Sample records for arno pllume ilmar

  1. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor ARNO mediates the activation of ARF and phospholipase D by insulin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Sheng; Shome, Kuntala; Rojas, Raúl; Rizzo, Mark A; Vasudevan, Chandrasekaran; Fluharty, Eric; Santy, Lorraine C; Casanova, James E; Romero, Guillermo


    Background Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many signaling pathways. In most systems, the activity of PLD is primarily regulated by the members of the ADP-Ribosylation Factor (ARF) family of GTPases, but the mechanism of activation of PLD and ARF by extracellular signals has not been fully established. Here we tested the hypothesis that ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by insulin. Results Wild type ARNO transiently transfected in HIRcB cells was translocated to the plasma membrane in an insulin-dependent manner and promoted the translocation of ARF to the membranes. ARNO mutants: ΔCC-ARNO and CC-ARNO were partially translocated to the membranes while ΔPH-ARNO and PH-ARNO could not be translocated to the membranes. Sec7 domain mutants of ARNO did not facilitate the ARF translocation. Overexpression of wild type ARNO significantly increased insulin-stimulated PLD activity, and mutations in the Sec7 and PH domains, or deletion of the PH or CC domains inhibited the effects of insulin. Conclusions Small ARF-GEFs of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by the insulin receptor. PMID:12969509

  2. Aldolase directly interacts with ARNO and modulates cell morphology and acidic vesicle distribution

    PubMed Central

    Merkulova, Maria; Hurtado-Lorenzo, Andrés; Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Brown, Dennis; Ausiello, Dennis A.


    Previously, we demonstrated that the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) a2-subunit functions as an endosomal pH sensor that interacts with the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) guanine nucleotide exchange factor, ARNO. In the present study, we showed that ARNO directly interacts not only with the a2-subunit but with all a-isoforms (a1–a4) of the V-ATPase, indicating a widespread regulatory interaction between V-ATPase and Arf GTPases. We then extended our search for other ARNO effectors that may modulate V-ATPase-dependent vesicular trafficking events and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Pull-down experiments using cytosol of mouse proximal tubule cells (MTCs) showed that ARNO interacts with aldolase, but not with other enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. Direct interaction of aldolase with the pleckstrin homology domain of ARNO was revealed by pull-down assays using recombinant proteins, and surface plasmon resonance revealed their high avidity interaction with a dissociation constant: KD = 2.84 × 10−10 M. MTC cell fractionation revealed that aldolase is also associated with membranes of early endosomes. Functionally, aldolase knockdown in HeLa cells produced striking morphological changes accompanied by long filamentous cell protrusions and acidic vesicle redistribution. However, the 50% knockdown we achieved did not modulate the acidification capacity of endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Finally, a combination of small interfering RNA knockdown and overexpression revealed that the expression of aldolase is inversely correlated with gelsolin levels in HeLa cells. In summary, we have shown that aldolase forms a complex with ARNO/Arf6 and the V-ATPase and that it may contribute to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and/or the trafficking and redistribution of V-ATPase-dependent acidic compartments via a combination of protein-protein interaction and gene expression mechanisms. PMID:21307348

  3. Biophysical processes affecting DOM dynamics at the Arno river mouth (Tyrrhenian Sea).


    Retelletti Brogi, S; Gonnelli, M; Vestri, S; Santinelli, C


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and optical properties (absorption and fluorescence) of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured in October 2012, at the Arno river mouth and in a coastal station close to it. The data reported indicates that the Arno river represents an important source of DOC and CDOM to this coastal area, with a total DOC flux of 11.23-12.04 · 10(9)g C · y(-1). Moving from the river to the sea, CDOM absorption and fluorescence decreased, while the spectral slope increased, suggesting a change in the molecular properties of CDOM. Mineralization experiments were carried out in order to investigate the main processes of DOM removal and/or transformation in riverine and coastal water. DOC removal rates were 20 μM · month(-1) in the river and 3 μM · month(-1) in the seawater, while CDOM was released during the first 30 days and removed in the following 40 days. PMID:25463937

  4. Definition of Pluviometric Thresholds For A Real Time Flood Forecasting System In The Arno Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, P.; Mancini, M.; Mazzetti, P.; Menduni, G.; Nativi, S.; Rabuffetti, D.; Ravazzani, G.; Rosso, R.

    The pluviometric flood forecasting thresholds are an easy method that helps river flood emergency management collecting data from limited area meteorologic model or telemetric raingauges. The thresholds represent the cumulated rainfall depth which generate critic discharge for a particular section. The thresholds were calculated for different sections of Arno river and for different antecedent moisture condition using the flood event distributed hydrologic model FEST. The model inputs were syntethic hietographs with different shape and duration. The system realibility has been verified by generating 500 year syntethic rainfall for 3 important subwatersheds of the studied area. A new technique to consider spatial variability of rainfall and soil properties effects on hydrograph has been investigated. The "Geomorphologic Weights" were so calculated. The alarm system has been implemented in a dedicated software (MIMI) that gets measured and forecast rainfall data from Autorità di Bacino and defines the state of the alert of the river sections.

  5. RLIP76 regulates Arf6-dependent cell spreading and migration by linking ARNO with activated R-Ras at recycling endosomes.


    Wurtzel, Jeremy G T; Lee, Seunghyung; Singhal, Sharad S; Awasthi, Sanjay; Ginsberg, Mark H; Goldfinger, Lawrence E


    R-Ras small GTPase enhances cell spreading and motility via RalBP1/RLIP76, an R-Ras effector that links GTP-R-Ras to activation of Arf6 and Rac1 GTPases. Here, we report that RLIP76 performs these functions by binding cytohesin-2/ARNO, an Arf GTPase guanine exchange factor, and connecting it to R-Ras at recycling endosomes. RLIP76 formed a complex with R-Ras and ARNO by binding ARNO via its N-terminus (residues 1-180) and R-Ras via residues 180-192. This complex was present in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes and the presence of ARNO in recycling endosomes required RLIP76, and was not supported by RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192). Spreading and migration required RLIP76(1-180), and RLIP76(Δ1-180) blocked ARNO recruitment to recycling endosomes, and spreading. Arf6 activation with an ArfGAP inhibitor overcame the spreading defects in RLIP76-depleted cells or cells expressing RLIP76(Δ1-180). Similarly, RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192) suppressed Arf6 activation. Together these results demonstrate that RLIP76 acts as a scaffold at recycling endosomes by binding activated R-Ras, recruiting ARNO to activate Arf6, thereby contributing to cell spreading and migration.

  6. Storm Motion Tracking Over The Arno River Basin Through Multiscale Radar Reflectivity Classification and Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facheris, L.; Tanelli, S.; Giuli, D.

    A method is presented for analyzing the storm motion through the application of a nowcasting technique based on radar echoes tracking through multiscale correlation. The application of the correlation principle to weather radar image processing - the so called TREC (Tracking Radar Echoes by Correlation) and derived algorithms - is de- scribed in [1] and in references cited therein. The block matching approach exploited there is typical of video compression applications, whose purpose is to remove the temporal correlation between two subsequent frames of a sequence of images. In par- ticular, the wavelet decomposition approach to motion estimation seems particularly suitable for weather radar maps. In fact, block matching is particularly efficient when the images have a sufficient level of contrast. Though this does not hold for original resolution radar maps, it can be easily obtained by changing the resolution level by means of the wavelet decomposition. The technique first proposed in [2] (TREMC - Tracking of Radar Echoes by means of Multiscale Correlation) adopts a multiscale, multiresolution, and partially overlapped, block grid which adapts to the radar reflec- tivity pattern. Multiresolution decomposition is performed through 2D wavelet based filtering. Correlation coefficients are calculated taking after preliminary screening of unreliable data (e.g. those affected by ground clutter or beam shielding), so as to avoid strong undesired motion estimation biases due to the presence of stationary features. Such features are detected by a previous analysis carried out as discussed in [2]. In this paper, motion fields obtained by analyzing precipitation events over the Arno river basin are compared to the related Doppler velocity fields in order to identify growth and decay areas and orographic effects. Data presented have been collected by the weather radar station POLAR 55C sited in Montagnana (Firenze-Italy), a polarimetric C-band system providing absolute and

  7. Fragment-based identification of a locus in the Sec7 domain of Arno for the design of protein-protein interaction inhibitors.


    Rouhana, Jad; Hoh, Francois; Estaran, Sébastien; Henriquet, Corinne; Boublik, Yvan; Kerkour, Aziz; Trouillard, Romain; Martinez, Jean; Pugnière, Martine; Padilla, André; Chavanieu, Alain


    By virtual screening using a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach, 33 fragments were selected within small pockets around interaction hot spots on the Sec7 surface of the nucleotide exchange factor Arno, and then their ability to interfere with the Arno-catalyzed nucleotide exchange on the G-protein Arf1 was evaluated. By use of SPR, NMR, and fluorescence assays, the direct binding of three of the identified fragments to Arno Sec7 domain was demonstrated and the promiscuous aggregate behavior evaluated. Then the binding mode of one fragment and of a more active analogue was solved by X-ray crystallography. This highlighted the role of stable and transient pockets at the Sec7 domain surface in the discovery and binding of interfering compounds. These results provide structural information on how small organic compounds can interfere with the Arf1-Arno Sec7 domain interaction and may guide the rational drug design of competitive inhibitors of Arno enzymatic activity. PMID:24112024

  8. Sources of nitrate in the Arno River waters: Constraints from d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Buccianti, Antonella; Silva, Steven R.


    Running waters in anthropogenically affected areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination. Source identification is a fundamental step for the development of effective remediation. Previous studies pointed to pollution by nitrogen-bearing contaminants in the Arno Basin. In this paper, eleven surface water samples have been analysed for main and trace components and 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratios, with the aim of identifying for the first time the origin of nitrate in the Arno River Basin so that further investigations can appropriately be designed. d18O(NO3)and d15N(NO3) values have allowed to hypothesise the main sources of nitrate, as follows: i) mineralized fertilizer, ii) soil-organic nitrogen, iii) manure and septic waste. The anomalously high d15N and d18O values in the Chiana (d15N=24.9‰ and d18O=15.5‰) and Usciana tributaries (d15N=30.1‰ and d18O=7.2‰) show a low probability of belonging to the same population as that of the other samples and can be related to denitrification process of nitrate from animal waste/sewage and/or an industrial process (e.g. tanneries).

  9. Penzias, Arno Allan (1933-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.


    Radioscientist, born in Munich in Germany, Nobel prizewinner (1978) `for the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation', a refugee from Germany at the age of 6, found his way to America and experience in microwave physics. Joined Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey, searched for and investigated line emission from the interstellar OH molecule. Was able to gain the use of a large radio...

  10. Development of a practical tool for the flood risk assessment in highly urbanized areas: The case of the Arno River, Firenze (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, S.; Segoni, S.; Catani, F.; Battistini, A.; Manzo, G.; Ermini, L.


    The dynamic evolution of a river and the adjacent morphological environment are particularly important especially if there are communities that concentrate in these areas their socio-economic activities. So a proper hydraulic risk management is an increasingly felt necessity, but when working at small scales no established fast methodology exists to map the position and the height of the various elements with centimetric accuracy. In the current work an operative methodology likely to obtain this purpose is proposed on the basis of data obtained from a real test area. It is along the Arno river (Italy) which could be considered on the whole a representative case study of other realities in the world. Various issues have been deepened. Firstly RTK-GPS measurements and information about all the natural and artificial elements, connected to hydraulic risk and fluvial dynamics, were collected. All these elements were mapped with high accuracy, in particular a local geoid model, related only to the study area, was developed to obtain orthometric heights affected with errors ≤ 0.05 m. Consequently a GIS geodatabase was built to visualize the spatial distribution of the mapped elements and to store the most important technical data. Such geodatabase provides an overview of the territories connected with the fluvial dynamics of the main rivers near the city of Firenze. This is confirmed by some applications, realized to verify the capability of the instrument. First of all the real hydraulic risk in the study area has been checked out. So the comparison between the measured dike height and the hydraulic modeling conducted by the Arno River Basin Authority has identified areas at risk of overflowing for various return periods (T30, T100, T200 , T500). Subsequently a deeper analysis of hydraulic hazards has been carried out in the urban area of Firenze. A model of surface-water flows concentrated on the historic center has provided a comprehensive response of this area to

  11. Vegetation dynamics during the Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle in the Arno coastal plain (Tuscany, western Italy): location of a new tree refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchi, M. Ricci


    . This is because the diffusion of a characteristic pioneer vegetation (mainly represented by Hippophae cf. rhamnoides) helped to confer to the local environment a high ecological stability, buffering vegetation changes. Finally, during the Last Glacial, mixed broad-leaved deciduous and Pinus forests widely occupied the Arno coastal plain, demonstrating that this area acted as an important tree refuge. Local ecological conditions favourable to tree survival were determined mainly by (i) high precipitation, as a function of orographic uplift of air charged with moisture from the nearby Tyrrhenian Sea, (ii) mild temperatures, which were also influenced by proximity to the sea, and (iii) high topographic variability, providing a series of suitable microenvironments.

