Kimmelman, B B
Polymath, member of a prominent family, art collector and scholar, archeologist, unlicensed architect, "fellow-traveler" and a reputed outstanding dentist of modern times, Milton Arno Leof (1904-1985) lived and worked mostly in Philadelphia. In his last days, he concentrated all his resources on what was to be a definitive illustrated work detailing his historical investigations and his collections but this was left unfinished at his death.
Paris, S; Béraud-Dufour, S; Robineau, S; Bigay, J; Antonny, B; Chabre, M; Chardin, P
Arno is a 47-kDa human protein recently identified as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) with a central Sec7 domain responsible for the exchange activity and a carboxyl-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain (Chardin, P., Paris, S., Antonny, B., Robineau, S., Béraud-Dufour, S., Jackson, C. L., and Chabre, M. (1996) Nature 384, 481-484). Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) greatly enhances Arno-mediated activation of myristoylated ARF1. We show here that in the absence of phospholipids, Arno promotes nucleotide exchange on [Delta17]ARF1, a soluble mutant of ARF1 lacking the first 17 amino acids. This reaction is unaffected by PIP2, which suggests that the PIP2-PH domain interaction does not directly regulate the catalytic activity of Arno but rather serves to recruit Arno to membranes. Arno catalyzes the release of GDP more efficiently than that of GTP from [Delta17]ARF1, and a stable complex between Arno Sec7 domain and nucleotide-free [Delta17]ARF1 can be isolated. In contrast to [Delta17]ARF1, full-length unmyristoylated ARF1 is not readily activated by Arno in solution. Its activation requires the presence of phospholipids and a reduction of ionic strength and Mg2+ concentration. PIP2 is strongly stimulatory, indicating that binding of Arno to phospholipids is involved, but in addition, electrostatic interactions between phospholipids and the amino-terminal portion of unmyristoylated ARF1GDP seem to be important. We conclude that efficient activation of full-length ARF1 by Arno requires a membrane surface and two distinct protein-phospholipid interactions: one between the PH domain of Arno and PIP2, and the other between amino-terminal cationic residues of ARF1 and anionic phospholipids. The latter interaction is normally induced by insertion of the amino-terminal myristate into the bilayer but can also be artificially facilitated by decreasing Mg2+ and salt concentrations.
Béraud-Dufour, S; Robineau, S; Chardin, P; Paris, S; Chabre, M; Cherfils, J; Antonny, B
The Sec7 domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO (ARNO-Sec7) is responsible for the exchange activity on the small GTP-binding protein ARF1. ARNO-Sec7 forms a stable complex with the nucleotide-free form of [Delta17]ARF1, a soluble truncated form of ARF1. The crystal structure of ARNO-Sec7 has been solved recently, and a site-directed mutagenesis approach identified a hydrophobic groove and an adjacent hydrophilic loop as the ARF1-binding site. We show that Glu156 in the hydrophilic loop of ARNO-Sec7 is involved in the destabilization of Mg2+ and GDP from ARF1. The conservative mutation E156D and the charge reversal mutation E156K reduce the exchange activity of ARNO-Sec7 by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, [E156K]ARNO-Sec7 forms a complex with the Mg2+-free form of [Delta17]ARF1-GDP without inducing the release of GDP. Other mutations in ARNO-Sec7 and in [Delta17]ARF1 suggest that prominent hydrophobic residues of the switch I region of ARF1 insert into the groove of the Sec7 domain, and that Lys73 of the switch II region of ARF1 forms an ion pair with Asp183 of ARNO-Sec7. PMID:9649435
Cherfils, J; Ménétrey, J; Mathieu, M; Le Bras, G; Robineau, S; Béraud-Dufour, S; Antonny, B; Chardin, P
Small G proteins switch from a resting, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. As spontaneous GDP release is slow, guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) are required to promote fast activation of small G proteins through replacement of GDP with GTP in vivo. Families of GEFs with no sequence similarity to other GEF families have now been assigned to most families of small G proteins. In the case of the small G protein Arf1, the exchange of bound GDP for GTP promotes the coating of secretory vesicles in Golgi traffic. An exchange factor for human Arf1, ARNO, and two closely related proteins, named cytohesin 1 and GPS1, have been identified. These three proteins are modular proteins with an amino-terminal coiled-coil, a central Sec7-like domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. The Sec7 domain contains the exchange-factor activity. It was first found in Sec7, a yeast protein involved in secretion, and is present in several other proteins, including the yeast exchange factors for Arf, Geal and Gea2. Here we report the crystal structure of the Sec7 domain of human ARNO at 2 A resolution and the identification of the site of interaction of ARNO with Arf.
Retelletti Brogi, S; Gonnelli, M; Vestri, S; Santinelli, C
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and optical properties (absorption and fluorescence) of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured in October 2012, at the Arno river mouth and in a coastal station close to it. The data reported indicates that the Arno river represents an important source of DOC and CDOM to this coastal area, with a total DOC flux of 11.23-12.04 · 10(9)g C · y(-1). Moving from the river to the sea, CDOM absorption and fluorescence decreased, while the spectral slope increased, suggesting a change in the molecular properties of CDOM. Mineralization experiments were carried out in order to investigate the main processes of DOM removal and/or transformation in riverine and coastal water. DOC removal rates were 20 μM · month(-1) in the river and 3 μM · month(-1) in the seawater, while CDOM was released during the first 30 days and removed in the following 40 days.
Wurtzel, Jeremy G.T.; Lee, Seunghyung; Singhal, Sharad S.; Awasthi, Sanjay; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Goldfinger, Lawrence E.
R-Ras small GTPase enhances cell spreading and motility via RalBP1/RLIP76, an R-Ras effector that links GTP-R-Ras to activation of Arf6 and Rac1 GTPases. Here, we report that RLIP76 performs these functions by binding cytohesin-2/ARNO, an Arf GTPase guanine exchange factor, and connecting it to R-Ras at recycling endosomes. RLIP76 formed a complex with R-Ras and ARNO by binding ARNO via its N-terminus (residues 1-180) and R-Ras via residues 180-192. This complex was present in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes and the presence of ARNO in recycling endosomes required RLIP76, and was not supported by RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192). Spreading and migration required RLIP76(1-180), and RLIP76(Δ1-180) blocked ARNO recruitment to recycling endosomes, and spreading. Arf6 activation with an ArfGAP inhibitor overcame the spreading defects in RLIP76-depleted cells or cells expressing RLIP76(Δ1-180). Similarly, RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192) suppressed Arf6 activation. Together these results demonstrate that RLIP76 acts as a scaffold at recycling endosomes by binding activated R-Ras, recruiting ARNO to activate Arf6, thereby contributing to cell spreading and migration. PMID:26498519
Jayaram, Bhavaani; Syed, Ismail; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara N.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] involves interplay between small G-proteins and their regulatory factors. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that Arf nucleotide binding site opener [ARNO], a guanine nucleotide exchange factor [GEF] for the small G-protein Arf6, mediates the functional activation of Arf6, and that ARNO/Arf6 signaling axis, in turn, controls the activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, which have been implicated in GSIS. Molecular biological [i.e., expression of inactive mutants or siRNA] and pharmacological approaches were employed to assess the roles for ARNO/Arf6 signaling pathway in insulin secretion in normal rat islets and INS 832/13 cells. Degrees of activation of Arf6 and Cdc42/Rac1 were quantitated by GST-GGA3 and PAK-1 kinase pull-down assays, respectively. ARNO is expressed in INS 832/13 cells, rat islets and human islets. Expression of inactive mutants of Arf6 [Arf6-T27N] or ARNO [ARNO-E156K] or siRNA-ARNO markedly reduced GSIS in isolated β-cells. secinH3, a selective inhibitor of ARNO/Arf6 signaling axis, also inhibited GSIS in INS 832/13 cells and rat islets. Stimulatory concentrations of glucose promoted Arf6 activation, which was inhibited by secinH3 or siRNA-ARNO, suggesting that ARNO/Arf6 signaling cascade is necessary for GSIS. secinH3 or siRNA-ARNO also inhibited glucose-induced activation of Cdc42 and Rac1 suggesting that ARNO/Arf6 might be upstream to Cdc42 and Rac1 activation steps, which are necessary for GSIS. Lastly, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopic studies suggested increased association between Arf6 and ARNO in glucose-stimulated β-cells. These findings provide the first evidence to implicate ARNO in the sequential activation of Arf6, Cdc42 and Rac1 culminating in GSIS. PMID:21276423
The Arno Kahn/Builders and Laborers Commonwealth Site is a house in a Minnesota suburb. It combines a modified direct-gain sun space system with a thermal envelope. The living space is separated from the sun space by a three-story mass wall. Sunlight enters the three-story solarium and heats the mass wall which in turn heats the air. The warm air is then distributed through the thermal envelope. Manually operated shades provide night insulation for the south-facing windows, and roof overhangs and a turbine vent in the solarium roof prevent overheating. Domestic hot water is preheated in four tanks located behind the window of the basement sunroom. The concrete floor in the basement provides part of the heat storage. Wood burning stoves and electric baseboard heaters provide auxiliary heating. Five modes of operation are described: collector-to-storage, collector-to-space heating, storage-to-space heating, solarium cooling and domestic hot water preheating. The instrumentation for the National Solar Data Network is described. The solar energy portion of the construction costs is estimated to be $7000. (LEW)
Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Buccianti, Antonella; Silva, Steven R.
Running waters in anthropogenically affected areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination. Source identification is a fundamental step for the development of effective remediation. Previous studies pointed to pollution by nitrogen-bearing contaminants in the Arno Basin. In this paper, eleven surface water samples have been analysed for main and trace components and 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratios, with the aim of identifying for the first time the origin of nitrate in the Arno River Basin so that further investigations can appropriately be designed. d18O(NO3)and d15N(NO3) values have allowed to hypothesise the main sources of nitrate, as follows: i) mineralized fertilizer, ii) soil-organic nitrogen, iii) manure and septic waste. The anomalously high d15N and d18O values in the Chiana (d15N=24.9‰ and d18O=15.5‰) and Usciana tributaries (d15N=30.1‰ and d18O=7.2‰) show a low probability of belonging to the same population as that of the other samples and can be related to denitrification process of nitrate from animal waste/sewage and/or an industrial process (e.g. tanneries).
