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Sample records for arnhem land northern

  1. Characterization of mineral coatings associated with a Pleistocene-Holocene rock art style: The Northern Running Figures of the East Alligator River region, western Arnhem Land, Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Penelope L; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Jones, Tristen

    2017-02-01

    This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the "Northern Running Figures" for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017) [1]). This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data.

  2. A new phasmid gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from the Arnhem Plateau: more new diversity in rare vertebrates from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Paul M; Parkin, Tom

    2014-10-22

    The Arnhem Plateau is a rugged expanse of sandstone escarpment in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics with a highly endemic biota. Here we describe a new species of small spinifex dwelling Strophurus (phasmid gecko) that also appears to be endemic to this region. Strophurus horneri sp. nov. can be diagnosed from all congeners by aspects of size, coloration and scalation. Even with the description of this new species, however, levels of morphological and genetic diversity within Strophurus from the stone country of the Northern Territory suggest additional divergent lineages are present. A number of recent studies have now provided preliminary evidence of evolutionary diversity within the Arnhem Plateau, but data remains scant and almost nothing is known about how topography and historical processes have shaped the endemic biota of this region. 

  3. Cultural legacies, fire ecology, and environmental change in the Stone Country of Arnhem Land and Kakadu National Park, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The ‘Stone Country’ of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social–ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the

  4. Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes in sediments from Cooper Creek, Western Arnhem Land.

    PubMed

    Frostick, A; Bollhöfer, A; Parry, D; Munksgaard, N; Evans, K

    2008-03-01

    Protection of the environment post-mining is a key objective of rehabilitation, especially where runoff and erosion from rehabilitated mine sites could potentially lead to contamination of the surrounding land and watercourses. As part of an overall assessment of the success of rehabilitation at the former Nabarlek uranium (U) mine, an appraisal of stable lead (Pb) isotopes, radionuclides and trace metals within sediments and soils was conducted to determine the off site impacts from a spatial and temporal perspective. The study found localised areas on and adjacent to the site where soils had elevated levels of trace metals and radionuclides. Lead isotope ratios are highly radiogenic in some samples, indicating the presence of U-rich material. There is some indication that erosion products with more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios have deposited in sediments downstream of the former ore body. However, there is no indication that the radiogenic erosion products found on the mine site at present have significantly contaminated sediments further downstream of Cooper Creek.

  5. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  6. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  7. Policy approaches to support local community control over the supply and distribution of kava in the Northern Territory (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Jones, Peter J

    2004-03-01

    The health consequences of kava abuse in Arnhem Land Aboriginal populations in the Northern Territory (NT) and the persistence of an illegal kava trade with its associated social harms have been a cause for concern for 20 years. Despite these concerns, some Arnhem Land groups seek to continue using kava and to control its sale, distribution and the profits from the enterprise. In response, policy makers in the NT have embraced principles of harm reduction and created regulatory mechanisms to address broader public concerns and to support local management of kava supply while reinforcing control over the consequences of its use. This paper describes the kava regulatory system now being implemented in the NT which features kava management plans developed in consultation between Aboriginal communities and licensing authorities. It complements the earlier Harm Reduction Digest 9 by McDonald & Jowitt which looked at Kava in the South Pacific.

  8. Combining aboriginal and non-aboriginal knowledge to assess and manage feral water buffalo impacts on perennial freshwater springs of the aboriginal-owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  9. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  10. Changes of Land Cover and Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.; Reilly, J.; McGuire, A.; Prinn, R.; Shvidenko, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Sirin, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Peregon, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia accounts for about 20% of the Earth's land surface and 60% of the terrestrial land cover north of 40°N. It contains 70% of the Earth's boreal forests and more than two-thirds of the Earth's land that is underlain by permafrost. The region is covered by vast areas of peatland, complex tundra in the north and semi-deserts and deserts in the south, including the Mongolia plateau. The surface air temperature has increased in the last half century and this increase will continue during this century. We present the results of climate change effects on biogeochemical processes and mechanisms governing the carbon and water dynamics in the region. Future research will address on how patterns of land use in Northern Eurasia may change in the future due to: 1) Economic pressures for providing food, fiber and fuel to a growing global population; 2) Expansion of management of land for cropping, pasture, and forestry into areas that experience a more favorable climate in the future; and 3) Abandonment of management in areas that experience a less favorable climate and the implications of these changes for (1) the exchange of CO2 and CH4 between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere; (2) terrestrial carbon storage and primary productivity; (3) water supply; and (4) radiative forcing of the atmosphere through changes in surface albedo. We use a system of linked models that include the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model of the world economy, the SiBCliM bioclimatic vegetation model, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) with land-cover/ land-use modeling and biogeochemical modeling based on current relationships as observed through satellite and remote sensing data.

  11. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. III. Chlorophyta,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    1984:82 (Capricornia). Family Chaetosiphonaceae Blastophysa rhizopus Reinke 1888:241. Cribb 1984:82 (Capricornia). Family Cladophoraceae Chaetomorpha ...Arnhem Land). Chaetomorpha antennina (Bory) Kuetzing 1849:397. Dawson 1954a:386, fig.61. Cribb 1954:17, pl.1 fig.6 (Coolangatta, Stradbroke I...146 (Arnhem Land). Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey 1858:87, pl. 46a. Taylor 1960:70, pl.2 fig.9. Cribb 1978:67 (Hinchinbrook I.). * Chaetomorpha

  12. Land management versus natural factors in land instability: some examples in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Viola Maria; Bonachea, Jaime; Remondo, Juan; Gómez-Arozamena, Jose; Rivas, Victoria; Barbieri, Matteo; Capocchi, Stefano; Soldati, Mauro; Cendrero, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to test a hypothesis formulated on the basis of former results which considers that there might be a ‘‘global geomorphic change,’’ due to activities related to land management and not determined by climate change, which could be causing an acceleration of geomorphic processes. Possible relationships between some geomorphic processes related to land instability (landslides or sediment generation) and potential triggering factors are analyzed in study areas in northern Spain. The analysis is based on landslide inventories covering different periods, as well as the determination of sedimentation rates. Temporal landslide and sedimentation rate trends are compared with different indicators of human activities (land-use change, logging, forest fires) and with potential natural triggers (rainfall, seismicity). The possible influence of the road network in the distribution of landslides is also analyzed. Results obtained show that there is a general increase of both landslide and sedimentation rates with time that cannot be explained satisfactorily by observed rainfall trends and even less by seismicity. Land use change appears to be by far the main factor leading to land instability, with some changes producing up to a 12-fold increase of landslide rate. A relationship between road network and the spatial distribution of landslides has also been observed. These results do confirm the existence of an acceleration of geomorphic processes in the region, and also suggest that climate-related factors play a limited role in the changes observed.

  13. Land Surface Phenologies of the Northern Great Plains: Possible Futures Arising From Land and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henebry, G. M.; Wimberly, M. C.; Senay, G.; Wang, A.; Chang, J.; Wright, C. R.; Hansen, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover change across the Northern Great Plains of North America over the past three decades has been driven by changes in agricultural management (conservation tillage; irrigation), government incentives (Conservation Reserve Program; subsidies to grain-based ethanol), crop varieties (cold-hardy soybean), and market dynamics (increasing world demand). Climate change across the Northern Great Plains over the past three decades has been evident in trends toward earlier warmth in the spring and a longer frost-free season. Together these land and climate changes induce shifts in local and regional land surface phenologies (LSPs). Any significant shift in LSP may correspond to a significant shift in evapotranspiration, with consequences for regional hydrometeorology. We explored possible future scenarios involving land use and climate change in six steps. First, we defined the nominal draw areas of current and future biorefineries in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa and masked those land cover types within the draw areas that were unlikely to change to agricultural use (open water, settlements, forests, etc.). Second, we estimated the proportion of corn and soybean remaining within the masked draw areas using MODIS-derived crop maps. Third, in each draw area, we modified LSPs to simulate crop changes for a control and two treatment scenarios. In the control, we used LSP profiles identified from MODIS Collection 5 NBAR data. In one treatment, we increased the proportion of tallgrass LSPs in the draw areas to represent widespread cultivation of a perennial cellulosic crop, like switchgrass. In a second treatment, we increased the proportion of corn LSPs in the draw areas to represent increased corn cultivation. Fourth, we characterized the seasonal progression of the thermal regime associated with the LSP profiles using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) products. Fifth, we modeled the LSP profile as a quadratic function of accumulated

  14. Late Quaternary land-sea correlations, northern Labrador, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P.; Josenhans, H.

    1985-01-01

    Late Quaternary glacial and postglacial units in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, are correlated with units identified on the adjacent continental shelf. The late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet drained through major valleys of the Torngat Mountains as outlet glaciers, depositing the Saglek Moraines. These are of regional extent and have been mapped from Saglek Fiord north to Noodleook Fiord. A C-14 date of 18,210 +/- 1900 BP on total organic matter (TOM) from lake sediment dammed by a segment of the Saglek Moraines is interpreted as a maximum date for deposition of the Saglek Moraine system because of possible contamination. Glacial sediments comprising the Saglek Moraines are correlated with upper till mapped in troughs and saddles on the continental shelf. Outlet glaciers depositing a late Wisconsinan unit flowed through Labrador fiords and onto the shelf at low basal shear stresses, particularly on the shelf where, although grounded, they were hydrostatically buoyed up and moved principally by sliding. A glaciomarine unit conformably overlies late Wisconsinan till on the shelf and on the land. This unit is a gravelly clayey silt, contains abundant foraminifera, and has up to 60% limestone in the pebble fraction. C-14 dates suggest deposition of this unit began ca. 10,000 BP on the shelf and 9000 BP on the land, an ended by 8000 BP. Limestone pebbles in this unit suggest a source in part from sediment-laden icebergs and pack-ice from the north. Marine deposition from ca. 8000-0 BP is characterize by basinal sedimentation.

  15. Human-induced greening of the northern extratropical land surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jiafu; Ribes, Aurélien; Yan, Binyan; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Séférian, Roland; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B.; Douville, Hervé; Piao, Shilong; Zhu, Zaichun; Dickinson, Robert E.; Dai, Yongjiu; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Jin, Mingzhou; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Wang, Bin; Huang, Mengtian; Lian, Xu

    2016-10-01

    Significant land greening in the northern extratropical latitudes (NEL) has been documented through satellite observations during the past three decades. This enhanced vegetation growth has broad implications for surface energy, water and carbon budgets, and ecosystem services across multiple scales. Discernible human impacts on the Earth's climate system have been revealed by using statistical frameworks of detection-attribution. These impacts, however, were not previously identified on the NEL greening signal, owing to the lack of long-term observational records, possible bias of satellite data, different algorithms used to calculate vegetation greenness, and the lack of suitable simulations from coupled Earth system models (ESMs). Here we have overcome these challenges to attribute recent changes in NEL vegetation activity. We used two 30-year-long remote-sensing-based leaf area index (LAI) data sets, simulations from 19 coupled ESMs with interactive vegetation, and a formal detection and attribution algorithm. Our findings reveal that the observed greening record is consistent with an assumption of anthropogenic forcings, where greenhouse gases play a dominant role, but is not consistent with simulations that include only natural forcings and internal climate variability. These results provide the first clear evidence of a discernible human fingerprint on physiological vegetation changes other than phenology and range shifts.

  16. Human-induced greening of the northern extratropical land surface

    DOE PAGES

    Mao, Jiafu; Ribes, Aurélien; Yan, Binyan; ...

    2016-06-27

    Significant land greening in the northern extratropical latitudes (NEL) has been documented from satellite observations during the past three decades. This enhanced vegetation growth has broad implications for surface energy, water and carbon budgets, and ecosystem services across multiple scales. Discernible human impacts on the Earth’s climate system have been revealed by using statistical frameworks of detection–attribution. These impacts, however, were not previously identified on the NEL greening signal, owing to the lack of long-term observational records, possible bias of satellite data, different algorithms used to calculate vegetation greenness, and the lack of suitable simulations from coupled Earth system modelsmore » (ESMs). Here we have overcome these challenges to attribute recent changes in NEL vegetation activity. We have used two 30-year-long remote-sensing-based leaf area index (LAI) data sets, simulations from 19 coupled ESMs with interactive vegetation, and a formal detection and attribution algorithm. Our findings reveal that the observed greening record is consistent with an assumption of anthropogenic forcings, where greenhouse gases play a dominant role, but is not consistent with simulations that include only natural forcings and internal climate variability. These results provide the first clear evidence of a discernible human fingerprint on physiological vegetation changes other than phenology and range shifts.« less

  17. Human-induced greening of the northern extratropical land surface

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jiafu; Ribes, Aurélien; Yan, Binyan; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Séférian, Roland; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B.; Douville, Hervé; Piao, Shilong; Zhu, Zaichun; Dickinson, Robert E.; Dai, Yongjiu; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Jin, Mingzhou; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Wang, Bin; Huang, Mengtian; Lian, Xu

    2016-06-27

    Significant land greening in the northern extratropical latitudes (NEL) has been documented from satellite observations during the past three decades. This enhanced vegetation growth has broad implications for surface energy, water and carbon budgets, and ecosystem services across multiple scales. Discernible human impacts on the Earth’s climate system have been revealed by using statistical frameworks of detection–attribution. These impacts, however, were not previously identified on the NEL greening signal, owing to the lack of long-term observational records, possible bias of satellite data, different algorithms used to calculate vegetation greenness, and the lack of suitable simulations from coupled Earth system models (ESMs). Here we have overcome these challenges to attribute recent changes in NEL vegetation activity. We have used two 30-year-long remote-sensing-based leaf area index (LAI) data sets, simulations from 19 coupled ESMs with interactive vegetation, and a formal detection and attribution algorithm. Our findings reveal that the observed greening record is consistent with an assumption of anthropogenic forcings, where greenhouse gases play a dominant role, but is not consistent with simulations that include only natural forcings and internal climate variability. These results provide the first clear evidence of a discernible human fingerprint on physiological vegetation changes other than phenology and range shifts.

  18. Canada: Native Land Rights and Northern Development. IWGIA Document 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Peter A.

    Presenting the critical elements for a new and meaningful relationship between the Inuit and the emerging industrial society of Northern Canada, this publication includes: (1) Canada as a Nation State and Northern Development; (2) Northern Development and Institutions in Decision-Making; (3) The Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory as…

  19. Declining Spring Snow Cover Extent over Northern Hemisphere Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David

    2015-04-01

    Annual snow cover extent (SCE) over Northern Hemisphere (NH) lands averages close to 26 million square kilometers. It ranges from an average of 47 million sq. km. in January to 3 million sq. km. (mostly atop the Greenland Ice Sheet) in August. SCE is calculated at the Rutgers Global Snow Lab from daily SCE maps produced by meteorologists at the National Ice Center, who rely primarily on visible satellite imagery to construct the maps. The Rutgers SCE climate data record (CDR) shows that since the late 1980s annual SCE over NH lands has averaged lower than earlier in the satellite era, which for SCE monitoring began in 1967. This is most evident from late winter through spring, being exceedingly pronounced this past decade at high latitudes in May and June. The most recent five Mays have been amongst the lowest seven in terms of NH SCE on record, with Eurasian (EUR) SCE at a record low in 2013. North American (NA) SCE achieved a record minimum in May 2010, but of late has not been as consistently low as over EUR. The past seven Junes have seen record minimum SCE over the NH, and six of the seven lowest over EUR and NA. The recent early timing of arctic snowmelt appears to be occurring at a pace equivalent to if not exceeding the loss of summer Arctic sea ice extent. In situ station observations suggest that spring snow is presently the least extensive in the past century. Possible reasons behind the early melt appear to be associated with atmospheric circulation patterns and overall warming. This presentation, while focusing on SCE variability utilizing the Rutgers SCE CDR, will also include discussion of a new merged snow extent and melt state CDR that includes data from NH continents, Greenland, and Arctic sea ice. Visible and microwave satellite data are employed in these efforts. The merged product is available in netCDF format from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This includes 25 km (1999-2010) and 100 km (1967-2010) resolution versions using the Equal

  20. The driving forces of land change in the Northern Piedmont of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auch, Roger F.; Napton, Darrell E.; Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2012-01-01

    Driving forces facilitate or inhibit land-use/land-cover change. Human driving forces include political, economic, cultural, and social attributes that often change across time and space. Remotely sensed imagery provides regional land-change data for the Northern Piedmont, an ecoregion of the United States that continued to urbanize after 1970 through conversion of agricultural and forest land covers to developed uses. Eight major driving forces facilitated most of the land conversion; other drivers inhibited or slowed change. A synergistic web of drivers may be more important in understanding land change than individual drivers by themselves.

  1. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  2. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  3. Hepatitis B prevalence in the Turkish population of Arnhem: implications for national screening policy?

    PubMed

    Richter, C; Beest, G Ter; Sancak, I; Aydinly, R; Bulbul, K; Laetemia-Tomata, F; De Leeuw, M; Waegemaekers, T; Swanink, C; Roovers, E

    2012-04-01

    Despite the increased prevalence of hepatitis B and C in most migrant groups in The Netherlands, a national screening policy for these infections is not available. In order to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the largest group of first-generation migrants (FGM) in The Netherlands, we conducted a screening project in the Turkish community of Arnhem. In a separate project we identified patients from the target population with chronic hepatitis B and C from hospital records (1990-2008). Educational meetings concerning hepatitis were organized, with all participants being offered a blood screening test. Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). In total 709 persons were tested, a complete dataset was available for 647 patients. We found that 3·0% and 0·4% of Turkish FGM aged >24 years in Arnhem had active hepatitis B, defined as HBsAg positive, and tested positive for anti-HCV, respectively. The hospital records revealed another 32 patients, 28 with hepatitis B and four with hepatitis C representing 0·7% for hepatitis B and 0·1% for hepatitis C in relation to the total number of Turkish FGM in Arnhem. We believe that active hepatitis screening of FGM from Turkey should be part of the national health policy as it will benefit the individual and public health.

  4. Land use of northern megalopolis from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The preliminary map of land use of Rhode Island is believed to be the first urban-type land use map ever made from satellite imagery, and its preparation a significant scientific result for ERTS-1. Eight categories of land use were differentiated at a scale of 1:250,000 including 3 categories of residential area: single family and multiple/mixed urban types, plus a residential and open space rural one. This compares favorably with RB-57 mapping experience in which, mapping at 1:120,000 from photography taken from 60,000 feet, 11 basic categories of land use were discriminated. From ERTS, the urban cores of cities down to 7,000 population, and commercial and industrial sites down to 800 feet square, were consistently discriminated.

  5. Investigation of land use of northern megalopolis using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.; Ruml, D. J.; Goldstein, W.

    1974-01-01

    Primary objective was to produce a color-coded land use map and digital data base for the northern third of Megalopolis. Secondary objective was to investigate possible applications of ERTS products to land use planning. Many of the materials in this report already have received national, dissemination as a result of unexpected interest in land use surveys from ERTS. Of special historical interest is the first comprehensive urban-type land use map from space imagery, which covered the entire state of Rhode Island and was made from a single image taken on 28 July 1972.

  6. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher K.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2012-06-01

    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001 and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1). NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface. LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes; cropland, grassland, and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic. Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC, we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought. In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case, represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland, and also associated with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends. Relatively small clusters of statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region. Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe, Russia, and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets. Here, we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt, involving both broader climatic forcing, and narrower anthropogenic impacts, than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  7. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001–2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and −21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development. PMID:27874092

  8. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-22

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km(2) of urban gain and -21,017 km(2) of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km(2)) and closed shrubland (60,854 km(2)) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  9. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001–2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and ‑21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  10. Importance of Nitrogen Availability on Land Carbon Sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Melillo, J. M.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Lu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and the application of nitrogen fertilizers provide subsidies to land ecosystems that can increase nitrogen availability for vegetation production and thereby influence land carbon dynamics. In addition, enhanced decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) from warming soils and permafrost degradation may also increase nitrogen availability in Northern Eurasia. Here, we examine how changes in nitrogen availability may influence land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario (the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways or RCP 8.5) and a stabilization scenario (RCP 4.5) between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation and soil thermal dynamics on land carbon dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In these simulations, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and fertilizer applications provide an additional 3.3 Pg N (RCP 4.5) to 3.9 Pg N (RCP 8.5) to Northern Eurasian ecosystems over the 21st century. Land ecosystems retain about 38% (RCP4.5) to 48% (RCP 8.5) of this nitrogen subsidy. Net nitrogen mineralization estimated by TEM 6.0 provide an additional 1.0 Pg N to vegetation than estimated by TEM 4.4 over the 21st century from enhanced decomposition of SOM including SOM formerly protected by permafrost. The enhanced nitrogen availability in TEM 6.0 allows Northern Eurasian ecosystems to sequester 1.8x (RCP 8.5) to 2.4x (RCP 4.5) more carbon over the 21st century than estimated by TEM 4.4. Our results indicate that consideration of nitrogen subsidies and soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia will respond to future changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry, and disturbances.

  11. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

  12. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  13. A New Strategy to Land Precisely on the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yang; Huertas, Andres

    2010-01-01

    During the Phoenix mission landing site selection process, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images revealed widely spread and dense rock fields in the northern plains. Automatic rock mapping and subsequent statistical analyses showed 30-90% CFA (cumulative fractional area) covered by rocks larger than 1 meter in dense rock fields around craters. Less dense rock fields had 5-30% rock coverage in terrain away from craters. Detectable meter-scale boulders were found nearly everywhere. These rocks present a risk to spacecraft safety during landing. However, they are the most salient topographic features in this region, and can be good landmarks for spacecraft localization during landing. In this paper we present a novel strategy that uses abundance of rocks in northern plains for spacecraft localization. The paper discusses this approach in three sections: a rock-based landmark terrain relative navigation (TRN) algorithm; the TRN algorithm feasibility; and conclusions.

  14. Franz Josef Land: extreme northern outpost for Arctic fishes

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Natalia V.; Turchik, Alan; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The remote Franz Josef Land (FJL) Archipelago is the most northerly land in Eurasia and its fish fauna, particularly in nearshore habitats, has been poorly studied. An interdisciplinary expedition to FJL in summer 2013 used scuba, seines, and plankton nets to comprehensively study the nearshore fish fauna of the archipelago. We present some of the first underwater images for many of these species in their natural habitats. In addition, deep water drop cameras were deployed between 32 and 392 m to document the fish fauna and their associated habitats at deeper depths. Due to its high latitude (79°–82°N), extensive ice cover, and low water temperatures (<0 °C much of the year), the fish diversity at FJL is low compared to other areas of the Barents Sea. Sixteen species of fishes from seven families were documented on the expedition, including two species previously unknown to the region. One Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus (Somniosidae), ca. 2 m in length, was recorded by drop camera near Hayes Island at 211 m, and Esipov’s pout, Gymnelus esipovi (Zoarcidae), was collected at Wilton Island at 15 m in a kelp forest. Including the tape-body pout, Gymnelus taeniatus, described earlier from the sub-littoral zone of Kuhn Island, 17 fish species are now known from FJL’s nearshore waters. Species endemic to the Arctic accounted for 75% of the nearshore species observed, followed by species with wider ranges. A total of 43 species from 15 families are known from FJL with the majority of the records from offshore trawl surveys between 110 and 620 m. Resident species have mainly high Arctic distributions, while transient species visit the archipelago to feed (e.g., Greenland shark), and others are brought by currents as larvae and later migrate to spawn grounds in the south (e.g., Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Capelin Mallotus villosus, Beaked redfish Sebastes mentella). Another species group includes warmer-water fishes that are rare waifs (e.g., Glacier

  15. Franz Josef Land: extreme northern outpost for Arctic fishes.

    PubMed

    Chernova, Natalia V; Friedlander, Alan M; Turchik, Alan; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The remote Franz Josef Land (FJL) Archipelago is the most northerly land in Eurasia and its fish fauna, particularly in nearshore habitats, has been poorly studied. An interdisciplinary expedition to FJL in summer 2013 used scuba, seines, and plankton nets to comprehensively study the nearshore fish fauna of the archipelago. We present some of the first underwater images for many of these species in their natural habitats. In addition, deep water drop cameras were deployed between 32 and 392 m to document the fish fauna and their associated habitats at deeper depths. Due to its high latitude (79°-82°N), extensive ice cover, and low water temperatures (<0 °C much of the year), the fish diversity at FJL is low compared to other areas of the Barents Sea. Sixteen species of fishes from seven families were documented on the expedition, including two species previously unknown to the region. One Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus (Somniosidae), ca. 2 m in length, was recorded by drop camera near Hayes Island at 211 m, and Esipov's pout, Gymnelus esipovi (Zoarcidae), was collected at Wilton Island at 15 m in a kelp forest. Including the tape-body pout, Gymnelus taeniatus, described earlier from the sub-littoral zone of Kuhn Island, 17 fish species are now known from FJL's nearshore waters. Species endemic to the Arctic accounted for 75% of the nearshore species observed, followed by species with wider ranges. A total of 43 species from 15 families are known from FJL with the majority of the records from offshore trawl surveys between 110 and 620 m. Resident species have mainly high Arctic distributions, while transient species visit the archipelago to feed (e.g., Greenland shark), and others are brought by currents as larvae and later migrate to spawn grounds in the south (e.g., Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Capelin Mallotus villosus, Beaked redfish Sebastes mentella). Another species group includes warmer-water fishes that are rare waifs (e.g., Glacier lanternfish

  16. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  17. [Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover in northern Tibetan Plateau with responses to climate change].

    PubMed

    Song, Chun-qiao; You, Song-cai; Ke, Ling-hong; Liu, Gao-huan; Zhong, Xin-ke

    2011-08-01

    By using the 2001-2008 MOMS land cover products (MCDl2Ql) and based on the modified classification scheme embodied the characteristics of land cover in northern Tibetan Plateau, the annual land cover type maps of the Plateau were drawn, with the dynamic changes of each land cover type analyzed by classification statistics, dynamic transfer matrix, and landscape pattern indices. In 2001-2008, due to the acceleration of global climate warming, the areas of glacier and snow-covered land in the Plateau decreased rapidly, and the melted snow water gathered into low-lying valley or basin, making the lake level raised and the lake area enlarged. Some permanent wetlands were formed because of partially submersed grassland. The vegetation cover did not show any evident meliorated or degraded trend. From 2001 to 2004, as the climate became warmer and wetter, the spatial distribution of desert began to shrink, and the proportions of sparse grassland and grassland increased. From 2006 to 2007, due to the warmer and drier climate, the desert bare land increased, and the sparse grassland decreased. From 2001 to 2008, both the landscape fragmentation degree and the land cover heterogeneity decreased, and the differences in the proportions of all land cover types somewhat enlarged.

  18. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  19. The Cambrian Ross Orogeny in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and New Zealand: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federico, L.; Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.; Bradshaw, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Cambrian, the paleo-Pacific margin of the Gondwana supercontinent included East Antarctica, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand and was affected by themajor Ross-Delamerian Orogeny. In Antarctica, evidence suggests that this resulted from oblique subduction and that in northern Victoria Land it was accompanied by the opening and subsequent closure of a back-arc basin. Comparison of the type and timing of sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic events in areas noted above shows strong similarities between northern Victoria Land and New Zealand. In both regions Middle Cambrian volcanites are interpreted as arc/back-arc assemblages produced by west-directed subduction; sediments interbedded with the volcanites show provenance both from the arc and from the Gondwana margin and therefore place the basin close to the continent. Back-arc closure in the Late Cambrian was likely accomplished through a second subduction system

  20. Pervasive, tholeiitic refertilisation and heterogeneous metasomatism in Northern Victoria Land lithospheric mantle (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Faccini, Barbara; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of peridotite xenoliths in the Cenozoic volcanics from Greene Point (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) provides new constraints on the characterisation of the lithospheric mantle beneath the West Antarctic Rift. Based on mineral major and trace element models, this mantle domain is proposed to represent a residuum after 10% and 20% partial melting. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results for Sr and Nd systematics highlight the substantial contribution of tholeiitic melts percolating through peridotites. Close correlation with trace element contents in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Ferrar and Karoo tholeiites allows us to ascribe this refertilisation event to the Jurassic. This asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to the Northern Victoria Land mantle segment. The rare presence of glass and secondary phases indicate that Greene Point xenoliths were heterogeneously affected by alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening; this has also been widely observed in other Northern Victoria Land localities (i.e., Baker Rocks). Temperature and fO2 were calculated (950 °C; Δlog fO2 (QFM), - 1.70 to - 0.39) at a fixed pressure of 15 kbar, confirming the tendency of the anhydrous Greene Point xenolith population to have higher equilibration temperatures and comparable redox conditions, compared to the nearby amphibole-bearing peridotites from Baker Rocks.

  1. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  2. Grassland Carbon Change in Northern China due to Contemporary and Future Land Use and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xiaoping; Li, Zhenwang; Sleeter, Benjamin; Wilson, Tamara; Sherba, Jason; Liu, Jinxun; Chen, Baorui; Tang, Huan; Gong, Peng; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-04-01

    In the past 20 years, more than 7 million hectares of natural grassland in north China were tilled and utilized. The increasing land use and land cover (LULC) change has resulted in the loss of ecosystem carbon storage and had an enormous impact on terrestrial carbon cycling. However, there are large uncertainties in quantifying the effect of LULC change on the historical and future carbon stock of these grasslands. This study used the integrated state-and-transition simulation model (ST-Sim) and the CENTURY model to track the effects of LULC change on ecosystem carbon storage from 1991 to 2030 in northern China. Four remote sensing based land cover maps of China (1-km spatial resolution for 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010) were used to generate recent historical land cover transition rates and annual land cover maps. In addition, four LULC projections were downscaled from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) representative concentration pathway (RCP) data and were used to derive future land cover changes of China. The CENTURY model was used to derive input parameters for the carbon stock and flow module in ST-Sim to track changes in carbon stocks and fluxes over the model period. The MODIS net primary productivity (NPP) product and regional living biomass and soil organic carbon maps were used to initialize the model. Five simulations were conducted including one with no historical and future land cover change (ST-Sim_NLULC) and four historical LULC change plus future RCP projection scenarios (ST-Sim_LULC). Simulation outputs included annual historical and future LULC maps, regional total NPP and net biome productivity (NBP) for the 1991-2030 period. Results showed that during the 40 years, the study area experienced drastic LULC change especially during the period 1991-2000. Compared to the ST-Sim_NLULC (i.e. no land use change) results, the ST-Sim LULC scenarios each show an increased NPP, a lower NBP before 2000, and a slighter higher NBP post-2000

  3. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  4. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Todd M.; Kim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000 – 2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time was determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990 ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121 ha have likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and- gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, injection wells, etc.), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  5. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  6. Implications of land use change in tropical northern Africa under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, T.; Claussen, M.; Raddatz, T.

    2015-12-01

    A major link between climate and humans in tropical northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. Here we assess possible feedbacks between the type of land use and harvest intensity and climate by analysing a series of idealized GCM experiments using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The baseline for these experiments is a simulation forced by the RCP8.5 (radiation concentration pathway) scenario, which includes strong greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic land cover changes. The anthropogenic land cover changes in the RCP8.5 scenario include a mixture of pasture and agriculture. In subsequent simulations, we replace the entire area affected by anthropogenic land cover change in the region between the Sahara in the north and the Guinean Coast in the south (4 to 20° N) with either pasture or agriculture. In a second set-up we vary the amount of harvest in the case of agriculture. The RCP8.5 baseline simulation reveals strong changes in the area mean agriculture and monsoon rainfall. In comparison with these changes, any variation of the type of land use in the study area leads to very small, mostly insignificantly small, additional differences in mean temperature and annual precipitation change in this region. These findings are only based on the specific set-up of our experiments, which only focuses on variations in the kind of land use, and not the increase in land use, over the 21st century, nor whether land use is considered at all. Within the uncertainty of the representation of land use in current ESMs, our study suggests marginal feedback between land use changes and climate changes triggered by strong greenhouse gas emissions. Hence as a good approximation, climate can be considered as an external forcing: models investigating land-use-conflict dynamics can run offline by prescribing seasonal or mean values of climate as a boundary condition

  7. Non-growing season soil CO2 efflux patterns in five land-use types in northern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overgrazing and unsuitable farming practices have led to grassland degradation in northern China. This studhy examined soil CO2 efflux (Fc) from five land-use types during the non-growing season on the southeastern edge of the Mongolian Plateau in China. The land-use types included three native v...

  8. Soil respiration patterns for four major land-use types of the agro-pastoral region of northern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-use types and management practices are critical factors that affect soil CO2 efflux (Rs). In the agro-pastoral area of northern China, land-use types have changed considerably during the last 60 years due to changes in the social-economic status of the human population and associated changes i...

  9. Land use influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dan; Verbruggen, Erik; Hu, Yajun; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Rillig, Matthias C; Zhou, Wenping; Xu, Tianle; Li, Huan; Hao, Zhipeng; Chen, Yongliang; Chen, Baodong

    2014-12-01

    We performed a landscape-scale investigation to compare the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities between grasslands and farmlands in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China. AMF richness and community composition were examined with 454 pyrosequencing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and multivariate analyses were applied to disentangle the direct and indirect effects (mediated by multiple environmental factors) of land use on AMF. Land use conversion from grassland to farmland significantly reduced AMF richness and extraradical hyphal length density, and these land use types also differed significantly in AMF community composition. SEM showed that the effects of land use on AMF richness and hyphal length density in soil were primarily mediated by available phosphorus and soil structural quality. Soil texture was the strongest predictor of AMF community composition. Soil carbon, nitrogen and soil pH were also significantly correlated with AMF community composition, indicating that these abiotic variables could be responsible for some of the community composition differences among sites. Our study shows that land use has a partly predictable effect on AMF communities across this ecologically relevant area of China, and indicates that high soil phosphorus concentrations and poor soil structure are particularly detrimental to AMF in this fragile ecosystem.

  10. Impacts of changes in land use and fragmentation patterns on Atlantic coastal forests in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Quintanilla, Luis G; Carreño, Francisco; Gutiérrez, David

    2010-01-01

    Changes in forested landscapes may have important consequences for ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. In northern Spain, major changes in land use occurred during the second half of the 20th century, but their impacts on forests have not been quantified. We evaluated the dynamics of landscape and forest distribution patterns between 1957 and 2003 in Fragas do Eume Natural Park (northwestern Spain). We used orthoimages and a set of standard landscape metrics to determine transitions between land cover classes and to examine forest distribution patterns. Eucalypt plantations showed the greatest increase in area (197%) over time. Furthermore, transitions to eucalypt plantations were found in all major land cover classes. Forest showed a net decline of 20% in total area and represented 30% of the landscape area in 2003. Forest losses were mainly due to eucalypt plantations and the building of a water reservoir, while forest gains were due to increases in shrubland, meadows and cultivated fields which had been recolonised. Forest patch size and core area decreased, and edge length increased over time. In turn, increases were obtained in mean distance between forest patches, and in adjacency to eucalypt plantations and to a water reservoir. These results suggest an increase in forest fragmentation from 1957 to 2003, as well as a change in the nature of the habitat surrounding forest patches. This study shows that land use changes, mostly from eucalypt plantation intensification, negatively affected forested habitats, although some regeneration was ongoing through ecological succession from land abandonment.

  11. Watershed land use influences on river discharge and channel characteristics across northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galster, J. C.; Palmer, K.; Birrer, M.; Espinosa, S.; Pope, G. A.; Feng, H.; Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    River characteristics such as sediment size, channel dimensions, and discharges can be strongly controlled by watershed land use. This project investigated three watersheds in northern New Jersey with varying degrees of forested, agriculture, and urban land uses to determine the effects of land use on these rivers. The watersheds are the Flatbrook, the Wallkill, and the Rockaway rivers and are predominantly forested, forested/agricultural, and forested/urban respectively. Eight sites across these fourth and fifth-order watersheds were investigated including: 1) the grain size using the Wolman pebble count method, 2) channel dimensions (slope, width, depth) with a total station, and 3) channel stability using the rapid geomorphic assessment (RGA). Channel width changes from 1930 to present were determined using historic aerial photographs, and river discharge characteristics were compiled using custom software to determine the flashiness (as measured by the Reynolds-Baker Index) and the Baseflow Index. The three adjacent watersheds have minimal variations in potential confounding variables such as watershed slope, climate, and precipitation, allowing for the isolation of the effects of land use changes. While some of the general relationship between how land use changes affect rivers (e.g., urban streams typically have larger grain sizes and flashier discharges), studies such as this one are important in determining how rivers respond locally. Across the studied watersheds, forested land uses are positively associated with rapid geomorphic assessments scores, indicating the influence of upstream land use and the importance of vegetation. Forested land use is also associated with efficient discharges as measured by hydraulic radius, although there were not significant changes in channel width from 1930 to present. The flashiness of all rivers has increased over time while the baseflow index has decreased, which may be a climatic signal as opposed to being influenced

  12. Groundwater sapping as the cause of irreversible desertification of Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Scuderi, Louis A.; Wang, Xulong; Scuderi, Louis J.; Zhang, Deguo; Li, Hongwei; Forman, Steven; Xu, Qinghai; Wang, Ruichang; Huang, Weiwen; Yang, Shixia

    2015-01-01

    In the middle-to-late Holocene, Earth’s monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases that produced green to desert state shifts. Resulting hydrologic regime change negatively impacted water availability and Neolithic cultures. Whereas mid-Holocene drying is commonly attributed to slow insolation reduction and subsequent nonlinear vegetation–atmosphere feedbacks that produce threshold conditions, evidence of trigger events initiating state switching has remained elusive. Here we document a threshold event ca. 4,200 years ago in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands of Inner Mongolia, northern China, associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River. This process initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, resulting in post-Humid Period mass migration of northern China’s Neolithic cultures. The Hunshandake remains arid and is unlikely, even with massive rehabilitation efforts, to revert back to green conditions. PMID:25561539

  13. Groundwater sapping as the cause of irreversible desertification of Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Scuderi, Louis A; Wang, Xulong; Scuderi, Louis J; Zhang, Deguo; Li, Hongwei; Forman, Steven; Xu, Qinghai; Wang, Ruichang; Huang, Weiwen; Yang, Shixia

    2015-01-20

    In the middle-to-late Holocene, Earth's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases that produced green to desert state shifts. Resulting hydrologic regime change negatively impacted water availability and Neolithic cultures. Whereas mid-Holocene drying is commonly attributed to slow insolation reduction and subsequent nonlinear vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks that produce threshold conditions, evidence of trigger events initiating state switching has remained elusive. Here we document a threshold event ca. 4,200 years ago in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands of Inner Mongolia, northern China, associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River. This process initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, resulting in post-Humid Period mass migration of northern China's Neolithic cultures. The Hunshandake remains arid and is unlikely, even with massive rehabilitation efforts, to revert back to green conditions.

