Sample records for arno pllume ilmar

  1. Milton Arno Leof, dentist, archeologist, architect, scholar.


    Kimmelman, B B


    Polymath, member of a prominent family, art collector and scholar, archeologist, unlicensed architect, "fellow-traveler" and a reputed outstanding dentist of modern times, Milton Arno Leof (1904-1985) lived and worked mostly in Philadelphia. In his last days, he concentrated all his resources on what was to be a definitive illustrated work detailing his historical investigations and his collections but this was left unfinished at his death. PMID:11794334

  2. The calcium-sensing receptor changes cell shape via a beta-arrestin-1 ARNO ARF6 ELMO protein network.


    Bouschet, Tristan; Martin, Stéphane; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Mundell, Stuart; Henley, Jeremy M


    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce the binding of extracellular stimuli into intracellular signalling cascades that can lead to morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a GPCR that promotes chemotaxis by detecting increases in extracellular calcium, triggers plasma membrane (PM) ruffling via a pathway that involves beta-arrestin 1, Arf nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO), ADP-ribosylating factor 6 (ARF6) and engulfment and cell motility protein (ELMO). Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin 1 or its knockdown with siRNA impaired the CaSR-induced PM ruffling response. Expression of a catalytically inactive ARNO also reduced CaSR-induced PM ruffling. Furthermore, beta-arrestin 1 co-immunoprecipitated with the CaSR and ARNO under resting conditions. Agonist treatment did not markedly alter beta-arrestin 1 binding to the CaSR or to ARNO but it did elicit the translocation and colocalisation of the CaSR, beta-arrestin 1 and ARNO to membrane protrusions. Furthermore, ARF6 and ELMO, two proteins known to couple ARNO to the cytoskeleton, were required for CaSR-dependent morphological changes and translocated to the PM ruffles. These data suggest that cells ruffle upon CaSR stimulation via a mechanism that involves translocation of beta-arrestin 1 pre-assembled with the CaSR or ARNO, and that ELMO plays an essential role in this CaSR-signalling-induced cytoskeletal reorganisation. PMID:17623778

  3. ARF-GEF cytohesin-2/ARNO regulates R-Ras and α5-integrin recycling through an EHD1-positive compartment

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Joseph C.; Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M.; Santy, Lorraine C.


    When expressed in epithelial cells, cytohesin-2/ARNO, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for ARF small GTPases, causes a robust migration response. Recent evidence suggests that cytohesin-2/ARNO acts downstream of small the GTPase R-Ras to promote spreading and migration. We hypothesized that cytohesin-2/ARNO could transmit R-Ras signals by regulating the recycling of R-Ras through ARF activation. We found that Eps15-homology domain 1 (EHD1), a protein that associates with the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), colocalizes with active R-Ras in transiently expressed HeLa cells. In addition, we show that EHD1-positive recycling endosomes are a novel compartment for cytohesin-2/ARNO. Knockdown or expression of GEF-inactive (E156K) cytohesin-2/ARNO causes R-Ras to accumulate on recycling endosomes containing EHD1 and inhibits cell spreading. E156K-ARNO also causes a reduction in focal adhesion size and number. Finally, we demonstrate that R-Ras/ARNO signaling is required for recycling of α5-integrin and R-Ras to the plasma membrane. These data establish a role for cytohesin-2/ARNO as a regulator of R-Ras and integrin recycling and suggest that ARF-regulated trafficking of R-Ras is required for R-Ras–dependent effects on spreading and adhesion formation. PMID:26378252

  4. The microwave spectrum of the open-shell complex ArNO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Russell J.; Whitham, Christopher J.; Varberg, Thomas D.; Howard, Brian J.


    The 5 05←4 04, 4 04←3 03, 3 03←2 02 and 2 02←1 01 rotational transitions of the open-shell van der Waals complex ArNO 2 have been observed using a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. The complex was produced by supersonic expansion of NO 2 gas in argon. The spectrum showed fine, magnetic hyperfine and electric quadrupole structure. The data have been fitted to a semi- rigid Hamiltonian to determine the molecular parameters for the KitA=0 state. We discuss the implications of these derived parameters for the electronic and geometric stucture of the complex.

  5. Biophysical processes affecting DOM dynamics at the Arno river mouth (Tyrrhenian Sea).


    Retelletti Brogi, S; Gonnelli, M; Vestri, S; Santinelli, C


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and optical properties (absorption and fluorescence) of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured in October 2012, at the Arno river mouth and in a coastal station close to it. The data reported indicates that the Arno river represents an important source of DOC and CDOM to this coastal area, with a total DOC flux of 11.23-12.04 · 10(9)g C · y(-1). Moving from the river to the sea, CDOM absorption and fluorescence decreased, while the spectral slope increased, suggesting a change in the molecular properties of CDOM. Mineralization experiments were carried out in order to investigate the main processes of DOM removal and/or transformation in riverine and coastal water. DOC removal rates were 20 μM · month(-1) in the river and 3 μM · month(-1) in the seawater, while CDOM was released during the first 30 days and removed in the following 40 days. PMID:25463937

  6. Influence of inherited topography on the Holocene sedimentary evolution of coastal systems: An example from Arno coastal plain (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro; Sarti, Giovanni; Potenza, Miriam