Radioscientist, born in Munich in Germany, Nobel prizewinner (1978) `for the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation', a refugee from Germany at the age of 6, found his way to America and experience in microwave physics. Joined Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey, searched for and investigated line emission from the interstellar OH molecule. Was able to gain the use of a large radio...
To mark the occasion of the the tenth member state joining ESO, the UK invited ESO to hold its 98th Council meeting in London on 8-9 July 2002. The hosts provided a wonderful venue for the meeting in Trinity House, overlooking the Tower of London. An excursion to the historic Greenwich Observatory and a banquet at Lancaster House helped to make it an especially memorable occasion. A landmark decision made at the meeting was the approval for the construction and operation of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The speeches given at the banquet by Lord Sainsbury, A. Freytag and C. Cesarsky are printed below, followed by an article by Prof. Gerry Gilmore on the British astronomers' perspective.
Jambrina, Pablo G; Kłos, Jacek; Aoiz, F Javier; de Miranda, Marcelo P
This article reports a theoretical study of the stereodynamics of Ar + NO(X(2)Π, v = 0, j = 1/2, Ω = 1/2, ε = ±1) rotationally inelastic collisions. First, quantum scattering data are used to calculate all differential polarisation moments of the reagent and product molecules; this leads to the observation that the orientations of the reagent and product angular momenta are very strongly correlated. Next, canonical collision mechanisms theory [Aldegunde et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2008, 10, 1139] is used to separate and characterise the stereodynamics of the two independent collision mechanisms that contribute to the collision dynamics; this leads to the observation that the average product orientation is determined by the relative contributions of the two canonical mechanisms, which have comparable importance but are associated with starkly contrasting angular momentum orientations. These observations lead to a new and rigorous explanation of the experimental results reported a decade ago by Lorenz et al. [Science, 2001, 293, 2063]. The central fact of the new explanation is the incoherent, interference-free superposition of two independent collision mechanisms. This makes the new explanation radically different from the only one previously suggested, namely that the experimental observations might be due to quantum interference in a single collision mechanism.
Viaud, Julien; Zeghouf, Mahel; Barelli, Hélène; Zeeh, Jean-Christophe; Padilla, André; Guibert, Bernard; Chardin, Pierre; Royer, Catherine A; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Chavanieu, Alain
Small molecules that produce nonfunctional protein-protein complexes are an alternative to competitive inhibitors for the inhibition of protein functions. Here we target the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Arf1, a major regulator of membrane traffic, by the Sec7 catalytic domain of its guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO. The crystal structure of the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex, which initiates the exchange reaction, was used to discover an inhibitor, LM11, using in silico screening of a flexible pocket near the Arf1/ARNO interface. Using fluorescence kinetics and anisotropy, NMR spectroscopy and mutagenesis, we show that LM11 acts following a noncompetitive mechanism in which the inhibitor targets both Arf1-GDP and the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex and produces a nonfunctional Arf-GDP/ARNO complex whose affinity is similar to that of the native complex. In addition, LM11 recognizes features of both Arf and ARNO near the Arf/Sec7 interface, a characteristic reminiscent of the paradigm interfacial inhibitor Brefeldin A. We then show that LM11 is a cell-active inhibitor that impairs Arf-dependent trafficking structures at the Golgi. Furthermore, LM11 inhibits ARNO-dependent migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, demonstrating that ARNO is a target of LM11 in cells. Remarkably, LM11 inhibits the activation of Arf1 but not Arf6 in vitro, pointing to a possible synergy between Arf1 and Arf6 activation by ARNO in cell migration. Our design method shows that flexible regions in protein-protein complexes provide drugable sites with the potential to develop novel tools for investigating and inhibiting signaling pathways.
Born in Houston, Texas, Nobel prizewinner for physics in 1978) with ARNO PENZIAS `for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation'. Interested in radio as a boy, drawn to radioastronomy by working with JOHN BOLTON at CalTech mapping the Milky Way. Joined Bell Laboratories at Crawford Hill where with Arno Penzias he shared a small allowance given to the Lab for radioastronomy projects...
Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide
In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages.
Chardin, P; Paris, S; Antonny, B; Robineau, S; Béraud-Dufour, S; Jackson, C L; Chabre, M
The small G protein ARF1 is involved in the coating of vesicles that bud from the Golgi compartments. Its activation is controlled by as-yet unidentified guanine-nucleotide exchange factors. Gea1, the first ARF exchange factor to be discovered in yeast, is a large protein containing a domain of homology with Sec7, another yeast protein that is also involved in secretion. Here we characterized a smaller human protein (relative molecular mass 47K) named ARNO, which contains a central Sec7 domain that promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1. ARNO also contains an amino-terminal coiled-coil motif and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain. The PH domain mediates an enhancement of ARNO exchange activity by negatively charged phospholipid vesicles supplemented with phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. The exchange activity of ARNO is not inhibited by brefeldin A, an agent known to block vesicular transport and inhibit the exchange activity on ARF1 in cell extracts. This suggests that a regulatory component which is sensitive to brefeldin A associates with ARNO in vivo, possibly through the amino-terminal coiled-coil. We propose that other proteins with a Sec7 domain regulate different members of the ARF family.
Administrations, lies in effective incorporation of the Army National Guard as a ’ Just - in - Time ’ force. This paper contends that the ARNO fills critical needs...today and will be able to fulfill needed roles on a ’ just - in - time ’ basis as the Army transitions into the 21st century. Different training approaches
... for This Page Carmignac V, Thevenon J, Adès L, Callewaert B, Julia S, Thauvin-Robinet C, Gueneau L, Courcet JB, Lopez E, Holman K, Renard M, ... De Backer J, Child A, Arno G, Duplomb L, Callier P, Aral B, Vabres P, Gigot N, ...
3 3. Model Geometry and Flowfield Conditions 4 3.1 Model Geometry ... Geometry Modifications................................................................................................19 4.2.1 Aerodynamic and Static...would like to thank the following personnel: • Ilmars Celmins, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), for creating the geometries in SolidWorks
Adrian, Mark L.; Gallagher, Dennis L.
Plasmaspheric drainage plumes appear in the aftermath of periods of enhanced convection/erosion and are interpreted as a near-equatorial signature of the redistribution of thermal plasma along streamlines. Analysis of IMAGE/EUV observations from "FirstLight" through the end of calendar year 2002 reveals that for Kp greater than or equal to 3, there is an 84% probability of observing a plasmaspheric plume in EUV data. We present a statistical analysis of the geomagnetic conditions [Kp, Dst, and solar wind-induced electric field] associated with EUV plume observations. This analysis yields a peak in observational probability when Kp = 4 and Dst = -50 nT. Additionally, EUV pllume observations are associated with a solar wind-induced convection electric field at Earth [Ev, SM] characterized by bi-modal behavior with a positive mode peaked at approximately 4 m V(raised dot) m(sup -1) and a negative model that peaks at -2 mV (raised dot) m(sup -1). Analysis of the time rate of change of the plume-associated Ev, SM indicated that once the mechanism for plume formation is initiated, a slowly changing convection environment is required to allow for sufficient plume development prior to EUV detection.
My response to Engelmann (2008) will be based on several questions that will allow both its author and the general reader to determine whether the assumptions I make as an interpreter of this complex paper are congruent or incongruent with their own interpretations of the text. The interpretations by the writer, by any commentator, and the diverse interpretations of a general audience together with my own interpretations will, I hope, facilitate some fruitful 'comparative evaluations.' I articulate my inferences of the most dense part of the paper, namely the 'concrete immediate Consciousness and the developing absent outside.' My hope is to address Engelmann's question: "Am I in a better disposition to judge modern theories of consciousness?" The last section of my response spells out more personal comments to my all too brief and single encounter with Arno Engelmann. It is there that Arno Engelmann's fascinating statement "I am a citizen of the world" is addressed through its counterparts in my life.
DiNitto, Jonathan P.; Lee, Meng-Tse; Malaby, Andrew W.; Lambright, David G.
The Arf exchange factor Grp1 selectively binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), which is required for recruitment to the plasma membrane in stimulated cells. The mechanisms for phosphoinositide recognition by the PH domain, catalysis of nucleotide exchange by the Sec7 domain, and autoinhibition by elements proximal to the PH domain are well characterized. The N-terminal heptad repeats in Grp1 have also been shown to mediate homodimerization in vitro as well as heteromeric interactions with heptad repeats in the FERM domain-containing protein Grsp1 both in vitro and in cells (1). Here, we have characterized the oligomeric state of Grsp1 and Grp1 family proteins (Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1) as well as the oligomeric state, stoichiometry, and specificity of Grsp1 complexes with Grp1, ARNO and Cytohesin-1. At low micromolar concentrations, Grp1 and ARNO are homodimeric whereas Cytohesin-1 and Grsp1 are monomeric. When mixed with Grsp1, Grp1 homodimers and Cytohesin-1 monomers spontaneously re-equilibrate to form heterodimers whereas approximately 50% of ARNO remains homodimeric under the same conditions. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments suggest that the Grsp1 heterodimers with Grp1 and Cytohesin-1 adopt a largely anti-parallel orientation. Finally, formation of Grsp1-Grp1 heterodimers does not substantially influence Grp1 binding to the head groups of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 or PtdIns(4,5)P2 nor does it influence partitioning with liposomes containing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and/or phosphatidyl serine. PMID:20527794
Frederick T., "The Evolution of the Digital Loop Carrier," IEEE Communications Magazine , March 1991. [BCOR90] Bell Communications Research, Bellcore Fiber in...Shiers, Arno Press, 1977. [HAWL91] Hawley, George T., "Historical Perspectives on the U.S. Telephone Loop," IEEE Communications Magazine , March 1991...34 IEEE Communications Magazine , March 1991. [TUNS85] Tunstall, W. Brooke, Disconnecting Parties, Managing the Bell System Break-Up: An Inside View
Techniques Push the High Temperature Frontier," Microwave Journal, 1988. 87. Priore, M., "Discrete Semiconductor Device Reliability," RAC Publication, DSR- 4...ENVIRONMENTALLY OOBLISHB.BE. HONEYWELLINC. PREICTIVE 24867-011 PROTECTEDITAPE-AUTOMATED-BONDED BAKKES.J. TECNOLOGY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ARNO.R.G... PUSHING TEE PENTAGON TOWARD QML ANON. NONE MILITARY & AEROSPACE 24321.000 ELECTRONICS. Pages 39.40 FIRST SILICON. THEN GALLIUM ARSENIDE. THEN
Gonnelli, Margherita; Vestri, Stefano; Santinelli, Chiara
This study reports the first information on extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) combined with a study of DOM dynamics at the Arno River mouth. DOM dynamics was investigated from both a quantitative (dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and a qualitative (absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric DOM, CDOM) perspective. The data here reported highlight that the Arno River was an important source of both DOC and CDOM for this coastal area. CDOM optical properties suggested that terrestrial DOM did not undergo simple dilution at the river mouth but, other physical-chemical and biological processes were probably at work to change its molecular characteristics. This observation was further supported by the "potential" enzymatic activity of β-glucosidase (BG) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). Their Vmax values were markedly higher in the river water than in the seawater and their ratio suggested that most of the DOM used by microbes in the Arno River was polysaccharide-like, while in the seawater it was mainly protein-like.