  14. Northern Victoria Land (western Ross Sea-Antarctica): inner shelf fine sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, E.; Finocchiaro, F.; Ivaldi, R.; Pittà, A.; Tolotti, R.; Brambati, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Holocene sedimentation conditions are represented, in the western Ross Sea, by diatomaceous ooze in the uppermost part of sedimentary sequences, while diamicton deposited during Last Glacial Maximum are the basal unit of most cores. Thick layer (> 2 m) of diatomaceous ooze were sampled in the northern Joides Basin and into Granite Harbour. In Drygalski Ice Tongue area and along the coasts of northern Victoria Land, prevails coarse sedimentation, due to seaward flowing of large outlet glacier that drain the Transantarctic Mountain. During 1998-99 and 2001-02 PNRA antarctic cruises, favourable sea ice conditions, has allowed to sample inner shelf area, both in Wood Bay and south of Drygalski ice tongue (Nordenskjold basin). In both sites fine laminated diatomaceous mud are present. Preliminary seismostratigraphy and sedimentological data are here reported. This is the first note of new sites of fine sedimentation in the Ross Sea inner shelf.

  15. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Focus on Dry Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Ivanov, S.; Mátyás, S.; Meshcherskaya, A.; Razuvaev, V.

    2010-12-01

    NEESPI is an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research that addresses large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change over Northern Eurasia (http://neespi.org). The NEESPI Study Area includes: Former Soviet Union, Northern China, Mongolia, Fennoscandia, and Eastern Europe. Presentation will focus on the rationale of the initiative, its major steps, and plans for the future within the expansive dry land areas of Northern Eurasia in the southern boundary of the forest zone, forest-steppe, steppe, semi-desert, and desert climatic zones. The drought (xeric) limit of closed forests, an ecologically very sensitive zone, is present in nearly all of the countries within the latitudinal belt from 40° to 55°N in Eurasia - or if not, its appearance is predicted. According to predictions, increasing frequency of droughts and sinking groundwater levels may threaten the stability of forest ecosystems of this zone. These changes forecast specific problems not only for forestry itself, but also regarding the multitude of ecological services provided by forests for the society. In addition, we present our latest results on the changes in the warm season characteristics over the dry land zone within the former USSR during the period of instrumental observations (50 to 100 years). These include: changes in the precipitation distribution (an increase of the frequency of heavy and extreme precipitation with a simultaneous increase of the duration of the no-rain periods); earlier onset of the vegetation period; earlier spring snow cover retreat; and changes in indices that characterize "fire weather" and agricultural droughts (more humid weather conditions west of the Ural Mountains and drier weather conditions over most of northern Asia).

  16. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  17. Mapping of the Land Cover Spatiotemporal Characteristics in Northern Russia Caused by Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panidi, E.; Tsepelev, V.; Torlopova, N.; Bobkov, A.

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the investigation of regional climate change in Northern Russia. Due to sparseness of the meteorological observation network in northern regions, we investigate the application capabilities of remotely sensed vegetation cover as indicator of climate change at the regional scale. In previous studies, we identified statistically significant relationship between the increase of surface air temperature and increase of the shrub vegetation productivity. We verified this relationship using ground observation data collected at the meteorological stations and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data produced from Terra/MODIS satellite imagery. Additionally, we designed the technique of growing seasons separation for detailed investigation of the land cover (shrub cover) dynamics. Growing seasons are the periods when the temperature exceeds +5°C and +10°C. These periods determine the vegetation productivity conditions (i.e., conditions that allow growth of the phytomass). We have discovered that the trend signs for the surface air temperature and NDVI coincide on planes and river floodplains. On the current stage of the study, we are working on the automated mapping technique, which allows to estimate the direction and magnitude of the climate change in Northern Russia. This technique will make it possible to extrapolate identified relationship between land cover and climate onto territories with sparse network of meteorological stations. We have produced the gridded maps of NDVI and NDWI for the test area in European part of Northern Russia covered with the shrub vegetation. Basing on these maps, we may determine the frames of growing seasons for each grid cell. It will help us to obtain gridded maps of the NDVI linear trend for growing seasons on cell-by-cell basis. The trend maps can be used as indicative maps for estimation of the climate change on the studied areas.

  18. Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Marlow, Jeffrey J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Asphaug, Erik

    2008-11-01

    We examine potentially periglacial landforms in Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at the Phoenix landing site and compare them with numerical models of permafrost processes to better understand the origin, nature, and history of the permafrost and the surface of the northern plains of Mars. Small-scale (3-6 m) polygonal-patterned ground is ubiquitous throughout the Phoenix landing site and northern plains. Larger-scale (20-25 m) polygonal patterns and regularly spaced (20-35 m) rubble piles (localized collections of rocks and boulders) are also common. Rubble piles were previously identified as ``basketball terrain'' in MOC images. The small polygon networks exhibit well-developed and relatively undegraded morphology, and they overlay all other landforms. Comparison of the small polygons with a numerical model shows that their size is consistent with a thermal contraction origin on current-day Mars and are likely active. In addition, the observed polygon size is consistent with a subsurface rheology of ice-cemented soil on depth scales of about 10 m. The size and morphology of the larger polygonal patterns and rubble piles indicate a past episode of polygon formation and rock sorting in thermal contraction polygons, while the ice table was about twice as deep as it is presently. The pervasive nature of small and large polygons, and the extensive sorting of surface rocks, indicates that widespread overturning of the surface layer to depths of many meters has occurred in the recent geologic past. This periglacial reworking has had a significant influence on the landscape at the Phoenix landing site and over the Martian northern plains.

  19. Land Use Change and Hydrologic Processes in High-Elevation Tropical Watersheds of the Northern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, W. A.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Covino, T. P.; Peña, C.

    2013-12-01

    The humid tropics cover one-fifth of the Earth's land surface and generate the greatest amount of runoff of any biome globally, but remain poorly understood and understudied. Humid tropical regions of the northern and central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land-use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system in the world. Vast expanses of this region are currently undergoing rapid transformation to farmland for production of potatoes and pasture for cattle grazing. Although the humid tropics have some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, there is a lack of scientific literature that addresses hydrologic processes in these regions and very few field observations are available to inform management strategies to ensure the sustainability of water resources of present and future generations. We seek to improve understanding of hydrologic processes and feedbacks in the humid tropics using existing and new information from two high-elevation watersheds that span a LULC gradient in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. One site is located in the preserved Chingaza Natural National Park in Central Colombia (undisturbed). The second site is located ~60 km to the northwest and has experienced considerable LULC change over the last 40 years. Combined, these watersheds deliver over 80% of the water resources to Bogotá and neighboring communities. These watersheds have similar climatological characteristics (including annual precipitation), but have strong differences in LULC which result in substantial differences in hydrologic response and streamflow dynamics. We present an overview of many of the pressing issues and effects that land degradation and climate change are posing to the long-term sustainability of water resources in the northern Andes. Our overarching goal is to provide process-based knowledge that will be useful to prevent, mitigate, or respond to future water crises along the Andean

  20. Representing Northern Peatland Hydrology and Biogeochemistry within the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Xu, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2015-12-01

    Northern peatlands are projected to become very important in future carbon-climate feedback due to their large carbon storage and vulnerability to changes in hydrology and climate impacts. Understanding the hydrology and biogeochemistry is a fundamental task for projecting the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under future climate change. Models have started to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have considered a prognostic calculation of water table dynamics in vegetated peatlands rather than prescribed regional water tables. We introduced here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM), which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation between hummock and hollow microtopography in a vegetated peatland. We further integrated the hydrology treatment with vertically structured soil organic matter pools, and a newly developed microbial functional group-based methane module. The model was further used to test against observational data obtained within Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) project. Results for water table dynamic, carbon profile, and land surface fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were reasonable. Model simulations showed that warming and elevated CO2 had significant impacts on land surface fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide. The warming-induced hydrological changes are another factors influencing biogeochemistry along soil profiles and land surface gas fluxes. These preliminary results provide some insights for field experiments as well as data-model comparison in next phase of the SPRUCE project.

  1. Monitoring contrasting land management in the savanna landscapes of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Donald C; Petty, Aaron M; Williamson, Grant J; Brook, Barry W; Bowman, David M J S

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  2. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  3. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  4. Biomass Burning, Land-Cover Change, and the Hydrological Cycle in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25%of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (greater than 75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7% /yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28% /yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18% /yr) coming from savanna.During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5 deg-10 deg latitude),where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm/d. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback

  5. Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-09-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25% of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (>75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7%/yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28%/yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18%/yr) coming from savanna. During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5°-10° latitude), where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm d-1. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback mechanism.

  6. Geology and petrogenesis of the Kirkpatrick Basalt, Pain Mesa and Solo Nunatak, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Mensing, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The flows on Pain Mesa were divided into a Lower Suite and an Upper Suite based on differences in their chemical compositions. The Upper Suite has higher concentrations of SiO/sub 2/, alkalies, total Fe, MnO, TiO/sub 2/, and P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ than the Lower Suite. In addition, the flows of the Upper Suite are homogeneous in chemical composition compared to the Lower Suite which is differentiated. The isotope compositions of Sr and O of the Lower Suite are positively correlated which indicates that the magma was contaminated by crustal material. The isotopic and chemical compositions of the flows of the Lower Suite were explained by fractional crystallization and simultaneous assimilation of a crustal contaminant. The initial Sr isotope ratios of the Upper Suite, calculated for an assumed age of 175 Ma, were lower than those of the Lower Suite, and are not constant. However, by lowering the assumed age of the Upper Suite to 92 Ma the range of the initial Sr-isotope ratios was greatly reduced. Paleomagnetic results and K-Ar dating of Ferrar rocks at the Litell Rocks Nunatak in northern Victoria Land also support the hypothesis that the Upper Suite is Cretaceous in age. The magma source of both suites has elevated /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios compared to normal mantle values because of prior enrichment in Rb. The magma source was enriched in Rb about 475 Ma years ago. This data coincides with the Ross Orogeny which may reflect a causal relationship between these events. The occurrence of igneous activity in northern Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land were juxtaposed during the Mesozoic Era but were later separated as a result of major right lateral displacement along the Transantarctic rift system.

  7. Sea/land breeze climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, M. Telišman; Grisogono, B.

    2007-11-01

    Climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast have been examined for nine meteorological stations for the summertime sea/land breeze circulation. The stations considered are Pula-airport, Opatija, Rijeka, Senj, Malinska, Rijeka-airport, Mali Lošinj, Rab and Zadar. The hourly surface measurements at each station from June to September for the period 1991 2004 as well as the radiosoundings in Zadar (from 2002 to 2004) were used for the analysis. A dataset with the sea/land breeze days was formed according to the several criteria. The mean daily maxima of both air and sea surface temperatures were more influenced by the large scale disturbances toward north (e.g. in Rijeka or Opatija) compared to the values for e.g. Zadar. Furthermore, the influence of the large scale disturbances diminished toward the south concerning the sea land temperature difference only at the stations placed at Rijeka Bay and Velebit channel. The strongest sea breeze was found at Pula-airport and the most frequent ones at Opatija and Zadar. At Senj the rarest, the weakest and the shortest sea breeze was observed. The climatological records of wind speed and air-sea temperature difference (Δ T) showed for Opatija, Malinska and Zadar that the maximum measured wind speed is around 4.5 °C confirming the nonlinear relationship between the sea breeze speeds and the Δ T during the day. At most stations, the clockwise rotation of the hodographs prevails which is typical for the Northern hemisphere due to Coriolis force, with the exception at Senj and Malinska. While the hodographs for Pula, Rijeka-airport and Mali Lošinj display a later onset of the prevailing sea breeze because of the interaction among several sea breeze circulations, the results for Opatija, Zadar and Senj show considerably distorted hodographs because of the nearby channeling of the air flow.

  8. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  9. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-11-01

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics in northern

  10. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Mao, Jiafu; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Bisht, Gautam

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  11. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; ...

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  12. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; ...

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  13. Observation on internal waves propagation during Land breeze event in Northern Tyrrhenian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Piermattei, Viviana; Ciampa, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Internal wave propagation and water column mixing phenomena play an important role in many marine ecosystem coastal process. In Northern Tyrrhenian coast the experimental proposed approach is aimed to identify these type of oscillation in presence of breeze circulation. Along the Tyrrhenian coast summer period climate conditions allow the generations of high frequency land-sea breeze events. This local circulation, land-sea breeze indeed, may generate significant modifications of the sea waters physical parameters. Thay often appear as internal gravity waves especially in presence of stratified water and stable thermocline. Since the whole investigated process evolves on diurnal scale and in the space of a few miles the sampling plan was operated with a series of oceanographic surveys at 40 meters depth with 20 minutes interval one from another between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. and they were repeted during each summers between 2012 - 2014. Coupled with the acquisition of physical parameters current data were collected with 500 kHz ADCP every 20s, the resolution of vertical profiles of CTD matches the ADCP 1 meter magnitude vertical resolution. in order to investigate the water column layers dynamics behavior, Brunt-Vaisala and Richardson number were computed using the sampled physical parameters. Coastal surveys analysis highlights the presence of temperature oscillation in proximity of the thermocline and bottom layers; these oscillations have been observed during all measure surveys, when the land breeze was over. Indeed the land breeze tends to generate an offshore transport causing bottom layers to lift. At the same time solar radiation heating causes a sink of the surface layers which flatten the layers in proximity of the thermocline. Therefore the oscillations of temperature observed during the oceanographic surveys have to considered as internal waves, as during earlier studies conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea has been observed.

  14. [Dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ke-Li; Chang, Qing-Rui

    2007-09-01

    By using the 1986, 1993 and 2003 Landsat TM images and with the help of GIS, the dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi in 1986-2003 were analyzed. The results showed that in the past 17 years, the desertification area in the zone decreased by 206,655.2 hm2, with the patches in landscape structure reduced and fragmentation abated. Fortunately, the desertification degree decreased obviously, and moderate and light desertification took the leading position. From 1986 to 2003, the spatial centroid of desertification landscape patches expanded southwestward and northeastward, giving serious threat to the ecological safety of the southeast and northeast loess gully and hilly areas.

  15. Diachronous cleavage development in the Robertson Bay Terrane, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Wright, Thomas O.

    1992-04-01

    The Robertson Bay terrane is the easternmost of three regional lithotectonic units comprising Northern Victoria Land. It is largely represented by a thick succession of Cambrian-Ordovician distal turbidites (Robertson Bay Group), which has been folded into upright structures with development of an associated, regionally penetrative cleavage during maintenance of regionally uniform, low-grade regional metamorphic conditions. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release analysis of slate/phyllite documents diachronous cleavage development between ˜500 Ma (west) and 460 Ma (east) during the Ross orogeny. This systematic regional variation in age is consistent with tectonic models for the Ross orogeny that involve southwest directed subduction of the outboard Robertson Bay terrane beneath the Bowers terrane. Convergence rates of ˜0.4-1.0 cm/yr are suggested.

  16. Assessment of the Nature, Distribution and Causes of Land Subsidence in Central and Northern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A.; Sultan, M.; Al Harbi, H.; Youssef, A.; Ahmed, M.; Emil, M.; Zabramwi, Y.; Alzahrani, S.; Bahamil, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous land subsidence events have been recently reported from central and northern parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Hail, Al Qassim, Al Jowf, and Buraydah Provinces. In some cases, these incidences resulted in losses in life and property. In this study, an integrated (field, geologic, remote sensing) approach is applied to accomplish the following: (1) identify the spatial distribution and extent of areas affected by subsidence (TASK I), (2) identify the factor(s) causing such subsidence (TASK II), and (3) identify areas threatened by such phenomena across northern and central parts of the Kingdom using criteria extracted from TASK II (TASK III). A three-fold approach was applied: (1) visits were conducted to collect field observations from reported subsidence locations, (2) spatial correlations were implemented in a web-based GIS environment for the reported subsidence locations in relation to relevant co-registered static datasets (e.g., rock and soil types, geologic structures) and temporal datasets (e.g., groundwater extraction, landuse/landcover, distribution and magnitude of earthquakes), (3) subsidence rates were extracted applying the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) radar interferometric technique and using European Remote Sensing satellite-1 (ERS-1), ERS-2, and the Environmental Satellite (Envisat) data sets. Our findings (from radar interferometric studies) indicate that the distribution of areas undergoing subsidence are consistent/correlate with: (1) reported subsidence locations, but reveal many additional unreported subsidence locations, (2) irrigated lands, especially those witnessing a progressive increase in agricultural activities with time; (3) outcrops of the Saq sandstone aquifer system, the main source for fresh groundwater in the Kingdom, (4) outcrops the Minjur limestone formation that are subject to karstification; and (5) urban centers lacking appropriate sewage and drainage systems.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  18. Is the northern high-latitude land-based CO2 sink weakening?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, D.J.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Gurney, K.R.; Burnside, T.J.; Melillo, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that, historically, terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high-latitude region may have been responsible for up to 60% of the global net land-based sink for atmospheric CO2. However, these regions have recently experienced remarkable modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle, including surface air temperature warming that is significantly greater than the global average and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. Whether Arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystems will continue to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the face of these dramatic changes is unknown. Here we show the results of model simulations that estimate a 41 Tg C yr-1 sink in the boreal land regions from 1997 to 2006, which represents a 73% reduction in the strength of the sink estimated for previous decades in the late 20th century. Our results suggest that CO 2 uptake by the region in previous decades may not be as strong as previously estimated. The recent decline in sink strength is the combined result of (1) weakening sinks due to warming-induced increases in soil organic matter decomposition and (2) strengthening sources from pyrogenic CO2 emissions as a result of the substantial area of boreal forest burned in wildfires across the region in recent years. Such changes create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming, putting further pressure on emission reductions to achieve atmospheric stabilization targets. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Is the northern high latitude land-based CO2 sink weakening?

    SciTech Connect

    Mcguire, David; Kicklighter, David W.; Gurney, Kevin R; Burnside, Todd; Melillo, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that, historically, terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitude region may have been responsible for up to 60% of the global net land-based sink for atmospheric CO2. However, these regions have recently experienced remarkable modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle, including surface air temperature warming that is significantly greater than the global average and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. Whether arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystems will continue to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the face of these dramatic changes is unknown. Here we show the results of model simulations that estimate a 41 Tg C yr-1 sink in the boreal land regions from 1997 to 2006, which represents a 73% reduction in the strength of the sink estimated for previous decades in the late 20th Century. Our results suggest that CO2 uptake by the region in previous decades may not be as strong as previously estimated. The recent decline in sink strength is the combined result of 1) weakening sinks due to warming-induced increases in soil organic matter decomposition and 2) strengthening sources from pyrogenic CO2 emissions as a result of the substantial area of boreal forest burned in wildfires across the region in recent years. Such changes create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming, putting further pressure on emission reductions to achieve atmospheric stabilization targets.

  20. Projecting Land-Use Change and Its Consequences for Biodiversity in Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H.

    2010-03-01

    Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The

  1. Assessing naturalness in northern great lakes forests based on historical land-cover and vegetation changes.

    PubMed

    Gimmi, Urs; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-08-01

    The concept of naturalness was developed to assess to what degree landscapes represent a natural state. Protected areas are often regarded as the remnants of untouched landscapes although many landscapes commonly perceived as pristine have a long history of human impact. Here, we introduced a historical perspective into the concept of naturalness and the analysis of the effectiveness of protected areas by analyzing historical trajectories in land-cover and forest communities for the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore on Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA). Distribution of land-cover and forest community types was reconstructed for pre-settlement time (around 1850), the height of agricultural expansion (1928), and modern conditions (2000). Naturalness of the landscape was assessed by analyzing similarity between pre-settlement and current conditions and by assessing landscape continuity (1850-1928-2000). We compared changes in the strictly protected park core zone with those in the inland buffer zone with ongoing sustainable logging, and a not protected area adjacent to the park. Forest was the dominant land-cover type over the entire study period. We detected a gradient in land-cover continuity from the core zone (81 % continuity) to the inland buffer zone (74 %) and the area outside the park (66 %). Northern hardwood was the dominating forest type in all time points with high continuity (76 %). In contrast, pine forests show a more dynamic pattern with more than 50 % of the initial forests switching to non-forest or early succession forest types by 1928. More than half of the study area was considered as "natural virgin" (no changes in land-cover and forest community type) with a higher portion within the park than in the adjacent area. In contrast, areas with low naturalness are more abundant outside the park. Our study demonstrates the value of integrating historical information into naturalness assessments and the results provide useful information for future

  2. Projecting land-use change and its consequences for biodiversity in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The

  3. Community participatory landscape classification and biodiversity assessment and monitoring of grazing lands in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Roba, Hassan G; Oba, Gufu

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we asked the Ariaal herders of northern Kenya to answer "why, what and how" they classified landscape, and assessed and monitored the biodiversity of 10 km(2) of grazing land. To answer the "why question" the herders classified grazing resources into 39 landscape patches grouped into six landscape types and classified soil as 'warm', 'intermediate' or 'cold' for the purpose of land use. For the "what question" the herders used soil conditions and vegetation characteristics to assess biodiversity. Plant species were described as 'increasers', 'decreasers' or 'stable'. The decreaser species were mostly grasses and forbs preferred for cattle and sheep grazing and the increasers were mostly woody species preferred by goats. The herders evaluated biodiversity in terms of key forage species and used absence or presence of the preferred species from individual landscapes for monitoring change in biodiversity. For the "how question" the herders used anthropogenic indicators concerned with livestock management for assessing landscape potential and suitability for grazing. The anthropogenic indicators were related to soils and biodiversity. The herders used plant species grazing preferences to determine the links between livestock production and biodiversity. By addressing these three questions, the study shows the value of incorporating the indigenous knowledge of herders into classification of landscape and assessment and monitoring of biodiversity in the grazing lands. We conclude that herder knowledge of biodiversity is related to the use as opposed to exclusive conservation practices. This type of knowledge is extremely valuable to conservation agencies for establishing a baseline for monitoring changes in biodiversity in the future.

  4. Geomorphic and Land Management Effects on Channel Altering Events in the Klamath Mountain, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A.; Mikulovsky, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Channel altering events have many impacts on stream channels and can be the result of debris flows, hyper-concentrated flows or severe flooding. They play a major role in coarse woody debris delivery to fish bearing streams and provide a mix of sediment to the higher order streams. Channel altering events can reduce or even temporarily eliminate riparian vegetation along the stream channel and create changes in the stream bed such as aggradation and degradation. These processes are a natural part of steep, rugged landscapes such as that of the Klamath Mountains and have long-term benefits to the stream systems. The process can be accelerated however, by land management activities or severe wildfire events. Previous investigations have focused on the impacts to landsliding rates as a result of timber harvest, wildfire and forest roads. These studies are limited in spatial extent and have not combined timber harvest, wildfire, forest roads, storm intensity and geomorphic characteristics in the same investigation. In addition, previous studies have not included areas where landslides did not occur for comparison. This study investigates the relationships between landform, timber harvest, forest roads, wildfire, and storm intensity over the Klamath Mountains in Northern California. The study investigates the initiation points of channel altering events that occurred in the flood of December 1996/January 1997. Channel altering event initiation points are the uppermost point of an altered channel segment (highest elevation) as apparent on aerial photos. The initiation points are compared to stratified random points in and near channels where no channel altering event occurred. The initiation points and random points were attributed with information such as aspect, hillslope gradient, elevation, bedrock type, landform, storm intensity and land management practices. A logistic regression analysis will determine if there is a suite of characteristics that separated the

  5. Prokaryotic Abundance and Activity in Permafrost of the Northern Victoria Land and Upper Victoria Valley (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Michaud, Luigi; Caruso, Gabriella; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Conte, Antonella; Cosenza, Alessandro; Maimone, Giovanna; Papale, Maria; Rappazzo, Alessandro Ciro; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2017-03-13

    Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type. Image analysis was adopted to determine cell abundance, size and shape as well as to quantify the potential viable and respiring cells by live/dead and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride staining, respectively. Subpopulation recognition by apparent nucleic acid contents was obtained by flow cytometry. Moreover, the physiological profiles at community level by Biolog-Ecoplate™ as well as the ectoenzymatic potential rates on proteinaceous (leucine-aminopeptidase) and glucidic (ß-glucosidase) organic matter and on organic phosphates (alkaline-phosphatase) by fluorogenic substrates were tested. The adopted methodological approach gave useful information regarding viability and metabolic performances of microbial community in permafrost. The occurrence of a multifaceted prokaryotic community in the Victoria Land permafrost and a large number of potentially viable and respiring cells (in the order of 10(4)-10(5)) were recognised. Subpopulations with a different apparent DNA content within the different samples were observed. The physiological profiles stressed various potential metabolic pathways among the samples and intense utilisation rates of polymeric carbon compounds and carbohydrates

  6. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara; Law, Beverly; Turner, David P; Campbell, John; Donato, Dan; Duane, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Net uptake of carbon from the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. To improve understanding of the influence of these factors on forest carbon stocks and flux in the western United States, federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements at additional plots were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon and Northern California during the 1990s. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), and mortality. In the semiarid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C/m2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C.m(-2).yr(-1), respectively. Maximum NPP and dead biomass stores were most influenced by climate, whereas maximum live biomass stores and mortality were most influenced by forest type. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (>200 years old) in some ecoregions. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically increase from 3.2 +/- 0.34 Pg C to 5.9 +/- 1.34 Pg C (a 46% increase) if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable, given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase the land-based carbon storage by increasing rotation age and reducing harvest rates.

  7. Quantifying Biogeochemical Cycles of CO2 and CH4 over the Land and Aquatic Ecosystems in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Under the auspices of the NASA Land-Use and Land-Cover Change Program, we have made a significant progress on quantifying both CO2 and CH4 biogeochemical cycles of the land and aquatic systems in Northern Eurasia over the last several decades. Our quantification is based on in situ and satellite data of ecosystem distribution, land cover distribution, carbon, water and energy fluxes, fire disturbances, plant biomass inventory, atmospheric CO2 and CH4, and meteorology. The evaluated process-based modeling systems for both land and aquatic ecosystems for the historical period have been used to project carbon fluxes during the 21st century over this region. The uncertainty associated with these carbon-based gases is also quantified. This presentation will update these quantifications by examining: 1) the impacts of fire disturbances on land ecosystem CO2 budget in the last few decades; 2) net CO2 and CH4 exchanges of the land and aquatic ecosystems in both historical and future periods. Our study has also assessed the role of permafrost dynamics in both land and aquatic ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in this region. Our research provides an integrated land and aquatic ecosystem model that can be used to address biogeochemical cycles of carbon and water in this climate-sensitive region.

  8. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across northern Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rawlins, M.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Kimball, J.S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J.C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-01-01

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m−2 yr−2, equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model

  9. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    DOE PAGES

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; ...

    2015-07-28

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate modelmore » simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m⁻² yr⁻², equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in

  10. Proposed Mars Surveyor Landing Sites in Northern Meridiani Sinus, Southern Elysium Planitia, and Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Edgett, K. S.

    1998-01-01

    from the present study images from current and future orbiter spacecraft, until such data does become readily available. Within each proposed region, it may be possible to identify additional sites once these data become available. Second, the fine-component thermal inertia data, should be greater than about 5 or 6 cgs Units (10(exp -3) cal/sq cm s(exp -0.5)/K). Low thermal inertias imply dusty environments, which could pose a mobility hazard. Similarly, the albedo of the site should not be particularly high, which would also suggest dusty surfaces. Low albedos are preferred, as they often coincide with low Viking red:violet ratios and indicate less dusty surfaces. Next, the Modeled Block Abundance should also not be too high or too low. Based on the Viking Lander and Mars Pathfinder experiences, percentages of blocks should be on the order of 5-25%. Too many blocks could pose a hazard to the landing and mobility. Too few blocks could also indicate a dusty surface. Primary Landing Site: Northern Meridiani Sinus (Proposed by T. J. Parker and K., S. Edgett) Vital Statistics: (1) Latitude, Longitude: 0-3 N, 350-2 W. *Elevation (Viking): about0.5-1.5 Ian. (2) Viking Orbiter Image coverage: Excellent coverage by 15 - 25 m/pixel images (orbits 709A and 410B). Possible stereo coverage in region where two orbits overlap (probably small parallax angle, as these orbits are not listed in NASA Contractor Report 3501) (3) Albedo: about .18 -.26 (4) Block Abundance: 5-26% (5)Fine-Component Thermal Inertia: 5-9 cgs units This region consists of bright deposits similar to those described by Edgett et al, that also lie within a prominent dark albedo region. These deposits are flat-lying, to such a degree that they ramp against topography rather than draping over it. This led Edgett and Parker to suggest that they may be subaqueous sediments, possibly lacustrine or marine evaporites, laid down sometime from the late Noachian to middle Hesperian (age determination pending crater counts

  11. Radiometric ages of pre-Mesozoic rocks from northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, H.; Höhndorf, A.; Lenz, H.; Müller, P.; Vetter, U.

    Northern Victoria Land forms the Pacific end of the Transantarctic Mountains. Three major thrust-bounded terranes are distinguished. The Wilson Terrane (WT), with low- to high-grade partly polyphase metamorphics, is in the west; the Robertson Bay Terrane (RBT), with low-grade metaturbidites, is in the east; and squeezed between these two, with indications of a suture zone at the margin of the western terrane, is a third, the narrow Bowers Terrane (BT), with a low-grade metamorphic regressive Cambrian sequence of volcanics and marine to fluviatile sediments. All three terranes were affected by early Ordovician events. Models for the relationships of the three terranes have to consider the following observations. Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron ages of about 600 and 530 Ma are suggested for the WT as well as for the northern margin of the RBT. The Ordovician Granite Harbour Intrusives are restricted to the WT, but similar Ordovician ages of 500 to 460 Ma are determined for all three terranes on micas or schists and slates. Hence, a common history is possible for all three terranes since the Ordovician. The atectonic Devonian to Carboniferous Admiralty Intrusives (370-350 Ma) intrude mainly the eastern terrane but probably cut the bounding thrust zones of the terranes. They show a southwestward decreasing crustal contamination and have characteristics of postcollision I-type granitoids, allowing the speculation of a juxtaposition of the three terranes in the Devonian. Permian Beacon sediments and Jurassic Ferrar Dolerites in the western, the Bowers, and the Wilson terranes indicate that the three terranes were thrust together at least in the late Paleozoic.

  12. Land Use and Water Quality Along a Mekong Tributary in Northern Lao P.D.R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Cuny, Juliette; Sengsoulichanh, Phonexay; Mousquès, Claire; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Pierret, Alain; Huon, Sylvain; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2011-02-01

    Improving access to clean water has the potential to make a major contribution toward poverty reduction in rural communities of Lao P.D.R. This study focuses on stream water quality along a Mekong basin tributary, the Houay Xon that flows within a mountainous, mosaic land-use catchment of northern Lao P.D.R. To compare direct water quality measurements to the perception of water quality within the riparian population, our survey included interviews of villagers. Water quality was found to vary greatly depending on the location along the stream. Overall, it reflected the balance between the stream self-cleaning potential and human pressure on the riparian zone: (i) high bacteria and suspended load levels occurred where livestock are left to free-range within the riparian zone; (ii) very low oxygen content and high bacteriological contamination prevailed downstream from villages; (iii) high concentrations of bacteria were consistently observed along urbanized banks; (iv) low oxygen content were associated with the discharge of organic-rich wastewater from a small industrial plant; (v) very high suspended load and bacteria levels occurred during flood events due to soil erosion from steep cultivated hill slopes. Besides these human induced pollutions we also noted spontaneous enrichments in metals in wetland areas fed by dysoxic groundwater. These biophysical measurements were in agreement with the opinions expressed by the majority of the interviewees who reported poor and decreasing water quality in the Houay Xon catchment. Based on our survey, we propose recommendations to improve or maintain stream water quality in the uplands of northern Lao P.D.R.

  13. Unimodal latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across northern Eurasian lowlands.

    PubMed

    Horsák, Michal; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness and their causes are still poorly understood for most terrestrial invertebrates, although invertebrates can add important insights into the mechanisms that generate regional and global biodiversity patterns. Here we explore the general plausibility of the climate-based "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis using the latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across extensive topographically homogeneous lowlands of northern Eurasia. We established a 1480-km long latitudinal transect across the Western Siberian Plain (Russia) from the Russia-Kazakhstan border (54.5°N) to the Arctic Ocean (67.5°N), crossing eight latitudinal vegetation zones: steppe, forest-steppe, subtaiga, southern, middle and northern taiga, forest-tundra, and tundra. We sampled snails in forests and open habitats each half-degree of latitude and used generalized linear models to relate snail species richness to climatic variables and soil calcium content measured in situ. Contrary to the classical prediction of latitudinal biodiversity decrease, we found a striking unimodal pattern of snail species richness peaking in the subtaiga and southern-taiga zones between 57 and 59°N. The main south-to-north interchange of the two principal diversity constraints, i.e. drought stress vs. cold stress, explained most of the variance in the latitudinal diversity pattern. Water balance, calculated as annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, was a single variable that could explain 81.7% of the variance in species richness. Our data suggest that the "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis can apply not only at the global scale but also at subcontinental scales of higher latitudes, as water availability was found to be the primary limiting factor also in this extratropical region with summer-warm and dry climate. A narrow zone with a sharp south-to-north switch in the two main diversity constraints seems to constitute the dominant and general pattern of

  14. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Granitic rocks within Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, T.; KIM, Y.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Woo, J.

    2015-12-01

    The study areas, Lichen Hills and Outback Nunatak are located in the Northern Victoria Land which is close to Pacific Ocean side of Transantarctic Mountain (TAM), Antarctica. According to the study of Zeller and Dreschoff (1990), the radioactivity values of Lichen hills and Frontier Mt. area in the Victoria Land were very high. To identify the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks in these areas, 13 samples of Lichen Hills rocks and 4 samples of Outback Nunatak rocks are analyzed. For mineralogical study, samples were observed in macroscale as well as microscale including microscope electron probe analysis. Rock samples of Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak are mainly leucogranite and granitic pegmatite. These rock samples are composed of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline like granite. In SEM-EDS analysis, the observed light colored minerals show relatively high Th, U, Dy, Ce, Nb concentration. This suggests that rock samples may contain minerals such as fergusonite, monazite, thorite, allanite, karnasurtite which are considered to be REE-bearing minerals. Samples of related rocks have been analyzed in terms of major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). As concentration of SiO2 increase, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, P2O5 concentration decrease and Na2O, K2O, MnO concentration increase. Analyzed trace elements and REE are normalized using CI Chondrite, Primitive mantle. The normalized data show that LREE are enriched compared to HREE. The distinct negative anomalies of Eu, Sr are observed, indicating that rock-forming melts are fairly processed state of fractional crystallization. It means that Th, U, Nb, Ta are much enriched in the melts.

  15. Distribution of Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles vestitipennis, and Anopheles crucians associated with land use in northern Belize.

    PubMed

    Grieco, John P; Johnson, Sarah; Achee, Nicole L; Masuoka, Penny; Pope, Kevin; Rejmánková, Eliska; Vanzie, Errol; Andre, Richard; Roberts, Donald

    2006-05-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes often alter natural patterns of disease transmission. The goal of this study was to determine whether phosphorus input from sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., cultivation in northern Belize could pose a significant environmental impact on malaria transmission by changing vegetation structure and composition of wetlands and associated larval habitats. Our primary focus was on the increased dominance of cattail, Typha domingensis Pers., a favored habitat for Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab. A land cover classification based on satellite imagery was used to select 20 marshes impacted by agricultural runoff and 20 marshes surrounded by forest (nonimpacted). A 100-m transect was established into each of the 40 marshes. Water, vegetation, and larval sampling were conducted at the 0-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-m locations along the transect. Analyses of larval density data indicated that Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann was negatively correlated with percentage of cover of Typha (R2 = 0.39, P < 0.001) but positively correlated with sparse Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. (rush) cover (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.05) and presence of cyanobacterial mats (CBM) (R2 = 0.33, P < 0.0001). An. vestitipennis was found to be positively correlated with percentage of cover of Typha (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.001). Canonical correspondence analysis identified CBM and light as the variables associated with the presence of An. albimanuts larvae, Typha cover with An. vestitipennis larvae, and Eleocharis and absence of light with Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann). A positive correlation also existed between marshes adjacent to agricultural activities and presence of An. vestitipennis (R2 = 0.37, P < 0.05). These results indicate that marshes in proximity to agricultural fields are conducive for Typha growth, thereby providing habitat for the more efficient malaria vector

  16. Impacts of Biomass Burning on the Land Use / Land Cover Dynamics in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa and Associated Alteration of Local Emission Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major anthropogenic event in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), which contributes 15-20% of the global annual total of particulate matter emissions from fires. This burning is mostly for agricultural, grazing or hunting purposes, and thus has a great potential for driving changes in the land use and land cover distribution in that region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have two complimentary data products to support this research: the MOD14/MYD14 active fire products measuring fire locations and strengths, and the MCD12 land cover type product, which includes the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land-cover classification system used in this analysis. More specifically, the MCD12Q1 tiled data product at 500 m was used to match against the 1 km active fire product resolution for the current analysis. Paired data between instantaneous fire measurements and the underlying land cover types for the particular year over the study period of 2003-2013 reveals a dominant burning of savanna, followed by cropland land cover type throughout the region. There are a few indications of the interchange between savanna and cropland due to burning practices. Even though the fire activity in the whole NSSA region is decreasing at a rate of 1.4%/yr during the study period, some land cover types in parts of NSSA show an increase, including local increases in sensitive land cover types such as forest and wetland, which could have serious ecological implications. The changes in the overall redistribution of biomass burning amongst the different land cover types in NSSA dictate that there is also a redistribution of biomass burning emissions. The extent of these changes will also be covered in this presentation.