    Understanding the relative control exerted by autogenic factors, such as changes in sediment supply, local subsidence and inherited topography, is of crucial interest for a thorough comprehension of the sedimentary evolution of late Quaternary coastal systems. Through an example from the Arno coastal plain, in Tuscany, we show to what extent sedimentation of the Holocene succession, even after the time of maximum marine ingression, was influenced by the presence of a buried 5-7 km-wide incised-valley system, generated by the Arno River during the late Pleistocene in response to the last glacial sea-level fall. A prominent stratigraphic marker (locally known as " pancone"), ca. 5-15 m thick, made up of extremely soft and homogeneous organic-rich clays, is reported from the upper 20-30 m of the mid-Holocene succession buried beneath the Arno coastal plain. High-resolution stratigraphy, integrated with microfossil investigations, enables detailed facies characterization and mapping of this marker horizon. At proximal-most locations, " pancone" consists of thin lagoonal deposits sandwiched between backswamp clays. Around the city of Pisa and at more distal locations, this stratigraphic marker is made up almost entirely of lagoonal clays with lateral transition to backswamp deposits. The development of " pancone" was triggered by an abrupt transgressive pulse that led to the ultimate flooding of the Arno paleovalley. This transgressive event occurred shortly after a widespread episode of sub-aerial exposure and climate deterioration related to the 8200 yr BP cold event. Confinement of the mid-Holocene (" pancone") lagoon into an area formerly occupied by the post-glacial Arno incised-valley system, along with transition to backswamp facies in coincidence of the former interfluves, is interpreted to reflect the higher compaction of the less indurated valley-fill relative to the adjacent, stiff Pleistocene substratum. The local increase in land subsidence contributed to

  7. RLIP76 regulates Arf6-dependent cell spreading and migration by linking ARNO with activated R-Ras at recycling endosomes.


    Wurtzel, Jeremy G T; Lee, Seunghyung; Singhal, Sharad S; Awasthi, Sanjay; Ginsberg, Mark H; Goldfinger, Lawrence E


    R-Ras small GTPase enhances cell spreading and motility via RalBP1/RLIP76, an R-Ras effector that links GTP-R-Ras to activation of Arf6 and Rac1 GTPases. Here, we report that RLIP76 performs these functions by binding cytohesin-2/ARNO, an Arf GTPase guanine exchange factor, and connecting it to R-Ras at recycling endosomes. RLIP76 formed a complex with R-Ras and ARNO by binding ARNO via its N-terminus (residues 1-180) and R-Ras via residues 180-192. This complex was present in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes and the presence of ARNO in recycling endosomes required RLIP76, and was not supported by RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192). Spreading and migration required RLIP76(1-180), and RLIP76(Δ1-180) blocked ARNO recruitment to recycling endosomes, and spreading. Arf6 activation with an ArfGAP inhibitor overcame the spreading defects in RLIP76-depleted cells or cells expressing RLIP76(Δ1-180). Similarly, RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192) suppressed Arf6 activation. Together these results demonstrate that RLIP76 acts as a scaffold at recycling endosomes by binding activated R-Ras, recruiting ARNO to activate Arf6, thereby contributing to cell spreading and migration. PMID:26498519

  8. Arf nucleotide binding site opener [ARNO] promotes sequential activation of Arf6, Cdc42 and Rac1 and insulin secretion in INS 832/13 β-cells and rat islets

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Bhavaani; Syed, Ismail; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara N.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu


    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] involves interplay between small G-proteins and their regulatory factors. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that Arf nucleotide binding site opener [ARNO], a guanine nucleotide exchange factor [GEF] for the small G-protein Arf6, mediates the functional activation of Arf6, and that ARNO/Arf6 signaling axis, in turn, controls the activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, which have been implicated in GSIS. Molecular biological [i.e., expression of inactive mutants or siRNA] and pharmacological approaches were employed to assess the roles for ARNO/Arf6 signaling pathway in insulin secretion in normal rat islets and INS 832/13 cells. Degrees of activation of Arf6 and Cdc42/Rac1 were quantitated by GST-GGA3 and PAK-1 kinase pull-down assays, respectively. ARNO is expressed in INS 832/13 cells, rat islets and human islets. Expression of inactive mutants of Arf6 [Arf6-T27N] or ARNO [ARNO-E156K] or siRNA-ARNO markedly reduced GSIS in isolated β-cells. secinH3, a selective inhibitor of ARNO/Arf6 signaling axis, also inhibited GSIS in INS 832/13 cells and rat islets. Stimulatory concentrations of glucose promoted Arf6 activation, which was inhibited by secinH3 or siRNA-ARNO, suggesting that ARNO/Arf6 signaling cascade is necessary for GSIS. secinH3 or siRNA-ARNO also inhibited glucose-induced activation of Cdc42 and Rac1 suggesting that ARNO/Arf6 might be upstream to Cdc42 and Rac1 activation steps, which are necessary for GSIS. Lastly, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopic studies suggested increased association between Arf6 and ARNO in glucose-stimulated β-cells. These findings provide the first evidence to implicate ARNO in the sequential activation of Arf6, Cdc42 and Rac1 culminating in GSIS. PMID:21276423

  9. Fragment-based identification of a locus in the Sec7 domain of Arno for the design of protein-protein interaction inhibitors.


    Rouhana, Jad; Hoh, Francois; Estaran, Sébastien; Henriquet, Corinne; Boublik, Yvan; Kerkour, Aziz; Trouillard, Romain; Martinez, Jean; Pugnière, Martine; Padilla, André; Chavanieu, Alain


    By virtual screening using a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach, 33 fragments were selected within small pockets around interaction hot spots on the Sec7 surface of the nucleotide exchange factor Arno, and then their ability to interfere with the Arno-catalyzed nucleotide exchange on the G-protein Arf1 was evaluated. By use of SPR, NMR, and fluorescence assays, the direct binding of three of the identified fragments to Arno Sec7 domain was demonstrated and the promiscuous aggregate behavior evaluated. Then the binding mode of one fragment and of a more active analogue was solved by X-ray crystallography. This highlighted the role of stable and transient pockets at the Sec7 domain surface in the discovery and binding of interfering compounds. These results provide structural information on how small organic compounds can interfere with the Arf1-Arno Sec7 domain interaction and may guide the rational drug design of competitive inhibitors of Arno enzymatic activity. PMID:24112024

  10. ARNO3, a Sec7-domain guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP ribosylation factor 1, is involved in the control of Golgi structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Michel; Boretto, Joëlle; Robineau, Sylviane; Monier, Solange; Goud, Bruno; Chardin, Pierre; Chavrier, Philippe


