording system and the need for density information to compute water level have caused inconveniences in field operations. This paper describes a new design that records and telemeters digital data and allows computation of water density directly from the pressure measurements. Major measurement error sources are also identified and quantified. The performance in water level measurement is comparable to the National Ocean Service`s standard air acoustic tide gauge. Deriving density from pressure measurements obviates the need for use of a separate conductivity/temperature/depth instrument, which can be prone to fouling. The uncertainty in density determination is less than 0.0005 g/cc in laboratory tests; in the field, it varies from 0.0015 g/cc under low wave conditions to 0.003 g/cc for high wave conditions. The instrument has been successfully deployed at several cold region sites including the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 6): Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Burning Ground Number 3, Karnack, TX, May 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Early Interim Remedial Action for the Burning Ground No. 3 site (the site), Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, in Karnack, Texas. The major components of the selected remedy include: extraction and Treatment of contaminated shallow groundwater using Organic Air Stripping and Off-gas Treatment and Metals precipitation, and Excavation and Treatment of Source Material using Low Temperature Thermal Desorption and Catalytic Oxidation for off-gas.

  15. [An apothecary from the Cévennes region on the rolls of Oriental Pyrenees Army in 1793].

    PubMed

    Guibert, Marie-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In 1793 during the french Revolution, the decret of February 23rd orders a big recruitment of 300 000 people. The city of Alès (Cevennes) has to supply ninety-seven soldiers to establish the battalion of the Gard. They will be allocated to the "Armée des Pyrénées-Orientales" (Army of the Eastern Pyrenees) which is going to defend the border with Spain. These armies have to face the influx of wounded persons but especially the devastation of the epidemics. Besides the soldiers, are enlisted the officers of health, the doctors, the surgeons and the pharmacists. So the city of Alès indicates to be of use to this army the youngest of the doctors, freshly honed of the university of Montpellier and two old pharmacists (51 y. and 61 y. old). They were allocated to the hospital of Narbonne where they worked to fight against the epidemics, in particular by the disinfection of rooms. The oldest of them succumbed to the disease. Two others, safe and sound income in their home town, played a notables' role. PMID:25807665

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Sacramento Army Depot, Burn Pits Operable Unit, Sacramento, CA, February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of the Record of Decision (ROD) is to set forth the remedial action to be conducted at the Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) to remedy soil contamination associated with the Burn Pits. This is the fourth of several remedial actions addressing soil and groundwater contamination that may be conducted, or are currently being conducted at SAAD. Subsequent RODs will address other potential threats posed by conditions at SAAD, both on and off site. A final comprehensive ROD will address the entire facility prior to SAAD's closure in 1997.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Sacramento Army Depot, Operable Unit 3, Sacramento, CA. (Second remedial action), December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    The 485-acre Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) is a U.S. Army support, service, and storage facility located approximately 7 miles southeast of the City of Sacramento, California. Land use in the area is predominantly commercial and light industrial, with residential areas located mainly to the west. An estimated 56,000 people obtain water from a deep aquifer that is not considered to be contaminated by the facility. However, some wells in the surrounding area draw water from the upper aquifers. Past and present activities conducted at SAAD include electro-optics equipment repair, the emergency manufacture of parts, shelter repair, and metal treating. The primary waste-generating activities included metal-plating and painting. The selected remedial action for this site includes constructing and installing an onsite soil vapor extraction system to remove VOCs from contaminated soil; dehumidifying the air stream and treating the collected water vapor using UV/hydrogen peroxide; treating air emissions using granular activated carbon and transporting the residual carbon offsite for recycling and treatment; monitoring air emissions during the treatment process; and sampling media after 6 months to determine compliance with clean-up standards. The estimated present worth cost for the selected remedial action is $614,414. No O M costs are associated with the selected remedial action.

  18. Public health assessment for Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Karnack, Harrison County, Texas, Region 6, CERCLIS number TX6213820529. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-09

    Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (Longhorn) is an 8,493 acre government-owned former industrial facility approximately 14 miles northeast of Marshall, Harrison County, Texas. Longhorn has been intermittently in operation since 1942 when it was established to produce the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Pyrotechnic ammunition also was produced at Longhorn and Morton Thiokol Corporation produced a plastic explosive at the facility until August 1997. According to document record for the hazardous ranking system, releases of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, arsenic, barium, chromium, and lead occurred. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reviewed available environmental information for the site and evaluated several potential exposure situations. These exposure situations include potential contact with site contaminants in surface water, sediment, surface soil, wasteline material, and groundwater. Although site-related contaminants have been found in these various environmental media, currently the contaminants are not accessible, on or off the site, at levels that would pose a public health threat. Based on available information, the authors have concluded that overall, the Longhorne Army Ammunition Plant poses on apparent public health hazard. In the future, the conclusion category for this site could change if additional data were to indicate that contaminants from the site were migrating towards the public water supply wells near the site.

  19. Diviner Lunar Radiometer observations of cold traps in the Moon's south polar region.

    PubMed

    Paige, David A; Siegler, Matthew A; Zhang, Jo Ann; Hayne, Paul O; Foote, Emily J; Bennett, Kristen A; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Schofield, John T; McCleese, Daniel J; Foote, Marc C; DeJong, Eric; Bills, Bruce G; Hartford, Wayne; Murray, Bruce C; Allen, Carlton C; Snook, Kelly; Soderblom, Laurence A; Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric W; Bowles, Neil E; Bandfield, Joshua L; Elphic, Richard; Ghent, Rebecca; Glotch, Timothy D; Wyatt, Michael B; Lucey, Paul G

    2010-10-22

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies. PMID:20966246

  20. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of cold traps in the moon's south polar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paige, D.A.; Siegler, M.A.; Zhang, J.A.; Hayne, P.O.; Foote, E.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Vasavada, A.R.; Greenhagen, B.T.; Schofield, J.T.; McCleese, D.J.; Foote, M.C.; DeJong, E.; Bills, B.G.; Hartford, W.; Murray, B.C.; Allen, C.C.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L.A.; Calcutt, S.; Taylor, F.W.; Bowles, N.E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Elphic, R.; Ghent, R.; Glotch, T.D.; Wyatt, M.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in aging rat brain regions upon chlorpyrifos toxicity and cold stress: an interactive study.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Poojary, Annappa

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent energy depletion are the major causes of oxidative stress resulting to bring alterations in the ionic homeostasis causing loss of cellular integrity. Our previous studies have shown the age-associated interactive effects in rat central nervous system (CNS) upon co-exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cold stress leading to macromolecular oxidative damage. The present study elucidates a possible mechanism by which CPF and cold stress interaction cause(s) mitochondrial dysfunction in an age-related manner. In this study, the activity levels of Krebs cycle enzymes and electron transport chain (ETC) protein complexes were assessed in the isolated fraction of mitochondria. CPF and cold stress (15 and 20 °C) exposure either individually or in combination decreased the activity level of Krebs cycle enzymes and ETC protein complexes in discrete regions of rat CNS. The findings confirm that cold stress produces significant synergistic effect in CPF intoxicated aging rats. The synergism between CPF and cold stress at 15 °C caused a higher depletion of respiratory enzymes in comparison with CPF and cold stress alone and together at 20 °C indicating the extent of deleterious functional alterations in discrete regions of brain and spinal cord (SC) which may result in neurodegeneration and loss in neuronal metabolic control. Hence, co-exposure of CPF and cold stress is more dangerous than exposure of either alone. Among the discrete regions studied, the cerebellum and medulla oblongata appears to be the most susceptible regions when compared to cortex and SC. Furthermore, the study reveals a gradual decrease in sensitivity to CPF toxicity as the rat matures.

  2. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  3. Health assessment for Sharpe Army Depot, Lathrop, San Joaquin County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CA8210020832. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-14

    The Sharpe Army Depot (SHAD), consisting of 720 acres located in San Joaquin County, California, is on the National Priorities List. The site has served as a storage, receiving, packaging, and shipping facility since 1941. In the late 1940s the Depot also served as a maintenance facility for heavy equipment. Available data indicate that the primary contaminant sources are associated with past heavy equipment and aircraft-maintenance operations. Contaminants associated with SHAD include trichloroethene, arsenic, selenium, and bromacil (a herbicide). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion, dermal contact, or inhalation of contaminants in ground water, subsurface soil, soil-gas, and food-chain entities.

  4. Seasonal snow cover: roles and processes in the ecology of cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H. G.

    2003-04-01

    Seasonal snow is a characteristic feature of cold regions and may cover the ground for significant periods of the annual cycle. The physical effect of snow on individual plants, animals, and ecosystem communities has thus been the subject of considerable study. However, the role of snow in the relationships between chemistry, microbiology and dynamics of 'cold' ecosystems has only become of interest in the past decade or so. This presentation will describe the role of snow in mediating the fluxes of nutrients, gases and certain pollutants between the soil and the atmosphere. The discourse will also include a discussion on in-pack chemical and photochemical reactions, microbiological productivity and the life cycles of organisms in sub and intra-nival food chains. These processes maintain small but qualitatively important fluxes of nutrients for the over-wintering of cold-region communities and the regeneration of overall biological production in spring.

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome: evidence for warm and cold subtypes in a large prospective clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen; Maihöfner, Christian; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Perez, Roberto S G M; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Brunner, Florian; Birklein, Frank; Schlereth, Tanja; Mackey, Sean; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Livshitz, Anatoly; Harden, R Norman

    2016-08-01

    Limited research suggests that there may be Warm complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and Cold CRPS subtypes, with inflammatory mechanisms contributing most strongly to the former. This study for the first time used an unbiased statistical pattern recognition technique to evaluate whether distinct Warm vs Cold CRPS subtypes can be discerned in the clinical population. An international, multisite study was conducted using standardized procedures to evaluate signs and symptoms in 152 patients with clinical CRPS at baseline, with 3-month follow-up evaluations in 112 of these patients. Two-step cluster analysis using automated cluster selection identified a 2-cluster solution as optimal. Results revealed a Warm CRPS patient cluster characterized by a warm, red, edematous, and sweaty extremity and a Cold CRPS patient cluster characterized by a cold, blue, and less edematous extremity. Median pain duration was significantly (P < 0.001) shorter in the Warm CRPS (4.7 months) than in the Cold CRPS subtype (20 months), with pain intensity comparable. A derived total inflammatory score was significantly (P < 0.001) elevated in the Warm CRPS group (compared with Cold CRPS) at baseline but diminished significantly (P < 0.001) over the follow-up period, whereas this score did not diminish in the Cold CRPS group (time × subtype interaction: P < 0.001). Results support the existence of a Warm CRPS subtype common in patients with acute (<6 months) CRPS and a relatively distinct Cold CRPS subtype most common in chronic CRPS. The pattern of clinical features suggests that inflammatory mechanisms contribute most prominently to the Warm CRPS subtype but that these mechanisms diminish substantially during the first year postinjury. PMID:27023422

  6. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment - a hot topic in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Pippa

    2016-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling tackles the classic geodynamical problem of determining the solid Earth response to surface load changes by ice and ocean water whilst at the same time solving for the gravitationally-consistent redistribution of ice sheet meltwater across the global ocean. Understanding this process is important for quantifying both present-day ice mass balance and the response of ice sheets to past and future climatic change. The two fundamental unknowns in this problem are (i) the rheology of the solid Earth, and (ii) the history of global ice sheet change. In this talk I will discuss the myriad of approaches that are used to constrain these two components. In particular, I will focus on Antarctica, where the presence of a continuously-evolving ice sheet, situated on top of one of the most rheologically-diverse regions of the planet, provides us with a challenge that can only be resolved by drawing on knowledge from across the fields of geodynamics, glaciology, geology, geodesy and seismology.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Sacramento Army Depot, Operable Unit 4, Sacramento, CA. (Third remedial action), September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    The 485-acre Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) site is a military facility in Sacramento County, California. Land use in the area is predominantly commercial and light industrial, with wetlands in the vicinity of several oxidation lagoons. The estimated 56,398 people who live within 2 to 3 miles of the site use municipal water as their drinking water supply. From 1950 to 1972, the lagoons received mostly industrial waste water from metal plating processes and domestic wastewater. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavating and treating approximately 15,500 cubic yards of contaminated soil onsite using soil washing; dewatering and then backfilling the treated soil onsite in the excavation areas, and storing the rinsate temporarily in onsite holding tanks for recycling; treating rinsate from the treatment process using chemical precipitation, clarification/flocculation, and chemical coagulation to remove metals, prior to discharge into the sanitary sewer; dewatering the sludge containing the precipitated metals, and stabilizing this if necessary, followed by disposal in an RCRA landfill or recovery at an offsite reclamation unit. The estimated present worth cost for this remedial action is $5,020,000. There are no O M costs associated with the remedial action.

  8. Proceedings: International Symposium on Thermal Engineering and Science for Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunardini, V. J.; Bowen, S. L.

    This document contains a collection of papers from the Fourth International Symposium on Thermal Engineering and Science for Cold Regions. Topics covered include: some topics on melting heat transfer problems; osmotic model of ice segregation; thermosyphon applications in cold regions; an analytic study of liquid solidification in low Peclet number forced flows inside a parallel plate channel concerning axial heat conduction; freezing within laminar fast-growing thermally developing region of a uniform heat flux cooled parallel plate duct; the morphology of ice layers in curved rectangular channels; effect of heat conductor plates on ice formation near a wall; freezing characteristics of water flow in a horizontal cooled tube with the separated region; stability of thick ice formation in pipes; experiments and analysis of pipe freezing; experimental study of freezing of water in a closed circular tube with pressure increasing; and effects of a porous medium in a flow passage with miter bend.

  9. Isolated cold plasma regions: Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Chen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Regions of enhanced cold plasma, isolated from the main plasmasphere along the Explorer 45 orbit on the equatorial plane, are reported using the sheath induced potentials seen by the electric field experiment. The occurrence of these regions has a strong correlation with negative enhancements of Dst, and their locations are primarily in the noon-dusk quadrant. The data support the concept that changes in large scale convection play a dominant role in the formation of these regions. Plasmatails that are predicted from enhancements of large scale convection electric fields in general define where these regions may be found. More localized processes are necessary to account for the exact configuration and structure seen in these regions and may eventually result in detachment from the main plasmasphere.

  10. The Net Energy Budget at the Surface Interface of the "Cold Tongue" Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Pinker, Rachel; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao

    2016-04-01

    The southern tropical Pacific region also known as the "cold tongue" region is of great interest in terms of understanding the atmosphere-ocean coupling, and the observed strong seasonal cycle in sea surface temperature. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of air-sea interaction through the analysis of the net heat budget over the "cold tongue" region. Such analysis requires high quality heat budget estimates which are impacted by the complex and extensive low-level stratocumulus clouds in this region. The accuracy at which current satellite and numerical model methods can estimate this net heat budget is of interest. In this paper, the heat budget at the ocean-atmosphere interface in a region bound by 0o S - 30o S, 110o W - 70o W has been derived using satellite observations and compared to in situ measurements and to predictions from numerical models. The approach is based on multi-satellite sensors, buoy observations and numerical analyses. The fluxes are generated at daily and monthly time scales for a 10 year period (2002-2012) at a nominal 10 resolution (some parameters are available at higher resolution). Once the metrics on the accuracy of the satellite estimates are known, they can serve as "ground truth" for evaluating numerical models.

  11. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  12. Trends of Future Heavy Snowfall and Accumulated Freezing Indexes in Japanese Snowy Cold Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Matsuzawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    To achieve sufficient, effective winter road maintenance, it is important that long-term snow and ice hazard mitigation plans be examined and formulated by taking into consideration the influence of climate change. In this study, we have developed a method of predicting more accurately the indexes of heavy snowfall events that occur over short periods of time and future projections of winter temperatures based on the relationship of observed data to the climate model predicted values. The indexes for heavy snowfall were the maximum 24-hour snowfall and the frequency of 10-cm or more snowfall within a maximum 6-hour period. Indexes for cold weather were the accumulated freezing index in winter and the number of days of freeze-thaw days. Subsequently, we have applied this methodology for Japanese snowy cold regions, in order to clarify the trends for near future and century-end future period changes. The results indicate that current measures to mitigate the effects of extremely heavy snowfall in inland areas of Hokkaido may require enhancement of operational procedures. In addition, the possibility of pavement and concrete damage in the colder regions is expected to increase due to the increment in the number of freeze-thaw days. Based upon the results of this study, we will identify the road management issues associated with climate change using the recent trends and predictions for the near future and century-end future climate periods.

  13. Army thermophotovoltaic efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, John S.; Guazzoni, Guido; Nawrocki, Selma J.

    1999-03-01

    A presentation and description of the several efforts in Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) Energy Conversion for power generation supported/monitored by the Army is provided with their more recent technical status and results. The efforts are related to small business (SBIR, STTR) contracts, academic research grants (MURI), and contracts awarded as the result of specialized solicitations. This paper covers a number of Army potential uses of the TPV power generation and is an attempt to give a more cohesive and integrated picture of the various military interests in TPV. With the exception of low power (<10 W) units, all Army potential uses of TPV power sources will demand operation with logistically available fuels.

  14. INTERFROST: a benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, C. F.; Roux, N.; Costard, F.; Pessel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large temperature amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is a minimal requirement to model and understand the evolution of the river and lake - soil continuum in a changing climate (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007; Bense et al 2009, Rowland et al 2011; Painter 2011; Grenier et al 2012; Painter et al 2012 and others from the 2012 special issue Hydrogeology Journal: 'Hydrogeology of cold regions'). However, 3D studies are still scarce while numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for the purely thermal equation with conduction and phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. We propose here to initiate a benchmark exercise, detail some of its planned test cases (phase I) and invite other research groups to join. This initial phase of the benchmark will consist of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room will complement the validation approach. In view of a Phase II, the project is open as well to other test cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the optimization of codes and numerical approaches in order to develop validated and

  15. INTERFROST: a benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Costard, François; Pessel, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Large focus was put recently on the impact of climate changes in boreal regions due to the large temperature amplitudes expected. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) with very specific evolution and water budget. These water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent studies and modeling exercises showed that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is a minimal requirement to model and understand the evolution of the river and lake - soil continuum in a changing climate (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007; Bense et al 2009, Rowland et al 2011; Painter 2011; Grenier et al 2012; Painter et al 2012 and others from the 2012 special issue Hydrogeology Journal: "Hydrogeology of cold regions"). However, 3D studies are still scarce while numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for the purely thermal equation with conduction and phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare different codes on provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. We propose here to join the INTERFROST benchmark exercise addressing these issues. We give an overview of some of its test cases (phase I) as well as provide the present stand of the exercise and invite other research groups to join. This initial phase of the benchmark consists of some test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. Mc Kenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. Some experimental cases in cold room complement the validation approach. In view of a Phase II, the project is open as well to other test cases reflecting a numerical or a process oriented interest or answering a more general concern among the cold region community. A further purpose of the benchmark exercise is to propel discussions for the

  16. Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Weber, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns. PMID:25505542

  17. Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change.

    PubMed

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Weber, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns.

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA region 6): Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, (No Further Action at LHAAP 13 and 14), Karnack, TX, February 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected no Further Action alternative for LHAAP 13 and 14, Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP), in Karnack, Texas. There are no actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances as a result of suspected previous activities from these sites that may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment.

  19. Improving Snow Measurement Technology to Better Parameterise Cold Regions Hydrometeorology Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J.; Debeer, C.; Ellis, C.; Essery, R.; Helgason, W.; Kinar, N.; Link, T.; MacDonald, J.

    2008-12-01

    Marmot Creek Research Basin, in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada constitutes a long term cold regions hydrometeorological observatory with over 45 years of intensive observations in alpine and forested zones. Recently, novel combinations of measurement technology to snow have been deployed in Marmot Creek to advance the understanding of snow processes and to improve hydrometeorological models of streamflow and atmospheric variables. One advance has been the development and application of portable acoustic reflectometry to measure the density and structure of seasonal snowpacks using an audible sound wave. This has permitted the non-invasive measurement of snow water equivalent for both stationary and snow survey applications. Another advance has been the use of oblique time-lapse digital photography which is corrected for elevation and view angle from a LiDAR DEM to produce daily orthogonal snow covered area images of the alpine zone. These images are used to calculate snowcovered area and to develop and test improved snowcover melt and depletion algorithms. Deployment of 3-axis ultrasonic anemometers and fast hygrometers with collection of 10 Hz data and full correction for non-stationarity, axis rotation and other effects has shown that horizontal turbulence is often advected into mountain clearings and causes failure of traditional bulk transfer calculations of latent and sensible heat. For forest snow a hanging, weighed spruce tree and hanging, weighed sub-canopy troughs are used to capture intercepted snow load and unloaded snow fluxes respectively. These quantities provide the information needed to test detailed models of the snow interception and unloading processes. To quantify variations in sub-canopy energy for snowmelt, infrared imaging radiometers and narrow beam radiometers are used to measure thermal radiation exitance from needles, stems and trunks in forests of varying structure. These measurements are being used to develop improved models of

  20. Low modulus polymer packaged optical fiber sensor for macrocrack monitoring in ice structures of cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Ice structures provide load-bearing capability for energy exploitation and transportation in cold regions. Meanwhile, staff and facilities take a risk due to large amounts of distributed macrocracks in ice roads, ice bridges, and ice platforms. It is critical to monitor macrocracks for detecting and understanding the fracture process under such a harsh environment. Aiming to obtain real-time, long-term, and quantitative crack opening information for ice structures, this paper presents a feasibility study on monitoring macrocracks with a low modulus polymer packaged optical fiber sensor. Brillouin optical time-domain analysis-based sensing technology is utilized for the distributed strain measurement. According to in situ monitoring requirements, a type of silicone rubber material with appropriate mechanical properties is selected to fabricate the sensor. On this basis, a strain transfer analysis on the packaged and embedded sensor is carried out to derive the relation between the optical measurement and the increment of the crack width. The prototypes have been evaluated by demonstration tests on a tensile device and an ice road model. The experimental results show the sensor can survive in a cold environment and under the large strain resulting from the macrocrack opening. These measured data agree well with the linear calibration. The macrocracks opening in large-scale ice structures can be characterized based on the optical sensor.

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Umatilla Army Depot (lagoons), soils operable Unit 2, Hermiston, OR. (First remedial action), September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-25

    The Umatilla Army Depot lagoons site is located in the center of the 19,700-acre U.S. Army Depot Activity, Umatilla (UMDA), 5 miles west of Hermiston, in Morrow and Umatilla Counties, Oregon. From the 1950's through 1965, UMDA operated an onsite explosives washout plant, which processed munitions to remove and recover explosives using a pressurized hot water system. An estimated 85,000,000 gallons of effluent were discharged to the lagoons during plant operations. The ROD provides a final remedy for the soil present at the lagoons. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil are inorganics and explosives, including DNB, 2, 4-DNT, HMX, NB, TNB, TNT, and RDX.

  2. [Spatial and temporal variations of hydrological characteristic on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Hu, Jin-Fei; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Zou, Song-Bing; Yin, Zhen-Liang

    2013-10-01

    There are few studies on the hydrological characteristics on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region at present. This paper aimed to identify the spatial and temporal variations in the origin and composition of the runoff, and to reveal the hydrological characteristics in each zone, based on the isotopic analysis of glacier, snow, frozen soil, groundwater, etc. The results showed that during the wet season, heavy precipitation and high temperature in the Mafengou River basin caused secondary evaporation which led to isotope fractionation effects. Therefore, the isotope values remained high. Temperature effects were significant. During the dry season, the temperature was low. Precipitation was in the solid state during the cold season and the evaporation was weak. Water vapor came from the evaporation of local water bodies. Therefore, less secondary evaporation and water vapor exchange occurred, leading to negative values of delta18O and deltaD. delta18O and deltaD values of precipitation and various water bodies exhibited strong seasonal variations. Precipitation exhibited altitude effects, delta18O = -0. 005 2H - 8. 951, deltaD = -0.018 5H - 34. 873. Other water bodies did not show altitude effects in the wet season and dry season, because the runoff was not only recharged by precipitation, but also influenced by the freezing and thawing process of the glacier, snow and frozen soil. The mutual transformation of precipitation, melt water, surface water and groundwater led to variations in isotopic composition. Therefore, homogenization and evaporation effect are the main control factors of isotope variations. PMID:24364295

  3. [Spatial and temporal variations of hydrological characteristic on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Hu, Jin-Fei; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Zou, Song-Bing; Yin, Zhen-Liang

    2013-10-01

    There are few studies on the hydrological characteristics on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region at present. This paper aimed to identify the spatial and temporal variations in the origin and composition of the runoff, and to reveal the hydrological characteristics in each zone, based on the isotopic analysis of glacier, snow, frozen soil, groundwater, etc. The results showed that during the wet season, heavy precipitation and high temperature in the Mafengou River basin caused secondary evaporation which led to isotope fractionation effects. Therefore, the isotope values remained high. Temperature effects were significant. During the dry season, the temperature was low. Precipitation was in the solid state during the cold season and the evaporation was weak. Water vapor came from the evaporation of local water bodies. Therefore, less secondary evaporation and water vapor exchange occurred, leading to negative values of delta18O and deltaD. delta18O and deltaD values of precipitation and various water bodies exhibited strong seasonal variations. Precipitation exhibited altitude effects, delta18O = -0. 005 2H - 8. 951, deltaD = -0.018 5H - 34. 873. Other water bodies did not show altitude effects in the wet season and dry season, because the runoff was not only recharged by precipitation, but also influenced by the freezing and thawing process of the glacier, snow and frozen soil. The mutual transformation of precipitation, melt water, surface water and groundwater led to variations in isotopic composition. Therefore, homogenization and evaporation effect are the main control factors of isotope variations.