  17. The accuracy of satellite-derived albedo for northern alpine and glaciated land covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Scott N.; Copland, Luke; Hik, David S.

    2016-09-01

    Alpine and Arctic land cover can present a challenge for the validation of satellite-derived albedo measurements due, in part, to the complex terrain and logistical difficulty of accessing these regions. We compared measurements of albedo on transects from northern mountain land covers (snowfield, glacier ice, tundra, saline silt river delta) and over a large elevation range to the coincident 8-day MODIS (MCD43) albedo product. We also compared field measurements at snow covered sites to the coincident daily MODIS (MOD10A1) snow albedo product. For each transect, we measured a range of albedo values, with the least variability on the silt river delta (range = 0.084) and the largest over mid-elevation glacier ice (range = 0.307). The highest elevation snowfield (0.170) had nearly the same range of albedo values as tundra (0.164). The MODIS shortwave White Sky Albedo product (MCD43A3) was highly correlated with the field transect albedo (R2 = 0.96), with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.061. The MODIS shortwave Black Sky Albedo product was similarly correlated with field transects (R2 = 0.96; RMSE = 0.063). These results indicate that remote observation of albedo over snow covered and alpine terrain is well constrained and consistent with other studies. Albedo varied by ∼15% both spatially and temporally for the high elevation snowfields at the point in the season where albedo variation should be at its minimum. There were several instances where MCD43A3 albedo was not produced over snow and was instead classified as cloud covered, despite field observations of cloud free skies. There were also several instances where daily MOD10A1 albedo was produced during the coincident 8-day period at these locations. This suggests that the cloud mask in the MCD43 product is overly conservative over snow. Spatial variation in albedo within the MODIS grid cell (500 m), especially for snow and glacier ice, combined with the uncertainty associated with positional accuracy of

  18. On the Main Factors Controlling Anthropogenic Land Subsidence in the Northern Plain of the Chaobai River, North Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Teatini, P.; Gong, H.; Ke, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic land subsidence is a widespread phenomenon threatening several cities in China. One major area of land subsidence is the Beijing city. The city continues to grow and unofficial estimates put the population at around 21-22 million in 2013, with an increase by 40% from 2000 to 2010. Along with the increasing urbanization, demands for water resources become larger. Approximately 2/3 of the water need is supplied by groundwater. To cope with the pressure for water supply, a first "over-sized emergency groundwater resource region (EGRR)" was built in 2003 at the Huairou district, where is the upper and middle plain of the Chaobai River, few tens km to the north of the metropolitan center. Other four EGRRwell-fields have been established in different districts surrounding the city in the next years. The long-time over-exploitation of groundwater resulted in water level fall and land subsidence. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) on ENVISAT images has been used to detect land subsidence in the northern Beijing plain from 2003 to 2010. The PSI outcome, which was calibrated using ground-based measurements including levelling and extensometers, reveals that the largest subsidence rate reached 52 mm/yr, with a cumulative maximum sinking equal to 342 mm, in the Houshayu city at the southwestern part of the study area where the capital international airport is situated. Land subsidence in the northern zones, where the main well-fields are located, was much smaller in the order of 60 mm. Hydro-geologic investigations have showed that the distribution of groundwater depression cones only partially resembles the land subsidence pattern. The subsidence rates are strongly correlated with the distribution of compressible clay units. In the south-westernmost zone, at the bound of the metropolitan area, the cumulative thickness of cohesive soils amounts to 250 m in the upper 390 m sedimentary sequence. Conversely, sands and gravels prevail in the northern portion

  19. Study of the sensitivity of a regional model in response to land cover change over northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Helin; Fu, Congbin

    1998-10-01

    Changing land surface types may have important consequences for the climate system. Predicting even the local, immediate effects of changing land surface types on the local energy and water balance has been difficult, because the land surface parameterization schemes used previously in climate models have been inadequate and the resolution of GCMs (global circulation models) has been too coarse to describe mesoscale forcings such as vegetation gradient adequately and to yield accurate regional climate detail. Grassland is a major ecosystem in northern China, playing a crucial role in the surface energy and water budget. Inclusion of a biosphere and atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) into the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (RegCM) permits an exploratory study of the possible effects of land cover change. Based on the observation of desertification processes in this area, an experiment with seven-day integration was designed in which all of the grassland in northern China is replaced by desert. The results show that, with the conversion of grassland into the desert, the surface hydrological cycle over northern China is weakened, with less precipitation and, in particular, a reduction in evaporation; the surface heat budget also changes, especially with the reduction in latent heat flux being much more than the reduction of net radiation, which results in an increase in surface temperature. These results are relevant to changes of parameters in BATS owing to changing land surface. Some detailed patterns of the effects of changing land surface on local energy and water balance have been simulated.

  20. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ihwagi, Festus W; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  1. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ihwagi, Festus W.; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Toxopeus, Albertus G.; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities. PMID:26407001

  2. Regional Land Surface Hydrology Impacts from Fire-Induced Surface Albedo Darkening in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Gupta, M.; Gatebe, C. K.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface hydrology models serve as an effective approach to simulate hydrological processes, especially in areas which lack in situ observational datasets. A key component to constraining the water, energy, and carbon dynamics within these models is land surface albedo because it links these cycles by driving evapotranspiration and also helps characterize soil infiltration behavior. However, most hydrological models estimate the land surface albedo based on generalized climatologic information, which can introduce uncertainty into the surface energy balance processes and water storage availability in the root-zone if done improperly. In particular, changes in surface albedo can have significant effects where dynamic and spatially heterogeneous land surface changes occur due to abrupt land cover changes, such as wildfire. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the most fire-prone regions of the world. Thus, the current study employs the new parameterization approach based on estimated change of surface albedo due to fires over different land cover types using long term MODIS time series in the catchment-based land surface model to investigate the potential for improving soil moisture and evapotranspiration simulations in fire-prone Northern Sub-Saharan Africa. We also compare the estimated soil moisture based on new and pre-existing baseline parameterization scheme to remotely-sensed observations obtained from satellite-based soil moisture observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and the recently launched satellite, Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instruments.

  3. Contribution of the NASA Land-Cover/Land-Use Change Program to the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, Garik

    2007-04-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) is a rapidly growing program that involves national government agencies, academia and private organizations in the U.S., Europe, Japan and Northern Eurasia. During the last decade the Northern Eurasian region have been undergoing socioeconomic, climatic and demographic changes. The causes of these changes, the associated interactions between the land surface, the atmosphere and the surrounding ocean and the resultant impact on the sustainability of land use of the region are important topics for scientific research. The NEESPI Science Plan has been prepared as an integrated regional study to better understand these hemispheric-scale interactions, to evaluate the combined role of climate and anthropogenic impacts on the Northern Eurasia ecosystems, and to assess how future human actions would affect the global climate and ecosystems of the region. Projections of the consequence of global changes on the regional environment, the economy and the quality of life in Northern Eurasia that is of primary importance to the nations in the region is an additional focus of this initiative. The NASA Land-Cover/Land-Use Change (LCLUC) Program has supported NEESPI since its inception, and currently funds 26 NEESPI projects. Several other NASA programs are also currently supporting or planning to support the NEESPI. The NEESPI program links to the major international programs under the Earth System Science Partnership (IGBP, IHDP, DIVERSITAS and WCRP) and under the Global Terrestrial Observing System, such as the Global Observation of Forest Cover/Global Observation of Landcover Dynamics (GOFC/GOLD). A number of the NEESPI science activities are aligned with the Global Earth System of Systems (GEOSS) objectives, giving an emphasis to societal benefits, so that the NEESPI framework can serve as a regional test bed for international cooperation in developing a system of observational systems. Since it is a new

  4. Land-Marine Paleoseismic Integration for the Northern Cascadia Margin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, C.; Galer, S.; Beeson, J. W.; Hamilton, T. S.; Black, B.; Romsos, C. G.; Nelson, C. H.; Morey, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    New and archive cores (N=70), bathymetric, backscatter and sub-bottom data from the Washington margin reveal patterns of Holocene sediment transport and deposition. Barkley, Nitinat, Juan de Fuca (JDF), Quillayute, Grays, Guide, and Willapa Canyons each have different post-glacial mechanisms of loading and dispersal of sediment via turbidity currents. In high-stand conditions, the northern canyons, Barkley, Nitinat, JDF, and Quillayute are mostly relict systems. The remaining canyons, Quinault, Grays, Guide, and Willapa, are recharged to varying degrees by northward transport of Columbia River derived sediment. All systems are nonetheless active conduits for turbidity currents during the Holocene. Sedimentologic and CT analyses, supported by radiocarbon ages, micropaleontology, and the Mazama Ash show that the Holocene sedimentary sequence consists of a series of sand to mud turbidites in the active portions of all systems, interbedded with hemipelagic sediment. The relict systems are finer grained, commonly not visually detected, with Holocene turbidite counts the same as recharged systems. Use of 1960's core sketches (Atwater) fails to capture the full record, as noted by Barnard (1973). Hydrodynamic models and heavy mineral distributions show that the northern canyon systems (Barkley, Nitinat, JDF, Quillayute) are independent of the southern systems, (Quinault, Guide, Grays, Willapa) during the Holocene. Best fitting flow inversions suggest turbidity currents range in height from 80-170 m, consistent with earlier work and backscatter observations. Mass balancing suggests sediment supplied to the slope canyons and abyssal channels is 4-6 times greater than supplied by recharge to the canyon heads by external sources, strongly indicating autogenic sourcing by earthquakes. Turbidite deposition off Washington is not very sensitive to either sediment supply or slope angle. Lithostratigraphic correlation and age models of Holocene turbidite sequences suggests

  5. Soil organic carbon and land use in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Renzi, Gianluca; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The Italian Ministry of Agricultural Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF) has set up a statistical survey aimed to provide the national forecast of yields and areas related to the main Italian agricultural crops (AGRIT). The methodology is based on field surveys and remote-sensed data, covers yearly the whole national territory, and is based on 100,000 observations which are statistically selected from a predefined grid made up of about 1,200,000 georeferenced points. In 2011-2012 we determined the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of 1,160 sampling points situated in Northern Italy in the plains and hills of Veneto (VEN) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), for which the land use in the period 2008-2010 was known. Samples have been subdivided in three main classes: arable crops, orchards and fodder crops. SOC was higher in FVG samples (2.48%, n=266) than in VEN samples (1.90%, n=894). The average value (2.03%) is clearly affected by the higher number of VEN samples. FVG data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean, wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean wheat, maize-soybean), 3-yr rotations, vineyards (totally, partially and no-grassed), alfalfa, and permanent fodder crops. No significant differences were detected among the land uses due to the low number of samples in some classes, but some important findings do exist from the agronomic point of view. Fodder crops (5.65%), alfalfa (3.41%) and vineyards (2.72%) showed the higher SOC content. SOC was 2.94% and 1.39 % in the grassed and no-grassed vineyards respectively. In the arable crops the average SOC was 2.18%, ranging from 2.32% (soybean-wheat rotation) to 2.03% (continuous soybean). SOC was 2.19% in the continuous maize, with 2.23% in corn and 1.87% in silage maize. The lower values were in the maize-wheat rotation (1.53%) and the continuous wheat (1.47%). VEN data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean and wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean-wheat, maize

  6. Proposed Mars Surveyor landing sites in northern Meridiani Sinus, southern Elysium Planitia, and Argyre Planitia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T. J.; Edgett, K. S.

    1998-01-01

    necessarily excludes from the present study images from current and future orbiter spacecraft, until such data does become readily available. Within each proposed region, it may be possible to identify additional sites once these data become available. Second, the fine-component thermal inertia data [1], compiled by P. Christensen and made available to the Mars Pathfinder project, should be greater than about 5 or 6 cgs units (10^-3 cal cm^-2 s^-0.5 K^-1). Low thermal inertias imply dusty environments, which could pose a mobility hazard. Similarly, the albedo ([2] digital file made available to the Mars Pathfinder project by P. Christensen) of the site should not be particularly high, which would also suggest dusty surfaces. Low albedos are preferred, as they often coincide with low Viking red:violet ratios and indicate less dusty surfaces. Next, the Modeled Block Abundance [1] should also not bee too high or too low. Based on the Viking Lander and Mars Pathfinder experiences, percentages of blocks should be on the order of 5-22%. Too many blocks could pose a hazard to the landing and mobility. Too few blocks could also indicate a dusty surface. Primary Landing Site: Northern Meridiani Sinus (Proposed by T. J. Parker and K. S. Edgett) Vital Statistics: *Latitude, Longitude: 0-3°N, 350-2°W. *Elevation (Viking): ~0.5-1.5 km. *Viking Orbiter Image coverage: Excellent coverage by 15-25 m/pixel images (orbits 709A and 410B). Possible stereo coverage in region where two orbits overlap (probably small parallax angle, as these orbits are not listed in NASA Contractor Report 3501) *Albedo: ~0.18-0.26 *Block Abundance: 5-26% *Fine-Component Thermal Inertia: 5-9 cgs units This region consists of bright deposits similar to those described by Edgett et al. [3], that also lie within a prominent dark albedo region. These deposits are flat-lying, to such a degree that they ramp against topography rather than draping over it. This led Edgett and Parker [4] to suggest that they may be

  7. Geomorphology of the 2007 Phoenix Mission Landing Sites in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Golombek, M.; Parker, T.; Tamppari, L.; Smith, P.

    2005-12-01

    In 2008, the Phoenix lander will touch down in the northern plains of Mars to sample and characterize near surface and underlying ice-rich soils, gather meteorological data, and provide insight into the evolution of the surrounding landscape. Three regions from 65 to 72 N and (A) 250-270E, (B) 120-140E, and (C) 65-85E that meet both engineering and scientific constraints were chosen for concentrated acquisition of remote data to support landing site selection. Smaller areas (150x75 km) within these regions devoid of large craters or other hazards were selected as potential landing sites; center coordinates for these targeted areas are (A) 68N, 260E, (B) 67.5N, 130E, and (C) 70N, 80E. MOLA topographic data along with MOC imagery and THEMIS 36m/pixel visible, 18m/pixel visible, and ~100m/pixel infrared data are utilized to produce geomorphologic maps at 36m/pixel for the larger regions and 18m/pixel for the targeted sites. All regions are dominated by intercrater plains units, with the plains in regions B and C comprised of slightly elevated, multiple kilometer-scale polygonal blocks surrounded or infilled by finer-grained material. The plains unit of region A lacks large polygons, instead exhibiting a smooth to mottled appearance. Patterned ground is ubiquitous throughout all regions. The characteristic dimpled texture of "basketball" terrain is most common, being superposed on the large polygons in regions B and C, and often organized into stripes with orientations partially controlled by local slopes. Small-scale polygonal ground is also observed usually in association with crater ejecta. Craters throughout all regions appear highly degraded, with most small craters (< 1km) remarkably worn with little or no rim definition and ejecta present only as a faint dark halo. Larger craters frequently exhibit pedestal-style ejecta. The style and state of landform degradation and the consistent presence of patterned ground throughout all regions suggests the long

  8. Seasonal variations of wind farm impacts on land surface temperature and vegetation over northern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawsky, Lauren

    Operating wind turbines enhance near surface turbulence and alter the exchanges of surface energy, water, and momentum, thus affecting local micrometeorology. Climatic impacts of three wind farms in northern Illinois are assessed using land surface temperature (LST) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites for the period 2003-2013. Changes in LST between two periods (before and after construction of the wind turbines) and between wind farm pixels (WFPs) and nearby non wind farm pixels (NNWFPs) are quantified. An increase in LST is observed at nighttime over each wind farm, with the pattern of this warming effect generally spatially coupled with the wind turbines, while there is no apparent impact on daytime LST. The nighttime LST warming effect varies with the seasons, with the strongest warming in winter months of December, January, and February, and the tightest spatial coupling in summer months of June, July, and August. Analysis of seasonal variations in wind speeds from weather balloon sounding data taken at the 80 meter turbine hub height and Automated Surface Observing System hourly observations at 10 meters from nearby stations suggest stronger winds correspond to seasons with greater warming. The 12:00 Greenwich Mean Time (early morning in Illinois) soundings are representative of the nighttime boundary layer and exhibit strong temperature inversions across all seasons. This supports the idea that the observed warming effect is caused by warm air aloft brought down to the surface by the spinning turbine rotor blades. In addition, MODIS measured vegetation greenness is used to assess the potential impact of this warming on underlying vegetation growth. A decrease in vegetation greenness is seen, particularly during the summer peak growing season, indicating that the turbine enhanced turbulence may promote evapotranspiration and thus reduce soil moisture available for plant photosynthesis.

  9. Paleozoic magmatism and associated tectonic problems of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, S. G.; Stump, E.

    The division of northern Victoria Land (NVL) into three north-northwest trending terranes is underscored by recent chemical and isotopic studies of the Paleozoic granitoids of the region. Early Paleozoic Granite Harbour Intrusives are found only in the (western) Wilson Terrane (WT), best interpreted as a continuation of the Ross Orogenic Belt, which developed along the margin of the East Antarctic Craton. Devonian Admiralty Intrusives, however, are found only within the (central) Bowers Terrane (BT) and the (eastern) Robertson Bay Terrane (RBT), and studies of chemical polarity indicate that these terranes are fragments of an allochthonous crustal block. In view of the key position occupied by NVL in reconstructions of Antarctica and Australia, recognition of the relationships outlined above raises important questions about the assembly and perhaps the breakup of this portion of Gondwana. Timing of juxtapositioning of the BT+RBT against the WT is problematic but is thought to have occurred after emplacement of the Devonian Admiralty Intrusives and must have occurred prior to deposition of the Beacon Supergroup in the Permian. Other geologic relations known at present do not provide definitive constraints on tectonic models, but there are unresolved points which may have special significance. For example, the tectonic setting of the Salamander Granite Complex, as well as the tectonic setting of middle Paleozoic volcanics exposed at Mount Black Prince, Lawrence Peaks, and Gallipoli Heights remain an important question. Clearly, the geology of NVL holds important clues to the tectonic history of this segment of Gondwana. Continued studies of the granitoids, coupled with new research on the middle Paleozoic volcanics, detailed structural studies with emphasis on timing and sense of movement on the terrane bounding faults, and more detailed provenance studies of all the sedimentary and metasedimentary rock units in NVL, would be helpful in evaluating and revising

  10. Metasomatism vs Refertilisation: New Insights from Northern Victoria Land mantle xenoliths (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of anhydrous (Greene Point, Handler Ridge) and amphibole-bearing (Harrow Peaks, Baker Rocks) xenolith populations from Cenozoic volcanics of Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica, provide new geochemical/geodynamic constraints on the nature and evolution of the NVL lithospheric mantle. Based on mineral major and trace element modelling applied on the various xenolith suites, this mantle domain is supposed to represent a residuum after 10 to 20% of partial melting, with Handler Ridge showing the most fertile character. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results evidence the large geochemical contribution of melt infiltration acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic. The close correlation between Greene Point clinopyroxene trace element contents and those from phenocrysts of Ferrar tholeiites, allows to ascribe the first refertilisation event to the Jurassic Ferrar magmatism; this asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to some NVL mantle segment. The rare presence of glassy patches and related secondary phases in Greene Point and Handler Ridge, as well as the amphibole presence in Harrow Peaks and Baker Rocks xenoliths prove that alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening, heterogeneously affected the NVL lithospheric domain. At a fixed P of 15 Kbar, T and fO2 were calculated; data reveal that the presence of amphibole (always < 3% modal content) does not influence the ambient redox conditions (comparable in amphibole-bearing and anhydrous Greene Point peridotites [ Δlog fO2 (QFM) -0.7)] but the anhydrous suite presents systematic higher temperature (950-1050 °C) than those amphibole bearing (850 °C).

  11. The effects of land cover and land use change on the contemporary carbon balance of the arctic and boreal terrestrial ecosystems of northern Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Daniel J.; McGuire, Anthony; Kicklighter, David W.; Burnside , Todd J.; Melillo, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in climate, disturbance regimes and land use and management systems in Northern Eurasia have the potential to disrupt the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2 in a way that accelerates global climate change. To determine the recent trends in the carbon balance of the arctic and boreal ecosystems of this region, we performed a retrospective analysis of terrestrial carbon dynamics across northern Eurasia over a recent 10-year period using a terrestrial biogeochemical process model. The results of the simulations suggest a shift in direction of the net flux from the terrestrial sink of earlier decades to a net source on the order of 45 Tg C year−1between 1997 and 2006. The simulation framework and subsequent analyses presented in this study attribute this shift to a large loss of carbon from boreal forest ecosystems, which experienced a trend of decreasing precipitation and a large area burned during this time period.

  12. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, Clint R.; Roth, Cali; Carlson, Benjamin; Smart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes.

  13. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Otto, Clint R V; Roth, Cali L; Carlson, Benjamin L; Smart, Matthew D

    2016-09-13

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes.

  14. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Clint R. V.; Roth, Cali L.; Carlson, Benjamin L.; Smart, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes. PMID:27573824

  15. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  16. Importance of soil thermal dynamics on land carbon sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicklighter, David; Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Recent modeling studies have suggested that carbon sinks in pan-arctic ecosystems may be weakening partially as a result of warming-induced increases in soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and the exposure of previously frozen SOM to decomposition. This weakening of carbon sinks is likely to continue in the future as vast amount of carbon in permafrost soils is vulnerable to thaw. Here, we examine the importance of considering soil thermal dynamics when determining the effects of climate change and land-use change on carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century. This importance is assessed by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider soil thermal dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In this scenario, which is similar to the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 scenario, the net area covered by food crops and pastures in Northern Eurasia is assumed to remain relatively constant over the 21st century, but the area covered by secondary forests is projected to double as a result of timber harvest and the abandonment of land associated with displacement of agricultural land. Enhanced decomposition from the newly exposed SOM from permafrost thaw also increases nitrogen availability for plant production so that the loss of carbon from the enhanced decomposition is partially compensated by enhanced uptake and storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in vegetation. Our results indicate that consideration of soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated terrestrial carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia respond to changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry (e.g., carbon dioxide fertilization, ozone pollution, nitrogen deposition) and disturbances.

  17. Structural Architecture of Northern Victoria Land (antarctica) in the Perspective of the Paleo-Pacific Margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) was part of the active proto-Pacific plate margin of Gondwana, which has been site of protracted convergence during the Paleozoic. This study supplies new insights into the structural architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains in northern Victoria Land, with original structural data on the boundary area between the Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes. This area is characterized by the occurrence of the Millen Schist (MS) belt, that is a high strain equivalent of the adjoining terranes. At present the boundary between the terranes and the MS is marked by two faults with regional relevance: the Leap Year and the Handler faults. Our study reveals that such faults represent an oblique slip system, characterized by positive flower structures, and overprint a transitional pre-existing ductile deformational boundary. Both Leap Year and Handler faults are associated to a significant syn-tectonic fluids circulation, mineralization, and a significant rock-fluid interaction that resemble the one responsible for the gold mineralization, described in the Bowers Mts (northern Victoria Land). The MS belt is made up of two tectonic elements, superposed in a duplex thrust system, with a top-to-NE sense of tectonic transport. This thrust overprints the ductile structures of the MS, that are usually interpreted as due to the Ross-Delamerian Orogeny. Moreover, the CAT is overprinted by LYF and HFS and this testifies to an ongoing transpressional regime. Hence, the overall structural architecture of the Bowers-Robertson boundary is the result of a long-lasting SW-NE oblique contractional regime that started during the Ross-Delamerian Orogeny and was still active after that. The increasing abundance of data indicating a post-Ross contractional event suggests a prolongation into Antarctica of the Lachlan Orogeny of southeastern Australia. The similarity in the structural architecture, in the setting of the gold mineralization and the convergence in

  18. Petrological characterization of mantle xenoliths from Handler Ridge, Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Giacomoni, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    A study of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Handler Ridge has been carried out in order to characterize the petrological features of the lithospheric mantle beneath Handler Ridge, Northern Victoria Land (NVL) and to extend the petrological knowledge of the mantle over a large portion of the Western Antarctic Rift, from M.te Melbourne (74°21'S 164°42'E) to Handler Ridge (72°31'S 167°18'E). Xenoliths are anhydrous spinel(sp) bearing lherzolites. Two textural types were recognized: i) medium to coarse grain protogranular and ii) fine grain equigranular. Some xenoliths present evidences of peridotite-melt interactions, such as spongy textures, cloudy rims and glassy patches. Large primary sp are often lobated. Newly formed, secondary crystals are referred to cpx only. Regardless textural types, olivine (ol) is forsteritic in composition with Fo varying from 87.5 to 91.0, with a more fertile group ranging between 87.6 and 88.6. NiO contents between 0.31 and 0.44 wt% match the typical mantle values. As observed in ol, orthopyroxene (opx) can be distinguished in two clusters: the more fertile group with mg# [=Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100 mol] ranging between 87.6 and 88.3 and the more residual one with mg# from 88.9 to 91.0. In cpx mg# varies between 87.06 and 91.7. Cpx in depleted lherzolite and secondary cpx are characterized by high values of Na2O (1.3-1.63 wt%) and Al2O3 (4.62-6.62 wt%). Glasses are SiO2 (≥55.50 wt%) oversaturated with TiO2 content between 0.6 and 1wt% and Na2O/K2O in the range of 0.80-2.02. Sp are characterized by mg# values between 62 and 78, and cr# [=Cr/(Cr+Al)*100 mol] from 14 to 42 with the usual negative correlation between the two parameters. The relationship between ol, opx and sp suggest that partial melting is the main process controlling the chemical variation of these three phases, while cpx were affected by metasomatic event/s. On the basis of the formalism of Brey & Kohler (1990), Liermann & Ganguly (2003) and Ballhaus (1991

  19. Dynamics of aeolian desertification and its driving forces in the Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Han-chen; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Liu, Shu-lin; Guo, Jian

    2014-10-01

    Aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid zones. Understanding desertification processes and causes is important to provide reasonable and effective control measures for preventing desertification. With satellite remote sensing images as data source to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of desertification from 1975 to 2010 in the Horqin Sandy Land, dynamic changes of aeolian desertification were detected using the human-machine interactive interpretation method. The driving factors of local desertification were analyzed based on natural and socioeconomic data. The results show that aeolian desertified land in the study area covered 30,199 km(2) in 2010, accounting for 24.1% of the study area. The total area of aeolian desertified land obviously expanded from 30,884 km(2) in 1975 to 32,071 km(2) in 1990, and gradually decreased to 30,199 km(2) in 2010; aeolian desertified land represented an increasing trend firstly and then decreased. During the past 35 years, the gravity centers of desertified lands that are classified as extremely severe and severe generally migrated to the northeast, whereas those that are moderate and slight migrated to the northwest. The migration distance of severely desertified land was the largest, which indicated the southern desertified lands were improved during the last few decades. In addition, the climatic variation in the past 35 years has been favorable to desertification in the Horqin Sandy Land. Aeolian desertified land rapidly expanded from 1975 to 1990 under the combined effects of climate changes and unreasonable human activities. After the 1990s, the main driving factors responsible for the decrease in desertification were positive human activities, such as the series of antidesertification and ecological restoration projects.

  20. Desertification triggered by hydrological and geomorphological processes and palaeoclimatic changes in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Scuderi, L. A.; Wang, X.; Zhang, D.; Li, H.; Forman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Although Pleistocene and earlier aeolian sediments in the adjacent regions of deserts were used as indicators for the occurrence of the deserts in northern China, our multidisciplinary investigation in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, a typical landscape in the eastern portion of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt, demonstrates that this sandy desert is just ca. 4000 years old. Before the formation of the current sand dunes, Hunshandke was characterized with large and deep lakes and grasssland vegetation, as many sedimentary sections indicate. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) chronology shows that the three large former lakes where we have done detailed investigation, experienced high stands from early Holocene to ca. 5 ka. During the early and middle Holocene this desert was a temperate steppe environment, dominated by grasslands and trees near lakes and streams, as various palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest. While North Hemisphere's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases at ca. 4.2 ka, many parts of the presently arid and semi-arid zone in northern China were shifted from Green to Desert state. In the eastern portion of the Hunshandake, the desertification was, however, directly associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River, as the palaeo-drainage remains show. The process of groundwater sapping initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that lowered the groundwater table and exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, and further resulting in post-Humid period mass migration of northern China's Hongshan culture from that we think the modern Chinese civilization has been rooted.

  1. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  2. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils under Different Land Use in an Estuary in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Ozaki, Akinori; Nguyen Tho, Hoang; Nguyen Duc, Anh; Tran Thi, Yen; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in estuaries warrants study because a healthy estuarine environment, including healthy soil, is important in order to achieve ecological balance and good aquaculture production. The Ba Lat estuary of the Red River is the largest estuary in northern Vietnam and is employed in various land uses. However, the heavy metal contamination of its soil has not yet been reported. The following research was conducted to clarify contamination levels, supply sources, and the effect of land use on heavy metal concentrations in the estuary. Soil samples were collected from the top soil layer of the estuary, and their arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed, as were other soil properties. Most soils in the estuary were loam, silt loam, or sandy loam. The pH was neutral, and the cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.8 to 20 cmol·kg−1. Manganese and iron concentrations averaged 811 µg·g−1 and 1.79%, respectively. The magnitude of the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > As > Cd. The concentrations were higher in the riverbed and mangrove forest than in other land-use areas. Except for As, the mean heavy metal concentrations were lower than the permissible levels for agricultural soils in Vietnam. The principal component analyses suggested that soil As, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin, whereas Cr was of non-anthropogenic origin. The spatial distribution of concentration with land use indicated that mangrove forests play an important role in preventing the spread of heavy metals to other land uses and in maintaining the estuarine environment. PMID:27827965

  3. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils under Different Land Use in an Estuary in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Ozaki, Akinori; Nguyen Tho, Hoang; Nguyen Duc, Anh; Tran Thi, Yen; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-05

    Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in estuaries warrants study because a healthy estuarine environment, including healthy soil, is important in order to achieve ecological balance and good aquaculture production. The Ba Lat estuary of the Red River is the largest estuary in northern Vietnam and is employed in various land uses. However, the heavy metal contamination of its soil has not yet been reported. The following research was conducted to clarify contamination levels, supply sources, and the effect of land use on heavy metal concentrations in the estuary. Soil samples were collected from the top soil layer of the estuary, and their arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed, as were other soil properties. Most soils in the estuary were loam, silt loam, or sandy loam. The pH was neutral, and the cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.8 to 20 cmol·kg(-1). Manganese and iron concentrations averaged 811 µg·g(-1) and 1.79%, respectively. The magnitude of the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > As > Cd. The concentrations were higher in the riverbed and mangrove forest than in other land-use areas. Except for As, the mean heavy metal concentrations were lower than the permissible levels for agricultural soils in Vietnam. The principal component analyses suggested that soil As, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin, whereas Cr was of non-anthropogenic origin. The spatial distribution of concentration with land use indicated that mangrove forests play an important role in preventing the spread of heavy metals to other land uses and in maintaining the estuarine environment.

  4. Trade-off analysis in the Northern Andes to study the dynamics in agricultural land use.

    PubMed

    Stoorvogel, J J; Antle, J M; Crissman, C C

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that land use change can be induced by non-linearities and thresholds in production systems that impact farmers' decision making. Tradeoffs between environmental and economic indicators is a useful way to represent dynamic properties of agricultural systems. The Tradeoff Analysis (TOA) System is software designed to implement the integrated analysis of tradeoffs in agricultural systems. The TOA methodology is based on spatially explicit econometric simulation models linked to spatially referenced bio-physical simulation models to simulate land use and input decisions. The methodology has been applied for the potato-pasture production system in the Ecuadorian Andes. The land use change literature often describes non-linearity in land use change as a result of sudden changes in the political (e.g. new agricultural policies) or environmental setting (e.g. earthquakes). However, less attention has been paid to the non-linearities in production systems and their consequences for land use change. In this paper, we use the TOA system to study agricultural land use dynamics and to find the underlying processes for non-linearities. Results show that the sources of non-linearities are in the properties of bio-physical processes and in the decision making-process of farmers.

  5. Keeping Up with the Law of the Land: Mainstreaming Elementary Education Program at Northern Illinois University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyser, Yona; Lipscomb, Edra

    1981-01-01

    In response to PL 94-142, Northern Illinois University has developed a new concentration in its Elementary Education program--a minor in mainstreaming. The program is described and some evaluative data provided. One of seven descriptions in this issue of Dean's Grant programs for preservice training in PL 94-142. (SJL)

  6. Complex land use and cover trajectories in the northern Choco bioregion of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Carolina

    The Choco bioregion in Northwestern Colombia is a lowland rain forest and hotspot of biodiversity. Significant land use and cover change (LUCC) is occurring throughout the region driven by global markets, illicit drug production, and civil unrest. The dominant land cover conversion is from primary forest to African Palm plantations, mediated and modified by complex combinations of social and biophysical drivers. This research combined a remote sensing based methodology to monitor LUCC in the region with an analytical approach for evaluating the possible trajectories of LUCC in a complex biological, socio-economical, and political environment. Synoptic LUCC models were developed using textural classification derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for the period 1995 to 2010. LUCC models along with empirical social and spatial biophysical drivers were used to project historical land use trajectories. DINAMICA EGO a complex systems based spatial analytical framework was adopted as the platform to model land use change. The RADAR backscatter was able to capture areas were forest has been converted to African Oil Palm Plantations. However, an in depth characterization of the LUC dynamics was problematic given the spectral and spatial limitations of the sensor combined with the lack of ground data. The results of the LUC model suggest that under the current socio-political conditions African oil palm plantations will continue to expand toward forested areas into the territories traditionally inhabited by Afro-Colombians and Indigenous populations. Insecure land tenure appears as a main driver of the transformation in close association with the conditions created by the armed conflict, and the drug traffic. The rate of the transformation appears to slow down in the period after 2007. However, according to the model by 2020 most of the area inhabited by ethnic groups will be transform to AOP. This study contributes towards the understanding of land use change

  7. Changes in land use and rainfall-triggered rainfall: a case study in Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisina, Claudia; Visconti, Luca

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall-triggered shallow landslides are the most damaging among the all landslide phenomena. Land use change has been recognized as one of the most important factor influencing the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides. On April 27th 2009 a strong rainfall event triggered hundreds of shallow landslides in the western sector of Oltrepo Pavese area, which has an extension of about 800 km2 and is located in Northern Apennines, Italy. The soils involved in the slides were sandy silt and clay derived from the weathering of marls and conglomerates. Land use consists of cultivated areas with extensive vineyards. The events, which involved one fatality and several injured people, provided an opportunity to improve knowledge on the causes of shallow landslides in the study area and an analysis of the relationship between shallow landslide distribution and the changes in land use was carried out. Digital aerial photographs with a spatial resolution of 15 cm were taken in May 2009 and they were used to identify the location and the typologies of the landslides. Results obtained through an extensive field survey (determination of the slide body and runout geometries and the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the soils involved in landslides) combined with photo-interpretation revealed that the causes of the slides involved geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and above all anthropogenic processes. Three sets of aerial photos, taken in 1980, 2003 and 2009, were the basis for constructing the land use maps and to study the influence of land use changes in shallow landslide development. Significant changes occurred in land use, particularly in the agricultural practices, during studied period and they had caused a significant modification of the runoff conditions. Till the 80s traditional vineyard plantations presented tillage perpendicular to the maximum slope gradient; agricultural works were undertaken in the traditional manner with weeding and digging

  8. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  9. Comparison of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Satellites for Discriminating Land Cover in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. L.; Kilham, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Most land-cover maps at regional to global scales are produced with remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral satellite imagery with 30-500 m pixel sizes (e.g., Landsat, MODIS). Hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery measuring the visible to shortwave infrared regions (VSWIR) of the spectrum have shown impressive capacity to map plant species and coarser land-cover associations, yet techniques have not been widely tested at regional and greater spatial scales. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a VSWIR hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA. The goal of this study was to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping relative to multispectral satellites. We mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 22,500 km2 in the San Francisco Bay Area, California using 30-m HyspIRI, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery simulated from data acquired by NASA's AVIRIS airborne sensor. Random Forests (RF) and Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) classifiers were applied to the simulated images and accuracies were compared to those from real Landsat 8 images. The RF classifier was superior to MESMA, and multi-temporal data yielded higher accuracy than summer-only data. With RF, hyperspectral data had overall accuracy of 72.2% and 85.1% with full 20-class and reduced 12-class schemes, respectively. Multispectral imagery had lower accuracy. For example, simulated and real Landsat data had 7.5% and 4.6% lower accuracy than HyspIRI data with 12 classes, respectively. In summary, our results indicate increased mapping accuracy using HyspIRI multi-temporal imagery, particularly in discriminating different natural vegetation types, such as

  10. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Mila; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-11-01

    The clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs); however there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy the northern quarter of the continent, a region of increasing interest for further exploitation of land and water resources. Land use decisions across this vast biome have the potential to influence the national greenhouse gas budget. To better quantify emissions from savanna deforestation and investigate the impact of deforestation on national GHG emissions, we undertook a paired site measurement campaign where emissions were quantified from two tropical savanna woodland sites; one that was deforested and prepared for agricultural land use and a second analogue site that remained uncleared for the duration of a 22-month campaign. At both sites, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured using the eddy covariance method. Observations at the deforested site were continuous before, during and after the clearing event, providing high-resolution data that tracked CO2 emissions through nine phases of land use change. At the deforested site, post-clearing debris was allowed to cure for 6 months and was subsequently burnt, followed by extensive soil preparation for cropping. During the debris burning, fluxes of CO2 as measured by the eddy covariance tower were excluded. For this phase, emissions were estimated by quantifying on-site biomass prior to deforestation and applying savanna-specific emission factors to estimate a fire-derived GHG emission that included both CO2 and non-CO2 gases. The total fuel mass that was consumed during the debris burning was 40.9 Mg C ha-1 and included above- and below-ground woody biomass, course woody debris, twigs, leaf litter and C4 grass fuels. Emissions from the burning were added to the net CO2 fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance tower for other post-deforestation phases to provide a total GHG emission from

  11. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data for acquiring land use data of northern Megalopolis. [New England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.; Goldstein, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    State planners are increasingly becoming interested in ERTS as a possible method for acquiring land use data. An important consideration to them is whether ERTS can provide such data at a savings in both time and money over alternative systems. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS as a planning tool is given.