  12. A distributed multimedia information system designed for the Arno project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Giuli, Dino; Pellegrini, Pier Franco

    The architecture of a multimedia information system, based on the Client-Server paradigm, is described. The system is conceived in order to collect, share and efficiently manage spatial remotely sensed multi-sensor images and ground data, spread over a network. Graphical workstations assure system access through the communication network. Even if this paper refers to a specific application, the system architecture embodies some concepts that are demonstrated to be convenient for the development and integration of information systems in spatial information sciences, as well as for the evolution of photogrammetric and remote sensing applications. Such architecture will be described referring to the implementation of an integrated, hydrogeological and meteorological database, collecting multisensor and multispectral data related to meteorological events. The database installations may be remotely accessed by meteorologists, geologists, hydrologists etc., from a graphical workstation through a specifically designed graphical user interface, in a distributed system configuration. The system allows users to query, to see, to understand and to obtain sequences of heterogeneous and multimedia data.

  13. Molecule-doped rare gas clusters: structure and stability of ArnNO(X2 Π potential energy surfaces of ArNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumkin, F. Y.; Wales, D. J.

    High level ab initio calculations carried out for the 2A' and 2A'' states of ArNO(X2Π) predict a crossing near the T-shape configuration, with the 2A' minimum being slightly deeper. SΠn-orbit coupling is included through a model treatment and results in two potential energy surfaces with similar topologies, nearly parallel to each other and close to the averaged non-relativistic surface. These results are used to construct a DIM-like model for ArnNO clusters. The lowest energy cluster structures are found to resemble those for Arn+1 with NO lying in the surface. The set of major magic numbers (structures of pronounced stability) is also the same as for the Arn+1 clusters, and is emphasized further by the detachment of NO, which requires a larger energy than for detachment of a single Ar atom. The relations of the difference between the two dissociation energies and of the ArnNO(1/2 to 3/2) excitation energy to the magic numbers are discussed.

  14. Wilson, Robert Woodrow (1936-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.


    Born in Houston, Texas, Nobel prizewinner for physics in 1978) with ARNO PENZIAS `for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation'. Interested in radio as a boy, drawn to radioastronomy by working with JOHN BOLTON at CalTech mapping the Milky Way. Joined Bell Laboratories at Crawford Hill where with Arno Penzias he shared a small allowance given to the Lab for radioastronomy projects...

  15. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.


    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide


    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages.

  16. View of Florence, Italy area from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    A near vertical view of the Florence, Italy area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The view extends from the Ligurian Sea, an extension of the Mediterranian Sea, across the Apennine Mountians to the Po River Vally. Florence (Firenze) is near the center of the land mass. The mouth of the Arno River is at the center of the coastline. The city of Leghorn (Livorno) is on the coast just south of the Arno River. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film.

  17. Jere Brophy: An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshine, Barak


    The first generations of researchers on classroom instruction were the pioneers who developed the term, categories, and concepts that were used to view and code what was happening during classroom lessons. The five pioneers in this first wave were Ned Flanders, Arno Bellack, B.O. Smith, Don Medley, and Harold Mitzel. Each of these pioneers used…

  18. Some reactions and properties of nitro radical-anions important in biology and medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, P


    Nitroaromatic compounds, ArNO2 have widespread actual or potential use in medicine and cancer therapy. There is direct proof that free-radical metabolites are involved in many applications, and an appreciation of the conceptual basis for their therapeutic differential; however, an understanding of the detailed mechanisms involved is lacking. Redox properties control most biological responses of nitro compounds, and the characteristics of the one-electron couple: ArNO2/ArNO2- are detailed. The "futile metabolism" of nitroaryl compounds characteristic of most aerobic nitroreductase systems reflects competition between natural radical-decay pathways and a one-electron transfer reaction to yield superoxide ion, O2-. Prototropic properties control the rate of radical decay, and redox properties control the rate of electron transfer to O2 or other acceptors. There are clear parallels in the chemistry of ArNO2- and O2-. While nitro radicals have frequently been invoked as damaging species, they are very unreactive (except as simple reductants). It seems likely that reductive metabolism of nitroaryl compounds, although generally involving nitro radical-anions as obligate intermediates (and this is required for therapeutic selectivity towards anaerobes), results in biological damage via reductive metabolites of higher reduction order than the one-electron product. PMID:3830700

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome


    ... for This Page Carmignac V, Thevenon J, Adès L, Callewaert B, Julia S, Thauvin-Robinet C, Gueneau L, Courcet JB, Lopez E, Holman K, Renard M, ... De Backer J, Child A, Arno G, Duplomb L, Callier P, Aral B, Vabres P, Gigot N, ...

  20. Plasmaspheric Drainage Plumes: Inner-Magnetospheric Coupling from the IMAGE/EUV Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Gallagher, Dennis L.


    Plasmaspheric drainage plumes appear in the aftermath of periods of enhanced convection/erosion and are interpreted as a near-equatorial signature of the redistribution of thermal plasma along streamlines. Analysis of IMAGE/EUV observations from "FirstLight" through the end of calendar year 2002 reveals that for Kp greater than or equal to 3, there is an 84% probability of observing a plasmaspheric plume in EUV data. We present a statistical analysis of the geomagnetic conditions [Kp, Dst, and solar wind-induced electric field] associated with EUV plume observations. This analysis yields a peak in observational probability when Kp = 4 and Dst = -50 nT. Additionally, EUV pllume observations are associated with a solar wind-induced convection electric field at Earth [Ev, SM] characterized by bi-modal behavior with a positive mode peaked at approximately 4 m V(raised dot) m(sup -1) and a negative model that peaks at -2 mV (raised dot) m(sup -1). Analysis of the time rate of change of the plume-associated Ev, SM indicated that once the mechanism for plume formation is initiated, a slowly changing convection environment is required to allow for sufficient plume development prior to EUV detection.

  1. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter and microbial enzymatic activity. A biophysical approach to understand the marine carbon cycle.


    Gonnelli, Margherita; Vestri, Stefano; Santinelli, Chiara


    This study reports the first information on extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) combined with a study of DOM dynamics at the Arno River mouth. DOM dynamics was investigated from both a quantitative (dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and a qualitative (absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric DOM, CDOM) perspective. The data here reported highlight that the Arno River was an important source of both DOC and CDOM for this coastal area. CDOM optical properties suggested that terrestrial DOM did not undergo simple dilution at the river mouth but, other physical-chemical and biological processes were probably at work to change its molecular characteristics. This observation was further supported by the "potential" enzymatic activity of β-glucosidase (BG) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). Their Vmax values were markedly higher in the river water than in the seawater and their ratio suggested that most of the DOM used by microbes in the Arno River was polysaccharide-like, while in the seawater it was mainly protein-like.

  2. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter and microbial enzymatic activity. A biophysical approach to understand the marine carbon cycle.


    Gonnelli, Margherita; Vestri, Stefano; Santinelli, Chiara


    This study reports the first information on extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) combined with a study of DOM dynamics at the Arno River mouth. DOM dynamics was investigated from both a quantitative (dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and a qualitative (absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric DOM, CDOM) perspective. The data here reported highlight that the Arno River was an important source of both DOC and CDOM for this coastal area. CDOM optical properties suggested that terrestrial DOM did not undergo simple dilution at the river mouth but, other physical-chemical and biological processes were probably at work to change its molecular characteristics. This observation was further supported by the "potential" enzymatic activity of β-glucosidase (BG) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). Their Vmax values were markedly higher in the river water than in the seawater and their ratio suggested that most of the DOM used by microbes in the Arno River was polysaccharide-like, while in the seawater it was mainly protein-like. PMID:23850176

  3. Erythrokinetics: quantitative measurements of red cell production and destruction in normal subjects and patients with anemia.


    Giblett, Eloise R; Coleman, Daniel H; Pirzio-Biroli, Giacomo; Donohue, Dennis M; Motulsky, Arno G; Finch, Clement A


    To study erythropoiesis and anemia, one must have a firm foundation of indices that accurately measure red blood cell production and destruction. This paper, authored by hematology legends Arno G. Motulsky and Clement A. Finch, provides that foundation. Using methods that would not be approved in today's environment, the authors studied a cohort of normal healthy patients and an equal number of patients with different forms of anemia. The results confirm a reciprocal model of red cell production and destruction, show that anemia can be the result of either underproduction (a regenerative anemia or ineffective erythropoiesis) or increased destruction, and define parameters for distinguishing these 2 possibilities that are still widely used today.

  4. [The I.G. Farben laboratory at the Günzburg mental hospital. Epilepsy research during the NS-regime and the postwar period].


    Söhner, Felicitas; Winckelmann, Hans-Joachim; Becker, Thomas


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the activities of the I.G. Farben laboratory at the former "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" Günzburg. This laboratory was established to test the newly developed epilepsy drug "Citrullamon" and its derivatives. Specifically, the type and manner of the various experiments were examined to determine whether the suspicions of unethical human experimentation could be identified. The commercial and medical activities between I.G. Farben and the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt, including the specific roles of the senior physician Wilhelm Leinisch and the I.G. Farben chemist Arno Grosse, are reviewed. PMID:26536788

  5. Henri Becquerel: serendipitous brilliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio


    Serendipity has always been an attendant to great science. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the cosmic background radiation after first mistaking it for the effect of pigeon droppings on their microwave antenna. US spy satellites detected gamma-ray bursts when surveying the sky for evidence of secret Soviet nuclear tests during the Cold War. Satyendra Bose arrived at Bose-Einstein statistics only after discovering that a mathematical error explained the experimental data concerning the photoelectric effect. In the words of science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov, "The most exciting phrase in science is not 'Eureka!', but rather, 'That's funny...'.

  6. The Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures: Ongoing Institutional Cooperation for Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.


    For the last 15 years (with one year off for good behavior), four astronomical institutions in the San Francisco Bay Area have cooperated to produce a major evening public-lecture series on astronomy and space science topics. Co-sponsored by Foothill College's Astronomy Program, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the SETI Institute, and NASA Ames Research Center, the six annual Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures have drawn audiences ranging from 450 to 950 people, and represent a significant opportunity to get information about modern astronomical research out to the public. Past speakers have included Nobel Laureate Arno Penzias, Vera Rubin, Frank Drake, Sandra Faber, and other distinguished scientists.

  7. Integration of conventional GIS-based techniques and remote sensing analysis to landslide risk assessment at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agili, F.; Bartolomei, A.; Casagli, N.; Catani, F.; Ermini, L.; Farina, P.; Kukavicic, M.; Mirannalti, M.; Moretti, S.; Righini, G.


    This note concerns the preliminary results gathered in a research project aimed at landslide risk assessment in the Arno River basin (9000 km^2). The project, sponsored by the Basin Authority of the Arno River, started in the year 2002 and it will finish in the 2004. The objective of such a project consists of the updating of the landslide risk cartography related to the PAI document (Piano Assetto Idrogeologico) with reference to the Italian Law 267/1998. Different types of products will be generated: the updating of the existing inventory maps and the definition and application of a methodology for landslide hazard and risk mapping. Conventional methods, such as aerial-photo interpretation and field surveys are coupled with the use of different remote sensing methods, and all the data are integrated within a GIS environment. The analysis of remote sensing data regards both optical and radar images. In particular for the analysis of optical data, panchromatic and multispectral Landsat images are used in order to update the Corine standard land cover maps. In addition high resolution images (Ikonos and Quickbird), acquired in stereoscopic configuration, are analysed for integrating the aerial-photo intepretation. Differential SAR interferometry, implemented by using ERS and JERS data, is used in order to detect new mass movements, not yet observed and to evaluate the state of activity of known phenomena. Such data represent the base needed to produce the final landslide risk cartography.

  8. Arf6 coordinates actin assembly through the WAVE complex, a mechanism usurped by Salmonella to invade host cells

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C.; Hume, Peter J.; Makin, Laura E.; Koronakis, Vassilis


    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1–WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway. PMID:24085844

  9. Inhibition of cell migration by PITENINs: the role of ARF6

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Benchun; Skidan, Igor; Yang, Jinsheng; You, Zerong; Fu, Xueyan; Famulok, Michael; Schaffhausen, Brian; Torchilin, Vladimir; Yuan, Junying; Degterev, Alexei


    We have previously reported the development of small molecule phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) antagonists (PITs) that block pleckstrin homology (PH) domain interaction, including activation of Akt, and show anti-tumor potential. Here we show that the same molecules inhibit growth factor-induced actin remodeling, lamellipodia formation and, ultimately, cell migration and invasion, consistent with an important role of PIP3 in these processes. In vivo, a PIT-1 analog displays significant inhibition on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) was recently identified as an important mediator of cytoskeleton and cell motility, which is regulated by PIP3-dependent membrane translocation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) such as ADP-ribosylation factor nucleotide binding-site opener (ARNO) and general receptor for 3-phosphoinositides (GRP1). We demonstrate that PITs inhibit PIP3/ARNO or GRP1 PH domain binding and membrane localization, resulting in the inhibition of ARF6 activation. Importantly, we show that expression of the constitutively active mutant of Arf6 attenuates inhibition of lamellipodia formation and cell migration by PITs, confirming that inhibition of Arf6 contributes to inhibition of these processes by PITs. Overall, our studies demonstrate the feasibility of developing specific small molecule targeting PIP3 binding by PH domains as potential anti-cancer agents that can simultaneously interfere with cancer development at multiple points. PMID:22179837

  10. Biogeography of marine podocopid ostracodes in Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weissleader, L.S.; Gilinsky, N.L.; Ross, R.M.; Cronin, T. M.