Buscemi, Francesco; Dall'Arno, Michele; Ozawa, Masanao; Vedral, Vlatko
Recently, a novel operational strategy to access quantum correlation functions of the form Tr[AρB] was provided in [F. Buscemi, M. Dall'Arno, M. Ozawa and V. Vedral, arXiv:1312.4240]. Here we propose a realization scheme, that we call partial expectation values, implementing such strategy in terms of a unitary interaction with an ancillary system followed by the measurement of an observable on the ancilla. Our scheme is universal, being independent of ρ, A, and B, and it is optimal in a statistical sense. Our scheme is suitable for implementation with present quantum optical technology, and provides a new way to test uncertainty relations.
Serendipity has always been an attendant to great science. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the cosmic background radiation after first mistaking it for the effect of pigeon droppings on their microwave antenna. US spy satellites detected gamma-ray bursts when surveying the sky for evidence of secret Soviet nuclear tests during the Cold War. Satyendra Bose arrived at Bose-Einstein statistics only after discovering that a mathematical error explained the experimental data concerning the photoelectric effect. In the words of science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov, "The most exciting phrase in science is not 'Eureka!', but rather, 'That's funny...'.
For the last 15 years (with one year off for good behavior), four astronomical institutions in the San Francisco Bay Area have cooperated to produce a major evening public-lecture series on astronomy and space science topics. Co-sponsored by Foothill College's Astronomy Program, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the SETI Institute, and NASA Ames Research Center, the six annual Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures have drawn audiences ranging from 450 to 950 people, and represent a significant opportunity to get information about modern astronomical research out to the public. Past speakers have included Nobel Laureate Arno Penzias, Vera Rubin, Frank Drake, Sandra Faber, and other distinguished scientists.
Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Coltelli, Primo; Gualtieri, Paolo
A relatively small number of freshwater dinoflagellates are involved in symbiotic association with cryptophytes. The chloroplasts of the cryptophytes are retained by the dinoflagellate and give it the characteristic phycobilin pigmentation, either phycoerythrin or phycocyanin. The pigment characterization of the retained chloroplasts can give precise and accurate information about the type of cryptophyte preyed upon by the dinoflagellate. For this purpose, we performed microspectrophotometric evaluation of the pigments of Gymnodinium acidotum Nygaard and three different cryptophytes present in samples collected from a tributary of the river Arno, in Tuscany (Italy). The comparison of the different spectroscopic data allowed us to discriminate effectively among the cryptophytes preyed upon by the dinoflagellate.
Efficient pi-facial control in the ene reaction of nitrosoarene, triazolinedione, and singlet oxygen with tiglic amides of the bornane-derived sultam as chiral auxiliary: an economical synthesis of enantiomerically pure nitrogen- and oxygen-functionalized acrylic acid derivatives.
Adam, Waldemar; Degen, Hans-Georg; Krebs, Oliver; Saha-Möller, Chantu R
The ene reaction of 4-nitronitrosobenzene (ArNO), N-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), and singlet oxygen (1O2) with the optically active tiglic-acid derivatives of Oppolzer's bornane-derived sultam affords the respective ene products regioselectively in excellent diastereoselectivity (de up to 99%) and in good yield (55-90%). The enophiles ArNO and PTAD give with the methyl-substituted substrate exclusively the like-configured ene adduct, while 1O2 leads to an 83:17 diastereomeric mixture. With the sterically more demanding isopropyl-substituted derivative even the smallest enophile 1O2 forms exclusively the like diastereomer. The high diastereoselectivity is rationalized in terms of the proper conformational alignment of the substrate and a preferred enophilic attack from the C(beta)-re face of the double bond. This concept offers an efficient synthetic route to enantiomerically pure nitrogen- and oxygen-functionalized acrylic acid derivatives.
Weissleader, L.S.; Gilinsky, N.L.; Ross, R.M.; Cronin, T. M.
Bottom lagoonal sediment samples from 12 islands and atolls yielded >70 species representing >32 ostracode genera. All or most samples from a particular lagoon generally form distinct subgroups (Jaccard =0.45-0.50). At lower levels, 5 groups delineate faunal regions within Micronesia: the Gilbert Islands (Onotoa) in the SE part of the region, the N Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Rongelap, Bikini), the SE Marshall Islands (Kwajalein, Jaluit, Majuro, Arno), the Marianas and Caroline Islands (Guam, Truk, Pohnpei) and Pingelap. Pingelap, Kwajalein and Onotoa have the highest species richness (S=32-42) and Shannon-Wiener diversity values (H(S)=2.62-3.02) in the study area. Enewetak, Jaluit, Majuro and Arno show lower values (S=23-27, H(S)=2.29-2.70). Of the ostracode species living in Micronesia, 64.3% have Indo-West Pacific affinities, 7.1% are circumtropical, 5.7% have East Pacific-Caribbean affinities, 11.4% are endemic to Micronesia, and 11.4% have unknown affinities. If the SE Asian region is a primary species-source, results show that each Micronesian lagoon is equally likely to be colonized by dispersal from the source region, despite differences in distance from a hypothetical source. However, each lagoon has a distinct ostracode assemblage, probably the result of unique history of random colonization events, local extinctions and environmental disturbances. -from Authors
Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C.; Hume, Peter J.; Makin, Laura E.; Koronakis, Vassilis
ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1–WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway. PMID:24085844
Barrett, Stephen W.
In 1982, Glacier National Park (GNP) initiated long-term studies to document the fire history of all forested lands in the 410,000 ha. park. To date, studies have been conducted for GNP west of the Continental Divide (Barrett et al. 1991), roughly half of the total park area. These and other fire history studies in the Northern Rockies (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Arno 1980, Romme 1982, Romme and Despain 1989, Barrett and Arno 1991, Barrett 1993a, Barrett 1993b) have shown that fire history data can be an integral element of fire management planning, particularly wen natiral fire plans are being developed for parks and wilderness. The value of site specific fire history data is apparent when considering study results for lodgepole pin (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests. Lodgepole pine is a major subalpine type in the Northern Rockies and such stands experiences a wide range of presettlement fire patterns. On relatively warm-dry sites at lower elevations, such as in GNP's North Fork drainage (Barrett et al. 1991), short to moderately long interval (25-150 yr) fires occurred in a mixed severity pattern ranging from non-lethal underburns to total stand replacement (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Barrett and Arno 1991). Markedly different fire history occurred at high elevation lodgepole pine stands on highly unproductive sites, such as on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) subalpine plateau. Romme (1982) found that, on some sites, stand replacing fires recurred after very long intervals (300-400 yr), and that non-lethal surface fires were rare. For somewhat more productive sites in the Absaroka Mountains in YNP, Barrett (1993a) estimated a 200 year mean replacement interval, in a pattern similar to that found in steep mountain terrain elsewhere, such as in the Middle Fork Flathead River drainage (Barrett et al. 1991, Sneck 1977). Aside from post-1900 written records (ayres 1900; fire atlas data on file, GNP Archives Div. and GNP Resources Mgt. Div.), little fire history
This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.
Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.
Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.
Castelli, Fabio; Ercolani, Giulia
Data assimilation has the potential to improve flood forecasting. However, it is rarely employed in distributed hydrologic models for operational predictions. In this study, we present variational assimilation of river flow data at multiple locations and of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite in a distributed hydrologic model that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, in central Italy. LST is used to estimate initial condition of soil moisture through a coupled surface energy/water balance scheme. We present here several hindcast experiments to assess the performances of the assimilation system. The results show that assimilation can significantly improve flood forecasting, although in the limit of data error and model structure.
Most visitors to Florence, Italy, know about the Galleria dell'Accademia, housing Michelangelo's famous statue of David, or the Galleria degli Uffizi with the famous Medici collection. Few visitors know that only two blocks from the Uffizi on the Arno River is one of the world's finest museums featuring historic scientific instruments, the Museo di Storia della Scienza. In the February issue of TPT, Nickell states that the Museo di Storia della Scienza ``is perhaps the best museum on the history of science in the world.''1 This fact is likely true, and the museum is a must for physics teachers visiting Florence. It features a vast collection of authentic ``cutting-edge'' scientific instruments, including one of Galileo's lenses in a magnificent ebony and ivory frame. One of the tragedies is that this museum goes unmarked on many tourist maps and unmentioned in many guidebooks.