  12. Effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on land surface processes: A case study of the Haihe River Basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jing; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhan, Chesheng; Qin, Peihua; Sun, Qin; Jia, Binghao; Xia, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we incorporated a groundwater exploitation scheme into the land surface model CLM3.5 to investigate the effects of the anthropogenic exploitation of groundwater on land surface processes in a river basin. Simulations of the Haihe River Basin in northern China were conducted for the years 1965-2000 using the model. A control simulation without exploitation and three exploitation simulations with different water demands derived from socioeconomic data related to the Basin were conducted. The results showed that groundwater exploitation for human activities resulted in increased wetting and cooling effects at the land surface and reduced groundwater storage. A lowering of the groundwater table, increased upper soil moisture, reduced 2 m air temperature, and enhanced latent heat flux were detected by the end of the simulated period, and the changes at the land surface were related linearly to the water demands. To determine the possible responses of the land surface processes in extreme cases (i.e., in which the exploitation process either continued or ceased), additional hypothetical simulations for the coming 200 years with constant climate forcing were conducted, regardless of changes in climate. The simulations revealed that the local groundwater storage on the plains could not contend with high-intensity exploitation for long if the exploitation process continues at the current rate. Changes attributable to groundwater exploitation reached extreme values and then weakened within decades with the depletion of groundwater resources and the exploitation process will therefore cease. However, if exploitation is stopped completely to allow groundwater to recover, drying and warming effects, such as increased temperature, reduced soil moisture, and reduced total runoff, would occur in the Basin within the early decades of the simulation period. The effects of exploitation will then gradually disappear, and the variables will approach the natural state and

  13. Non-growing season soil CO2 efflux patterns in five land-use types in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhanlei; Johnson, Douglas A.; Wei, Zhijun; Ma, Lei; Rong, Yuping

    2016-11-01

    Heavy grazing and unsuitable farming practices have led to grassland degradation in northern China. This study examined soil CO2 efflux (Fc) from five land-use types during the non-growing season on the southeastern edge of the Mongolian Plateau in China. The land-use types included three native vegetation steppes subjected to differing stocking rates [ungrazed (UG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG)], a fertilized annual cropland (CL) and a perennial pasture (PP) used for haying and winter grazing. Values of Fc were measured at 3-day to 2-week intervals during the non-growing season in two contrasting hydrological years (2012-13 and 2013-14) using closed chambers. The Fc during 1 Oct. 2013 to 30 April 2014 averaged 475 mg C m-2 for all sites compared to a significantly (P < 0.05) lower Fc (102 mg C m-2) during 1 Oct. 2012 to 30 April 2013. The seasonal Fc patterns followed the same trend during the two non-growing seasons with greater Fc observed in the autumn and spring freeze-thaw periods compared to the winter permanently frozen period, which accounted for 4.8% of accumulated total non-growing season Fc. The heavily grazed site showed less soil CO2 efflux compared to UG, MG, PP and CL land-use types due to a larger reduction in gross primary productivity (GPP) compared to ecosystem respiration. Grazing reduced Fc by 23% for MG and 32% for HG compared to UG. Soil CO2 efflux from the PP land-use type, which was grazed during the non-growing season, was 23% greater than that from the UG and CL land-use types. Air temperature during the non-growing season was the main factor controlling soil CO2 efflux (R2 = 0.40, P < 0.001), although soil water content also played a role. Precipitation received during the growing season had a large legacy effect on Fc. Annual weather variation overshadowed the influence of land-use types on Fc.

  14. Effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on land surface processes: A case study of the Haihe River Basin, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z.; Zou, J.; Qin, P.; Sun, Q.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we incorporated a groundwater exploitation scheme into the land surface model CLM3.5 to investigate the effects of the anthropogenic exploitation of groundwater on land surface processes in a river basin. Simulations of the Haihe River Basin in northern China were conducted for the years 1965-2000 using the model. A control simulation without exploitation and three exploitation simulations with different water demands derived from socioeconomic data related to the Basin were conducted. The results showed that groundwater exploitation for human activities resulted in increased wetting and cooling effects at the land surface and reduced groundwater storage. A lowering of the groundwater table, increased upper soil moisture, reduced 2 m air temperature, and enhanced latent heat flux were detected by the end of the simulated period, and the changes at the land surface were related linearly to the water demands. To determine the possible responses of the land surface processes in extreme cases (i.e., in which the exploitation process either continued or ceased), additional hypothetical simulations for the coming 200 years with constant climate forcing were conducted, regardless of changes in climate. The simulations revealed that the local groundwater storage on the plains could not contend with high-intensity exploitation for long if the exploitation process continues at the current rate. Changes attributable to groundwater exploitation reached extreme values and then weakened within decades with the depletion of groundwater resources and the exploitation process will therefore cease. However, if exploitation is stopped completely to allow groundwater to recover, drying and warming effects, such as increased temperature, reduced soil moisture, and reduced total runoff, would occur in the Basin within the early decades of the simulation period. The effects of exploitation will then gradually disappear, and the land surface variables will approach the

  15. Correlation of Spatio-Temporal Contaminant Distribution, Land Use, and Hydrogeological Factors in the Karst Aquifers of Northern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Torres, N. I.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Karst aquifers are characterized by caves, springs, and sinkholes, and typified by interconnected fissures, fractures and conduits. These characteristics make these aquifers highly productive, and vulnerable to contamination. Previous studies in the northern karst aquifers of Puerto Rico have shown significant distribution of contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, phthalates and other contaminants of emerging concern, beyond demarked sources of contamination. This study develops spatial-temporal distributions of phthalate contaminants in the karst system of northern Puerto Rico and assesses statistical correlations between hydrogeologic factors and groundwater contamination with phthalates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and technologies, and statistical models are applied to attain these objectives. Results show that there is an extensive contamination with phthalates that varies with time. Contamination is present in the confined and shallow aquifers. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most detected contaminant (20.6% of the sites). Diethyl phthalate and and dibutyl phthalate are also detected in 6.7% and 8.24% of the sites, respectively. Phthalates detected as mixtures components are significantly detected in areas of high urban and industrial development. They are also detected in areas within 5 miles of superfund sites and landfills. The results indicate that phthalate contamination is highly related to land use. Statistical models show that the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers, sinkholes density, and time are significantly related to the presence of phthalates in groundwater. The extensive spatio-temporal contamination suggests that contaminants can persist in the environment for long periods of time, and that land use and hydrogeological factors are important factors contributing to the presence of emerging contaminants in karst systems.

  16. Mapping of land cover in northern California with simulated hyperspectral satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew L.; Kilham, Nina E.

    2016-09-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Analysis of hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery has shown an impressive capacity to map a wide range of natural and anthropogenic land cover. Applications have been mostly with single-date imagery from relatively small spatial extents. Future hyperspectral satellites will provide imagery at greater spatial and temporal scales, and there is a need to assess techniques for mapping land cover with these data. Here we used simulated multi-temporal HyspIRI satellite imagery over a 30,000 km2 area in the San Francisco Bay Area, California to assess its capabilities for mapping classes defined by the international Land Cover Classification System (LCCS). We employed a mapping methodology and analysis framework that is applicable to regional and global scales. We used the Random Forests classifier with three sets of predictor variables (reflectance, MNF, hyperspectral metrics), two temporal resolutions (summer, spring-summer-fall), two sample scales (pixel, polygon) and two levels of classification complexity (12, 20 classes). Hyperspectral metrics provided a 16.4-21.8% and 3.1-6.7% increase in overall accuracy relative to MNF and reflectance bands, respectively, depending on pixel or polygon scales of analysis. Multi-temporal metrics improved overall accuracy by 0.9-3.1% over summer metrics, yet increases were only significant at the pixel scale of analysis. Overall accuracy at pixel scales was 72.2% (Kappa 0.70) with three seasons of metrics. Anthropogenic and homogenous natural vegetation classes had relatively high confidence and producer and user accuracies were over 70%; in comparison, woodland and forest classes had considerable confusion. We next focused on plant functional types with relatively pure spectra by removing open-canopy shrublands

  17. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils in the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuxia; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Chuancheng; Liu, Xinping

    2013-07-01

    Water is a limiting factor to plant growth in Horqin Sand Land of China. Knowledge of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) is of importance because K(sat) influences soil evaporation and water cycling at various scales. In order to analyze the variation of K(sat) along with sand types and soil depths, and its relationship with soil physiochemical properties, six typical lands were chosen, including mobile dune, fixed dune, pine woodland, poplar woodland, grassland, and cropland, and K(sat) was measured in situ by Guelph Permeameter at each type of land. Soil bulk density, organic matter content, and soil particle size distribution were determined in parallel with K(sat) measurement. The results showed that (1) The averaged K(sat) was decreased in the order: mobile dune > fixed dune > pine woodland > poplar woodland > grassland > cropland; changes in K(sat) varied considerably as soil depth increased, e.g., the changes of K(sat) along with soil depth in fixed dune was fitted by exponential model, but it was fitted by parabola model in the pine woodland and grassland. (2) The K(sat) values of fixed dune and mobile dune were varied considerably among three slope positions (dune top, windward slope, and leeward slope). (3) The relationships of K(sat) and soil physiochemical property revealed that soil bulk density, organic matter content, and coarse sand fraction (2∼0.1 mm) were the key factors affecting K(sat) in Horqin Sand Land. Compared with clay and silt content proportion, sand fraction in this region showed a more significant positive correlation with K(sat).

  18. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Sesnie, S. E.; Arroyo, J. P.; Walker, W.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.

    2013-09-01

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture.

  19. Active tectonics in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) inferred from the integration of GPS data and geologic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbini, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Casula, G.; Capra, A.; Salvini, F.

    2010-12-01

    A semipermanent Global Positioning System (GPS) network of 30 vertices known as the Victoria Land Network for Deformation Control (VLNDEF) was set up in the Austral summer of 1998 in northern Victoria Land (NVL), including Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica. The locations were selected according to the known Cenozoic fault framework, which is characterized by a system of NW-SE regional faults with right-lateral, strike-slip kinematics. The TNB1 permanent GPS station is within the VLNDEF, and following its installation on a bedrock monument in October 1998, it has been recording almost continuously. The GPS network has been surveyed routinely every two summers, using high-quality, dual-frequency GPS receivers. In this study we present the results of a distributed session approach applied to the processing of the GPS data of the VLNDEF. An improved reference frame definition was implemented, including a new Euler pole, to compute the Antarctic intraplate residual velocities. The projection of the residual velocities on the main faults in NVL show present-day activities for some faults, including the Tucker, Leap Year, Lanterman, Aviator, and David faults, with right-lateral strike-slip kinematics and local extensional and compressional components. This active fault pattern divides NVL into eight rigid blocks, each characterized by its relative movements and rigid rotations. These show velocities of up to several millimeters per year, which are comparable to those predicted by plate tectonic theory at active plate margins.

  20. Coherence among the Northern Hemisphere land, cryosphere, and ocean responses to natural variability and anthropogenic forcing during the satellite era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Shindell, Drew T.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-08-01

    A lack of long-term measurements across Earth's biological and physical systems has made observation-based detection and attribution of climate change impacts to anthropogenic forcing and natural variability difficult. Here we explore coherence among land, cryosphere and ocean responses to recent climate change using 3 decades (1980-2012) of observational satellite and field data throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Our results show coherent interannual variability among snow cover, spring phenology, solar radiation, Scandinavian Pattern, and North Atlantic Oscillation. The interannual variability of the atmospheric peak-to-trough CO2 amplitude is mostly impacted by temperature-mediated effects of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA), whereas CO2 concentration is affected by Polar Pattern control on sea ice extent dynamics. This is assuming the trend in anthropogenic CO2 emission remains constant, or the interannual changes in the trends are negligible. Our analysis suggests that sea ice decline-related CO2 release may outweigh increased CO2 uptake through longer growing seasons and higher temperatures. The direct effects of variation in solar radiation and leading teleconnections, at least in part via their impacts on temperature, dominate the interannual variability of land, cryosphere and ocean indicators. Our results reveal a coherent long-term changes in multiple physical and biological systems that are consistent with anthropogenic forcing of Earth's climate and inconsistent with natural drivers.

  1. Vertical motions in Northern Victoria Land inferred from GPS: A comparison with a glacial isostatic adjustment model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancini, F.; Negusini, M.; Zanutta, A.; Capra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the densification of GPS permanent and episodic trackers in Antarctica, geodetic observations are playing an increasing role in geodynamics research and the study of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The improvement in geodetic measurements accuracy suggests their use in constraining GIA models. It is essential to have a deeper knowledge on the sensitivity of GPS data to motionsrelated to long-term ice mass changes and the present-day mass imbalance of the ice sheets. In order to investigate the geodynamic phenomena in Northern Victoria Land (NVL), GPS geodetic observations were made during the last decade within the VLNDEF (Victoria Land Network for Deformation control) project. The processed data provided a picture of the motions occurring in NVL with a high level of accuracy and depicts, for the whole period, a well defined pattern of vertical motion. The comparison between GPS-derived vertical displacementsand GIA is addressed, showing a good degree of agreement and highlighting the future use of geodetic GPS measurements as constraints in GIA models. In spite of this agreement, the sensitivity of GPS vertical rates to non-GIA vertical motions has to be carefully evaluated.

  2. The structure and diversity of freshwater diatom assemblages from Franz Josef Land Archipelago: a northern outpost for freshwater diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Paul B.; Ballesteros, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria; Friedlander, Alan M.; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    We examined diatom assemblages from 18 stream and pond samples in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago (FJL), the most northern land of Eurasia. More than 216 taxa were observed, revealing a rich circumpolar diatom flora, including many undescribed taxa. Widely distributed taxa were the most abundant by cell densities, while circumpolar taxa were the most species rich. Stream and pond habitats hosted different assemblages, and varied along a pH gradient. Diatoma tenuis was the most abundant and ubiquitous taxon. However, several circumpolar taxa such as Chamaepinnularia gandrupii, Cymbella botellus, Psammothidium sp. and Humidophila laevissima were also found in relatively high abundances. Aerophilic taxa were an important component of FJL diatom assemblages (Humidophila spp., Caloneis spp. and Pinnularia spp.), reflecting the large and extreme seasonal changes in Arctic conditions. We predict a decrease in the abundance of circumpolar taxa, an increase in local (α-) freshwater diatom diversity, but a decrease in regional diversity (circumpolar homogenization) as a result of current warming trends and to a lesser extent the increasing human footprint in the region. PMID:26925329

  3. The structure and diversity of freshwater diatom assemblages from Franz Josef Land Archipelago: a northern outpost for freshwater diatoms.

    PubMed

    Pla-Rabés, Sergi; Hamilton, Paul B; Ballesteros, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria; Friedlander, Alan M; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    We examined diatom assemblages from 18 stream and pond samples in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago (FJL), the most northern land of Eurasia. More than 216 taxa were observed, revealing a rich circumpolar diatom flora, including many undescribed taxa. Widely distributed taxa were the most abundant by cell densities, while circumpolar taxa were the most species rich. Stream and pond habitats hosted different assemblages, and varied along a pH gradient. Diatoma tenuis was the most abundant and ubiquitous taxon. However, several circumpolar taxa such as Chamaepinnularia gandrupii, Cymbella botellus, Psammothidium sp. and Humidophila laevissima were also found in relatively high abundances. Aerophilic taxa were an important component of FJL diatom assemblages (Humidophila spp., Caloneis spp. and Pinnularia spp.), reflecting the large and extreme seasonal changes in Arctic conditions. We predict a decrease in the abundance of circumpolar taxa, an increase in local (α-) freshwater diatom diversity, but a decrease in regional diversity (circumpolar homogenization) as a result of current warming trends and to a lesser extent the increasing human footprint in the region.

  4. Drought-Induced Vegetation Variation Across Land Biomes in Northern Hemisphere from 2001 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Sun, L.

    2014-12-01

    This study uses the The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) dataset and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from 2001 to 2012 to detect the vegetation variation caused by droughts in the Northern Hemisphere. A partial correlation coefficient method is used to detect the drought effects on plant growth in association with the consideration of the temperature and solar radiation influence. The results reveal that the vegetation in the arid regions can respond to droughts at short time-scales, and it is most likely that there are some mechanisms allowing the plant species in arid regions to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. The plant species in humid regions can respond droughts shortly. Further, the respond time of the plants in semiarid and subhumid regions to droughts is long, probably because the plants are able to bear water shortage but response to droughts slowly.

  5. Magnetic anomalies northeast of Cape Adare, northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), and their relation to onshore structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damaske, D.; Läufer, A.L.; Goldmann, F.; Möller, H.-D.; Lisker, F.

    2007-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey was flown over the offshore region northeast of Cape Adare and the magnetic anomalies compared to onshore structures between Pennell Coast and Tucker Glacier. The magnetic anomalies show two nearly orthogonal major trends. NNW-SSE trending anomalies northeast of Cape Adare represent seafloor spreading within the Adare Trough. A connection of these anomalies to the Northern Basin of the Ross Sea is not clear. Onshore faults are closely aligned to offshore anomalies. Main trends are NW-SE to NNW-SSE and NE-SW to NNESSW. NNW-SSE oriented dextral-transtensional to extensional faults parallel the Adare Peninsula and Adare Trough anomalies. NE-SW trending normal faults appear to segment the main Hallett volcanic bodies.

  6. Land-level changes from a late Holocene earthquake in the northern Puget lowland, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, H.M.; Sherrod, B.; Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    An earthquake, probably generated on the southern Whidbey Island fault zone, caused 1-2 m of ground-surface uplift on central Whidbey Island ???2800-3200 yr ago. The cause of the uplift is a fold that grew coseismically above a blind fault that was the earthquake source. Both the fault and the fold at the fault's tip are imaged on multichannel seismic refection profiles in Puget Sound immediately east of the central Whidbey Island site. Uplift is documented through contrasting histories of relative sea level at two coastal marshes on either side of the fault. Late Holocene shallow-crustal earthquakes of Mw = 6.5-7 pose substantial seismic hazard to the northern Puget Lowland. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  7. The interactions of fire regimes, land management, vegetation dynamics and the atmosphere in northern Australian savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Garry; Meyer, Mick

    2014-05-01

    The Australian tropical savannas burn with frequencies ranging from one in five to one in two years. Uniquely for an OECD country, these fires contribute substantially to accountable national greenhouse gas emissions. Concern about those emissions has led to the development of approaches to imprive fire management to reduce emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Savanna dyanmics are however, also determined by interactions with rainfall regimes. In this paper, we present an overview of fire regimes in northern Australia, their effects on the greenhouse gas emissions and how management of those fires interacts with climatic variability and likely climate change. Data will be presented from on-ground measurements of emissions, vegetation dyanamics as well as interpretation of satellite imagery of fire scars.

  8. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern Prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Gilmanov, T.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Millett, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  9. A land cover change study in the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia using a flight of aerial photographs dating back to the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Lanckriet, Sil; Demissie, Biadgilgn; Zenebe, Gebreyohanis; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia, land degradation is claimed to have occurred over a long time mainly due agricultural practices and lack of land management. However, quantitative information on the long term land use, cover and management change is rare. The knowledge of such historical changes is essential for the present and future land management for sustainable development, especially in an agriculture-based economy. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the changes of land use, cover and management around Hagere Selam, Northern Ethiopia, over the last 80 years (1935 - 2014). We recovered a flight of ten aerial photographs at an approximate scale of 1:11,500, realized by the Italian Military Geographical Institute in 1935, along a mountain ridge between 13.6490°N, 39.1848°E and 13.6785°N, 39.2658°E. Jointly with Google Earth images (2014), the historical aerial photographs were used to compare changes over the long time. The point-count technique was used by overlaying a grid of 18 x 15 points (small squares) on 20 cm x 15 cm aerial photographs and on Google Earth images representing the same area. Occurrence of major land cover types (cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, bare land, built-up areas and water body) was counted to compute their proportion in 1935 and 2014. In 1935, cropland, shrubland and built-up areas were predominant while other land cover types were not observed. On the Google Earth images, all categories were observed except forest. The results show that in both times cropland was the dominant land cover followed by shrubland. The proportion of cropland at present (70.5%) is approximately the same as in the 1930s (72%), but shrubland decreased and bare land, grassland and built-up areas have increased. Hence, the large share of cropland was maintained over the past long period without allowing for woody vegetation to expand its area, while some cropland was abandoned and converted to grassland and bare land. The increased

  10. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Planetary-scale variability in the northern winter and the impact of land-sea thermal contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, Franco; King, Martin P.; Kucharski, Fred; Straus, David M.

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of land-sea thermal contrast on large-scale modes of variability during the northern-hemisphere winter, with specific attention to those modes which explain a large proportion of the observed inter-decadal changes in the late 20th century. Two possible mechanisms are considered, where the land-sea contrast plays either a `passive' or an `active' role: namely, the introduction of zonal asymmetries in an (eddy-driven) annular mode, and variations in the thermal balance of a planetary wave pattern with zonal-wavenumber 2. In addition to diagnostics based on re-analysis data, two long perpetual-winter simulations of an intermediate-complexity AGCM are performed, imposing surface boundary conditions with either realistic or artificially reduced land-sea thermal contrast. On the basis of previous studies, indices derived from surface fields are defined to represent the two mechanisms outlined above. Atmospheric patterns co-varying with these indices are first computed from NCEP/NCAR re-analysis, and compared with traditional definitions of dominant modes of variability, such as EOFs and the Cold-Ocean/Warm-Land (COWL) pattern. Subsequently, the indices are applied to fields from the simulations with realistic and reduced land-sea contrast, in order to highlight the impact of thermal asymmetries on the structure of annular and planetary-wave modes. Our results show that the zonal thermal contrast on the western border of the North Atlantic is responsible for the localization of a dipolar structure in sea-level pressure and height fields, which bears a strong resemblance to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In this region, the response to thermal land-sea contrast is evident on both annular and planetary-wave patterns, with a NAO-like dipole being the dominant regional feature. In the North Pacific, on the other hand, diabatic forcing is balanced primarily by meridional temperature advection, because here (contrarily to the north

  12. Paleomagnetic study of the northern Ford Ranges, western Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica: Motion between West and East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luyendyk, B.; Cisowski, S.; Smith, C.; Richard, S.; Kimbrough, D.

    1996-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Paleozoic and Mesozoic crystalline rocks in the northern Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, has determined a middle Cretaceous (circa 100 Ma) paleomagnetic pole and provided constraints on possible clockwise rotation of these ranges and on the rifting of east Gondwana. The 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology data from the Fosdick Mountains record a period of rapid cooling from ???700??C beginning at ???100 Ma. We relate this to extension, intrusion, and uplift associated with the beginning of rifting between Campbell Plateau and Marie Byrd Land. All rocks from the Fosdick and Chester Mountains are normally polarized. We interpret thermochronology and paleomagnetic data to infer that the region was extensively remagnetized in middle Cretaceous time. Inclinations in samples from the Chester Mountains are less steep than those from the Fosdick Mountains, which we interpret as ???25?? of south tilting of the Chesters. We interpret cooling age data for the time of magnetization to infer that the tilting began after 105 Ma and ended prior to 103 Ma. We further interpret this as constraining the beginning of extension between the Campbell Plateau and western Marie Byrd Land to the interval 105 to 103 Ma. Virtual geomagnetic poles from samples of Early Carboniferous age granodiorite from the western Phillips Mountains lie on the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for Australia transferred to Antarctica. Directions from 29 sites in the central and eastern Phillips and Fosdick Mountains give a Middle Cretaceous paleomagnetic pole at 222.3?? E, 70.5?? S (A95 6.1??, KAPPA 20.0). This pole is indistinguishable from other Middle Cretaceous poles for studies further east in Marie Byrd Land. Combining middle Cretaceous poles determined for three other studies of the Antarctic Peninsula. Thurston Island, and the Ruppert-Hobbs coasts with ours gives a Pacific West Antarctic pole at 215.2?? E, 73.5?? S (A95 4.0??, KAPPA 528.9). This pole is

  13. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J. C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-07-28

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m⁻² yr⁻², equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our

  14. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  15. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  16. Magnetic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Eleonora; Lurcock, Pontus Conrad; Palmeri, Rosaria; Florindo, Fabio; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the integration between rock magnetism and metamorphic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites, variably metamorphosed under UHP, eclogite or HP amphibolite facies peak conditions, and cropping out along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) in three different areas: the Lanterman Range, the Salamander Range and the Dessent Ridge. The outcrops along the Lanterman-Mariner suture provide a unique opportunity to define the relationships between magnetic properties and metamorphic evolution, in a wide P-T range, of ultramafic rocks and metabasites in the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana, an area which is well-studied from a petrological and structural point of view but lacking a rock magnetic study. To characterize the magnetic properties of these rocks, we performed a set of rock magnetic analyses (low-field magnetic susceptibility, natural remanence, thermomagnetic curves and hysteresis loops). We then characterized the minero-petrographical and compositional features of opaque minerals on selected samples using both the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples display a remarkable heterogeneity in the studied magnetic properties depending on both type and abundance of the carriers of magnetization (Fe-Ti oxides and sulphides). Independently of the degree of retrogression and lithology (eclogites, retrogressed eclogites, pirossenites and amphibolites), several samples contain variable amounts of both magnetite and pyrrhotite, while others show only magnetite as the main ferromagnetic mineral. The remaining samples mainly consist of paramagnetic minerals and may display small amounts of magnetite. Based on the microstructural evidence, more than one generation of ferromagnetic minerals may occur in retrogressed UHP ultramafic rocks and eclogites. These new data and interpretations are essential 1) to characterize and to verify primary and secondary oxide and sulphide

  17. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Mission Success Pan Click on image to view the movie

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Highly heterogeneous soil bacterial communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Ahnna; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment.

  1. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  3. Spatial distribution of biogenic sulphur compounds (MSA, nssSO42-) in the northern Victoria Land Dome C Wilkes Land area, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, Silvia; Proposito, Marco; Benassai, Silvia; Gragnani, Roberto; Magand, Olivier; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    During the 1992 2002 Antarctic expeditions, in the framework of the International Trans-Antarctic Expedition (ITASE) project, about 600 sites were sampled (superficial snow, snow pits and firn cores) along traverses in the northern Victoria Land Dome C Wilkes Land region. The sites were characterized by different geographical (distance from the sea, altitude) and climatological (annual mean accumulation rate, temperature) conditions and were affected by air masses from different marine sectors (Ross Sea, Pacific Ocean). Mean anion and cation contents were calculated at each site, in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of chemical impurities in snow. Here we discuss the distribution of non-sea-salt sulphate (nssSO42-) and of methanesulphonic acid (MSA) mainly originating from atmospheric oxidation of biogenic dimethyl sulphide; these compounds play a key role in climate control processes by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The spatial distribution of nssSO42- and MSA is discussed as a function of distance from the sea, altitude and accumulation rate. Depositional fluxes of nssSO42- and MSA decrease as a function of distance from the sea, with a higher gradient in the first 200 km step. There is an analogous trend with the site altitude, and the first 1600 m step is relevant in determining the nssSO42-and MSA content in snow. The nssSO42-/MSA ratio depends on the distance from the sea and the biogenic source strength. At coastal sites, where biogenic inputs are dominant, this ratio is ˜2. As biogenic input decreases (low MSA content) inland, the ratio increases, indicating the presence of alternative sources of nssSO42- (crustal, volcanic background) or advection of low-latitude air masses. By plotting total flux as a function of accumulation rate, dry depositional contributions were evaluated for nssSO42- and MSA in the Ross Sea and Pacific Ocean sectors. Non-sea-salt sulphate wet deposition prevails at sites where the accumulation rate (expressed as

  4. Integrated watershed management as an effective approach to curb land degradation: a case study of the Enabered watershed in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Berhe, Ademnur; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye

    2012-12-01

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is an advanced land-management approach that has been widely implemented in Tigray region of northern Ethiopia since 2004. The general aim of this study was to analyze to what extent the IWM approach is effective in curbing land degradation in the fragile drylands of the Enabered watershed in Tigray. This study assessed the impacts of IWM on (1) land-use and land-cover change and (2) the decrease of runoff loss and soil loss due to sheet and rill erosion and gully erosion. The watershed characteristics and implemented IWM measures were mapped in the field. Land use and land cover, runoff, and soil losses were compared before (2004) and after (2009) the IWM interventions. Plantations and exclosures increased significantly at the expense of grazing lands and bushland. Runoff and sheet and rill erosion decreased by 27 and 89 %, respectively, and gully channels were reclaimed. The decrease in sheet and rill erosion resulted from changes in crop cover (48 %) and conservation-practice (29 %) factors, as represented by C and P of the Universal Soil Loss Equation. The results showed that land degradation has been curbed as a result of IWM intervention. A key factor to this success was the effectiveness of the implementation approach for the main IWM components, including the participation of the local community in the form of a contribution of 20 days of free labor. Based on these results, IWM may be implemented in other regions with similar environmental and socioeconomic situations.

  5. Agricultural land contamination by heavy metals around the former mining site of Bechateur (northern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daldoul, G.; Soussi, R.; Soussi, F.; Boularbah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The activity of the former Pb-Zn mine of Jebel Ghozlen (Béchateur. extreme northern Tunisia) generated during the last century large quantities of tailings (extraction, flotation, gravimetry) deposited as three heap between the mine site and the shoreline located 700 m away. Areas surrounding the mine site are agricultural and are crossed by two rivers, one of which crosses the main heap. The minerals that make up these wastes are calcite, dolomite, quartz, gypsum, pyrite, barite, smithsonite, cerussite and galena. The amounts of Zn, Cd and Pb in the wastes vary between 1.3 and 9.3%, 1.1% and 5.7 and 185 and 410 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils in the study area are carbonated and are characterized by a silt-sand texture. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite. The chemical analysis of thirty samples collected over an area of 3 km2 shows that the amounts of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur vary from 0.7 % to 2.5 % and 0.08 % to 0.96 %, respectively, while those of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 300 to 22 000 mg kg-1, 85 to 3000 mg kg-1 and 2 to 47 mg kg-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of metals were found in flood plains at 500 m downstream of the mine site. Extraction tests using deionized water and a 0.1 M CaCl2 solution were performed to assess the mobility of Zn, Pb and Cd in contaminated and reference soil samples collected within the study area. The results of extraction with deionized water showed that the leached amounts of Zn and Cd range between 0.2 and 4 mg kg-1 and 0.02 and 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively; while that of Pb is quite near the detection limit. During the extraction with CaCl2 the leached amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 0.3 to 86 mg kg-1, 2 to 6 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 0.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Thus, the mobility of Cd, Zn and Pb in CaCl2 solution (0.8 %, 0.4 % and 0.3 %, respectively) is higher compared with the extraction with deionized water (0.2%, 0.1% and 0.02 %, respectively). Toxicity tests were conducted on these soils

  6. Strontium isotope variation in the dissolved load and suspended sediments of Northern Hemisphere land terminating glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, E. I.; Aciego, S.; Arendt, C. A.; Sheik, C.; Das, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Bedrock, hydrology and microbial communities are primary contributors to sub-glacial chemical weathering and therefore mediate the chemical composition of bulk glacial outflow. Chemical weathering associated with glaciers has attracted attention due to the possible link between increased chemical weathering during glacial retreat and control of the marine radiogenic strontium (87Sr/86Sr) ratios [1-3]. Here we contrast the differences in strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) compositions of the dissolved load (DL) and suspended sediments (SS) from bulk subglacial outflows from three, northern hemisphere ice masses. We sampled from sub-glacial outflows draining geographically and geologically distinct glacial termini from the (1) the South, East and West of the Greenland Ice sheet (GIS), (2) the Juneau Icefield and (3) the Columbia Icefield. The diversity in regional outlet facilitates the comparison of glaciers with differing climate, size, hydrology and bedrock. The magnitude of offset in 87Sr/86Sr ratios between the SS and DL (Δ87/86Sr, ‰, = (87Sr/86SrSS - 87Sr/86SrDL)*1000) varies between -62 to +7 ‰ and shows a positive correlation with pH, regardless of differences in glacier size and bedrock lithology. Here we believe the magnitude of the offset between the DL and SS is due to variations in subglacial weathering environments driven primarily by residence times of both water and sediment within the glacial system, and secondarily by bedrock lithology. The most radiogenic Sr compositions (both DL and SS) are found draining the GIS (up to 87Sr/86Sr = 0.80716) indicating the GIS may have provided a significant source of radiogenic Sr to the oceans during times of deglaciation. [1] Armstrong, R.L., (1971) Nature, v. 230, p. 132-133 [2] Capo, R.C., De Paolo, D.J., (1990) Science, v. 249, no. 4964, p. 51-55. [3] Vance, D., Teagle, D.A.H., Foster, G.L. (2009), Nature, v. 458 p. 493-496.

  7. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land-use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Xu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolia grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land-use. The total of sixteen soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG), native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG), groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG) and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG). Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were -24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, -24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, -25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and -26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxylalkanoic acids) and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60-70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10-20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolia grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot vs. root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for global carbon cycle since root derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  8. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Xu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolian grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land use. A total of 16 soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG), native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG), groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG) and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG). Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were -24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, -24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, -25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and -26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxyalkanoic acids) and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60-70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10-20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolian grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot- versus root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for the global carbon cycle since root-derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  9. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change.

  10. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5°×5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.

  11. Vegetation pattern variation, soil degradation and their relationship along a grassland desertification gradient in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Guo, Yirui; Yun, Jianying; Wang, Shaokun; Miyasaka, Takafumi

    2009-09-01

    The Horqin Sandy Land is one of the most severely desertified regions in northern China. Plant communities and soil conditions at five stages of grassland desertification (potential, light, moderate, severe and very severe) were selected for the study of vegetation pattern variation relating to soil degradation. The results showed that vegetation cover, species richness and diversity, aboveground biomass (AGB), underground biomass, litter, soil organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), electrical conductivity, very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm) content and silt (0.05-0.002 mm) content decreased with the desertification development. Plant community succession presented that the palatable herbaceous plants gave place to the shrub species with asexual reproduction and sand pioneer plants. The decline of vegetation cover and AGB was positively related to the loss of soil organic C and total N with progressive desertification ( P < 0.01). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that plant community distribution, species diversity and ecological dominance had the close relationship with the gradient of soil nutrients in the processes of grassland desertification. These results suggest that grassland desertification results in the variation of vegetation pattern which presents the different composition and structure of plant community highly influenced by the soil properties.

  12. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969. PMID:27172861

  13. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-05-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.

  14. Multiple shallow level sill intrusions coupled with hydromagmatic explosive eruptions marked the initial phase of Ferrar large igneous province magmatism in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viereck-Goette, L.; Schöner, R.; Bomfleur, B.; Schneider, J.

    2007-01-01

    Field data gathered during GANOVEX IX (2005/2006) in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate that volcaniclastic deposits of phreatomagmatic eruptions (so-called Exposure Hill Type events) are intercalated with fluvial deposits of Triassic-Jurassic age at two stratigraphic levels. Abundant scoriaceous spatter (locally welded) indicates a hawaiian/strombolian component. Breccia-filled diatremes, from which volcaniclastic deposits were sourced, are rooted in sills which intruded wet sediments. The deposits are thus subaerial expressions of initial Ferrar magmatism involving intrusion of multiple shallow-level sills. Due to magma-sediment interaction abundant clastic dikes are developed that intrude the sediments and sills. All igneous components in the volcaniclastic deposits are andesitic in composition, as are the chilled margins of the sills. They are more differentiated than the basaltic andesites of the younger effusive section of Kirkpatrick plateau lavas which in northern Victoria Land start with pillow lavas and small volume lava flows from volcanic necks.

  15. Cooling history of the northern Ford Ranges, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Smith, C. H.; Kimbrough, D. L.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Luyendyk, B. P.; McWilliams, M. O.