    Bottom lagoonal sediment samples from 12 islands and atolls yielded >70 species representing >32 ostracode genera. All or most samples from a particular lagoon generally form distinct subgroups (Jaccard =0.45-0.50). At lower levels, 5 groups delineate faunal regions within Micronesia: the Gilbert Islands (Onotoa) in the SE part of the region, the N Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Rongelap, Bikini), the SE Marshall Islands (Kwajalein, Jaluit, Majuro, Arno), the Marianas and Caroline Islands (Guam, Truk, Pohnpei) and Pingelap. Pingelap, Kwajalein and Onotoa have the highest species richness (S=32-42) and Shannon-Wiener diversity values (H(S)=2.62-3.02) in the study area. Enewetak, Jaluit, Majuro and Arno show lower values (S=23-27, H(S)=2.29-2.70). Of the ostracode species living in Micronesia, 64.3% have Indo-West Pacific affinities, 7.1% are circumtropical, 5.7% have East Pacific-Caribbean affinities, 11.4% are endemic to Micronesia, and 11.4% have unknown affinities. If the SE Asian region is a primary species-source, results show that each Micronesian lagoon is equally likely to be colonized by dispersal from the source region, despite differences in distance from a hypothetical source. However, each lagoon has a distinct ostracode assemblage, probably the result of unique history of random colonization events, local extinctions and environmental disturbances. -from Authors

  11. Discovering CO and other Interstellar Molecules with the NRAO 36 Foot Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. W.


    Bell Labs was an early developer of millimeter-wave technology. In the 60's there was a big push to develop a millimeter wave long-distance communications system to do what ultimately fiber optics has accomplished. As part of this system, Charles Burrus at Crawford Hill developed millimeter-wave receivers by making Schottky-barrier diodes using modern photolithography. Arno Penzias and I recognized that these had a potential use in radio astronomy and with Ken Kellermann proposed to build a receiver with them for use on the then-new 36 foot antenna. Unfortunately this attempt was premature and not successful. In 1970 Arno, Keith Jefferts, and I---with much help from Sandy Weinreb---put together a spectral-line receiver. This was done with the hope of detecting rotational transitions of simple molecules in interstellar space. Since, at the time, only a few people (like Phil Solomon) had any idea that molecular clouds existed, we prepared to detect a weak signal. Our backup strategy, suggested by Pat Thaddeus, was to look for CN, which had been known to exist since the late 1930s. If neither line had been detected, we would have observed the H38α recombination line which is close in frequency to the CO J=1-0 line. As we all know now, however, the signal from carbon monoxide (and even its less abundant isotopes) was remarkably strong. Such measurements have since transformed our ideas of star formation.

  12. Arf6 coordinates actin assembly through the WAVE complex, a mechanism usurped by Salmonella to invade host cells.


    Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C; Hume, Peter J; Makin, Laura E; Koronakis, Vassilis


    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1-WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway.

  13. Aerobic biotransformation of 2,4-dinitroanisole in soil and soil Bacillus sp.


    Perreault, Nancy N; Manno, Dominic; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal


    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is a low sensitive melt-cast chemical being tested by the Military Industry as a replacement for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosive formulations. Little is known about the fate of DNAN and its transformation products in the natural environment. Here we report aerobic biotransformation of DNAN in artificially contaminated soil microcosms. DNAN was completely transformed in 8 days in soil slurries supplemented with carbon and nitrogen sources. DNAN was completely transformed in 34 days in slurries supplemented with carbons alone and persisted in unamended microcosms. A strain of Bacillus (named 13G) that transformed DNAN by co-metabolism was isolated from the soil. HPLC and LC-MS analyses of cell-free and resting cell assays of Bacillus 13G with DNAN showed the formation of 2-amino-4-nitroanisole as the major end-product via the intermediary formation of the arylnitroso (ArNO) and arylhydroxylamino (ArNHOH) derivatives, indicating regioselective reduction of the ortho-nitro group. A series of secondary reactions involving ArNO and ArNHOH gave the corresponding azoxy- and azo-dimers. Acetylated and demethylated products were identified. Overall, this paper provides the evidence of fast DNAN transformation by the indigenous microbial populations of an amended soil with no history of contamination with explosives and a first insight into the aerobic metabolism of DNAN by the soil isolate Bacillus 13G.

  14. Fire history of southeastern Glacier National Park: Missouri River Drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Stephen W.


    In 1982, Glacier National Park (GNP) initiated long-term studies to document the fire history of all forested lands in the 410,000 ha. park. To date, studies have been conducted for GNP west of the Continental Divide (Barrett et al. 1991), roughly half of the total park area. These and other fire history studies in the Northern Rockies (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Arno 1980, Romme 1982, Romme and Despain 1989, Barrett and Arno 1991, Barrett 1993a, Barrett 1993b) have shown that fire history data can be an integral element of fire management planning, particularly wen natiral fire plans are being developed for parks and wilderness. The value of site specific fire history data is apparent when considering study results for lodgepole pin (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests. Lodgepole pine is a major subalpine type in the Northern Rockies and such stands experiences a wide range of presettlement fire patterns. On relatively warm-dry sites at lower elevations, such as in GNP's North Fork drainage (Barrett et al. 1991), short to moderately long interval (25-150 yr) fires occurred in a mixed severity pattern ranging from non-lethal underburns to total stand replacement (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Barrett and Arno 1991). Markedly different fire history occurred at high elevation lodgepole pine stands on highly unproductive sites, such as on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) subalpine plateau. Romme (1982) found that, on some sites, stand replacing fires recurred after very long intervals (300-400 yr), and that non-lethal surface fires were rare. For somewhat more productive sites in the Absaroka Mountains in YNP, Barrett (1993a) estimated a 200 year mean replacement interval, in a pattern similar to that found in steep mountain terrain elsewhere, such as in the Middle Fork Flathead River drainage (Barrett et al. 1991, Sneck 1977). Aside from post-1900 written records (ayres 1900; fire atlas data on file, GNP Archives Div. and GNP Resources Mgt. Div.), little fire history

  15. Drought and water scarcity indicators: experience and operational applications in italian basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Bernardo; Checcucci, Gaia; Monacelli, Giuseppina; Puma, Francesco; Vezzani, Claudia


    In the framework of River Basin Managment Plans (RBMPs), according to the Water Framework Directive, prevention and mitigation of water scarcity and droughts are some of the most challenging tasks. In the last ten years Italy experienced the highest ever observed frequency of occurrence of drought/water scarcity events. As an example, the damages for the latest, country-wide drought event of summer 2012 exceeded one billion euros. On the other hand, according to the more recent reports on the risks of extreme events, there is evidence, providing a basis for medium confidence, that droughts will intensify over the coming century in southern Europe and in the Mediterranean region (IPCC 2012). Monitoring actions are necessary and extremely effective to "feel the pulse of the situation" about both natural availability and anthropic use of freshwater resources. In this context, referring to the Programmes of Measures of RBMPs, italian River Basin Authorities (RBA) are tackling the issue at different spatial scales, planning an operational use of different indicators, between theme the Water Exploitation Index (EEA, 2009) and some statistical indicators. In this context, Po and Arno River Basin authorities, with the support of ISPRA, are directly involved in the experimental application of some significant indicators combining climatic, hydrological and anthropic factors affecting water availability. Planning and operational experiences for the two main basins (Po and Arno) and for a list of smaller scale subbasins are presented, with a detailed description of data needs, range of application, spatial and temporal scale issues, and threshold definition. For each indicator, a critical analysis of strenghts and weaknesses (at data and response level) is reported, with particular regard to the feasibility of its use within water management and water planning actions at the river basin and district scale. Tests were carried out for the whole Po River and Northern Appennines

  16. Galileo's Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry


    Most visitors to Florence, Italy, know about the Galleria dell'Accademia, housing Michelangelo's famous statue of David, or the Galleria degli Uffizi with the famous Medici collection. Few visitors know that only two blocks from the Uffizi on the Arno River is one of the world's finest museums featuring historic scientific instruments, the Museo di Storia della Scienza. In the February issue of TPT, Nickell states that the Museo di Storia della Scienza ``is perhaps the best museum on the history of science in the world.''1 This fact is likely true, and the museum is a must for physics teachers visiting Florence. It features a vast collection of authentic ``cutting-edge'' scientific instruments, including one of Galileo's lenses in a magnificent ebony and ivory frame. One of the tragedies is that this museum goes unmarked on many tourist maps and unmentioned in many guidebooks.

  17. Improvement of operational flood forecasting through the assimilation of satellite observations and multiple river flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Fabio; Ercolani, Giulia


    Data assimilation has the potential to improve flood forecasting. However, it is rarely employed in distributed hydrologic models for operational predictions. In this study, we present variational assimilation of river flow data at multiple locations and of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite in a distributed hydrologic model that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, in central Italy. LST is used to estimate initial condition of soil moisture through a coupled surface energy/water balance scheme. We present here several hindcast experiments to assess the performances of the assimilation system. The results show that assimilation can significantly improve flood forecasting, although in the limit of data error and model structure.

  18. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  19. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.


    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  20. Communications: When diffraction rules the stereodynamics of rotationally inelastic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Jambrina, Pablo G.; de Miranda, Marcelo P.; Friedrich, Bretislav


    Following upon our recent work on vector correlations in the Ar-NO collisions [Lemeshko and Friedrich, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 1038 (2010)], we compare model results with close-coupling calculations for a range of channels and collision energies for the He-NO system. The striking agreement between the model and exact polarization moments indicates that the stereodynamics of rotationally inelastic atom-molecule collisions at thermal energies is governed by diffraction of matter waves from a two-dimensional repulsive core of the atom-molecule potential. Furthermore, the model polarization moments characterizing the He-NO, He-O2, He-OH, and He-CaH stereodynamics are found to coalesce into a single, distinctive pattern, which can serve as a "fingerprint" to identify diffraction-driven stereodynamics in future work.

  1. Finding the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. James E.; Page, Lyman A., Jr.; Partridge, R. Bruce


    1. Introduction; 2. A guide to modern cosmology; 3. Origins of the cosmology of the 1960s; 4. Recollections of the 1960s Dave Hogg, Neville Woolf, George B. Field, Patrick Thaddeus, Donald E. Osterbrock, Yuri Nikolaevich Smirnov, Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov, Andrei Georgievich Doroshkevich, Rashid Alievich Sunyaev, Malcolm S. Longair, Arno Penzias, Robert W. Wilson, Bernard F. Burke, Kenneth C. Turner, P. James E. Peebles, David T. Wilkinson, Peter G. Roll, R. Bruce Partridge, Malcolm S. Longair, John Faulkner, Robert V. Wagoner, Martin Rees, Geoffrey R. Burbidge, Jayant V. Narlikar, David Layzer, Michele Kaufman, Jasper V. Wall, John Shakeshaft, William Welch, Kazimir S. Stankevich, Paul Boynton, Robert A. Stokes, Martin Harwit, Judith L. Pipher, Kandiah Shivanandan, Rainer Weiss, Jer-tsang Yu, Rainer K. Sachs, Arthur M. Wolfe, Joe Silk, George F. R. Ellis, Ronald N. Bracewell, Edward K. Conklin, Stephen Boughn, Karl C. Davis, Paul S. Henry; 5. Cosmology and the CMBR since the 1960s Dick Bond; Appendixes; Glossary; References; Index.

  2. High Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Carrying Heat-Stable-Enterotoxin-Encoding Genes among Vibrio Isolates from a Temperate-Climate River Basin of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Caldini, G.; Neri, A.; Cresti, S.; Boddi, V.; Rossolini, G. M.; Lanciotti, E.


    Vibrio spp. of clinical interest from the Arno River basin (Tuscany, Italy) were investigated in this study. Vibrios were isolated from 70% of water samples. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was the most prevalent species (82% of isolates), followed by Vibrio mimicus (10%) and Vibrio metschnikovii (8%). Recovery of vibrios was correlated with temperature, pH, and various indicators of municipal pollution. None of the 150 Vibrio isolates carried ctx-related genomic sequences, whereas 18 (14.6%) of the 123 V. cholerae non-O1 isolates and 1 (6.7%) of the 15 V. mimicus isolates carried sto alleles. These findings indicate that considerable circulation of sto-positive vibrios may occur in temperate-climate freshwater environments. PMID:16535661

  3. Rapid identification and fingerprinting of Candida krusei by PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic sequence CKRS-1.