  4. Solute transport modelling in a coupled water and heat flow system applied to cold regions hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, flow in the unsaturated zone is highly dynamic with seasonal variability and changes in temperature, moisture, and heat and water fluxes, all of which affect ground freeze-thaw processes and influence transport of inert and reactive waterborne substances. In arctic permafrost environments, near-surface groundwater flow is further restricted to a relatively shallow and seasonally variable active layer, confined by perennially frozen ground below. The active layer is typically partially saturated with ice, liquid water and air, and is strongly dependent on seasonal temperature fluctuations, thermal forcing and infiltration patterns. Here there is a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling subsurface solute transport in the partially saturated active layer zone. Studying solute transport in cold regions is relevant to improve the understanding of how natural and anthropogenic pollution may change as activities in arctic and sub-arctic regions increase. It is also particularly relevant for understanding how dissolved carbon is transported in coupled surface and subsurface hydrological systems under climate change, in order to better understand the permafrost-hydrological-carbon climate feedback. In this contribution subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in subsurface water flows and solute transport travel times are analysed for different modelled geological configurations during a 100-year warming period. Results show that for all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase non-linearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The travel time changes are shown to depend on combined warming effects of increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, reduced transport

  5. Hot-gas cold-dust pumping for water masers associated with H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A collisional pump with an internal sink is proposed for the water masers associated with H II regions, where the population inversion occurs due to the absorption by cold ice-mantle grains in a highly dusty cloud of the far-infrared line radiation of hot water vapor. A new escape probability method is developed to calculate the transfer of line radiation in dusty medium. The pump mechanism explains the power of usual maser sources associated with H II regions and the enormous power of the sources associated with W49 N and external galaxies. Models of maser clouds have a radius of 5 x 10 to the 15th-10 to the 16th cm, an H2 number density of 4 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm, an expansion velocity of 10-30 km/s, a kinetic temperature of 350 K, and a grain temperature of 100 K. Giant maser sources require grains of the size about 1 micron. The apparent size of the emission spots (approximately 10 to the 13th cm) observed by VLBI is interpreted as due to a fluctuation in the cloud, and the assembly of the spots is spread within a size of 10 to the 16th cm. The temperature difference between the dust and gas is due to a relaxation process after an infrared burst accompanying protostar formation.

  6. Effects of Land Management Practices on Cold Region Hydrological Processes in an Agricultural Prairie Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Baulch, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation tillage including zero and reduced tillage, crop rotation and upstream reservoirs are commonly implemented as beneficial management practices (BMPs) in the Canadian Prairies. However, their effects are strongly dependent on interactions with cold region hydrological processes, such as wind redistribution of snow, snowmelt, infiltration to frozen soils and evaporation, due to strong coupling between land surface characteristics and hydrology. These interactions are poorly understood and few studies have investigated them using a physically-based modeling framework. In this study, we deploy a physically-based, semi-distributed cold regions hydrological model (CRHM) to investigate the impacts of land management practices in the South Tobacco Creek Basin (STC) which forms part of the Red River Basin in southern Manitoba, Canada. The STC (~73 km2) is set in a gently rolling landscape of low relief (~200 m). Detailed field data such as crop type, tillage practices, crop residue and planting and harvesting dates are available from 1995 and are used to parameterize the model. While the majority of parameters are specified a priori, we have manually calibrated roughness and initial soil water storage parameters to compare the simulations with runoff observations at multiple scales (upstream catchment, mid-basin gauge and outlet gauge) and snow observations during 2000-2001 water year. The calibrated model based on the 2000-2001 period is further evaluated over the 2001-2011 period, which includes high inter-annual variability. The results suggest good agreement between observations and simulations and provide insight into hydrological controls. Snowmelt runoff is a major contributor to streamflow while the contribution of summer rainfall runoff is highly variable. The evaporative fraction is high during dry years (2002-2004) indicating a vertical flux controlled mass balance while the runoff fraction dominates during wet years (2005-2011), suggesting overland

  7. Army ants: an evolutionary bestseller?

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Stefanie M

    2003-09-01

    Army ants are characterized by a complex combination of behavioral and morphological traits. Molecular data now indicate that army ant behavior has a unique evolutionary origin and has been conserved for over more than 100 million years.

  8. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  9. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  10. Army Reserve Comprehensive Water Efficiency Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Kearney, Jaime

    2015-04-14

    The Army Reserve has partnered with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop comprehensive water assessments for numerous Army Reserve Centers in all five regions including the Pacific islands and Puerto Rico, and at Fort Buchanan and Fort Hunter Liggett. The objective of these assessments is to quantify water use at the site, and identify innovative water efficiency projects that can be implemented to help reduce water demand and increase efficiency. Several of these assessments have focused on a strategic plan for achieving net zero water to help meet the Army’s Net Zero Directive . The Army Reserve has also leveraged this approach as part of the energy conservation investment program (ECIP), energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs), and utility energy service contracts (UESCs). This article documents the process involved.

  11. Common garden experiments to characterize cold acclimation responses in plants from different climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, Andrey V; Henry, Hugh A L; Kreyling, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Cold acclimation is a crucial factor to consider in the context of ongoing climate change. Maladaptation with regard to frost damage and use of the growing season may occur depending on cold acclimation cues. Importance of photoperiod and preceding temperatures as cues needs therefore to be evaluated within (ecotypes) and among species. Common garden designs, in particular the (1) establishment of multiple common gardens along latitudinal/altitudinal gradients, (2) with in situ additional climate manipulations and (3) with manipulations in climate chambers are proposed as tools for the detection of local adaptations and relative importance of temperature and photoperiod as cues for cold adaptation. Here, we discuss issues in species and ecotype selection, establishment of common gardens including manipulations of temperature and photoperiod, and quantification of cold adaptation.

  12. Cold region river discharge uncertainty—estimates from large Russian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander I.; Yakovleva, Tatyana I.; Lammers, Richard B.; Karasev, Iosiph Ph.; Vörösmarty, Charles. J.; Linder, Ernst

    2006-07-01

    We develop an error model to understand the reliability and accuracy of river discharge datasets that are now being used for a variety of important global change questions. The developed error model for cold region river discharge uses standard hydrometric data along with information on the frequency and precision of measurements, characteristics of river channel capacity, and method of discharge computation. The uncertainties of daily, monthly and annual discharge data for the downstream gauges of the six largest Eurasian rivers (Severnaya Dvina, Pechora, Ob', Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma) in the pan-Arctic drainage along with uncertainty of aggregated annual time series are evaluated using the suggested methodology. The study shows that uncertainties associated with discharge determination significantly change from year to year and strongly depend on the computational methods used and frequency of discharge measurements. Recent work by Peterson et al. (2002) has shown increases in river discharge to the Arctic Ocean of the six largest Eurasian rivers of 7% from 1936 to 1999. This paper focuses on determination of reliability in the discharge data which provided such conclusion. The obtained results further confirm the findings of Peterson et al. (2002) concerning the rise in river discharge. We found that errors of the total annual discharge for the six rivers over the period 1950-2000 are in the range 1.5-3.5%. The long-term trend of the observed discharge from these six rivers into the Arctic Ocean for 1936-2000, along with uncertainty associated with discharge data, is 2.0±0.4 km 3/year.

  13. Army Strong, Superintendent Savvy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Brigadier General Anthony "Tony" Tata of the U.S. Army had one of those "ah-ha" moments in April 2006 when, on the eve of an operation he was heading in Afghanistan, an Al Qaeda rocket shattered a nearby school. The attack killed a teacher and seven students and wounded dozens more. The rocket incident eventually nudged Tata toward a new mission:…

  14. 36 CFR 223.238 - Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Army and Navy. 223.238 Section 223.238 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Instruments § 223.238 Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy. Subject to delegations of authority by the Chief, Regional Foresters may approve the harvest of special forest products by the U.S. Army and...

  15. 36 CFR 223.238 - Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Army and Navy. 223.238 Section 223.238 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Instruments § 223.238 Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy. Subject to delegations of authority by the Chief, Regional Foresters may approve the harvest of special forest products by the U.S. Army and...

  16. 36 CFR 223.238 - Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Army and Navy. 223.238 Section 223.238 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Instruments § 223.238 Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy. Subject to delegations of authority by the Chief, Regional Foresters may approve the harvest of special forest products by the U.S. Army and...

  17. 36 CFR 223.238 - Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Army and Navy. 223.238 Section 223.238 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Instruments § 223.238 Free use authorization to U.S. Army and Navy. Subject to delegations of authority by the Chief, Regional Foresters may approve the harvest of special forest products by the U.S. Army and...

  18. Underground warmed environments at cold regions. The case of Cerro Caliente in Deception island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Gómez, F.; Moreno, M.; de Diego, G.; Fernandez-Sampedro, M.; Martín-Redondo, M. P.; Parro, V.

    2012-09-01

    Hydrothermal and cold environments constitute two extremes for life and are relevant to evaluate the present or past life on Mars. Deception Island (Antarctica) is an excellent place to study the cold and warm underground habitats and their interfaces. They are extreme environments that have interest as terrestrial analogues to Mars. Cerro Caliente, a 107 m high hill has been selected because the geothermal activity present at its summit. Some drills at the same ground materials but with different thermal regimes were performed at this place. Samples from the cores are being studied to understand the interactions between the cold and warm environments. The description of the area and the preliminary results of the sample analysis will be presented during the session.

  19. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  20. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from

  1. Changes in [14C]deoxyglucose incorporation into rat brain regions during heat-seeking behavior in the cold environment.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, A; Nakamori, T; Ono, T; Watanabe, T; Sakai, Y; Murakami, N

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous structures involved in behavioral thermoregulatory responses during cold exposure were investigated in conscious rats by means of the 2-deoxy-D-[14C]glucose ([14C]-DG) autoradiographic technique. According to autoradiographs, many brain regions with significant increases or decreases in [14C]-DG incorporation were observed during thermoregulatory behavior. When animals were only exposed to cold, significant increases in [14C]-DG incorporation were observed in the caudate putamen, lateral preoptic area, medial forebrain bundle, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), posterior hypothalamus, ventroposteromedial thalamus (VPM), dorsomedial thalamus (MD), substantia nigra (SN) and red nucleus (RN). Lower activities were observed in the hippocampus and the medial habenula. However, when animals performed the behavioral thermoregulation (heat seeking behavior) significant increases were noted in the sulcal prefrontal cortex, sensory-motor cortex, and MD, while decreases were noted in the piriform cortex, VMH, VPM, medial habenula, SN and RN, compared with those in the group without the thermoregulatory behavior.

  2. Active Army and Army Reserve Soldiers: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkan, JoJo T.; And Others

    A study determined whether chemical operations specialists at skill level 1 differ in terms of aptitude, job knowledge, job confidence, and perceptions of task difficulty, task importance, task frequency, and task training, depending on whether the specialists are active U.S. Army soldiers or are in the Army Reserve. The subjects for whom complete…

  3. 78 FR 18473 - Army Privacy Act Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Register (71 FR 46052), the Department of the Army issued a final rule. This final rule corrects the... Department of the Army 32 CFR Part 505 Army Privacy Act Program AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the Army is amending its rule on notification of the...

  4. 76 FR 12087 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Department of the Army Army Educational Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... 102-3.150, the following meeting notice is announced: Name of Committee: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Dates of Meeting: March 24, 2011. Place of Meeting:...

  5. 76 FR 72914 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Department of the Army Army Educational Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... 102-3.150, the following meeting notice is announced: Name of Committee: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Dates of Meeting: December 14, 2011. Place of Meeting:...

  6. 75 FR 7255 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Department of the Army Army Educational Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... CFR 102-3.150, the following meeting notice is announced: Name of Committee: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Date of Meeting: March 11, 2010. Place of Meeting:...

  7. 76 FR 66282 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Department of the Army Army Educational Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... CFR 102-3.150, the following meeting notice is announced: Name of Committee: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Dates of Meeting: November 15, 2011. Place of Meeting:...

  8. Tracing the cold regions of a dense core with para-H2D+ against a bright continuum source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Using Herschel/HIFI and IRAM-30m/Pdb observations, we detected a dense and cold core on the line of sight of a distant compact HII region (W51). While the fortuitous coincidence of the dense core along the line of sight with the continuum-bright W51e2 compact HII region has contributed to its non detection in the submillimeter continuum images, this same attribute makes it an appropriate source for absorption studies of star-forming gas. This core has been traced with deuterated species for the first time in absorption in the case of DCO+. We now propose to trace this core with the para-H2D+ ground-state transition, since H2D+ is a reliable tracer of the cold and dense phase of star-forming regions. For example, both species will be used to constrain the H2 fraction in its para form and consequently the age of the core. The source proposed here is unique because of its distance and its chance coincidence to lie against a bright continuum source. A detection is crucial to constrain the nature of the clump, in a chemical point of view, at a galactocentric distance (~ 5 kpc) different than the usual clouds (such as Orion and Taurus) that have been observed so far for detection of tracers of star-formation activity with H2D+.

  9. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.

  10. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD(Cr) and NH₃N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631

  11. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631

  12. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR. PMID:27376919

  13. Changing Cold Regions: Addressing Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Quinton, W. L.; Stewart, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    The cold interior region of Western Canada east of the Continental Divide from the US border to the Arctic Ocean has one of the world's most extreme and variable climates and is experiencing rapid environmental change. Climate warming and precipitation change have resulted in altered patterns of snowfall and snowmelt, conversion of snowfall to rainfall, loss of glaciated area and thawing of permafrost. Effects of these changes on terrestrial ecosystems include changing alpine and arctic treelines, extreme variability in Prairie wetland extent and storage of subsurface water in soil and groundwater, "browning" of the boreal forest and prairie aspen woodlands, forest conversion to wetlands in areas of permafrost loss, increased tundra shrub height and coverage, with associated impacts on snow accumulation and melt and ground thaw regimes. These atmospheric, cryospheric and ecological changes have produced changes to water storage and cycling with lower, earlier and more variable streamflow from the Western Cordillera, earlier and more variable Prairie streamflow, more variable agricultural soil moisture, substantially earlier and sometimes higher streamflows with greater winter baseflows in the North, and indications of changes in extreme precipitation events and resulting flooding and drought. The recently formed Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) will investigate the integrated response of mountain, boreal forest, prairie and sub-arctic biomes to climate change at the scales of the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins and the regional climate system. The multi-prong approach will first inventory and evaluate observable recent change in the Earth system state, fluxes and variability, and then explore the complex interrelationships of changing Earth system processes through the development of improved models and their application in diagnosis and prediction at multiple scales, from small headwater basins to large river basins, major biomes and the regional

  14. US Army lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legath, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The how, why and where the Army is applying lithium batteries are addressed. The Army is committing its efforts to the utilization of lithium batteries in new equipment that will be going into the field possibly from FY-80 and thereafter. The Army's philosophy is to guide their users and the equipment designers, to use battery packs are opposed to singel cells. After a detailed description of the battery types that are being considered, a discussion is presented in which questions and comments are exchanged among the Workshop participants.

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of high friction overlay systems on bridge decks in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostick, Robert D.

    In recent history the Minnesota Department of Transportation has looked to improve the safety of bridge decks by installing high friction overlays (HFO). A comprehensive study researched four different proprietary HFO systems placed on fourteen bridge decks throughout Minnesota. Research was split into three separate tasks: (1) laboratory testing of aggregate properties, (2) field observations and testing, and (3) a comprehensive analysis of crash data investigated crash rates on bridges with HFO systems. Field observations and testing revealed that the use of snowplows quickly abrades HFO systems. Abrasion, among other factors, causes a reduction in surface friction values, and reduces the life of HFO systems. Furthermore, improving crash rate trends cannot be directly correlated to the installation of HFO systems. Research concludes that HFO systems should not be used in Minnesota. Other cold climate transportation agencies should conduct research emulated after this study to assess HFO systems in their jurisdiction.

  16. [Studies on the health standard for room temperature in cold regions].

    PubMed

    Meng, Z L

    1990-03-01

    The microclimate of 205 rooms of single storey houses in four new rural residential districts in coastal and inland Shandong was monitored and studied the blood circulation of the finger, skin temperature, sweating function and other physiological indexes among 2,401 peasants. We interrogated their personal sensation to cold and warmth. The count was done by the application of thermal equilibrium index (TEI), predicted 4-hour Sweat Rate (P4SR) and the uncomfortable index. The standard room temperature is recommended as follows. In rural area in winter the appropriate room temperature is 14-16 degrees C, the comfortable room temperature is 16-20 degrees C, the lowest room temperature must not be below 14 degrees C. In summer the appropriate room temperature is 25-28 degrees C, the comfortable room temperature is 26-27 degrees C, the highest temperature must not be above 28 degrees C. PMID:2364801

  17. Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud - Evidence for regions of small ice particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, C. M. R.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Hart, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    An airborne lidar and a scanning radiometer aboard an ER-2 aircraft were used to observe a cold cirrus cloud, and a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) was used to obtain simultaneous in situ microphysical observations at two altitudes within the cloud. Lidar depolarization ratio data show that the clouds were composed predominantly of ice crystals. At an altitude where the temperature was -62.7 C, the lidar and radiometer analysis gave a visible extinction to infrared absorption ratio (alpha) of 2.3, while the cloud microphysics data provided an alpha value of 3.77. The discrepancy is attributed to undersizing of particles by the FSSP. Direct and remote measurements showed better agreement for a lower layer where the temperature was -47.3 C.

  18. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  19. Intercomparison of Global Reanalyses and Regional Simulations of Cold Season Water Budgets in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun; Han, Jongil; Roads, John O.

    2003-12-01

    Estimating water budgets of river basins in the western U.S. is a challenge because of the effects of complex terrain and lack of comprehensive observational datasets. This study aims at understanding the uncertainty in estimating water budgets of the Columbia River (CRB) and Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJ) River basins. An intercomparison was performed based on the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I (NRA1), NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II (NRA2), ECMWF reanalyses (ERA), regional climate simulations produced by the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) and NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM), and two precipitation datasets gridded at 2.5 and 1/8 degree for seven years between 1986 and 1993 to study the effects of spatial resolutions, model configurations and parameterizations, and large-scale conditions on basin-scale water budgets. Results showed that overall, the regional simulations were superior in terms of simulating the spatial distributions of mean precipitation and precipitation anomalies compared to the global reanalyses. However, cold season precipitation was generally amplified through downscaling using the regional models such that basin mean precipitations were typically higher than the observed, while the opposite was true for the reanalyses. The amplification was the largest in the RSM simulation driven by NRA2, which showed the biggest difference between the large-scale and regional-scale basin mean precipitations. ERA and the MM5 simulation driven by ERA provided the best basin mean precipitation estimates when compared to the 1/8o observational dataset.

  20. NASA Teams With Army in Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, 'self-cooled', vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  1. Are extreme cold waves characteristics and snow-temperature feedback well represented in regional and global climate models (WRF and CMIP3/CMIP5)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Benjamin; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Despite their economical and health impacts, only a few recent studies concern extreme cold events. However, recent decade was punctuated by cold waves in Europe as during winter 2009-2010, December 2010 and February 2012. Extreme cold days will probably narrow globally in frequency in a global warming future (e.g., 2046-2065) albeit still remain present in regions favored by cold waves such as Europe or United States. Thus, the present-day evaluation (i.e. 1961-2000 period) of climate variability modeled by GCM/RCM remains critical in order to model consistently extreme events characteristics in the future. In this study, an array of global (CMIP3/CMIP5) and regional (WRF) climate models run on Europe domains compared with observations (EOBS) and reanalysis data (ERA 40/ERA Interim) is used to analyze different aspects of extreme cold waves. For each model, skewness and several statistical indices of frequency, intensity, temporal and spatial persistence (coherent in terms of health and energy impacts), for cold spells are calculated in order to assess the capacity of climate models to simulate these extreme events. The purpose of this study is also to address the origins of biases obtained among the models. First, the impact of resolution is analyzed by comparing regional and global climate model output and studying a global climate model (IPSLCM5/CMIP5) on different horizontal scales. Second, a modeling study with regional climate model WRF forced by reanalysis is carried out in order to estimate, with sensitivity analyses, snow/temperature relationship in the development of extreme European cold waves cases. Finally, future projections (2045-2065 period; scenario A2 or RCP8.5) are carried out taking into account the above-mentioned capacity of climate models to represent the extreme cold waves characteristics on present-day period.

  2. 76 FR 70710 - Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Department of the Army Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC) AGENCY: Department of the Army... the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army National Cemeteries... first-come basis. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lieutenant Colonel Renea Yates;...

  3. Sulfur biogeochemistry of cold seeps in the Green Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formolo, Michael J.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2013-10-01

    Cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico provide a natural laboratory to study biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen at hydrate- and hydrocarbon-rich deep marine settings with obvious additional relevance to studies of diverse modern and ancient seeps. Of particular interest are the sulfur isotope signatures of microbial sulfate reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane and other non-methane liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Whereas most of the published sulfur isotope data from cold seep systems pertain to pore-water species, our study integrates both solid and dissolved sulfur: acid-volatile sulfides (SAVS), pyrite (Spy), elemental sulfur (S°), dissolved sulfate and ΣH2S. Modeled and 35SO42- reduction rates and δ13C and δ18O data for authigenic carbonates are integrated within this sulfur framework. Our results indicate extreme variability over narrow spatial and temporal scales within short distances (meters) from active seeps. High rates of microbial sulfate reduction can lead to complete consumption of the sulfate within the upper few centimeters of burial, while meters away the sulfate profile shows little depletion. Such small-scale variability must reflect the structure and temporal dynamics of hydrocarbon migration in the presence of low amounts of background organic matter. Our past work demonstrated that electron donors other than methane drive significant levels of microbial activity at these seeps, and very recent work has demonstrated that oxidation of higher chain volatile hydrocarbons can contribute to the high levels of microbial activity. These findings are consistent with our new results. Elevated concentrations of pyrite and diagenetic carbonate relative to background sediments are diagnostic of active seepage, yet the S isotopes tell more complex stories. Low levels of the transient, 'instantaneous' products of S cycling-AVS and S°-show high δ34S values that increase with depth. Most of the pyrite formation, however, seems

  4. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  5. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    PubMed

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  6. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    PubMed

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  7. On improving cold region hydrological processes in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, Arman; Sushama, Laxmi; Verseghy, Diana; Harvey, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Regional and global climate model simulated streamflows for high-latitude regions show systematic biases, particularly in the timing and magnitude of spring peak flows. Though these biases could be related to the snow water equivalent and spring temperature biases in models, a good part of these biases is due to the unaccounted effects of non-uniform infiltration capacity of the frozen ground and other related processes. In this paper, the treatment of frozen water in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which is used in the Canadian regional and global climate models, is modified to include fractional permeable area, supercooled liquid water and a new formulation for hydraulic conductivity. The impact of these modifications on the regional hydrology, particularly streamflow, is assessed by comparing three simulations performed with the original and two modified versions of CLASS, driven by atmospheric forcing data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the 1990-2001 period over a northeast Canadian domain. The two modified versions of CLASS differ in the soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations, with one version being based on formulations from a previous study and the other one is newly proposed. Results suggest statistically significant decreases in infiltration and therefore soil moisture during the snowmelt season for the simulation with the new hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations and fractional permeable area concept compared to the original version of CLASS, which is also reflected in the increased spring surface runoff and streamflows in this simulation with modified CLASS over most of the study domain. The simulated spring peaks and their timing in this simulation are also in better agreement to those observed. This study thus demonstrates the importance of treatment of frozen water for realistic simulation of streamflows.

  8. EXPERIENCE IN REDUCING ELECTRON CLOUD AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE RISE IN WARM AND COLD REGIONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS,L.; ALLESI, J.; BAI, M.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; DREES, A.; FISCHER, W.; GULLOTTA, J.; HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; HUANG, H.; LEE, R.; LITVINENKO, V.; MACKAY, W.W.; MONTAG, C.; NICOLETTI, A.; OERTER, B.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; SMART, L.; SYNDSTRUP, L.; TEPIKIAN, S.; THIEBERGER, P.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    The large scale application of non-evaporable getter coating in RHIC has been effective in reducing the electron cloud. Since beams with higher intensity and smaller bunch spacing became possible in operation, the emittance growth is of concern. Study results are reported together with experiences of machine improvements: saturated NEG coatings, anti-grazing ridges in warm sections, and the pre-pumping in cryogenic regions.

  9. On the orbital motion of cold clouds in broad-line regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2015-08-01

    We study the orbit of a pressure-confined cloud in the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei when the combined effects of the central gravity and anisotropic radiation pressure and the drag force are considered. The physical properties of the intercloud gas, such as its pressure and dynamic viscosity, are defined as power-law functions of the radial distance. For a drag force proportional to the relative velocity of a cloud and the background gas, a detailed analysis of the orbits is performed for different values of the input parameters. We also present analytical solutions for when the intercloud pressure is uniform and the viscosity is proportional to the inverse square of the radial distance. Our analytical and numerical solutions demonstrate decay of the orbits due to the drag force, so that a cloud will eventually fall on to the central region after the so-called time-of-flight. We found that the time-of-flight of a BLR cloud is proportional to the inverse of the dimensionless drag coefficient. If the time-of-flight becomes shorter than the lifetime of the whole system, then mechanisms for continually forming BLR clouds are needed.

  10. Suicide in the US Army

    PubMed Central

    Lineberry, Timothy W.; O'Connor, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in the US Army is a high-profile public health problem that is complex and poorly understood. Adding to the confusion surrounding Army suicide is the challenge of defining and understanding individuals/populations dying by suicide. Data from recent studies have led to a better understanding of risk factors for suicide that may be specifically associated with military service, including the impact of combat and deployment on increased rates of psychiatric illness in military personnel. The next steps involve applying these results to the development of empirically supported suicide prevention approaches specific to the military population. This special article provides an overview of suicide in the Army by synthesizing new information and providing clinical pearls based on research evidence. PMID:22958991

  11. The Impact of the Atlantic Cold Tongue on West African Monsoon Onset in Regional Model Simulations for 1998-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) develops during spring and early summer near the Equator in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Guinea. The hypothesis that the ACT accelerates the timing of West African monsoon (WAM) onset is tested by comparing two regional climate model (RM3) simulation ensembles. Observed sea surface temperatures (SST) that include the ACT are used to force a control ensemble. An idealized, warm SST perturbation is designed to represent lower boundary forcing without the ACT for the experiment ensemble. Summer simulations forced by observed SST and reanalysis boundary conditions for each of five consecutive years are compared to five parallel runs forced by SST with the warm perturbation. The article summarizes the sequence of events leading to the onset of the WAM in the Sahel region. The representation of WAM onset in RM3 simulations is examined and compared to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and reanalysis data. The study evaluates the sensitivity of WAM onset indicators to the presence of the ACT by analysing the differences between the two simulation ensembles. Results show that the timing of major rainfall events and therefore theWAM onset in the Sahel are not sensitive to the presence of the ACT. However, the warm SST perturbation does increase downstream rainfall rates over West Africa as a consequence of enhanced specific humidity and enhanced northward moisture flux in the lower troposphere.