    1994-08-01

    Thermochronologic data from the Fosdick, Phillips and Chester mountains of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, have been obtained through U-Pb analysis of monazite, 40Ar/39Ar analysis of hornblende, muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar, and apatite fission track methods. These data were collected to test the hypothesis that high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Fosdick Mountains occupy the footwall of a Cordilleran-style metamorphic core complex, exhumed during the breakup of this sector of Gondwana in early Late Cretaceous time. High-grade metamorphism of rocks exposed in the Fosdick Mountains was followed by rapid cooling starting at ˜105 Ma, during the transition from convergence to extension in the adjacent continental margin of Gondwana. Monazite, hornblende, muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar from the Fosdick Mountains record rapid cooling (70±30°C/m.y.) from peak metamorphic conditions of 725°-780°C at 4.3-5.6 kbar to below 165°C between 105 and 94 Ma. Subsequent slow cooling was apparently punctuated by a short period of accelerated cooling through the apatite partial annealing zone (˜110°-60°C) between ˜80 and 75 Ma. Cooling rates decreased to an average of ˜l°C/m.y. after 70 Ma. Cooling ages become progressively older to the south; metamorphic grade decreases in concert with the increasing cooling ages. The southernmost samples, from the Chester Mountains, probably cooled to below K-feldspar closure temperature (˜165°C) before inferred reheating associated with metamorphism in the Fosdick Mountains. North of the Fosdick Mountains, Devonian Ford granodiorite in the Phillips Mountains was below K-feldspar closure temperature by early Cretaceous time. Byrd Coast granite intrusions in the eastern Phillips Mountains and east of the Fosdick and Chester mountains were emplaced between 100 and 105 Ma, and these plutons cooled very rapidly (>100°C/m.y.) to below biotite closure temperature, consistent with their epizonal character. The relationship of

  16. Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    M., C.R. Woolard, J. F. Braddock, and C. M. Reynolds. 1997. Enhancement and inhibition of soil petroleum biodegradation through the use of...Rhizosphere- Enhanced Treatment of Organics- Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites November 2004 Report...rhizosphere- enhanced bioremediation of petroleum, oils , and lubricants (POL) at three cold sites in Alaska. The demonstrations evaluated the use of

  17. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    England. Reynolds, C.M., P. Bhunia, and B.A. Koenen. 1997. Soil Remediation demonstration Project: Biodegradation of Heavy Fuel Oils . Special Report...TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere- Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native...1011, “Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere- Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern

  18. Structure of the Millen Schist Belt (Antarctica): Clues for the tectonics of northern Victoria Land along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispini, Laura; Federico, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) belonged to the active proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana, which was the site of convergence during the Paleozoic. This study provides new insights into the structural architecture of northern Victoria Land, focusing on the boundary area between the Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes, i.e., in the Millen Schist Belt. It is a high-strain equivalent of the adjoining terranes, presently delimited by the Leap Year and the Handler faults. Our study reveals that these two faults overprint a preexisting transitional deformational boundary and are associated with a significant syntectonic circulation of fluids and mineralization. The Millen Schist Belt consists of two lithotectonic packages, juxtaposed along the Crosscut-Aorangi duplex thrust system, related to late Ross deformation. As there is increasing evidence of a post-Ross contractional event in northern Victoria Land, we suggest that the structural architecture of the Bowers-Robertson Bay terrane boundary results from a long-lasting SW-NE contractional regime, during the Ross-Delamerian Orogeny and still active afterward. This points to an extension of the Australian Lachlan Orogeny in Antarctica. The similarity of the structural architecture, the gold mineralization, the rock type, and the age supports the correlation of the Bowers and the Robertson Bay terranes with the Stawell Zone of the Lachlan Fold Belt. In our new tectonic scenario the Lanterman Fault (northern Victoria Land) plays the same role as the Moyston Fault (southeastern Australia), and the Leap Year and Handler faults correlate with the "intra-zone faults" of the Stawell Zone (e.g., the Ararat-Stawell Fault Zone).

  19. Spatial Variations in the Relationships between Land Use and Water Quality across an Urbanization Gradient in the Watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

  20. Quantifying the synergistic effect of the precipitation and land use on sandy desertification at county level: a case study in Naiman Banner, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiaodong, Ge; Jinren, Ni; Zhenshan, Li; Ronggui, Hu; Xin, Ming; Qing, Ye

    2013-07-15

    Assessing the driving forces of sandy desertification is fundamental and important for its control. It has been widely accepted that both climatic conditions and land use have great impact on sandy desertification in northern China. However, the relative role and synergistic effect of each driving force of sandy desertification are still not clear. In this paper, an indicator named as SI was defined to represent the integrated probability of sandy desertification caused by land use. A quantitative method was developed for characterizing the relative roles of annual precipitation and land use to sandy desertification in both spatial and temporal dimensions at county level. Results showed that, at county level, land use was the main cause of sandy desertification for Naiman Banner since 1987-2009. In the case of spatial dimension, the different combination of land use types decided the distribution of sandy desertification probability and finally decided the spatial pattern of bared sand land. In the case of temporal dimension, the synergistic effect of land use and precipitation highly influenced the spatial distribution of sandy desertification.

  1. Northern Basin and Range Ecoregion: Chapter 23 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Basin and Range Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) is located in eastern Oregon (58.7 percent), northern Nevada (20.6 percent), southwestern Idaho (14.8 percent), and northeastern California (5.9 percent), encompassing the northern extent of the hydrographic Great Basin (Grayson, 1993). The ecoregion, which covers approximately 110,039 km² (42,486 mi²) of land, is bordered on the west by the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills and the Sierra Nevada Ecoregions, on the north by the Blue Mountains and the Snake River Basin Ecoregions, and on the south by the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion (fig. 1). Much like the other Basin and Range ecoregions in the western United States (for example, Central Basin and Range, Mojave Basin and Range, and Sonoran Basin and Range Ecoregions), the Northern Basin and Range Ecoregion is characterized by basin-and-range topography. The ecoregion contains several wide basins bordered by scattered low mountains. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the predominant vegetation, is intermixed with grasslands. Despite regional aridity, natural springs and spring-fed wetlands are scattered around the landscape, sustaining much of the region’s wildlife (Oregon Department of State Lands, 2000).

  2. Integrated approaches to restore gullies in land prone to soil piping: innovations from the drylands of northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Moulaert, Lys; Van Damme, Alexander; Haile, Mitiku; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Multiple on-site and off-site effects of gully erosion threaten sustainable development, which is especially evident in dryland environments. To control soil erosion by gullying, various soil and water conservation measures have been developed, of which check dams are the most common. Where soil piping occurs, soil and water conservation measures have limited effect on gully stabilization, and check dams easily collapse. Therefore, new integrated approaches are needed to control gully erosion induced by soil piping. Here, a subsurface geomembrane dam is proposed as an innovative measure to reduce subsurface flow in soil pipes near gullies. Application of such a dam in Northern Ethiopia, resulted in a decrease of gully erosion rates in Vertisols, and a rising water table in the intergully areas near the gully channel. The consequence of this effect for agriculture near gully channels is the reduction of soil desiccation and hence, increased crop yields in the intergully areas near the gully channels. With the gully filling and stabilizing, runoff water could be diverted into adjacent land, offering additional benefits to the local communities. Here, the runoff diversion was done into a vegetation protection site, in order to enhances biomass production, especially tree growth. Moreover, a water collection pound was created to make water available in the prolonged dry season. These interventions support additional economical activities such as beekeeping and the establishment of a tree nursery. With the multiple on-site and off-site benefits of the integrated approach, local communities have a better guarantee of investment return and livelihood improvement, increasing their support to gully rehabilitation schemes. Keywords: Crop, Subsurface dam, Soil and water conservation, Tree growth, Vertisol, Dryland.

  3. Crustal structure of a land-ocean transitional zone in the northern South China Sea, from an onshore-offshore seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Xia, S.; Xu, H.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    The littoral fault zone(LFZ), a east-northeast-trending rupture region, which is located at an land-ocean transition area in the northern margin of South China Sea(SCS). Previous work in the northern SCS identified the LFZ as the most hazardous fault in the coastal South China, in history distribution of destructive erathquakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0 occured almost all along the LFZ. But in the maritime space off the Pearl River Mouth(PRM), the LFZ is intersected with a northwest-trending fault zone, where the seismic activity level to be significantly lower in recent hundreds of years, therefore it is very important to obtain detailed deep seismogenic structure in this potential strong earthquake zone. To investigate the crustal structure of the LFZ and the potential strong earthquake zone off the PMR, a wide-angle onshore-offshore seismic experiment and a coincident multi-channel seismic(MCS) profile were carried out in the northern SCS during July and August, 2010. The seismic source was an array of four guns and the shots were recorded simultaneously by ocean bottom seismometers and portable and permanent land stations. The preliminary processing result demonstrated good quality data, clear shallow-crustal structure is obtained from the MCS data, and the permanent seismic stations received air-gun signals over a distance of 360 km. Observed and calculated P-wave traveltimes were matched by forwad modelling prior to the inversion. Finally we got the optimal two-dimensional P-wave velocity model, and the model cross the northern margin of SCS shows the Moho depth is gradually thinned from land to sea, and the LFZ is a 10 km wide low-velocity rupture zone.

  4. Northern Cheyenne Lands Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Walsh, John E. [D-MT

    2014-06-05

    12/12/2014 By Senator Tester from Committee on Indian Affairs filed written report. Report No. 113-317. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Oxygen isotope evidence for crustal assimilation and magma mixing in the Granite Harbour Intrusives, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallai, L.; Ghezzo, C.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2003-03-01

    The stable isotope composition (O,H) of whole-rock and mineral separates of Cambrian-Ordovician gabbros, diorites, granodiorites and granites forming the Mt. Abbott composite intrusions (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) was measured to constrain the origin and evolution of the magmas postdating the Ross Orogen. The δ18O values of olivine gabbros plot in the field of slightly evolved mantle-derived melts ( δ18O WR=6.8-7.4‰). The O-isotope character of the mantle source inferred from the δ18O values of cumulous olivine in gabbros (5.7-6.8‰) is enriched in 18O compared to modern arc-related magmas. Geochemical data and concurrent high δ18O values, and initial strontium ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.7060) and neodymium ( 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.5122) isotope ratios indicate that the olivine gabbros formed by crustal contamination of a primary calc-alkaline basaltic melt. The diorites have high δ18O values, among the highest ever measured for dioritic rocks (8.7-10.3‰), and Sr-isotope ratios that partially overlap with the adjacent and mingled felsic lithologies (0.708-0.710). The diorites have pyroxene with high, nearly constant δ18O values (8.2-8.6‰) that are independent from the silica content of the rocks; thus, they did not increase in response of the chemical evolution of the rocks. The diorites originated from the same primary calc-alkaline basalt experiencing different amounts of crustal contamination, and underwent different degrees of mixing with the adjacent granites, producing granodioritic facies and quartz/feldspar xenocrystic diorites. The δ18O, 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd compositions of the granites and granodiorites overlap (10.8-12.1‰, 0.7096-0.7108, 0.5119-0.5120). They are distinct from the values of the mafic rocks and indicate that gabbros and granites were not cogenetic. The granites are a separate melt component likely derived from nonmodal partial melting of fertile meta-igneous protoliths.

  6. Dynamics of land use and land cover and its effects on hydrologic responses: case study of the Gilgel Tekeze catchment in the highlands of Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tesfaye, Samuel; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Adgo, Enyew; Elias, Asres

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the Gilgel Tekeze catchment of the upper Nile River basin in Ethiopia may have far-reaching consequences for the long-term sustainability of the natural resources base. This study analyzed the dynamics and hydrologic effects of LULC changes between 1976 and 2003 as shown in satellite imagery. The effects of these LULC changes on the hydrologic response were investigated using the WetSpa model to estimate spatially distributed average annual evapotranspiration, surface runoff, and groundwater recharge. Digital image analysis revealed major increments of cultivated land and settlements of 15.4 and 9.9%, respectively, at the expense of shrubland and grazing lands. Population growth and the associated demand for land were found to be the major driving forces. The WetSpa simulation showed an increase in annual surface runoff of 101 mm and a decrease in groundwater recharge of 39 mm over the period 1976-2003. These results signify an increasing threat of moisture unavailability in the study area and suggest that appropriate land management measures under the framework of the integrated catchment management (ICM) approach are urgently needed.

  7. A lake-centric geospatial database to guide research and inform management decisions in an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska experiencing climate and land-use changes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Whitman, Matthew S; Nigro, Debora; Nitze, Ingmar; Beaver, John; Gädeke, Anne; Zuck, Callie; Liljedahl, Anna; Daanen, Ronald; Torvinen, Eric; Fritz, Stacey; Grosse, Guido

    2017-03-25

    Lakes are dominant and diverse landscape features in the Arctic, but conventional land cover classification schemes typically map them as a single uniform class. Here, we present a detailed lake-centric geospatial database for an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska. We developed a GIS dataset consisting of 4362 lakes that provides information on lake morphometry, hydrologic connectivity, surface area dynamics, surrounding terrestrial ecotypes, and other important conditions describing Arctic lakes. Analyzing the geospatial database relative to fish and bird survey data shows relations to lake depth and hydrologic connectivity, which are being used to guide research and aid in the management of aquatic resources in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Further development of similar geospatial databases is needed to better understand and plan for the impacts of ongoing climate and land-use changes occurring across lake-rich landscapes in the Arctic.

  8. Climate change is the primary driver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) range expansion at the northern extent of its range; land use is secondary.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Kimberly L; Boutin, Stan

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the relative influence of multiple mechanisms driving recent range expansion of non-native species is essential for predicting future changes and for informing adaptation and management plans to protect native species. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been expanding their range into the North American boreal forest over the last half of the 20th century. This has already altered predator-prey dynamics in Alberta, Canada, where the distribution likely reaches the northern extent of its continuous range. Although current white-tailed deer distribution is explained by both climate and human land use, the influence each factor had on the observed range expansion would depend on the spatial and temporal pattern of these changes. Our objective was to quantify the relative importance of land use and climate change as drivers of white-tailed deer range expansion and to predict decadal changes in white-tailed deer distribution in northern Alberta for the first half of the 21st century. An existing species distribution model was used to predict past decadal distributions of white-tailed deer which were validated using independent data. The effects of climate and land use change were isolated by comparing predictions under theoretical "no-change between decades" scenarios, for each factor, to predictions under observed climate and land use change. Climate changes led to more than 88%, by area, of the increases in probability of white-tailed deer presence across all decades. The distribution is predicted to extend 100 km further north across the northeastern Alberta boreal forest as climate continues to change over the first half of the 21st century.

  9. Comparison of evapotranspiration components and water-use efficiency among different land use patterns of temperate steppe in the Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhe; Fan, Jiangwen; Hu, Zhongmin; Shao, Quanqin; Harris, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), which links carbon and water cycles, is an important indicator of assessing the interactions between ecosystems and regional climate. Using chamber methods with and without plant removal treatments, we investigated WUE and evapotranspiration (ET) components in three ecosystems with different land-use types in Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone. In comparison, ET of the ecosystems with grazing exclusion and cultivating was 6.7 and 13.4 % higher than that of the ecosystem with free grazing. The difference in ET was primarily due to the different magnitudes of soil water evaporation (E) rather than canopy transpiration (T). Canopy WUE (WUEc, i.e., the ratio of gross primary productivity to T) at the grazing excluded and cultivated sites was 17 and 36 % higher than that at the grazing site. Ecosystem WUE (WUEnep, i.e., the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to ET) at the cultivated site was 34 and 28 % lower in comparison with grazed and grazing excluded stepped, respectively. The varied leaf area index (LAI) of different land uses was correlated with microclimate and ecosystem vapor/carbon exchange. The LAI changing with land uses should be the primary regulation of grassland WUE. These findings facilitate the mechanistic understanding of carbon-water relationships at canopy and ecosystem levels and projection of the effects of land-use change on regional climate and productivity.

  10. Comparison of evapotranspiration components and water-use efficiency among different land use patterns of temperate steppe in the Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhe; Fan, Jiangwen; Hu, Zhongmin; Shao, Quanqin; Harris, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), which links carbon and water cycles, is an important indicator of assessing the interactions between ecosystems and regional climate. Using chamber methods with and without plant removal treatments, we investigated WUE and evapotranspiration (ET) components in three ecosystems with different land-use types in Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone. In comparison, ET of the ecosystems with grazing exclusion and cultivating was 6.7 and 13.4 % higher than that of the ecosystem with free grazing. The difference in ET was primarily due to the different magnitudes of soil water evaporation (E) rather than canopy transpiration (T). Canopy WUE (WUEc, i.e., the ratio of gross primary productivity to T) at the grazing excluded and cultivated sites was 17 and 36 % higher than that at the grazing site. Ecosystem WUE (WUEnep, i.e., the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to ET) at the cultivated site was 34 and 28 % lower in comparison with grazed and grazing excluded stepped, respectively. The varied leaf area index (LAI) of different land uses was correlated with microclimate and ecosystem vapor/carbon exchange. The LAI changing with land uses should be the primary regulation of grassland WUE. These findings facilitate the mechanistic understanding of carbon-water relationships at canopy and ecosystem levels and projection of the effects of land-use change on regional climate and productivity.

  11. Northern Rockies Ecoregion: Chapter 7 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Rockies Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) covers approximately 162,746 km2 (63,200 mi2), primarily in Idaho but also including areas in western Montana and northeastern Washington (fig. 1). Canada forms the northern border of the ecoregion. To the west it is bordered by the Columbia Plateau and Blue Mountains Ecoregions, to the south by the Snake River Basin Ecoregion, and to the east by the Canadian Rockies, Middle Rockies, Northwestern Great Plains, and Northwestern Glaciated Plains Ecoregions; also to the east, the Northern Rockies Ecoregion interfingers with the Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion, each enclosing some isolated areas of the other (fig. 1). The ecoregion is composed of a series of high, rugged mountain ranges, mostly oriented northwest-southeast, with intermontane valleys between them (fig. 2). The entire ecoregion was glaciated during the Pleistocene (1,800,000 to 11,400 years ago), and today numerous large lakes occupy basins formed by glacial action (Omernik, 1987; Habeck and Mutch, 1973). Streams draining these mountain ranges provide a water source for many western cities and towns (fig. 3). The Continental Divide, located at the highest elevations along the northern Rocky Mountains, separates rivers that flow westward into the Columbia River watershed from those that flow eastward into the Missouri River watershed.

  12. Seasonal variation of nitrogen-concentration in the surface water and its relationship with land use in a catchment of northern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-ding; Peng, Hong-jia; Fu, Bo-Jie; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Shu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Surface waters can be contaminated by human activities in two ways: (1) by point sources, such as sewage treatment discharge and storm-water runoff; and (2) by non-point sources, such as runoff from urban and agricultural areas. With point-source pollution effectively controlled, non-point source pollution has become the most important environmental concern in the world. The formation of non-point source pollution is related to both the sources such as soil nutrient, the amount of fertilizer and pesticide applied, the amount of refuse, and the spatial complex combination of land uses within a heterogeneous landscape. Land-use change, dominated by human activities, has a significant impact on water resources and quality. In this study, fifteen surface water monitoring points in the Yuqiao Reservoir Basin, Zunhua, Hebei Province, northern China, were chosen to study the seasonal variation of nitrogen concentration in the surface water. Water samples were collected in low-flow period (June), high-flow period (July) and mean-flow period (October) from 1999 to 2000. The results indicated that the seasonal variation of nitrogen concentration in the surface water among the fifteen monitoring points in the rainfall-rich year is more complex than that in the rainfall-deficit year. It was found that the land use, the characteristics of the surface river system, rainfall, and human activities play an important role in the seasonal variation of N-concentration in surface water.

  13. Increased terrestrial to ocean sediment and carbon fluxes in the northern Chesapeake Bay associated with twentieth century land alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saenger, C.; Cronin, T. M.; Willard, D.; Halka, J.; Kerhin, R.

    2008-01-01

    We calculated Chesapeake Bay (CB) sediment and carbon fluxes before and after major anthropogenic land clearance using robust monitoring, modeling and sedimentary data. Four distinct fluxes in the estuarine system were considered including (1) the flux of eroded material from the watershed to streams, (2) the flux of suspended sediment at river fall lines, (3) the burial flux in tributary sediments, and (4) the burial flux in main CB sediments. The sedimentary maximum in Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen marked peak land clearance (~1900 a.d.). Rivers feeding CB had a total organic carbon (TOC)/total suspended solids of 0.24??0.12, and we used this observation to calculate TOC fluxes from sediment fluxes. Sediment and carbon fluxes increased by 138-269% across all four regions after land clearance. Our results demonstrate that sediment delivery to CB is subject to significant lags and that excess post-land clearance sediment loads have not reached the ocean. Post-land clearance increases in erosional flux from watersheds, and burial in estuaries are important processes that must be considered to calculate accurate global sediment and carbon budgets. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  14. Global sea-level rise is recognised, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S; Siringan, Fernando P

    2006-03-01

    Land subsidence resulting from excessive extraction of groundwater is particularly acute in East Asian countries. Some Philippine government sectors have begun to recognise that the sea-level rise of one to three millimetres per year due to global warming is a cause of worsening floods around Manila Bay, but are oblivious to, or ignore, the principal reason: excessive groundwater extraction is lowering the land surface by several centimetres to more than a decimetre per year. Such ignorance allows the government to treat flooding as a lesser problem that can be mitigated through large infrastructural projects that are both ineffective and vulnerable to corruption. Money would be better spent on preventing the subsidence by reducing groundwater pumping and moderating population growth and land use, but these approaches are politically and psychologically unacceptable. Even if groundwater use is greatly reduced and enlightened land-use practices are initiated, natural deltaic subsidence and global sea-level rise will continue to aggravate flooding, although at substantially lower rates.

  15. Land subsidence along the Delta-Mendota Canal in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin; Solt, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased pumping, initiation of water-level recovery, and a reduced rate of compaction in some areas of the San Joaquin Valley. However, drought conditions during 1976–77 and 1987–92, and drought conditions and regulatory reductions in surface-water deliveries during 2007–10, decreased surface-water availability, causing pumping to increase, water levels to decline, and renewed compaction. Land subsidence from this compaction has reduced freeboard and flow capacity of the Delta-Mendota Canal, the California Aqueduct, and other canals that deliver irrigation water and transport floodwater. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority, assessed land subsidence in the vicinity of the Delta-Mendota Canal as part of an effort to minimize future subsidence-related damages to the canal. The location, magnitude, and stress regime of land-surface deformation during 2003–10 were determined by using extensometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), spirit leveling, and groundwater-level data. Comparison of continuous GPS, shallow extensometer, and groundwater-level data, combined with results from a one-dimensional model, indicated the vast majority of the compaction took place beneath the Corcoran Clay, the primary regional confining unit. Land-surface deformation measurements indicated that much of the northern portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal (Clifton Court Forebay to Check 14) was fairly stable or minimally subsiding on an annual basis; some areas showed

  16. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  17. Cumulate xenoliths from Mt. Overlord, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: A window into high pressure storage and differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinelli, Cristina; Gaeta, Mario; Armienti, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The alkaline basaltic magmas at Mt. Overlord (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) entrained abundant ultramafic xenoliths (wehrlites, clinopyroxenites and hornblendites). Textures, bulk rock compositions, mineral chemistry and thermobarometric calculations indicate that the xenoliths represent cumulates that crystallised at the mantle-crust boundary. In particular, the major and trace element compositions of the bulk rocks and minerals indicate that the Mt. Overlord cumulates were formed through processes of crystal fractionation that affected hydrous basanitic magmas. Some of the xenoliths have textural features that suggest a lengthy (> 13 Myr) post-emplacement history at relatively low temperatures (1050-1100 °C) and high pressures (0.8 to 1.4 GPa) and that their primary parental melts were therefore related to the earliest phases of Cenozoic magmatism. These processes produced a "wet and hot deep zone" that had a strong influence on the thermochemical evolution of the lower crust beneath Mt. Overlord.

  18. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land-atmosphere-ocean-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kurten, Theo; Baklanov, Aleksander; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Bäck, Jaana; Vihma, Timo; Alekseychik, Pavel; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Arnold, Stephen R.; Arshinov, Mikhail; Asmi, Eija; Belan, Boris; Bobylev, Leonid; Chalov, Sergey; Cheng, Yafang; Chubarova, Natalia; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ding, Aijun; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Dubtsov, Sergei; Dyukarev, Egor; Elansky, Nikolai; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Esau, Igor; Filatov, Nikolay; Flint, Mikhail; Fu, Congbin; Glezer, Olga; Gliko, Aleksander; Heimann, Martin; Holtslag, Albert A. M.; Hõrrak, Urmas; Janhunen, Juha; Juhola, Sirkku; Järvi, Leena; Järvinen, Heikki; Kanukhina, Anna; Konstantinov, Pavel; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Komarov, Alexander S.; Kujansuu, Joni; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Duplissy, Ella-Maria; Laaksonen, Ari; Laurila, Tuomas; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lisitzin, Alexander; Mahura, Alexsander; Makshtas, Alexander; Mareev, Evgeny; Mazon, Stephany; Matishov, Dmitry; Melnikov, Vladimir; Mikhailov, Eugene; Moisseev, Dmitri; Nigmatulin, Robert; Noe, Steffen M.; Ojala, Anne; Pihlatie, Mari; Popovicheva, Olga; Pumpanen, Jukka; Regerand, Tatjana; Repina, Irina; Shcherbinin, Aleksei; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Sipilä, Mikko; Skorokhod, Andrey; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Su, Hang; Subetto, Dmitry A.; Sun, Junying; Terzhevik, Arkady Y.; Timofeyev, Yuri; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka; Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Zaytseva, Nina; Zhang, Jiahua; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vesala, Timo; Hari, Pertti; Christen Hansson, Hans; Matvienko, Gennady G.; Kasimov, Nikolai S.; Guo, Huadong; Bondur, Valery; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-11-01

    The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic-boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX), a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/). PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land-atmosphere-aquatic-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  19. Summary of hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas, which includes the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, supplies most of the water used for industrial, municipal, agricultural, and commercial purposes for an approximately 25,000- square-mile (mi2) area that includes the Beaumont and Houston metropolitan areas. The area has an abundant amount of potable ground water, but withdrawals of large quantities of ground water have resulted in potentiometric-surface declines in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and land-surface subsidence from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments. This fact sheet summarizes a study done in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (HGCSD) as a part of the TWDB Ground-Water Availability Modeling (or Model) (GAM) program. The study was designed to develop and test a ground-water-flow model of the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the GAM area (fig. 1) that waterresource managers can use as a tool to address future groundwater- availability issues.

  20. Wagering the land: Ritual, capital, and environmental degradation in the cordillera of Northern Luzon 1900-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Tropical deforestation and land degradation in the Third World countries are topics that have moved to the academic center stage in the past 15 years. While this attention is long overdue, it is remarkable how little is understood of these processes. In addition, in the present rush to model global environmental change, the detail and place-specific nature of the expansion of agriculture and decline of forest cover may be ignored or overlooked. Wagering the Land is an important book because it forces one to confront the remarkably varied, complex, and site-specific causes of long-term environmental change. This book is strongly recommended to those engaged in the whole enterprise of modeling environmental change (particularly at the global level).

  1. Influence of land-surface and turbulent parameterization schemes on regional-scale boundary layer characteristics over northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Jagabandhu; Sharan, Maithili

    2012-08-01

    The influence of turbulent and land-surface parameterizations on regional scale boundary layer features over north India is analyzed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system during two contrasting cases of summer and winter. The model predicted surface temperatures, wind speeds, potential temperature profiles and wind speed profiles are compared with the observations from India Meteorological Department and Wyoming Weather Web data archive. The qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that the model predictions are relatively better over three north Indian cities namely Delhi, Ahmedabad and Jodhpur when the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary layer scheme along with Noah land-surface model is used. The near surface flow features during both summer and winter cases indicate the major role of land surface models (LSMs) as compared to the boundary layer parameterizations in governing the regional scale flow fields. The role of the LSMs and boundary layer parameterizations in the regional scale transport of dust particles from Thar region toward Delhi and its neighborhood depends upon their point of origin during summer. However, the flow trajectories travel in the opposite direction during the winter case because of the contrasting nature of the flow patterns and consequently, the formation of haze-like conditions over Delhi due to Thar dusts is not expected.

  2. Good for a national cemetery: questions of land use and an 1888 Botanical Expedition across Northern Michigan.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, lumbermen logged the virgin pine forests of northern Michigan. The assumption was that the "plow would follow the axe," and agriculture would dominate the region as it did in the southern half of the state. When farming did not quickly take root, William James Beal and Liberty Hyde Bailey led an expedition of scientists and journalists on a trip across northern Michigan in June 1888 to collect botanical samples, to find a site for a state forest reserve, and to recommend appropriate farming enterprises. This essay contends that without a key reforestation advocate in charles Garfield the explorers focused too much on the questions related to botany and agriculture.While agriculture would ultimately thrive in some parts of the cutover, much of the region was unsuitable for intensive farming. The failure of the scientists to convey these limits adequately in newspaper articles and subsequent reports allowed for their work to be used by agricultural boosters throughout the region. The result was a cycle of erosion, fire, and farm abandonment that proved to be a political problem in Michigan for the first three decades of the twentieth century.

  3. Scientific rationale for selecting northern Eumenides Dorsum (9 deg - 11 deg N latitude, 159 deg - 162 deg longitude) as a potential Mars Pathfinder landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Tim J.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed site is the northernmost occurrence of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), and lies at or below the -2 km contour. The MFF is the famous radar 'stealth' deposit that extends from south of Olympus Mons westward across southern Amazonis Planitia to southern Elysium Planitia. The MFF appears to be composed of some kind of wind-eroded friable material, the origin of which is very problematic. It appears to be a radar-absorbing material, whereas Mars' south polar layered deposits appear bright in the same scenes. Synthetic aperture radar images of young terrestrial ash deposits in the Andes also appear relatively bright. The MFF's radar signature appears to require a uniformly fine-grained material (on the order of dust-sized to fine sand-sized) at least several meters thick, in order not to transmit reflections off underlying terrain or internal reflective horizons. The proposed Pathfinder landing site lies on a relatively smooth, 'unmodified' portion of the MFF, more than 100 km away from its northern and western edges, which exhibit evidence of eolian etching in the form of closely spaced yardings. There are no large craters or steep slopes within a few hundred kilometers of the landing site.

  4. Effects of synoptic-scale circulation pattern and local land surface condition on fog at Kushiro, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, S.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Marine stratiform clouds are frequently observed over western North Pacific offshore of the northeast Japan during summer when warm southerly wind prevails over underlying cold ocean current. Such clouds often migrate over Kushiro located in the coastal area of eastern Hokkaido Island, north Japan and are recognized as sea fog. On the other hand, Kushiro is a middle-sized city with population of over 180,000 and a large wetland expands at the north of Kushiro city. The difference of land surface condition between the city and the wetland might cause heterogeneity of the sea fog distribution over land, via dissipation and regeneration process of fog. In this study, long-term visibility data for Kushiro are investigated to clarify the relationship between interannual variation of fog frequency (FF) and large-scale circulation patterns. Furthermore, frequency of fog/low-level cloud (LC) is identified using satellite images and sensitivity experiments changing land surface condition are conducted using meteorological regional model to understand an impact of land use on the local fog distribution and its physical processes. Monthly mean FF trends observed at Kushiro during 1931 to 2010 shows significant decline (-3.3 day per decade). Since late 1970s, the decline at Kushiro has been particularly remarkable in July and August in association with an increased number of years with very low FF. Analysis of radiosonde data has revealed the development of shallow moist layer under a strong inversion layer during fog occurrence because of abundant moisture supply from southerly wind. However, cold and dry northerly wind prevents the formation of inversion layer during fog-free days. Composite analysis of reanalysis data suggests that the low-level southerly wind toward northeast Japan is weaker in the low FF month of July than climatology owing to a southward shift of the North Pacific High (NPH) and stronger Okhotsk High. In August, eastward displacement or shrinking of the

  5. Subsoil Carbon Stocks and Vulnerability to Land Use Change Across a Network of Seven Experimental Sites in the US Northern Lake States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, S.; Rothstein, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report the depth distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) at experimental sites in the Northern Lake States (Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota) spanning a range of textural and geochemical environments. We also determined the vulnerability of SOC and SIC to the disturbance caused land-use change (conversion of old fields to short-rotation woody crop plantations). The experimental network consists of seven bioenergy plantations established in 2009-2010 in idled grass fields using herbicide and tillage. These study sites exhibit differences in soil texture (controlled largely by the type of glacial overlay) and geochemistry (controlled by the regional lithology including shale, basalt, limestone, sandstone and calcareous sandstone), providing the opportunity to gain insight into regional physical and chemical determinants of soil C storage. We conducted intensive soil sampling campaigns to a depth of 1 m prior to land conversion and at 4 years post-disturbance, to determine the depth profile and response of soil C storage as a function of land use and regional edaphic attributes. The proportion of subsoil SOC (stored at a depth greater than 25 cm) ranged from 33 to 50% of whole-profile SOC (to 1 m) prior to land conversion. Soils developed from calcareous parent materials also had significant SIC stocks despite the humid climate promoting carbonate weathering. The SIC stocks made up to half of the total soil C to a depth of 1 m. Measurable carbonates occurred throughout the profile, possibly due to upwards biological translocation mechanisms, but were most abundant at depths greater than 50 cm. Preliminary analyses indicate that SOC decreased in the topsoil following land-use change. These topsoil losses were offset by subsoil gains at sites with reactive mineralogy. The SIC stocks showed re-distribution following disturbance and were likely subject to accelerated weathering. Taken together, these results indicate

  6. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  7. Changes in soil properties after establishment of Artemisia halodendron and Caragana microphylla on shifting sand dunes in semiarid Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Yong Zhong; Zhang, Tong Hui; Li, Yu Lin; Wang, Fang

    2005-08-01

    In the semiarid Horqin sandy land of northern China, establishment of artificial sand-fixing shrubs on desertified sandy lands is an effective measure to control desertification and improve the regional environment. Caragana microphylla Lam. and Artemisia halodendron Turcz. ex Bess. are two of the dominant native shrub species, which are adapted well to windy and sandy environments, and thus, are widely used in revegetation programs to control desertification in Horqin region. To assess the effects of artificially planting these two shrub species on restoration of desertified sandy land, soil properties and plant colonization were measured 6 years after planting shrubs on shifting sand dunes. Soil samples were taken from two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) under the shrub canopy, in the mid-row location (alley) between shrub belts, and from nonvegetated shifting sand dune (as a control). Soil fine fractions, soil water holding capacity, soil organic C and total N have significantly increased, and pH and bulk density have declined at the 0-5-cm topsoil in both C. microphylla and A. halodendron. At the 5-20 cm subsurface soil, changes in soil properties are not significant, with exception of bulk density and organic C concentration under the canopy of A. halodendron and total N concentration under the canopy of C. microphylla. Soil amelioration processes are initiated under the shrub canopies, as higher C and N concentrations were found under the canopies compared with alleys. At the same time, the establishment of shrubs facilitates the colonization and development of herbaceous species. A. halodendron proved to have better effects in fixing the sand surface, improving soil properties, and restoring plant species in comparison to C. microphylla.

  8. Calibrating coseismic coastal land-level changes during the 2014 Iquique (Mw=8.2) earthquake (northern Chile) with leveling, GPS and intertidal biota.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Melnick, Daniel; Baez, Juan Carlos; Montecino, Henry; Lagos, Nelson A; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Camus, Patricio A

    2017-01-01

    The April 1st 2014 Iquique earthquake (MW 8.1) occurred along the northern Chile margin where the Nazca plate is subducted below the South American continent. The last great megathrust earthquake here, in 1877 of Mw ~8.8 opened a seismic gap, which was only partly closed by the 2014 earthquake. Prior to the earthquake in 2013, and shortly after it we compared data from leveled benchmarks, deployed campaign GPS instruments, continuous GPS stations and estimated sea levels using the upper vertical level of rocky shore benthic organisms including algae, barnacles, and mussels. Land-level changes estimated from mean elevations of benchmarks indicate subsidence along a ~100-km stretch of coast, ranging from 3 to 9 cm at Corazones (18°30'S) to between 30 and 50 cm at Pisagua (19°30'S). About 15 cm of uplift was measured along the southern part of the rupture at Chanabaya (20°50'S). Land-level changes obtained from benchmarks and campaign GPS were similar at most sites (mean difference 3.7±3.2 cm). Higher differences however, were found between benchmarks and continuous GPS (mean difference 8.5±3.6 cm), possibly because sites were not collocated and separated by several kilometers. Subsidence estimated from the upper limits of intertidal fauna at Pisagua ranged between 40 to 60 cm, in general agreement with benchmarks and GPS. At Chanavaya, the magnitude and sense of displacement of the upper marine limit was variable across species, possibly due to species-dependent differences in ecology. Among the studied species, measurements on lithothamnioid calcareous algae most closely matched those made with benchmarks and GPS. When properly calibrated, rocky shore benthic species may be used to accurately measure land-level changes along coasts affected by subduction earthquakes. Our calibration of those methods will improve their accuracy when applied to coasts lacking pre-earthquake data and in estimating deformation during pre-instrumental earthquakes.

  9. Long-term continuous GIS-based modeling of forest land use changes in Mica Creek watershed in northern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.; Hubbart, J. A.; Link, T. E.; Cundy, T. W.; Elliot, W. J.; Gravelle, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term effects of land use change on watershed hydrology are difficult to determine experimentally. Usually, many different disturbances occur that may mask the land use changes of interest. In forested watersheds, these disturbances include clear cutting, road building and fires. In this study, we use an extensive data set from the 28 km2Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW). This watershed was developed in 1990 by Potlatch Corporation to evaluate the effects of modern forest practices on stream resources. The Mica Creek watershed is a large 97 km2 tributary watershed to the St. Joe River near St. Maries, Idaho. The MCEW has a nested study design, which allows for the analysis of cumulative effects as well as the traditional comparison of treatment versus control. Treatments include road building in 1996, and clearcut and partial-cut logging in 2001. Periods of two to five years were included for pre-treatment and post-treatment monitoring. The MCEW has been instrumented since 1990 for discharge, flow proportional suspended sediment sampling, bedload sampling (during events), water temperature, particle size distribution, channel shape, canopy cover, and channel gradients at 32 stream cross-sections, and precipitation at 4 locations and a cooperative SNOTEL site. We applied the Soil Moisture Routing model, and CCHE1D, a channel routing model for water and sediment, to the MCEW data set. Our results include the simulation of a control period (calibration), road building, and logging. Simulation results are evaluated using spatial patterns, stream flow records at seven flumes, and water yield data. After model simulation, we selected several land use change scenarios for further model runs. In these model runs, we analyzed model output for water yield changes and associated hydrologic variables such as evapotranspiration, runoff, and interflow.