    Budding of transport vesicles in the Golgi apparatus requires the recruitment of coat proteins and is regulated by ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) 1. ARF1 activation is promoted by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which catalyze the transition to GTP-bound ARF1. We recently have identified a human protein, ARNO (ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener), as an ARF1-GEF that shares a conserved domain with the yeast Sec7 protein. We now describe a human Sec7 domain-containing GEF referred to as ARNO3. ARNO and ARNO3, as well as a third GEF called cytohesin-1, form a family of highly related proteins with identical structural organization that consists of a central Sec7 domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. We show that all three proteins act as ARF1 GEF in vitro, whereas they have no effect on ARF6, an ARF protein implicated in the early endocytic pathway. Substrate specificity of ARNO-like GEFs for ARF1 depends solely on the Sec7 domain. Overexpression of ARNO3 in mammalian cells results in (i) fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, (ii) redistribution of Golgi resident proteins as well as the coat component β-COP, and (iii) inhibition of SEAP transport (secreted form of alkaline phosphatase). In contrast, the distribution of endocytic markers is not affected. This study indicates that Sec7 domain-containing GEFs control intracellular membrane compartment structure and function through the regulation of specific ARF proteins in mammalian cells. PMID:9707577

  11. Sources of nitrate in the Arno River waters: Constraints from d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Buccianti, Antonella; Silva, Steven R.


    Running waters in anthropogenically affected areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination. Source identification is a fundamental step for the development of effective remediation. Previous studies pointed to pollution by nitrogen-bearing contaminants in the Arno Basin. In this paper, eleven surface water samples have been analysed for main and trace components and 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratios, with the aim of identifying for the first time the origin of nitrate in the Arno River Basin so that further investigations can appropriately be designed. d18O(NO3)and d15N(NO3) values have allowed to hypothesise the main sources of nitrate, as follows: i) mineralized fertilizer, ii) soil-organic nitrogen, iii) manure and septic waste. The anomalously high d15N and d18O values in the Chiana (d15N=24.9‰ and d18O=15.5‰) and Usciana tributaries (d15N=30.1‰ and d18O=7.2‰) show a low probability of belonging to the same population as that of the other samples and can be related to denitrification process of nitrate from animal waste/sewage and/or an industrial process (e.g. tanneries).

  12. Penzias, Arno Allan (1933-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.


    Radioscientist, born in Munich in Germany, Nobel prizewinner (1978) `for the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation', a refugee from Germany at the age of 6, found his way to America and experience in microwave physics. Joined Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey, searched for and investigated line emission from the interstellar OH molecule. Was able to gain the use of a large radio...

  13. Development of a practical tool for the flood risk assessment in highly urbanized areas: The case of the Arno River, Firenze (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, S.; Segoni, S.; Catani, F.; Battistini, A.; Manzo, G.; Ermini, L.


    The dynamic evolution of a river and the adjacent morphological environment are particularly important especially if there are communities that concentrate in these areas their socio-economic activities. So a proper hydraulic risk management is an increasingly felt necessity, but when working at small scales no established fast methodology exists to map the position and the height of the various elements with centimetric accuracy. In the current work an operative methodology likely to obtain this purpose is proposed on the basis of data obtained from a real test area. It is along the Arno river (Italy) which could be considered on the whole a representative case study of other realities in the world. Various issues have been deepened. Firstly RTK-GPS measurements and information about all the natural and artificial elements, connected to hydraulic risk and fluvial dynamics, were collected. All these elements were mapped with high accuracy, in particular a local geoid model, related only to the study area, was developed to obtain orthometric heights affected with errors ≤ 0.05 m. Consequently a GIS geodatabase was built to visualize the spatial distribution of the mapped elements and to store the most important technical data. Such geodatabase provides an overview of the territories connected with the fluvial dynamics of the main rivers near the city of Firenze. This is confirmed by some applications, realized to verify the capability of the instrument. First of all the real hydraulic risk in the study area has been checked out. So the comparison between the measured dike height and the hydraulic modeling conducted by the Arno River Basin Authority has identified areas at risk of overflowing for various return periods (T30, T100, T200 , T500). Subsequently a deeper analysis of hydraulic hazards has been carried out in the urban area of Firenze. A model of surface-water flows concentrated on the historic center has provided a comprehensive response of this area to

  14. Wilson, Robert Woodrow (1936-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.


    Born in Houston, Texas, Nobel prizewinner for physics in 1978) with ARNO PENZIAS `for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation'. Interested in radio as a boy, drawn to radioastronomy by working with JOHN BOLTON at CalTech mapping the Milky Way. Joined Bell Laboratories at Crawford Hill where with Arno Penzias he shared a small allowance given to the Lab for radioastronomy projects...

  15. The calcium-sensing receptor changes cell shape via a β-arrestin-1–ARNO–ARF6–ELMO protein network

    PubMed Central

    Bouschet, Tristan; Martin, Stéphane; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Mundell, Stuart; Henley, Jeremy M.


    Summary G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce the binding of extracellular stimuli into intracellular signalling cascades that can lead to morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a GPCR that promotes chemotaxis by detecting increases in extracellular calcium, triggers plasma membrane (PM) ruffling via a pathway that involves β-arrestin 1, Arf nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO), ADP-ribosylating factor 6 (ARF6) and engulfment and cell motility protein (ELMO). Expression of dominant negative β-arrestin 1 or its knockdown with siRNA impaired the CaSR-induced PM ruffling response. Expression of a catalytically inactive ARNO also reduced CaSR-induced PM ruffling. Furthermore, β-arrestin 1 co-immunoprecipitated with the CaSR and ARNO under resting conditions. Agonist treatment did not markedly alter β-arrestin 1 binding to the CaSR or to ARNO but it did elicit the translocation and colocalisation of the CaSR, β-arrestin 1 and ARNO to membrane protrusions. Furthermore, ARF6 and ELMO, two proteins known to couple ARNO to the cytoskeleton, were required for CaSR-dependent morphological changes and translocated to the PM ruffles. These data suggest that cells ruffle upon CaSR stimulation via a mechanism that involves translocation of β-arrestin 1 pre-assembled with the CaSR or ARNO, and that ELMO plays an essential role in this CaSR-signalling-induced cytoskeletal reorganisation. PMID:17623778

  16. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.