  12. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica.

  13. Lidar Temperature Measurements During the SOLVE Campaign and the Absence of PSCs from Regions of Very Cold Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walt; Newman, Paul; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Neuber, Roland; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) measured extremely cold temperatures during all three deployments (December 1-16, 1999, January 14-29, 2000 and February 27-March 15, 2000) of the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Temperatures were significantly below values observed in previous years with large regions regularly below 191 K and frequent temperature retrievals yielding values at or below 187 K. Temperatures well below the saturation point of type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were regularly encountered but their presence was not well correlated with PSCs observed by the NASA Langley Research Center's Aerosol Lidar co-located with AROTEL. Temperature measurements by meteorological sondes launched within areas traversed by the DC-8 showed minimum temperatures consistent in time and vertical extent with those derived from AROTEL data. Calculations to establish whether PSCs could exist at measured AROTEL temperatures and observed mixing ratios of nitric acid and water vapor showed large regions favorable to PSC formation. On several occasions measured AROTEL temperatures up to 10 K below the NAT saturation temperature were insufficient to produce PSCs even though measured values of nitric acid and water were sufficient for their formation.

  14. Characteristics of organic soil in black spruce forests: Implications for the application of land surface and ecosystem models in cold regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yi, S.; Manies, K.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic layers (OL) play an important role in landatmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon in cold environments. The proper implementation of OL in land surface and ecosystem models is important for predicting dynamic responses to climate warming. Based on the analysis of OL samples of black spruce (Picea mariana), we recommend that implementation of OL for cold regions modeling: (1) use three general organic horizon types (live, fibrous, and amorphous) to represent vertical soil heterogeneity; (2) implement dynamics of OL over the course of disturbance, as there are significant differences of OL thickness between young and mature stands; and (3) use two broad drainage classes to characterize spatial heterogeneity, as there are significant differences in OL thickness between dry and wet sites. Implementation of these suggestions into models has the potential to substantially improve how OL dynamics influence variability in surface temperature and soil moisture in cold regions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophys.ical Union.

  15. Coupling of the simultaneous heat and water model with a distributed hydrological model and evaluation of the combined model in a cold region watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To represent the effects of frozen soil on hydrology in cold regions, a new physically based distributed hydrological model has been developed by coupling the simultaneous heat and water model (SHAW) with the geomorphology based distributed hydrological model (GBHM), under the framework of the water...

  16. Development of An Enthalpy-based Frozen Soil Model and Its Validation in A Cold Region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, H.

    2015-12-01

    A physically-based frozen soil model was developed based on the Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological model (WEB-DHM) for the simulation of water and energy transfer in cold regions. In order to simulate the soil freezing/thawing processes stably and efficiently, a two-step algorithm is applied to solve the non-linear energy governing equations: 1) the thermal diffusion equation is used to simulate the heat fluxes between soil layers without considering liquid-ice phase change; 2) a freezing/thawing scheme is used to derive soil temperature, liquid water content and ice content from enthalpy conservation, mass conservation, and freezing point depression equations. In the algorithm, a parameterization set is adopted to update hydraulic and thermal properties by considering the presence of ice and low soil temperatures. The performance of the frozen soil model was validated at point scale in a typical mountainous permafrost region of Binggou Watershed, Heihe Basin, Northwest China. Results show that the model can achieve a convergent solution at a typical time step (hourly) and layer sizes (centimeters) of current land process models. It is able to reproduce the observed soil freezing/thawing processes and hydrological processes. The simulated profiles of soil temperature, liquid water content, ice content and thawing front depth are in good agreement with the observations and the characteristics of permafrost. The freeze-thaw cycle in frozen soil evolution was continuously represented by the contour map of soil temperature and ice content of all soil layers. Therefore, this model can be coupled with hydrological, ecological and climate models to deepen our physical understanding in permafrost regions.

  17. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  18. The Army word recognition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, David R.; Haratz, David

    1977-01-01

    The application of speech recognition technology in the Army command and control area is presented. The problems associated with this program are described as well as as its relevance in terms of the man/machine interactions, voice inflexions, and the amount of training needed to interact with and utilize the automated system.

  19. [Preparing army nurses for deployment].

    PubMed

    Ringeval, Jean-François; Bellard, Valérie; Melaine, Régis; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-09-01

    When on overseas operations, the nurses and doctors of the French army health service are confronted with exceptional situations, with a specific tactical and geographical environment and complex pathologies to treat. Initial and continuing training based on immersion Simulation is essential in order to be able to treat a war casualty in these conditions. PMID:25464632

  20. [Preparing army nurses for deployment].

    PubMed

    Ringeval, Jean-François; Bellard, Valérie; Melaine, Régis; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-09-01

    When on overseas operations, the nurses and doctors of the French army health service are confronted with exceptional situations, with a specific tactical and geographical environment and complex pathologies to treat. Initial and continuing training based on immersion Simulation is essential in order to be able to treat a war casualty in these conditions. PMID:25508263

  1. Battles: Intelligent Army versus Insurgency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Linda; Sen, Surajit

    2009-03-01

    A ``simple'' battle can be thought of as a conflict between two parties, each with finite reserves, and typically fought on one side’s territory. Modern battles are often strategic, based largely on the speed of information processing and decision making and are mission oriented rather than to annex new territory. Here, we analyze such battles using a simple model in which the ``blue'' army fights a strategic battle against a ``red'' army that is well matched in combat power and in red’s territory. We assume that the blue army attacks strategically while the red army attempts to neutralize the enemy when in close enough proximity, implemented here as ``on- site,'' with randomly varying force levels to potentially confuse and drive the blue's strategies. The temporal evolution of the model battles incorporate randomness in the deployment of the reds and hence possess attendant history dependence. We show that minimizing risk exposure and making strategic moves based on local intelligence are often the deciding factors that determine the outcome of battles among well matched adversaries.

  2. U.S. Army Medical Department

    MedlinePlus

    ... Excerpt-3 Building partnerships through military medicine Tripler Army Medical Center assists in medical missions. Read more ... their age, height, and weight. Healthy Living Videos Army Medicine Health Minute View More Videos

  3. Development of an enthalpy-based frozen soil model and its validation in a cold region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiyi; Koike, Toshio; Yang, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shrestha, Maheswor; Lawford, Peter

    2016-05-01

    An enthalpy-based frozen soil model was developed for the simulation of water and energy transfer in cold regions. To simulate the soil freezing/thawing processes stably and efficiently, a three-step algorithm was applied to solve the nonlinear governing equations: (1) a thermal diffusion equation was implemented to simulate the heat conduction between soil layers; (2) a freezing/thawing scheme used a critical temperature criterion to judge the phase status and introduced enthalpy and total water mass into freezing depression equation to represent ice formation/melt and corresponding latent heat release/absorption; and (3) a water flow scheme was employed to describe the liquid movement within frozen soil. In addition, a parameterization set of hydraulic and thermal properties was updated by considering the frozen soil effect. The performance of the frozen soil model was validated at point scale in a typical mountainous permafrost basin of China. An ice profile initialization method is proposed for permafrost modeling. Results show that the model can achieve a convergent solution at a time step of hourly and a surface layer thickness of centimeters that are typically used in current land surface models. The simulated profiles of soil temperature, liquid water content, ice content and thawing front depth are in good agreement with the observations and the characteristics of permafrost. The model is capable of continuously reproducing the diurnal and seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and simulating frozen soil hydrological processes.

  4. 32 CFR 631.14 - Army policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army policy. 631.14 Section 631.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.14 Army policy....

  5. 32 CFR 631.14 - Army policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army policy. 631.14 Section 631.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.14 Army policy....

  6. 32 CFR 631.14 - Army policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army policy. 631.14 Section 631.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.14 Army policy....

  7. 32 CFR 631.14 - Army policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army policy. 631.14 Section 631.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.14 Army policy....

  8. 32 CFR 631.14 - Army policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army policy. 631.14 Section 631.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.14 Army policy....

  9. Army Reserve Expands Net Zero Energy, Water, Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.

    2015-04-14

    In 2012, the Army initiated a Net Zero (NZ) program to establish NZ energy, water, and/or waste goals at installations across the U.S. In 2013, the U.S. Army Reserve expanded this program to cover all three categories at different types of Reserve Centers (RCs) across 5 regions. Projects identified at 10 pilot sites resulted in an average savings potential from recommended measures of 90% for energy, 60% for water, and 83% for waste. This article provides results of these efforts.

  10. Vernalization Requirement and the Chromosomal VRN1-Region can Affect Freezing Tolerance and Expression of Cold-Regulated Genes in Festuca pratensis

    PubMed Central

    Ergon, Åshild; Melby, Tone I.; Höglind, Mats; Rognli, Odd A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants adapted to cold winters go through annual cycles of gain followed by loss of freezing tolerance (cold acclimation and deacclimation). Warm spells during winter and early spring can cause deacclimation, and if temperatures drop, freezing damage may occur. Many plants are vernalized during winter, a process making them competent to flower in the following summer. In winter cereals, a coincidence in the timing of vernalization saturation, deacclimation, downregulation of cold-induced genes, and reduced ability to reacclimate, occurs under long photoperiods and is under control of the main regulator of vernalization requirement in cereals, VRN1, and/or closely linked gene(s). Thus, the probability of freezing damage after a warm spell may depend on both vernalization saturation and photoperiod. We investigated the role of vernalization and the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), a perennial grass species. Two F2 populations, divergently selected for high and low vernalization requirement, were studied. Each genotype was characterized for the copy number of one of the four parental haplotypes of the VRN1-region. Clonal plants were cold acclimated for 2 weeks or vernalized/cold acclimated for a total of 9 weeks, after which the F2 populations reached different levels of vernalization saturation. Vernalized and cold acclimated plants were deacclimated for 1 week and then reacclimated for 2 weeks. All treatments were given at 8 h photoperiod. Flowering response, freezing tolerance and expression of the cold-induced genes VRN1, MADS3, CBF6, COR14B, CR7 (BLT14), LOS2, and IRI1 was measured. We found that some genotypes can lose some freezing tolerance after vernalization and a deacclimation–reacclimation cycle. The relationship between vernalization and freezing tolerance was complex. We found effects of the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance in plants cold acclimated for 2 weeks, timing of heading after 9 weeks of

  11. The Army and chemical weapons destruction: Implementation in a changing context

    SciTech Connect

    Lambright, W.H.; Gereben, A.; Cerveny, L.

    1998-12-31

    In 1985, Congress directed the Army to destroy the nation`s stockpile of chemical weapons. The estimate was that this task could be accomplished by 1994 at a cost of $1.7 billion. By 1998, only a portion of the stockpile has been destroyed, the deadline extended to 2007 and the estimated cost had risen to approximately $16 billion. This paper discusses the factors underlying cost escalation and missed deadlines. It examines the diffusion of control over the implementation process surrounding the chemical weapons demilitarization (Chem Demil) program in the US. Focusing on the role of the Army and its difficulties in adjusting strategies in the face of political change from the Cold War to the post-Cold War setting, it analyzes the course of implementation through three converging streams of political activity. What differentiates the federal, intergovernmental, and international streams are the nature and number of actors, and the type of pressures with which the Army must deal.

  12. 77 FR 9633 - Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Department of the Army Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC) AGENCY: Department of the Army... Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army National Cemeteries Advisory...: Lieutenant Colonel Renea Yates; renea-yates@us.army.mil or 571.256.4325. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  13. ETL wins Army Lab Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL), located in Fort Belvoir, Va., was awarded the 1981 Department of the Army Most Improved Laboratory of the Year Award for ETL's scientific and technical achievements in mapping, military geographic information, and geographic intelligence systems.ETL, the largest topographic research and development organization of its kind in the world, specializes in mapping, geodesy, point positioning, and military geographic information. ETL addresses the full range of development from basic research to a final product in the topographic sciences. In addition, scientists at the laboratory have interpreted feedback from satellites, such as Landsat, to help pinpoint and improve ecological imbalance in some areas. ETL engineers are developing electronic systems to measure dams, while other ETL staff members are designing a pseudo-radar system for the Pershing II missile.

  14. Army Precision at Central Headquarters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    William "Rob" Roberts wasn't thinking about working as a professional educator, much less running a major school system, when he decided he'd had enough of formal schooling himself at age 19. Rather, he dreamed of big adventures, flying combat aircraft for the military. When he discovered the U.S. Army didn't insist on two years of college, only…

  15. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  16. Cold-Air Pools and Regional Warming in the Lake Tahoe Region, Central Sierra Nevada of California—Observations and Considerations regarding the Future of Climate-Change Refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring climate refugia, specifically in the form of cold-air pools (CAPs) in mountain basins, are increasingly discussed as potential safe havens against some impacts of global warming on western ecosystems and cold-adapted species. A key concern in these discussions should be: How will CAPs react to regional warming? Several broad possibilities exist: CAPs may "resist" regional warming, remaining as cool as ever despite warming of their surroundings. CAPs may "reflect" regional warming, experiencing temperature increases that are roughly equal to the warming of their surroundings but that leave the CAP as cool relative to their surroundings as ever. Or CAPs might "disintegrate" in the face of regional warming, losing their special cool status relative to surroundings and in the process warming much more than their surroundings. An evaluation of historical observations of wintertime cold-air pooling in the Lake Tahoe basin and adjacent Truckee drainage offers examples of CAPs that have resisted regional warming (Tahoe) and that have reflected regional warming (Truckee). These two CAP responses to warming suggest that no single fate awaits all CAPs in the Sierra Nevada. Rather, different CAPs will likely evolve in different ways, depending on their topographic configurations (e.g., closed vs draining basins), topographic depths, CAP areas, and even (in the case of the Tahoe basin) thermal conditions at the base of the CAP. These CAP examples also suggest a need for research on the possibility of equivalent future responses by other, non-CAP climate refugia in a warming world.

  17. Raising the clinical standard of care for suicidal soldiers: an army process improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Archuleta, Debra; Jobes, David A; Pujol, Lynette; Jennings, Keith; Crumlish, Jennifer; Lento, Rene M; Brazaitis, Katherine; Moore, Bret A; Crow, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    From 2004 to 2008, the suicide rate among US Army Soldiers increased 80%, reaching a record high in 2008 and surpassing the civilian rate for the first time in recorded history. In recent years, the rate of Army suicides rose again; the year 2012 reflects the highest rate of military suicides on record. There is a need to assess current behavioral health practices to identify both effective and ineffective practices, and to adapt services to meet the needs of the Army behavioral health patient population. This paper discusses a process improvement initiative developed in an effort to improve clinical processes for suicide risk mitigation in an Army behavioral health clinic located in the catchment area of the US Army Southern Regional Medical Command.

  18. Raising the clinical standard of care for suicidal soldiers: an army process improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Archuleta, Debra; Jobes, David A; Pujol, Lynette; Jennings, Keith; Crumlish, Jennifer; Lento, Rene M; Brazaitis, Katherine; Moore, Bret A; Crow, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    From 2004 to 2008, the suicide rate among US Army Soldiers increased 80%, reaching a record high in 2008 and surpassing the civilian rate for the first time in recorded history. In recent years, the rate of Army suicides rose again; the year 2012 reflects the highest rate of military suicides on record. There is a need to assess current behavioral health practices to identify both effective and ineffective practices, and to adapt services to meet the needs of the Army behavioral health patient population. This paper discusses a process improvement initiative developed in an effort to improve clinical processes for suicide risk mitigation in an Army behavioral health clinic located in the catchment area of the US Army Southern Regional Medical Command. PMID:25830799

  19. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison phase results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Rühaak, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Climate change impacts in permafrost regions have received considerable attention recently due to the pronounced warming trends experienced in recent decades and which have been projected into the future. Large portions of these permafrost regions are characterized by surface water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost often generating taliks (unfrozen zones) within the permafrost that allow for hydrologic interactions between the surface water bodies and underlying aquifers and thus influence the hydrologic response of a landscape to climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model past and future evolution such units (Kurylyk et al. 2014). However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, which can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. A benchmark exercise was initialized at the end of 2014. Participants convened from USA, Canada, Europe, representing 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones (Kurylyk et al. 2014; Grenier et al. in prep.; Rühaak et al. 2015). They range from simpler, purely thermal 1D cases to more complex, coupled 2D TH cases (benchmarks TH1, TH2, and TH3). Some experimental cases conducted in a cold room complement the validation approach. A web site hosted by LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) is an interaction platform for the participants and hosts the test case databases at the following address: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/interfrost. The results of the first stage of the benchmark exercise will be presented. We will mainly focus on the inter-comparison of participant results for the coupled cases TH2 & TH3. Both cases

  20. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They

  1. 76 FR 56406 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Demonstration Project; Department of the Army; Army...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    .... SUMMARY: On March 7, 2011 (76 FR 12508-12548), DoD published notice of approval of a personnel management... the Army; Army Research, Development and Engineering Command; Tank Automotive Research, Development... 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: TARDEC: Mr. Gregory Berry, U. S. Army Tank...

  2. 77 FR 27209 - Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice AGENCY: Department of the Army, Do... ] Federal advisory committee meeting will take place: Name of Committee: Board of Visitors, U.S. Army War College Subcommittee. Date of Meeting: May 31, 2012. Place of Meeting: U.S. Army War College, 122...

  3. 77 FR 4026 - Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice AGENCY: Department of the Army, Do... advisory committee meeting will take place: Name of Committee: Board of Visitors, U.S. Army War College Subcommittee. Date of Meeting: February 23, 2012. Place of Meeting: U.S. Army War College, 122 Forbes...

  4. 78 FR 33074 - Army Science Board Summer Study Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Summer Study Session AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: 1. Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB). 2. Date: Wednesday, July...

  5. 77 FR 50089 - Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Education Advisory Committee (AEAC). Date of...

  6. 78 FR 69077 - Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice AGENCY: Department of the Army, Do... Army Education Advisory Committee for deliberation by the Committee under the open-meeting rules...@us.army.mil , (831) 242-5828. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to 41 CFR 102-3.105(j) and 102-...

  7. 77 FR 40030 - Army Science Board Summer Study Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Summer Study Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (41 CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB). Date(s) of Meeting: July 26,...

  8. 76 FR 43993 - Army Science Board Summer Study Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Summer Study Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department ] of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB). Date(s) of Meeting: August...

  9. 78 FR 24735 - Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3.140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Education Advisory Committee (AEAC). Date of Meeting:...

  10. 77 FR 11084 - Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Education Advisory Committee (AEAC). Date of...

  11. 78 FR 38956 - Army Education Advisory Subcommittee; Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Subcommittee; Meeting Notice AGENCY: Department of the Army... Army Education Advisory Committee for deliberation by the Committee under the open- meeting rules. FOR... Designated Federal Officer: ATFL- APO, Monterey, CA, 93944, Robert.Savukinas@us.army.mil , (831)...

  12. 77 FR 66823 - Army Education Advisory Committee Study Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Committee Study Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD... the Federal Regulations (41 CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Education Advisory Committee (AEAC). Date(s) of...

  13. 78 FR 23759 - Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Notice AGENCY: Department of the Army, Do... advisory committee meeting will take place: Name of Committee: Board of Visitors, U.S. Army War College Subcommittee. Dates of Meeting: May 16, 2013. Place of Meeting: U.S. Army War College, 122 Forbes...

  14. 78 FR 73852 - Army Science Board Winter Plenary Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Winter Plenary Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3.140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB) Winter Plenary Session. Date: January...

  15. 78 FR 60864 - Army Science Board Fall Plenary Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Fall Plenary Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB) Fall Plenary Session....

  16. 77 FR 21977 - Army Science Board Summer Study Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Summer Study Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3.140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB). Date(s) of Meeting: May 3, 2012. Time(s)...

  17. 75 FR 38504 - Army Science Board Plenary Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Plenary Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice... Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB). Date(s) of Meeting: July 21, 2010....

  18. Suicide Attempts in the United States Army

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Stein, Murray B.; Naifeh, James A.; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Cox, Kenneth L.; Heeringa, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Comprehensive research on this important health outcome has been hampered by a lack of integration among Army administrative data systems. Objective To identify risk factors for Regular Army suicide attempts during the years 2004–2009 using data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Design, Setting, and Participants There were 9,791 medically documented suicide attempts among Regular Army soldiers during the study period. Individual-level person-month records from Army and Department of Defense administrative data systems were analyzed to identify socio-demographic, service-related, and mental health risk factors distinguishing suicide attempt cases from an equal-probability control sample of 183,826 person-months. Main Outcome and Measures Suicide attempts were identified using Department of Defense Suicide Event Report records and ICD-9 E95x diagnostic codes. Predictor variables were constructed from Army personnel and medical records. Results Enlisted soldiers accounted for 98.6% of all suicide attempts, with an overall rate of 377/100,000 person-years, versus 27.9/100,000 person-years for officers. Significant multivariate predictors among enlisted soldiers included socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, low education, non-hispanic white), short length of service, never or previously deployed, and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses. Among officers, only socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, and low education) and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses were significant. Conclusions and Relevance Results represent the most comprehensive accounting of U.S. Army suicide attempts to date and reveal unique risk profiles for enlisted soldiers and officers, and highlighting the

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Marathon Battery, Cold Spring, NY. (Third remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    The Marathon Battery site is a former battery-manufacturing plant in Cold Spring, Putnam County, New York. The site is composed of three study areas: Area I, which consists of East Foundry Cove Marsh and Constitution Marsh; Area II, which encompasses the former plant, presently a book-storage warehouse, the surrounding grounds, and a vault with cadmium contaminated sediment dredged from East Foundry Cove; and Area III, which includes East Foundry Cove (48 acres), West Foundry Cove and the Hudson River in the vicinity of Cold Spring pier and a sewer outfall. Contamination in Area III emanates from plant waste water that was discharged via the city sewer system into the Hudson River at Cold Spring Pier or, in some instances, through a storm sewer into East Foundry Cove. A Record of Decision (ROD) was signed for Area I in September 1986 with cleanup activities to include dredging the East Foundry Cove Marsh. The second ROD for the site was signed in September 1988 and included decontamination of the battery plant and soil excavation in Area II. The 1989 ROD represents the third and final operable unit for the site and addresses sediment contamination in Area III. The primary contaminants of concern affecting sediment at the site are metals, including cadmium and nickel.

  20. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  1. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  2. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  3. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  4. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  5. 32 CFR 651.5 - Army policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... selection of alternatives (40 CFR 1506.1). In accordance with DOD 5000.2.R, the MATDEV is responsible for... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army policies. 651.5 Section 651.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  6. 32 CFR 651.5 - Army policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selection of alternatives (40 CFR 1506.1). In accordance with DOD 5000.2.R, the MATDEV is responsible for... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army policies. 651.5 Section 651.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. Army industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water use

    SciTech Connect

    Stoughton, Kate McMordie; Loper, Susan A.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Army’s ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  8. Applicability of the laws of elasticity for the determination of the elastic-region length in the deformation zone during cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Shalaevskii, D. L.; Kozhevnikova, I. A.; Traino, A. I.

    2008-06-01

    The errors of calculating the energy-force parameters of cold rolling are analyzed. They appear because of the assumption of the classic rolling theory about the applicability of the Hertz formula, which is known in the theory of elasticity, to the calculation of the elastic-region length in the deformation zone. The Hertz formula, which is used to calculate the half-width of the contact area between a fixed cylinder and a plane that bounds an elastic half-space, is shown not to take into account the following factors that are characteristic and important for the roll-strip contact: the cold working of the strip, the strip thickness, the rotation of rolls accompanied by sliding friction, and the wear that decreases the initial roll roughness (i.e., changes in the friction coefficient). A method is proposed for taking into account these factors in the calculation of the energy-force parameters of cold rolling; it is based on the statistical processing of the parameters that are measured in operating mills and are present in the databases of their process control systems. The application of this method decreases the errors of calculating the rolling forces by 35 40% and refines some laws of the state of stress in a rolled strip.

  9. US Army blood program: 2025 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Richard; Taylor, Audra L; Atkinson, Andrew J; Malloy, Wilbur W; Macdonald, Victor W; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    In preparing to support the Army in 2025 and beyond, the Army Blood Program remains actively engaged with the research and advanced development of blood products and medical technology to improve blood safety and efficacy in conjunction with the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. National and International Blood Bank authorities have noted that the US Army research and development efforts in providing new blood products and improving blood safety operate on the cutting edge of technology and are transformational for the global blood industry. Over the past 14 years, the Army has transformed how blood support is provided and improved the survival rate of casualties. Almost every product or process developed by or for the military has found an application in treating civilian patients. Conflicts have many unwanted consequences; however, in times of conflict, one positive aspect is the identification of novel solutions to improve the safety and efficacy of the blood supply.

  10. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  11. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... been tried for colds, such as vitamin C, zinc supplements, and echinacea. Talk to your health care ... nih.gov/pubmed/22962927 . Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...

  12. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  13. Modeling of Army Research Laboratory EMP simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Miletta, J.R.; Chase, R.J.; Luu, B.B. ); Williams, J.W.; Viverito, V.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Models are required that permit the estimation of emitted field signatures from EMP simulators to design the simulator antenna structure, to establish the usable test volumes, and to estimate human exposure risk. This paper presents the capabilities and limitations of a variety of EMP simulator models useful to the Army's EMP survivability programs. Comparisons among frequency and time-domain models are provided for two powerful US Army Research Laboratory EMP simulators: AESOP (Army EMP Simulator Operations) and VEMPS II (Vertical EMP Simulator II).

  14. Health assessment for Marathon Battery, Cold Springs, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD001959757. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-16

    The 11-acre Marathon Battery Site (MBS) Plant is located in Putnam County, Cold Springs, New York. The site is bordered to the east by a wooded area and to the south by a junkyard and Foundary Cove. Foundary Cove is a wetland marsh connected by several channels to the Hudson River. Various heavy metals have been identified on-site. They include arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and zinc. In addition, a previous ATSDR memorandum reports the results of a ground-water sample containing high concentrations of trichloroethylene. Based on the preliminary information reviewed concerning on-site and off-site contamination, MBS represents a potential public health threat to area residents.