  10. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Nkumbaan, Samuel N; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds' association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved 'fame' possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites.

  11. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Nkumbaan, Samuel N.; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds’ association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved ‘fame’ possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites. PMID:21810037

  12. Screening for chronic hepatitis B and C in migrants from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, the former Soviet Republics, and Vietnam in the Arnhem region, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Richter, C; Ter Beest, G; Gisolf, E H; VAN Bentum, P; Waegemaekers, C; Swanink, C; Roovers, E

    2014-10-01

    Migrants born in hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic countries are at increased risk of being infected with these viruses. The first symptoms may arise when liver damage has already occurred. The challenge is to identify these infections early, since effective treatment has become available. In 2011 we conducted a screening project in first-generation migrants (FGMs) born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, the former Soviet Republics, and Vietnam and living in Arnhem and Rheden. All participants were offered free blood screening for HBV and HCV. In total 959 participants were tested, with the country of origin known for 927, equating to 28·7% of all registered FGMs from the chosen countries. Nineteen percent (n = 176) had serological signs of past or chronic HBV infection and 2·2% (n = 21) had chronic HBV infection. The highest prevalence of chronic HBV infection was found in the Vietnamese population (9·5%, n = 12). Chronic HCV was found in two persons from the former Soviet Republics and one from Vietnam. Twenty-four percent (n = 5) of the newly identified patients with chronic HBV and one of the three patients with chronic HCV received treatment. Three of the patients, two with HCV and one with HBV, already had liver cirrhosis. The highest (9·5%) HBV prevalence was found in FGMs from Vietnam, indicating a high need for focusing on that particular immigrant population in order to identify more people with silent HBV infection. The fact that three patients already had liver cirrhosis underlines the necessity of early identification of HBV and HCV infection in risk groups.

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Texas Water Development Board Ground- Water Availability Modeling program, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and tested a numerical finite-difference (MODFLOW) model to simulate ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2000. The model is intended to be a tool that water-resource managers can use to address future ground-water-availability issues.From land surface downward, the Chicot aquifer, the Evangeline aquifer, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit are the hydrogeologic units of the Gulf Coast aquifer system. Withdrawals of large quantities of ground water have resulted in potentiometric surface (head) declines in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments. In a generalized conceptual model of the aquifer system, water enters the ground-waterflow system in topographically high outcrops of the hydrogeologic units in the northwestern part of the approximately 25,000-square-mile model area. Water that does not discharge to streams flows to intermediate and deep zones of the system southeastward of the outcrop areas where it is discharged by wells and by upward leakage in topographically low areas near the coast. The uppermost parts of the aquifer system, which include outcrop areas, are under water-table conditions. As depth increases in the aquifer system and as interbedded sand and clay accumulate, water-table conditions evolve into confined conditions.The model comprises four layers, one for each of the hydrogeologic units of the aquifer system except the Catahoula confining unit, the assumed no-flow base of the system. Each layer consists of 137 rows and 245 columns of uniformly spaced grid blocks, each block representing 1 square mile

  14. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Texas Water Development Board Ground- Water Availability Modeling program, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and tested a numerical finite-difference (MODFLOW) model to simulate ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2000. The model is intended to be a tool that water-resource managers can use to address future ground-water-availability issues. From land surface downward, the Chicot aquifer, the Evangeline aquifer, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit are the hydrogeologic units of the Gulf Coast aquifer system. Withdrawals of large quantities of ground water have resulted in potentiometric surface (head) declines in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments. In a generalized conceptual model of the aquifer system, water enters the ground-waterflow system in topographically high outcrops of the hydrogeologic units in the northwestern part of the approximately 25,000-square-mile model area. Water that does not discharge to streams flows to intermediate and deep zones of the system southeastward of the outcrop areas where it is discharged by wells and by upward leakage in topographically low areas near the coast. The uppermost parts of the aquifer system, which include outcrop areas, are under water-table conditions. As depth increases in the aquifer system and as interbedded sand and clay accumulate, water-table conditions evolve into confined conditions. The model comprises four layers, one for each of the hydrogeologic units of the aquifer system except the Catahoula confining unit, the assumed no-flow base of the system. Each layer consists of 137 rows and 245 columns of uniformly spaced grid blocks, each block representing 1 square mile

  15. Land Use, Yield and Quality Changes of Minor Field Crops: Is There Superseded Potential to Be Reinvented in Northern Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Lehtonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of agriculture was one of the strengthened aims of the greening payment of European Agricultural Policy (CAP) as diversification provides numerous ecosystems services compared to cereal-intensive crop rotations. This study focuses on current minor crops in Finland that have potential for expanded production and considers changes in their cropping areas, yield trends, breeding gains, roles in crop rotations and potential for improving resilience. Long-term datasets of Natural Resources Institute Finland and farmers’ land use data from the Agency of Rural Affairs were used to analyze the above-mentioned trends and changes. The role of minor crops in rotations declined when early and late CAP periods were compared and that of cereal monocultures strengthened. Genetic yield potentials of minor crops have increased as also genetic improvements in quality traits, although some typical trade-offs with improved yields have also appeared. However, the gap between potential and attained yields has expanded, depending on the minor crop, as national yield trends have either stagnated or declined. When comparing genetic improvements of minor crops to those of the emerging major crop, spring wheat, breeding achievements in minor crops were lower. It was evident that the current agricultural policies in the prevailing market and the price environment have not encouraged cultivation of minor crops but further strengthened the role of cereal monocultures. We suggest optimization of agricultural land use, which is a core element of sustainable intensification, as a future means to couple long-term environmental sustainability with better success in economic profitability and social acceptability. This calls for development of effective policy instruments to support farmer’s diversification actions. PMID:27870865

  16. Phreatophytic land-cover map of the northern and central Great Basin Ecoregion: California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathie, Amy M.; Welborn, Toby L.; Susong, David D.; Tumbusch, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing water use and changing climate in the Great Basin of the western United States are likely affecting the distribution of phreatophytic vegetation in the region. Phreatophytic plant communities that depend on groundwater are susceptible to natural and anthropogenic changes to hydrologic flow systems. The purpose of this report is to document the methods used to create the accompanying map that delineates areas of the Great Basin that have the greatest potential to support phreatophytic vegetation. Several data sets were used to develop the data displayed on the map, including Shrub Map (a land-cover data set derived from the Regional Gap Analysis Program) and Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data sets for California and Wyoming. In addition, the analysis used the surface landforms from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Ecosystems Mapping Project data to delineate regions of the study area based on topographic relief that are most favorable to support phreatophytic vegetation. Using spatial analysis techniques in a GIS, phreatophytic vegetation classes identified within Shrub Map and GAP were selected and compared to the spatial distribution of selected landforms in the study area to delineate areas of phreatophyte vegetation. Results were compared to more detailed studies conducted in selected areas. A general qualitative description of the data and the limitations of the base data determined that these results provide a regional overview but are not intended for localized studies or as a substitute for detailed field analysis. The map is intended as a decision-support aide for land managers to better understand, anticipate, and respond to ecosystem changes in the Great Basin.

  17. The dynamic monitoring of aeolian desertification land distribution and its response to climate change in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lili; Jia, Zhiqing; Li, Qingxue

    2016-01-01

    Aeolian desertification is poorly understood despite its importance for indicating environment change. Here we exploit Gaofen-1(GF-1) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to develop a quick and efficient method for large scale aeolian desertification dynamic monitoring in northern China. This method, which is based on Normalized Difference Desertification Index (NDDI) calculated by band1 & band2 of MODIS reflectance data (MODIS09A1). Then we analyze spatial-temporal change of aeolian desertification area and detect its possible influencing factors, such as precipitation, temperature, wind speed and population by Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) model. It suggests that aeolian desertification area with population indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables (P < 0.05), but forcing of aeolian desertification area by population is weak. Meanwhile, we find aeolian desertification area is significantly affected by temperature, as expected. However, there is no obvious forcing for the aeolian desertification area and precipitation. Aeolian desertification area with wind speed indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables with significant signal (P < 0.01). We infer that aeolian desertification is greatly affected by natural factors compared with anthropogenic factors. For the desertification in China, we are greatly convinced that desertification prevention is better than control. PMID:28004798

  18. The dynamic monitoring of aeolian desertification land distribution and its response to climate change in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lili; Jia, Zhiqing; Li, Qingxue

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian desertification is poorly understood despite its importance for indicating environment change. Here we exploit Gaofen-1(GF-1) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to develop a quick and efficient method for large scale aeolian desertification dynamic monitoring in northern China. This method, which is based on Normalized Difference Desertification Index (NDDI) calculated by band1 & band2 of MODIS reflectance data (MODIS09A1). Then we analyze spatial-temporal change of aeolian desertification area and detect its possible influencing factors, such as precipitation, temperature, wind speed and population by Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) model. It suggests that aeolian desertification area with population indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables (P < 0.05), but forcing of aeolian desertification area by population is weak. Meanwhile, we find aeolian desertification area is significantly affected by temperature, as expected. However, there is no obvious forcing for the aeolian desertification area and precipitation. Aeolian desertification area with wind speed indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables with significant signal (P < 0.01). We infer that aeolian desertification is greatly affected by natural factors compared with anthropogenic factors. For the desertification in China, we are greatly convinced that desertification prevention is better than control.

  19. The dynamic monitoring of aeolian desertification land distribution and its response to climate change in northern China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lili; Jia, Zhiqing; Li, Qingxue

    2016-12-22

    Aeolian desertification is poorly understood despite its importance for indicating environment change. Here we exploit Gaofen-1(GF-1) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to develop a quick and efficient method for large scale aeolian desertification dynamic monitoring in northern China. This method, which is based on Normalized Difference Desertification Index (NDDI) calculated by band1 &band2 of MODIS reflectance data (MODIS09A1). Then we analyze spatial-temporal change of aeolian desertification area and detect its possible influencing factors, such as precipitation, temperature, wind speed and population by Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) model. It suggests that aeolian desertification area with population indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables (P < 0.05), but forcing of aeolian desertification area by population is weak. Meanwhile, we find aeolian desertification area is significantly affected by temperature, as expected. However, there is no obvious forcing for the aeolian desertification area and precipitation. Aeolian desertification area with wind speed indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables with significant signal (P < 0.01). We infer that aeolian desertification is greatly affected by natural factors compared with anthropogenic factors. For the desertification in China, we are greatly convinced that desertification prevention is better than control.

  20. Analysis of land use changes over the last 200 years in the catchment of Lake Czechowskie (Pomerania, northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Kaczmarek, Halina

    2014-05-01

    Changes in land cover in the catchment area are, beside climate change, some of the major factors affecting sedimentation processes in lakes. With increasing human impact, changes in land cover no longer depend primarily on climate. In relation to research on sediments of Lake Czechowskie in Pomeranian Province in North Poland, land use changes over the last 200 years were analysed, with particular reference to deforestation or afforestation. The study area was the lake catchment, which covers nearly 20 km2. The analysis was based on archival and contemporary cartographic and photogrammetric materials, georeferenced and rectified using ArcGIS software. The following materials were used: Schrötter-Engelhart, Karte von Ost-Preussen nebst Preussisch Litthauen und West-Preussen nebst dem Netzdistrict, 1:50 000, section 92, 93, 1796-1802; Map Messtishchblatt, 1:25000, sheet Czarnen, (mapping conducted in 1874), 1932; Map WIG (Military Geographical Institute - Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny), 1:25000, sheet Osowo, (mapping conducted in 1929-31), 1933; aerial photos 1:13000, 1964, 1969; 1:25000, 1987; 1:26000, 1997; aerial ortophotomap , 1:5000, 2010. Today, over 60% of the catchment of Lake Czechowskie is covered with forests, dominated by planted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), while the remaining areas are used for agricultural purposes or are built up. The first cartographic materials indicate that in the late 18th c., forest covered almost 50% of the catchment surface. By the year 1870, there was a significant reduction in the forested area, as its contribution fell to 40%. Deforestation took place mainly between the main villages. In the 1920s the forest cover increased to 44%. Today, almost the entire lake is surrounded by forest and a wetland belt (at least 0.5 km wide). Deforestation in the catchment should not be attributed solely to logging because the area of Tuchola Forests (Bory Tucholskie) was repeatedly affected by natural disasters. In the 19th c. these

  1. Modern and Holocene aeolian dust variability from Talos Dome (Northern Victoria Land) to the interior of the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, B.; Baroni, C.; Andersson, P. S.; Narcisi, B.; Salvatore, M. C.; Petit, J. R.; Scarchilli, C.; Frezzotti, M.; Albani, S.; Maggi, V.

    2013-03-01

    High-elevation sites from the inner part of the East Antarctic plateau sample windborne dust representative of large portions of the Southern hemisphere, and are sensitive to long-range atmospheric transport conditions to polar areas. On the periphery of the ice sheet, conversely, the aeolian transport of particles from high-elevation ice-free areas can locally represent a relatively important additional input of dust to the atmosphere, and the interplay of atmospheric dynamics, dust transport and deposition is strictly related to the regional atmospheric circulation behaviour both at present-day and in the past. The understanding of the spatial extent where local sources can influence the mineral dust budget on the ice sheet is fundamental for understanding the atmospheric dust cycle in Antarctica and for the interpretation of the dust history in marginal glaciological settings. In this work we investigate the spatial variability of dust flux and provenance during modern (pre-industrial) and Holocene times along a transect connecting Talos Dome to the internal sites of the Antarctic plateau and we extend the existing documentation of the isotopic (Sr-Nd) fingerprint of dust-sized sediments from Victoria Land source areas. Dust flux, grain size and isotopic composition show a marked variability between Talos Dome, Mid Point, D4 and Dome C/Vostok, suggesting that local sources play an important role on the periphery of the ice sheet. Microscope observations reveal that background mineral aerosol in the TALDICE core is composed by a mixture of dust, volcanic particles and micrometric-sized fragments of diatoms, these latter representing a small but pervasive component of Antarctic sediments. A set of samples from Victoria Land, mostly consisting of regolith and glacial deposits from high-elevation areas, was collected specially for this work and the isotopic composition of the dust-sized fraction of samples was analyzed. Results reveal a close relationship with the

  2. Conservation of northern bobwhite on private lands in Georgia, USA under uncertainty about landscape-level habitat effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.E.; Moore, C.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Hamrick, R.G.; Cooper, R.J.; Thackston, R.E.; Carroll, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale habitat enhancement programs for birds are becoming more widespread, however, most lack monitoring to resolve uncertainties and enhance program impact over time. Georgia?s Bobwhite Quail Initiative (BQI) is a competitive, proposal-based system that provides incentives to landowners to establish habitat for northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Using data from monitoring conducted in the program?s first years (1999?2001), we developed alternative hierarchical models to predict bobwhite abundance in response to program habitat modifications on local and regional scales. Effects of habitat and habitat management on bobwhite population response varied among geographical scales, but high measurement variability rendered the specific nature of these scaled effects equivocal. Under some models, BQI had positive impact at both local farm scales (1, 9 km2), particularly when practice acres were clustered, whereas other credible models indicated that bird response did not depend on spatial arrangement of practices. Thus, uncertainty about landscape-level effects of management presents a challenge to program managers who must decide which proposals to accept. We demonstrate that optimal selection decisions can be made despite this uncertainty and that uncertainty can be reduced over time, with consequent improvement in management efficacy. However, such an adaptive approach to BQI program implementation would require the reestablishment of monitoring of bobwhite abundance, an effort for which funding was discontinued in 2002. For landscape-level conservation programs generally, our approach demonstrates the value in assessing multiple scales of impact of habitat modification programs, and it reveals the utility of addressing management uncertainty through multiple decision models and system monitoring.

  3. Land use and climate affect Black Tern, Northern Harrier, and Marsh Wren abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forcey, Greg M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Linz, George M.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by many environmental factors at both large and small scales. Our study evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Black Tern (Childonias niger), and Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris) in the prairie potholes of the upper Midwest of the United States. These species were chosen because their diverse habitat preference represent the spectrum of habitat conditions present in the Prairie Potholes, ranging from open prairies to dense cattail marshes. We evaluated land-use covariates at three logarithmic spatial scales (1,000 ha, 10,000 ha, and 100,000 ha) and constructed models a priori using information from published habitat associations and climatic influences. The strongest influences on the abundance of each of the three species were the percentage of wetland area across all three spatial scales and precipitation in the year preceding that when bird surveys were conducted. Even among scales ranging over three orders of magnitude the influence of spatial scale was small, as models with the same variables expressed at different scales were often in the best model subset. Examination of the effects of large-scale environmental variables on wetland birds elucidated relationships overlooked in many smaller-scale studies, such as the influences of climate and habitat variables at landscape scales. Given the spatial variation in the abundance of our focal species within the prairie potholes, our model predictions are especially useful for targeting locations, such as northeastern South Dakota and central North Dakota, where management and conservation efforts would be optimally beneficial. This modeling approach can also be applied to other species and geographic areas to focus landscape conservation efforts and subsequent small-scale studies, especially in constrained economic climates.

  4. The role of plant-soil feedbacks and land-use legacies in restoration of a temperate steppe in northern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Lili; Han, Xingguo; Zhang, Guangming; Kardol, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Plant soil feedbacks affect plant performance and plant community dynamics; however, little is known about their role in ecological restoration. Here, we studied plant soil feedbacks in restoration of steppe vegetation after agricultural disturbance in northern China. First, we analyzed abiotic and biotic soil properties under mono-dominant plant patches in an old-field restoration site and in a target steppe site. Second, we tested plant soil feedbacks by growing plant species from these two sites on soils from con- and heterospecific origin. Soil properties generally did not differ between the old-field site and steppe site, but there were significant differences among mono-dominant plant patches within the sites. While soil species origin (i.e., the plant species beneath which the soil was collected) affected biomass of individual plant species in the feedback experiment, species-level plant soil feedbacks were neutral . Soil site origin (old-field, steppe) significantly affected biomass of old-field and steppe species. For example, old-field species had higher biomass in old-field soils than in steppe soils, indicating a positive land-use legacy. However, soil site origin effects depended on the plant species beneath which the soils were collected. The predictive value of abiotic and biotic soil properties in explaining plant biomass differed between and within groups of old-field and steppe species. We conclude that the occurrence of positive land-use legacies for old-field species may retard successional replacement of old-field species by steppe species. However, high levels of idiosyncrasy in responses of old-field and steppe plant species to con- and heterospecific soils indicate interspecific variation in the extent to which soil legacies and plant soil feedbacks control successional species replacements in Chinese steppe ecosystems.

  5. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  6. Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (p<0.05) mean runoff coefficients (%) in 7-yrs of 13, 20 and 27 were recorded for DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Mean soil losses of 7-yrs were 4.4, 12.5 and 18 t ha-1 y-1 in DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Among the several assessed soil properties, SOM, N, P, soil microbial biomass carbon, aggregate stability index, consistency index, cone index, air capacity and macroporosity were shown to significantly increase in soils subjected to DER+ planting system

  7. Climate change, land use conflicts, predation and ecological degradation as challenges for reindeer husbandry in northern Europe: what do we really know after half a century of research?

    PubMed

    Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic-alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or not research is capable to match these challenges. Despite its high quality, traditional reindeer-related research is functionally isolated within the various disciplines. The meshwork of ecology, socio-economy, culture and politics, however, in which reindeer husbandry is embedded by various interactions, will remain unclear and difficult to manage, if actors and relationships are kept separate. We propose some targets for new integrative research approaches that incorporate traditional knowledge and focus on the entire human-ecological system 'reindeer husbandry' to develop solutions for its challenges.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis and Investigation of the Behaviour of the UTOPIA Land-Surface Process Model: A Case Study for Vineyards in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francone, C.; Cassardo, C.; Richiardone, R.; Confalonieri, R.

    2012-09-01

    We used sensitivity-analysis techniques to investigate the behaviour of the land-surface model UTOPIA while simulating the micrometeorology of a typical northern Italy vineyard ( Vitis vinifera L.) under average climatic conditions. Sensitivity-analysis experiments were performed by sampling the vegetation parameter hyperspace using the Morris method and quantifying the parameter relevance across a wide range of soil conditions. This method was used since it proved its suitability for models with high computational time or with a large number of parameters, in a variety of studies performed on different types of biophysical models. The impact of input variability was estimated on reference model variables selected among energy (e.g. net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) and hydrological (e.g. soil moisture, surface runoff, drainage) budget components. Maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index were ranked as the most relevant parameters, with sensitivity indices exceeding the remaining parameters by about one order of magnitude. Soil variability had a high impact on the relevance of most of the vegetation parameters: coefficients of variation calculated on the sensitivity indices estimated for the different soils often exceeded 100 %. The only exceptions were represented by maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index, which showed a low variability in sensitivity indices while changing soil type, and confirmed their key role in affecting model results.

  9. Evidence for survival of Pleistocene climatic changes in Northern refugia by the land snail Trochoidea geyeri (Soós 1926) (Helicellinae, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Pfenninger, Markus; Posada, David; Magnin, Frédéric

    2003-01-01

    Background The study of organisms with restricted dispersal abilities and presence in the fossil record is particularly adequate to understand the impact of climate changes on the distribution and genetic structure of species. Trochoidea geyeri (Soós 1926) is a land snail restricted to a patchy, insular distribution in Germany and France. Fossil evidence suggests that current populations of T. geyeri are relicts of a much more widespread distribution during more favourable climatic periods in the Pleistocene. Results Phylogeographic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and nuclear ITS-1 sequence variation was used to infer the history of the remnant populations of T. geyeri. Nested clade analysis for both loci suggested that the origin of the species is in the Provence from where it expanded its range first to Southwest France and subsequently from there to Germany. Estimated divergence times predating the last glacial maximum between 25–17 ka implied that the colonization of the northern part of the current species range occurred during the Pleistocene. Conclusion We conclude that T. geyeri could quite successfully persist in cryptic refugia during major climatic changes in the past, despite of a restricted capacity of individuals to actively avoid unfavourable conditions. PMID:12720575

  10. Calibrating coseismic coastal land-level changes during the 2014 Iquique (Mw=8.2) earthquake (northern Chile) with leveling, GPS and intertidal biota

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Daniel; Baez, Juan Carlos; Montecino, Henry; Lagos, Nelson A.; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Camus, Patricio A.

    2017-01-01

    The April 1st 2014 Iquique earthquake (MW 8.1) occurred along the northern Chile margin where the Nazca plate is subducted below the South American continent. The last great megathrust earthquake here, in 1877 of Mw ~8.8 opened a seismic gap, which was only partly closed by the 2014 earthquake. Prior to the earthquake in 2013, and shortly after it we compared data from leveled benchmarks, deployed campaign GPS instruments, continuous GPS stations and estimated sea levels using the upper vertical level of rocky shore benthic organisms including algae, barnacles, and mussels. Land-level changes estimated from mean elevations of benchmarks indicate subsidence along a ~100-km stretch of coast, ranging from 3 to 9 cm at Corazones (18°30’S) to between 30 and 50 cm at Pisagua (19°30’S). About 15 cm of uplift was measured along the southern part of the rupture at Chanabaya (20°50’S). Land-level changes obtained from benchmarks and campaign GPS were similar at most sites (mean difference 3.7±3.2 cm). Higher differences however, were found between benchmarks and continuous GPS (mean difference 8.5±3.6 cm), possibly because sites were not collocated and separated by several kilometers. Subsidence estimated from the upper limits of intertidal fauna at Pisagua ranged between 40 to 60 cm, in general agreement with benchmarks and GPS. At Chanavaya, the magnitude and sense of displacement of the upper marine limit was variable across species, possibly due to species—dependent differences in ecology. Among the studied species, measurements on lithothamnioid calcareous algae most closely matched those made with benchmarks and GPS. When properly calibrated, rocky shore benthic species may be used to accurately measure land-level changes along coasts affected by subduction earthquakes. Our calibration of those methods will improve their accuracy when applied to coasts lacking pre-earthquake data and in estimating deformation during pre–instrumental earthquakes. PMID

  11. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  12. Brevibacillus levickii sp. nov. and Aneurinibacillus terranovensis sp. nov., two novel thermoacidophiles isolated from geothermal soils of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Allan, R N; Lebbe, L; Heyrman, J; De Vos, P; Buchanan, C J; Logan, N A

    2005-05-01

    Thirteen strains of endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from geothermal soils at Cryptogam Ridge, the north-west slope of Mt Melbourne, and at the vents and summit of Mt Rittmann in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, SDS-PAGE and routine phenotypic characterization tests indicated that the seven isolates from the north-west slope of Mt Melbourne represent a novel species of Brevibacillus and that the six isolates from Cryptogam Ridge and the vents and summit of Mt Rittmann represent a novel species of Aneurinibacillus. Brevibacillus strains were not isolated from the sites at Mt Rittmann or Cryptogam Ridge and Aneurinibacillus strains were not isolated from the north-west slope of Mt Melbourne. Preliminary metabolic studies revealed that L-glutamic acid, although not essential for growth, was utilized by both species. The Brevibacillus species possessed an uptake system specific for L-glutamic acid, whereas the Aneurinibacillus species possessed a more general uptake system capable of transporting other related amino acids. Both species utilized a K(+) antiport system and similar energy systems for the uptake of l-glutamic acid. The rate of uptake by the Brevibacillus species type strain was 20-fold greater than that shown by the Aneurinibacillus species type strain. The names Brevibacillus levickii sp. nov. and Aneurinibacillus terranovensis sp. nov. are proposed for the novel taxa; the type strains are Logan B-1657(T) (= LMG 22481(T) = CIP 108307(T)) and Logan B-1599(T) (LMG 22483(T) = CIP 108308(T)), respectively.

  13. Extent and architecture of major fault systems between northern Victoria Land and the eastern margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Balbi, P.; Bozzo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Terrane bounding and intra-terrane faults of the Ross Orogen in East Antarctica are linked to several phases of Cambrian to Ordovician age subduction and accretion along the active paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. Here we compile and analyse new enhanced aeromagnetic anomaly images over the Northern Victoria Land (NVL) segment of the Ross Orogen and the eastern margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) that help constrain the extent and structural architecture of these fault systems and enable us re-assess their tectonic evolution. Long-wavelength magnetic lows and residual Bouguer gravity highs are modelled as several-km thick inverted sedimentary basins of early Cambrian(?) age. Tectonic inversion occurred along major thrust faults during the late stages of the Ross Orogen, forming a major high-grade pop-up structure within the central Wilson Terrane, flanked by lower grade rocks. The Prince Albert Fault System can now be recongnised as being located to the west of the Exiles Thrust fault system rather than representing its southern continuation. Relatively thin sheets of mylonitic sheared granitoids and possible ultramafic lenses are associated with the late-Ross (ca 480 Ma) Exiles Thrust fault system, while significantly larger and thicker batholiths were emplaced along the Prince Albert Fault System. Recent zircon U-Pb dating over small exposures of gabbro-diorites within the Prince Albert Mountains to the south lead us to propose that this part of the magmatic arc was emplaced during an earlier phase of subduction (~520 Ma or older?), compared to the late-Ross intrusions to the east. Whether the Prince Albert Fault System was indeed a major cryptic suture in early Cambrian times (Ferraccioli et al., 2002, GRL) remains speculative, but possible. Our aeromagnetic interpretation leads us to conclude that these inherited terrane bounding and intra-terrane fault systems of the Ross Orogen exerted a key influence on Cenozoic tectonic blocks and faults of the

  14. Oxo-amphiboles in mantle xenoliths: evidence for H2O-rich melt interacting with the lithospheric mantle of Harrow Peaks (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, S.; Bonadiman, C.; Biagioni, C.; Comodi, P.; Coltorti, M.; Zucchini, A.; Ottolini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Amphiboles are the most widespread hydrous metasomatic phases in spinel-bearing mantle peridotites from Harrow Peaks (HP), Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica). They occur both in veinlets and disseminated in the peridotite matrix (preferentially associated with clinopyroxene and spinel grains). Four amphibole crystals were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and micro-Mössbauer spectroscopy; these crystal-chemical data allow to constrain upper mantle conditions during growth of these amphiboles and the role of volatile circulation during metasomatic processes in the Antarctic region. The HP amphiboles have low Mg# values (69.3-84.1), high TiO2 (2.74-5.30 wt%) and FeOtot contents (3.40 to 6.90 wt%). The Fe3+/Fetot ratios are significantly high (0.53-0.66). The W-site is mainly occupied by O2- (0.984-1.187 apfu) plus OH (H2O: 0.70-1.01 wt%) and minor F (0.04-0.24 wt%) and Cl (0.03-0.08 wt%). Consequently, HP amphiboles are actually characterized by a significant oxo component. The aH2O values were calculated at 1.5 GPa by dehydration equilibrium equations written as H2O-buffering equilibria among end-member components of amphibole and coexisting peridotite phases. Three out of four HP amphibole-bearing peridotites have values of aH2O ranging from 0.122 to 0.335; whereas one sample has aH2O remarkably higher (0.782) approaching an ideal H2O basalt solubility. The HP fO2 values, determined by the olivine-spinel-orthopyroxene oxygeobarometer (ΔQFM = -1.77 : +0.01), are remarkably different from those calculated on the basis of the amphibole dehydration equilibrium and the application of the dissociation reaction (ΔQFM = -2.60 : +6.8). The high aH2O and the extremely high fO2 values, determined by the oxy-amphibole equilibrium with respect to the redox conditions recorded by the co-existing anhydrous minerals (close to QFM buffer), revealed that: i) the amphibole

  15. The Role of Deforestation in the Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization: Lessons for the Current Land Use Management in Northern Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Oglesby, R. J.; Pielke, R. A.; Sever, T. A.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    143.3mm compared to 142.7 mm for current conditions (a negligible decrease of 0.4% over the forested scenario). However, domain averaged dry season rainfall in the Maya lowlands decreases to 128.9mm for the deforested scenario, a decrease in 9.7% over current conditions. The model simulations suggest that to-date deforestation has played an insignificant role in creating drier conditions in the Mayan lowlands, except in the regions in northern Guatemala and adjacent Mexico. However, continued deforestation that would be representative of those prior to the collapse of the Maya civilization in the region can be expected to lead to additional decreases in dry season precipitation throughout the entire region by about 10mm to 100mm. Improper land use management in this region could lead to futures catastrophes for the modern humans similar

  16. Volatile content in MI from Petrological study of basic lavas and melt inclusions from Cenozoic volcanism from Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Mukasa, Sam; Bonadiman, Costanza; Ferlito, Carmelo

    2014-05-01

    New data on basic lavas and melt inclusions (MI) in olivine phenocrysts from Northern Victoria Land (NVL-Antarctica) are presented aiming at comparing major element composition and volatiles content in lavas and their mantle sources. Major elements and volatile (H2O, CO2, S, F and Cl) were measured in MI from Shield Nunatak, while major and trace elements were carried out on lavas from three localities, Eldridge Bluff, Shield Nunatak and Handler Ridge. Lavas are olivine-phyric (up to 15 %vol) with minor clinopyroxene and plagioclase in a glassy to microcristalline plagioclase-dominated groundmass; opaque minerals are mostly magnetites and subordinately ilmenites. The great majority of lavas are basanites (42.20-45.02wt% SiO2, with 3.36-4.21wt% of Na2O+K2O) with Mg# (MgO/(MgO+FeO) mol%, Fe2O3=0.15FeO) ranging from 44.9 to 60.1. Lavas from Handler Ridge are the most primitive. MI compositions are comparable to those of the host lavas but encompasse a wider range from 43.68 to 48.73 wt% SiO2 and from 2.81 to 4.55 wt% Na2O+K2O, with Mg# 49.5 74.44. The great majority of olivine calculated in equilibrium with MI are more forsteritic than the enclosing crystal suggesting that MI were trapped from a less evolved magma or, most probaby, that Mg-Fe interdiffusion occurred between olivine and MI after entrapment. Most of MI have H2O content ranging from 0.70 wt% to 1.19 wt% and CO2 from 25 ppm to 341 ppm (H2O/CO2~1). At comparable H2O contents few samples show a remarkable higher CO2 values (1322 ppm to 3905 ppm) with a H2O/CO2 down to 0.8. F and Cl concentrations range from 808 to 999 ppm and from 443 to 570 ppm respectively, with a F/Cl ratio ranging between 1.4 to 2.0. S content varies from 537 ppm to 2002 ppm. The relationships between MI and basic lava compositions are investigated by means of mass balance calculation reconstructing the composition of the mantle source, including amphibole from Baker Rocks (NVL) which allow us to also constrain its volatile content

  17. New species of Metatrichia Coquillett (Diptera: Scenopinidae) from Australia and Venezuela

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the cosmopolitan genus Metatrichia Coquillett are described. Metatrichia dhimurru sp. nov. is described from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), Australia and represents the third species of the genus to be described from the Australian-Papuan region. Metatrichia venezuelensis sp. n...

  18. Evaluation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence caused by hypothetical withdrawals in the northern part of the Gulf Coast Aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Reece, Brian D.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2005-01-01

    During 2003?04 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (HGCSD), used the previously developed Northern Gulf Coast Ground-Water Availability Modeling (NGC GAM) model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical projected withdrawals on ground-water flow in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence in the NGC GAM model area of Texas. The Gulf Coast aquifer system comprises, from the surface, the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit. Two withdrawal scenarios were simulated. The first scenario comprises historical withdrawals from the aquifer system for 1891?2000 and hypothetical projected withdrawals for 2001?50 compiled by the TWDB (TWDB scenario). The projected withdrawals compiled by the TWDB are based on ground-water demands estimated by regional water planning groups. The second scenario is a ?merge? of the TWDB scenario with an alternate set of projected withdrawals from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston metropolitan area for 1995?2030 provided by the HGCSD (HGCSD scenario). Under the TWDB scenario withdrawals from the entire system are projected to be about the same in 2050 as in 2000. The simulated potentiometric surfaces of the Chicot aquifer for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050 show relatively little change in configuration from the simulated 2000 potentiometric surface (maximum water-level depths in southern Harris County 150?200 feet below NGVD 29). The simulated decadal potentiometric surfaces of the Evangeline aquifer show the most change between 2000 and 2010. The area of water levels 250?400 feet below NGVD 29 in western Harris County in 2000 shifts southeastward to southern Harris County, and water levels recover to 200?250 feet below NGVD 29 by 2010. Water levels in southern Harris County recover to 150?200 feet below NGVD 29

  19. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  20. Vulnerability of Coastal Crop Land to Climate Change in the Northern Part of Bay of Bengal: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, A. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal communities of northeastern part of Bay of Bengal are used to live and survive through facing different types of natural disasters since primitive time. Among the natural disasters, salinity intrusion due to climate change and sea level rise in the coastal agriculture land is the major unpleasant incident now days. Because of that wide area of the coastal agricultural land, coastal forest, drinking water facilities and fresh water availability are in critical condition which may cause 40 million people of 147 coastal districts covering 47201 km area are placed in danger. The nation wide assessment on the detected of coastal soil and water salinity is not conducted since 9 years. The survey on the coastal soil salinity on 1973 and 2000 found that the saline effected land is increased from 0.83 million ha to 1.20 million ha within 27 years. It is assumed that at present the rate of salinity intrusion in the coastal agriculture land will be higher than those of 1973 and 2000. The soil salinity was recorded 18-20 psu after AILA in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and increased further 2-4 psu due to low precipitation which causes crop burning. This paper aims to know the salinity intrusion in the coastal soil and water of Bangladesh, which would help to plan and improvement of the sustainable agriculture production. Study revealed that to face any extra stresses on the coastal agriculture land due to climate change requires extensive inventory, awareness activities, mitigation measures, adaptation techniques and extension of indigenous technology.

  1. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  2. The Ross Orogen and Lachlan Fold Belt in Marie Byrd Land, Northern Victoria Land and New Zealand: implication for the tectonic setting of the Lachlan Fold Belt in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradshaw, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation of the Cambrian Delamerian Orogen of Australia and Ross Orogen of the Transantarctic Mountains widely accepted but the extension of the adjacent Lachlan Orogen into Antarctica is controversial. Outside the main Ross-Delamerian belt, evidence of this orogeny is preserved at Mt Murphy in Marie Byrd Land and the in Takaka Terrane of New Zealand. In all pre-break- configurations of the SW Pacific, these two areas are far removed from the Ross-Delamerian belt. Evidence from conglomerates in the Takaka Terrane, however, shows that in Late Cambrian times it was adjacent to the Ross Orogen. This indicates major tectonic displacements within Gondwana after the Cambrian and before break-up. The Lachlan Orogen formed in an extensional belt in a supra-subduction zone setting and the Cambrian rocks of Marie Byrd Land and New Zealand are interpreted as parts of a rifted continental ribbon on the outboard side of the Lachlan belt.

  3. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  4. Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

    2013-08-01

    Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

  5. The use of LIDAR as a potential data source for the creation of digital elevation models and estimation of wetness in northern peat lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Abdulghani; Pilesjö, Petter; Person, Andreas; Roulet, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using high resolution LIDAR data for the creation of accurate digital elevation models covering peat lands. The secondary aim is to get an indication of the possibility to use these digital elevation models for estimations of wetness in peat lands areas. The scale problem, i.e. the spatial resolution of the DEM, will be discussed for both objectives. Our hypothesis is that very accurate digital elevation models can be created, that these, by applying an appropriate algorithm reflect wetness in a good way, and that the estimated wetness values are highly dependant on resolution. In DEMs creation, three different interpolation methods are used with four different search radius and six selected cell resolution. We create new MATLAB code program to have full control on the interpolation process. One of the big challenges is how to deal with the huge number of data points. Processing such with computational complexity On2 was very slow. Adding a spatial index key (morton value) speed up the searching process and makes the search in nlog2n time. The new code was successful to deal with the huge number of data with a reasonable time. An important outcome from this study is the statistical comparison between different DEMs.