Peebles, P. James E.; Page, Lyman A., Jr.; Partridge, R. Bruce
1. Introduction; 2. A guide to modern cosmology; 3. Origins of the cosmology of the 1960s; 4. Recollections of the 1960s Dave Hogg, Neville Woolf, George B. Field, Patrick Thaddeus, Donald E. Osterbrock, Yuri Nikolaevich Smirnov, Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov, Andrei Georgievich Doroshkevich, Rashid Alievich Sunyaev, Malcolm S. Longair, Arno Penzias, Robert W. Wilson, Bernard F. Burke, Kenneth C. Turner, P. James E. Peebles, David T. Wilkinson, Peter G. Roll, R. Bruce Partridge, Malcolm S. Longair, John Faulkner, Robert V. Wagoner, Martin Rees, Geoffrey R. Burbidge, Jayant V. Narlikar, David Layzer, Michele Kaufman, Jasper V. Wall, John Shakeshaft, William Welch, Kazimir S. Stankevich, Paul Boynton, Robert A. Stokes, Martin Harwit, Judith L. Pipher, Kandiah Shivanandan, Rainer Weiss, Jer-tsang Yu, Rainer K. Sachs, Arthur M. Wolfe, Joe Silk, George F. R. Ellis, Ronald N. Bracewell, Edward K. Conklin, Stephen Boughn, Karl C. Davis, Paul S. Henry; 5. Cosmology and the CMBR since the 1960s Dick Bond; Appendixes; Glossary; References; Index.
Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro
The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of
This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.
Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio
Data assimilation (DA) is widely recognized as a powerful tool to improve flood forecasts, and the need for an effective transition of research advances into operational forecasting systems has been increasingly claimed in recent years. Nevertheless, the majority of studies investigates DA capabilities through synthetic experiments, while applications conducted from an operational perspective are rare. In this work we present variational assimilation of discharge data at multiple locations in a distributed hydrologic model (Mobidic) that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, in central Italy.The variational approach needs the derivation of an adjoint model, that is challenging for hydrologic models, but it requires less restrictive hypothesis than Kalman and Monte Carlo filters and smoothers. The developed assimilation system adjusts on a distributed basis initial condition of discharge, initial condition of soil moisture and a parameter representing the frequency of no-rainfall in a time step. The correction evaluated at discharge measurement stations spreads upstream thanks to the coupling between equations of flow channel routing, that results into the coupling between equations of the adjoint model. Sequential assimilations are realized on windows of 6 hours. We extensively examine the performances of the DA system through several hindcast experiments that mimic operational conditions. The case studies include both flood events and false alarms that occurred in the period 2009-2010 in the Arno river basin (about 8230 km2).The hydrologic model is run with the spatial and temporal resolutions that are employed operationally, i.e. 500 m and 15 minutes.The enhancement in discharge forecasts is evaluated through classical performance indexes as error on peak flow and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, with strong emphasis on the dependence on lead time. In addition, uncertainty of the estimations is assessed using the Hessian of the cost function
Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio
Data assimilation (DA) has the potential of improving hydrologic forecasts. However, many issues arise in case it is employed for spatially distributed hydrologic models that describes processes in various compartments: large dimensionality of the inverse problem, layers governed by different equations, non-linear and discontinuous model structure, complex topology of domains such as surface drainage and river network.On the other hand, integrated models offer the possibility of improving prediction of specific states by exploiting observations of quantities belonging to other compartments. In terms of forecasting river discharges, and hence for their enhancement, soil moisture is a key variable, since it determines the partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and surface runoff. However, soil moisture measurements are affected by issues that could prevent a successful DA and an actual improvement of discharge predictions.In-situ measurements suffer a dramatic spatial scarcity, while observations from satellite are barely accurate and provide spatial information only at a very coarse scale (around 40 km).Hydrologic models that explicitly represent land surface processes of coupled water and energy balance provide a valid alternative to direct DA of soil moisture.They gives the possibility of inferring soil moisture states through DA of remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST), whose measurements are more accurate and with a higher spatial resolution in respect to those of soil moisture. In this work we present the assimilation of LST data in a hydrologic model (Mobidic) that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, central Italy, with the aim of improving flood predictions. Mobidic is a raster based, continuous in time and distributed in space hydrologic model, with coupled mass and energy balance at the surface and coupled groundwater and surface hydrology. The variational approach is adopted for DA, since it requires less
Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy
Teratogenesis has been a topic of increasing interest and concern in recent years, generating controversy in association with danger to humans and other living things. A veritable host of chemicals is known to be involved, encompassing a wide variety of classes, both organic and inorganic. Contact with these chemicals is virtually unavoidable due to contamination of air, water, ground, food, beverages, and household items, as well as exposure to medicinals. The resulting adverse effects on reproduction are numerous. There is uncertainty regarding the mode of action of these chemicals, although various theories have been advanced, e.g., disruption of the central nervous system (CNS), DNA attack, enzyme inhibition, interference with hormonal action, and insult to membranes, proteins, and mitochondria. This review provides extensive evidence for involvement of oxidative stress (OS) and electron transfer (ET) as a unifying theme. Successful application of the mechanistic approach is made to all of the main classes of toxins, in addition to large numbers of miscellaneous types. We believe it is not coincidental that the vast majority of these substances incorporate ET functionalities (quinone, metal complex, ArNO2, or conjugated iminium) either per se or in metabolites, potentially giving rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS) by redox cycling. Some categories, e.g., peroxides and radiation, appear to generate ROS by non-ET routes. Other mechanisms are briefly addressed; a multifaceted approach to mode of action appears to be the most logical. Our framework should increase understanding and contribute to preventative measures, such as use of antioxidants.
Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan
The San Rossore Natural Park, located on the Tuscany (Italy) coast, has been utilized over the last 10 years for many remote sensing campaigns devoted to coastal zone monitoring. A wet area is located in the south-west part of the Natural Park and it is characterized by a system of ponds and dunes formed by sediment deposition occurring at the Arno River estuary. The considerable amount of collected data has permitted us to investigate the evolution of wetland spreading and land coverage as well as to retrieve relevant biogeochemical parameters, e.g. green biomass, from remote sensing images and products. This analysis has proved that the monitoring of coastal wetlands, characterized by shallow waters, moor and dunes, demands dedicated aerospace sensors with high spatial and spectral resolution. The outcomes of the processing of images gathered during several remote sensing campaigns by airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral sensors are presented and discussed. A particular effort has been devoted to sensor response calibration and data validation due to the complex heterogeneity of the observed natural surfaces.
Bak, Dongsu; Min, Hyunsoo; Rey, Soo-Jong
We study issues concerning perturbative integrability of N=6 Chern-Simons theory at planar and weak 't Hooft coupling regime. By Feynman diagrammatics, we derive so-called maximal-ranged interactions in the quantum dilatation generator, originating from homogeneous and inhomogeneous diagrams. The dilatation operator requires proper regularization of ultraviolet and infrared divergences and also bears scheme dependence depending on operator-mixing or two-point function methods adopted. We first consider the standard operator-mixing method. We show that homogeneous diagrams are obtainable by recursive method to all orders. The method, however, is not easily extendable to inhomogeneous diagrams. We thus consider two-point function method and study both operator contents and the spectrum of the quantum dilatation generator up to six-loop orders. Within this scheme, we show that, of two possible classes of operators, only one linear combination actually contributes. Curiously, this is exactly the same combination as in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. From these operators, we extract a spectrum of anomalous dimension up to six loops. We find that the spectrum agrees perfectly with the prediction based on quantum integrability. In evaluating the six-loop diagrams, we utilized a remarkable integer-relation algorithm developed by Ferguson, Baily, and Arno.
Komarov, Sergey V; Nemeth, Szabolcs; Hirasawa, Masahiro
The present study focuses on a possibility for improving NO removal efficiency from flue gas by application of powerful sound waves. The sound waves (frequency 6.9-17.2kHz, intensity 144-160dB) are propagated from Hartmann sound generators to a preheated graphite disk inside a vertical reaction tube (height 1.8m, I.D. 105mm). An Ar-NO synthetic mixture (NO 911-934ppm) is blown onto the disk surface to perform reactions in the system C-NO. It is found that the NO reduction rate can be significantly enhanced by the sound waves but the enhancement effect is dependent on the sound frequency, intensity and temperature of disk surface. The better effects are obtained at a temperature of 973K and sound frequencies between 9.6 and 12.4kHz. Under these conditions, the sound application results in 3-5-fold enhancement of NO reduction rate. The obtained effects are explained in terms of gas-phase mass transfer controlling mechanism and of near surface turbulent diffusivity.
Camuffo, D.; Sturaro, G.; Valentino, A.
Among the peculiarities of the urban climatology, a relevant one concerns the interactions with monuments, which include stone weathering, deposition and removal of airborne pollutants. In order to know more about the case of the Pisa Leaning Tower, Italy, a field survey has been made for one year, measuring the microclimate interacting with the structure, the vertical temperature and humidity profiles, the Tower surface temperature at different locations and the concentration of particles in air. Also more general information was collected studying the meteorological parameters in the area of Pisa. The correlation between rainfalls and wind evidenced that the windborne droplets arrive from preferential directions, determined on the regional scale by the sea shore on the west (sea breeze) and the channelling operated by the valley of the Arno river on the west. The tilting of the Tower gives a natural shield to the southern part, which is hardly washed by rainfall. The complex balance between airborne particulate matter deposition, tower tilting, rainfall washout and surface runoff determines the pattern of the black crusts which disfigure the elegance of this historical building. The land and sea breezes transport air with different moisture content, and the urban heat island accentuates the mid day drop on relative humidity, determining condensation-evaporation cycles in the stone micropores. The urban climatology of Pisa and the interactions with the Leaning Tower are discussed in view of the conservation of this monument.