  15. Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers plans and drawings, Fort Hancock and Sandy hook proving ground, record group 7, drawer 44, Cartographic and Architectural branc, The National Archives, Washington, DC) , Ordnance Dept. U.S. Army, proposed addition to dock at Sandy Hook, 1918 Ordnance wharf and boathouse - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  16. Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

    2008-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NREL are developing target energy budgets and design guides to achieve 30% energy savings. This paper focuses the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing.

  17. 32 CFR 651.5 - Army policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to NEPA analysis and documentation. (10) Environmental analysis of strategic plans based on: (i... the public; and (v) Adaptive management of Army operations to stay on course with the strategic plan's... balance environmental concerns with mission requirements, technical requirements, economic...

  18. 32 CFR 651.5 - Army policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to NEPA analysis and documentation. (10) Environmental analysis of strategic plans based on: (i... the public; and (v) Adaptive management of Army operations to stay on course with the strategic plan's... balance environmental concerns with mission requirements, technical requirements, economic...

  19. 32 CFR 651.5 - Army policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to NEPA analysis and documentation. (10) Environmental analysis of strategic plans based on: (i... the public; and (v) Adaptive management of Army operations to stay on course with the strategic plan's... balance environmental concerns with mission requirements, technical requirements, economic...

  20. Army dependents: childhood illness and health provision.

    PubMed

    Giles, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    This small qualitative study explored attitudes of a group of Army wives to childhood illness and their expectations of health provision. The author's practice serves a population mainly comprising of Army dependents where GP attendance rates are double the national average. Two focus groups were organised using health visitor groups attached to the practice. Transcripts were examined to produce a framework for semi-structured interviews with nine mothers, who were selected by purposive sampling. Mothers were asked about symptoms, coping, social problems, decisions to take action, health provision and support. Data were analysed and sorted, using the principles of grounded theory, into four main themes: attitude to child's illness, coping, Army culture and accessibility to health services. Many Army wives appear to suffer from high levels of stress. It seemed that the coping ability of the mother was affected by the constant turbulence and isolation of Army life. While mothers displayed a knowledge of common illnesses, they had fears of the unknown and of life threatening illnesses. They sometimes managed childhood illness at home owing to lack of transport. The author concluded that some Army wives suffer from stress and lack confidence in their mothering skills when their children are ill, which may be due, in part, to the constant cycle of postings and isolation from family and services. They need easily accessible health facilities and information regarding these services. Communication should be encouraged between civilian services and the Army. It appears that Army dependents require more support from their GP practice than the average civilian family, offering opportunity for nurses and health visitors to provide alternative and proactive services.

  1. Assuring structural integrity in Army systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The object of this study was to recommend possible improvements in the manner in which structural integrity of Army systems is assured. The elements of a structural integrity program are described, and relevant practices used in various industries and government organizations are reviewed. Some case histories of Army weapon systems are examined. The mandatory imposition of a structural integrity program patterned after the Air Force Aircraft Structural Integrity Program is recommended and the benefits of such an action are identified.

  2. 32 CFR 536.14 - Commanders of major Army commands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commanders of major Army commands. 536.14 Section 536.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.14 Commanders of major Army...

  3. 76 FR 6692 - Radiation Sources on Army Land

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    .... Background In the April 14, 2010, issue of the Federal Register (75 FR 19302), the Army issued a proposed..., 2007 (72 FR 55864) that became effective on November 30, 2007. The Army received no comments on its... Department of the Army 32 CFR Part 655 RIN 0702-AA58 Radiation Sources on Army Land AGENCY: Department of...

  4. 32 CFR 536.14 - Commanders of major Army commands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Commanders of major Army commands. 536.14 Section 536.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.14 Commanders of major Army...

  5. 78 FR 64205 - Army Science Board Fall Plenary Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2013 (78 FR 60864) has been cancelled due to the Government... Department of the Army Army Science Board Fall Plenary Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... Defense cancelled the meeting of the U.S. Army Science Board on October 16, 2013. As a result,...

  6. Army Recruiters: "Counseling" High-Schoolers to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with Army recruitment in high schools. Students get to ask questions and hear stories about life In the Army from a soldier of the year, officers, and recruiters. Some brave students will even get a physical taste of life in the Army. According to an Army officer, the primary reason why recruiters go on high school campuses is…

  7. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  8. Army Basic Skills Provision: Whole Organisation Approach/Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basic Skills Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Army began working in partnership with the Basic Skills Agency in 2000. This was formalised with the establishment of the Basic Skills Agency's National Support Project for the Army (2001) that contributes to the raising of basic skills standards in the Army by advising on, and assisting with, the development of the Army's basic skills policy…

  9. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  10. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  11. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  12. 32 CFR 536.14 - Commanders of major Army commands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commanders of major Army commands. 536.14 Section 536.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.14 Commanders of major Army...

  13. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  14. [Effect of tillage patterns on the structure of weed communities in oat fields in the cold and arid region of North China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Li; Wu, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Jun

    2014-06-01

    In order to clarify the effects of tillage patterns on farmland weed community structure and crop production characteristics, based on 10 years location experiment with no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage in the cold and arid region of North China, and supplementary experiment of plowing after 10 years no-tillage and subsoiling, oat was planted in 2 soils under different tillage patterns, and field weed total density, dominant weed types, weed diversity index, field weed biomass and oats yield were measured. The results showed that the regional weed community was dominated by foxtail weed (Setaira viridis); the weed density under long-term no-tillage was 2.20-5.14 times of tillage at different growing stages of oat, but there were no significant differences between conditional tillage and plowing after long-term no-tillage and subsoiling. Field weed Shannon diversity indices were 0.429 and 0.531, respectively, for sandy chestnut soil and loamy meadow soil under no-tillage conditions, and field weed biomass values were 1.35 and 2.26 times of plowing treatment, while the oat biomass values were only 2807.4 kg x hm(-2) and 4053.9 kg x hm(-2), decreased by 22.3% and 46.2%, respectively. The results showed that the weed community characteristics were affected by both tillage patterns and soil types. Long-term no-tillage farmland in the cold and arid region of North China could promote the natural evolution of plant communities by keeping more perennial weeds, and the plowing pattern lowered the annual weed density, eliminated perennial weeds with shallow roots, and stimulated perennial weeds with deep roots.

  15. Army (MANTECH) thrust area concept: Optics thrust area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopacz, Stanley P.

    1992-04-01

    With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.

  16. MECHANIZATION STUDY OF THE ARMY DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, U.S. ARMY LIBRARY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KERSHAW, G.A.; AND OTHERS

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE ARMY STUDY DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (ASDIRS) ARE TO PROVIDE A CENTRAL LIBRARY OF ARMY STUDIES READILY ACCESSIBLE IN THE PENTAGON. AT THE PRESENT TIME, A BIBLIOGRAPHIC QUARTERLY CATALOG OF ARMY STUDIES AND A PERMUTED DESCRIPTOR/TITLE INDEX ARE PROVIDED. THE CATALOG OF ARMY STUDIES IS PRODUCED USING AN IBM…

  17. Hyperspectral imager development at Army Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam

    2008-04-01

    Development of robust compact optical imagers that can acquire both spectral and spatial features from a scene of interest is of utmost importance for standoff detection of chemical and biological agents as well as targets and backgrounds. Spectral features arise due to the material properties of objects as a result of the emission, reflection, and absorption of light. Using hyperspectral imaging one can acquire images with narrow spectral bands and take advantage of the characteristic spectral signatures of different materials making up the scene in detection of objects. Traditional hyperspectral imaging systems use gratings and prisms that acquire one-dimensional spectral images and require relative motion of sensor and scene in addition to data processing to form a two-dimensional image cube. There is much interest in developing hyperspectral imagers using tunable filters that acquire a two-dimensional spectral image and build up an image cube as a function of time. At the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), we are developing hyperspectral imagers using a number of novel tunable filter technologies. These include acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) that can provide adaptive no-moving-parts imagers from the UV to the long wave infrared, diffractive optics technology that can provide image cubes either in a single spectral region or simultaneously in different spectral regions using a single moving lens or by using a lenslet array, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)-based Fabry-Perot (FP) tunable etalons to develop miniature sensors that take advantage of the advances in microfabrication and packaging technologies. New materials are being developed to design AOTFs and a full Stokes polarization imager has been developed, diffractive optics lenslet arrays are being explored, and novel FP tunable filters are under fabrication for the development of novel miniature hyperspectral imagers. Here we will brief on all the technologies being developed and present

  18. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  19. Assessment of climate change impacts on watershed in cold-arid region: an integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, X. W.; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.; Liu, J.

    2016-07-01

    An integrated multi-GCM-based stochastic weather generator and stepwise cluster analysis (MGCM-SWG-SCA) method is developed, through incorporating multiple global climate models (MGCM), stochastic weather generator (SWG), and stepwise-clustered hydrological model (SCHM) within a general framework. MGCM-SWG-SCA can investigate uncertainties of projected climate changes as well as create watershed-scale climate projections from large-scale variables. It can also assess climate change impacts on hydrological processes and capture nonlinear relationship between input variables and outputs in watershed systems. MGCM-SWG-SCA is then applied to the Kaidu watershed with cold-arid characteristics in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of northwest China, for demonstrating its efficiency. Results reveal that the variability of streamflow is mainly affected by (1) temperature change during spring, (2) precipitation change during winter, and (3) both temperature and precipitation changes in summer and autumn. Results also disclose that: (1) the projected minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation from MGCM change with seasons in different ways; (2) various climate change projections can reproduce the seasonal variability of watershed-scale climate series; (3) SCHM can simulate daily streamflow with a satisfactory degree, and a significant increasing trend of streamflow is indicated from future (2015-2035) to validation (2006-2011) periods; (4) the streamflow can vary under different climate change projections. The findings can be explained that, for the Kaidu watershed located in the cold-arid region, glacier melt is mainly related to temperature changes and precipitation changes can directly cause the variability of streamflow.

  20. Comparison of effects of cold-region soil/snow processes and the uncertainties from model forcing data on permafrost physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K.

    2016-03-01

    We used a land surface model to (1) evaluate the influence of recent improvements in modeling cold-region soil/snow physics on near-surface permafrost physical characteristics (within 0-3 m soil column) in the northern high latitudes (NHL) and (2) compare them with uncertainties from climate and land-cover data sets. Specifically, four soil/snow processes are investigated: deep soil energetics, soil organic carbon (SOC) effects on soil properties, wind compaction of snow, and depth hoar formation. In the model, together they increased the contemporary NHL permafrost area by 9.2 × 106 km2 (from 2.9 to 12.3—without and with these processes, respectively) and reduced historical degradation rates. In comparison, permafrost area using different climate data sets (with annual air temperature difference of ˜0.5°C) differed by up to 2.3 × 106 km2, with minimal contribution of up to 0.7 × 106 km2 from substantial land-cover differences. Individually, the strongest role in permafrost increase was from deep soil energetics, followed by contributions from SOC and wind compaction, while depth hoar decreased permafrost. The respective contribution on 0-3 m permafrost stability also followed a similar pattern. However, soil temperature and moisture within vegetation root zone (˜0-1 m), which strongly influence soil biogeochemistry, were only affected by the latter three processes. The ecosystem energy and water fluxes were impacted the least due to these soil/snow processes. While it is evident that simulated permafrost physical characteristics benefit from detailed treatment of cold-region biogeophysical processes, we argue that these should also lead to integrated improvements in modeling of biogeochemistry.

  1. Gas-Solid Interaction, Flow Behavior analysis and Development of a Design Basis equation for the Dense Entry Region of an Asymmetrically Loaded Cold Flow CFB Riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastane, Rajiv

    The dispersion of a gas tracer was used to indicate the effectiveness of the mixing process of an injected flow of solids into the dense bed region of NETL's cold flow CFB riser in three distinctly different fluidization regimes. NETL's cold flow test facility mimics commercial scale transport reactors with side entry of solids into the vertical riser. Pure CO2 was used as the tracer gas and was introduced continuously into the injected flow of solids and it was assumed to essentially remain in the injected flow stream. The tracer gas would be released from the injected flow stream as the as the flow stream begins to disintegrate. As the stream loses its identity the remaining tracer gas would be released. The tracer gas distribution was measured using inline IR CO2 detectors across the cross-sectional area of the riser at four different elevations, two near the injection point and two further downstream. Due to the high solids hold up and high reactant concentrations, a significant portion of the reaction can take place in the dense bed region. The effectiveness of a Transport Reactor depends on its ability to adequately mix the incoming flows of reactants: fuel, sorbent and air. These reactants have to be dispersed across the reactor's cross-sectional area by the different mixing mechanisms. A good description of the flow behavior is also essential in developing and validating predictor reactor models as well as in developing crucial gas and solids mixing relationships that will can be incorporated and validated for CFD codes (MFIX). In addition there are several operational variables (independent variables) that influence this mixing behavior. Multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) model were developed for the NETL cold flow CFB riser based on the dispersion data. The mixing process as a function of the operating parameters is empirically proposed outlining the independent variables (operating and system parameters) which significantly influenced the

  2. Army Distance Learning: Potential for Reducing Shortages in Army Enlisted Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Michael G.; Leonard, Henry A.; Winkler, John D.

    The potential of distance learning (DL) to expedite the U.S. Army's efforts to redress personnel shortages in Army enlisted occupations was studied by evaluating how DL-based training strategies might affect skill shortages in the following occupations: helicopter repairer; electronic switching system operator; microwave systems…

  3. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  4. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  5. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  6. Global characteristics of the cold plasma in the equatorial plasmapause region as deduced from the geos 1 mutual impedance probe

    SciTech Connect

    Decreu, P.M.E.; Beghin, C.; Parrot, M.

    1982-02-01

    Thermal plasma parameters derived by the muntal impedance experiment on GEOS are described. The experiment is well suited to the measurement of the electron density and temperature of the outer plasmasphere (when kT/sub e//N/sub e/<1.6 eV/cm/sup 3/). This investigation of the whole set of data supplied by GEOS 1 (4regions: the plasmasphere, an intermediate region of ionospheric refilling, and the plasma trough. In the plasmasphere, we observe profiles with N/sub e/proportionalL/sup -4/, while T/sub e/ stands around 10,000 /sup 0/K or less. The intermediate region, situated next to the plasmasphere and above it, is always present in the day sector, where the ionospheric source plays a leading part. In that zone, the plasma parameters, poorly known up to now, exhibit N/sub e/ values approx.2 to 20 cm/sup -3/, together with T/sub e/ values of 20,000 /sup 0/K on the average, dispersed over a 5,000 to 100,000 /sup 0/K range during disturbances. In the night sector, the intermediate region is seen only during the recovery phase. The region of depleted density is observed at the higher L values in the night and morning MTL sectors. There, plasmas out of Maxwellian equilibrium are seen under disturbed conditions. The dynamic response of the thermal plasma parameters to temporal variations of the a/sub m/ index of magnetic activity follows a known scenario as concerns N/sub e/, making apparent a night-to-day, MTL dependent time delay. As concerns T/sub e/, the dynamical study reveals striking features, such as the persistance of the T/sub e/ modifications into the dusk sector, the interpretation of which remains to be clarified.

  7. [Organization of stomatological care in Russian army during first World War 1914-1917 y].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskiĭ, L N

    2006-01-01

    The article presents issues on organization of stomatological care in Russian army during First World War. The author showed reasons of low efficiency of the treatment of soldiers with maxillofacial region. Injuries beginning of a new stage in the treatment of maxillofacial region fire wounds and origin of a new specialty developed a military maxillofacial surgery.

  8. Investigating the performance and energy saving potential of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Lesley Anne

    2011-12-01

    The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe cold climate regions of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and regional building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each region. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for potential energy savings. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-saving options are then presented as recommendations for potential improvements to current China building energy codes.

  9. Two-dimensional finite difference model to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise in cold climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Babita; Adlakha, Neeru

    2015-02-01

    Thermoregulation is a complex mechanism regulating heat production within the body (chemical thermoregulation) and heat exchange between the body and the environment (physical thermoregulation) in such a way that the heat exchange is balanced and deep body temperatures are relatively stable. The external heat transfer mechanisms are radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. The physical activity causes thermal stress and poses challenges for this thermoregulation. In this paper, a model has been developed to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise under cold climate. It is assumed that the subject is doing exercise initially and comes to rest at time t = 0. The human limb is assumed to be of cylindrical shape. The peripheral region of limb is divided into three natural components namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues (SST). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Finite difference has been employed for time, radial and angular variables. The numerical results have been used to obtain temperature profiles in the SST region immediately after continuous exercise for a two-dimensional unsteady state case. The results have been used to analyze the thermal stress in relation to light, moderate and vigorous intensity exercise.

  10. Bot armies as threats to network security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2007-04-01

    "Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

  11. Artic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. Cold regions environmental analysis based on ERTS-1 imagery (preprint)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.; Mckim, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An overriding problem in arctic and subarctic environmental research has been the absence of long-term observational data and the sparseness of geographical coverage of existing data. A first look report is presented on the use of ERTS-1 imagery as a major tool in two large area environmental studies: (1) investigation of sedimentation and other nearshore marine processes in Cook Inlet, Alaska; and (2) a regional study of permafrost regimes in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Alaska. These studies incorporate ground truth acquisition techniques that are probably similar to most ERTS investigations. Studies of oceanographic processes in Cook Inlet will be focused on seasonal changes in nearshore bathymetry, tidal and major current circulation patterns, and coastal sedimentation processes, applicable to navigation, construction, and maintenance of harbors. Analyses will be made of the regional permafrost distribution and regimes in the Upper Koyukuk-Kobuk River area located in NW Alaska.

  12. Systemic and regional hemorheological consequences of warm and cold hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N; Szokoly, M; Acs, G; Brath, E; Lesznyak, T; Furka, I; Miko, I

    2004-01-01

    We have studied systemic and regional changes in hemorheological parameters after complete acute limb ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in 24 mongrel dogs. Unilateral cooled and non-cooled vascular ischemia (3 h)-reperfusion (4 h), and sham-operations were performed. Blood samples were collected from the excluded region, during reperfusion and for 5 days. Whole blood and plasma viscosity (WBV, PV), relative cell transit time (RCTT) of erythrocytes, fibrinogen level and hematological parameters were determined. In I/R groups WBV of excluded blood was significantly higher compared to the base (p < 0.05), and RCTT increased during the reperfusion. On 2nd-3rd days RCTT increased significantly in both I/R groups. In each group PV and fibrinogen showed continuous increase during the postoperative period, prominently in cooled I/R group, and furthermore WBV corrected for hematocrit (40%) was the highest in cooled I/R group. These suggest that surgical acute limb I/R may cause hemorheological changes, which are more serious after cooling. (Grants: OTKA-T032571, 6003/1/2001/ETT.)

  13. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  14. US Army primary radiation standards complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Army Primary Radiation Standards Complex (PRSC) to be constructed at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The missions of the organizations to be located in the PRSC are described. The health physics review of the facility design is discussed. The radiation sources to be available in the PRSC and the resulting measurement capabilities of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory Nucleonics section are specified. Influence of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accrediation Program (NVLAP) accreditation criteria on facility design and source selection is illustrated.

  15. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  16. Measurements and modeling of cold 13CH4 spectra in the 3750-4700 cm-1 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. R.; Nikitin, A. V.; Sung, K.; Rey, M.; Tashkun, S. A.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Crawford, T. J.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.

    2016-05-01

    A new study of 13CH4 line intensities and positions was performed in the Octad region between 3750 and 4700 cm-1. Using 13C-enriched samples, spectra were recorded with both the McMath-Pierce FTS at Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona and the Bruker IFS-125HR at JPL. Sample temperatures ranged between 80 and 296 K. Line positions and intensities of ~15,000 features were retrieved at different temperatures by non-linear least squares curve-fitting procedures. Intensities were used to estimate the lower state energies for 60% of the features in order to determine quantum assignments up to J=10. A preliminary analysis was performed using the effective Hamiltonian and the effective dipole transition moment expressed in terms of irreducible tensor operators adapted to spherical top molecules. Selected assignments were made up to J=10 for all 24 sub-vibrational states of the Octad; these were modeled for 4752 experimental line positions and 3301 selected line intensities fitted with RMS standard deviations of 0.004 cm-1 and 6.9%, respectively. Integrated intensities of the eight Octad bands are compared to ab initio variational calculations. A prediction of the 13CH4 is given, but further analysis to improve the calculation will be reported in the future.

  17. Geochemistry of soils of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica: Implications for pedogenesis in cold polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Il; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Yoon, Ho Il

    2004-11-01

    Fine fractions of soils on the Barton Peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctica have been forming during the last 6000 yr since the last deglaciation. Texturally, they are mostly composed of mineral and rock fragments with some volcanic ashes, which are also indicated by geochemical compositions representing for the nonclay silicate minerals and low values of chemical index of alteration. No significant changes are observed in major- and trace element abundances. Such geochemical characteristics suggest that chemical weathering of bedrocks on the Barton Peninsula seems insignificant and that the soils are composed of physically weathered mineral and rock fragments which are mixed with eolian additions of volcanic ashes and Patagonian dusts. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns of the Barton Peninsula soils are slightly different from those of bedrocks, indicating that the REE abundances and characteristics were influenced by eolian additions. Mixing calculations, which mass-balance the REEs, suggest that volcanic ashes blown from Deception Island were the major eolian contributor, followed by atmospheric dusts sourced from Patagonia, South America. Even in the warmer and humid climatic conditions in the maritime Antarctic region, the chemical weathering of bedrocks appears to be insignificant, probably due to the relatively short duration of weathering since the last deglaciation.

  18. Building under cold climates and on permafrost. Collection of papers from a US-Soviet Joint Seminar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The building of homes and other structures in cold weather poses special design and logistical problems for architects, urban planners, and construction engineers. As the United States expands development in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of North America, access to the research and achievements of other nations experienced in cold weather construction becomes increasingly important. The Soviet Union, with so much of its vast territory lying in the far north, performs about 85 percent of the world's research in this field. For this reason, experts at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have actively cooperated with Soviet experts under the framework of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Housing and Other Construction. The articles in this collection have been classified into the following five sections: Aspects of Architectural Planning, Construction and Environmental Considerations; Principles of Foundation Design and Behavior; Foundation Stabilization; Concrete Construction; and Excavation Techniques.

  19. Army health care operations in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard S K; Gillan, Eileen; Dingmann, Philip; Casinelli, Paul; Taylor, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Four years of warfare in the urban environment of Iraq have produced fundamental changes in the Army's health-care system. First, improved communications and air evacuation have streamlined the transport of the wounded soldierfrom the battlefield to stateside medical centers. Second, individual ballistic armor has decreased the number of U.S. troops killed while the number of wounded soldiers has increased. Third, battling an unseen enemy has produced a marked increase in acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Deployment of soldiers with chronic mental health disorders such as anxiety, attention deficit disorder, and depression is problematic. The stress of long combat tours has doubled the incidence of abuse and neglect in children of deployed service members. Comparedto active-componentsoldiers, the prevalence ofmental health disorders is twice as great in soldiers of the Army Reserve and Army National Guard. Finally, the difficulty in determining friend vs. foe in Iraq results in the incarceration of thousands of Iraqis creating both medical and ethical challenges for Army physicians.

  20. Dental Therapy Assistant: Attitudes of Army Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Theodore H.; Bair, Jeffrey H.

    The U. S. Army Dental Corps has implemented a formal program based on the concept that dental care can be more efficiently and effectively provided with treatment teams composed of one dental officer, two dental therapy assistants, one basic assistant, and the shared support of other auxiliary personnel. Such a team will use three dental treatment…

  1. The Falklands war: Army field surgical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D. S.; Batty, C. G.; Ryan, J. M.; McGregor, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    In the recent Falklands campaign four Army Field Surgical Teams were deployed in the two phases of the war. They functioned as Advanced Surgical Centres and operated on 233 casualties. There were 3 deaths. The patterns of wounding and the methods of casualty management are discussed and compared with other recent campaigns. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6614760

  2. Army Physicians' Attitudes Towards Physicians' Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Richard B.; Bair, Jeffrey H.

    In February 1972 the U. S. Army Medical Field Service School will commence training a new category of health personnel, to be known as the physicians' assistant. This type of allied health personnel will be an assistant to the physician, trained to do many of the traditional tasks usually performed by a physician, but requiring less education.…

  3. The Army's High Priority Physical Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Fred R.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the importance of physical fitness in the United States Army. The development of expanded fitness assessment and programs is related to health and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Improved physical training programs, improved nutrition, and fundamental research are necessary for maintaining a highly fit and healthy…

  4. 32 CFR 536.14 - Commanders of major Army commands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.14 Commanders of major Army commands... claims personnel in obtaining qualified expert and technical advice from command units and...

  5. 32 CFR 536.14 - Commanders of major Army commands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.14 Commanders of major Army commands... claims personnel in obtaining qualified expert and technical advice from command units and...

  6. Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers plans and drawings, Fort Hancock and Sandy hook proving ground, record group 7, drawer 44, Cartographic and Architectural branc, The National Archives, Washington, DC), cartographer unknown, title unknown, March 28, 1892 1890 lifesaving station shown near fort and beach, no boathouse near engineer's wharf - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  7. Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers plans and drawings, Fort Hancock and Sandy hook proving ground, record group 7, drawer 44, Cartographic and Architectural branc, The National Archives, Washington, DC) from Talcott, T.M.R., plot of a survey of site, Fort at Sandy Hook, NJ, 1859-1860 Detail of engineer's wharf - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  8. Field procedures in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Heeringa, Steven G; Gebler, Nancy; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study of unprecedented size and complexity designed to generate actionable evidence-based recommendations to reduce US Army suicides and increase basic knowledge about determinants of suicidality by carrying out coordinated component studies. A number of major logistical challenges were faced in implementing these studies. The current report presents an overview of the approaches taken to meet these challenges, with a special focus on the field procedures used to implement the component studies. As detailed in the paper, these challenges were addressed at the onset of the initiative by establishing an Executive Committee, a Data Coordination Center (the Survey Research Center [SRC] at the University of Michigan), and study-specific design and analysis teams that worked with staff on instrumentation and field procedures. SRC staff, in turn, worked with the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Army (ODUSA) and local Army Points of Contact (POCs) to address logistical issues and facilitate data collection. These structures, coupled with careful fieldworker training, supervision, and piloting, contributed to the major Army STARRS data collection efforts having higher response rates than previous large-scale studies of comparable military samples.