  6. The pedological heritage of the Dolomites (Northern Italy): Features, distribution and evolution of the soils, with some implications for land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilioli, Diana Maria; Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2011-12-01

    Since 1997, the Department of Environmental Sciences of Ca' Foscari University of Venice has undertaken numerous research projects aimed at deepening understanding of pedogenic processes in the Dolomites, and at highlighting the fundamental contribution that soil science can give to the conservation of natural resources and achieve sustainable management of mountain ecosystems. A total of several hundred profiles have been described, analyzed and mapped. This paper reports the results from the analysis of pedo-environmental characters of profiles developed from different parent materials, at altitudes between 1300 m and 2900 m and in different conditions of slope, exposure and vegetation cover. Soil forming factors, landforms and land surfaces have been interpreted to understand the soil-landscape in the mapped areas and to develop a qualitative model of soil geography into the Dolomites scenery. The application of land evaluation methods in some of the investigated territories that are subjected to intensive tourist fluxes revealed some criticisms. Collected results also highlighted the high environmental heterogeneity of soils of the Dolomites.

  7. Stable isotopes reveal Holocene changes in the diet of Adélie penguins in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony E; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) modern and fossil eggshells and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils in Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea) were processed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios with the aim of detecting past penguin dietary changes. A detailed and greatly expanded Adélie penguin dietary record dated back to 7,200 years BP has been reconstructed for the investigated area. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7,200 to 2,000 years BP, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2,000 years BP, when the δ(13)C values reveal a change in the penguin feeding behavior. Modern eggshell and guano samples reveal a major dietary contribution of krill but not a krill-dominated diet, since δ(13)C values remain much too high if krill prevail in the diet. According to the Holocene environmental background attested for Victoria Land, Adélie penguin dietary shifts between fish and krill seem to reflect penguin paleoecological responses to different paleoenvironmental settings with different conditions of sea-ice extension and persistence. Furthermore, Adélie penguin diet appears to be particularly affected by environmental changes in a very specific period within the breeding season, namely the egg-laying period when penguin dietary and feeding habit shifts are clearly documented by the δ(13)C of eggshell carbonate.

  8. CO2 and CH4 exchanges between land ecosystems and the atmosphere in northern high latitudes over the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.M.; Sarofim, M.C.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Felzer, B.S.; Sokolov, A.; Prinn, R.G.; Steudler, P.A.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitudes (above 50??N) exchange large amounts of CO2 and CH4 with the atmosphere each year. Here we use a process-based model to estimate the budget of CO 2 and CH4 of the region for current climate conditions and for future scenarios by considering effects of permafrost dynamics, CO 2 fertilization of photosynthesis and fire. We find that currently the region is a net source of carbon to the atmosphere at 276 Tg C yr -1. We project that throughout the 21st century, the region will most likely continue as a net source of carbon and the source will increase by up to 473 Tg C yr-1 by the end of the century compared to the current emissions. However our coupled carbon and climate model simulations show that these emissions will exert relatively small radiative forcing on global climate system compared to large amounts of anthropogenic emissions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  10. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Victoria J.; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. PMID:28275611

  11. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  12. De-confounding of Relations Between Land-Level and Sea-Level Change, Humboldt Bay, Northern California: Uncertain Predictions of Magnitude and Timing of Tectonic and Eustatic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkerson, W.; Leroy, T. H.; Patton, J. R.; Williams, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    Humboldt Bay in Northern California provides a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of relative sea level change on both native flora and maritime aquiculture as influenced by both tectonic and eustatic sea-level changes. This combination of superposed influences makes quantitatively predicting relative sea-level more uncertain and consumption of the results for public planning purposes exceedingly difficult. Public digestion for practical purposes is confounded by the fact that the uncertainty for eustatic sea-level changes is a magnitude issue while the uncertainty associated with the tectonic land level changes is both a magnitude and timing problem. Secondly, the public is less well informed regarding how crustal deformation contributes to relative sea-level change. We model the superposed effects of eustatic sea-level rise and tectonically driven land-level changes on the spatial distribution of habitats suitable to native eelgrass (Zostera marina) and oyster mariculture operations in Humboldt Bay. While these intertidal organisms were chosen primarily because they have vertically restricted spatial distributions that can be successfully modeled, the public awareness of their ecologic and economic importance is also well developed. We employ easy to understand graphics depicting conceptual ideas along with maps generated from the modeling results to develop locally relevant estimates of future sea level rise over the next 100 years, a time frame consistent with local planning. We bracket these estimates based on the range of possible vertical deformation changes. These graphic displays can be used as a starting point to propose local outcomes from global and regional relative sea-level changes with respect to changes in the distribution of suitable habitat for ecologically and economically valuable species. Currently the largest sources of uncertainty for changes in relative sea-level in the Humboldt Bay area are 1) the rate and magnitude of tectonic

  13. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  14. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas, 1891-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    The MODFLOW-2000 groundwater flow model described in this report comprises four layers, one for each of the hydrogeologic units of the aquifer system except the Catahoula confining system, the assumed no-flow base of the system. The HAGM is composed of 137 rows and 245 columns of 1-square-mile grid cells with lateral no-flow boundaries at the extent of each hydrogeologic unit to the northwest, at groundwater divides associated with large rivers to the southwest and northeast, and at the downdip limit of freshwater to the southeast. The model was calibrated within the specified criteria by using trial-and-error adjustment of selected model-input data in a series of transient simulations until the model output (potentiometric surfaces, land-surface subsidence, and selected water-budget components) acceptably reproduced field measured (or estimated) aquifer responses including water level and subsidence. The HAGM-simulated subsidence generally compared well to 26 Predictions Relating Effective Stress to Subsidence (PRESS) models in Harris, Galveston, and Fort Bend Counties. Simulated HAGM results indicate that as much as 10 feet (ft) of subsidence has occurred in southeastern Harris County. Measured subsidence and model results indicate that a larger geographic area encompassing this area of maximum subsidence and much of central to southeastern Harris County has subsided at least 6 ft. For the western part of the study area, the HAGM simulated as much as 3 ft of subsidence in Wharton, Jackson, and Matagorda Counties. For the eastern part of the study area, the HAGM simulated as much as 3 ft of subsidence at the boundary of Hardin and Jasper Counties. Additionally, in the southeastern part of the study area in Orange County, the HAGM simulated as much as 3 ft of subsidence. Measured subsidence for these areas in the western and eastern parts of the HAGM has not been documented.

  15. Estimating the Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index for Sunspot Cycle 24, the Current Ongoing Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    As noted by Gray et al., Sir William Herschel was the first to suggest a possible close connection between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The Sun, being the source of energy that impacts and drives the Earth’s climate system, displays a variety of changes over both short and long term time scales, the most obvious examples being the somewhat regular waxing and waning of sunspots with time (i.e., the sunspot cycle (SC)), first described by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, a German apothecary and amateur astronomer who observed the Sun from Dessau, Germany, and the now well established variation of the Sun’s irradiance over the SC. Other factors related to the SC have been linked to changes in climate as well. Some of these other factors include the role of cosmic rays and the solar wind (i.e., the geomagnetic cycle) on climate, as well as the apparent close association between trends in global and northern hemispheric temperature and the length of the SC, although some investigators have described the inferred association between climate and, in particular, SC length as now being weak. More recently, Solheim et al. have reported on the relation between SC length and the average temperature in the same and immediately following SC for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. They noted that while they found no significant trend (correlation) between SC length and the average temperature when measured for the same cycle, in contrast, they found a significant negative trend when SC length was compared with the following cycle’s average temperature. From this observation, they suggested that average northern hemispheric temperature during the present ongoing SC (SC24) will be lower by about 0.9 °C than was seen in SC23 (spanning 1996–2007, based on yearly averages of sunspot number (SSN), and onset for SC24 occurring in 2008). The purpose of this Technical Publication (TP) is to examine the annual variations of the Armagh

  16. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    the early 1970s to less than 3 million in the late 1980s and early 1990s. However, new conservation measures, such as habitat restoration and enhancement of agricultural lands, as well as prudent harvest restrictions, suggest that Northern Pintails should have a secure future in North America.

  17. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  18. A bill to convey certain submerged lands to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in order to give that territory the same benefits in its submerged lands as Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa have in their submerged lands.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2011-03-15

    05/18/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-39. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Climate change versus land management in the Po Plain (Northern Italy) during the Bronze Age: New insights from the VP/VG sequence of the Terramara Santa Rosa di Poviglio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Florenzano, Assunta; Pizzi, Chiara; Marchesini, Marco; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The sedimentary infilling of the moat surrounding the Villaggio Piccolo of the Terramara Santa Rosa di Poviglio was analysed in order to obtain palaeoenvironmental inferences from sediments and pollen assemblage. The high-resolution stratigraphic sequence preserves evidence of the environmental changes that occurred in the Po Plain, in Northern Italy, during the Late Holocene. Our interdisciplinary approach permitted to study climatic and anthropic contributions to the environmental changes in this region. The relationships between these changes and land-use changes were investigated focussing on adaptive strategies of the Terramare people during the Middle and Recent Bronze ages (1550-1170 yr BC). The Terramare are archaeological remains of banked and moated villages, located in the central alluvial plain of the Po river. The Terramara of Santa Rosa consists of two adjoining settlements (Villaggio Grande and Villaggio Piccolo); the moat that separates the two parts of the site is c. 23 m large and reaches a maximum depth of 4 m from the extant ground level. The stratigraphic sequence VP/VG exposed by archaeological excavation inside the moat was sampled for pedosedimentary, thin section, and pollen analyses. Chronology is based on archaeological evidence, stratigraphic correlations and radiocarbon dating. Pedosedimentary features and biological records (pollen of aquatics and algal remains) demonstrate that shallow water, probably subjected to seasonal water-level oscillations, has always been present in the moat. In the lower units of the sequence, the laminations indicate standing water, while occurrence of reworked pollen testified the supply of sediments to the plain from catchment zones located in the Apennine. Open vegetation was widespread; economy was based on wood management, fruit collection on the wild or from cultivated woody plants, crop fields with a fairly diversified set of cereals especially increasing in variety during dryness or phases of water

  20. A Regional Initiative to Reduce Skin Infections amongst Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Communities of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ross M.; Kearns, Therese; Connors, Christine; Parker, Colin; Carville, Kylie; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Linked to extreme rates of chronic heart and kidney disease, pyoderma is endemic amongst Aboriginal children in Australia's Northern Territory (NT). Many of those with pyoderma will also have scabies. We report the results of a community-based collaboration within the East Arnhem Region, which aimed to reduce the prevalence of both skin infections in Aboriginal children. Methodology/Principal Findings Commencing September 2004, we conducted an ecological study that included active surveillance for skin infections amongst children aged <15 years in five remote East Arnhem communities over a three year period. Screening was undertaken by trained local community workers, usually accompanied by another project team member, using a standard data collection form. Skin infections were diagnosed clinically with the aid of a pictorial flip chart developed for the purpose. Topical 5% permethrin was provided for age-eligible children and all household contacts whenever scabies was diagnosed, whilst those with pyoderma were referred to the clinic for treatment in accordance with current guidelines. In addition, annual mass scabies treatment (5% permethrin cream) was offered to all community residents in accordance with current guidelines but was not directly observed. Pyoderma and scabies prevalence per month was determined from 6038 skin assessments conducted on 2329 children. Pyoderma prevalence dropped from 46.7% at baseline to a median of 32.4% (IQR 28.9%–41.0%) during the follow-up period – an absolute reduction of 14.7% (IQR 4.7%–16.8%). Compared to the first 18 months of observation, there was an absolute reduction in pyoderma prevalence of 18 cases per 100 children (95%CI −21.0, −16.1, p≤0.001) over the last 18 months. Treatment uptake increased over the same period (absolute difference 13.4%, 95%CI 3.3, 23.6). While scabies prevalence was unchanged, the prevalence of infected scabies (that is with superimposed pyoderma) decreased from 3.7% (95

  1. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  2. Roots of Resistance: Land Tenure in New Mexico, 1680-1980. Monograph Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar

    Focusing on land tenure patterns from 1860 to 1980, this study is a chronological socioeconomic interpretation of the history of northern New Mexico. Chapter One describes the development of the Pueblo Indian land use system prior to colonization. Chapter Two deals with the first colonial period (1598-1693) of land tenure in northern New Mexico.…

  3. Implications of land rights reform for Indigenous health.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nicole L

    2007-05-21

    In August 2006, the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Bill 2006 (Cwlth) was passed into law, introducing, among other things, a system of 99-year leases over Indigenous townships. The leasing scheme will diminish the control that traditional owners previously exercised over their lands. This is at odds with research indicating that control over land is a positive influence on Indigenous health.

  4. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  5. Northern cardiometeopathies.

    PubMed

    Hasnulin, V I; Sevost'yanova, E V; Hasnulina, A V

    2001-04-01

    Our research in high latitudes has allowed the identification of a special class of deadaptive disorders, northern cardiometeopathies, which integrates cardiovascular functional violations connected to biologically significant modifications of meteorological, geomagnetic, electrical, gravitational, rhythmological and other geo-ecological factors of the North. Cardiac and cerebral disorder complexes, and also some psychoemotional modifications manifest cardiometeopathies. Cardiometeopathies can occur with developing of pathology, and in such a case they can be selected in the independent form of deadaptive disease. At the same time, cardiometeopathies in case where cardiovascular pathology already exists could cause complications and become a particular risk factor for the development of injuries and myocardial heart attack. The most important mechanism of cardiometeopathies' formation is the organism's reaction to modifications of the Earth's electromagnetic field, based on internal electromagnetic fields' (first of all pulsing field of heart) dependence on the magnitude and directness of modification of the external electromagnetic fields. The analysis of the high degree of dependence of the blood circulation effiency during geomagnetic perturbations in the North of the modification of electromagnetic heart activity allows us to speak of the discovery of an earlier unknown electromagnetic blood pump.

  6. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  7. Modification of growing-season surface temperature records in the northern great plains due to land-use transformation: verification of modelling results and implication for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rezaul; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Carlson, Christy

    2004-03-01

    Land-use and land-cover change can modify near-surface atmospheric condition. Mesoscale modelling studies have shown that modification in land use affects near-surface soil moisture storage and energy balance. Such a study in the Great Plains showed that changes in land use from natural grass to irrigated agriculture enhanced soil water storage in the root zone and increased latent energy flux. This increase in latent energy flux would correspond to a decrease in sensible heat flux and, therefore, modify near-surface temperature records. To verify this deduction, we have investigated the changes in the historical near-surface temperature records in Nebraska, USA. We have analysed the long-term mean monthly maximum, minimum, and monthly mean air temperature data from five irrigated and five non-irrigated sites. The cooperative weather observation (coop) network is the source of the data. We have found that there is a clear trend in decreasing mean maximum and average temperature data for irrigated sites. For example, York, NE, reports that the mean maximum growing season temperature is decreasing at the rate -0.01°C year-1. The results from non-irrigated sites indicated an increasing trend for the same parameters. The data from Halsey, NE, indicate a +0.01°C year-1 increase in this century. In addition, we have conducted similar analyses of temperature data for the National Climatic Data Center's Historical Climatic Network data set for the same locations. The results are similar to that obtained with the coop data set. Further investigation of dew-point temperature records for irrigated and non-irrigated sites also show an increasing and decreasing trend respectively. Therefore, we conclude that the land-use change in the Great Plains has modified near-surface temperature records.

  8. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  9. Land Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  10. Spatial models of Northern Bobwhite populations for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy; Keister, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1980, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) range-wide populations declined 3.9% annually. Within the West Gulf Coastal Plain Bird Conservation Region in the south-central United States, populations of this quail species have declined 6.8% annually. These declines sparked calls for land use change and prompted implementation of various conservation practices. However, to effectively reverse these declines and restore northern bobwhite to their former population levels, habitat conservation and management efforts must target establishment and maintenance of sustainable populations. To provide guidance for conservation and restoration of habitat capable of supporting sustainable northern bobwhite populations in the West Gulf Coastal Plain, we modeled their spatial distribution using landscape characteristics derived from 1992 National Land Cover Data and bird detections, from 1990 to 1994, along 10-stop Breeding Bird Survey route segments. Four landscape metrics influenced detections of northern bobwhite: detections were greater in areas with more grassland and increased aggregation of agricultural lands, but detections were reduced in areas with increased density of land cover edge and grassland edge. Using these landscape metrics, we projected the abundance and spatial distribution of northern bobwhite populations across the entire West Gulf Coastal Plain. Predicted populations closely approximated abundance estimates from a different cadre of concurrently collected data but model predictions did not accurately reflect bobwhite detections along species-specific call-count routes in Arkansas and Louisiana. Using similar methods, we also projected northern bobwhite population distribution circa 1980 based on Land Use Land Cover data and bird survey data from 1976 to 1984. We compared our 1980 spatial projections with our spatial estimate of 1992 populations to identify areas of population change. Additionally, we used our projection of the spatial

  11. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  12. Land rolling increases broadleaf weed emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the northern Great Plains, annual forage and pulse crops typically are land rolled after planting to push rocks back into the soil to prevent damage to harvest equipment. Packer wheels commonly are used at planting to improve soil-seed contact for more uniform crop emergence and subsequent matur...

  13. Land Problems and People Problems - The Eskimo as Conservationist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz, Jim

    Much research has been done about the Eskimos, but with little beneficial result to the Eskimo. Economic development of northern Canadian territories has resulted in a wider gap between Eskimos and other Canadians since benefits accrue only to the second group. Evidence of damage to the land is already appearing. To solve problems of land use,…

  14. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique.

  15. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna.

  16. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  17. 21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, T1S-R3E, SHOWING NON-PROJECT LAND, STILL DESERT, IN FOREGROUND AND CULTIVATED FIELDS OF THE SALT RIVER PROJECT BELOW THE CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. A SMALL PORTION OF NON-IRRIGABLE LAND BELOW THE CANAL IS SHOWN AT LEFT, March 1990 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Estimating inbreeding rates in Northern Spotted Owls: insights from pedigrees and spatio-demographic models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The federally-threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has a substantial influence on management of federal lands. Despite decades of investigation, important details about its status and habits remain unknown. In particular, determining the frequency of inbre...

  19. Land-to-Ocean Linkage in Eurasian Hydrological System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Lammers, R. B.

    2004-12-01

    Northern Eurasia is a large and diverse region spanning land cover types from grassland/steppe to taiga forest to tundra. Understanding the interaction of these land cover types with the regional climate and hydrologic cycle is essential for understanding the system as a whole. We investigate how the northern flowing river networks over the NEESPI domain play a critical role in connecting and combining the diverse land cover types throughout the full range in latitudes which progress as far south as 45 degrees N. To provide this hydrological perspective we employ a digital river network, STN-EASE, at 25x25km grid cell resolution created specifically for high latitude hydrological analysis. The river network provides the fundamental framework for synthesis studies based on a broad suite of measures of system behavior. Along the network these deal with in-stream travel distance, river order, and hydrological contributions of major land cover types. At basin outlets these include river discharge and aggregate totals of key hydrologic variables. The taiga forests of Northern Eurasia are the dominant land cover type in the Arctic Ocean drainage of northern Eurasia. However, when viewed through the hydrological lens we find these taiga forests play an even greater role in terms of runoff generation than would be expected by area measures alone. This suggests that the northern forests are an important feature of the Arctic as well as the global climate system and a potentially important focal point in Arctic system change.

  20. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  1. Northern Trust Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  2. Northern Nevada Land Conservation and Economic Development Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2014-07-25

    09/16/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Land-Use Influences Carbon Fluxes in Northern Kazakhstan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of carbon cycling is important to maintain sustainable rangeland ecosystems. Rangelands in the western U.S. are similar to those in Central Asia. We used a combination of meteorological and computer modeling techniques to quantitatively assess carbon loss and gain for four major l...

  4. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) towards the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than 170 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. NEESPI was endorsed by major ESSP Programs and Projects and the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Now it is the time to synthesis the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers and to re-assess its Science Questions and Objectives of the regional research within the new Future Earth Program paradigm with the focus on interdisciplinary solution-oriented approach that will allow effective policy-making in environment management and control. At the sequence of Workshops (the last of them will be in Prague one week prior to this Assembly) we formulated a major Science Question of the new Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): "What will the changes in the regional ecosystems dynamics and interactions mean for the societal well-being, activities, health, and strategic planning in Northern Eurasia?" The major NEFI challenge will be the services aimed on providing in Northern Eurasia a sustainable societal development in changing climate, ecosystems, and societies. At this presentation we shall brief the audience about the main results of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future NEFI studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we shall initiate preparation of the book which will synthesize major NEESPI achievements.

  5. Phoenix Landing Site Indicated on Global View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission landed at 68.2 degrees north latitude, 234.2 degrees east longitude. The far-northern location of the site is indicated on this global view from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  7. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk Records ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk Records of Northern California Original: August 1854 Re-photo: April 1938 - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  8. 63. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk - U.S. District Court of Northern California - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  9. Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    22 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view of the martian northern plains. Thousands of square kilometers of the northern middle and polar latitudes of Mars look similar to the scene in this image. In late spring and in summer, dust devils crisscross the northern plains, leaving a variety of dark streaks. The streaks do not survive from year to year, indicating their ephemeral nature. The circular features in this image, including the prominent bright circular feature near the bottom, are the locations of buried meteor impact craters. This image is located near 58.1oN, 207.6oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  10. 75 FR 16900 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Cincinnati/Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... public comment on the release of land at the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport in the... approximately 28.48 acres of requested easement, will change to a non-aeronautical use. This action is...

  11. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  12. Interpretation of Pennsylvania agricultural land use from ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. To study the complex agricultural patterns in Pennsylvania, a portion of an ERTS scene was selected for detailed analysis. Various photographic products were made and were found to be only of limited value. This necessitated the digital processing of the ERTS data. Using an unsupervised classification procedure, it was possible to delineate the following categories: (1) forest land with a northern aspect, (2) forest land with a southern aspect, (3) valley trees, (4) wheat, (5) corn, (6) alfalfa, grass, pasture, (7) disturbed land, (8) builtup land, (9) strip mines, and (10) water. These land use categories were delineated at a scale of approximately 1:20,000 on the line printer output. Land use delineations were also made using the General Electric IMAGE 100 interactive analysis system.

  13. Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: land sharing and land sparing compared.

    PubMed

    Phalan, Ben; Onial, Malvika; Balmford, Andrew; Green, Rhys E

    2011-09-02

    The question of how to meet rising food demand at the least cost to biodiversity requires the evaluation of two contrasting alternatives: land sharing, which integrates both objectives on the same land; and land sparing, in which high-yield farming is combined with protecting natural habitats from conversion to agriculture. To test these alternatives, we compared crop yields and densities of bird and tree species across gradients of agricultural intensity in southwest Ghana and northern India. More species were negatively affected by agriculture than benefited from it, particularly among species with small global ranges. For both taxa in both countries, land sparing is a more promising strategy for minimizing negative impacts of food production, at both current and anticipated future levels of production.

  14. Northern Arizona University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael F.; Saltonstall, Margot; Bickel, Sarah; Brandel, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university nestled below the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona. It enrolls more than 21,000 undergraduate and graduate students at its main campus in Flagstaff, through its 35 statewide sites, and via online program offerings. Within the university organizational system, Student Affairs has a…

  15. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  16. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  17. Production of a combined land surface data set and its use to assess land-atmosphere coupling in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingxing; Ma, Zhuguo; Gu, Hongping; Yang, Qing; Zheng, Ziyan

    2017-01-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role in shaping regional climate and its variability. In land-atmosphere coupling study, a fundamental challenge is data limitation, such as the sparsity of long-term land observations and uncertainty in individual model simulations. This study produces a multisource combined land surface data set using a Bayesian model averaging method, for the assessment of land-atmosphere coupling across China. We employ the newly produced soil moisture and evapotranspiration, together with satellite-derived soil moisture and observation-based evapotranspiration to assess spatiotemporal characteristics of the coupling with observed precipitation and temperature. We also define a coupling index to identify region-specific regimes. The results have shown that strong coupling occurs over northern China, particularly in the transition zone between dry and wet climate. Here summer coupling is dominated by land evaporative water storage. Over the southern humid regions and regions at high altitudes, land-atmosphere coupling in summer is characterized by an energy-limited regime. Estimated coupling strengths vary with season and variable used. Precipitation-related couplings are generally stronger in summer; temperature-related couplings are stronger in summer in dry areas but stronger in winter in humid areas. These findings provide a multisource combined representation and cross validation of spatial and temporal characteristics of land-atmosphere coupling across China. The implications are that northern China is a critical region for climate change/variability impact and adaptation assessment.

  18. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  19. The global land Cryosphere Radiative Effect during the MODIS era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M. G.; Perket, J.

    2015-07-01

    Cryosphere Radiative Effect (CrRE) is the instantaneous influence of snow- and ice-cover on Earth's top of atmosphere (TOA) solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from 4 different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001-2013. We estimate global annual mean land CrRE during this period of -2.6 W m-2, with variations from -2.2 to -3.0 W m-2 resulting from use of different kernels, and variations of -2.4 to -2.6 W m-2 resulting from different algorithmic determinations of snow presence and surface albedo. Slightly more than half of the global land CrRE originates from perennial snow on Antarctica, whereas the majority of the Northern Hemisphere effect originates from seasonal snow. Consequently, the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE peaks at -6.0 W m-2 in April, whereas the Southern Hemisphere effect more closely follows the austral insolation cycle, peaking in December. Mountain glaciers resolved in 0.05° MODIS data contribute about -0.037 W m-2 (1.4 %) of the global effect, with the majority (94 %) of this contribution originating from the Himalayas. Inter-annual trends in the global annual mean land CrRE are not statistically significant during the MODIS era, but trends are positive (less negative) over large areas of Northern Asia, especially during spring, and slightly negative over Antarctica, possibly due to increased snowfall. During a common overlap period of 2001-2008, our MODIS estimates of the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE are about 18 % smaller (less negative) than previous estimates derived from coarse-resolution AVHRR data, though inter-annual variations are well correlated (r = 0.78), indicating that these data are useful in determining longer term trends in land CrRE.

  20. 10. Photocopy of Plan of Mission Complex (from Land Commission ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of Plan of Mission Complex (from Land Commission Clerk's Office, Northern District Court of California, SAn Francisco, California, September 1854) Photographer unknown, April 1938 PLAN OF MISSION COMPLEX - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  1. INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS LANDING BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND LEVELS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS LANDING BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND LEVELS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  2. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    distance from the land cover changes. The Australian continental and regional analyses demonstrated that Australian land cover change did have statistically significant impacts on air temperature and precipitation simulated in the CSIRO GCM. While none of the statistically significant trends in annual precipitation were found to be statistically significant in the climate modelling experiments, the modelled reductions in annual precipitation for south east Queensland and eastern New South Wales corresponded with the strong drying trends in those areas for 1950 - 1999. Larger scale analysis of differences in climate suggested the local changes in surface fluxes had strong impacts on atmospheric circulation. The largest changes were in austral summer (DJF) circulation where monsoon flow into northern Australia was reduced, corresponding with increased monsoon flow into the South Pacific Convergence Zone and increased south easterly wind flow into eastern Queensland. These changes in circulation influenced DJF moisture flux into northern and eastern Australia, which intensified the direct warming and drying impact caused by the reduced transpiration from land cover change.

  3. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    PubMed

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society.

  4. Land Rolling Increases Broadleaf Weed Emergence in Barley, Pea and Fallow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the northern Great Plains fields are land rolled after the planting of annual pulse and forage crops to push rocks back into the soil to prevent damage to harvest equipment. Field trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to determine if land rolling influenced weed density or biomass associated wit...

  5. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  6. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  7. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  8. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  9. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights... Property Instructions § 367.55 Land and land rights. (a) The accounts for land and land rights must include the cost of land owned in fee by the service company and rights. Interests, and privileges held by...

  10. Late Silurian trilete spores from northern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Wang; Li

    2000-08-01

    The Late Silurian is generally considered to a particular significant key period in the study of early land vascular plants. A trilete spore assemblage of the Upper Silurian is described from northern Jiangsu, China. This assemblage comprises 11 genera and 20 species of trilete spores (including laevigate, apiculate, perinotrilite, patinate, rarely distally murornate and equatorially crassitate, and three indeterminate trilete miospores forms). It has similarities to those described from coeval assemblages from around the world (e.g., England and South Wales; Tripolitania, Libya; Cornwallis Island, Canadian Arctic; Northwest Spain). The rare cryptospore, only one specimen (Tetrahedraletes sp.) had been found to be associated with the Chinese trilete spore assemblage. The discovery of the trilete spores from Late Silurian rocks indicates the existence of early land plants, some possibly vascular, at that time in northern Jiangsu, China.

  11. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  12. Modelling spatial association in pattern based land use simulation models.

    PubMed

    Anputhas, Markandu; Janmaat, Johannus John A; Nichol, Craig F; Wei, Xiaohua Adam

    2016-10-01

    Pattern based land use models are widely used to forecast land use change. These models predict land use change using driving variables observed on the studied landscape. Many of these models have a limited capacity to account for interactions between neighbouring land parcels. Some modellers have used common spatial statistical measures to incorporate neighbour effects. However, these approaches were developed for continuous variables, while land use classifications are categorical. Neighbour interactions are also endogenous, changing as the land use patterns change. In this study we describe a single variable measure that captures aspects of neighbour interactions as reflected in the land use pattern. We use a stepwise updating process to demonstrate how dynamic updating of our measure impacts on model forecasts. We illustrate these results using the CLUE-S (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent) system to forecast land use change for the Deep Creek watershed in the northern Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. Results establish that our measure improves model calibration and that ignoring changing spatial influences biases land use change forecasts.

  13. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  14. Dermatophytosis in northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by dermatophytes are a global problem and a major public health burden in the world today. In Africa, especially in the northern geographical zone, dermatophytic infections are being reported at an alarming rate. This is mostly because of some local but unique cultural practices, socioeconomic and environmental conditions, lack of reliable diagnostic personnel and facilities and ineffective treatment. Interestingly, the pathogen spectrum and the clinical manifestation are most times different from what is seen in other continents. Several epidemiological studies have been performed on the incidence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in northern Africa. However, there is currently no review article with up-to-date information on the relevant findings reported so far in this region. This information is necessary for clinicians who treat dermatophytic infections all over the world since agents of dermatophytes are no longer restricted because of the rapid mobility of humans from one part of the world to another. Moreover, the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is known to change over time, thus requiring the update of information from time to time. A review of relevant studies published on dermatophytoses in northern Africa is presented. This covers all of old Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco.

  15. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  16. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  17. Land Revitalization Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA created the Land Revitalization Initiative to promote cross-program coordination on land reuse and revitalization projects to ensure that contaminated property is appropriately put back into productive use.

  18. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  19. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  20. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  1. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  2. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  3. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  4. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  5. Increasing Soil Heat Storage across Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, T. J.; Wood, E. F.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere, and continental land masses have gained heat over the past century [Hansen et al., 2009; Beltrami et al., 2002]. Although soil heat storage may play a lesser role than the ocean in absorbing heat, it plays an important role in identifying and understanding changes in climate, especially relating to changes in the permafrost active layer. Northern Eurasia has experienced some of the strongest warming trends over the twentieth century, and in situ measurements of soil temperature have shown that the land surface is responding by warming accordingly. The observational network presents an incomplete picture of the soil heat gain because the network is sparse and temperature does not account for latent heat effects and moisture dynamics in the soil column, which also affect the change in enthalpy. In the winter, the snowpack insulates the soil column, which may decouple the air and ground temperatures. To bridge this gap in our understanding, we use the VIC land surface model, which solves for both the energy and water budget at the land surface and subsurface with a 50 meter soil column, to calculate the change in ground heat between 1901 and 2005 after a 500-year model spin-up. We find that the heat stored in the soil column experienced a small but steady increase at the beginning of the twentieth century, with an abrupt increase in heat accumulation after 1980, indicating a possible tipping point in the system. There is heterogeneity in the spatial pattern of heat accumulation, with larger accumulation in the southern Ob River basin and the permafrost-dominated regions of Eurasia. The modeled heat accumulation in the permafrost zone confirms concerns in the scientific literature that the permafrost is particularly vulnerable to climate changes.

  6. Evaluation of Community Land Model Hydrologic Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. Y.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Bohn, T.; Delire, C.

    2005-12-01

    Confidence in representation and parameterization of land surface processes in coupled land-atmosphere models is strongly dependent on a diversity of opportunities for model testing, since such coupled models are usually intended for application in a wide range of conditions (regional models) or globally. Land surface models have been increasing in complexity over the past decade, which has increased the demands on data sets appropriate for model testing and evaluation. In this study, we compare the performance of two commonly used land surface schemes - the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Community Land Model (CLM) with respect to their ability to reproduce observed water and energy fluxes in off-line tests for two large river basins with contrasting hydroclimatic conditions spanning the range from temperate continental to arctic, and for five point (column flux) sites spanning the range from tropical to arctic. The two large river basins are the Arkansas-Red in U.S. southern Great Plains, and the Torne-Kalix in northern Scandinavia. The column flux evaluations are for a tropical forest site at Reserva Jaru (ABRACOS) in Brazil, a prairie site (FIFE) near Manhattan, Kansas in the central U.S., a soybean site at Caumont (HAPEX-Monbilhy) in France, a meadow site at Cabauw in the Netherlands, and a small grassland catchment at Valday, Russia. The results indicate that VIC can reasonably well capture the land surface biophysical processes, while CLM is somewhat less successful. We suggest changes to the CLM parameterizations that would improve its general performance with respect to its representation of land surface hydrologic processes.

  7. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  8. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  9. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  10. Suspended sediment yield mapping of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, K. A.; Yermolaev, O. P.; Mozzherin, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    The mapping of river sediment yields at continental or global scale involves a number of technical difficulties that have largely been ignored. The maps need to show the large zonal peculiarities of river sediment yields, as well as the level (smoothed) local anomalies. This study was carried out to create a map of river sediment yields for Northern Eurasia (within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union, 22 × 106 km2) at a scale of 1:1 500 000. The data for preparing the map were taken from the long-term observations recorded at more than 1000 hydrological stations. The data have mostly been collected during the 20th century by applying a single method. The creation of this map from the study of river sediment yield is a major step towards enhancing international research on understanding the mechanical denudation of land due mainly to erosion.

  11. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  12. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  13. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian W; Doyle, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  14. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land-cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land-use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land-use changes because of antecedent land-use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  15. Wildlife habitat management on the northern prairie landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Haseltine, Susan D.; Cowardin, Lewis M.

    1994-01-01

    The northern prairie landscape has changed dramatically within the past century as a result of settlement by Europeans. Natural ecosystems have been disrupted and wildlife populations greatly altered. Natural resource agencies control only limited areas within the landscape, which they cannot manage independently of privately owned lands. Wildlife managers need first to set quantifiable objectives, based on the survival, reproduction, and distribution of wildlife. Second, they need to build public support and partnerships for meeting those objectives. Finally, they need to evaluate progress not only with respect to attitudes of the public and partners but, more importantly, of the wildlife response. This paper describes some useful tools for managing information at all phases of this process. We follow by discussing management options at a landscape level. Examples are given that involve agency lands as well as private lands, managed for biological resources and diversity as well as economic sustainability.

  16. "Hot Spots" of Land Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Guo, Zhi-Chang; Bonan, Gordan; Chan, Edmond; Cox, Peter; Gordon, T. C.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Kowalczyk, Eva; Lawrence, David

    2004-01-01

    Previous estimates of land-atmosphere interaction (the impact of soil moisture on precipitation) have been limited by a severe paucity of relevant observational data and by the model-dependence of the various computational estimates. To counter this limitation, a dozen climate modeling groups have recently performed the same highly-controlled numerical experiment as part of a coordinated intercomparison project. This allows, for the first time ever, a superior multi-model approach to the estimation of the regions on the globe where precipitation is affected by soil moisture anomalies during Northern Hemisphere summer. Such estimation has many potential benefits; it can contribute, for example, to seasonal rainfall prediction efforts.

  17. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  18. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    radicalization in northern Nigeria. u Active engagement of youth and communities in peacebuilding programs that facilitate interactions among individuals...leaders, sustained development investments in marginalized communities , promotion of values of inclusivity to mitigate the spread of extremist ideology...claiming to have repelled Boko Haram, the militants return, regroup, and seek revenge. As a result, social and economic activities in the northern

  19. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  20. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  1. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  2. Quantifying the role of Northern Eurasia in global CO2, CH4, and water dynamics during the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Kicklighter, David; Cai, Yongxia; Tchebakova, Nadja; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John; Sokolov, Andrei; Sirin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The largest increase of surface air temperature and related climate extremes have occurred in Northern Eurasia in recent decades, and are projected to continue during the 21st century. The changing climate will affect biogeography, land cover and biogeochemical cycles in the region, which in turn, will affect how global land use evolves in the future as humans attempt to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Regional land-use changes, however, also depend on pressures imposed by the global economy and environmental changes. Feedbacks from future land-use change will further modify regional and global biogeochemistry and climate. This study uses a suite of linked biogeography, biogeochemical, economic, and climate models to explore how climate-induced vegetation shifts in Northern Eurasia will influence land-use change and carbon cycling across the globe during the 21st century. We find that, at the global scale, while more land will be allocated towards food and biofuel crops due to increasing population and associated economic development, the climate-induced vegetation shifts in Northern Eurasia also significantly affect global land use and result in a global cumulative carbon sink of about 63 Pg C under the policy scenario that limits CO2-equivelent greenhouse gas concentrations to 480 ppmv by the end of the 21st century. In comparison with the policy scenario, under a no-policy scenario where CO2-equivelent greenhouse gas concentrations reach 870 ppmv by the end of 21st century, the global cumulative carbon sink is 11 Pg C less mainly due to carbon lost from global grasslands. Cumulative evapotranspiration from global terrestrial ecosystems considering global land-use changes with vegetation shifts in northern Eurasia is 8.05 and 8.35 million km3 for the policy and no-policy scenarios, respectively. In the presentation, we will also discuss our analysis on CH4 emissions from northern Eurasia in response to the changes of land cover and climate during this

  3. Pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.

  4. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  5. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  6. Land surface temperature shaped by urban fractions in megacity region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Fan, Yanguo; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhu, Yuxiang

    2017-02-01

    Large areas of cropland and natural vegetation have been replaced by impervious surfaces during the recent rapid urbanization in China, which has resulted in intensified urban heat island effects and modified local or regional warming trends. However, it is unclear how urban expansion contributes to local temperature change. In this study, we investigated the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) change and the increase of urban land signals. The megacity of Tianjin was chosen for the case study because it is representative of the urbanization process in northern China. A combined analysis of LST and urban land information was conducted based on an urban-rural transect derived from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and QuickBird images. The results indicated that the density of urban land signals has intensified within a 1-km2 grid in the urban center with an impervious land fraction >60 %. However, the construction on urban land is quite different with low-/mid-rise buildings outnumbering high-rise buildings in the urban-rural transect. Based on a statistical moving window analysis, positive correlation ( R 2 > 0.9) is found between LST and urban land signals. Surface temperature change (ΔLST) increases by 0.062 °C, which was probably caused by the 1 % increase of urbanized land (ΔIF) in this case region.