Xie, Xiayang; Tang, Shou-Ching; Cai, Yafei; Pi, Wenhu; Deng, Libin; Wu, Guangyu; Chavanieu, Alain; Teng, Yong
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in breast cancer patients, which is controlled by specific sets of genes. Targeting these genes may provide a means to delay cancer progression and allow local treatment to be more effective. We report for the first time that ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is the most amplified gene in ARF gene family in breast cancer, and high-level amplification of ARF1 is associated with increased mRNA expression and poor outcomes of patients with breast cancer. Knockdown of ARF1 leads to significant suppression of migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. Using the orthotopic xenograft model in NSG mice, we demonstrate that loss of ARF1 expression in breast cancer cells inhibits pulmonary metastasis. The zebrafish-metastasis model confirms that the ARF1 gene depletion suppresses breast cancer cells to metastatic disseminate throughout fish body, indicating that ARF1 is a very compelling target to limit metastasis. ARF1 function largely dependents on its activation and LM11, a cell-active inhibitor that specifically inhibits ARF1 activation through targeting the ARF1-GDP/ARNO complex at the Golgi, significantly impairs metastatic capability of breast cancer cell in zebrafish. These findings underline the importance of ARF1 in promoting metastasis and suggest that LM11 that inhibits ARF1 activation may represent a potential therapeutic approach to prevent or treat breast cancer metastasis. PMID:27517156
Aricò, Costanza; Nasello, Carmelo; Tucciarelli, Tullio
A novel methodology for simultaneous discharge and channel roughness estimation is developed and applied to data sets available at three experimental sites. The methodology is based on the synchronous measurement of water level data in two river sections far some kilometers from each other, as well as on the use of a diffusive flow routing solver and does not require any direct velocity measurement. The methodology is first analyzed for the simplest case of a channel with a large slope, where the kinematic assumption holds. A sensitivity and a model error analysis are carried out in this hypothesis in order to show the stability of the results with respect to the error in the input parameters in the case of homogeneous roughness and to analyze the effect of unknown roughness heterogeneity on the estimated discharges. The methodology is then extended to the more general case of channels with mild slope and validated using field data previously collected in three Italian rivers: the Arno (in Tuscany), the Tiber (in Latium) and the Vallo di Diana, a small tributary of the Tanagro river (in Southern Italy). The performance of the proposed algorithm has been investigated according to three performance criteria estimating the quality of the match between the measured and the computed stage and discharge hydrographs. Results of the field tests can be considered good, despite the uncertainties of the field data and of the measured values.
Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A.; Fedi, M. E.; Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J.; Cartocci, A.; Calabrisotto, C. Scirè
Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.
Bartolini Lucenti, Saverio; Rook, Lorenzo
The fossil canid material recovered from the Early Pleistocene site of Poggio Rosso offers the opportunity to revise the taxonomical status of the Arno River dog, Canis arnensis. To date, the identification of this species is still a matter of debate due, on the one hand, to the poor state of preservation of the type specimens, and on the other hand to the lack of homogeneous descriptions and a clear diagnosis. The fossils recovered from Poggio Rosso show a good state of preservation with little (if any) plastic deformation, allowing re-evaluation of the dental and cranial characters typical of this species, as well as the proposal, for the first time, of a precise and specific diagnosis. The anatomical and morphometric features of C. arnensis exclude a close taxonomical relationship with the coeval Canis etruscus, suggesting instead a closer affinity to modern canids. The C. arnensis arrived in Italy around 1.9 Ma as the result of a dispersal event, and Poggio Rosso is the first Italian site recording the occurrence of this species. The dispersal of C. arnensis represents the arrival of the first modern canids in Europe and is therefore a significantly important biochronological event in European faunal assemblages.
Bencini, A.; Ercolanelli, R.; Sbaragli, A.; Verrucchi, C.
Geochemical and hydrogeological research has been carried out on 109 wells in the alluvial plain of Florence, in order to evaluate conductivity and main chemistry of ground waters, the pattern of some possible pollutant chemical species (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, NO2, NO3), and the vulnerability of the aquifers. The plain is made up of Plio-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine sediments for a maximum thickness of 600 m. Silts and clays, sometimes with lenses of sandy gravels, are dominant, while considerable deposits of sands, pebbles, and gravels occur along the course of the Arno river and its tributary streams, and represent the most important aquifer of the plain. The groundwaters analyzed belong to this aquifer or to the smaller ones, hosted in the gravel lenses. Most waters show conductivity values around 1000 1200 μS, and almost all of them have an alkaline-earth-bicarbonate chemical character; these features are consistent with the mainly calcareous lithology of the aquifers. In the western areas a higher salt content of the groundwaters is evident, probably related to the presence of industrial activities which use water desalinators. Heavy metal and NO2, NO3 analyses point out that no important pollution phenomena affect the groundwaters; all the mean values of the chemical considered species are below the maximum admissible concentration (MAC) fixed by the European Community for drinkable waters. Nevertheless, some anomalies of NO2, NO3, Fe, Mn, and Zn are present in the plain. Apart from Mn, which seems to be released by certain calcareous gravels, the other anomalies have a local influence, since they disappear even in the nearest wells. The most plausible causes can be recognized in losses of the sewage system (NO2=3 4 mg/t); use of nitrate compounds in agriculture (NO3=60 70 mg/l); oxidation of well pipes (Fe ≈ 20 mg/l; Zn ≈ 6 mg/l). As regards Cr, Cu, and Pb, all the observations are below the MAC; therefore, the median values of < 3, 3.9, and 1
Colombo, Giorgio L; Rossi, Elisa; De Rosa, Marisa; Benedetto, Danilo; Gaddi, Antonio V
Background Type 2 diabetes has become a disease with a high economic and social impact. The ARNO Observatory is a clinical data warehouse consisting of a network of local health care units (ASL) scattered throughout the Italian territory which collects data on health care consumption for about 10.5 million people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of antidiabetic drugs with particular reference to type of treatment. The analyses were carried out on a sample of 169,375 patients treated with oral blood glucose-lowering drugs in 2008 from a total population of 4,040,624 health care beneficiaries at 12 local health care units in the ARNO Observatory. Methods Patients were considered “on treatment with oral blood glucose-lowering drugs” if they had received at least one prescription of an antidiabetic drug (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A10B) during 2008. The patients were divided into three treatment groups, ie, monotherapy, fixed-combination drugs, and dual therapy. The following indicators were assessed: number of patients treated with an oral antidiabetic drug, mean number of hospitalizations, mean number of specialist examinations, and mean expenditure per treated patient. Adherence was assessed using the medication possession ratio indicator (MPR). Results Patients treated with oral blood glucose-lowering drugs comprised 4.2% of the investigated population, and had an average age of 68.9 years. The mean annual number of hospitalizations was lower in the dual therapy group (298 versus 328 per 1000 patients in the sample), while the average number of specialist examinations was lower in the fixed-combination group (30.1 versus 35.1). Patients on monotherapy showed a better percentage of adherence for glimepiride (70.5%) and pioglitazone (70.4%), whereas the best adherence in the fixed-combination therapy group was recorded for metformin + pioglitazone (75.5%). The average annual cost per diabetic patient was €2388, with differences
Peurois, François; Veyron, Simon; Ferrandez, Yann; Ladid, Ilham; Benabdi, Sarah; Zeghouf, Mahel; Peyroche, Gérald; Cherfils, Jacqueline
Attachment of active, GTP-bound small GTPases to membranes by post-translational lipid modifications is pivotal for their ability to process and propagate information in cells. However, generating and manipulating lipidated GTPases has remained difficult, which has limited our quantitative understanding of their activation by GEFs and their termination by GAPs. Here we replaced the lipid modification by a histidine tag in eleven full-length, human small GTPases belonging to the Arf, Rho and Rab families, which allowed to tether them to nickel-lipid containing membranes and characterize the kinetics of their activation by GEFs. Remarkably this strategy uncovered large effects of membranes on the efficiency and/or specificity in all systems studied. Notably, it recapitulated the release of autoinhibition of Arf1, Arf3, Arf4, Arf5 and Arf6 GTPases by membranes and revealed that all isoforms are efficiently activated by two GEFs with different regulatory regimes, ARNO and Brag2. It demonstrated that membranes stimulate the GEF activity of Trio towards RhoG by ≈30 fold and Rac1 by ≈10 fold, and uncovered a previously unknown broader specificity towards RhoA and Cdc42 that was undetectable in solution. Finally, it demonstrated that the exceptional affinity of the bacterial RabGEF DrrA for the phosphoinositide PI(4)P delimits the activation of Rab1 to the immediate vicinity of the membrane-bound GEF. Our study thus validates the histidine tag strategy as a potent and simple means to mimic small GTPases lipidation, which opens broad perspectives of applications to uncover regulations brought about by membranes.
Catani, Filippo; Tofani, Veronica; Lagomarsino, Daniela
The magnitude of mass movements, which may be expressed by their dimension in terms of area or volume, is an important component of intensity together with velocity. In the case of slow-moving deep-seated landslides, the expected magnitude is the prevalent parameter for defining intensity when assessed as a spatially distributed variable in a given area. In particular, the frequency-volume statistics of past landslides may be used to understand and predict the magnitude of new landslides and reactivations. In this paper we study the spatial properties of volume frequency distributions in the Arno river basin (Central Italy, about 9100 km2). The overall landslide inventory taken into account (around 27,500 events) shows a power-law scaling of volumes for values greater than a cutoff value of about 2 × 104 m3. We explore the variability of the power-law exponent in the geographic space by setting up local subsets of the inventory based on neighbourhoods with radii between 5 and 50 km. We found that the power-law exponent α varies according to geographic position and that the exponent itself can be treated as a random space variable with autocorrelation properties both at local and regional scale. We use this finding to devise a simple method to map the magnitude frequency distribution in space and to create maps of exceeding probability of landslide volume for risk analysis. We also study the causes of spatial variation of α by analysing the dependence of power-law properties on geological and geomorphological factors, and we find that structural settings and valley density exert a strong influence on mass movement dimensions.
Preusterink, J.; Foing, B. H.; Kaskes, P.
An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sebastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft. Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium "Moon, Mars and More" at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion.
Kim, Dongwook; Duckworth, Owen W.; Strathmann, Timothy J.
Recent studies show that ferrous iron (Fe II), which is often abundant in anaerobic soil and groundwater, is capable of abiotically reducing many subsurface contaminants. However, studies also demonstrate that Fe II redox reactivity in geochemical systems is heavily dependent upon metal speciation. This contribution examines the influence of hydroxamate ligands, including the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB), on Fe II reactions with nitroaromatic groundwater contaminants (NACs). Experimental results demonstrate that ring-substituted NACs are reduced to the corresponding aniline products in aqueous solutions containing Fe II complexes with DFOB and two monohydroxamate ligands (acetohydroxamic acid and salicylhydroxamic acid). Reaction rates are heavily dependent upon solution conditions and the identities of both the Fe II-complexing hydroxamate ligand and the target NAC. Trends in the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants for reduction of 4-chloronitrobenzene ( kobs, s -1) are quantitatively linked to the formation of Fe II species with standard one-electron reduction potentials, EH0 (Fe III/Fe II), below -0.3 V. Linear free energy relationships correlate reaction rates with the EH0 (Fe III/Fe II) values of different electron-donating Fe II complexes and with the apparent one-electron reduction potentials of different electron-accepting NACs, EH1'(ArNO 2). Experiments describing a redox auto-decomposition mechanism for Fe II-DFOB complexes that occurs at neutral pH and has implications for the stability of hydroxamate siderophores in anaerobic environments are also presented. Results from this study indicate that hydroxamates and other Fe III-stabilizing organic ligands can form highly redox-active Fe II complexes that may contribute to the natural attenuation and remediation of subsurface contaminants.