  9. Design of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gebler, Nancy; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.; Heeringa, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable evidence-based recommendations to reduce U.S. Army suicides and increase basic knowledge about the determinants of suicidality. This report presents an overview of the designs of the six component Army STARRS studies. These include: an integrated study of historical administrative data systems (HADS) designed to provide data on significant administrative predictors of suicides among the more than 1.6 million soldiers on active duty in 2004–2009; retrospective case-control studies of suicide attempts and fatalities; separate large-scale cross-sectional studies of new soldiers (i.e., those just beginning Basic Combat Training [BCT], who completed self-administered questionnaires [SAQ] and neurocognitive tests and provided blood samples) and soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (who completed SAQs); a pre-post deployment study of soldiers in three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan (who completed SAQs and provided blood samples) followed multiple times after returning from deployment; and a platform for following up Army STARRS participants who have returned to civilian life. DoD/Army administrative data records are linked with SAQ data to examine prospective associations between self-reports and subsequent suicidality. The presentation closes with a discussion of the methodological advantages of cross-component coordination. PMID:24318217

  10. Field procedures in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Heeringa, Steven G.; Gebler, Nancy; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study of unprecedented size and complexity designed to generate actionable evidence-based recommendations to reduce U.S. Army suicides and increase basic knowledge about determinants of suicidality by carrying out coordinated component studies. A number of major logistical challenges were faced in implementing these studies. The current report presents an overview of the approaches taken to meet these challenges, with a special focus on the field procedures used to implement the component studies. As detailed in the paper, these challenges were addressed at the onset of the initiative by establishing an Executive Committee, a Data Coordination Center (the Survey Research Center [SRC] at the University of Michigan), and study-specific design and analysis teams that worked with staff on instrumentation and field procedures. SRC staff, in turn, worked with the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Army (ODUSA) and local Army Points of Contact (POCs) to address logistical issues and facilitate data collection. These structures, coupled with careful fieldworker training, supervision, and piloting contributed to the major Army STARRS data collection efforts having higher response rates than previous large-scale studies of comparable military samples. PMID:24038395

  11. Design of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Gebler, Nancy; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Heeringa, Steven G

    2013-12-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable evidence-based recommendations to reduce US Army suicides and increase basic knowledge about the determinants of suicidality. This report presents an overview of the designs of the six components of the Army STARRS. These include: an integrated analysis of the Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS) designed to provide data on significant administrative predictors of suicides among the more than 1.6 million soldiers on active duty in 2004-2009; retrospective case-control studies of suicide attempts and fatalities; separate large-scale cross-sectional studies of new soldiers (i.e. those just beginning Basic Combat Training [BCT], who completed self-administered questionnaires [SAQs] and neurocognitive tests and provided blood samples) and soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (who completed SAQs); a pre-post deployment study of soldiers in three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan (who completed SAQs and provided blood samples) followed multiple times after returning from deployment; and a platform for following up Army STARRS participants who have returned to civilian life. Department of Defense/Army administrative data records are linked with SAQ data to examine prospective associations between self-reports and subsequent suicidality. The presentation closes with a discussion of the methodological advantages of cross-component coordination.

  12. THE CHALLENGE OF MOLDS FOR THE U.S. ARMY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Army and all armies have been interested in molds since there were armies. The most obvious interest was human infections by molds like trench foot. Then there were losses of military animals and contamination of their fodder, most notably the Soviet loss of thousands o...

  13. 32 CFR 644.328 - Army military leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army military leased property. 644.328 Section 644.328 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... military leased property. (a) Department of the Army command installations or parts thereof held by...

  14. 32 CFR 644.328 - Army military leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army military leased property. 644.328 Section 644.328 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... military leased property. (a) Department of the Army command installations or parts thereof held by...

  15. 32 CFR 644.328 - Army military leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army military leased property. 644.328 Section 644.328 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... military leased property. (a) Department of the Army command installations or parts thereof held by...

  16. 32 CFR 581.2 - Army Discharge Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Army Discharge Review Board. 581.2 Section 581.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARD § 581.2 Army Discharge Review Board. (a) Purpose. This regulation implements 10 U.S.C. 1553, Pub. L....

  17. 32 CFR 581.2 - Army Discharge Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Army Discharge Review Board. 581.2 Section 581.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARD § 581.2 Army Discharge Review Board. (a) Purpose. This regulation implements 10 U.S.C. 1553, Pub. L....

  18. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section 643.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space and...

  19. 32 CFR 644.416 - Army civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army civil works lands. 644.416 Section 644.416 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.416 Army...

  20. 32 CFR 508.1 - Utilization of Army bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Utilization of Army bands. 508.1 Section 508.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS COMPETITION WITH CIVILIAN BANDS § 508.1 Utilization of Army bands. (a)...

  1. 32 CFR 581.1 - Army Disability Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Army Disability Review Board. 581.1 Section 581.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARD § 581.1 Army Disability Review Board. (a) General provisions—(1) Constitution, purpose, and...

  2. 77 FR 20331 - Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Part 334 Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Felgates Creek and Indian Field Creek along the York River in Yorktown, VA; Restricted Area AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense... submitting comments. Email: david.b.olson@usace.army.mil . Include the docket number, COE-2011-0038, in...

  3. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section 643.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of...

  4. 32 CFR 581.2 - Army Discharge Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army Discharge Review Board. 581.2 Section 581.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARD § 581.2 Army Discharge Review Board. (a) Purpose. This regulation implements 10 U.S.C. 1553, Pub. L....

  5. 32 CFR 508.1 - Utilization of Army bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Utilization of Army bands. 508.1 Section 508.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS COMPETITION WITH CIVILIAN BANDS § 508.1 Utilization of Army bands. (a)...

  6. 32 CFR 581.1 - Army Disability Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army Disability Review Board. 581.1 Section 581.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARD § 581.1 Army Disability Review Board. (a) General provisions—(1) Constitution, purpose, and...

  7. 32 CFR 644.416 - Army civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army civil works lands. 644.416 Section 644.416 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.416 Army...

  8. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  9. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  10. 32 CFR 581.2 - Army Discharge Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Army Discharge Review Board. 581.2 Section 581.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARD § 581.2 Army Discharge Review Board. (a) Purpose. This regulation implements 10 U.S.C. 1553, Pub. L....

  11. 32 CFR 508.1 - Utilization of Army bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... participation by Army bands (except the U.S. Army Band and the U.S. Army Field Band) in their official capacties... Forces, veterans, and patriotic organizations. (3) At public rallies and parades intended to stimulate national interest in the Armed Forces and/or to further the community relation program. (4) For fund...

  12. 32 CFR 508.1 - Utilization of Army bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... participation by Army bands (except the U.S. Army Band and the U.S. Army Field Band) in their official capacties... Forces, veterans, and patriotic organizations. (3) At public rallies and parades intended to stimulate national interest in the Armed Forces and/or to further the community relation program. (4) For fund...

  13. 32 CFR 644.416 - Army civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army civil works lands. 644.416 Section 644.416 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... works lands. The Secretary of the Army is authorized to exchange lands acquired for river and harbor...

  14. 32 CFR 644.416 - Army civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army civil works lands. 644.416 Section 644.416 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... works lands. The Secretary of the Army is authorized to exchange lands acquired for river and harbor...

  15. 32 CFR 644.416 - Army civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army civil works lands. 644.416 Section 644.416 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... works lands. The Secretary of the Army is authorized to exchange lands acquired for river and harbor...

  16. 32 CFR 581.2 - Army Discharge Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army Discharge Review Board. 581.2 Section 581.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARD § 581.2 Army Discharge Review Board. (a) Purpose. This regulation implements 10 U.S.C. 1553, Pub. L....

  17. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section 643.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space and...

  18. 32 CFR 508.1 - Utilization of Army bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Utilization of Army bands. 508.1 Section 508.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS COMPETITION WITH CIVILIAN BANDS § 508.1 Utilization of Army bands. (a)...

  19. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section 643.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of...

  20. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section 643.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space and...

  1. A Study of the Army's Advanced Civilian Schooling Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Joseph S.

    The purpose of the study is to review the official and unofficial U.S. Army policy toward graduate level education at civilian institutions. Particular attention is paid to: (1) the Army's advanced civilian schooling programs; (2) whether the Army receives a reasonable return on its financial and manpower expenditures on these programs; (3) what…

  2. [Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a cold region. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the soil, but the alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the rice straw mulching treatment was lower than that of the control.

  3. Involvement of the 5'-untranslated region in cold-regulated expression of the rbpA1 gene in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis M3.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, N; Nakamura, A

    1998-01-01

    Transcript of the rbpA1 gene in Anabaena variabilis accumulates significantly at low growth temperatures below 28 degreesC. This accumulation was maximal at 16 degreesC. Accumulation of the rbpA1 transcript was completely abolished by rifampicin, but not by chloramphenicol. Photosynthesis was not required for this cold-induced accumulation. This accumulation of transcript was partly accounted for by increased stability of the rbpA1 transcript at low temperature. Expression of chimeric genes containing 3'-deleted rbpA1 sequences fused to the lacZ gene was regulated by low temperature when almost the entire 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) remained undeleted. Further deletion resulted in constitutive expression of the chimeric gene. The 5'-UTR sequence formed two types of complexes in vitro with protein extract from cells grown at 38 degreesC, but not with extract from the 22 degreesC grown cells. Affinity purification identified polypeptides of 75 and 32 kDa in Complex 1 and a 72 kDa polypeptide in Complex 2. These results are compatible with a model in which expression of the rbpA1 gene is regulated by transcriptional derepression at low temperature, although additional mechanisms, such as regulation of mRNA stability, might also contribute to temperature-dependent regulation. PMID:9547280

  4. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  5. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  6. Distributed land surface modeling with utilization of multi-sensor satellite data: application for the vast agricultural terrain in cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, E.; Uspensky, A.; Gelfan, A.; Startseva, Z.; Volkova, E.; Kukharsky, A.; Romanov, P.; Alexandrovich, M.

    2012-04-01

    A technique for satellite-data-based modeling water and heat regimes of a large scale area has been developed and applied for the 227,300 km2 agricultural region in the European Russia. The core component of the technique is the physically based distributed Remote Sensing Based Land Surface Model (RSBLSM) intended for simulating transpiration by vegetation and evaporation from bare soil, vertical transfer of water and heat within soil and vegetation covers during a vegetation season as well as hydrothermal processes in soil and snow covers during a cold season, including snow accumulation and melt, dynamics of soil moisture and temperature during soil freezing and thawing, infiltration into frozen soil. Processes in the "atmosphere-snow-frozen soil" system are critical for cold region agriculture, as they control crop development in early spring before the vegetation season beginning. For assigning the model parameters as well as for preliminary calibrating and validating the model, available multi-year data sets of soil moisture/temperature profiles, evaporation, snow and soil freezing depth measured at the meteorological stations located within the study region have been utilized. To provide an appropriate parametrization of the model for the areas where ground-based measurements are unavailable, estimates have been utilized for vegetation, meteorological and snow characteristics derived from the multispectral measurements of AVHRR/NOAA (1999-2010), MODIS/EOS Terra & Aqua (2002-2010), AMSR-E/Aqua (2003-2004; 2008-2010), and SEVIRI/Meteosat-9 (2009-2010). The technologies of thematic processing the listed satellite data have been developed and applied to estimate the land surface and snow cover characteristics for the study area. The developed technologies of AVHRR data processing have been adapted to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity (E), surface-air temperature at a level of vegetation cover (TA), normalized vegetation index (NDVI), leaf

  7. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  8. An Assessment of Drug Education-Prevention Programs in the U. S. Army. Army Research Institute Technical Paper 261.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Royer F.; Morton, Anton S.

    In recent years the Army has been concerned about the widespread use of psychoactive drugs by all classes of young people and the effects of this use on the Army. In order to curb this use among soldiers the Army initiated a comprehensive program to prevent and control the abuse of alcohol and drugs. Prevention was considered to include education,…

  9. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  10. [The technique of army nursing in the Meiji period].

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Y

    1994-06-01

    It was in the nineteenth year of Meiji that Japan introduced the modern nursing system from Europe on the nation-wide level. But the Japanese army introduced the new nursing system from the sixth year of Meiji. For that reason, I studied whether the technique of the army nursing system was modern or not. Since the technical level of the nursing system is represented by the teaching methods and text books, I studied these aspects of the Japanese army nursing system. As the result, I confirmed that the army nursing system was modern. The Japanese army was the first to introduce the modern nursing system from Europe in Japan. PMID:11639784

  11. Automation impact study of Army Training Management

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, T.F.; Schuller, C.R.; McCallum, M.C.; Underwood, J.A.; Bettin, P.J.; King, J.L.; Melber, B.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Seaver, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The main objectives of this impact study were to identify the potential cost savings associated with automated Army Training Management (TM), and to perform a cost-benefit analysis for an Army-wide automated TM system. A subsidiary goal was to establish baseline data for an independent evaluation of a prototype Integrated Training Management System (ITMS), to be tested in the fall of 1988. A structured analysis of TM doctrine was performed for comparison with empirical data gathered in a job analysis survey of selected units of the 9ID (MTZ) at Ft. Lewis, Washington. These observations will be extended to other units in subsequent surveys. The survey data concerning staffing levels and amount of labor expended on eight distinct TM tasks were analyzed in a cost effectiveness model. The main results of the surveys and cost effectiveness modelling are summarized. 18 figs., 47 tabs.

  12. Ocean-Atmosphere Environments of Antarctic-Region Cold-Air Mesocyclones: Evaluation of Reanalyses for Contrasting Adjacent 10-Day Periods ("Macro-Weather") in Winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, A. M.; Auger, J.; Birkel, S. D.; Maasch, K. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Claud, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones in cold-air outbreaks (mesocyclones) feature in the weather and climate of the Antarctic (e.g., Ross Sea) and sub-antarctic (Drake Passage). They adversely impact field operations, and influence snowfall, the ice-sheet mass balance, and sea-air energy fluxes. Although individual mesocyclones are poorly represented on reanalyses, these datasets robustly depict the upper-ocean and troposphere environments in which multiple mesocyclones typically form. A spatial metric of mesocyclone activity—the Meso-Cyclogenesis Potential (MCP)—used ERA-40 anomaly fields of: sea surface temperature (SST) minus marine air temperature (MAT), near-surface winds, 500 hPa air temperature, and the sea-ice edge location. MCP maps composited by teleconnection phases for 1979-2001, broadly correspond to short-period satellite "climatologies" of mesocyclones. Here, we assess 3 reanalysis datasets (CFSR, ERA-I and MERRA) for their reliably to depict MCP patterns on weekly to sub-monthly periods marked by strong regional shifts in mesocyclone activity (frequencies, track densities) occurring during a La Niña winter: June 21-30, 1999 (SE Indian Ocean) and September 1-10, 1999 (Ross Sea sector). All reanalyses depict the marked variations in upper ocean and atmosphere variables between adjacent 10-day periods. Slight differences may owe to model resolution or internal components (land surface, coupled ocean models), and/or how the observations are assimilated. For June 21-30, positive SST-MAT, southerly winds, proximity to the ice edge, and negative T500, accompany increased meso-cyclogenesis. However, for September 1-10, surface forcing does not explain frequent comma cloud "polar lows" north-east of the Ross Sea. Inclusion of the upper-level diffluence (e.g., from Z300 field) in the MCP metric, better depicts the observed mesocyclone activity. MCP patterns on these "macro-weather" time scales appear relatively insensitive to the choice of reanalysis.

  13. Simulation and Feasibility Study on a ‘Renewable Energy House’ with a Geothermal Heat Pump-Powered Floor Heating System in Cold Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masafumi; Akpan, Itoro; Endoh, Noboru

    An actual renewable energy house, equipped with a geothermal heat pump (GHP)-powered floor heating system was investigated and analyzed. Daily annual monitoring between February 2005 ˜ February 2006 and real-time continuous system monitoring within selected periods during the winter season between November 2006 ˜ January 2007, were carried out in order to establish the actual performance of the system. It emerged that the GHP-powered floor heating system is sufficient for space heating, with the maintenance of near-uniform room temperatures even during the coldest days in a very cold region like Hokkaido, Japan. About 37% average of the floor heat losses are recoverable and more than 50% of the ventilation heat losses are recovered due to various innovative energy-saving techniques built into the system. Annual heat loss from the house estimated by the numerical simulation showed good agreement with the measured annual thermal demand for room heating. The simulation also estimated that annual running costs and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 47% and 49% respectively, can be realized with this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. A detailed cost analysis for the GHP-only system revealed that if the cost of fuel oil increases by about 50% from the current value of ¥80/L, then the payback period for a GHP-powered renewable energy system is about 14 years. This payback period reduces to about 10 years if 30% of the initial cost of the GHP-powered system is externally funded.

  14. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159805.html Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold Healthy body temperature boosts ability of immune system ... proving Mom right: Your odds of avoiding a cold get better if you bundle up and stay ...

  15. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  16. Battles between an insurgent army and an advanced army - focus on strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Surajit; Shanahan, Linda

    2008-03-01

    Detailed and aggregate analyses of the outcome of past battles focusing on rates of troop losses or on the ratios of forces on each side is at the heart of present knowledge about battles. Here we present non-equilibrium statistical mechanics based studies of possible outcomes of well matched strategic battles by a ``blue'' army against insurgency based attacks by well matched opponents in a ``red'' army in red territory. We assume that the red army attacks with randomly varying force levels to potentially confuse and drive the blue's strategies. The temporal evolution of the model battles incorporate randomness in the deployment of the reds and hence possess attendant history dependence. Our results reveal that while unpredictable events play a major role in battles, a balance between risk of exposure in a battlefield and the use of short range intelligence is needed in determining whether one side can decimate the other, and hence force a battle to end.

  17. Multi-phase defense by the big-headed ant, Pheidole obtusospinosa, against raiding army ants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming H

    2010-01-01

    Army ants are well known for their destructive raids of other ant colonies. Some known defensive strategies include nest evacuation, modification of nest architecture, blockade of nest entrances using rocks or debris, and direct combat outside the nest. Since army ants highly prefer Pheidole ants as prey in desert habitats, there may be strong selective pressure on Pheidole to evolve defensive strategies to better survive raids. In the case of P. obtusospinosa Pergande (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the worker caste system includes super majors in addition to smaller majors and minor workers. Interestingly, P. obtusospinosa and the six other New World Pheidole species described to have polymorphic major workers are all found in the desert southwest and adjacent regions of Mexico, all co-occurring with various species of Neivamyrmex army ants. Pheidole obtusospinosa used a multi-phase defensive strategy against army ant raids that involved their largest major workers. During army ant attacks, these super majors were involved in blocking the nest entrance with their enlarged heads. This is the first description of defensive head-blocking by an ant species that lacks highly modified head morphology, such as a truncated or disc-shaped head. P. obtusospinosa super majors switched effectively between passive headblocking at the nest entrance and aggressive combat outside the nest. If this multi-phase strategy is found to be used by other Pheidole species with polymorphic majors in future studies, it is possible that selective pressure by army ant raids may have been partially responsible for the convergent evolution of this extra worker caste.

  18. Chilling Out with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cold virus, but more than 200 viruses can cause colds. Because there are so many, ... to help you feel better. Take that, cold viruses! continue How Kids Catch Colds Mucus (say: MYOO- ...

  19. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  20. Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers plans and drawings, Fort Hancock and Sandy hook proving ground, record group 7, drawer 44, Cartographic and Architectural branc, The National Archives, Washington, DC), U.S. Engineer Office, New York District, Harbor Defenses of New York Mine Boathouse, location plan and elevations, Fort Hancock, New Jersey, July 1943 Detail of western docking structure - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  1. Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of plan (in U.S. Army office of Army Engineers plans and drawings, Fort Hancock and Sandy hook proving ground, record group 7, drawer 44, Cartographic and Architectural branc, The National Archives, Washington, DC) Gillespie, G.L., map of a portion of Sandy Hook, NJ showing condition of beach in vicinity of dynamite gun emplacements, 1894 Engineer's wharf - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  2. [Health situation of the armies in the Crimean war and a document related to this].

    PubMed

    Dağlar, Oya

    2004-01-01

    Although the Crimean War seems to be a war between the Ottoman and Russian with the support of England an France, in reality, it was a power struggle between the biggest European countries. The cooperation between England - Ottoman Empire and France in the Crimean War meanly determined the result of the war. The Crimean War should not only be evaluated in militarian and political aspect, but also from other perspectives. One of the most important problems for the allied armies in Istanbul and Crimea was related to the health concepts. During the two years long war, problems were the freezing cold and contagious diseases before the Russian soldiers. And thypus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepears the dead of a large number of soldiers. Although the allied armies won the battle but all the sides fighting in the was lost many people due to contagious diseases. According to the resources, the contagious diseases such as, thypus, cholera and malaria led to the deads of more than ten times of the people who were in the battle field. Thats why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and gave importance to the development of military medical services and form this point, the Crimean War became the begining of an important development in military health concept.

  3. WISPy cold dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Paola; Cadamuro, Davide; Goodsell, Mark; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches — exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques — can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future.

  4. Officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Hermann Oberth (forefront) with officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Huntsville, Alabama in 1956. Left to right: Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger (seated); Major General H.N. Toftoy, Commanding Officer and person responsible for 'Project Paperclip,' which took scientists and engineers out of Germany after World War II to design rockets for American military use. Many of the scientists later helped to design the Saturn V rocket that took the Apollo 11 astronauts to the Moon. Dr. Eberhard Rees, Deputy Director, Development Operations Division Wernher von Braun, Director, Development Operations Division.

  5. The NASA/Army Autonomous Rotorcraft Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.

  6. Simulator sickness: a problem for Army aviation.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J S

    1987-04-01

    "Simulator Sickness" describes a symptom complex frequently reported by pilots during or after flight simulator training. There were 112 helicopter pilots at a U.S. Army AH-1 Cobra Flight Weapons Simulator (FWS) who completed a symptom-oriented subjective questionnaire. Of these, 40% reported symptoms of dysequilibrium; pilots developing simulator sickness had significantly more total and AH-1 flight time. Adaptation to the syndrome occurred with increasing FWS experience. The history and aeromedical significance of simulator sickness are briefly reviewed, and a case report presented. A mandatory grounding policy in use locally is described. Potential treatment strategies are briefly discussed.

  7. Results of NASA/Army transmission research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Coe, Harold H.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1970 the NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command have shared an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components are outlined. The major goals of the program were (and continue to be) to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability, reduce the weight, noise, and vibration, and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. Major historical milestones are reviewed, significant advances in technology for bearings, gears, and transmissions are discussed, and the outlook for the future is presented. The reference list is comprehensive.

  8. A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian army.

    PubMed

    Tofari, Paul J; Laing Treloar, Alison K; Silk, Aaron J

    2013-05-01

    The Australian Defence Force is reviewing the physical demands of all employment categories in the Australian Army to establish valid and legally defensible assessments. The current assessments, performed in physical training attire, are not specific to job demands. Moreover, the fitness standards decrease based on age and are lower for females, and as job requirements are constant, these assessments are counterintuitive. With regard to the Army Emergency Responder employment category, tasks of physical demand in the present study were selected through consultation with subject-matter experts. Participants consisted of 10 qualified Army Emergency Responder soldiers and three noncareer firefighters under instruction. Real-life firefighting scenarios were witnessed by researchers and helped form task simulations allowing measurement of heart rate and oxygen consumption. Peak oxygen consumption ranged from 21.8 ± 3.8 to 40.0 ± 3.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1) during cutting activities and a search and rescue task, respectively, representing values similar to or higher than the current entry standards. Manual handling tasks were also assessed, with the heaviest measured being two soldiers lifting a 37.7-kg Utility Trunk to 150 cm. The findings provide a quantitative assessment of the physiological demands of Army Emergency Responders, and highlight the need for change in current fitness assessments.

  9. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  10. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    PubMed

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas. PMID:19539373

  11. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    PubMed

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas.

  12. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, Kent B; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W; Young, Andrew J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of pocket guides providing guidance for sustaining Warfighter health and performance in Southwest Asia, Somalia, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Haiti. Issues identified during Operation Desert Storm elicited research that improved nutritional guidelines for protracted desert operations; safer use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective clothing; equipment, development, and fielding of efficient microclimate cooling systems; and effective evaluation of pharmaceuticals to protect soldiers from chemical and biological threats. During the first decade of the 21st century, USARIEM and the Department of the Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism focused research to improve doctrines for hot, cold, and high-altitude operations, reduce musculoskeletal training injuries, provide improved field nutrition, more efficient planning for operational water requirements, and improve both military clothing and materiel. This article also describes the critically important interactions and communications between USARIEM and deployed units and the benefits to Warfighters from this association. This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr. PMID:22139770

  13. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, Kent B; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W; Young, Andrew J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of pocket guides providing guidance for sustaining Warfighter health and performance in Southwest Asia, Somalia, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Haiti. Issues identified during Operation Desert Storm elicited research that improved nutritional guidelines for protracted desert operations; safer use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective clothing; equipment, development, and fielding of efficient microclimate cooling systems; and effective evaluation of pharmaceuticals to protect soldiers from chemical and biological threats. During the first decade of the 21st century, USARIEM and the Department of the Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism focused research to improve doctrines for hot, cold, and high-altitude operations, reduce musculoskeletal training injuries, provide improved field nutrition, more efficient planning for operational water requirements, and improve both military clothing and materiel. This article also describes the critically important interactions and communications between USARIEM and deployed units and the benefits to Warfighters from this association. This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr.