  7. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater - all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a) the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b) the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c) the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  8. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  9. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  10. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  11. Land and federal mineral ownership coverage for southern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, L.H.; Mercier, T.J.; Saber, T.T.; Urbanowski, S.R.; Neasloney, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This Arc/Info coverage contains land status and Federal mineral ownership for approximately 37,800 square miles in southern Wyoming. The polygon coverage (which is also provided here as a shapefile) contains two attributes of ownership information for each polygon. One attribute indicates where the surface is State owned, privately owned, or, if Federally owned, which Federal agency manages the land surface. The other attribute indicates which minerals, if any, are owned by the Federal govenment. This coverage is based on land status and Federal mineral ownership data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming State Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at a scale of 1:24,000. This coverage was compiled primarily to serve the USGS National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment and National Coal Resource Assessment Projects in the Northern Rocky Mountains/Great Plains Region.

  12. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  13. Land use and land cover change in the North Central Appalachians ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Napton, D.E.; Sohl, T.L.; Auch, R.F.; Loveland, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    The North Central Appalachians ecoregion, spanning northern Pennsylvania and southern New York, has a long history of land use and land cover change. Turn-of-the-century logging dramatically altered the natural landscape of the ecoregion, but subsequent regeneration returned the ecoregion to a forest dominated condition. To understand contemporary land use and land cover changes, the U.S. Geological Survey with NASA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used a random sample of satellite remotely sensed data for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 to estimate the rates and assess the primary drivers of change in the North Central Appalachians. The overall change was 6.2%. The 1973-1980 period had the lowest rate of change (1.5%); the highest rate (2.9%) occurred during the 1992-2000 period. The primary conversions were deforestation through harvesting and natural disturbance (i.e., tornados) followed by regeneration, and conversion of forests to mining and urban lands. The primary drivers of the change included changes in access, energy and forest prices, and attitudes toward the environment.

  14. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  15. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  16. 78 FR 32214 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... of regulations governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land...'s decision to take the land into trust. The Supreme Court has since held that the Quiet Title...

  17. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  18. USDA Northern Plains Regional Climate Hub assessment of climate change variability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers, farmers and forest land owners in the Northern Plains have experienced warmer temperatures (1 to 1.5 degrees F), longer growing seasons (about a week and a half) and generally more precipitation (5 to >15% increases over the eastern 2/3 of this region) over the past twenty years compared t...

  19. 50 CFR 648.62 - Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) scallop management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.62 Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) scallop... boundaries of the Gulf of Maine Scallop Dredge Exemption Area as specified in § 648.80(a)(11). To fish for or... vessel issued a scallop permit pursuant to § 648.4(a)(2) may possess, retain, or land scallops in...

  20. 50 CFR 648.62 - Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) Management Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.62 Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) Management... boundaries of the Gulf of Maine Scallop Dredge Exemption Area as specified in § 648.80(a)(11). To fish for or... issued a scallop permit pursuant to § 648.4(a)(2) may possess, retain, or land scallops in the...

  1. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  2. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  3. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  4. [Complexity of land ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Chen, Meiqiu

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, complexity studies has become a new research region and been widely applied in engineering, biology, economy, management, military, police and sociology. In this paper, from the view of complex science, the main complexity characteristics of land ecosystem were described, furthermore, the application of fractal, chaos, and artificial neural network on the complexity of land ecosystem were also discussed.

  5. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  6. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  7. Land Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    LAND COMBAT SYSTEMS It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. — Charles ... Darwin ABSTRACT: The Land Combat Systems (LCS) industry has significantly changed over the last decade. The days when production lines and factories

  8. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  9. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  10. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  11. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  12. Yankee Lands: A Land Use Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, NH.

    In response to issues surrounding the acquisition and planning of Pisgah State Park, New Hampshire, the Antioch/New England Graduate School has produced this set of activities related to land use decisions. Contained are learning experiences designed to help students appreciate New England's natural and cultural history in order to encourage a…

  13. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegeas, Robin G.; Claire, Robert W.; Guptill, Stephen C.; Anderson, K. Eric; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changesthat center on the emerging influence ofdigital manipulation and analysis ofdata for the preparation of cartographic materials and for use in geographic information systems. Operational requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been edited and assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced. This chapter 895-E, describes the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System that is used in conjunction with the USGS land use and land cover classification system to encode, edit, manipuate, and analyze land use and land cover digital data.

  14. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  15. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... applications to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. This document makes corrections to the...

  16. Daily Fire Occurrence in Northern Eurasia from 2002 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, W. M.; Eissinger, H. M.; Petkov, A.; Nordgren, B. L.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Northern Eurasia, covering 20% of the global land mass and containing 70% of boreal forest, is extremely sensitive to climate changes. Warmer temperatures in this region have led to less snowfall, earlier spring, longer growing season, and reduced moisture for soil and vegetation in summer. Recently, severe drought and record high temperatures caused catastrophic fires in Russia during the summer of 2010. Future climate projections suggest significant changes in fire regimes which may increase fire frequency, burned area, fire severity, and fire emissions in northern high latitude ecosystems. We examined the daily fire occurrence in different land cover categories at a 1 km x 1 km resolution from 2002 to 2009 over a region from 10°W to 180°E and from 38°N to the Arctic. This research is critical in understanding the impact of climate change on the fire dynamics and emissions in Northern Eurasia. The results are also important in assessing the contribution of fire emissions in this region to the black carbon deposition on Arctic ice. We divide this wide region into seven geographic areas: Russia, Europe (Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern), Eastern Asia, and Central and Western Asia. The fire locations were based on the MODIS active fire products and MODIS MOD12Q1 product was used for the classification of land cover types. Agricultural fires dominated biomass burning in Northern Eurasia during the eight-year period, accounting for about 62% of the MODIS fire detections, followed by grassland and shrubland fires (25%) and forest fires (13%). Approximately half of the active fire detections in Northern Eurasia occurred in Russia. The remainder of fire activity largely occurred in Central and Western Asia (27%) and in Eastern Europe (11%). In Russia, more than two-thirds of the fire detections were agricultural fires, about 18% were forest fires, and 13% were grassland and shrubland fires. The finding is not surprising, because Russia is the fourth largest

  17. Future distribution of tundra refugia in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Payer, David C.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern for natural resource conservation and management as a result of accelerated warming and associated shifts in the distribution and abundance of northern species. We introduce a predictive framework for assessing the future extent of Arctic tundra and boreal biomes in northern Alaska. We use geo-referenced museum specimens to predict the velocity of distributional change into the next century and compare predicted tundra refugial areas with current land-use. The reliability of predicted distributions, including differences between fundamental and realized niches, for two groups of species is strengthened by fossils and genetic signatures of demographic shifts. Evolutionary responses to environmental change through the late Quaternary are generally consistent with past distribution models. Predicted future refugia overlap managed areas and indicate potential hotspots for tundra diversity. To effectively assess future refugia, variable responses among closely related species to climate change warrants careful consideration of both evolutionary and ecological histories.

  18. Land Use and land cover and associated maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    The Geological Survey is compiling land use and land cover and associated maps for the entire United States. Land use refers to man's activities which are directly related to the land. Land cover describes the vegetation, water, natural surface, and artificial constructions at the land surface. These maps will help satisfy a longstanding need for a consistent level of detail, standardization of categories, and appropriate use of scales of compilation for a type of data frequently used by land use planners, land managers, resource management planners, and others.

  19. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  20. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  1. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  2. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  3. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  4. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. New Insights into the Geology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site from Spectral and Morphologic Analysis of the 12-Color Superpan Panorama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Barnouin-Jha, K.; Bishop, J.; Johnson, J.; McSween, H.; Morris, R.

    2003-07-01

    The Pathfinder landing site contains a second lithology in addition to gray rock, consistent with highlands excavated from beneath a veneer of northern plains. Many rocks have cemented coatings that formed during an early, probably wetter climate.

  9. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification.

  10. A numerical study of the acid rain in northern Taiwan in winter season

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ching-Sen; Deng, Zen-Sing

    1996-12-31

    Two-thirds of the land mass of Taiwan island is covered by mountains. In winter precipitation could occur in northern Taiwan when the prevailing wind was from northeastern direction. In northern Taiwan the acid rain (pH value less than 5.0) in winter time could contribute about 30 rain in the whole year. A three-dimensional numerical model with terrain following coordinated system was used to simulate the precipitation system and the characteristics of acid rain. A smooth terrain was assumed in the model. A mean sounding was used to initialize the numerical model when acid rain occurred in northern Taiwan during winter time from 1991 to 1993. Investigations of the effect of pollutions from abroad on the acid rain in northern Taiwan in winter are considered for the future.

  11. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  12. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  13. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  14. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  15. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  16. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  17. Land Reuse Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rebekah Buckles

    1997-09-22

    The intent of this cooperative agreement was to establish a conduit and infrastructure that would allow for the transfer of DOE developed environmental technologies within land restoration activities first in the State of California and ultimately nationwide.

  18. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  19. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  20. Antarctic Role in Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, S. C.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Lawrence, K. T.; Chiu, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    The late Pliocene, ~3 million years ago (Ma), is the most recent period in geologic history with elevated atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature estimates analogous to those projected for the end of the 21st century making it a focus of paleoclimate research. Proxy reconstructions suggest average global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were ~2-3°C above present during the late Pliocene warm period (~3.3-2.9 Ma). In the North Atlantic, regional SST anomalies reached as much as +6°C and even larger temperature anomalies occurred on land in the northern hemisphere. An episode of global cooling and sea level fall following the warm late Pliocene is attributed to a major expansion of northern hemisphere ice sheets at ~2.73 Ma and referred to as the intensification of northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG). We reconstruct the thermal and geochemical history of North Pacific deep water (ODP Site 1208) from 3.3-2.5 Ma at orbital scale resolution using benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and stable isotopic ratios (δ18O, δ13C) in order to evaluate changes in continental ice volume and deep ocean circulation as the climate deteriorated and NHG intensified. We find that the oceanic cooling trend which followed late Pliocene warmth did not occur in the deep Pacific Ocean and an average ~21±10 m sea level equivalent ice growth occurred from 3.15-2.75 Ma prior to the intensification of NHG. Furthermore, both the benthic d18Oc and BWTs in the Pacific are offset from the North Atlantic prior to 2.75 Ma. By ~2.73 Ma (interglacial-glacial cycle G7-G6), the Atlantic-Pacific BWT and d18O gradients were reduced to <1°C and <0.1‰, respectively. We interpret these abrupt hydrographic changes as the initiation of stronger heat and salt transfer from the North Atlantic to the Pacific due to a fundamental change in deep ocean circulation driven by late Pliocene ice growth on Antarctica.

  1. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land in trust. The public... articulating the process for issuing decisions to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. The...

  2. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Anna R.; Robinson, Catherine J.; Garnett, Stephen T.; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P.; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia’s 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so. PMID:28291797

  3. Family Medicine/Northern Medical Services Involvement in Northern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, James

    1988-01-01

    To address the problems of recruitment and retention of family physicians in various remote locations in northern Saskatchewan, the University of Saskatchewan became involved through Northern Medical Services, a division of the Department of Family Medicine. The University's involvement consists of the provision of resident family-physician services, visiting consultant services, family-practise resident training, research, and a consulting role of the Medical Health Officer. This paper reviews the context in which this program was created, its role in health care in the area, and its involvement with the communities in health promotion and research. PMID:21253032

  4. Comparing land use change and climate change as drivers of hydrological change in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying how land use changes and climate change affect hydrological components is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. The Upper Ganges river basin (India) experiences almost every year monsoon flooding (for instance: summer 2013 floods over northern India). Studies have shown that there is evidence of strong coupling between the land surface (soil moisture) and atmosphere (precipitation) in North India which means that regional climate variations and changes in landscape are influencing the temporal dynamics of land-atmosphere interactions. This study aims to quantify how land use changes and climate change affect the hydrological response of the Upper Ganges (UG) river basin. High-resolution historic land cover maps for northern India were developed, based on satellite imagery, for the years from 1984 to 2010. Future scenarios of land cover were produced for year 2035 using Markov chain analysis. Climate change scenarios were derived from downscaled CIMP5 data from 16 participating models. The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was dynamically coupled with the crop model InfoCrop to allow for dynamic representation of crop growth. The coupled system was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data and run under different future land cover and climate change scenarios, to obtain hydrological projections for the UG basin. We investigate the impact of seasonal and inter-annual land use changes as well as the impact of climate change by calculating annual variations in hydrological components (stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture) during the simulation period. Significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes arise under future land cover and climate change scenarios pointing towards a severe increase in high extremes of flow. The changes in all examined hydrological components are greater in the combined land use and climate change scenario

  5. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  6. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  7. Population momentum and the demand on land and water resources

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, G.; Heilig, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    Future world population growth is fuelled by two components: the demographic momentum, which is built into the age composition of current populations, and changes in reproductive behaviour and mortality of generations yet to come. This paper investigates, by major world regions and countries, what we know about population growth, what can be projected with reasonable certainty, and what is pure speculation. The exposition sets a frame for analysing demographic driving forces that are expected to increase human demand and pressures on land and water resources. These have been contrasted with current resource assessments of regional availability and use of land, in particular with estimates of remaining land with cultivation potential. In establishing a balance between availabilty of land resources and projected needs, the paper distinguishes regions with limited land and water resources and high population pressure from areas with abundant resources and low or moderate demographic demand. Overall, it is estimated that two-thirds of the remaining balance of land with rainfed cultivation potential is currently covered by various forest ecosystems and wetlands. The respective percentages by region vary between 23% in Southern Africa to 89% in South-Eastern Asia. For Latin America and Asia the estimated share of the balance of land with cultivation potential under forest and wetland ecosystems is about 70%, in Africa this is about 60%. If these were to be preserved, the remaining balance of land with some potential for rainfed crop cultivation would amount to some 550 million hectares. The regions which will experience the largest difficulties in meeting future demand for land resources and water, or alternatively have to cope with much increased dependency on external supplies, include foremost Western Asia, South-Central Asia, and Northern Africa. A large stress on resources is to be expected also in many countries of Eastern, Western and Southern Africa

  8. The fertility incentive of land tenure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soberon-ferrer, H; Whittington, L A

    1993-12-01

    Ejidos are communal holding groups of redistributed land expropriated (generally without compensation) from large private landowners during Mexico's post-1910 land reform. The model in this study of the "ejidal" system's influence on fertility differs from DeVany and Sanchez in providing more current data and including the following more detailed variables: the land area of ejidos and the number of ejidos, the need for children, male income, female income share, and social security coverage. The data pertains to states rather than municipalities. DeVany and Sanchez found that the ejidal system encouraged fertility, because having more children helped an ejido family retain land rights, increased its chances of gaining additional productive land, and gave it increased political power. Children also provided a means of intergenerational transfer of resources. The estimation results of this study revealed that the total proportion of land held as ejidos had a positive, significant effect on fertility. The ratio of ejidos to total number of farms was negative and significant. There was support for the hypothesis that the impact of ejidos land holdings and area was diminished when ejidos were dominant in the state. Fertility declined with the increase in unpaid workers per hectare of land. Elasticity functions were small: 0.075 on ejidal land, -0.222 on ejidal farms, and -0.045 on workers. A positive significant demographic effect on fertility was illiteracy. Infant mortality and female income share each had a negative, significant effect on fertility. Insignificant variables were male income, social security coverage, and the dummy for northern states. There have been changes in the Mexican ejidal system. These changes and the availability of farm labor are expected to reduce urban and rural fertility differentials.

  9. Use of remote sensing for land use policy formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The overall objectives and strategies of the Center for Remote Sensing remain to provide a center for excellence for multidisciplinary scientific expertise to address land-related global habitability and earth observing systems scientific issues. Specific research projects that were underway during the final contract period include: digital classification of coniferous forest types in Michigan's northern lower peninsula; a physiographic ecosystem approach to remote classification and mapping; land surface change detection and inventory; analysis of radiant temperature data; and development of methodologies to assess possible impacts of man's changes of land surface on meteorological parameters. Significant progress in each of the five project areas has occurred. Summaries on each of the projects are provided.

  10. Land Use and Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, D. T.; Simpson, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    From the standpoint of technology, the most encouraging thing about ERTS has been the level of land-use identification. Land-use detail has exceeded the expectations of the Interagency Steering Committee and the requirements of land-use classification proposed by the Department of Interior. Whereas in the latter instance it was anticipated that only nine classes of land use would probably be identifiable, in fact some 14 to 18 classes have been identified. The success in the level of land-use identification results primarily from the various attributes of the ERTS system. These include the ability to provide repetitive coverage, and in particular seasonal coverage; the ability to image in four bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (green, red, and two near-infrared), which allows for manipulation of various combinations of bands; and the provision by the ERTS system of computer-compatible tapes for machine processing of data. Furthermore, the resolution of ERTS imagery has been better than expected. Although there is some question as to its exact resolving power, it is safe to say objects as small as 100 meters (300 feet) in diameter have been identified. Linear features as narrow as 16 meters (50 feet) can be detected (Figure 1).

  11. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  12. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  13. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  14. Anticipating land surface change.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J

    2013-04-09

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify "near misses," close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management.

  15. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  16. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  17. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  18. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  19. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  20. Application and impacts of the GlobeLand30 land cover dataset on the Beijing Climate Center Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Nie, S.; Ju, W.; Yu, L.

    2016-04-01

    Land cover (LC) is a necessary and important input variable of the land surface and climate model, and has significant impacts on climate and climate changes. In this paper, the new higher-resolution global LC dataset, GlobeLand30, was employed in the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM) to investigate LC impacts on the land surface and climate via simulation experiments. The strategy for connecting the new LC dataset and model was to merge the GlobeLand30 data with other satellite remote sensing datasets to enlarge the plant function types (PFT) fitted for the BCC_CSM. The area-weighted up-scaling approach was used to aggregate the 30m-resolution GlobeLand30 data onto the coarser model grids and derive PFT as well as percentage information. The LC datasets of GlobeLand30 and the original BCC_CSM had generally consistent spatial features but with significant differences. Numerical simulations with these two LC datasets were conducted and compared to present the effects of the new GlobeLand30 data on the climate. Results show that with the new LC data products, several model biases between simulations and observations in the BCC climate model with original LC datasets were effectively reduced, including the positive bias of precipitation in the mid-high latitude of the northern hemisphere and the negative bias in the Amazon, as well as the negative bias of air temperature in part of the southern hemisphere. Therefore, the GlobeLand30 data are suitable for use in the BCC_CSM component models and can improve the performance of climate simulations.

  1. Simulating continental surface waters: An application to Holocene northern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, M.T.

    1997-07-01

    A model (SWAM) to predict surface waters (lakes and wetlands) on the scale of atmospheric general circulation models is developed. SWAM is based on a linear reservoir hydrologic model and is driven by runoff, precipitation, evaporation, topography, and water transport directions. SWAM is applied to the modern climate using observed estimates of the hydrologic variables and a 5{prime} {times} 5{prime} digital terrain model to represent topography. It simulates the surface water area of northern Africa (about 1% of the land area) in reasonable agreement with observed estimates (0.65%). A middle Holocene (6000 yr BP) simulation using the results of the GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) illustrates the sensitivity of the simulated surface waters to climatic changes and the model`s utility as a diagnostic tool for AGCMs. SWAM and GENESIS capture the general pattern of climate change 6000 yr BP. There is an increase in the simulated surface water area from about 1% to about 3% of the land area, including an increase in the area of Lake Chad by about five times and extensive surface water throughout northern Mali, consistent with observed patterns of surface water change during the Holocene. Limitations in the modeling of surface waters appear to result from the relatively coarse resolution of global elevation data. 73 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Connectivity and distant drivers of land change: A case study of land use, land cover, and livelihood changes in Quang Tri, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounds, Eric

    The urban lowland areas of Vietnam have been at the forefront of economic liberalization over the last 30 years, while the more remote mountainous areas of the country have lagged behind. Upland areas in the Northern and Central portions of Vietnam in particular remain largely impoverished and disconnected from broader national and regional markets. To address this economic inequality in the uplands, recent economic development efforts such as the East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) have aimed at expanding road infrastructure to remote areas in Central Vietnam. This study examines the impact of road expansion in the EWEC on a single village in Quang Tri, Vietnam. It draws from social economic data gathered during fieldwork and a historical land cover analysis to address how land use, land cover, and livelihoods have changed in recent decades. Moreover, the paper discusses the distal and proximate drivers of these changes. Findings show that the improved road connectivity provided by new roads has facilitated the transmission of distant market-related drivers into the study area, and that these drivers have fostered significant changes in land use, land cover, and livelihoods.

  3. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  4. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  5. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  6. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  7. Global Land Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

  8. Primary Science in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990 the science curriculum in Northern Ireland has gone through three major changes. In the beginning, fifteen attainment targets were introduced to an unsuspecting and largely unprepared teaching population: these were eventually reduced to five in 1993 and then to the present two in 1996. Unlike in England, technology has never stood as…

  9. "Subtractive" Bilingualism in Northern Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert A.

    "Subtractive" bilingualism in Northern Belize is analyzed based on an extension of a model by Wallace Lambert. The impact of English language instruction on Spanish speaking children in Corozal Town, the northernmost urban center in the British colony of Belize, Central America, is described. This description extends an earlier account…

  10. Motivating Learners in Northern Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A teacher at a northern Ontario adult Native literacy program describes how she cultivates student motivation. The teacher-student relationship is the most influential factor for motivating students. By focusing on cultural awareness, cultural teaching practices, and a sense of community, teachers can help students be successful. Program…

  11. Contributions to the gold metallogeny of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tosdal, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    Nevada is one of the Earth's premier gold producing regions, accounting for approximately 64 percent of the U.S and nine percent of the world total. The impact of these mines on nearby local economies and on our national balance of payments is profound, and will continue well into the next century. Of principal importance in this region are giant sedimentary-rock-hosted (Carlin-type) deposits. These are some of the world's largest deposits, but yet are poorly understood. Other sedimentary-rock hosted deposits in the region, the distal-disseminated Ag-Au type, are genetically related to shallow plutonic complexes. Hot-spring gold-silver systems associated with Tertiary volcanic rocks represent a third type of precious metal deposit in northern Nevada. These deposits, despite being generally smaller than sedimentary-rock-hosted gold deposits, are also important gold-silver resources. Aspects about the geologic and metallogenic setting of gold-silver deposits in northern Nevada are addressed in the twenty-two chapters that compose this volume. The volume is organized along four themes: (1) crustal structure; (2) Carlin-type deposits; (3) pluton-related gold-silver deposits near Battle Mountain; and (4) hot-spring gold-silver deposits. This Open-File Report, the result of ongoing geologic and mineral-resource investigations, provides a basis for mineral exploration, for land-use planning decisions, and for environmental questions in northern Nevada.

  12. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  13. 4. Photocopy of plat (from U.S. Land Commission, U.S. District ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of plat (from U.S. Land Commission, U.S. District Court, Northern District of California, G. Black, Surveyor, 1854) SITE PLAN OF MISSION SAN FRANCISCO SOLANO DE SONOMA - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  14. Water Ice Clouds over the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 48.5 N and 240.5 W, displays splotchy water ice clouds that obscure the northern lowland plains in the region where the Viking 2 spacecraft landed. This image is far enough north to catch the edge of the north polar hood that develops during the northern winter. This is a cap of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds that form over the Martian north pole. As Mars progresses into northern spring, the persistent north polar hood ice clouds will dissipate and the surface viewing conditions will improve greatly. As the season develops, an equatorial belt of water ice clouds will form. This belt of water ice clouds is as characteristic of the Martian climate as the southern hemisphere summer dust storm season. Seasons on Mars have a dramatic effect on the state of the dynamic Martian atmosphere. The Story Muted in an almost air-brushed manner, this image doesn't have the crispness that most THEMIS images have. That's because clouds were rising over the surface of the red planet on the day this picture was taken. Finding clouds on Mars might remind us of conditions here on Earth, but these Martian clouds are made of frozen water and frozen carbon dioxide -- in other words, clouds of ice and 'dry ice.' Strange as that may sound, the clouds seen here form on a pretty regular basis at the north Martian pole during its winter season. As springtime comes to the northern hemisphere of Mars (and fall comes to the southern), these clouds will slowly disappear, and a nice belt of water ice clouds will form around the equator. So, if you were a THEMIS camera aimer, that might tell you when your best viewing conditions for different areas on Mars would be. As interesting as clear pictures of Martian landforms are, however, you wouldn't want to bypass the weather altogether. Pictures showing seasonal shifts are great for scientists to study, because they reveal a lot about the patterns of the Martian climate and the

  15. Northern Border Pipeline Company NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030791, the Northern Border Pipeline Company is authorized to discharge from locations along the Northern Border Gas Transmission Pipeline located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana.

  16. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  17. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  18. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  19. Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Nevada is one of the world's foremost regions of gold production. The Humboldt River Basin (HRB) covers 43,500 km2 in northern Nevada (Crompton, 1995), and it is home to approximately 18 active gold and silver mines (Driesner and Coyner, 2001) among at least 55 significant metallic mineral deposits (Long and others, 1998). Many of the gold mines are along the Carlin trend in the east-central portion of the HRB, and together they have produced 50 million ounces of gold from 1962 (when the Carlin mine first opened) through April 2002 (Nevada Mining Association, 2002). Mining is not new to the region, however. Beginning in 1849, mining has taken place in numerous districts that cover 39 percent of the land area in the HRB (Tingley, 1998). In addition to gold and silver, As, Ba, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, S, Sb, V, W, Zn, and industrial commodities such as barite, limestone, fluorite, sand and gravel, gypsum, gemstones, pumice, zeolites, and building stone, have been extracted from the HRB (McFaul and others, 2000). All papers within this series of investigations can be found as lettered chapters of USGS Bulletin 2210, Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada. Each chapter is available separately online. The data and software utilized in this product (Chapter F) permit the user to view and analyze the geographic relationships among chemistry of stream sediments and surface waters, geology, and various cartographic base information such as but not limited to cities, county boundaries, and land ownership. Data for this product were compiled and or produced as part of a mineral and environmental assessment of the Humboldt River basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 - 2000.

  20. The Mayflower Landed Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

    This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

  1. Land Combat Systems Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    communication equipment, and maintains power train components, starters , alternators , and generators. MCLB Barstow, Barstow, CA is the Marine Corps...protectionism became dominant themes. Other heavy industries, such as locomotive and food machinery companies, also were converted to production of land...implications for national defense. Domestic LCS companies’ market share may decrease as foreign companies with cheaper alternatives become more competitive and

  2. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  3. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  4. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  5. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  6. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  7. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  8. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Living off the Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  10. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  11. Socioeconomic drivers of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mena, Carlos F; Bilsborrow, Richard E; McClain, Michael E

    2006-06-01

    Investigations of land use/land cover (LULC) change and forest management are limited by a lack of understanding of how socioeconomic factors affect land use. This lack also constrains the predictions of future deforestation, which is especially important in the Amazon basin, where large tracts of natural forest are being converted to managed uses. Research presented in this article was conducted to address this lack of understanding. Its objectives are (a) to quantify deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) during the periods 1986-1996 and 1996-2002; and (b) to determine the significance and magnitude of the effects of socioeconomic factors on deforestation rates at both the parroquia (parish) and finca (farm) levels. Annual deforestation rates were quantified via satellite image processing and geographic information systems. Linear spatial lag regression analyses were then used to explore relationships between socioeconomic factors and deforestation. Socioeconomic factors were obtained, at the finca level, from a detailed household survey carried out in 1990 and 1999, and at the parroquia level from data in the 1990 and 2001 Ecuadorian censuses of population. We found that the average annual deforestation rate was 2.5% and 1.8%/year for 1986-1996 and 1996-2002, respectively. At the parroquia level, variables representing demographic factors (i.e., population density) and accessibility factors (i.e., road density), among others, were found to be significantly related to deforestation. At the farm level, the factors related to deforestation were household size, distance by road to main cities, education, and hired labor. The findings of this research demonstrate both the severity of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon and the array of factors affecting deforestation in the tropics.

  12. SAND FLUX IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT, NEW MEXICO, USA, AND THE INFLUENCE OF MESQUITE-DOMINATED LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) that land dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is the most important area for active sand movement at the Jornada Experimental Range, located in the northern part of the Chihuahuan desert, and (2) that the most active san...

  13. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 6 Table 6 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 6 Table 6...

  14. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 6 Table 6 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 6 Table 6...

  15. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 6 Table 6 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 6 Table 6...

  16. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 6 Table 6 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 6 Table 6...

  17. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 6 Table 6 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 6 Table 6...

  18. Nest and nest site characterisitcs of some ground-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We summarized biological and ecologic characteristics of 2490 nests of 16 species of upland-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands found during 1963 through 1991. Nest initiation and hatch dates, clutch sizes, nest fates, causes of failure, success rates of nests among major habitat types and land uses, and vegetation measurements at nest sites are analyzed.

  19. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  20. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  1. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  2. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  3. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  4. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  5. 43 CFR 3811.2 - Lands: Specific.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands: Specific. 3811.2 Section 3811.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  6. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands: General. 3811.1 Section 3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject...

  7. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape.

  8. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  9. Historic Ground Failures in Northern California Triggered by Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T. Leslie; Hoose, Seena N.

    1978-01-01

    A major source of earthquake-related damage and casualties in northern California has been ground failures generated by the seismic shaking, including landslides, lateral spreads, ground settlement, and surface cracks. The historical record shows that, except for offshore shocks, the geographic area affected and the quantity and general severity of ground failures increase markedly with Richter magnitude. Hence, the largest historical event, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, has been the most important generator of ground failures. Because of recent population growth and land development in northern California, the potential for damage in future events is enormous compared with that existing in 1906. Reports of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and other northern California earthquakes and descriptions of ground failures therein are used to (1) identify and clarify the types of ground failures associated with earthquakes, (2) provide a guide for engineers, planners, and others responsible for minimizing seismic hazards, and (3) form a data base for other geotechnical studies of earthquake-triggered pound failures. Geologic, hydrologic, and topographic setting have an important influence on ground failure development as well as distance from the causative fault. Areas especially vulnerable to ground failure in northern California have been oversteepened slopes, such as mountain cliffs, streambanks, and coastal bluffs, and lowland deposits, principally Holocene fluvial deposits, deltaic deposits, and poorly compacted fills. Liquefaction has been the direct cause of most lowland failures. The historical record suggests that ground failures during future large earthquakes are most likely to occur at the same or geologically similar locations as failures during previous earhquakes.

  10. Uncertainties around the implementation of a clearing-control policy in a unique catchment in northern Australia: exploring equity issues and balancing competing objectives.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Pressey, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is the most significant driver linked to global species extinctions. In Northern Australia, the landscape is still relatively intact with very low levels of clearing. However, a re-energized political discourse around creating a northern food bowl means that currently intact ecosystems in northern Australia could be under imminent threat from increased land clearing and water extraction. These impacts are likely to be concentrated in a few regions with suitable soils and water supplies. The Daly River Catchment in the Northern Territory is an important catchment for both conservation and development. Land use in the Daly catchment has been subject to clearing guidelines that are largely untested in terms of their eventual implications for the spatial configuration of conservation and development. Given the guidelines are not legislated they might also be removed or revised by subsequent Territory Governments, including the recently-elected one. We examine the uncertainties around the spatial implications of full implementation of the Daly clearing guidelines and their potential effects on equity of opportunity across land tenures and land uses. We also examine how removal of the guidelines could affect conservation in the catchment. We conclude that the guidelines are important in supporting development in the catchment while still achieving conservation goals, and we recommend ways of implementing the guidelines to make best use of available land resources for intensified production.

  11. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  12. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L.

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which still

  13. Snow data assimilation-constrained land initialization improves seasonal temperature prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peirong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhang, Yongfei; Zhang, Kai

    2016-11-01

    We present the first systematic study to quantify the impact of land initialization on seasonal temperature prediction in the Northern Hemisphere, emphasizing the role of land snow data assimilation (DA). Three suites of ensemble seasonal integrations are conducted for coupled land-atmosphere runs. The land component is initialized using datasets from (1) no DA, (2) assimilating Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction (SCF), and (3) assimilating both MODIS SCF and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage. Results show that snow DA improves temperature predictions especially in the Tibetan Plateau (by 5-20%) and high latitudes. Improvements at low latitudes are seen immediately and last up to 60 days, whereas improvements at high latitudes only appear later in transitional seasons. At high latitudes, assimilating GRACE data results in marked and prolonged improvements (by 25%) due to large initial snow mass changes. This study has great implications for future land DA and seasonal climate prediction studies.

  14. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War's Rentier Nexus.

    PubMed

    Polson, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California's real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of "illegal" wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the "il/legal" dynamics of marijuana land use. As marijuana becomes licit, prohibitionist policies have enabled the capture of ground rent by landed interests from the marijuana industry at a time when the price of marijuana is declining (in part due to its increasing licitness). The resulting "drug war rentier nexus," a state-land-finance complex, is becoming a key, if obscured, component within marijuana's contemporary political economy.

  15. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  16. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  17. Loess ecosystems of northern Alaska: Regional gradient and toposequence at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Everett, K.R. )

    1991-12-01

    Loess-dominated ecosystems cover {approx} 14% (11,000 km{sup 2}) of the Arctic Coastal Plain and much of the northern portion of the Arctic Foothills. Knowledge of this poorly known ecosystem is important for sound land-use planning of the expanding developments in the region and for understanding the paleoecological dynamics of eolian systems that once dominated much of northern Alaska. A conceptual alkaline-tundra toposequence includes eight common vegetation types and associated soils and vegetation downwind of the Sagavanirktok River. Properties of loess tundra important for land-use planning include: (1) its high ice content, which contributes to its susceptibility to thermokarst; (2) high salinities, which hamper revegetation efforts; and (3) presence of certain plant species such as Dryas intergrifolia, which are particularly sensitive to disturbance. The loess gradient provides a natural analogue for road dust, and extensive disturbance associated with oil-field development.

  18. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    Grasslands cover nearly one-fifth of the global terrestrial surface and store most of their carbon below ground. The grassland ecosystem in the Great Plains occupies over 1.5 million km2 of land area and is the primary resource for livestock production in North America. However, the contributions of grasslands to local and regional carbon budgets remain uncertain due to the lack of carbon flux data for the expansive grassland ecosystems under various managements, land uses, and climate variability. A quantitative understanding of carbon fluxes across these systems is essential for developing regional, national, and global carbon budgets and providing guidance to policy makers and managers when substantial conversion to biofuels are implemented. Additionally, these estimates will provide insights into how the grassland ecosystem will respond to future climate and what systems are sustainable and offer net carbon sinks. This knowledge base and decisions support tools are needed for developing land management strategies for the region under a variety of environmental conditions and land use options. In the past, we used a remote sensing-based piecewise regression (PWR) model to estimate the grassland carbon fluxes in the northern Great Plains using the 1-km SPOT VEGETATION normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We estimated the carbon fluxes through integrated spatial databases and remotely sensed extrapolations of flux tower data to regional scales. The PWR model was applied to derive an empirical relationship between environmental variables and tower-based measurements. The PWR equations were then applied through time and space to estimate carbon fluxes across the study area at 1-km resolution. We now improve this modeling approach by 1) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with higher temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions (8-day, 500-m, and 7-band) as input; 2) incorporating the actual vegetation evapotranspiration

  19. Biological assessment for the transfer of the DP land tract

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer to the County of Los Alamos up to 10-ha (25-ac) of federal land located in Technical Area-21 to be developed for commercial uses. Previous studies for the proposed land transfer area indicate that potential habitat for four threatened, endangered, and sensitive species occurs in or adjacent to the proposed land transfer area. These include the northern goshawk (federal species of concern), Mexican spotted owl (federal threatened), the spotted bat (federal species of concern, state threatened), die peregrine falcon (federal endangered, state endangered), and the. In order to determine the possible influences of the land transfer on these organisms, information from species-specific surveys was collected. These surveys were used to confirm the presence of these species or to infer their absence in or near the project area. It was concluded that none of die above mentioned species occur in the project area. Stretches of the stream channel within Los Alamos Canyon have been identified as palustrine and riverine, temporarily flooded wetlands. The proposed land transfer should not affect these wetlands.

  20. Martian Sunrise at Phoenix Landing Site, Sol 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This sequence of nine images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the sun rising on the morning of the lander's 101st Martian day after landing.

    The images were taken on Sept. 5, 2008. The local solar times at the landing site for the nine images were between 1:23 a.m. and 1:41 a.m.

    The landing site is on far-northern Mars, and the mission started in late northern spring. For nearly the entire first 90 Martian days of the mission, the sun never set below the horizon. As the amount of sunshine each day declined steadily after that, so has the amount of electricity available for the solar-powered spacecraft.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  2. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the