    PubMed Central

    Carlotti, A; Chaib, F; Couble, A; Bourgeois, N; Blanchard, V; Villard, J


    A PCR method was developed to identify and fingerprint Candida krusei isolates simply and rapidly. The primer pair Arno1 and Arno2 was designed to amplify the polymorphic species-specific repetitive sequence CKRS-1 (C. krusei repeated sequence 1) that we identified in the nontranscribed intergenic regions (IGRs) of rRNA genes in C. krusei LMCK31. The specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and fingerprinting ability of the PCR assay were evaluated. Amplification products were obtained from all 131 C. krusei isolates studied. No other yeast species of medical importance (n = 26), including species similar to C. krusei, species of pathogenic filamentous fungi, or a variety of pathogenic bacteria, yielded a PCR product with these primers. This PCR assay allowed for the identification of C. krusei in less than 6 h. The PCR assay was sensitive enough to detect as little as 10 to 100 fg of C. krusei-purified DNA and proved to be reproducible. Since amplification products varied both in number and in molecular weight according to the strains, PCR patterns allowed strains to be distinguished. To ascertain the epidemiological usefulness of this PCR fingerprinting, the patterns of the 131 isolates were compared. A total of 95 types which corresponded to 95 independent strains were delineated (discriminatory power = 1 with n = 95). Comparison of the results of PCR fingerprinting and those of fingerprinting with the CkF1,2 probe showed that they concurred. In addition, this work yields insights into the mechanisms involved in generating polymorphisms in the IGRs of C. krusei. Since this method is simpler and faster than established identification and genotyping methods of this important pathogenic species, it is a critical improvement for clinical microbiology laboratories relevant not only to diagnosis but also to epidemiology. PMID:9163440

  4. Quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment from long-term space-borne InSAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Catani, F.; Casagli, N.; Li, R.


    Preparing reliable landslide hazard and risk maps is an essential part for landslide studies and nowadays many approaches have been developed for quantitative hazard and risk assessment. However, very few of these hazard and risk maps was reported updated after their first generation. In this study, aiming at a continuous update of landslide hazard and risk maps, a novel approach for quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment was developed, chiefly based on long-term satellite InSAR products - Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) point targets. The study was performed in the Arno river basin (central Italy) where most of mass movements are slow-moving landslides which are properly within the detection precision of PSI point targets. In the Arno river basin, the initial hazard and risk assessment were performed by Catani et al. (2005) using all datasets before 2001 whereas in this study the previous hazard and risk maps were updated using PSI point targets processed from 4 years (2003-2006) of RADARSAT images. Those PSI point targets were then used to generate a landslide hotspot map through PSI Hotspot and Clustering Analysis (PSI-HCA). Landslide hazard and risk maps for five temporal predictions of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 years were produced based on this landslide hotspot map with the exposure of losses estimated in euro. In particular, the result indicates that a potential loss of approximate 3.22 billion euro were expected in the upcoming 30 years due to these slow-moving landslides detected by PSI point targets.

  5. Influence of Holocene stratigraphic architecture on ground surface settlements: A case study from the City of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro


    The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of

  6. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  7. N-terminal domain of the V-ATPase a2-subunit displays integral membrane protein properties.


    Merkulova, Maria; McKee, Mary; Dip, Phat Vinh; Grüber, Gerhard; Marshansky, Vladimir


    V-ATPase is a multisubunit membrane complex that functions as nanomotor coupling ATP hydrolysis with proton translocation across biological membranes. Recently, we uncovered details of the mechanism of interaction between the N-terminal tail of the V-ATPase a2-subunit isoform (a2N(1-402)) and ARNO, a GTP/GDP exchange factor for Arf-family small GTPases. Here, we describe the development of two methods for preparation of the a2N(1-402) recombinant protein in milligram quantities sufficient for further biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies. We found two alternative amphiphilic chemicals that were required for protein stability and solubility during purification: (i) non-detergent sulfobetaine NDSB-256 and (ii) zwitterionic detergent FOS-CHOLINE®12 (FC-12). Moreover, the other factors including mild alkaline pH, the presence of reducing agents and the absence of salt were beneficial for stabilization and solubilization of the protein. A preparation of a2N(1-402) in NDSB-256 was successfully used in pull-down and BIAcore™ protein-protein interaction experiments with ARNO, whereas the purity and quality of the second preparation in FC-12 was validated by size-exclusion chromatography and CD spectroscopy. Surprisingly, the detergent requirement for stabilization and solubilization of a2N(1-402) and its cosedimentation with liposomes were different from peripheral domains of other transmembrane proteins. Thus, our data suggest that in contrast to current models, so called "cytosolic" tail of the a2-subunit might actually be embedded into and/or closely associated with membrane phospholipids even in the absence of any obvious predicted transmembrane segments. We propose that a2N(1-402) should be categorized as an integral monotopic domain of the a2-subunit isoform of the V-ATPase.

  8. Redox noninnocence of nitrosoarene ligands in transition metal complexes.


    Tomson, Neil C; Labios, Liezel A; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Figueroa, Joshua S; Wieghardt, Karl


    Studies on the coordination of nitrosoarene (ArNO) ligands to late-transition metals are used to provide the first definition of the geometric, spectroscopic, and computational parameters associated with a PhNO electron-transfer series. Experimentally, the Pd complexes PdCl(2)(PhNO)(2), PdL(2)(PhNO)(2), and PdL(2)(TolNO) (L = CNAr(Dipp2); Ar(Dipp2) = 2,6-(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))(2)-C(6)H(3)) are characterized as containing (PhNO)(0), (PhNO)(•1-), and (TolNO)(2-) ligands, respectively, and the structural and spectroscopic changes associated with this electron transfer series provide the basis for an extensive computational study of these and related ArNO-containing late-transition metal complexes. Most notable from the results is the unambiguous characterization of the ground state electronic structure of PdL(2)(PhNO)(2), found to be the first isolable, transition metal ion complex containing an η(1)-N-bound π-nitrosoarene radical anion. In addition to the electron transfer series, the synthesis and characterization of the Fe complex [Fe(TIM)(NCCH(3))(PhNO)][(PF(6))(2)] (TIM = 2,3,9,10-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-1,3,8,10-tetraene) allows for comparison of the geometric and spectroscopic features associated with metal-to-ligand π-backbonding as opposed to (PhNO)(•1-) formation. Throughout these series of complexes, the N-O, M-N, and C-N bond distances as well as the N-O stretching frequencies and the planarity of the ArNO ligands provided distinct parameters for each ligand oxidation state. Together, these data provide a delineation of the factors needed for evaluating the oxidation state of nitrosoarene ligands bound to transition metals in varying coordination modes.

  9. Integration of Permanent Scatterers Analysis and High Resolution Optical Images within Landslide Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, P.; Colombo, D.; Fumagalli, A.; Gontier, E.; Moretti, S.


    In the framework of the on-going SLAM project (Service for Landslide Monitoring), funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) the Permanent Scatterers processing and the analysis of high resolution images (e.g. SPOT5) have been performed at a basin scale, on the whole territory of the Arno River basin (Central Italy). The project aims at the development of a service based on the integration of EO-data within the current practices used for landslide risk management. The studied area, with a spatial extension of about 9,000 km2, has been chosen for the presence of a high number of mass movements (up today about 20,000 landslides have been mapped and 300 of them have been classified as at high risk from the institutional authorities) and for its significance, in terms of landslide typology and environmental conditions, with respect to the Italian Apennine territory. By considering the technical requirements imposed by the Italian legislation for the documents related to landslide risk management, three products based on EO- data have been defined related to landslide inventory mapping, landslide hazard mapping and landslide monitoring. To this aim, about 350 SAR images have been interferometrically processed by means of the PS technique, detecting about 600,000 PS. The processing of SPOT5 images and aerial-photos, still in progress, have been performed for the extraction of features related to the landslide presence, useful for the geomorphological analysis and, as a consequence in order to give a spatial meaning to the punctual information provided by the PS. This procedure has been coupled with a intense geological interpretation phase characterized by the analysis of traditional in situ monitoring data, ancillary data and the performing of field surveys. The results of the above described methodologies will impact on the current documents used by the Arno Basin Authority for the landslide risk management (e.g. P.A.I., Piano di Assetto Idrogeologico) creating a case

  10. Variational assimilation of land surface temperature observations for enhanced river flow predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio


    Data assimilation (DA) has the potential of improving hydrologic forecasts. However, many issues arise in case it is employed for spatially distributed hydrologic models that describes processes in various compartments: large dimensionality of the inverse problem, layers governed by different equations, non-linear and discontinuous model structure, complex topology of domains such as surface drainage and river network.On the other hand, integrated models offer the possibility of improving prediction of specific states by exploiting observations of quantities belonging to other compartments. In terms of forecasting river discharges, and hence for their enhancement, soil moisture is a key variable, since it determines the partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and surface runoff. However, soil moisture measurements are affected by issues that could prevent a successful DA and an actual improvement of discharge predictions.In-situ measurements suffer a dramatic spatial scarcity, while observations from satellite are barely accurate and provide spatial information only at a very coarse scale (around 40 km).Hydrologic models that explicitly represent land surface processes of coupled water and energy balance provide a valid alternative to direct DA of soil moisture.They gives the possibility of inferring soil moisture states through DA of remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST), whose measurements are more accurate and with a higher spatial resolution in respect to those of soil moisture. In this work we present the assimilation of LST data in a hydrologic model (Mobidic) that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, central Italy, with the aim of improving flood predictions. Mobidic is a raster based, continuous in time and distributed in space hydrologic model, with coupled mass and energy balance at the surface and coupled groundwater and surface hydrology. The variational approach is adopted for DA, since it requires less

  11. Assimilation of multiple river flow data for enhanced operational flood forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio


    Data assimilation (DA) is widely recognized as a powerful tool to improve flood forecasts, and the need for an effective transition of research advances into operational forecasting systems has been increasingly claimed in recent years. Nevertheless, the majority of studies investigates DA capabilities through synthetic experiments, while applications conducted from an operational perspective are rare. In this work we present variational assimilation of discharge data at multiple locations in a distributed hydrologic model (Mobidic) that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, in central Italy.The variational approach needs the derivation of an adjoint model, that is challenging for hydrologic models, but it requires less restrictive hypothesis than Kalman and Monte Carlo filters and smoothers. The developed assimilation system adjusts on a distributed basis initial condition of discharge, initial condition of soil moisture and a parameter representing the frequency of no-rainfall in a time step. The correction evaluated at discharge measurement stations spreads upstream thanks to the coupling between equations of flow channel routing, that results into the coupling between equations of the adjoint model. Sequential assimilations are realized on windows of 6 hours. We extensively examine the performances of the DA system through several hindcast experiments that mimic operational conditions. The case studies include both flood events and false alarms that occurred in the period 2009-2010 in the Arno river basin (about 8230 km2).The hydrologic model is run with the spatial and temporal resolutions that are employed operationally, i.e. 500 m and 15 minutes.The enhancement in discharge forecasts is evaluated through classical performance indexes as error on peak flow and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, with strong emphasis on the dependence on lead time. In addition, uncertainty of the estimations is assessed using the Hessian of the cost function

  12. Investigation on rainfall extremes events trough a geoadditive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocci, C.; Caporali, E.; Petrucci, A.; Rossi, G.


    Rainfall can be considered a very important variable, and rainfall extreme events analysis of great concern for the enormous impacts that they may have on everyday life particularly when related to intense rainfalls and floods, and hydraulic risk management. On the catchment area of Arno River in Tuscany, Central Italy, a geoadditive mixed model of rainfall extremes is developed. Most of the territory of Arno River has suffered in the past of many severe hydro-geological events, with high levels of risk due to the vulnerability of a unique artistic and cultural heritage. The area has a complex topography that greatly influences the precipitation regime. The dataset is composed by the time series of the annual maxima of daily rainfall recorded in about 400 rain gauges, spatially distributed over the catchment area of about 8.800 km2. The record period covers mainly the second half of 20th century. The rainfall observations are assumed to follow generalized extreme value distributions whose locations are spatially dependent and where the dependence is captured using a geoadditive model. In particular, since rainfall has a natural spatial domain and a significant spatial variability, a spatial hierarchical model for extremes is used. The spatial hierarchical models, in fact, take into account data from all locations, borrowing strength from neighbouring locations when they estimate parameters and are of great interest when small set of data is available, as in the case of rainfall extreme values. Together with rain gauges location variables further physiographic variables are investigated as explanation variables. The implemented geoadditive mixed model of spatially referenced time series of rainfall extreme values, is able to capture the spatial dynamics of the rainfall extreme phenomenon. Since the model shows evidence of a spatial trend in the rainfall extreme dynamic, the temporal dynamic and the time influence can be also taken into account. The implemented

  13. Hydrogeological study of the intensely exploited aquifer of the Santa Croce leather-producing district, Tuscany (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Sergio; Doveri, Marco; Cortecci, Gianni; Amadori, Michele


    A hydrogeological study was undertaken to define the groundwater circulation in the Santa Croce area (Tuscany, central Italy) where the existing multilayered aquifer has long been intensively exploited. Investigations carried out on about 150 wells revealed the existence of a deep piezometric depression (to 20 m below sea level) which drains groundwater from the entire surrounding area. Samples from about 70 water points, collected twice in 2007, were analysed for major elements and stable isotope composition. Three major groups of waters, which mix in the study area, have been distinguished: (1) waters of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type mainly flowing along the Arno River Plain; (2) waters of the Na-K-Cl/Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, type with SO4 content up to 275 mg/L, inflowing from the Pisane Hills; (3) relatively high-salinity waters mainly of the Na-HCO3 type which, with Cl concentrations up to 750 mg/L, likely arise from a normal fault located at the foot of the northern hills. The characteristics of the different components are greatly affected by significant modifying processes such as cation exchange and sulfate reduction. The achieved conceptual model suggests the southern hills as the main recharging area of the aquifer system from which water circulation, characterized by pathways of different length and depth, develops.