  14. Deployment experiences of Army nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul C; Stewart, Della; Brown, William

    2012-08-01

    Army Nurse Practitioners (NPs) provide immediate and lifesaving care during combat operations. The most recent conflicts of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom have seen an increasing number of NP deployments. The uniqueness of these conflicts has also seen NPs being used in nontraditional roles. This study surveyed 50 Army NPs with deployment experience to explore and elucidate their clinical practices in a combat environment. Over 70% reported seeing greater than 11 patients a day with the top three diagnoses of musculoskeletal/soft tissue (noncombat), spinal pain (mechanical, sciatica), and gastrointestinal complaints. Over 74% reported having a physician available for collaboration, but 50% reported providing independent emergency care and 58% treating life-threatening injuries. The NPs in this study report standard credentialing privileges with most care falling within this realm. However, a few report nontraditional roles such as hospital admitting privileges. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge on NP practice in a combat environment, which shows increased decision making and advanced clinical skills. NPs are battlefield multipliers who bring additional skills and abilities to the combat environment. PMID:22934365

  15. The automated Army ROTC Questionnaire (ARQ)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The Reserve Officer Training Corps Cadet Command (ROTCCC) takes applications for its officer training program from college students and Army enlisted personnel worldwide. Each applicant is required to complete a set of application forms prior to acceptance into the ROTC program. These forms are covered by several regulations that govern the eligibility of potential applicants and guide the applicant through the application process. Eligibility criteria changes as Army regulations are periodically revised. Outdated information results in a loss of applications attributable to frustration and error. ROTCCC asked for an inexpensive and reliable way of automating their application process. After reviewing the process, it was determined that an expert system with good end user interface capabilities could be used to solve a large part of the problem. The system captures the knowledge contained within the regulations, enables the quick distribution and implementation of eligibility criteria changes, and distributes the expertise of the admissions personnel to the education centers and colleges. The expert system uses a modified version of CLIPS that was streamlined to make the most efficient use of its capabilities. A user interface with windowing capabilities provides the applicant with a simple and effective way to input his/her personal data.

  16. Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors in U.S. Army Administrative Records, 2004–2009: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Naifeh, James A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Vegella, Patti; Mash, Holly Herberman; Buckley, Christina; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the U.S. Army suicide rate is known to have risen sharply over the past decade, information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors is far more limited. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among regular Army soldiers. Methods Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty during the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1.66 million). Results We identified 21,740 unique regular Army soldiers with a nonfatal suicidal event documented at some point during the HADS study period. There were substantial increases in the annual incidence rates of suicide attempts (179–400/100,000 person-years) and suicide ideation (557–830/100,000 person-years), but not suspicious injuries. Using hierarchical classification rules to identify the first instance of each soldier's most severe behavior, we found increased risk of all outcomes among those who were female, non-Hispanic White, never married, lower-ranking enlisted, less educated, and of younger age when entering Army service. These sociodemographic associations significantly differed across outcomes, despite some patterns that appear similar. Conclusion Results provide a broad overview of nonfatal suicidal trends in the U.S. Army during 2004 through 2009 and demonstrate that integration of multiple administrative data systems enriches analysis of the predictors of such events. PMID:26168022

  17. 78 FR 22527 - Army Science Board Request for Information on Technology and Core Competencies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Request for Information on Technology and Core Competencies AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ] ACTION: Request for information regarding support to Army Core Competencies... 102-3.140 through 160, the Department of the Army requests information on science and technology...

  18. The Army Family Team Building Program: Facilitating a Transformative Learning Process--An Intrinsic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the Army Family Team Building program influences self-reliance and self-sufficiency in Army spouses as they integrate into the Army community. The purpose of the Army Family Team Building program is to empower Army spouses with knowledge and skills, which foster well-being and improve quality of life. The…

  19. 75 FR 24930 - Fort Bliss (Texas) Army Growth and Force Structure Realignment Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Department of the Army Fort Bliss (Texas) Army Growth and Force Structure Realignment Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) AGENCY: Department of the Army, DOD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces the availability of the Fort Bliss Army Growth and Force...

  20. Commentary on "The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)": Army STARRS: a Framingham-like study of psychological health risk factors in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Kerry J; Schoomaker, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Although historically the Army suicide rate has been significantly lower than the civilian rate, in 2004, the suicide and accidental death rates began trending upward. By 2008, the Army suicide rate had risen above the national average (20.2 per 100,000). In 2009, 160 active duty Soldiers took their lives, making suicide the third leading cause of death among the Army population. If accidental death, frequently the result of high-risk behavior, is included, then more Soldiers died by their own actions than in combat in 2009. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) was thus created in 2009 to begin to address these problems. The Army STARRS project is a large consortium of seven different studies to develop data-driven methods for mitigating or preventing suicide behaviors and improving the overall mental health and behavioral functioning of Army Soldiers during and after their Army service. The first research articles from the Army STARRS project were published in late 2013 and early 2014. This work has already begun to outline important facets of risk in the military, and it is helping to drive an empirically derived approach to improvements in understanding mental disorders and risk behavior and to improve prevention and support of mental health and resilience. The Framingham Heart Study, started in the 1940s, marked a watershed event in utilizing large cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal collaborative research to identify and understand risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Army STARRS project, through its collaborative, prospective, and robust innovative design and implementation, may provide the beginning of a similar scientific cohort in mental disorders. The work of this project will help understand biological and psychological aspects of military service, including those leading to suicide. When coupled with timely feedback to Army leadership, it permits near real-time steps to diagnose, mitigate, and

  1. Smart isolation mount for army guns: I. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Tarnowski, David J.; Mattice, Michael S.; Testa, Robert C.

    2000-06-01

    The work reported in this paper is focused on an effective and efficient solution, namely Smart Isolation Mount for Army Guns (SIMAG), to the weapon stabilization and fire control issues facing US Army guns. SIMAG is composed of the optimum integration of two innovative technologies. Vibration Control by Confinement and smart senor/actuator/active control systems. The combined approach may also be applied to a gun barrel to reduce its undesired vibratory motions excited by external and internal disturbances, such as gun firing action. SIMAG reconfigures the distribution and propagation of excess vibration energy and confines vibrations to certain non-critical regions or modes within a structure. Concentrated passive, active, or smart damping elements or cancellation techniques may be applied to more effectively dissipate or cancel the trapped vibrations and to prevent build up in the assembly. As the active elements, an array of collocated, PZT-based sensor- actuator sets is recommended for incorporation in SIMAG. Part of the active elements is used for spatially managing excess vibration energy while the other part is utilized for energy dissipation and cancellation. The preliminary result of our feasibility work on the SIMAG concept is demonstrated via computer simulations. It is shown that the insertion of a preliminary version of SIMAG in a 30mm gun system onboard an attack helicopter reduces the fluctuating loads and deformations measured across the helicopter bottom shell by 40 to 50 percent. SIMAG makes significant progress towards solving the firing control problems with affordable weight and power penalties by compensating for all errors in one of the two places, the turret-aircraft interface or gun barrel. Even thought the initial target application of SIMAG is airborne guns, a modified version can be incorporated into ground armors, such as tanks and humvees.

  2. Occupational differences in US Army suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.; Stein, M. B.; Bliese, P. D.; Bromet, E. J.; Chiu, W. T.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gilman, S. E.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Millikan-Bell, A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rosellini, A. J.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Ursano, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Civilian suicide rates vary by occupation in ways related to occupational stress exposure. Comparable military research finds suicide rates elevated in combat arms occupations. However, no research has evaluated variation in this pattern by deployment history, the indicator of occupation stress widely considered responsible for the recent rise in the military suicide rate. Method The joint associations of Army occupation and deployment history in predicting suicides were analysed in an administrative dataset for the 729 337 male enlisted Regular Army soldiers in the US Army between 2004 and 2009. Results There were 496 suicides over the study period (22.4/100 000 person-years). Only two occupational categories, both in combat arms, had significantly elevated suicide rates: infantrymen (37.2/100 000 person-years) and combat engineers (38.2/100 000 person-years). However, the suicide rates in these two categories were significantly lower when currently deployed (30.6/100 000 person-years) than never deployed or previously deployed (41.2–39.1/100 000 person-years), whereas the suicide rate of other soldiers was significantly higher when currently deployed and previously deployed (20.2–22.4/100 000 person-years) than never deployed (14.5/100 000 person-years), resulting in the adjusted suicide rate of infantrymen and combat engineers being most elevated when never deployed [odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.1], less so when previously deployed (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), and not at all when currently deployed (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8–1.8). Adjustment for a differential ‘healthy warrior effect’ cannot explain this variation in the relative suicide rates of never-deployed infantrymen and combat engineers by deployment status. Conclusions Efforts are needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying this interaction to guide preventive interventions for soldiers at high suicide risk. PMID:26190760

  3. Cold shock: biological implications and a method for approximating transient environmental temperatures in the near-field region of a thermal discharge.

    PubMed

    Pilati, D A

    1976-11-01

    Biological data on the temperature preferences of fish indicate that, in general, they will be attracted to thermal discharges in the winter. This attraction to warmer temperatures increases their vulnerability to cold shock if the discharge heat source is discontinued. A scheme is proposed to predict the near-field thermal plume environmental temperatures during a power transient. This method can be applied to any jet discharge for which a steady-state model exists. The proposed transient model has been applied to an operating reactor. The predicted results illustrate how very rapidly the maximum temperatures decrease after an abrupt shutdown. This model can be employed to help assess the impact where cold shock may be a problem. Such predictions could also be the basis for restrictions on scheduled midwinter plant shutdowns.

  4. 20. Photocopy of original drawing by US Army Engineer District, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of original drawing by US Army Engineer District, Corps of Engineers, 1964 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) REPAIRS OF SPALLED CONCRETE-PIERS 2,3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  5. 32 CFR 644.328 - Army military leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military leased property. 644.328 Section 644.328 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.328...

  6. 32 CFR 651.14 - Integration with Army planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... these time limits are set, the Army agency should consider the factors in 40 CFR 1501.8(b)(1). (vi) The.... (1) The Army may be a cooperating agency (40 CFR 1501.6) in order to: (i) Provide information or... CFR 1506.1). Early planning (inclusion in Installation Master Plans, INRMPs, ICRMPs,...

  7. 32 CFR 644.326 - Army military real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military real property. 644.326 Section 644.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.326...

  8. Explaining Recent Army and Navy Minority Recruiting Trends. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, the representation of blacks among high-quality Army recruits declined, while in the Navy, black representation remained stable; the representation of Hispanics among high-quality recruits in both the Army and Navy grew during this period. RAND researchers identified factors that explain these recruiting trends and found…

  9. 32 CFR 644.329 - Army civil works real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army civil works real property. 644.329 Section 644.329 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.329...

  10. 32 CFR 644.326 - Army military real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army military real property. 644.326 Section 644.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.326...

  11. 32 CFR 651.14 - Integration with Army planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... these time limits are set, the Army agency should consider the factors in 40 CFR 1501.8(b)(1). (vi) The.... (1) The Army may be a cooperating agency (40 CFR 1501.6) in order to: (i) Provide information or... CFR 1506.1). Early planning (inclusion in Installation Master Plans, INRMPs, ICRMPs,...

  12. New Tools and Metrics for Evaluating Army Distributed Learning. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Susan G.; Shanley, Michael G.; Yeung, Douglas; Rothenberg, Jeff; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Leuschner, Kristin J.

    2011-01-01

    Distributed learning (DL) is a key element of the Army's training strategy, and the Army has ambitious goals for expanding the future use of DL and for changing how it is developed and delivered. Program-level evaluation of DL can play an essential role in accomplishing those goals and in identifying strategic directions for the overall program.…

  13. Soldier Education in the British Army, 1920-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys the history of compulsory education for soldiers' career advancement in the British army. It begins with an examination of the organizational context before analyzing the rationale, syllabus, teaching and assessment of soldier education. It concludes that for members of the army education organization their self-perception as…

  14. 75 FR 19302 - Radiation Sources on Army Land

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... final rule which establishes requirements for the expanded definition of byproduct material. 72 FR 55864... was made in a separate rulemaking for 10 CFR Part 110 (April 20, 2006; 71 FR 20336). The Department of... Department of the Army 32 CFR Part 655 RIN 0702-AA58 Radiation Sources on Army Land AGENCY: Department of...

  15. 32 CFR 644.329 - Army civil works real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army civil works real property. 644.329 Section 644.329 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.329...

  16. 32 CFR 644.328 - Army military leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army military leased property. 644.328 Section 644.328 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.328...

  17. eArmyU Improves Educational Access for Soldiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Phaedra

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Army's venture into distance learning, eArmyU, is proving to be a big success, with more than 12,000 soldiers enrolled since it began a year ago. Soldiers are lining up for the program that offers free tuition, a laptop, and Internet access. But historically black colleges and universities may be missing out due to distance…

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Army Nurse Corps Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretch, Robert H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Army nurse veterans. Analysis of questionnaire data (N=712) revealed a current PTSD rate for Vietnam veteran nurses of 3.3 percent. This rate is comparable to that found among nonnurse active duty Army Vietnam veterans and is much lower than estimates for civilian Vietnam veterans.…

  19. 32 CFR 644.326 - Army military real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army military real property. 644.326 Section 644.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.326...

  20. 32 CFR 644.326 - Army military real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army military real property. 644.326 Section 644.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.326...

  1. 32 CFR 644.326 - Army military real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army military real property. 644.326 Section 644.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.326...

  2. Cultural Assimilator for Training Army Personnel in Racial Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Roland J.; And Others

    A cultural assimilator was developed to teach white junior officers about black culture in the army. Scenarios involving misunderstandings between blacks and whites in the army were presented, and respondents were asked to identify "correct" reasons for the misunderstandings. In the first of three field tests respondents showed evidence of…

  3. Integration of New Technology in Army Libraries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Janine; And Others

    The integration of new technology in 500 Army libraries was studied to assess the feasibility of introducing automation techniques to army library technical processing activities, to examine and recommend appropriate systems and configurations for library automation, and to determine the costs of implementing the recommendations. The study…

  4. 32 CFR 644.329 - Army civil works real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army civil works real property. 644.329 Section 644.329 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.329...

  5. 32 CFR 644.329 - Army civil works real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army civil works real property. 644.329 Section 644.329 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.329...

  6. 32 CFR 644.329 - Army civil works real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army civil works real property. 644.329 Section 644.329 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Procedure for Placing Real Property in Excess Status § 644.329...

  7. COLD-PCR amplification of bisulfite-converted DNA allows the enrichment and sequencing of rare un-methylated genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Milbury, Coren A; Karatza, Elli; Chen, Clark C; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Merewood, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant hypo-methylation of DNA is evident in a range of human diseases including cancer and diabetes. Development of sensitive assays capable of detecting traces of un-methylated DNA within methylated samples can be useful in several situations. Here we describe a new approach, fast-COLD-MS-PCR, which amplifies preferentially un-methylated DNA sequences. By employing an appropriate denaturation temperature during PCR of bi-sulfite converted DNA, fast-COLD-MS-PCR enriches un-methylated DNA and enables differential melting analysis or bisulfite sequencing. Using methylation on the MGMT gene promoter as a model, it is shown that serial dilutions of controlled methylation samples lead to the reliable sequencing of un-methylated sequences down to 0.05% un-methylated-to-methylated DNA. Screening of clinical glioma tumor and infant blood samples demonstrated that the degree of enrichment of un-methylated over methylated DNA can be modulated by the choice of denaturation temperature, providing a convenient method for analysis of partially methylated DNA or for revealing and sequencing traces of un-methylated DNA. Fast-COLD-MS-PCR can be useful for the detection of loss of methylation/imprinting in cancer, diabetes or diet-related methylation changes. PMID:24728321

  8. COLD-PCR amplification of bisulfite-converted DNA allows the enrichment and sequencing of rare un-methylated genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Milbury, Coren A; Karatza, Elli; Chen, Clark C; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Merewood, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant hypo-methylation of DNA is evident in a range of human diseases including cancer and diabetes. Development of sensitive assays capable of detecting traces of un-methylated DNA within methylated samples can be useful in several situations. Here we describe a new approach, fast-COLD-MS-PCR, which amplifies preferentially un-methylated DNA sequences. By employing an appropriate denaturation temperature during PCR of bi-sulfite converted DNA, fast-COLD-MS-PCR enriches un-methylated DNA and enables differential melting analysis or bisulfite sequencing. Using methylation on the MGMT gene promoter as a model, it is shown that serial dilutions of controlled methylation samples lead to the reliable sequencing of un-methylated sequences down to 0.05% un-methylated-to-methylated DNA. Screening of clinical glioma tumor and infant blood samples demonstrated that the degree of enrichment of un-methylated over methylated DNA can be modulated by the choice of denaturation temperature, providing a convenient method for analysis of partially methylated DNA or for revealing and sequencing traces of un-methylated DNA. Fast-COLD-MS-PCR can be useful for the detection of loss of methylation/imprinting in cancer, diabetes or diet-related methylation changes.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Mid-State Disposal Landfill, Marathon Battery, Cold Spring, New York, (second remedial action), September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The Marathon Battery Company (MBC) site, a former battery manufacturing plant, is located in the Village of Cold Spring in Putnam, New York, approximately 40 miles north of New York City. The site operated from 1952 to 1979 producing military and commercial batteries. During this time the site changed ownership several times, finally operating as the MBC from 1969 to 1979. Before 1965, the plant's wastewater treatment system discharged into the Hudson River at the Cold Spring pier via the Cold Spring sewer system, except during periods of overload or system shutdown during which time the process effluent was discharged directly into East Foundry Cove Marsh (EFCM) to the southeast. Between November 1972 and July 1973, a limited cleanup was conducted by MBC and other responsible parties, to remove sediment from parts of Foundry Cove and surrounding areas contaminated with cadmium and nickel in excess of 900 mg/kg. The selected remedial action for Area II at this site includes: decontamination of the former battery facility; excavation; and offsite disposal.

  10. Army Reserve 63d RSC Achieves 85% Savings in Parking Lot Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Army Reserve 63d Regional Support Command (RSC) achieved 85% energy savings and $4,000 per year in cost savings by replacing 12 old light fixtures with light-emitting diode fixtures in the military equipment parking area. This project was part of a camp-wide parking lighting retrofit which, on average, delivered 78% energy savings and a simple payback of 4.4 years.

  11. Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) Assessment Report for US Army Garrison, Japan - Honshu Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Kora, Angela R.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-03-09

    This report documents an assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Installation Management Command (IMCOM) Pacific Region Office (PARO). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at five U.S. Army Garrison-Japan (USAG-J) installations in the Honshu area, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings.

  12. Provider satisfaction in army primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Byers, V L; Mays, M Z; Mark, D D

    1999-02-01

    The job satisfaction of physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants was assessed during the course of a multicenter study of Army primary care clinics. All providers in nine clinics at three medical centers who were engaged in adult or family care were invited to participate in the study. Questionnaires on job satisfaction and other practice style variables were completed by 26 physicians, 19 nurse practitioners, and 13 physician assistants (46, 76, and 41% of eligible providers, respectively). Analysis revealed a broad range of job satisfaction in the sample. However, average levels of job satisfaction were not significantly different across the three groups of primary care providers. Autonomy and collaboration were significant predictors of job satisfaction. It is clear that changes in health care systems that reduce, or appear to reduce, the primary care provider's autonomy in clinical matters are likely to reduce provider satisfaction as well. PMID:10050571

  13. Solar energy applications at Army ammunition plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, A. P.; Moy, S. M.

    1982-06-01

    The Army Ammunition Plants use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level energy source which is best applied to low temperature applications. It can be used at the AAPs to preheat boiler feedwater, provide hot air for dry-houses, provide domestic hot water and heat for administration buildings, and provide hot water for manufacturing processes such as metal cleaning, phosphating, and X-ray film processing. Use of the flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, or solar ponds with the possible addition of a heat pump, offers reasonably economical means of applying solar technology to AAP needs.

  14. OSUS sensor integration in Army experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganger, Robert; Nowicki, Mark; Kovach, Jesse; Gregory, Timothy; Liss, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Live sensor data was obtained from an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS, formerly Terra Harvest)- based system provided by the Army Research Lab (ARL) and fed into the Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) sponsored Actionable Intelligence Technology Enabled Capabilities Demonstration (AI-TECD) Micro Cloud during the E15 demonstration event that took place at Fort Dix, New Jersey during July 2015. This data was an enabler for other technologies, such as Sensor Assignment to Mission (SAM), Sensor Data Server (SDS), and the AI-TECD Sensor Dashboard, providing rich sensor data (including images) for use by the Company Intel Support Team (CoIST) analyst. This paper describes how the OSUS data was integrated and used in the E15 event to support CoIST operations.

  15. Blanchfield Army Community Hospital Polypharmacy Clinic.

    PubMed

    Ridderhoff, Kevin J; Hull, Jessica R; Sandberg, Sheila K

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of central nervous system depressants (CNSD) and psychotropics are one of the many factors that contribute to suicidal behavior in soldiers. U.S. Army policy requires medication screening for any soldier prescribed 4 or more medications when at least 1 of the medications is a CNSD or psychotropic. Constant deployments challenged health care provider ability to comply with required screenings, and senior leaders sought proactive intervention to reduce medication risks upon return of the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) from deployment in 2011. A pharmacy-led team established the Polypharmacy Clinic (PC) at Blanchfield Army Community Hospital. Of the 3,999 soldiers assigned, 540 (13.5%) met the initial screening criteria. Success of the pilot program led to the mandatory screening of all other Fort Campbell, Kentucky, brigades. During the first 12 months, 895 soldiers were seen by a clinical pharmacist, and 1,574 interventions were documented. Significant interventions included medication added (121), medication changed (258), medication stopped (164), lab monitoring recommended (172), adverse reaction mitigated (41), therapeutic duplication prevented (61), and drug-drug interaction identified (93). Additionally, 55 soldiers were recommended for temporary duty profiles based on their adverse drug effects. Ten soldiers were recommended for enhanced controlled substance monitoring. Placing soldiers on clinically appropriate medications and removing potentially harmful medications from their possession are examples of how the PC positively impacted the Commanding General's ability to deploy a fully medically ready force. Soldiers consistently remarked favorably on the thorough medication counseling provided at their PC appointments. Innovative notes within the electronic health record summarized relevant findings regarding soldiers' medications, which allowed providers to quickly pinpoint and adjust medication regimens. With each identified high

  16. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  17. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  18. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    Colds and vitamin C ... is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... vitamin C may help reduce how long a cold lasts. They do not protect against getting a ...

  19. The Women's Army Auxiliary Corps: A Compromise to Overcome the Conflict of Women Serving in the Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permeswaran, Yashila

    2008-01-01

    Though people now take the idea of women in the military for granted, in the 1940s it was a vigorously debated suggestion. Men protected their country; women stayed at home. Because of the conflict over whether women should serve in the army, Congress compromised by creating the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC). This article describes the…

  20. Differential Validity of the Army Aptitude Areas for Predicting Army Job Training Performance of Blacks and Whites. Technical Paper 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Milton H.; Fuchs, Edmund F.

    Validation studies were conducted on nine revised aptitude areas of the Army Classification Battery (ACB) to determine whether ACB scores provided an equitable indication of the qualifications of blacks and whites for training in major groups of Army jobs. The aptitude areas were: combat, field artillery, electronics repair, operators and food,…

  1. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries.

  2. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries. PMID:24191768

  3. MISR Browse Images: Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-02

    MISR Browse Images: Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) These MISR Browse ... series of images over the region observed during the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). CLPX involved ground, airborne, and ...

  4. Designing and implementing the Army Nursing Leader Academy.

    PubMed

    Dunemn, Kathleen; Hopkins-Chadwick, Denise L; Connally, Tina; Bramley, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps directed a thorough review of existing training programs available to and provided for Army Nursing personnel for the development of full-spectrum leaders for Army Nursing. The review provided the gap analysis necessary to restructure courses provided by the Department of Nursing Science at the Army Medical Department Center and School. This new grouping of courses is referred to as the Army Nursing Leader Academy. The Army Nursing Leader Academy is the first of its kind in that it addresses career-long learning of all Army Nursing by focusing on building skills, knowledge, and behaviors to produce sustainable, full-spectrum leaders. The Nursing Leader Academy consists of a series of sequential nurse leader development courses combined with a web based resource center. Grounded in the Patient CaringTouch System, guided by nurse competencies, and gauged by the Leader Capabilities Map, the Nursing Leader Academy provides learning that is relevant and timely designed to reinforce enterprise values and culture to ensure readiness for successive roles and positions. Full implementation of the Nursing Leader Academy will include the evidence-based elements of formal schooling, coaching, self-development, functional/technical (competency attainment), and professional experiences.

  5. Designing and implementing the Army Nursing Leader Academy.

    PubMed

    Dunemn, Kathleen; Hopkins-Chadwick, Denise L; Connally, Tina; Bramley, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps directed a thorough review of existing training programs available to and provided for Army Nursing personnel for the development of full-spectrum leaders for Army Nursing. The review provided the gap analysis necessary to restructure courses provided by the Department of Nursing Science at the Army Medical Department Center and School. This new grouping of courses is referred to as the Army Nursing Leader Academy. The Army Nursing Leader Academy is the first of its kind in that it addresses career-long learning of all Army Nursing by focusing on building skills, knowledge, and behaviors to produce sustainable, full-spectrum leaders. The Nursing Leader Academy consists of a series of sequential nurse leader development courses combined with a web based resource center. Grounded in the Patient CaringTouch System, guided by nurse competencies, and gauged by the Leader Capabilities Map, the Nursing Leader Academy provides learning that is relevant and timely designed to reinforce enterprise values and culture to ensure readiness for successive roles and positions. Full implementation of the Nursing Leader Academy will include the evidence-based elements of formal schooling, coaching, self-development, functional/technical (competency attainment), and professional experiences. PMID:22124867

  6. Cold H I in faint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisin, Serafim S.; Begum, Ayesha

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a study of the amount and distribution of cold atomic gas, as well its correlation with recent star formation in a sample of extremely faint dwarf irregular galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) and its extension, FIGGS2. We use two different methods to identify cold atomic gas. In the first method, line-of-sight H I spectra were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components and narrow Gaussian components were identified as cold H I. In the second method, the brightness temperature (TB ) is used as a tracer of cold H I. We find that the amount of cold gas identified using the TB method is significantly larger than the amount of gas identified using Gaussian decomposition. We also find that a large fraction of the cold gas identified using the TB method is spatially coincident with regions of recent star formation, although the converse is not true. That is only a small fraction of the regions with recent star formation are also covered by cold gas. For regions where the star formation and the cold gas overlap, we study the relationship between the star formation rate density and the cold H I column density. We find that the star formation rate density has a power-law dependence on the H I column density, but that the slope of this power law is significantly flatter than that of the canonical Kennicutt-Schmidt relation.