    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide


    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages. PMID:26683831

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome


    ... for This Page Carmignac V, Thevenon J, Adès L, Callewaert B, Julia S, Thauvin-Robinet C, Gueneau L, Courcet JB, Lopez E, Holman K, Renard M, ... De Backer J, Child A, Arno G, Duplomb L, Callier P, Aral B, Vabres P, Gigot N, ...

  18. Jere Brophy: An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshine, Barak


    The first generations of researchers on classroom instruction were the pioneers who developed the term, categories, and concepts that were used to view and code what was happening during classroom lessons. The five pioneers in this first wave were Ned Flanders, Arno Bellack, B.O. Smith, Don Medley, and Harold Mitzel. Each of these pioneers used…

  19. Some reactions and properties of nitro radical-anions important in biology and medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, P


    Nitroaromatic compounds, ArNO2 have widespread actual or potential use in medicine and cancer therapy. There is direct proof that free-radical metabolites are involved in many applications, and an appreciation of the conceptual basis for their therapeutic differential; however, an understanding of the detailed mechanisms involved is lacking. Redox properties control most biological responses of nitro compounds, and the characteristics of the one-electron couple: ArNO2/ArNO2- are detailed. The "futile metabolism" of nitroaryl compounds characteristic of most aerobic nitroreductase systems reflects competition between natural radical-decay pathways and a one-electron transfer reaction to yield superoxide ion, O2-. Prototropic properties control the rate of radical decay, and redox properties control the rate of electron transfer to O2 or other acceptors. There are clear parallels in the chemistry of ArNO2- and O2-. While nitro radicals have frequently been invoked as damaging species, they are very unreactive (except as simple reductants). It seems likely that reductive metabolism of nitroaryl compounds, although generally involving nitro radical-anions as obligate intermediates (and this is required for therapeutic selectivity towards anaerobes), results in biological damage via reductive metabolites of higher reduction order than the one-electron product. PMID:3830700

  20. Plasmaspheric Drainage Plumes: Inner-Magnetospheric Coupling from the IMAGE/EUV Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Gallagher, Dennis L.


    Plasmaspheric drainage plumes appear in the aftermath of periods of enhanced convection/erosion and are interpreted as a near-equatorial signature of the redistribution of thermal plasma along streamlines. Analysis of IMAGE/EUV observations from "FirstLight" through the end of calendar year 2002 reveals that for Kp greater than or equal to 3, there is an 84% probability of observing a plasmaspheric plume in EUV data. We present a statistical analysis of the geomagnetic conditions [Kp, Dst, and solar wind-induced electric field] associated with EUV plume observations. This analysis yields a peak in observational probability when Kp = 4 and Dst = -50 nT. Additionally, EUV pllume observations are associated with a solar wind-induced convection electric field at Earth [Ev, SM] characterized by bi-modal behavior with a positive mode peaked at approximately 4 m V(raised dot) m(sup -1) and a negative model that peaks at -2 mV (raised dot) m(sup -1). Analysis of the time rate of change of the plume-associated Ev, SM indicated that once the mechanism for plume formation is initiated, a slowly changing convection environment is required to allow for sufficient plume development prior to EUV detection.

  1. Four-electron oxidation of p-hydroxylaminobenzoate to p-nitrobenzoate by a peroxodiferric complex in AurF from Streptomyces thioluteus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Korboukh, Victoria Korneeva; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin


    The nonheme di-iron oxygenase, AurF, converts p-aminobenzoate (Ar-NH2, where Ar = 4-carboxyphenyl) to p-nitrobenzoate (Ar-NO2) in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic, aureothin, by Streptomyces thioluteus. It has been reported that this net six-electron oxidation proceeds in three consecutive, two-electron steps, through p-hydroxylaminobenzoate (Ar-NHOH) and p-nitrosobenzoate (Ar-NO) intermediates, with each step requiring one equivalent of O2 and two exogenous reducing equivalents. We recently demonstrated that a peroxodiiron(III/III) complex (peroxo--AurF) formed by addition of O2 to the diiron(II/II) enzyme (-AurF) effects the initial oxidation of Ar-NH2, generating a μ-(oxo)diiron(III/III) form of the enzyme (μ-oxo--AurF) and (presumably) Ar-NHOH. Here we show that peroxo--AurF also oxidizes Ar-NHOH. Unexpectedly, this reaction proceeds through to the Ar-NO2 final product, a four-electron oxidation, and produces -AurF, with which O2 can combine to regenerate peroxo--AurF. Thus, conversion of Ar-NHOH to Ar-NO2 requires only a single equivalent of O2 and (starting from -AurF or peroxo--AurF) is fully catalytic in the absence of exogenous reducing equivalents, by contrast to the published stoichiometry. This novel type of four-electron N-oxidation is likely also to occur in the reaction sequences of nitro-installing di-iron amine oxygenases in the biosyntheses of other natural products. PMID:20798054

  2. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter and microbial enzymatic activity. A biophysical approach to understand the marine carbon cycle.