  14. Structural Basis and Mechanism of Autoregulation in 3-Phosphoionsitide-Dependent Grp1 Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    SciTech Connect

    DiNitto,J.; Delprato, A.; Lee, M.; Cronin, T.; Huang, S.; Guilherme, A.; Czech, M.; Lambright, D.


    Arf GTPases regulate membrane trafficking and actin dynamics. Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1 comprise a family of phosphoinositide-dependent Arf GTPase exchange factors with a Sec7-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain tandem. Here, we report that the exchange activity of the Sec7 domain is potently autoinhibited by conserved elements proximal to the PH domain. The crystal structure of the Grp1 Sec7-PH tandem reveals a pseudosubstrate mechanism of autoinhibition in which the linker region between domains and a C-terminal amphipathic helix physically block the docking sites for the switch regions of Arf GTPases. Mutations within either element result in partial or complete activation. Critical determinants of autoinhibition also contribute to insulin-stimulated plasma membrane recruitment. Autoinhibition can be largely reversed by binding of active Arf6 to Grp1 and by phosphorylation of tandem PKC sites in Cytohesin-1. These observations suggest that Grp1 family GEFs are autoregulated by mechanisms that depend on plasma membrane recruitment for activation.

  15. Integrability of N=6 Chern-Simons theory at six loops and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu; Min, Hyunsoo; Rey, Soo-Jong


    We study issues concerning perturbative integrability of N=6 Chern-Simons theory at planar and weak 't Hooft coupling regime. By Feynman diagrammatics, we derive so-called maximal-ranged interactions in the quantum dilatation generator, originating from homogeneous and inhomogeneous diagrams. The dilatation operator requires proper regularization of ultraviolet and infrared divergences and also bears scheme dependence depending on operator-mixing or two-point function methods adopted. We first consider the standard operator-mixing method. We show that homogeneous diagrams are obtainable by recursive method to all orders. The method, however, is not easily extendable to inhomogeneous diagrams. We thus consider two-point function method and study both operator contents and the spectrum of the quantum dilatation generator up to six-loop orders. Within this scheme, we show that, of two possible classes of operators, only one linear combination actually contributes. Curiously, this is exactly the same combination as in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. From these operators, we extract a spectrum of anomalous dimension up to six loops. We find that the spectrum agrees perfectly with the prediction based on quantum integrability. In evaluating the six-loop diagrams, we utilized a remarkable integer-relation algorithm developed by Ferguson, Baily, and Arno.

  16. A review on the Late Villafranchian medium-sized canid Canis arnensis based on the evidence from Poggio Rosso (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini Lucenti, Saverio; Rook, Lorenzo


    The fossil canid material recovered from the Early Pleistocene site of Poggio Rosso offers the opportunity to revise the taxonomical status of the Arno River dog, Canis arnensis. To date, the identification of this species is still a matter of debate due, on the one hand, to the poor state of preservation of the type specimens, and on the other hand to the lack of homogeneous descriptions and a clear diagnosis. The fossils recovered from Poggio Rosso show a good state of preservation with little (if any) plastic deformation, allowing re-evaluation of the dental and cranial characters typical of this species, as well as the proposal, for the first time, of a precise and specific diagnosis. The anatomical and morphometric features of C. arnensis exclude a close taxonomical relationship with the coeval Canis etruscus, suggesting instead a closer affinity to modern canids. The C. arnensis arrived in Italy around 1.9 Ma as the result of a dispersal event, and Poggio Rosso is the first Italian site recording the occurrence of this species. The dispersal of C. arnensis represents the arrival of the first modern canids in Europe and is therefore a significantly important biochronological event in European faunal assemblages.

  17. Physical interpretation and sensitivity analysis of the TOPMODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Marco; Wendling, Jacques; Obled, Charles; Todini, Ezio


    The TOPMODEL is a variable contributing area conceptual model in which the predominant factors determining the formation of runoff are represented by the topography of the basin and a negative exponential law linking the transmissivity of the soil with the distance to the saturated zone below the ground level. Although conceptual, this model is frequently described as a 'physically based model' in the sense that its parameters can be measured directly in situ. In line with the analysis of various conceptual rainfall-runoff models conducted by Franchini and Pacciani ( J. Hydrol., 122: 161-219, 1991), a detailed analysis of the TOPMODEL is performed to arrive at a closer understanding of the correspondence of the assumptions underpinning the model with the physical reality and, in particular, the role that topographic information (expressed by the topographic index curve) and the nature of the soil (expressed by saturated hydraulic conductivity and its decay with soil depth), have within the model itself. Also investigated is the extent to which the model parameters actually reflect the physical properties to which they refer and how far their values offset the inevitable schematisation of the model. The various applications to real situations include the Sieve basin (river Arno tributary), which was used for the comparison of conceptual rainfall-runoff models described in the above-mentioned study by Franchini and Paccini. This allows that analysis to be extended to the TOPMODEL.

  18. Spatial relationship between landslide occurrence and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.


    Landslide represents a major type of natural hazards. It may leave great threat to human lives as well as infrastructures. In this study, we tried to understand the spatial relationship between landslide occurrences and land cover types through spatial statistics. The approach was based on the bivariate K-functions which can be used to analyze whether there is spatial clustering, repelling or randomness for landslide occurring in areas within different land covers. The Arno River basin in central Italy was chosen as the study area because the landslide inventory is complete with acquired records of more than 27,000 events. According to the inventory, we divided landslides into four classifications according to their types: slides, sofluctions, falls and flows. The land cover data was derived from the CORINE Land Cover map. The land cover types of artificial lands, natural and forest areas, and agriculture lands were focused on. The results indicate that landslides tend to occur in a clustering way within both three land covers. The difference is from the clustering level and spatial dependence distance. Therefore, no evidence can be found that the spatial pattern of landslide occurrence is dependent on changes of land covers.

  19. Microwave Spectroscopy and Internal Dynamics of the Ne-NO2 Van Der Waals Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brian J.; Economides, George; Dyer, Lee


    The rotational spectrum of the open-shell complex Ne-NO2 in the 6 - 18 GHz region is reported. Both fine and hyperfine structure are observed. However, the spectrum does not fit a semi-rigid model as well as the related species Ar-NO2, Kr-NO2 and Xe-NO2. This is almost certainly a result of the "floppy" nature of this species. In order to model the dynamics of the complex and to reproduce the observed spectrum, we have obtained an accurate intermolecular potential surface using the RCCSD(T) method and aug-cc-pV(D/T)Z basis sets (extrapolated to the complete basis set limit). Full quantum dynamics calculations were then performed on this surface to give the rotational energy levels and the effective fine and hyperfine structure constants. R.J. Low, M.D. Brooks, C.J. Whitham and B.J. Howard J. Chem. Phys., 105, 6756 (1996) S. Blanco, C.J. Whitham, H. Qian and B.J. Howard, PCCP., 3, 3895 (2001). C.J. Whitham, R.J. Low and B.J. Howard, Chem. Phys. Lett., 286, 408 (1998).

  20. Using unsteady-state water level data to estimate channel roughness and discharge hydrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, Costanza; Nasello, Carmelo; Tucciarelli, Tullio


    A novel methodology for simultaneous discharge and channel roughness estimation is developed and applied to data sets available at three experimental sites. The methodology is based on the synchronous measurement of water level data in two river sections far some kilometers from each other, as well as on the use of a diffusive flow routing solver and does not require any direct velocity measurement. The methodology is first analyzed for the simplest case of a channel with a large slope, where the kinematic assumption holds. A sensitivity and a model error analysis are carried out in this hypothesis in order to show the stability of the results with respect to the error in the input parameters in the case of homogeneous roughness and to analyze the effect of unknown roughness heterogeneity on the estimated discharges. The methodology is then extended to the more general case of channels with mild slope and validated using field data previously collected in three Italian rivers: the Arno (in Tuscany), the Tiber (in Latium) and the Vallo di Diana, a small tributary of the Tanagro river (in Southern Italy). The performance of the proposed algorithm has been investigated according to three performance criteria estimating the quality of the match between the measured and the computed stage and discharge hydrographs. Results of the field tests can be considered good, despite the uncertainties of the field data and of the measured values.



    Vitiello, Angelica; Fornaciari, Antonio; Giusiani, Sara; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina


    Exploration of the Medici chapels in San Lorenzo in Florence revealed the burials of nine infantile members of the Medici family. Eight children were found in the intact tomb of the last Grand Duke Giangastone (1671- 1737). The crypt contained several small coffins collapsed to the floor or randomly spread over a raised plank, as a result of the disastrous flood of the Arno river in 1966, which partly upset the tomb and left a layer of dry mould. The children's remains, mostly skeletonised, were found inside the coffins or scattered on the floor or on the plank, probably transported by the water. Another child was exhumed from the chapel of Grand Duke Ferdinand I (1549-1609) and Cristina from Lorena (1565-1636). The infantile remains were submitted to anthropological study, which allowed to establish the number of individuals buried in the crypt, and to estimate the age at death. The anthropological results were compared with information provided by archival documents, related to members of the family who died in infantile age. An identification of the children is proposed.

  2. A Hazard Assessment and Proposed Risk Index for Art, Architecture, Archive and Artifact Protection: Case Studies for Assorted International Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Clara J.

    This study proposes a hazard/risk index for environmental, technological, and social hazards that may threaten a museum or other place of cultural storage and accession. This index can be utilized and implemented to measure the risk at the locations of these storage facilities in relationship to their geologic, geographic, environmental, and social settings. A model case study of the 1966 flood of the Arno River and its impact on the city of Florence and the Uffizi Gallery was used as the index focus. From this focus an additional eleven museums and their related risk were assessed. Each index addressed a diverse range of hazards based on past frequency and magnitude. It was found that locations nearest a hazard had exceptionally high levels of risk, however more distant locations could have influences that would increase their risk to levels similar to those locations near the hazard. Locations not normally associated with a given natural hazard can be susceptible should the right conditions be met and this research identified, complied and assessed those factions found to influence natural hazard risk at these research sites.

  3. Ototoxicity and noise trauma: electron transfer, reactive oxygen species, cell signaling, electrical effects, and protection by antioxidants: practical medical aspects.


    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy


    Ototoxins are substances of various structures and classes. This review provides extensive evidence for involvement of electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) as a unifying theme. Successful application is made to the large majority of ototoxins, as well as noise trauma. We believe it is not coincidental that these toxins generally incorporate ET functionalities (quinone, metal complex, ArNO(2), or conjugated iminium) either per se or in metabolites, potentially giving rise to ROS by redox cycling. Some categories, e.g., peroxides and noise, appear to operate via non-ET routes in generating OS. These highly reactive entities can then inflict injury via OS upon various constituents of the ear apparatus. The theoretical framework is supported by the extensive literature on beneficial effects of antioxidants, both for toxins and noise. Involvement of cell signaling and electrical effects are discussed. This review is the first comprehensive one based on a unified mechanistic approach. Various practical medical aspects are also addressed. There is extensive documentation for beneficial effects of antioxidants whose use might be recommended clinically for prevention of ototoxicity and noise trauma. Recent research indicates that catalytic antioxidants may be more effective. In addition to ototoxicity, a widespread problem consists of ear infections by bacteria which are demonstrating increasing resistance to conventional therapies. A recent, novel approach to improved drugs involves use of agents which inhibit quorum sensors that play important roles in bacterial functioning. Prevention of ear injury by noise trauma is also discussed, along with ear therapeutics.

  4. A presynaptic role for the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor msec7-1.


    Ashery, U; Koch, H; Scheuss, V; Brose, N; Rettig, J


    ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) represent a family of small monomeric G proteins that switch from an inactive, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. One member of this family, ARF6, translocates on activation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and has been implicated in regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Because GDP release in vivo is rather slow, ARF activation is facilitated by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors like cytohesin-1 or ARNO. Here we show that msec7-1, a rat homologue of cytohesin-1, translocates ARF6 to the plasma membrane in living cells. Overexpression of msec7-1 leads to an increase in basal synaptic transmission at the Xenopus neuromuscular junction. msec7-1-containing synapses have a 5-fold higher frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents than control synapses. On stimulation, the amplitudes of the resulting evoked postsynaptic currents of msec7-1-overexpressing neurons are increased as well. However, further stimulation leads to a decline in amplitudes approaching the values of control synapses. This transient effect on amplitude is strongly reduced on overexpression of msec7-1E157K, a mutant incapable of translocating ARFs. Our results provide evidence that small G proteins of the ARF family and activating factors like msec7-1 play an important role in synaptic transmission, most likely by making more vesicles available for fusion at the plasma membrane.

  5. Seawater intrusion in the gravelly confined aquifer of the coastal Pisan Plain (Tuscany): hydrogeological and geochemical investigation to assess causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doveri, M.; Giannecchini, R.; Butteri, M.