  7. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  8. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  9. Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): a successful start to a national program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Jung, R.E.; Bailey, L.L.; Adams, M.J.; Corn, P.S.; Dodd, C.K.; Fellers, G.M.; Sandinski, W.J.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Walls, S.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Gallant, A.L.; Battaglin, W.A.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.

  10. Renewable Energy Opportunities for the Army

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Chvala, William D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-08-13

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has a goal of obtaining 25% of its domestic electricity from renewable sources by 2025, and also must meet federal renewable energy mandates and schedules. This report describes the analyses undertaken to study the renewable resource potential at 15 Army sites, focusing on grid-connected generation of electricity. The resources analyzed at each site include solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste-to-energy, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). For each renewable generation resource, an assessment was completed to determine the level of resource availability, and the price at which that resource would be available for electricity generation. Various design alternatives and available technologies were considered in order to determine the best way to utilize each resource and maximize cost-effective electricity generation. Economic analysis used multiple funding options, including investment by an independent power producer (IPP), Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC), and Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP), and considered tax incentives, renewable energy credits, and other economic factors to reveal the most realistic costs possible. Where resource options proved to be economically viable, implementation approaches were recommended. The intention was to focus each installation’s efforts on realistic projects, moving them from initial assessment through the design and financing to implementation. Many Army sites enjoy very low costs of electricity, limiting the number of cost-effective renewable energy options where resources are available. Waste-to-energy was often a viable option due to the additional revenue gathered from transferred tipping fees. GSHPs were also commonly cost-effective options for replacement in inefficient buildings. Geothermal, wind, and solar resources are found to be more available in certain parts of the country over others, reducing overall potential for use. Wind is variable and often most

  11. Unattended ground sensor related technologies: an Army perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, Larry B.; Bryski, Daniel D.

    2002-08-01

    The United States Army has embarked on a revolutionary transformation path towards a future, general purpose Objective Force that is strategically responsive and dominant across the entire spectrum of military operations. Key to the success of the Objective Force will be the ability to generate unprecedented battlespace understanding and situational awareness. A layered surveillance approach, one that relies on a full range of sensor assets from all echelons, is required to paint a battlespace piocture of sufficient fidelity. The Army's science and technology program continues to research and develop promising unattended ground sensor technologies that support Army transformation objectives.

  12. Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants.

    PubMed

    Couzin, I D; Franks, N R

    2003-01-22

    We show how the movement rules of individual ants on trails can lead to a collective choice of direction and the formation of distinct traffic lanes that minimize congestion. We develop and evaluate the results of a new model with a quantitative study of the behaviour of the army ant Eciton burchelli. Colonies of this species have up to 200 000 foragers and transport more than 3000 prey items per hour over raiding columns that exceed 100 m. It is an ideal species in which to test the predictions of our model because it forms pheromone trails that are densely populated with very swift ants. The model explores the influences of turning rates and local perception on traffic flow. The behaviour of real army ants is such that they occupy the specific region of parameter space in which lanes form and traffic flow is maximized.

  13. Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants.

    PubMed

    Couzin, I D; Franks, N R

    2003-01-22

    We show how the movement rules of individual ants on trails can lead to a collective choice of direction and the formation of distinct traffic lanes that minimize congestion. We develop and evaluate the results of a new model with a quantitative study of the behaviour of the army ant Eciton burchelli. Colonies of this species have up to 200 000 foragers and transport more than 3000 prey items per hour over raiding columns that exceed 100 m. It is an ideal species in which to test the predictions of our model because it forms pheromone trails that are densely populated with very swift ants. The model explores the influences of turning rates and local perception on traffic flow. The behaviour of real army ants is such that they occupy the specific region of parameter space in which lanes form and traffic flow is maximized. PMID:12590751

  14. Final record of decision/remedial action plan, nine sites, Sierra Army Depot, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, S.L.; Larson, A.M.; Parent, M.M.; Silvers, J.M.; Weaverling, P.H.

    1996-10-01

    This ROD/RAP presents the selected response actions for nine sites at SIAD. The response actions were selected by the US Department of the Army (Army) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)(collectively referred to as CERCLA), the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), and Section 6.8 of the California Health and Safety Code. This ROD/RAP includes the factual and legal basis for selecting the response action at each of the nine sites listed above. The data used to support the selected response action are contained in the Administrative Record for each site. The State of California as represented by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), and the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) concur with the selected response action at each site.

  15. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), south side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Tubercular Ward, Southwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Storehouse, East Harlow Avenue, immediately South of Building 201, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. Photocopy of print in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), probably south side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Female Dormitory, Southeast Corner of West McCloskey Avenue & North Seventh Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south and east sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Storage Sheds, Northeast Corner of West Pennington Avenue & North Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ambulent Tubercular Ward, Southeast Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), east and south sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Workshop Building, East Harlow Avenue, immediately East of Building No. 529, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), probably south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Quarters, Southeast Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Photocopy of photograph from Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph from Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Gymnasium, Northeast Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Salvage Building, Northeast Corner of East I Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth clover), west side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Motor Transport Dispatcher's Office, Northeast Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medial Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medial Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers Quarters, Northeast Corner of West Harlow Avenue & North Seventh Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), west and north sides of the southern wing. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Laundry, Southeast corner of East Harlow Avenue & South Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Artesian Well, East McCloskey Avenue, East of Building No. 231, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), east and north sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Wagon Shed with Office, Southeast Corner of East J Avenue & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), probably south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Utilities Storeroom, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 145, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover) south and east sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Garage, East of Building No. 121, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), looking east. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Tennis Courts, Northeast Corner of East McCloskey Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing south side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Laboratory Annex, Northwest Corner of East McCloskey Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster Store House, Northwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), east and south sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Pharmacy & Prophylactic Station, Northwest Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Office Building, Northwest Corner of West McCloskey Avenue & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), south side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officer Recreation Building, West Harlow Avenue, immediately East of Building 118, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing east side and north sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Transformer House, North Page Street, immediately North of Building No. 217, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Power House, Northwest Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing east side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Transformer House, North Page Street, immediately North of Building No. 216, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), north side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Administration Building, Southeast Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Photocopy of print from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Tool House, West Pennington Avenue, North of Building No. 140, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south and east sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses Quarters No. 3, Northwest Corner of West Harlow Avenue & North Seventh Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing south and east sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing southwest corner of building 732. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Storehouses, Northwest Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing west side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Fire Equipment House, North Page Street, North of Building No. 228, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south and east sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Post Exchange Garage, North Eighth Street, North of Building No. 143, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), probably south side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Garage, West Pennington Avenue, West of Building 129, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Semi-Infirmary Turbercular Ward, Northwest Corner of Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), probably southwest side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Operating Pavilion, West McAfee Avenue, East of Building No. 507, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph from the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Semi-Infirmary Tubercular Ward, Southeast Corner of East Harlow Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Post Exchange Garage, Northwest Corner of West Pennington Avenue & North Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), south and east sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Quarters, Southwest Corner of West Harlow Avenue, & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), east side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Shops Building, Northwest Corner of West Pennington Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Development of aeronautical engines by the Army and Navy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Different aircraft engines are categorized as being of interest to only the Army or Navy or to both armed services. A listing of the different engines is presented along with some statistics, namely, horsepower.

  17. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. U.S. Army High Energy Laser (HEL) technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavan, Michael J.; Wachs, John J.

    2011-11-01

    The US Army is investing in Solid State Laser (SSL) technology to assess counter rocket, artillery, and mortar (C-RAM) and counter unmanned aerial vehicle (C-UAV) capabilities of solid state based HEL systems, as well as other potential applications for HELs of interest to the Army. The Army HEL program thrust areas are systematically moving the technology forward toward weaponization, including solid state laser technologies, advances in beam control technology, and conducting major demonstrations. The High Energy Laser Mobile Demonstrator (HELMD) will be a major step toward demonstrating HEL weapon capability to the soldier. The US Army will continue to pursue technologies that enable more compact systems compatible with, for example, a Stryker tactical vehicle as a crucial part of our strategy to provide a capability to the warfighter that can maneuver with the force.

  19. Corridor in west wing Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corridor in west wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. Corridor in north wing Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corridor in north wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Predictors of Army National Guard and Reserve members' use of Veteran Health Administration health care after demobilizing from OEF/OIF deployment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alex H S; Chen, Cheng; Mohr, Beth A; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2014-10-01

    This study described rates and predictors of Army National Guard and Army Reserve members' enrollment in and utilization of Veteran Health Administration (VHA) services in the 365 days following demobilization from an index deployment. We also explored regional and VHA facility variation in serving eligible members in their catchment areas. The sample included 125,434 Army National Guard and 48,423 Army Reserve members who demobilized after a deployment ending between FY 2008 and FY 2011. Demographic, geographic, deployment, and Military Health System eligibility were derived from Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System and "Contingency Tracking System" data. The VHA National Patient Care Databases were used to ascertain VHA utilization and status (e.g., enrollee, TRICARE). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of VHA utilization as an enrollee in the year following demobilization. Of the study members demobilizing during the observation period, 56.9% of Army National Guard members and 45.7% of Army Reserve members utilized VHA as an enrollee within 12 months. Demographic, regional, health coverage, and deployment-related factors were associated with VHA enrollment and utilization, and significant variation by VHA facility was found. These findings can be useful in the design of specific outreach efforts to improve linkage from the Military Health System to the VHA.

  2. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Schexanayder, S.M.

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase ``unit supportability`` was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents` ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  3. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. ); Schexanayder, S.M. )

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase unit supportability'' was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents' ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  4. US Army remotely piloted vehicle supporting technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossett, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Essential technology programs that lead to the full scale engineering development of the Aquila Remotely Piloted Vehicle system for U.S. Army are described. The Aquila system uses a small recoverable and reusable RPV to provide target acquisition, designation, and aerial reconnaissance mission support for artillery and smart munitions. Developments that will provide growth capabilities to the Aquila RPV system, as well as future RPV mission concepts being considered by the U.S. Army are presented.

  5. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, ARMI has partnered with an extensive list of government, academic, and private entities. These partnerships have been fruitful and have assisted ARMI in developing new field protocols and analytic tools, in using and refining emerging technologies to improve accuracy and efficiency of data handling, in conducting amphibian disease, malformation, and environmental effects research, and in implementing a network of mon

  6. 78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of... Impact (FNSI) for implementation of force structure realignment to reduce the Army active duty end... Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment (PEA), supporting studies,...

  7. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. 553.7 Section 553.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army...

  8. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take...

  9. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  10. 33 CFR 211.16 - Scope and application of Army Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and application of Army Regulations. 211.16 Section 211.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... PROJECTS Real Estate Claims § 211.16 Scope and application of Army Regulations. (a) AR (Army...

  11. 32 CFR 536.1 - Purpose of the Army Claims System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose of the Army Claims System. 536.1 Section 536.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.1 Purpose of the Army Claims System....

  12. 32 CFR 562.8 - Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. 562.8 Section 562.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS § 562.8 Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. (a) The Army Advisory...

  13. 32 CFR 536.1 - Purpose of the Army Claims System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Purpose of the Army Claims System. 536.1 Section 536.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.1 Purpose of the Army Claims System....

  14. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 623 - Continental US Army Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Continental US Army Boundaries G Appendix G to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. G Appendix G to Part 623—Continental US Army...

  15. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel. 623.3 Section 623.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.3 Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel....

  16. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel. 623.3 Section 623.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.3 Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel....

  17. 32 CFR 562.8 - Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. 562.8 Section 562.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS § 562.8 Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. (a) The Army Advisory...

  18. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. 553.7 Section 553.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 623 - Continental US Army Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continental US Army Boundaries G Appendix G to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. G Appendix G to Part 623—Continental US Army...

  20. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take...

  1. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. 553.7 Section 553.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army...

  2. 33 CFR 211.16 - Scope and application of Army Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope and application of Army Regulations. 211.16 Section 211.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... PROJECTS Real Estate Claims § 211.16 Scope and application of Army Regulations. (a) AR (Army...

  3. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  4. An Examination of Current and Future Directions in the U.S. Army's Mentoring Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlechter, Theodore M.

    This study included a literature review of mentoring practices in Army and civilian organizations and an exploratory research effort concerning mentoring practices in the U.S. Army. The research effort consisted of 11 people (9 Army personnel and 2 civilians) were associated with training programs at an Army post. Participants completed a…

  5. 32 CFR 536.1 - Purpose of the Army Claims System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose of the Army Claims System. 536.1 Section 536.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.1 Purpose of the Army Claims System....

  6. 32 CFR 536.1 - Purpose of the Army Claims System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Purpose of the Army Claims System. 536.1 Section 536.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.1 Purpose of the Army Claims System....

  7. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 623 - Continental US Army Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Continental US Army Boundaries G Appendix G to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. G Appendix G to Part 623—Continental US Army...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 623 - Continental US Army Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continental US Army Boundaries G Appendix G to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. G Appendix G to Part 623—Continental US Army...

  9. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. 553.7 Section 553.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army...

  10. 32 CFR 562.8 - Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. 562.8 Section 562.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS § 562.8 Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. (a) The Army Advisory...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 623 - Continental US Army Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continental US Army Boundaries G Appendix G to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. G Appendix G to Part 623—Continental US Army...

  12. 32 CFR 562.8 - Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. 562.8 Section 562.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS § 562.8 Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. (a) The Army Advisory...

  13. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. 553.7 Section 553.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army...

  14. 32 CFR 536.1 - Purpose of the Army Claims System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose of the Army Claims System. 536.1 Section 536.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.1 Purpose of the Army Claims System....

  15. 32 CFR 562.8 - Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. 562.8 Section 562.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS § 562.8 Army Advisory Panel on ROTC Affairs. (a) The Army Advisory...

  16. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  17. Army orthopaedic surgery residency program directors' selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Orr, Justin D; Hoffmann, Jeffrey D; Arrington, Edward D; Gerlinger, Tad L; Devine, John G; Belmont, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Factors associated with successful selection in U.S. Army orthopaedic surgical programs are unreported. The current analysis includes survey data from all Army orthopaedic surgery residency program directors (PDs) to determine these factors. PDs at all Army orthopaedic surgery residency programs were provided 17 factors historically considered critical to successful selection and asked to rank order the factors as well as assign a level of importance to each. Results were collated and overall mean rankings are provided. PDs unanimously expressed that performance during the on-site orthopaedic surgery rotation at the individual program director's institution was most important. Respondents overwhelmingly reported that Steps 1 and 2 licensing exam scores were next most important, respectively. Survey data demonstrated that little importance was placed on letters of recommendation and personal statements. PDs made no discriminations based on allopathic or osteopathic degrees. The most important factors for Army orthopaedic surgery residency selection were clerkship performance at the individual PD's institution and licensing examination score performance. Army PDs consider both USMLE and COMLEX results, because Army programs have a higher percentage of successful osteopathic applicants.

  18. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. Serving within the British Army: research into mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Ashford, Robert; Simpson, Robin

    The mental health (MH) of soldiers remains extremely newsworthy and is regularly featured in high profile media forums that focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the authors feel that there are distinct benefits to serving within the Army, and that it provides effective occupational medical, MH and welfare support. This research study explores potential benefits and stressors of being in the Army and provides an overview of Army mental health services (AMHS) through the perspectives of AMHS personnel, 84% of which were nurses. The study indicated that the Army can provide a protective community, sharing a bond based on common values and experiences. The Army can provide soldiers with career opportunities that are not available in civilian life, and there are opportunities to develop an employment profile, enhanced by internal and external educational training, and encapsulated within a progressive career pathway. The Army can also be seen to offer an escape route, preventing soldiers entering a life of crime, and supplying the stable family these soldiers had never experienced. The provision of leadership, within an environment where soldiers are valued and stigma is not tolerated can potentially shield against MH problems.

  20. Army orthopaedic surgery residency program directors' selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Orr, Justin D; Hoffmann, Jeffrey D; Arrington, Edward D; Gerlinger, Tad L; Devine, John G; Belmont, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Factors associated with successful selection in U.S. Army orthopaedic surgical programs are unreported. The current analysis includes survey data from all Army orthopaedic surgery residency program directors (PDs) to determine these factors. PDs at all Army orthopaedic surgery residency programs were provided 17 factors historically considered critical to successful selection and asked to rank order the factors as well as assign a level of importance to each. Results were collated and overall mean rankings are provided. PDs unanimously expressed that performance during the on-site orthopaedic surgery rotation at the individual program director's institution was most important. Respondents overwhelmingly reported that Steps 1 and 2 licensing exam scores were next most important, respectively. Survey data demonstrated that little importance was placed on letters of recommendation and personal statements. PDs made no discriminations based on allopathic or osteopathic degrees. The most important factors for Army orthopaedic surgery residency selection were clerkship performance at the individual PD's institution and licensing examination score performance. Army PDs consider both USMLE and COMLEX results, because Army programs have a higher percentage of successful osteopathic applicants. PMID:25988694

  1. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  2. Serving within the British Army: research into mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Ashford, Robert; Simpson, Robin

    The mental health (MH) of soldiers remains extremely newsworthy and is regularly featured in high profile media forums that focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the authors feel that there are distinct benefits to serving within the Army, and that it provides effective occupational medical, MH and welfare support. This research study explores potential benefits and stressors of being in the Army and provides an overview of Army mental health services (AMHS) through the perspectives of AMHS personnel, 84% of which were nurses. The study indicated that the Army can provide a protective community, sharing a bond based on common values and experiences. The Army can provide soldiers with career opportunities that are not available in civilian life, and there are opportunities to develop an employment profile, enhanced by internal and external educational training, and encapsulated within a progressive career pathway. The Army can also be seen to offer an escape route, preventing soldiers entering a life of crime, and supplying the stable family these soldiers had never experienced. The provision of leadership, within an environment where soldiers are valued and stigma is not tolerated can potentially shield against MH problems. PMID:22067839

  3. Simulator sickness in an army simulator.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, M G; Braithwaite, B D

    1990-01-01

    Simulator sickness describes a symptom reported by aircrew during or after flight simulator training. Some features are common to motion sickness but others, which are unusual during real flight, are believed to result specifically from the simulator environment. This paper describes the results of a questionnaire study examining the incidence and factors influencing simulator sickness in any army training system. Case histories are described and conclusions drawn with respect to health and safety, training and the effect on flight operations. One hundred and fifteen aircrew were registered in the questionnaire study. Data were collected from a history questionnaire, a post-sortie report and a delayed report form. Sixty-nine per cent of aircrew gave a history of symptoms in the simulator and 59.9 per cent experienced at least one symptom during the study period although few symptoms were rated as being other than slight. Only 3.6 per cent of subjects reported symptoms of disequilibrium. Comparative analysis of the results was performed after scoring symptoms to produce a sickness rating. This showed: association between simulator-induced sickness and greater flying experience; adaptation to the simulator environment; a history of sea sickness may predict susceptibility to simulator sickness; and no association of crew role and simulator sickness. Although some authorities believe simulator sickness to be a potential flight safety hazard there was little evidence from this study. Guidelines for the prevention of the problem are presented now that many factors have been identified. A general policy to 'ground' aircrew for a period following simulator training is not necessary, but severe cases should be assessed individually.

  4. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces (Report 3). The US Army].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V I; Ivchenko, I V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2012-12-01

    The US Army. The present article is the third part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first and the second parts have been published in the previous issuses of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Army. It is shown that in the US Army the medical and biological research is conducted and coordinated by the special US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. The following units are successively presented: US Army Institute of Surgical Research, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine. The particular research programs conducting in the above mentioned institutions are presented.

  5. IRTM brightness temperature maps of the Martian south polar region during the polar night: The cold spots don't move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Crisp, D.; Santee, M. L.; Richardson, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    A series of infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) south polar brightness temperature maps obtained by Viking Orbiter 2 during a 35-day period during the southern fall season in 1978 was examined. The maps show a number of phenomena that have been identified in previous studies, including day to day brightness temperature variations in individual low temperature regions and the tendency for IRTM 11-micron channel brightness temperatures to also decrease in regions where low 20-micron channel brightness temperatures are observed. The maps also show new phenomena, the most striking of which is a clear tendency for the low brightness temperature regions to occur at fixed geographic regions. During this season, the coldest low brightness temperatures appear to be concentrated in distinct regions, with spatial scales ranging from 50 to 300 km. There are approximately a dozen of these concentrations, with the largest centered near the location of the south residual polar cap. Other concentrations are located at Cavi Angusti and close to the craters Main, South, Lau, and Dana. Broader, less intense regions appear to be well correlated with the boundaries of the south polar layered deposits and the Mountains of Mitchell. No evidence for horizontal motion of any of these regions has been detected.

  6. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  7. Ambulatory physical activity in Swiss Army recruits.

    PubMed

    Wyss, T; Scheffler, J; Mäder, U

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess and compare the type, duration and intensity of physical activity during the basic training provided by each of 5 selected Swiss Army occupational specialties. The first objective was to develop and validate a method to assess distance covered on foot. The second objective was to describe and compare physical activity levels among occupational specialties. In the first part of the study, 30 male volunteers completed 6 laps of 290 m at different gait velocities. Data from 15 volunteers were used to develop linear regression equations for the relationship between step frequency and gait velocity, and data from the other 15 volunteers were used to verify the accuracy of these equations. In the second part of the study, 250 volunteers from 5 military schools (each training school for a different occupational specialty) wore heart-rate, acceleration and step-count monitors during workdays of weeks 2, 4, 8 and 10 of their basic training. Sensor data were used to identify physically demanding activities, estimate energy expenditure (based on already published algorithms) and estimate distance covered on foot (based on the algorithm developed in the first part of this study). A branched model using 2 regression equations (gait velocity=0.705∙step frequency for walking speeds below 1 m/s and gait velocity=1.675∙step frequency - 1.464 for faster gait velocities) was shown to be accurate for estimating distance covered on foot. In the training schools investigated, average physical activity energy expenditure was 10.5 ± 2.4 MJ per day, and trainees covered 12.9 ± 3.3 km per day on foot. Recruits spent 61.0 ± 23.3 min per day marching and 33.1 ± 19.5 min per day performing physically demanding materials-handling activities. Average physical activity energy expenditure decreased significantly from week 2 to week 8. The measurement system utilised in the present study yielded data comparable to those of prior studies that

  8. Boreal spring precipitation variability in the cold arid western Himalaya during the last millennium, regional linkages, and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Bräuning, Achim; Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalayan region, largely under the influence of mid-latitude westerlies, is the dominant regional socioeconomic driver. Current knowledge of long-term regional precipitation variability is scarce due to spatially and temporally limited weather and high-resolution proxy climate records. We developed the first boreal spring precipitation reconstruction for the western Himalaya covering the last millennium (1030-2011 C.E.). The annually resolved reconstruction is based on a large tree-ring data set of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) and neoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) from 16 ecologically homogeneous moisture stressed settings in Kinnaur, western Indian Himalaya. The precipitation reconstruction revealed persistent long-term spring droughts from the 12th to early 16th century C.E. and pluvial from the late 16th century C.E. to recent decades. The late 15th and early 16th centuries (1490-1514 C.E.) displayed the driest episode, with precipitation being ∼15% lower than the long-term mean. The early 19th century (1820-1844 C.E.) was the wettest period of the past millennium, with mean precipitation ∼13% above the long-term mean. The reconstructed boreal spring precipitation from the western Himalaya revealed large-scale consistency with hydrological records from westerly dominated regions in Central Asia, indicating synoptic-scale changes in atmospheric circulation during the major part of the Medieval and Little Ice Age periods. Protracted droughts in Central Asia could have caused severe contraction of the regional economy, as indicated by striking coherence of reconstructed drought periods and historic social upheavals and invasions of India from Central and Western Asian invaders. Vulnerability to climatic extremes underpins the need to develop a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability in regional hydroclimate in order to devise viable water resource management plans.

  9. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  10. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  11. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  12. Predisposing factors leading to depression in the British Army.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Srinivasan, Mike; Simpson, Robin

    Few studies have explored the predisposing factors leading to depression within the British Army, and this qualitative investigation provides a novel approach to advance knowledge in this poorly researched area. Information was provided by army mental health (MH) clinicians, with results aligned to theoretical groupings under the headings of: occupational stressors; macho culture, stigma and bullying; unhappy young soldier; relationships and gender. These issues were influenced by peacetime and operational settings; the support offered by the Army Medical Services and unit command. The results indicate that Army personnel are exposed to multi-factorial stressors that are incremental/accumulative in nature. Soldiers can cope with extreme pressures, often in hostile environments, but often cannot cope with a failing relationship. Officers were worried about the occupational implications of reporting ill, and the negative impact on their career, and might seek support from private civilian agencies, which have potentially dangerous ramifications as they may still deploy. GPs refer female soldiers more frequently for a mental health assessment because women express their emotions more openly then men. Young disillusioned soldiers who want to leave the Army form the main group of personnel accessing mental health support, although often they are not clinically depressed.

  13. Army model and simulation science and technology investment plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William S., Jr.; Foreman, Joe; Hartley, Dean S., III; Sciarretta, Albert A.; Starr, Stuart H.; Youngren, Mark A.

    2005-05-01

    Achieving the goal of collaboration and synchronization of efforts across the total systems life cycle will require the Army to integrate and harmonize acquisition, training, testing and analytical modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities in an unprecedented manner. A prerequisite to achieving the desired level of synchronization is the requirement to complete a technology needs assessment that identifies, characterizes, assesses, and prioritizes M&S Science and Technology (S&T) needs that are traceable to recognized Army needs. The Battle Command, Simulation and Experimentation (BCSE) Directorate in the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-3/5/7 has taken the initiative to complete a series of technology assessments and is creating a corresponding series of focus area centric Army M&S S&T Investment Plans to guide investments and to impact institutional processes external to the G-3/5/7. This paper describes the Army M&S S&T Investment Plan creation process for the Battle Command focus area.