    Gonnelli, Margherita; Vestri, Stefano; Santinelli, Chiara


    This study reports the first information on extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) combined with a study of DOM dynamics at the Arno River mouth. DOM dynamics was investigated from both a quantitative (dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and a qualitative (absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric DOM, CDOM) perspective. The data here reported highlight that the Arno River was an important source of both DOC and CDOM for this coastal area. CDOM optical properties suggested that terrestrial DOM did not undergo simple dilution at the river mouth but, other physical-chemical and biological processes were probably at work to change its molecular characteristics. This observation was further supported by the "potential" enzymatic activity of β-glucosidase (BG) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). Their Vmax values were markedly higher in the river water than in the seawater and their ratio suggested that most of the DOM used by microbes in the Arno River was polysaccharide-like, while in the seawater it was mainly protein-like. PMID:23850176

  3. [The I.G. Farben laboratory at the Günzburg mental hospital. Epilepsy research during the NS-regime and the postwar period].


    Söhner, Felicitas; Winckelmann, Hans-Joachim; Becker, Thomas


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the activities of the I.G. Farben laboratory at the former "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" Günzburg. This laboratory was established to test the newly developed epilepsy drug "Citrullamon" and its derivatives. Specifically, the type and manner of the various experiments were examined to determine whether the suspicions of unethical human experimentation could be identified. The commercial and medical activities between I.G. Farben and the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt, including the specific roles of the senior physician Wilhelm Leinisch and the I.G. Farben chemist Arno Grosse, are reviewed. PMID:26536788

  4. Henri Becquerel: serendipitous brilliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio


    Serendipity has always been an attendant to great science. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the cosmic background radiation after first mistaking it for the effect of pigeon droppings on their microwave antenna. US spy satellites detected gamma-ray bursts when surveying the sky for evidence of secret Soviet nuclear tests during the Cold War. Satyendra Bose arrived at Bose-Einstein statistics only after discovering that a mathematical error explained the experimental data concerning the photoelectric effect. In the words of science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov, "The most exciting phrase in science is not 'Eureka!', but rather, 'That's funny...'.

  5. The Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures: Ongoing Institutional Cooperation for Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.


    For the last 15 years (with one year off for good behavior), four astronomical institutions in the San Francisco Bay Area have cooperated to produce a major evening public-lecture series on astronomy and space science topics. Co-sponsored by Foothill College's Astronomy Program, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the SETI Institute, and NASA Ames Research Center, the six annual Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures have drawn audiences ranging from 450 to 950 people, and represent a significant opportunity to get information about modern astronomical research out to the public. Past speakers have included Nobel Laureate Arno Penzias, Vera Rubin, Frank Drake, Sandra Faber, and other distinguished scientists.

  6. Discovering CO and other Interstellar Molecules with the NRAO 36 Foot Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. W.


    Bell Labs was an early developer of millimeter-wave technology. In the 60's there was a big push to develop a millimeter wave long-distance communications system to do what ultimately fiber optics has accomplished. As part of this system, Charles Burrus at Crawford Hill developed millimeter-wave receivers by making Schottky-barrier diodes using modern photolithography. Arno Penzias and I recognized that these had a potential use in radio astronomy and with Ken Kellermann proposed to build a receiver with them for use on the then-new 36 foot antenna. Unfortunately this attempt was premature and not successful. In 1970 Arno, Keith Jefferts, and I---with much help from Sandy Weinreb---put together a spectral-line receiver. This was done with the hope of detecting rotational transitions of simple molecules in interstellar space. Since, at the time, only a few people (like Phil Solomon) had any idea that molecular clouds existed, we prepared to detect a weak signal. Our backup strategy, suggested by Pat Thaddeus, was to look for CN, which had been known to exist since the late 1930s. If neither line had been detected, we would have observed the H38α recombination line which is close in frequency to the CO J=1-0 line. As we all know now, however, the signal from carbon monoxide (and even its less abundant isotopes) was remarkably strong. Such measurements have since transformed our ideas of star formation.

  7. ARF6 inhibition stabilizes the vasculature and enhances survival during endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Chadwick T.; Zhu, Weiquan; Gibson, Christopher C.; Bowman-Kirigin, Jay; Sorensen, Lise; Ling, Jing; Sun, Huiming; Navankasattusas, Sutip; Li, Dean Y.


    The vascular endothelium responds to infection by destabilizing endothelial cell-cell junctions to allow fluid and cells to pass into peripheral tissues facilitating clearance of infection and tissue repair. During sepsis, endotoxin and other pro-inflammatory molecules induce excessive vascular leak, which can cause organ dysfunction, shock, and death. Current therapies for sepsis are limited to antibiotics and supportive care, which are often insufficient to reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. Previous attempts at blocking inflammatory cytokine responses in humans have proven ineffective at reducing the pathologies associated with sepsis, thus highlighting the need for a new therapeutic strategy. The small GTPase ARF6 is activated by a MYD88-ARNO interaction to induce vascular leak through disruption of endothelial adherens junctions. Here we show that the MYD88-ARNO-ARF6 signaling axis is responsible for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial permeability and is a destabilizing convergence point utilized by multiple inflammatory cues. We also show that blocking ARF6 with a peptide construct of its N-terminus is sufficient to reduce vascular leak and enhance survival during endotoxic shock without inhibiting host cytokine response. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of blocking ARF6 and reducing vascular leak for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as endotoxemia. PMID:24835390

  8. Biogeography of marine podocopid ostracodes in Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weissleader, L.S.; Gilinsky, N.L.; Ross, R.M.; Cronin, T. M.