The iron chalcogenide FeTe 1-x Se x is structurally the simplest of the Fe-based superconductors and exhibits a Fermi surface similar to iron pnictides. Despite this similarity, the parent compound Fe 1+y Te orders antiferromagnetically with an in-plane magnetic wave vector (π ,0) with an ordered moment of ~ 2 μB /Fe, suggestive of a localized rather than itinerant character of the magnetic order. This contrasts the pnictide parent compounds where the magnetic order has an in-plane magnetic wave vector (π , π) that likely arises from Fermi Surface nesting. Regardless both the pnictide and chalcogenide Fe superconductors exhibit a superconducting spin resonance around (π , π) as probed by neutron scattering. A central question in this burgeoning field is therefore how (π , π) superconductivity emerges from a (π ,0) magnetic instability ? Using neutron scattering we show that incommensurate magnetic excitations around (π , π) are found even in the undoped parent compound Fe 1+y Te. With increasing x , the (π ,0)-type magnetic long-range order becomes unstable and correlates with a weak charge carrier localization, while the mode at (π , π) becomes dominant for x>0.29. Our results suggest a common magnetic origin for superconductivity in iron chalcogenide and pnictide superconductors. This work was carried out in close collaboration with the groups of W.Bao (Renmin), Arno Hies (ILL), Zhiqiang Mao (Tulane), C. Brohom (John Hopkins) and I. Eremin (MPI-Dresden/Bochum). Authors thanks Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin and the DFG (under SPP 1458) for support.
Rody, A; V Minckwitz, G; Loibl, S; Kaufmann, M
The adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal, hormonereceptor positive breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors in ATAC, ABCSG 8/ ARNO 95 and IES trial revealed just a benefit in terms of disease-free survival, but not for over-all survival. Thus MA-17 trial is so far the only study which could demonstrate a survival benefit for node positive disease by "extended adjuvant" therapy with letrozole. Node- and receptorpositive, postmenopausal women show a higher benefit by anthracycline containing chemotherapy in combination with tamoxifen, than by endocrine therapy alone. But tamoxifen should given sequentially to chemotherapy (Intergroup 0100/ SWOG-8814 trial). Adjuvant chemotherapy with three cycles FEC followed by three cycles docetaxel reveals a survival benefit compared to six cycles FEC, especially in women older than 50 years (PACS 01 trial). Furthermore there is evolving evidence that dose-dense, interval shortened chemotherapy is superior to standard chemotherapy in adjuvant setting. The impaired survival of receptornegative, nodalpositive breast cancer patients seems to be converted to a survival improvement compared with receptorpositive patients by modern adjuvant cytotoxic regimens (metaanalysis CALGB 8541, 9344, 9741). In primary systemic chemotherapy survival is strongly associated with the rate of pathohistological complete remissions (NSABP B-27). The combination of cytotoxic drugs has no further influence on survival, but the sequential administration of taxane increases the rate of pCR. A difference in survival stratified by pCR and non-pCR in breast and positive nodal status could not be detected, so that the number of involved lymph nodes seems to be the strongest prognostic factor and is independent of tumor response in the breast. The sentinel node biopsy is a safe and reliable method, but the rate of false negative findings depends on the pathohistological methods (NSABP B-32). The morbidity of this method is low compared with conventional
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Brothers, Thomas D.; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; Dolci, Giovanni; Santoro, Antonella; Beghetto, Barbara; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussini, Cristina; Falutz, Julian
Objective People aging with HIV might have different health conditions compared with people who seroconverted at older ages. The study objective was to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for, individual co-morbidities and multimorbidity (MM) between HIV-positive patients with a longer duration of HIV infection, and patients who seroconverted at an older age. We compared estimates across both groups to a matched community-based cohort sampled from the general population. Methods We performed a case-control study including antiretroviral therapy (ART)–experienced patients who were HIV seropositive for ≥ 20.6 years (“HIV-Aging”), or who were seropositive for < 11.3 years (“HIV-Aged”) having access in 2013 at the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic. Patients were matched in a 1:3 ratio with controls from the CINECA ARNO database. MM was defined as the concurrent presence of >2 NICM. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICM and MM. Results We analysed 404 HIV-Aging and 404 HIV-Aged participants in comparison to 2424 controls. The mean age was 46.7±6.2 years, 28.9% were women. Prevalence of HIV co-morbidities and MM were significantly higher in the HIV-positive groups compared to the general population (p<0.001) and a trend towards higher rates of MM was found in aging vs aged group. This difference turned to be significant in patients above the age of 45 years old (p<0.001). Conclusions People aging with HIV display heterogeneous health conditions. Host factors and duration of HIV infection are associated with increased risk of MM compared to the general population. PMID:25874806
Chusai, Chatinai; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Thepanondh, Sarawut
Map Ta Phut industrial area (MA) is the largest industrial complex in Thailand. There has been concern about many air pollutants over this area. Air quality management for the area is known to be difficult, due to lack of understanding of how emissions from different sources or sectors (e.g., industrial, power plant, transportation, and residential) contribute to air quality degradation in the area. In this study, a dispersion study of NO2 and SO2 was conducted using the AERMOD model. The area-specific emission inventories of NOx and SO2 were prepared, including both stack and nonstack sources, and divided into 11 emission groups. Annual simulations were performed for the year 2006. Modeled concentrations were evaluated with observations. Underestimation of both pollutants was Jbund, and stack emission estimates were scaled to improve the modeled results before quantifying relative roles of individual emission groups to ambient concentration overfour selected impacted areas (two are residential and the others are highly industrialized). Two concentration measures (i.e., annual average area-wide concentration or AC, and area-wide robust highest concentration or AR) were used to aggregately represent mean and high-end concentrations Jbfor each individual area, respectively. For AC-NO2, on-road mobile emissions were found to be the largest contributor in the two residential areas (36-38% of total AC-NO2), while petrochemical-industry emissions play the most important role in the two industrialized areas (34-51%). For AR-NO2, biomass burning has the most influence in all impacted areas (>90%) exceptJor one residential area where on-road mobile is the largest (75%). For AC-SO2, the petrochemical industry contributes most in all impacted areas (38-56%). For AR-SO2, the results vary. Since the petrochemical industry was often identified as the major contributor despite not being the largest emitter, air quality workers should pay special attention to this emission group
Chusai, Chatinai; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Thepanondh, Sarawut
Map Ta Phut industrial area (MA) is the largest industrial complex in Thailand. There has been concern about many air pollutants over this area. Air quality management for the area is known to be difficult, due to lack of understanding of how emissions from different sources or sectors (e.g., industrial, power plant, transportation, and residential) contribute to air quality degradation in the area. In this study, a dispersion study of NO2 and SO2 was conducted using the AERMOD model. The area-specific emission inventories of NOx and SO2 were prepared, including both stack and nonstack sources, and divided into 11 emission groups. Annual simulations were performed for the year 2006. Modeled concentrations were evaluated with observations. Underestimation of both pollutants was found, and stack emission estimates were scaled to improve the modeled results before quantifying relative roles of individual emission groups to ambient concentration over four selected impacted areas (two are residential and the others are highly industrialized). Two concentration measures (i.e., annual average area-wide concentration or AC, and area-wide robust highest concentration or AR) were used to aggregately represent mean and high-end concentrations for each individual area, respectively. For AC-NO2, on-road mobile emissions were found to be the largest contributor in the two residential areas (36-38% of total AC-NO2), while petrochemical-industry emissions play the most important role in the two industrialized areas (34-51%). For AR-NO2, biomass burning has the most influence in all impacted areas (>90%) except for one residential area where on-road mobile is the largest (75%). For AC-SO2, the petrochemical industry contributes most in all impacted areas (38-56%). For AR-SO2, the results vary. Since the petrochemical industry was often identified as the major contributor despite not being the largest emitter, air quality workers should pay special attention to this emission group
Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Martín Davila, José; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Vera, Angel; Ciberia, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Strollo, Angelo; Hanka, Winfried; Carranza, Marta
In recent years several Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) have been developed for different parts of the world. The area between SW Cape St. Vicente and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the most seismically active zones in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, with predominantly moderate and superficial seismicity, but also big events with associated tsunamis are well documented in the area, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In the frame of the ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) Spanish projects, the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS, regional approach, prototype has been developed at the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and is being tested in near real time for south Iberia. This prototype, based on the SeisComP3 software package, is largely based on algorithms derived from the analysis of the first seconds of the P wave records. Calculation of several parameters are carried out, mainly the characteristic period (τc) and the displacement peak (Pd), but also the velocity peak (Pv), the maximum period (τPmáx), among others. In order to warm the areas closest to the hypocentre, places located inside the "blind zone", a on-site EEWS has also been developed by ROA and integrated in the ALERTES-SC3 prototype. From the on-site approach, a warm level is declared from one station as a function of the estimated characteristic period (τc) and the displacement Peak (Pd), although the earthquake location and therefore the lead time available remains unknown. This on-site EEWS is being tested in several Western Mediterranean net (WM) stations as ARNO (Arenosillo, Huelva,Spain) or CHAS (Chafarinas island, North Africa, Spain). Also an on-site low cost station is being developed based in low cost accelerometers. In this work the current state of the on-site EEWS developed, its integration in the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS system and the low cost seismic stations are shown.
Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo
The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data
Naka, Daisuke; Kim, Dongwook; Carbonaro, Richard F; Strathmann, Timothy J
Complexation of Fe(II) by dissolved and surface-bound ligands can significantly modify the metal's redox reactivity, and recent work reveals that Fe(II) complexes with selected classes of organic ligands are potent reductants that may contribute to the natural attenuation of subsurface contaminants. In the present study, we investigated the reactivity of Fe(II)-organothiol ligand complexes with nitroaromatic contaminants (NACs; ArNO(2)). Experimental results show that NACs are unreactive in Fe(2+)-only and ligand-only solutions but are reduced to the corresponding aniline compounds (ArNH(2)) in solutions containing both Fe(II) and a number of organothiol ligands. Observed reaction rates are highly dependent on the structure of the Fe(II)-complexing ligand, solution composition, Fe(II) speciation, and NAC structure. For two model ligands, cysteine and thioglycolic acid, observed pseudo-first order rate constants for 4-chloronitrobenzene reduction (k(obs); 1/s) are linearly correlated with the concentration of the respective 1:2 Fe(II)- organothiol complexes (FeL(2)(2-)), and k(obs) measurements are accurately predicted by k(obs) = k(FeL(2-)(2))[FeL(2-)(2)], where k(FeL(2-)(2)) = 1.70 (+/-0.59) 1/M/s and 26.0 (+/-4.8) 1/M/s for cysteine and thioglycolic acid, respectively. The high reactivity of these Fe(II) complexes is attributed to a lowering of the standard one-electron reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple on complexation by organothiol ligands. The relative reactivity of a series of substituted NACs with individual Fe(II) complexes can be described by linear free-energy relationships with the apparent one-electron reduction potentials of the NACs. Tests also show that organothiol ligands can further promote NAC reduction indirectly by re-reducing the Fe(III) that forms when Fe(II) complexes are oxidized by reactions with the NACs.
Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara
The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the
With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics
Astronomers using an international network of radio telescopes have produced a "movie" showing details of the expansion of debris from an exploding star. Their sequence of images constitutes the best determination yet made of the details of a new supernova remnant, and already has raised new questions about such events. The scientists used radio telescopes in Europe and the United States, including the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to make very high- resolution images of Supernova 1993J, which was discovered by a Spanish amateur astronomer on March 28, 1993 in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major. Their results are reported in the December 1 issue of the journal Science. The "movie" is based on five images of the supernova, made during 1993 and 1994. The work was done by: Jon Marcaide and Eduardo Ros of the University of Valencia, Spain; Antxon Alberdi of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Institute of Astrophysics at Andalucia, Spain; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Irwin Shapiro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Jose-Carlos Guirado, Dayton Jones and Robert Preston of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA; Thomas Krichbaum and Arno Witzel of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany; Franco Mantovani of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy; Antonio Rius of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Center for Advanced Studies at Blanes, Spain; Richard Schilizzi of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands; Corrado Trigilio of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Noto, Italy; and Alan Whitney of the MIT- Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts. The capability to make such high-quality images with widely
Haustgen, Thierry; Akiskal, Hagop
Although first detailed descriptions of what we today term "bipolar disorders" are generally attributed to E. Kraepelin [Kraepelin, E., 1899 (1976 tr). Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. (reprint of English translation). Arno, New York], a review of French psychiatric literature from Esquirol to the middle of 20th century reveals major clinical contributions to the development of the concept of cyclic mood disorders, their phenomenology and classification as embodied in DSM-IV. The main treatise was published by the Paris psychiatric schools of Salpêtrière, Bicêtre, Charenton, Sainte-Anne and Vanves. Already much before Kraepelin, French authors had described most symptoms and the course of future DSM-IV bipolar, manic, major depressive [Falret, J.-P., 1854. De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par l'alternative régulière de la manie et de la mélancolie, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 382-400.; Baillarger, J., 1854. Note sur un genre de folie dont les accès sont caractérisés par deux périodes régulières, l'une de dépression, l'autre d'excitation, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 340 et Ann. Méd. Psychol. XII, 369], hypomanic and mixed episodes [Falret, J., 1861. Principes à suivre dans la classification des maladies mentales, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XIX, 145.; Falret, J., 1866, 1867. La folie raisonnante ou folie morale, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XXIV, 382, XXV, 68], as well as - under other names - the characteristics of bipolar II disorder, various specifiers describing mood episode and course of recurrent episodes [Ritti, A., 1883. Traité clinique de la folie à double forme (folie, circulaire, délire à formes alternes). Doin, Paris]. The synthesis of these clinical observations led to Magnan's "intermittent madness" (1893), a precursor of Kraepelin's "manic-depressive psychosis". After 1899, French authors generally adhered to their classification of autonomous depressive disorder (melancholia), as distinct from manic-depressive insanity
Makes Galaxies, at NRAO facilities in Charlottesville, Virginia, Green Bank, West Virginia, and Socorro, New Mexico. The dates of these scientific lectures, which are open to the public, will be announced later. This is the forty-third Jansky Lectureship. First awarded in 1966, it is named in honor of the man who, in 1932, first detected radio waves from a cosmic source. Karl Jansky's discovery of radio waves from the central region of the Milky Way started the science of radio astronomy. Other recipients of the Jansky award include five Nobel laureates (Drs. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson, William Fowler, and Joseph Taylor) as well as Jocelyn Bell-Burnell, discoverer of the first pulsar, and Vera Rubin, discoverer of dark matter in galaxies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.
2001. He initiated the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), a 12-meter diameter telescope high in Chile's Atacama Desert, where the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is being built. APEX pioneered submillimeter-wavelength observations at Atacama, proving the quality of the site for such research. As Jansky Lecturer, Menten will give a presentation entitled, "Tuning in to the Molecular Universe," at NRAO facilities in Charlottesville, Virginia, Green Bank, West Virginia, and Socorro, New Mexico. The dates of these lectures, which are free and open to the public, will be announced later this summer. This is the forty-second Jansky Lectureship. First awarded in 1966, it is named in honor of the man who, in 1932, first detected radio waves from a cosmic source. Karl Jansky's discovery of radio waves from the central region of the Milky Way started the science of radio astronomy. Other recipients of the Jansky award include five Nobel laureates (Drs. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson, William Fowler, and Joseph Taylor) as well as Jocelyn Bell-Burnell, discoverer of the first pulsar, and Vera Rubin, discoverer of dark matter in galaxies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.
Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis
Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.
All papers published in this Volume 12 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga, Dr Sebastian Muntean and Dr Sandor Bernad. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the Scientific Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Anton ANTONTechnical University of Civil Engineering, BucharestRomania François AVELLANEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland Fidel ARZOLAEDELCAVenezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNERVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Anton BERGANTLitostroj Power d.o.o., LjubljanaSlovenia Gerard BOISENSAM, LilleFrance Hermod BREKKENTNU, TrondheimNorway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc., YorkUSA Eduard EGUSQUIZAPolytechnical University Catalonia BarcelonaSpain Arpad FAYUniversity of MiskolczHungary Richard FISHERVoith Hydro Inc., York USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLAInstitut Polytechnique de GrenobleFrance Aleksandar GAJICUniversity of BelgradeSerbia Arno GEHRERAndritz Hydro GrazAustria José GONZÁLEZUniversidad de OviedoSpain François GUIBAULTEcole Polytechnique de MontrealCanada Chisachi KATOUniversity of TokyoJapan Kwang-Yong KIMInha University, IncheonKorea Jiri KOUTNIKVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Adrian LUNGUDunarea de Jos University of GalatiRomania Christophe NICOLETPower Vision Engineering Sàrl, LausanneSwitzerland Torbjøm K. NIELSENNTNU, TrodheimNorway Michihiro NISHIKyushu Institute of TechnologyJapan Maryse PAGEHydro Quebec IREQ, VarennesCanada Etienne PARKINSONAndritz Hydro LtdSwitzerland František POCHYLYBrno UniversityCzech Republic Stefan RIEDELBAUCHVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG
Rody, A; Loibl, S; Kaufmann, M
This years ASCO-meeting reinforced the trend of the recent years to get off from empirical treatment concepts to tailored and individualized diagnostics and therapy. However, the basis for an individual therapy is a specific molecular diagnostic which can be reflected in the analysis of hormonal receptor, HER-1, HER-2 and topoisomerase IIalpha in breast cancer. All these markers are not only able to prognosticate the course of disease but they also can predict the success of specific treatment approaches. Trastuzumab is standard therapy in HER-2 positive breast cancer both in the adjuvant and palliative setting. But new therapeutic agents, as e. g. lapatinib, are promising in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer even if trastuzumab is failing. Otherwise it might possibly be an alternative option but adequate clinical results have to be awaited. The targeted inactivation of EGFR-related signal transduction pathways by e. g. gefitinib did not show a substantial improvement neither as a single agent nor in combination with endocrine treatment. However, the appropriate subgroup which might benefit from this therapy has to be defined even if molecular data suggest that patients with ER positive and PR negative breast cancer might be such a group. The increasing knowledge in terms of the biology of bone metastasis led to the development of new treatment options as e. g. denosumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody for RANK ligand. Two adjuvant cytotoxic treatment trials revealed that taxanes improve the prognosis of node positive breast cancer and should be administered sequentially. The advantage of switching to an aromatase inhibitor after two to three years of tamoxifen in endocrine treatment of postmenopausal patients is proved by two clinical trials (IES, ARNO) which could demonstrate a survival benefit. In conclusion it seems to be evident that new targeted therapy options are effective and will set new standards for the treatment of breast cancer patients
Preusterink, Jolanda; Foing, Bernard H.; Kaskes, Pim
An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sébastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft) Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium “Moon, Mars and More” at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion. The interactive character
Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.