    The gravelly horizon of the Pisa plain multilayered system is a confined aquifer tapped by a large number of wells. It hosts a very important water resource for drinking, industrial and irrigable uses, but may be affected by seawater intrusion coming from the coastal area; most wells is distributed inland, anyway a significant exploitation along the coastal area is also present to supply farms and tourist services. Previous hydrogeological and geochemical investigations carried out in coastal area stated maximum percentage of seawater in gravelly aquifer of about 7-9% and suggested the presence of two different mechanisms (Doveri et alii, 2010): i) a direct seawater intrusion from the zone where the gravelly aquifer is in contact with the sea floor; ii) a mixing process between freshwater and seawater, the latter deriving from the Arno river-shallow sandy aquifer system. Basing on these results, since January 2012 a new two-year project was financed by the MSRM Regional Park. Major aims are a better definition of such phenomena and their distribution on the territory, and an assessing of the seawater intrusion trend in relation to groundwater exploitation. Eleven piezometers were realised during first semester of 2012, thus improving the measurement network, which is now made up by 40 wells/piezometers distributed on about 60 km^2. Comparing new and previous borehole data a general confinement of the gravelly aquifer is confirmed, excepting in the northern part where the aquifer is in contact with the superficial sandy one. Preliminary field measurement was performed in June 2012, during which water level (WL) and electrical conductivity (EC) data were collected. WLs below the sea-level were observed on most of the studied area, with a minimum value of about -5 m a.s.l. in the inner part of the northern zone, where major exploitation is present. Moreover, a relative minimum of WL (about -2 m a.s.l.) is present near the shoreline in the southern zone. In the latter

  6. β-Arrestin-mediated Angiotensin II Signaling Controls the Activation of ARF6 Protein and Endocytosis in Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.


    Charles, Ricardo; Namkung, Yoon; Cotton, Mathieu; Laporte, Stéphane A; Claing, Audrey


    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasopressive hormone but is also a potent activator of cellular migration. We have previously shown that it can promote the activation of the GTPase ARF6 in a heterologous overexpressing system. The molecular mechanisms by which receptors control the activation of this small G protein remain, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, how ARF6 coordinates the activation of complex cellular responses needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that Ang II receptors engage β-arrestin, but not Gq, to mediate ARF6 activation in HEK 293 cells. To further confirm the key role of β-arrestin proteins, we overexpressed β-arrestin2-(1-320), a dominant negative mutant known to block receptor endocytosis. We show that expression of this truncated construct does not support the activation of the GTPase nor cell migration. Interestingly, β-arrestin2 can interact with the ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO, although the C-terminally lacking mutant does not. We finally examined whether receptor endocytosis controlled ARF6 activation and cell migration. Although the clathrin inhibitor PitStop2 did not impact the ability of Ang II to activate ARF6, cell migration was markedly impaired. To further show that ARF activation regulates key signaling events leading to migration, we also examined MAPK activation. We demonstrate that this signaling axis is relevant in smooth muscle cells of the vasculature. Altogether, our findings show for the first time that Ang II receptor signaling to β-arrestin regulates ARF6 activation. These proteins together control receptor endocytosis and ultimately cell migration.

  7. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Roggeri, Daniela Paola; Roggeri, Alessandro; Rossi, Elisa; Cataudella, Salvatore; Martini, Nello


    Purpose Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy, based on administrative database analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in health care costs of preterm infants with and without early hospitalization for bronchiolitis. Patients and methods Preterm infants born in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were selected from the ARNO Observatory database and observed for the first 4 years of life. These preterm infants were compared (paired 1–3) with preterm infants who were not hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life and with similar characteristics. Only direct health care costs reimbursed by the Italian National Health Service were considered for this study (drugs, hospitalizations, and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). Results Of 40,823 newborns in the accrual period, 863 were preterm with no evidence of prophylaxis, and 22 preterm infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis (cases) and paired with 62 controls. Overall, cases had 74% higher average cost per infant in the first 4 years of life than controls (18,624€ versus 10,189€, respectively). The major cost drivers were hospitalizations, accounting for >90% in both the populations. The increase in total yearly health care cost between cases and controls remained substantial even in the fourth year of life for all cost items. A relevant increase in hospitalizations and drug consumption linked to respiratory tract diseases was noted in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis during the entire follow-up period. Conclusion Preterm infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were associated with increased resource consumption and costs throughout the entire period

  8. [Distribution Characteristics of Nitrifiers and Denitrifiers in the River Sediments of Tongling City].


    Cheng, Jian-hua; Dou, Zhi-yong; Sun, Qing-ye


    Rivers in mining areas were influenced by contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter due to domestic and agricultural wastewater discharge in addition to pollutants caused by mining activities. In this study, surface sediment samples of rivers in Tongling city were collected to address the effect of season and pollution type on the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) technique targeting at the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) and nitrite reductase (nir) genes. The results showed that the average ahundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AGA) (ranging from 1.74 x 10⁵ to 1.45 x 10⁸ copies · g⁻¹) was 4.39 times that of ammonia oxidizing hacteria (AGH) (ranging from 1.39 x 10⁵ to 3.39 x 10⁷ copies · g⁻¹); and the average abundance of nirK gene (ranging from 4.45 x 10⁶ to 1.51 x 10⁸ copies · g) was almost a thirtieth part of nirS gene (ranging from 1.69 x 10⁷ to 8.55 x 10⁹ copies · g⁻¹). The abundance of AOA was higher in spring and autumn, and lower in summer and winter. And sediment AOB abundance was higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn. Meanwhile, the abundance of nir genes was in the order of spring (nirS )/autumn (nirK) > summer > winter > autumn (nirS )/spring (nirK). Moreover, the abundance of bacterial and archaeal arnoA and nirS genes in sediments influenced by mine pollution was generally higher than that in sediments influenced by agricultural non-point pollution, whereas the abundance of nirK gene showed an opposite trend. PMID:27548957

  9. Abiotic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by aqueous iron(ll)-catechol complexes.


    Naka, Daisuke; Kim, Dongwook; Strathmann, Timothy J


    Complexation of iron(ll) by catechol and thiol ligands leads to the formation of aqueous species that are capable of reducing substituted nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) to the corresponding anilines. No reactions of NACs are observed in FelI-only or ligand-only solutions. In solutions containing FeII and tiron, a model catechol, rates of NAC reduction are heavily dependent on pH, ligand concentration, and ionic strength. Observed pseudo-first-order rate constants (k(obs)) for 4-chloronitrobenzene reduction vary by more than 6 orders of magnitude, and the variability is well described by the expression k(obs) = k(FeL2)(6-) [FeL2(6-)], where [FeL2(6-)] is the concentration of the 1:2 FeII-tiron complex and kFeL2(6-) is the bimolecular rate constant for 4-chloronitrobenzene reaction with this species. The high reactivity of this FeII species is attributed to the low standard one-electron reduction potential of the corresponding FeIII/FeII redox couple (EH0 = -0.509 V vs NHE). The relative reactivity of different NACs can be described by a linear free-energy relationship (LFER) with the one-electron reduction potentials of the NACs, EH1'(ArNO2). The experimentally derived slope of the LFER indicates that electron transfer is rate determining. These findings suggest that FeII-organic complexes may play an important, previously unrecognized, role in the reductive transformation of persistent organic contaminants.

  10. ESTEC/GEOVUSIE/ILEWG Planetary Student Designer Workshop: a Teacher Training Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, J.; Foing, B. H.; Kaskes, P.


    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sebastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft. Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium "Moon, Mars and More" at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion.

  11. Exclusion of Integrins from CNS Axons Is Regulated by Arf6 Activation and the AIS

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Elske H. P.; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Koseki, Hiroaki; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Hoogenraad, Casper C.


    Integrins are adhesion and survival molecules involved in axon growth during CNS development, as well as axon regeneration after injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Adult CNS axons do not regenerate after injury, partly due to a low intrinsic growth capacity. We have previously studied the role of integrins in axon growth in PNS axons; in the present study, we investigate whether integrin mechanisms involved in PNS regeneration may be altered or lacking from mature CNS axons by studying maturing CNS neurons in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, we find that integrins are present in axons during initial growth but later become restricted to the somato-dendritic domain. We investigated how this occurs and whether it can be altered to enhance axonal growth potential. We find a developmental change in integrin trafficking; transport becomes predominantly retrograde throughout axons, but not dendrites, as neurons mature. The directionality of transport is controlled through the activation state of ARF6, with developmental upregulation of the ARF6 GEF ARNO enhancing retrograde transport. Lowering ARF6 activity in mature neurons restores anterograde integrin flow, allows transport into axons, and increases axon growth. In addition, we found that the axon initial segment is partly responsible for exclusion of integrins and removal of this structure allows integrins into axons. Changing posttranslational modifications of tubulin with taxol also allows integrins into the proximal axon. The experiments suggest that the developmental loss of regenerative ability in CNS axons is due to exclusion of growth-related molecules due to changes in trafficking. PMID:26019348

  12. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.


    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano


    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromArno present significant concentrations, while concentrations in Tevere and Adige, which are not impacted by relevant industrial activities, are almost all below the detection limits. The total estimated PFAA load of the five rivers was 7.5ty(-1) with the following percentage distribution: 39% PFBS, 32% PFOA, 22% short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively. In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  13. Spatial patterns of landslide dimension: A tool for magnitude mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Filippo; Tofani, Veronica; Lagomarsino, Daniela


    The magnitude of mass movements, which may be expressed by their dimension in terms of area or volume, is an important component of intensity together with velocity. In the case of slow-moving deep-seated landslides, the expected magnitude is the prevalent parameter for defining intensity when assessed as a spatially distributed variable in a given area. In particular, the frequency-volume statistics of past landslides may be used to understand and predict the magnitude of new landslides and reactivations. In this paper we study the spatial properties of volume frequency distributions in the Arno river basin (Central Italy, about 9100 km2). The overall landslide inventory taken into account (around 27,500 events) shows a power-law scaling of volumes for values greater than a cutoff value of about 2 × 104 m3. We explore the variability of the power-law exponent in the geographic space by setting up local subsets of the inventory based on neighbourhoods with radii between 5 and 50 km. We found that the power-law exponent α varies according to geographic position and that the exponent itself can be treated as a random space variable with autocorrelation properties both at local and regional scale. We use this finding to devise a simple method to map the magnitude frequency distribution in space and to create maps of exceeding probability of landslide volume for risk analysis. We also study the causes of spatial variation of α by analysing the dependence of power-law properties on geological and geomorphological factors, and we find that structural settings and valley density exert a strong influence on mass movement dimensions.

  14. DNA adduct formation by alachlor metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kimmel, E.C.; Casida, J.E.


    The extent of DNA adduct formation by alachlor (ArN(CH/sub 2/OCH/sub 3/)C(O)CH/sub 2/Cl wherein Ar is 2,6-diethylphenyl) and its metabolites is used as a guide to deduce the causal agent(s) in the carcinogenicity of this major herbicide. (/sup 14/C-phenyl)Alachlor is compared to its two metabolic cleavage products, (/sup 14/C-phenyl) 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)acetamide (CDEPA) (ArNHC(O)CH/sub 2/Cl) and (/sup 14/C-phenyl)2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) (ArNH/sub 2/), and to (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor in various in vitro and in vivo systems. Horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide activate DEA, but not CEDPA or alachlor, for formation of adducts with calf thymus DNA, which probably involves 2,6-diethylnitrosobenzene (ArNO) as an intermediate. Mouse liver microsomes and NADPH are both required to enhance the binding from each labeled preparation to calf thymus DNA; 4-fold higher labeling is observed from (/sup 14/C-methoxy)- than from (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor. This 4-fold preferential DNA labeling from the /sup 14/C-methoxy compound is likewise found in the liver of mice treated intraperitoneally. Mouse liver protein and hemoglobin are also labeled, in vivo, with (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor, -CDEPA and -DEA, and, as with the DNA, the labeling of these proteins is 1.5- to 2-fold higher with (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor.

  15. Clusters containing open-shell molecules. II. Equilibrium structures of ArnOH Van der Waals clusters (X2Pi, n=1 to 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minzhong; Bacic, Zlatko; Hutson, Jeremy M.


    The equilibrium and low-lying isomeric structures of ArnOH (X2)Pi clusters for n=1 to 15 are investigated by simulated annealing calculations. Potential energy surfaces are obtained by a pairwise-additive approach, taking into account the open-shell nature of OH X2Pi and including spin-orbit coupling. It is found that the spin-orbit coupling suppresses the Jahn-Teller effect, and many of the clusters have high-symmetry structures (Cnnu with n>2) which would be forbidden in the absence of spin-orbit coupling. The structures are generally similar to those previously found for the closed-shell systems ArnHF and ArnHCl, but different from those for the open-shell systems ArnNO and ArnCH. This is because Ar-OH (X2)Pi, like Ar-HF and Ar-HCl but unlike Ar-NO and Ar-CH, has a near-linear equilibrium structure. ArnOH clusters for n up to 6 have all Ar atoms in a single shell around OH. In the clusters with n=7 to 9, OH is under a pentagonal pyramid formed by six Ar atoms, while the others bind to its exterior, away from OH. For n=10 to 12, the minimum-energy structures have OH inside an Arn cage, which is essentially icosahedral for n=12 but has vacancies for n=10 and 11. For n>12, the extra Ar atoms begin to form a second solvation shell. The global minimum of ArnOH may be constructed from the minimum-energy structure of Arn+1 by replacing one Ar atom with OH.