    Bottom lagoonal sediment samples from 12 islands and atolls yielded >70 species representing >32 ostracode genera. All or most samples from a particular lagoon generally form distinct subgroups (Jaccard =0.45-0.50). At lower levels, 5 groups delineate faunal regions within Micronesia: the Gilbert Islands (Onotoa) in the SE part of the region, the N Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Rongelap, Bikini), the SE Marshall Islands (Kwajalein, Jaluit, Majuro, Arno), the Marianas and Caroline Islands (Guam, Truk, Pohnpei) and Pingelap. Pingelap, Kwajalein and Onotoa have the highest species richness (S=32-42) and Shannon-Wiener diversity values (H(S)=2.62-3.02) in the study area. Enewetak, Jaluit, Majuro and Arno show lower values (S=23-27, H(S)=2.29-2.70). Of the ostracode species living in Micronesia, 64.3% have Indo-West Pacific affinities, 7.1% are circumtropical, 5.7% have East Pacific-Caribbean affinities, 11.4% are endemic to Micronesia, and 11.4% have unknown affinities. If the SE Asian region is a primary species-source, results show that each Micronesian lagoon is equally likely to be colonized by dispersal from the source region, despite differences in distance from a hypothetical source. However, each lagoon has a distinct ostracode assemblage, probably the result of unique history of random colonization events, local extinctions and environmental disturbances. -from Authors

  9. Fire history of southeastern Glacier National Park: Missouri River Drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Stephen W.


    In 1982, Glacier National Park (GNP) initiated long-term studies to document the fire history of all forested lands in the 410,000 ha. park. To date, studies have been conducted for GNP west of the Continental Divide (Barrett et al. 1991), roughly half of the total park area. These and other fire history studies in the Northern Rockies (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Arno 1980, Romme 1982, Romme and Despain 1989, Barrett and Arno 1991, Barrett 1993a, Barrett 1993b) have shown that fire history data can be an integral element of fire management planning, particularly wen natiral fire plans are being developed for parks and wilderness. The value of site specific fire history data is apparent when considering study results for lodgepole pin (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests. Lodgepole pine is a major subalpine type in the Northern Rockies and such stands experiences a wide range of presettlement fire patterns. On relatively warm-dry sites at lower elevations, such as in GNP's North Fork drainage (Barrett et al. 1991), short to moderately long interval (25-150 yr) fires occurred in a mixed severity pattern ranging from non-lethal underburns to total stand replacement (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Barrett and Arno 1991). Markedly different fire history occurred at high elevation lodgepole pine stands on highly unproductive sites, such as on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) subalpine plateau. Romme (1982) found that, on some sites, stand replacing fires recurred after very long intervals (300-400 yr), and that non-lethal surface fires were rare. For somewhat more productive sites in the Absaroka Mountains in YNP, Barrett (1993a) estimated a 200 year mean replacement interval, in a pattern similar to that found in steep mountain terrain elsewhere, such as in the Middle Fork Flathead River drainage (Barrett et al. 1991, Sneck 1977). Aside from post-1900 written records (ayres 1900; fire atlas data on file, GNP Archives Div. and GNP Resources Mgt. Div.), little fire history

  10. Structural and kinetic modifications of aldose reductase by S-nitrosothiols.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, S; Dixit, B L; Ramana, K V; Chandra, A; Chandra, D; Zacarias, A; Petrash, J M; Bhatnagar, A; Srivastava, S K


    Modification of aldose reductase (AR) by the nitrosothiols S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) and N-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N(2)-acetyl-S-nitrosopenicillamide (glyco-SNAP) resulted in a 3-7-fold increase in its k(cat) and a 25-40-fold increase in its K(m) for glyceraldehyde. In comparison with the native protein, the modified enzyme was less sensitive to inhibition by sorbinil and was not activated by SO(2-)(4) anions. The active-site residue, Cys-298, was identified as the main site of modification, because the site-directed mutant in which Cys-298 was replaced by serine was insensitive to glyco-SNAP. The extent of modification was not affected by P(i) or O(2), indicating that it was not due to spontaneous release of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitrosothiols. Electrospray ionization MS revealed that the modification reaction proceeds via the formation of an N-hydroxysulphenamide-like adduct between glyco-SNAP and AR. In time, the adduct dissociates into either nitrosated AR (AR-NO) or a mixed disulphide between AR and glyco-N-acetylpenicillamine (AR-S-S-X). Removal of the mixed-disulphide form of the protein by lectin-column chromatography enriched the preparation in the high-K(m)-high-k(cat) form of the enzyme, suggesting that the kinetic changes are due to the formation of AR-NO, and that the AR-S-S-X form of the enzyme is catalytically inactive. Modification of AR by the non-thiol NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEANO) increased enzyme activity and resulted in the formation of AR-NO. However, no adducts between AR and DEANO were formed. These results show that nitrosothiols cause multiple structural and functional changes in AR. Our observations also suggest the general possibility that transnitrosation reactions can generate both nitrosated and thiolated products, leading to non-unique changes in protein structure and function. PMID:11485558

  11. Drought and water scarcity indicators: experience and operational applications in italian basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Bernardo; Checcucci, Gaia; Monacelli, Giuseppina; Puma, Francesco; Vezzani, Claudia


    In the framework of River Basin Managment Plans (RBMPs), according to the Water Framework Directive, prevention and mitigation of water scarcity and droughts are some of the most challenging tasks. In the last ten years Italy experienced the highest ever observed frequency of occurrence of drought/water scarcity events. As an example, the damages for the latest, country-wide drought event of summer 2012 exceeded one billion euros. On the other hand, according to the more recent reports on the risks of extreme events, there is evidence, providing a basis for medium confidence, that droughts will intensify over the coming century in southern Europe and in the Mediterranean region (IPCC 2012). Monitoring actions are necessary and extremely effective to "feel the pulse of the situation" about both natural availability and anthropic use of freshwater resources. In this context, referring to the Programmes of Measures of RBMPs, italian River Basin Authorities (RBA) are tackling the issue at different spatial scales, planning an operational use of different indicators, between theme the Water Exploitation Index (EEA, 2009) and some statistical indicators. In this context, Po and Arno River Basin authorities, with the support of ISPRA, are directly involved in the experimental application of some significant indicators combining climatic, hydrological and anthropic factors affecting water availability. Planning and operational experiences for the two main basins (Po and Arno) and for a list of smaller scale subbasins are presented, with a detailed description of data needs, range of application, spatial and temporal scale issues, and threshold definition. For each indicator, a critical analysis of strenghts and weaknesses (at data and response level) is reported, with particular regard to the feasibility of its use within water management and water planning actions at the river basin and district scale. Tests were carried out for the whole Po River and Northern Appennines

  12. Improvement of operational flood forecasting through the assimilation of satellite observations and multiple river flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Fabio; Ercolani, Giulia


    Data assimilation has the potential to improve flood forecasting. However, it is rarely employed in distributed hydrologic models for operational predictions. In this study, we present variational assimilation of river flow data at multiple locations and of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite in a distributed hydrologic model that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, in central Italy. LST is used to estimate initial condition of soil moisture through a coupled surface energy/water balance scheme. We present here several hindcast experiments to assess the performances of the assimilation system. The results show that assimilation can significantly improve flood forecasting, although in the limit of data error and model structure.