  14. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  15. BENCHMARKING FAST-TO-ALFVEN MODE CONVERSION IN A COLD MHD PLASMA. II. HOW TO GET ALFVEN WAVES THROUGH THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Shelley C.; Cally, Paul S. E-mail: paul.cally@monash.edu

    2012-05-20

    Alfven waves may be difficult to excite at the photosphere due to low-ionization fraction and suffer near-total reflection at the transition region (TR). Yet they are ubiquitous in the corona and heliosphere. To overcome these difficulties, we show that they may instead be generated high in the chromosphere by conversion from reflecting fast magnetohydrodynamic waves, and that Alfvenic TR reflection is greatly reduced if the fast reflection point is within a few scale heights of the TR. The influence of mode conversion on the phase of the reflected fast wave is also explored. This phase can potentially be misinterpreted as a travel speed perturbation with implications for the practical seismic probing of active regions.

  16. ERTS program of the US Army Corps of Engineers. [water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarman, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers research and development efforts associated with the ERTS Program are confined to applications of investigation, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of water resource projects. Problems investigated covered: (1) resource inventory; (2) environmental impact; (3) pollution monitoring; (4) water circulation; (5) sediment transport; (6) data collection systems; (7) engineering; and (8) model verification. These problem areas were investigated in relation to bays, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, coasts, and regions. ERTS-1 imagery has been extremely valuable in developing techniques and is now being used in everyday applications.

  17. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  18. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective?

    PubMed

    Mackie, Isobel

    2015-12-01

    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army.

  19. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective?

    PubMed

    Mackie, Isobel

    2015-12-01

    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army. PMID:26621810

  20. Response bias, weighting adjustments, and design effects in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Heeringa, Steven G; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Gebler, Nancy; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce US Army suicides and increase knowledge about determinants of suicidality. Three Army STARRS component studies are large-scale surveys: one of new soldiers prior to beginning Basic Combat Training (BCT; n = 50,765 completed self-administered questionnaires); another of other soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (n = 35,372); and a third of three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan who are being followed multiple times after returning from deployment (n = 9421). Although the response rates in these surveys are quite good (72.0-90.8%), questions can be raised about sample biases in estimating prevalence of mental disorders and suicidality, the main outcomes of the surveys based on evidence that people in the general population with mental disorders are under-represented in community surveys. This paper presents the results of analyses designed to determine whether such bias exists in the Army STARRS surveys and, if so, to develop weights to correct for these biases. Data are also presented on sample inefficiencies introduced by weighting and sample clustering and on analyses of the trade-off between bias and efficiency in weight trimming.

  1. 75 FR 34714 - Updated Record of Decision (ROD) for Revised Army Growth and Force; Structure Realignment Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Department of the Army Updated Record of Decision (ROD) for Revised Army Growth and Force; Structure Realignment Decisions AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability (NOA). SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces the availability of an updated ROD for Army Growth and Force...

  2. 75 FR 53264 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army requested that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) revise...

  3. 75 FR 53197 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army requested that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps)...

  4. 75 FR 2463 - Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Department of the Army 48 CFR Parts 5132, 5136, and 5152 RIN 0710-AA69 Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers Clauses AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps...

  5. Conceptual Design for the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, W. A.; Langtimm, C. A.; Adams, M. J.; Gallant, A. L.; James, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    In 2000, the President of the United States (US) and Congress directed Department of Interior (DOI) agencies to develop a program for monitoring trends in amphibian populations on DOI lands and to conduct research into causes of declines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was given lead responsibility for planning and implementing the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS), Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bureau of Land Management. The program objectives are to (1) establish a network for monitoring the status and distribution of amphibian species on DOI lands; (2) identify and monitor environmental conditions known to affect amphibian populations; (3) conduct research on causes of amphibian population change and malformations; and (4) provide information to resource managers, policy makers, and the public in support of amphibian conservation. The ARMI program will integrate research efforts of USGS, other Federal, and non-federal herpetologists, hydrologists, and geographers across the Nation. ARMI will conduct a small number (~20) of intensive research efforts (for example, studies linking amphibian population changes to hydrologic conditions) and a larger number (~50) of more generalized inventory and monitoring studies encompassing broader areas such as NPS units. ARMI will coordinate with and try to augment other amphibian inventory studies such as the National Amphibian Atlas and the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program. ARMI will develop and test protocols for the standardized collection of amphibian data and provide a centrally managed database designed to simplify data entry, retrieval, and analysis. ARMI pilot projects are underway at locations across the US.

  6. Balancing act: The Salvation Army in the United States.

    PubMed

    Temme, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The Salvation Army in the United States addresses its mission of serving suffering humanity in Christ's name through a structure that is classically hierarchical while emphasizing local control and autonomy. Programming, community alliances, staffing, and fundraising are local rather than national functions. An example is discussed--the National Branding Promise--where the national office has taken a lead. This has been in response to rapid changes in the media, especially electronic communication. The Salvation Army views its components as its customers and works continuously to adjust the balance between national and local operations.

  7. Army ground robotics technology development and experimentation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, Jonathan A.; Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Shoemaker, Chuck M.

    2001-09-01

    In the past year, the U.S. Army has committed to a paradigm shift in the way future ground military operations will be conducted. Increased emphasis upon the deployability of future forces has focused efforts towards reducing the weight, volume, and logistics requirements for proposed tactical systems. Extensive use of unmanned systems offer a potential means to achieve these goals, without reducing the lethality or survivability of this future ground combat force. To support this vision, the U.S. Army has embarked upon a concerted effort to develop required technology and demonstrate its maturity with the goal of incorporating this technology into the Future Combat Systems and the Objective Force.

  8. Behavioral Health Competence: An Exploration of Army Reserve Occupational Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Paul B.; DeCleene, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The behavioral health competence of Army Reserve Occupational Therapists (OT) was examined by electronic survey to determine current levels of competence and highlight pre-deployment training needs. Results indicated that while Army Reserve OTs report high levels of behavioral health competence, many questions regarding diagnosis, assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, intervention, and progress arose throughout deployment. OT’s often relied on skills from Level II fieldwork education and entry-level didactic education for competency. Perceived competencies may be compromised by curriculum changes in entry-level education, available fieldwork settings, and a lack of adequate training currently available prior to deployment. PMID:25368437

  9. Balancing act: The Salvation Army in the United States.

    PubMed

    Temme, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The Salvation Army in the United States addresses its mission of serving suffering humanity in Christ's name through a structure that is classically hierarchical while emphasizing local control and autonomy. Programming, community alliances, staffing, and fundraising are local rather than national functions. An example is discussed--the National Branding Promise--where the national office has taken a lead. This has been in response to rapid changes in the media, especially electronic communication. The Salvation Army views its components as its customers and works continuously to adjust the balance between national and local operations. PMID:18551843

  10. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  11. A comparison among root soil-conservation effects for nine herbs at the cold region highway in north-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High soil-conservation herbs are very important for slope vegetation restoration of a highway in serious sandstorm regions. In this study, nine common herbs in northeast China were selected and compared to study soil-conservation effects by using an undisturbed-soil trough scouring method for soil anti-scourability enhancement and hydrostatic collapse method for soil anti-erodibility. Further, principal components analysis was used to identify significant root features that affected soil erosion resistance. Results indicated that different herbs had distinct enhancement effects on soil erosion resistance. Soil anti-scourability enhancement index decreased with increases of soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall amount. Relationship between soil anti-erodibility enhancement index ( S) and immersion time ( t) is a cubic spline in each different herb type ( R 2 ≥ 0.88). Herb root features such as micro-aggregates, organic matter, net leaf weight, thick root length, fine root length and biomass contributed a leading role in soil erosion resistance enhancement effect, and all their common factor variances were more than 0.81. Descending order of soil erosion resistance enhancement effect in soil anti-scourability for nine herbs is Poa pratensis, Medicago sativa, Viola philippica, Rudbeckia hirta, Clematis heracleifolia, Kalimeris indica, Cosmos bipinnata, Hemerocallis fulva and Sedum elatinoides, while the sequence of soil anti-erodibility is M. sativa, S. elatinoides, P. pratensis, R. hirta, H. fulva, V. philippica, C. heracleifolia, C. bipinnata and K. indica. Therefore, we concluded that P. pratensis and M. sativa were the most suitable herbs for resisting soil erosion and recommended to be widely planted for road vegetation recovery in this region.

  12. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  13. Algeria: Revolution, Army and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2012-01-01

    Despite the numerous similarities among the Arab countries that explain the rapid popular movements since the end of 2010, the case of Algeria presents particular features. It shares the same inequalities and social challenges as the rest of the countries in the region. However, the revolutionary process in Algeria between 1954 and 1962 and the…

  14. Distributions of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface soils of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: implications of GDGT-based proxies in cold and dry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; He, Y.; Hou, J.; Chen, L.; He, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) based on the distribution of bacteria-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are useful proxies for the reconstruction of continental paleotemperature and soil pH. Several calibrations of the MBT-CBT index have been proposed based on global and regional soils and lake sediments. However, little is known about the distribution and applicability of GDGTs proxies in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), a critical region of the global climate system. Here, we investigated 33 surface soils covering a large area of the QTP. Redundancy analysis showed that soil pH was the most important factor affecting GDGT distributions, followed by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual air temperature (MAT). The branched-isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index, an indicator for estimation of soil organic matter in aquatic environments, varied from 0.48 to 1 and negatively correlated with soil pH (r2 = 0.38), suggesting that the BIT index should be used with caution in the QTP. A transfer function of the CBT index-soil pH was established to estimate paleo-soil pH in the QTP: pH = 8.33-1.43 × CBT (r2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.27 pH unit). The local calibration of MBT-CBT index presented a weak, still significant correlation with MAT (r2 = 0.36) mainly owing to the additional influence of MAP (r2 = 0.50). Combining our data with previously reported GDGTs for Chinese soils resulted in a new calibration of MBT/CBT-MAT: MAT = 2.68+26.14 × MBT-3.37 × CBT (r2 = 0.73; RMSE = 4.2 °C, n = 164). The correlation coefficient and residual error of this new transfer function is comparable with global calibrations, suggesting that MBT-CBT paleotemperature proxy is still valid in the QTP.

  15. Asymptomatic myocardial ischemia following cold provocation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, M.J.; Deanfield, J.E.; deLandsheere, C.M.; Wilson, R.A.; Kensett, M.; Selwyn, A.P.

    1987-09-01

    Cold is thought to provoke angina in patients with coronary disease either by an increase in myocardial demand or an increase in coronary vascular resistance. We investigated and compared the effects of cold pressor stimulation and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise on regional myocardial perfusion in 35 patients with stable angina and coronary disease and in 10 normal subjects. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed with positron emission tomography and rubidium-82. Following cold pressor stimulation 24 of 35 patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of regional myocardial perfusion with reduced cation uptake in affected regions of myocardium: 52 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 9 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Among these 24 patients only nine developed ST depression and only seven had angina. In contrast, 29 of 35 patients underwent supine exercise, and abnormal regional myocardial perfusion occurred in all 29, with a reduction in cation intake from 48 +/- 10 to 43 +/- 14 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Angina was present in 27 of 29 and ST depression in 25 of 29. Although the absolute decrease in cation uptake was somewhat greater following cold as opposed to exercise, the peak heart rate after cold was significantly lower than that after exercise (82 +/- 12 vs 108 +/- 16 bpm, p less than 0.05). Peak systolic blood pressures after cold and exercise were similar (159 +/- 24 vs 158 +/- 28). Thus, cold produces much more frequent asymptomatic disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in patients with stable angina and coronary disease than is suggested by pain or ECG changes.

  16. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), south and west sides of buildings no. 719, now the north wing of building no. 508. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Mess & Kitchen, Nurses' Recreation, West McAfee Avenue, North of Building 507, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). Photograph taken before Sept. 29, 1934 when the revised Real Property form on building 257 was completed. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 257, North side of East O'Neill Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), south side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Red Cross Building, South Eighth Street Bounded by West McAfee Avenue on South & West Harlow Avenue on North, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). Photograph taken before Sept 29, 1934 when the revised Real Property form on building 255 was completed. - Fitzsimons General Hopital, Building 255, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), east and south sides of building no. 715, now the south wing of building no. 508. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Mess & Kitchen, Nurses' Recreation, West McAfee Avenue, North of Building 507, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), showing part of east side and most of north side. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), south and north sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Physiotherapy & Electrocardiograph Department Building, North of Building No. 516, East of corridor connecting Building No. 511 to Building No. 515, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). Photograph of south side before perpendicular wing added. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Carpenter Shop Building, Southwest Corner of West I Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), north and east sides of the east/west wing. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, General Mess & Kitchen, Southwest Corner of East McAfee Avenue & South Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). Photograph taken before Sept. 29, 1934 when the revised Real Property form on building 256 was completed. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property book (green cloth cover), showing east and most of south sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Assembly Hall School, Northeast Corner of West McCloskey Avenue & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center real property book (green cloth cover), probably west and north sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officer Patient's Mess & Kitchen, Northeast Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. The Army Marches forward with CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Leo; O'Connor, Mary Ann

    1992-01-01

    Describes three applications of CD-ROM technology for publishing and distribution of U.S. Army forms and automation of the AD PAM 25-30, a microfiche index to the publications and forms. The production, field test, and evaluation phases of the project are discussed. Several lessons learned are summarized. (MES)

  9. Reinforcement Management; An Approach to Motivating Army Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassileth, Barrie

    To study the effectiveness of reinforcement management (contigency management) as applied to a military program of instruction already in operation, 335 students in an Army clerk-typist course in which self-paced instruction is used were given points for successive approximations to desired learning behavior. The points were exchangeable later for…

  10. 21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital. EKG Cardiology Clinic, Building 1049. December 1955. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Net Zero Ft. Carson: making a greener Army base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Army Net Zero program seeks to reduce the energy, water, and waste footprint of bases. Seventeen pilot bases aim to achieve 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases are pursuing Net Zero in a single secto...

  12. Soldier to Civilian: Army Education and Postwar New Zealand Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Chris

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand's army education schemes were established in 1943, following overseas practice, with several objectives in mind. Those on active service often suffered from boredom, and the schemes' libraries, movies and study courses offered one means of boosting flagging spirits. At the same time, military personnel needed to be prepared for an…

  13. Suicide in the Army National Guard: An Empirical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, suicides in the U.S. military have risen, most notably in the Army National Guard (ARNG). Data used in this study were obtained for suicides occurring from 2007 to 2010 and for a random sample of nonsuicides from the general ARNG population. Of the military-related variables considered, a few showed relationships to suicide. Rather,…

  14. [Further improvement of transport immobilization in the czechoslovak army.].

    PubMed

    Urminský, E; Beznoska, J; Fanta, D

    1992-01-01

    The authors inform about a new traction frame for the lower extremity to be used by the health service in the Czechoslovak Army. They present fundamental requirements set for the development of this plate and perspectives of its series production. Key words: metal traction frame, lower extremity, immobilization.

  15. Photocopy of post card from Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Public ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of post card from Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Public Affairs Office, building 120. Photograph by Rocky Mountain photo. CO was no copyrighted and is , therefore, in the public domain. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Memorial Tablet, West McAfee, South of Building No. 524, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  17. Master Resilience Training in the U.S. Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; McBride, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Master Resilience Trainer (MRT) course, which provides face-to-face resilience training, is one of the foundational pillars of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program. The 10-day MRT course is the foundation for training resilience skills to sergeants and for teaching sergeants how to teach these skills to their soldiers. The…

  18. 42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, X-Ray Department and Second Floor Plan, X-Ray Department Plan, Building 1006. no date. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. Effectiveness of Interactive Videodisc in Army Communications Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, John D.; Polich, J. Michael

    This report presents the results of RAND research conducted at the U.S. Army Signal Center, Fort Gordon, Georgia, to evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive videodisc (IVD) system used to facilitate training in a variety of military occupational specialities. The objectives of the study were to: (1) develop a methodology for assessing the…

  20. Teaching Cultural Perspectives to Future Army Officers at West Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, James J. F.

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this article is to illustrate how West Point equips future Army officers with an appreciation and understanding of cultural knowledge. A unique, multidisciplinary goal-based approach to curricular design and assessment (of students as well as the academic program) is described, focusing on the structure, process, and content of…

  1. Integration of New Technology in Army Libraries. Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAMANS and Associates, Rockville, MD.

    Eight appendices provide information related to a study which was conducted to determine the feasibility of introducing new automatic techniques to Army library technical processing activities; to examine and recommend appropriate systems and configurations for library automation; and to determine costs of implementing the recommendations. The…

  2. Assessing the Performance of the Army Reserve Components School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, John D.; And Others

    The operation of the U.S. Army's Reserve Components (RC) school system was assessed. Three areas were identified that were fundamental to the system where organizational changes could make a difference. First, the project assessed training requirements and school delivery of courses. In serving a sizable training requirement for reclassification…

  3. 2007 NCTE Presidential Address: Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yatvin, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of Joanne Yatvin's presidential address, delivered at the NCTE Annual Convention in New York City in November 2007. The title of her presidential address, "Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night," was taken from Matthew Arnold's (1867) poem "Dover Beach." Yatvin states that the federal government has usurped the right…

  4. [On the role of army physicians in the creation of Ukrainian medical terminology].

    PubMed

    Radysh, Ia F; Holyk, L A

    2002-01-01

    Tha article is devoted to the analysis of the role army surgeons had in creation of Ukrainean medical terminology. In the article, medical dictionaries are briefly analyzed, of which Ukrainean army surgeons are authors or co-authors. PMID:12442539

  5. Predicting U.S. Army suicides after hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Warner, LTC Christopher H.; Ivany, LTC Christopher; Petukhova, Maria V.; Rose, Sherri; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brown, LTC Millard; Cai, Tianxi; Colpe, Lisa J.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Li, Junlong; Millikan-Bell, Amy M.; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.; Wessely, Simon; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The U.S. Army experienced a sharp rise in suicides beginning in 2004. Administrative data show that among those at highest risk are soldiers in the 12 months after inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder. OBJECTIVE To develop an actuarial risk algorithm predicting suicide in the 12 months after US Army soldier inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder to target expanded post-hospital care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS There were 53,769 hospitalizations of active duty soldiers in 2004–2009 with ICD-9-CM psychiatric admission diagnoses. Administrative data available prior to hospital discharge abstracted from a wide range of data systems (socio81 demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy) were used to predict suicides in the subsequent 12 months using machine learning methods (regression trees, penalized regressions) designed to evaluate cross-validated linear, nonlinear, and interactive predictive associations. MAIN OUTCOME Suicides of soldiers hospitalized with psychiatric disorders in the 12 months after hospital discharge. RESULTS 68 soldiers died by suicide within 12 months of hospital discharge (12.0% of all Army suicides), equivalent to 263.9 suicides/100,000 person-years compared to 18.5 suicides/100,000 person-years in the total Army. Strongest predictors included socio-demographics (male, late age of enlistment), criminal offenses (verbal violence, weapons possession), prior suicidality, aspects of prior psychiatric inpatient and outpatient treatment, and disorders diagnosed during the focal hospitalizations. 52.9% of post-hospital suicides occurred after the 5% of hospitalizations with highest predicted suicide risk (3,824.1 suicides/100,000 person years). These highest-risk hospitalizations also accounted for significantly elevated proportions of several other adverse post-hospital outcomes (unintentional injury deaths, suicide attempts, re-hospitalizations). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The high concentration

  6. EO-based lake-ice cover and surface temperature products: Advancing process understanding and modeling capabilities of lake-atmosphere interactions in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Kheyrollah Pour, H.; Ochilov, S.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to determine the energy and water budgets of lakes is critical to modeling high latitude weather and climate. In recent years, the proper representation of lake processes in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and regional climate (RCM) models has become a topic of much interest by the scientific community. With the increased resolution of the NWP models and RCMs, it has now become possible and necessary to improve the representation of lake-atmosphere interactions to better describe the energy exchange between the atmosphere and the lake surface. Among other lake properties, knowledge about lake surface temperature and ice-coverage is critical. These two parameters can either be obtained from observations or through simulations. Although much progress is being made with lake models, as implemented in NWP/RCM models, the assimilation of data on lake temperature and fractional ice coverage has been identified as highly desirable. Spatially and temporally consistent lake ice and lake surface temperature (LST) products are invaluable in this respect. These can be derived from Earth Observation (EO) systems. However, satellite-based products must be compared with existing lake models, as well as validated and further improved as needed, to generate lake ice and LST products for operational use by the modeling community. The European Space Agency (ESA) is supporting the international efforts coordinated by the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) to exploit the use of EO technology, models and in situ data to improve the characterization of river and lake ice processes and their contribution to the Northern Hydrology system. The ESA-sponsored North Hydrology project aims to develop a portfolio of novel multi-mission geo-information products, maximizing the use of ESA satellite data, to respond to the scientific requirements of the CliC community and the operational requirements of the weather and climate

  7. Distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface soils of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: implications of brGDGTs-based proxies in cold and dry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; He, Y.; Hou, J.; Chen, L.; He, J.-S.

    2015-06-01

    The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGT) are useful proxies for the reconstruction of mean annual air temperature (MAT) and soil pH. Recently, a series of 6-methyl brGDGTs were identified which were previously co-eluted with 5-methyl brGDGTs. However, little is known about 6-methyl brGDGTs in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), a critical region of the global climate system. Here, we analyze 30 surface soils covering a large area of the QTP, among which 6-methyl brGDGTs were the most abundant components (average 53 ± 17% of total brGDGT). The fractional abundance of 6-methyl brGDGTs showed a good correlation with soil pH, while the global MBT'5ME calibration overestimates MAT in the QTP. We therefore proposed a MBT5/6 index including both 5- and 6-methyl brGDGTs, presenting a strong correlation with MAT in QTP: MAT = -20.14 + 39.51 × MBT5/6 (n = 27, r2 = 0.82; RMSE = 1.3 °C). Another index, namely IBT (isomerization of branched tetraether), based on carbon skeleton isomerization of the 5-methyl to 6-methyl brGDGTs, is dependent on soil pH: pH = 6.77 - 1.56 × IBT (n = 27; r2 = 0.74, RMSE = 0.32). Our study suggests that changing the position of methyl group of brGDGTs may be another mechanism for some soil bacteria to adapt to the ambient pH change in addition to the well-known cyclization.

  8. Cold pool dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Leah D.; Heever, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) alter cold pool characteristics and dissipation rates are investigated in this study using idealized two-dimensional numerical simulations and an environment representative of daytime, dry, continental conditions. Simulations are performed with no SHFs, SHFs calculated using a bulk formula, and constant SHFs for model resolutions with horizontal (vertical) grid spacings ranging from 50 m (25 m) to 400 m (200 m). In the highest resolution simulations, turbulent entrainment of environmental air into the cold pool is an important mechanism for dissipation in the absence of SHFs. Including SHFs enhances cold pool dissipation rates, but the processes responsible for the enhanced dissipation differ depending on the SHF formulation. The bulk SHFs increase the near-surface cold pool temperatures, but their effects on the overall cold pool characteristics are small, while the constant SHFs influence the near-surface environmental stability and the turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool. The changes to the entrainment rates are found to be the most significant of the SHF effects on cold pool dissipation. SHFs may also influence the timing of cold pool-induced convective initiation by altering the environmental stability and the cold pool intensity. As the model resolution is coarsened, cold pool dissipation is found to be less sensitive to SHFs. Furthermore, the coarser resolution simulations not only poorly but sometimes wrongly represent the SHF impacts on the cold pools. Recommendations are made regarding simulating the interaction of cold pools with convection and the land surface in cloud-resolving models.

  9. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  10. Mars: Always Cold, Sometimes Wet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar regions (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic impacts, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise cold, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically cold throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial cold climate regions for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.

  11. Update: Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2007-June 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    From July 2011 through June 2012, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=499) was lower than the number in each of the four previous one year periods. Over the last five years, frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in all the Services except for the Marine Corps, in which hypothermia was slightly more frequent. Service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Army personnel accounted for the majority of cold injuries. Service members who train in and deploy to areas with wet and freezing conditions - and their supervisors at all levels - should be able to recognize the signs of cold injury and should know and implement the standard countermeasures against the threat of cold injury.

  12. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures—(1) Policies. (i) DA elements do not program for costs related to loan of Army materiel. (ii) Loans to non-DOD Federal activities are made on the basis that there will be no extra cost to the Army. Costs that are in addition to normal Army operating expenses will be reimbursed by the...

  13. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures—(1) Policies. (i) DA elements do not program for costs related to loan of Army materiel. (ii) Loans to non-DOD Federal activities are made on the basis that there will be no extra cost to the Army. Costs that are in addition to normal Army operating expenses will be reimbursed by the...

  14. Health Hazard Assessment and Toxicity Clearances in the Army Acquisition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macko, Joseph A., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Army Materiel Command, Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Support Office (AAPPSO) is responsible for creating and managing the U.S. Army Wide Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program. They have established Integrated Process Teams (IPTs) within each of the Major Subordinate Commands of the Army Materiel Command. AAPPSO provides centralized integration, coordination, and oversight of the Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program (AAPPP) , and the IPTs provide the decentralized execution of the AAPPSO program. AAPPSO issues policy and guidance, provides resources and prioritizes P2 efforts. It is the policy of the (AAPPP) to require United States Army Surgeon General approval of all materials or substances that will be used as an alternative to existing hazardous materials, toxic materials and substances, and ozone-depleting substances. The Army has a formal process established to address this effort. Army Regulation 40-10 requires a Health Hazard Assessment (HHA) during the Acquisition milestones of a new Army system. Army Regulation 40-5 addresses the Toxicity Clearance (TC) process to evaluate new chemicals and materials prior to acceptance as an alternative. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine is the Army's matrixed medical health organization that performs the HHA and TC mission.

  15. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery. 553.17 Section 553.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.17...

  16. 32 CFR 644.415 - Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation. 644.415 Section 644.415 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Interests § 644.415 Army military and Air Force lands—$50,000 limitation. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2672 authorizes...

  17. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.140 Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md. (a) Restricted area...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  19. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1325 - United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States Army Restricted... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1325 United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. (a) The area. The area within...