  16. A Geomorphological Approach To Landslide Susceptibility Assessment and Its Application To The Virginio River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagli, N.; Catani, F.; Delmonaco, G.; Ermini, L.; Margottini, C.; Puglisi, C.

    The present note presents the results of a research project aimed at developing a ge- omorphology based method for the assessment of landslide susceptibility. The work has been carried out in the Virginio River basin, a tributary of the Arno river with confluence located 20 km downstream from Florence (Italy). Starting from a detailed landslide inventory, essentially carried out by aerial-photograph survey, the first phase of the research was directed to geomorphic field investigations, aimed at determining those hillslope factors influencing landslide triggering. This analysis was carried out for a significant sub-sample of the inventoried landslides, allowing the distinction of the most relevant hillslope factors affecting each type of mass movement. Selected factors are a) the past slope gradient in which landslide originated, b) litology and 3) land use. Once defined as thematic vector data, these factors have been handled by GIS overlay mapping, allowing to single out, for the entire Virginio River basin, homogeneous domains (Unique Condition Units) that contain, for each landslide ty- pology, unique combinations of the selected hillslope factors. Those domains are the basic Terrain Units for the following phase of landslide susceptibility assessment and mapping. The hillslope factors not selected in the first phase, however playing an im- portant role in contributing to the activation of the mass movements, have been taken into account for the definition of a landslide susceptibility function. This function is es- sentially a logic function based on the presence/absence of preparatory factors within the previous selected Unique Condition Terrain Units. The final mapping of the ar- eas characterized by different landslide susceptibility levels was performed by vector and raster based GIS techniques on the basis of the number and rank of predisposing factors. These landslide susceptibility classes, defined by a logic and easily replicable function, can be

  17. The role of attention in motion extrapolation: are moving objects 'corrected' or flashed objects attentionally delayed?


    Khurana, B; Watanabe, K; Nijhawan, R


    Objects flashed in alignment with moving objects appear to lag behind [Nijhawan, 1994 Nature (London) 370 256-257]. Could this 'flash-lag' effect be due to attentional delays in bringing flashed items to perceptual awareness [Titchener, 1908/1973 Lectures on the Elementary Psychology of Feeling and Attention first published 1908 (New York: Macmillan); reprinted 1973 (New York: Arno Press)]? We overtly manipulated attentional allocation in three experiments to address the following questions: Is the flash-lag effect affected when attention is (a) focused on a single event in the presence of multiple events, (b) distributed over multiple events, and (c) diverted from the flashed object? To address the first two questions, five rings, moving along a circular path, were presented while observers attentively tracked one or multiple rings under four conditions: the ring in which the disk was flashed was (i) known or (ii) unknown (randomly selected from the set of five); location of the flashed disk was (i) known or (ii) unknown (randomly selected from ten locations). The third question was investigated by using two moving objects in a cost-benefit cueing paradigm. An arrow cued, with 70% or 80% validity, the position of the flashed object. Observers performed two tasks: (a) reacted as quickly as possible to flash onset; (b) reported the flash-lag effect. We obtained a significant and unaltered flash-lag effect under all the attentional conditions we employed. Furthermore, though reaction times were significantly shorter for validly cued flashes, the flash-lag effect remained uninfluenced by cue validity, indicating that quicker responses to validly cued locations may be due to the shortening of post-perceptual delays in motor responses rather than the perceptual facilitation. We conclude that the computations that give rise to the flash-lag effect are independent of attentional deployment.

  18. Adherence to alendronic or risedronic acid treatment, combined or not to calcium and vitamin D, and related determinants in Italian patients with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, S; Cinconze, E; Rossini, M; Rossi, E; Maggioni, AP; Pedrini, A; De Rosa, M


    Purpose Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and an important health and social burden due to its worldwide prevalence. Literature and clinical experience report incomplete adherence to the therapy. This retrospective observational study aimed at assessing the adherence to first-line antiosteoporosis drugs (AODs; reimbursed by the National Health System, according to the Italian Medicine Agency recommendation number 79), alendronate or risedronate, with or without calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, in a real, Italian clinical setting. Patients and methods Analyses were carried out on data present in the ARNO Observatory, a population-based patient-centric Italian database. From a population of 5,808,832 inhabitants with available data, a cohort of 3.3 million of patients aged ≥40 years was selected. New users of first-line AODs as monotherapy (accrual period, 2007–2009) were followed up over 3 years to assess adherence at 6, 12, and 36 months to AODs and to supplements and related determinants. Results Approximately 40,000 new users were identified: mostly women, aged on average (standard deviation) 71±10 years. Alendronate was the most prescribed (38.2% of patients), followed by risedronate (34.9%) and alendronate with colecalciferol as a fixed-dose combination (25.8%). Adherence at the 6-month follow-up was 54%, and this constantly and significantly decreased after 1 year to 46%, and after 3 years to 33% (P<0.01). Adherence to the fixed-dose combination was higher than to plain alendronate throughout the follow-up period. Similarly, adherence to supplements constantly decreased with the duration of treatment. Women and patients aged >50 years were more likely to adhere to treatment regimen (P<0.001). The use of drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease and of corticosteroids for systemic use were significantly associated with high adherence at different times. Polytherapy (>5 drugs), cardiovascular, and neurological therapies were

  19. Modeling Soil Moisture Fields Using the Distributed Hydrologic Model MOBIDIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, A. E.; Entekhabi, D.; Castelli, F.


    . Mazzanti (2009), A distributed package for sustainable water management: a case study in the Arno basin, IAHS Publ. 327 Flerchinger, G. N. (2000), The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model: Technical Documentation, Technical Report NWRC 2000-09, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Boise, Idaho

  20. Unifying mechanism for bacterial cell signalers (4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, lactones and oligopeptides): electron transfer and reactive oxygen species. Practical medical features.


    Kovacic, Peter


    Cell signaling has attracted much attention involving higher organisms, and more recently is of considerable interest concerning involvement in the bacterial realm. Many aspects can apply, including quorum sensing. Of the participating molecules, designated autoinducers, 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is one of the most important. It is in equilibrium with a furanone and a furanosyl-borate diester (AI-2). A prior hypothesis for cell signaling in higher organisms invoked a key role for electron transfer (ET) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as conduits, relays and electrical effects. The principal ET functionalities are quinones, metal complexes, ArNO(2), and iminium species. A lesser known type is the alpha-dicarbonyl class. Diacetyl, a member, as well as its imine derivatives, can serve as a model for DPD, since the parent possesses a reduction potential amenable to ET in the biological domain. Hence, it is conceivable that DPD and its imine derivatives may be involved in ET-ROS processes. Presence of hydroxy groups should facilitate ET by DPD vs. diacetyl. Extensive prior literature supports participation of ET functionalities in action of therapeutic drugs, toxins and various illnesses. This biochemical behavior also applies to the alpha-dicarbonyl parent models. A second important bacterial autoinducer is the lactone category. Although ET functionality is lacking, the presence of the 1,3-dicarbonyl structure can provide a site for avid chelation with redox metal, e.g., iron or copper, followed by ET-ROS. Findings with added iron furnish support for the proposal. Oligopeptides comprise the third principal type of bacterial signaling agent. A prior review incorporates these within the theoretical framework based on ET by redox amino acids and redox enzymes. In recent years there has been a rapid increase in resistance to antibiotics by pathogenic bacteria. Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause in

  1. Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara


    The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the

  2. Quantitative flood risk assessment in historic cities: sensitivity to hydraulic modeling and open socio-economic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo


    The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data

  3. ALERTES-SC3 Early Warning System prototype for South Iberian Peninsula: on-site approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Martín Davila, José; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Vera, Angel; Ciberia, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Strollo, Angelo; Hanka, Winfried; Carranza, Marta


    In recent years several Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) have been developed for different parts of the world. The area between SW Cape St. Vicente and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the most seismically active zones in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, with predominantly moderate and superficial seismicity, but also big events with associated tsunamis are well documented in the area, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In the frame of the ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) Spanish projects, the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS, regional approach, prototype has been developed at the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and is being tested in near real time for south Iberia. This prototype, based on the SeisComP3 software package, is largely based on algorithms derived from the analysis of the first seconds of the P wave records. Calculation of several parameters are carried out, mainly the characteristic period (τc) and the displacement peak (Pd), but also the velocity peak (Pv), the maximum period (τPmáx), among others. In order to warm the areas closest to the hypocentre, places located inside the "blind zone", a on-site EEWS has also been developed by ROA and integrated in the ALERTES-SC3 prototype. From the on-site approach, a warm level is declared from one station as a function of the estimated characteristic period (τc) and the displacement Peak (Pd), although the earthquake location and therefore the lead time available remains unknown. This on-site EEWS is being tested in several Western Mediterranean net (WM) stations as ARNO (Arenosillo, Huelva,Spain) or CHAS (Chafarinas island, North Africa, Spain). Also an on-site low cost station is being developed based in low cost accelerometers. In this work the current state of the on-site EEWS developed, its integration in the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS system and the low cost seismic stations are shown.

  4. NO2 and SO2 dispersion modeling and relative roles of emission sources over Map Ta Phut industrial area, Thailand.


    Chusai, Chatinai; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Thepanondh, Sarawut


    Map Ta Phut industrial area (MA) is the largest industrial complex in Thailand. There has been concern about many air pollutants over this area. Air quality management for the area is known to be difficult, due to lack of understanding of how emissions from different sources or sectors (e.g., industrial, power plant, transportation, and residential) contribute to air quality degradation in the area. In this study, a dispersion study of NO2 and SO2 was conducted using the AERMOD model. The area-specific emission inventories of NOx and SO2 were prepared, including both stack and nonstack sources, and divided into 11 emission groups. Annual simulations were performed for the year 2006. Modeled concentrations were evaluated with observations. Underestimation of both pollutants was Jbund, and stack emission estimates were scaled to improve the modeled results before quantifying relative roles of individual emission groups to ambient concentration overfour selected impacted areas (two are residential and the others are highly industrialized). Two concentration measures (i.e., annual average area-wide concentration or AC, and area-wide robust highest concentration or AR) were used to aggregately represent mean and high-end concentrations Jbfor each individual area, respectively. For AC-NO2, on-road mobile emissions were found to be the largest contributor in the two residential areas (36-38% of total AC-NO2), while petrochemical-industry emissions play the most important role in the two industrialized areas (34-51%). For AR-NO2, biomass burning has the most influence in all impacted areas (>90%) exceptJor one residential area where on-road mobile is the largest (75%). For AC-SO2, the petrochemical industry contributes most in all impacted areas (38-56%). For AR-SO2, the results vary. Since the petrochemical industry was often identified as the major contributor despite not being the largest emitter, air quality workers should pay special attention to this emission group

  5. PREFACE: Annual Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies - FM&NT 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis


    Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.

  6. Geomorphological Evidence Bearing on the Paired Compressional-Extensional Fronts of the Northern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, W.


    The close association of compressional folding and extensional normal faulting in the Northern Apennines has long attracted the attention of geologists. Elter et al.(1) showed that an extensional front has been following along, about 100 km behind a NE-migrating compressional front. This puzzling tectonic pattern has most commonly been explained by delamination and rollback, but the identity of the delaminating unit has been controversial. Little attention has been paid to the question whether the migration of the paired tectonic fronts and the generation of structures has been episodic or steady state. Since most or all of the Northern Apennines has emerged from the sea in Neogene time, the drainage pattern of the Peninsula may provide evidence bearing on this question. At the latitude of Gubbio, many short, straight, parallel rivers flow northeast from the main drainage divide to the Adriatic Sea, cutting through large anticlines between the extensional and compressional fronts. Alvarez (2) showed that this pattern arose from a process suggested by Mazzanti and Trevisan (3), in which incipient anticlines, additions to the coastal plain, and downstream increments of the rivers formed synchronously at the advancing shoreline. Deeper and deeper gorges cutting higher and higher anticlines southwest from the Adriatic coast show that the eastern third of the Northern Apennines formed in a roughly steady-state process. From the Tyrrhenian coast to the drainage divide, grabens that formed behind the extensional front have produced a trellis pattern in the three master streams (Arno, Ombrone, Tiber). In the steady-state hypothesis, many short, straight, parallel streams - the former headwaters of the Adriatic rivers - would have been disrupted by graben formation and progressively (from SW to NE) added to the trellis pattern. Close to the extensional front, this disruption would have occurred only in Quaternary time, and one would predict that the abandoned headwater

  7. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro

  8. French antecedents of "contemporary" concepts in the American Psychiatric Association's classification of bipolar (mood) disorders.