  13. Finding the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. James E.; Page, Lyman A., Jr.; Partridge, R. Bruce


    1. Introduction; 2. A guide to modern cosmology; 3. Origins of the cosmology of the 1960s; 4. Recollections of the 1960s Dave Hogg, Neville Woolf, George B. Field, Patrick Thaddeus, Donald E. Osterbrock, Yuri Nikolaevich Smirnov, Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov, Andrei Georgievich Doroshkevich, Rashid Alievich Sunyaev, Malcolm S. Longair, Arno Penzias, Robert W. Wilson, Bernard F. Burke, Kenneth C. Turner, P. James E. Peebles, David T. Wilkinson, Peter G. Roll, R. Bruce Partridge, Malcolm S. Longair, John Faulkner, Robert V. Wagoner, Martin Rees, Geoffrey R. Burbidge, Jayant V. Narlikar, David Layzer, Michele Kaufman, Jasper V. Wall, John Shakeshaft, William Welch, Kazimir S. Stankevich, Paul Boynton, Robert A. Stokes, Martin Harwit, Judith L. Pipher, Kandiah Shivanandan, Rainer Weiss, Jer-tsang Yu, Rainer K. Sachs, Arthur M. Wolfe, Joe Silk, George F. R. Ellis, Ronald N. Bracewell, Edward K. Conklin, Stephen Boughn, Karl C. Davis, Paul S. Henry; 5. Cosmology and the CMBR since the 1960s Dick Bond; Appendixes; Glossary; References; Index.

  14. Designing heterostructures -- a route towards new superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Thilo


    By now it has become technologically feasible to grow controllably transition metal oxides layer by layer. In effect, the achieved progress allows to design heterostructures with optimized electronic properties. The talk will specifically address scenarios for interface superconductivity and the possibility to raise the transition temperature of bulk superconductors by layer design. Heterostructures offer a complexity beyond that of bulk materials. The nature of the superconducting states formed in layered materials and at interfaces is a fascinating topic of recent research which will be in the focus of this presentation. This work was supported by the DFG (TRR 80). I thankfully acknowledge the collaboration with Natalia Pavlenko, Peter Hirschfeld, Cyril Stephanos, Florian Loder, Arno Kampf, and Jochen Mannhart.

  15. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  16. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.


    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  17. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  18. Plasma chemistry of NO in complex gas mixtures excited with a surfatron launcher.


    Hueso, J L; González-Elipe, A R; Cotrino, J; Caballero, A


    The plasma chemistry of NO has been investigated in gas mixtures with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon and Ar as carrier gas. Surface wave discharges operating at microwave frequencies have been used for this study. The different plasma reactions have been analyzed for a pressure range between 30 and 75 Torr. Differences in product concentration and/or reaction yields smaller than 10% were found as a function of this parameter. The following gas mixtures have been considered for investigation: Ar/NO, Ar/NO/O2, Ar/NO/CH4, Ar/CH4/O2, Ar/NO/CH4/O2. It is found that NO decomposes into N2 and O2, whereas other products such as CO, H2, and H2O are also formed when CH4 and O2 are present in the reaction mixture. Depending on the working conditions, other minority products such as HCN, CO2, and C2 or higher hydrocarbons have been also detected. The reaction of an Ar/NO plasma with deposits of solid carbon has also been studied. The experiments have provided useful information with respect to the possible removal of soot particles by this type of plasma. It has been shown that carbon deposits are progressively burned off by interaction with the plasma, and practically 100% decomposition of NO was found. Plasma intermediate species have been studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Bands and/or peaks due to N2*, NO*, OH*, C2*, CN*, CH*, or H* were detected with different relative intensities depending on the gas mixture. From the analysis of both the reaction products and efficiency and the type of intermediate species detected by OES, different plasma reactions and processes are proposed to describe the plasma chemistry of NO in each particular mixture of gases. The results obtained provide interesting insights about the plasma removal of NO in real gas exhausts. PMID:16833840

  19. Influence of Holocene stratigraphic architecture on ground surface settlements: A case study from the City of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro


    The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of

  20. An integrated approach to coastal erosion problems in northern Tuscany (Italy): Littoral morphological evolution and cell distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Pranzini, E.; Vitale, G.