The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between
to that of our own Moon), a diameter of no less than 1200 km results. Assuming instead an albedo of 2001 KX76 of only 4 percent - a typical value for icy cometary nuclei - leads to the even larger (although less likely) value of 1400 km. A real name for 2001 KX76 Thanks to the work of this group of astronomers, the orbit of 2001 KX76 may now be considered relatively secure and it may therefore soon receive a real name. Following astronomical tradition, the discoverers have the right to make a suggestion. The current custom dictates that a Kuiper Belt Object must be given a mythological name associated with creation. The name must then be confirmed by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) through its Committee on Small Body Nomenclature before becoming official. With a little bit of luck... The observations made with ESO's Wide Field Imager were crucial for this work to succeed in that they allowed the object's path to be tracked back in time. However, luck admittedly also played a key role. "These observations were originally made for a completely different project" , says Gerhard Hahn , team-leader for the project. "And we found the image of 2001 KX76 right at the edge of the WFI frames" . Jenni Virtanen , another member of the team, agrees: "And if we hadn't used our powerful methods to improve the orbit we would still be searching through the archives." Arno Gnaedig , a German amateur astronomer and team member, performed the new and accurate position measurements and also calculated the new orbit on his home computer: "To me this is a wonderful example of the fruitful collaboration that can take place between well-equipped amateur astronomers and professional astronomers ", he says. "The Web and the access to 'virtual observatories' means that amateur astronomers - located far from any 'real' professional telescopes - can also make important contributions" . Following this success, the group is currently working on a study of the long-term orbital evolution
Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck
About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965  and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite - orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment  reported
Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro
united European face in astronomy through ESO". The President of the ESO Council, Dr. Arno Freytag , shares this opinion fully. "This is a most important step in the continuing process of European integration. The entry of the UK will of course be very useful to the scientists in that country, but I have no doubt that the benefits will be mutual. With its world-level astronomical and engineering expertise and with one of the most active research communities in Europe, the UK will bring significant intellectual, technical and financial resources to strengthen ESO. I have no doubt that the impressive research that is now being carried out by numerous astronomers with the ESO facilities has been our best advertisement and I am sure that this has had an important effect on the very welcome decision by the UK to join ESO." The UK will pay the usual annual contribution to ESO from the date of its entry. It has also been decided that as an important part of the special contribution to be made on entry, the UK will deliver the VISTA infrared survey telescope to ESO as an in-kind contribution. This wide-field telescope facility is now being constructed in the UK for a consortium of universities and it was decided already last year to place it at Paranal, cf. ESO PR 03/00. It will now become a fully integrated part of the ESO Paranal Observatory providing important survey observations in support of the VLT. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of PPARC, is "delighted that the negotiations with ESO and subsequent Council meetings have passed this critical decision point. We now expect a straightforward parliamentary process to ratify the intergovernmental treaty. This decision will allow UK astronomers to have access to the world-class VLT telescopes at Paranal. Just as importantly UK Astronomy will have a sound basis for the future ALMA and OWL projects in a European context. This is a major increase in investment in, and capability for, UK Astronomy." Notes : Both ESO and PPARC
Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru
here and a consistent theoretical description of all aspects of their superconductivity remains a formidable challenge. While the discovery of the BCS theory led, in only a few years, to the complete and consistent theoretical description of all aspects of conventional superconductivity, we are far from this goal for the exotic superconductors. Hence these superconductors continue to be the focus of most research activity in the field of superconductivity today. The papers in this special issue represent a cross section of current activity in both experiment and theory on these fascinating materials. Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries Contents Phase-sensitive-measurement determination of odd-parity, spin-triplet superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 Ying Liu Striped superconductors: how spin, charge and superconducting orders intertwine in the cuprates Erez Berg, Eduardo Fradkin, Steven A Kivelson and John M Tranquada A twisted ladder: relating the Fe superconductors to the high-Tc cuprates E Berg, S A Kivelson and D J Scalapino Fractional vortex lattice structures in spin-triplet superconductors Suk Bum Chung, Daniel F Agterberg and Eun-A Kim Momentum dependence of pseudo-gap and superconducting gap in variation theory T Watanabe, H Yokoyama, K Shigeta and M Ogata Variational ground states of the two-dimensional Hubbard model D Baeriswyl, D Eichenberger and M Menteshashvili Charge dynamics of vortex cores in layered chiral triplet superconductors M Eschrig and J A Sauls Vortices in chiral, spin-triplet superconductors and superfluids J A Sauls and M Eschrig Flux periodicities in loops of nodal superconductors Florian Loder, Arno P Kampf, Thilo Kopp and Jochen Mannhart Evidence of magnetic mechanism for cuprate superconductivity Amit Keren Wave function for odd-frequency superconductors Hari P Dahal, E Abrahams, D Mozyrsky, Y Tanaka and A V Balatsky Nernst effect as a probe of superconducting fluctuations in disordered thin films A Pourret, P Spathis, H Aubin and K
Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Roberts, Dave; Litt, Andrea R.; Legg, Kristin; Daley, Rob; Chambers, Nina
these 1,217 trees, 780 trees were infected with blister rust in both time steps. Trees with only canopy cankers made up approximately 43% (519 trees) of the total number of trees infected with blister rust at the end of the revisit time-step, while trees with only bole cankers comprised 20% (252 trees), and those with both canopy and bole cankers included 37% (446 trees) of the infected sample. A bole infection is considered to be more consequential than a canopy canker, as it compromises not only the overall longevity of the tree, but its functional capacity for reproductive output as well (Kendall and Arno 1990, Campbell and Antos 2000, McDonald and Hoff 2001, Schwandt and Kegley 2004). In addition to infection location, we also documented infection transition between the canopy and bole. Of the 780 live trees that were infected with blister rust in both time-steps, approximately 31% (242) maintained canopy cankers and 36% (281) retained bole infections at the end of the revisit time-step. Infection transition from canopy to bole occurred in 30% (234) of the revisit time-step trees while 3% (23) transitioned from bole to canopy infections during this period. Objective 3. To determine whitebark pine mortality, we resurveyed all belt transects to reassess the life status of permanently tagged trees >1.4 m tall. We compared the total number of live tagged trees recorded during monitoring transect establishment to the total number of resurveyed dead tagged trees recorded during the revisit time-step and identified all potential mortality-influencing conditions (blister rust, mountain pine beetle, fire and other). By the end of the revisit time-step, we observed a total of 975 dead tagged whitebark pine trees; using a ratio estimator, this represents a loss of approximately 20% (SE=4.35%) of the original live tagged tree population (GYWPMWG 2012). Objective 4. To investigate the proportion of live, reproducing tagged trees, we divided the total number of positively
New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces . There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close
UVES Measures the Cosmic Temperature 12 Billion Years Ago Summary A fundamental prediction of the Big Bang theory has finally been verified . For the first time, an actual measurement has been made of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation, at a time when the Universe was only about 2.5 billion years old . This fundamental and very difficult observation was achieved by a team of astronomers from India, France and ESO . They obtained a detailed spectrum of a quasar in the distant Universe, using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) instrument at the ESO 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. If the Universe was indeed formed in a Big Bang, as most astrophysicists believe, the glow of this primeval fireball should have been warmer in the past. This is exactly what is found by the new measurements. The analysis of the VLT spectrum of the distant quasar not only gives the definitive proof of the presence of the relict radiation in the early Universe, it also shows that it was indeed significantly warmer than it is today, as predicted by the theory. PR Photo 35/00 : VLT spectrum of the distant quasar PKS 1232+0815 , displaying lines of carbon atoms from an intervening cloud in which the cosmic temperature was measured. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) One of the fundamental predictions of the Hot Big Bang theory for the creation of the Universe is the existence of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) . This relict radiation of the primeval fireball was discovered in 1964 by means of radio observations by American physicists Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson , who were rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1978. Precision measurements by the COBE satellite later showed that this ancient radiation fills the Universe, with a present-day temperature of slightly less than 3 degrees above the absolute zero (2.7 K [Kelvin], or -270.4 °C). This radiation comes from all directions and is extremely uniform
Koopman, Rebecca A.
conditions in the early Universe prior to nucleosynthesis. Early on, Alpher and Herman realized that if the expanding Universe began in a hot phase, relic radiation from the era when radiation and matter decoupled should fill the Universe. They published this result in Nature in 1948, predicting that the current temperature should be 5K. In talk after talk, and in a series of papers, they publicized their work and urged observers to start looking for this radiation, but without result. At the time, the model of the hot, expanding Universe, scornfully christened "Big Bang" by Fred Hoyle in 1950, was far from accepted by the cosmology community, especially since the measured value of the Hubble constant produced a very small evolutionary age. Even if the Big Bang model was correct, the consensus was that the relic radiation would be much too faint to detect. Dismayed by the lack of interest in their results, both Alpher and Herman decided in 1955 to give up academia, turning down positions offered at the University of Iowa with James van Allen, and instead accepting jobs at General Electric (GE) and General Motors. Both had families by that time. Ralph had met his wife, Louise Ellen Simons, in 1940. They married January 28, 1942, and had two children, Harriet and Victor. Ralph worked for 32 years at GE Research and Development Center in Niskayuna, New York, on a variety of projects including high-speed aerodynamics, theoretical problems involving the physics of television projection systems, magnetohydrodynamic methods, and, eventually, strategic planning and technology forecasting. The papers about the relic radiation languished in the literature, but Alpher and Herman kept up with developments in cosmology. One can imagine their excitement and gratification when they learned of the serendipitous detection of the cosmic microwave background by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 and found that their model temperature (with updated values of cosmological parameters) was in
Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga
, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 8. Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 9. Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 10. Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University, Latvia Local Committee Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Maris Kundzins, Anastasija Jozepa, Anna Muratova, Raitis Siatkovskis, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Sniedze Abele, Mikus Voss, Andris Sivars, Peteris Lesnicenoks, Virginija Liepina. In Memoriam Dr. habil. phys. Inta Muzikante (08.01.1951-15.02.2012) Inta Muzikante Inta was born in Valmiera, a town in the northern part of Latvia. She attended school in Sigulda and high school in Riga. While at the high-school, Inta decided to study natural sciences. After graduating from high-school in 1969 she entered the physics section of the Physics and Mathematics department of University of Latvia and obtained her university degree in 1974. In parallel with University studies, Inta started to work at the Semiconductor Physics Research Lab at the University of Latvia. After graduating she was offered a position at the Physical Energetics institute of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, in the laboratory of Professor Edgars Silinsh, one of the most internationally well known Latvian physicists. Inta started researching electronic and photoelectric processes in organic crystals and thin films. This was a novel field, pioneered both internationally and in Latvia by Profesors E Silinsh, O Neilands and J Freimanis. It could be said that Inta stood at the cradle of this research field and stayed faithful to it all of her life. Her work was very successful and within a few years she advanced from research assistant to researcher and then leading research scientist. Her first scientific topic was studies of the mechanism of charge carrier photogeneration and separation in organic molecular crystals. In 1983 for a work