    Haustgen, Thierry; Akiskal, Hagop


    Although first detailed descriptions of what we today term "bipolar disorders" are generally attributed to E. Kraepelin [Kraepelin, E., 1899 (1976 tr). Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. (reprint of English translation). Arno, New York], a review of French psychiatric literature from Esquirol to the middle of 20th century reveals major clinical contributions to the development of the concept of cyclic mood disorders, their phenomenology and classification as embodied in DSM-IV. The main treatise was published by the Paris psychiatric schools of Salpêtrière, Bicêtre, Charenton, Sainte-Anne and Vanves. Already much before Kraepelin, French authors had described most symptoms and the course of future DSM-IV bipolar, manic, major depressive [Falret, J.-P., 1854. De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par l'alternative régulière de la manie et de la mélancolie, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 382-400.; Baillarger, J., 1854. Note sur un genre de folie dont les accès sont caractérisés par deux périodes régulières, l'une de dépression, l'autre d'excitation, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 340 et Ann. Méd. Psychol. XII, 369], hypomanic and mixed episodes [Falret, J., 1861. Principes à suivre dans la classification des maladies mentales, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XIX, 145.; Falret, J., 1866, 1867. La folie raisonnante ou folie morale, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XXIV, 382, XXV, 68], as well as - under other names - the characteristics of bipolar II disorder, various specifiers describing mood episode and course of recurrent episodes [Ritti, A., 1883. Traité clinique de la folie à double forme (folie, circulaire, délire à formes alternes). Doin, Paris]. The synthesis of these clinical observations led to Magnan's "intermittent madness" (1893), a precursor of Kraepelin's "manic-depressive psychosis". After 1899, French authors generally adhered to their classification of autonomous depressive disorder (melancholia), as distinct from manic-depressive insanity

  9. Distinguished Astronomer Awarded Jansky Lectureship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Makes Galaxies, at NRAO facilities in Charlottesville, Virginia, Green Bank, West Virginia, and Socorro, New Mexico. The dates of these scientific lectures, which are open to the public, will be announced later. This is the forty-third Jansky Lectureship. First awarded in 1966, it is named in honor of the man who, in 1932, first detected radio waves from a cosmic source. Karl Jansky's discovery of radio waves from the central region of the Milky Way started the science of radio astronomy. Other recipients of the Jansky award include five Nobel laureates (Drs. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson, William Fowler, and Joseph Taylor) as well as Jocelyn Bell-Burnell, discoverer of the first pulsar, and Vera Rubin, discoverer of dark matter in galaxies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. ESTEC/Geovusie/ILEWG planetary student design workshop: a teacher training perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, Jolanda; Foing, Bernard H.; Kaskes, Pim

    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sébastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft) Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium “Moon, Mars and More” at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion. The interactive character

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.


    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  12. German Astronomer Karl Menten Is 2007 Jansky Awardee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    2001. He initiated the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), a 12-meter diameter telescope high in Chile's Atacama Desert, where the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is being built. APEX pioneered submillimeter-wavelength observations at Atacama, proving the quality of the site for such research. As Jansky Lecturer, Menten will give a presentation entitled, "Tuning in to the Molecular Universe," at NRAO facilities in Charlottesville, Virginia, Green Bank, West Virginia, and Socorro, New Mexico. The dates of these lectures, which are free and open to the public, will be announced later this summer. This is the forty-second Jansky Lectureship. First awarded in 1966, it is named in honor of the man who, in 1932, first detected radio waves from a cosmic source. Karl Jansky's discovery of radio waves from the central region of the Milky Way started the science of radio astronomy. Other recipients of the Jansky award include five Nobel laureates (Drs. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson, William Fowler, and Joseph Taylor) as well as Jocelyn Bell-Burnell, discoverer of the first pulsar, and Vera Rubin, discoverer of dark matter in galaxies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. Virtual Telescope Observes Record-Breaking Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    to that of our own Moon), a diameter of no less than 1200 km results. Assuming instead an albedo of 2001 KX76 of only 4 percent - a typical value for icy cometary nuclei - leads to the even larger (although less likely) value of 1400 km. A real name for 2001 KX76 Thanks to the work of this group of astronomers, the orbit of 2001 KX76 may now be considered relatively secure and it may therefore soon receive a real name. Following astronomical tradition, the discoverers have the right to make a suggestion. The current custom dictates that a Kuiper Belt Object must be given a mythological name associated with creation. The name must then be confirmed by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) through its Committee on Small Body Nomenclature before becoming official. With a little bit of luck... The observations made with ESO's Wide Field Imager were crucial for this work to succeed in that they allowed the object's path to be tracked back in time. However, luck admittedly also played a key role. "These observations were originally made for a completely different project" , says Gerhard Hahn , team-leader for the project. "And we found the image of 2001 KX76 right at the edge of the WFI frames" . Jenni Virtanen , another member of the team, agrees: "And if we hadn't used our powerful methods to improve the orbit we would still be searching through the archives." Arno Gnaedig , a German amateur astronomer and team member, performed the new and accurate position measurements and also calculated the new orbit on his home computer: "To me this is a wonderful example of the fruitful collaboration that can take place between well-equipped amateur astronomers and professional astronomers ", he says. "The Web and the access to 'virtual observatories' means that amateur astronomers - located far from any 'real' professional telescopes - can also make important contributions" . Following this success, the group is currently working on a study of the long-term orbital evolution

  14. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro

  15. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck


    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries FOCUS ON SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH EXOTIC SYMMETRIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru


    here and a consistent theoretical description of all aspects of their superconductivity remains a formidable challenge. While the discovery of the BCS theory led, in only a few years, to the complete and consistent theoretical description of all aspects of conventional superconductivity, we are far from this goal for the exotic superconductors. Hence these superconductors continue to be the focus of most research activity in the field of superconductivity today. The papers in this special issue represent a cross section of current activity in both experiment and theory on these fascinating materials. Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries Contents Phase-sensitive-measurement determination of odd-parity, spin-triplet superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 Ying Liu Striped superconductors: how spin, charge and superconducting orders intertwine in the cuprates Erez Berg, Eduardo Fradkin, Steven A Kivelson and John M Tranquada A twisted ladder: relating the Fe superconductors to the high-Tc cuprates E Berg, S A Kivelson and D J Scalapino Fractional vortex lattice structures in spin-triplet superconductors Suk Bum Chung, Daniel F Agterberg and Eun-A Kim Momentum dependence of pseudo-gap and superconducting gap in variation theory T Watanabe, H Yokoyama, K Shigeta and M Ogata Variational ground states of the two-dimensional Hubbard model D Baeriswyl, D Eichenberger and M Menteshashvili Charge dynamics of vortex cores in layered chiral triplet superconductors M Eschrig and J A Sauls Vortices in chiral, spin-triplet superconductors and superfluids J A Sauls and M Eschrig Flux periodicities in loops of nodal superconductors Florian Loder, Arno P Kampf, Thilo Kopp and Jochen Mannhart Evidence of magnetic mechanism for cuprate superconductivity Amit Keren Wave function for odd-frequency superconductors Hari P Dahal, E Abrahams, D Mozyrsky, Y Tanaka and A V Balatsky Nernst effect as a probe of superconducting fluctuations in disordered thin films A Pourret, P Spathis, H Aubin and K

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga


    , Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 8. Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 9. Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 10. Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University, Latvia Local Committee Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Maris Kundzins, Anastasija Jozepa, Anna Muratova, Raitis Siatkovskis, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Sniedze Abele, Mikus Voss, Andris Sivars, Peteris Lesnicenoks, Virginija Liepina. In Memoriam Dr. habil. phys. Inta Muzikante (08.01.1951-15.02.2012) Inta Muzikante Inta was born in Valmiera, a town in the northern part of Latvia. She attended school in Sigulda and high school in Riga. While at the high-school, Inta decided to study natural sciences. After graduating from high-school in 1969 she entered the physics section of the Physics and Mathematics department of University of Latvia and obtained her university degree in 1974. In parallel with University studies, Inta started to work at the Semiconductor Physics Research Lab at the University of Latvia. After graduating she was offered a position at the Physical Energetics institute of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, in the laboratory of Professor Edgars Silinsh, one of the most internationally well known Latvian physicists. Inta started researching electronic and photoelectric processes in organic crystals and thin films. This was a novel field, pioneered both internationally and in Latvia by Profesors E Silinsh, O Neilands and J Freimanis. It could be said that Inta stood at the cradle of this research field and stayed faithful to it all of her life. Her work was very successful and within a few years she advanced from research assistant to researcher and then leading research scientist. Her first scientific topic was studies of the mechanism of charge carrier photogeneration and separation in organic molecular crystals. In 1983 for a work

  18. VLT Observations Confirm that the Universe Was Hotter in the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    UVES Measures the Cosmic Temperature 12 Billion Years Ago Summary A fundamental prediction of the Big Bang theory has finally been verified . For the first time, an actual measurement has been made of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation, at a time when the Universe was only about 2.5 billion years old . This fundamental and very difficult observation was achieved by a team of astronomers from India, France and ESO [1]. They obtained a detailed spectrum of a quasar in the distant Universe, using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) instrument at the ESO 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. If the Universe was indeed formed in a Big Bang, as most astrophysicists believe, the glow of this primeval fireball should have been warmer in the past. This is exactly what is found by the new measurements. The analysis of the VLT spectrum of the distant quasar not only gives the definitive proof of the presence of the relict radiation in the early Universe, it also shows that it was indeed significantly warmer than it is today, as predicted by the theory. PR Photo 35/00 : VLT spectrum of the distant quasar PKS 1232+0815 , displaying lines of carbon atoms from an intervening cloud in which the cosmic temperature was measured. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) One of the fundamental predictions of the Hot Big Bang theory for the creation of the Universe is the existence of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) . This relict radiation of the primeval fireball was discovered in 1964 by means of radio observations by American physicists Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson , who were rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1978. Precision measurements by the COBE satellite later showed that this ancient radiation fills the Universe, with a present-day temperature of slightly less than 3 degrees above the absolute zero (2.7 K [Kelvin], or -270.4 °C). This radiation comes from all directions and is extremely uniform

  19. Obituary: Ralph Asher Alpher, 1921-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Rebecca A.


    conditions in the early Universe prior to nucleosynthesis. Early on, Alpher and Herman realized that if the expanding Universe began in a hot phase, relic radiation from the era when radiation and matter decoupled should fill the Universe. They published this result in Nature in 1948, predicting that the current temperature should be 5K. In talk after talk, and in a series of papers, they publicized their work and urged observers to start looking for this radiation, but without result. At the time, the model of the hot, expanding Universe, scornfully christened "Big Bang" by Fred Hoyle in 1950, was far from accepted by the cosmology community, especially since the measured value of the Hubble constant produced a very small evolutionary age. Even if the Big Bang model was correct, the consensus was that the relic radiation would be much too faint to detect. Dismayed by the lack of interest in their results, both Alpher and Herman decided in 1955 to give up academia, turning down positions offered at the University of Iowa with James van Allen, and instead accepting jobs at General Electric (GE) and General Motors. Both had families by that time. Ralph had met his wife, Louise Ellen Simons, in 1940. They married January 28, 1942, and had two children, Harriet and Victor. Ralph worked for 32 years at GE Research and Development Center in Niskayuna, New York, on a variety of projects including high-speed aerodynamics, theoretical problems involving the physics of television projection systems, magnetohydrodynamic methods, and, eventually, strategic planning and technology forecasting. The papers about the relic radiation languished in the literature, but Alpher and Herman kept up with developments in cosmology. One can imagine their excitement and gratification when they learned of the serendipitous detection of the cosmic microwave background by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 and found that their model temperature (with updated values of cosmological parameters) was in

  20. Status of whitebarkpine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: A step-trend analysis comparing 2004-2007 to 2008-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Roberts, Dave; Litt, Andrea R.; Legg, Kristin; Daley, Rob; Chambers, Nina


    these 1,217 trees, 780 trees were infected with blister rust in both time steps. Trees with only canopy cankers made up approximately 43% (519 trees) of the total number of trees infected with blister rust at the end of the revisit time-step, while trees with only bole cankers comprised 20% (252 trees), and those with both canopy and bole cankers included 37% (446 trees) of the infected sample. A bole infection is considered to be more consequential than a canopy canker, as it compromises not only the overall longevity of the tree, but its functional capacity for reproductive output as well (Kendall and Arno 1990, Campbell and Antos 2000, McDonald and Hoff 2001, Schwandt and Kegley 2004). In addition to infection location, we also documented infection transition between the canopy and bole. Of the 780 live trees that were infected with blister rust in both time-steps, approximately 31% (242) maintained canopy cankers and 36% (281) retained bole infections at the end of the revisit time-step. Infection transition from canopy to bole occurred in 30% (234) of the revisit time-step trees while 3% (23) transitioned from bole to canopy infections during this period. Objective 3. To determine whitebark pine mortality, we resurveyed all belt transects to reassess the life status of permanently tagged trees >1.4 m tall. We compared the total number of live tagged trees recorded during monitoring transect establishment to the total number of resurveyed dead tagged trees recorded during the revisit time-step and identified all potential mortality-influencing conditions (blister rust, mountain pine beetle, fire and other). By the end of the revisit time-step, we observed a total of 975 dead tagged whitebark pine trees; using a ratio estimator, this represents a loss of approximately 20% (SE=4.35%) of the original live tagged tree population (GYWPMWG 2012). Objective 4. To investigate the proportion of live, reproducing tagged trees, we divided the total number of positively

  1. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close