    Occupation of the coast has significantly increased in recent decades, mostly due to a greater demand for recreation and tourism. Today, erosion threatens many human-made structures and activities, requiring an integrated approach for the understanding of coastal dynamics and identification of alternatives to associated problems. This study investigates a 64 km-long coastal physiographic unit in the northern microtidal littoral of Tuscany (Italy). Vertical aerial photographs and direct field surveys were used to retrieve changes in shoreline position over 1938-1997 and 1997-2005 time intervals. Significant beach accretion was observed during the first period updrift of Carrara (84 m) and Viareggio (280 m) harbours and at Marina di Pietrasanta (100 m), whereas severe erosion occurred downcoast of Carrara harbour (- 130 m, at Marina dei Ronchi) and on the northern side of Arno river mouth (- 400 m). Similar trends were observed between 1997 and 2005; beach slope between the 1997 shoreline position and the closure depth correlated well with the distribution of erosion/accretion patterns from the 1938-1997 period (slopes were lower in eroded areas than at sites under accretion). Longshore distribution of erosion/accretion patterns was controlled by coastal compartmentalisation. Three of the main littoral cells were mostly formed by natural limits (i.e., Punta Bianca promontory, Marina di Pietrasanta, the Arno river mouth and the port of Livorno). Several sub-cells were created within these cells due to the introduction of human-made structures (such as Carrara and Viareggio harbours), which formed artificial fixed limits that allowed the transport of sediments (exclusively fines) in one direction only. Results will help improve the understanding of coastal processes and manage littoral sediment transport in a sustainable manner. This will reduce the need for structural interventions, such as breakwaters and groynes, which in the past decades prevented coastal retreat

  1. Investigation on rainfall extremes events trough a geoadditive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocci, C.; Caporali, E.; Petrucci, A.; Rossi, G.


    Rainfall can be considered a very important variable, and rainfall extreme events analysis of great concern for the enormous impacts that they may have on everyday life particularly when related to intense rainfalls and floods, and hydraulic risk management. On the catchment area of Arno River in Tuscany, Central Italy, a geoadditive mixed model of rainfall extremes is developed. Most of the territory of Arno River has suffered in the past of many severe hydro-geological events, with high levels of risk due to the vulnerability of a unique artistic and cultural heritage. The area has a complex topography that greatly influences the precipitation regime. The dataset is composed by the time series of the annual maxima of daily rainfall recorded in about 400 rain gauges, spatially distributed over the catchment area of about 8.800 km2. The record period covers mainly the second half of 20th century. The rainfall observations are assumed to follow generalized extreme value distributions whose locations are spatially dependent and where the dependence is captured using a geoadditive model. In particular, since rainfall has a natural spatial domain and a significant spatial variability, a spatial hierarchical model for extremes is used. The spatial hierarchical models, in fact, take into account data from all locations, borrowing strength from neighbouring locations when they estimate parameters and are of great interest when small set of data is available, as in the case of rainfall extreme values. Together with rain gauges location variables further physiographic variables are investigated as explanation variables. The implemented geoadditive mixed model of spatially referenced time series of rainfall extreme values, is able to capture the spatial dynamics of the rainfall extreme phenomenon. Since the model shows evidence of a spatial trend in the rainfall extreme dynamic, the temporal dynamic and the time influence can be also taken into account. The implemented

  2. Variational assimilation of land surface temperature observations for enhanced river flow predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio


    Data assimilation (DA) has the potential of improving hydrologic forecasts. However, many issues arise in case it is employed for spatially distributed hydrologic models that describes processes in various compartments: large dimensionality of the inverse problem, layers governed by different equations, non-linear and discontinuous model structure, complex topology of domains such as surface drainage and river network.On the other hand, integrated models offer the possibility of improving prediction of specific states by exploiting observations of quantities belonging to other compartments. In terms of forecasting river discharges, and hence for their enhancement, soil moisture is a key variable, since it determines the partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and surface runoff. However, soil moisture measurements are affected by issues that could prevent a successful DA and an actual improvement of discharge predictions.In-situ measurements suffer a dramatic spatial scarcity, while observations from satellite are barely accurate and provide spatial information only at a very coarse scale (around 40 km).Hydrologic models that explicitly represent land surface processes of coupled water and energy balance provide a valid alternative to direct DA of soil moisture.They gives the possibility of inferring soil moisture states through DA of remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST), whose measurements are more accurate and with a higher spatial resolution in respect to those of soil moisture. In this work we present the assimilation of LST data in a hydrologic model (Mobidic) that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, central Italy, with the aim of improving flood predictions. Mobidic is a raster based, continuous in time and distributed in space hydrologic model, with coupled mass and energy balance at the surface and coupled groundwater and surface hydrology. The variational approach is adopted for DA, since it requires less

  3. Assimilation of multiple river flow data for enhanced operational flood forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio


    Data assimilation (DA) is widely recognized as a powerful tool to improve flood forecasts, and the need for an effective transition of research advances into operational forecasting systems has been increasingly claimed in recent years. Nevertheless, the majority of studies investigates DA capabilities through synthetic experiments, while applications conducted from an operational perspective are rare. In this work we present variational assimilation of discharge data at multiple locations in a distributed hydrologic model (Mobidic) that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, in central Italy.The variational approach needs the derivation of an adjoint model, that is challenging for hydrologic models, but it requires less restrictive hypothesis than Kalman and Monte Carlo filters and smoothers. The developed assimilation system adjusts on a distributed basis initial condition of discharge, initial condition of soil moisture and a parameter representing the frequency of no-rainfall in a time step. The correction evaluated at discharge measurement stations spreads upstream thanks to the coupling between equations of flow channel routing, that results into the coupling between equations of the adjoint model. Sequential assimilations are realized on windows of 6 hours. We extensively examine the performances of the DA system through several hindcast experiments that mimic operational conditions. The case studies include both flood events and false alarms that occurred in the period 2009-2010 in the Arno river basin (about 8230 km2).The hydrologic model is run with the spatial and temporal resolutions that are employed operationally, i.e. 500 m and 15 minutes.The enhancement in discharge forecasts is evaluated through classical performance indexes as error on peak flow and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, with strong emphasis on the dependence on lead time. In addition, uncertainty of the estimations is assessed using the Hessian of the cost function

  4. A presynaptic role for the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor msec7-1

    PubMed Central

    Ashery, Uri; Koch, Henriette; Scheuss, Volker; Brose, Nils; Rettig, Jens


    ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) represent a family of small monomeric G proteins that switch from an inactive, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. One member of this family, ARF6, translocates on activation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and has been implicated in regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Because GDP release in vivo is rather slow, ARF activation is facilitated by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors like cytohesin-1 or ARNO. Here we show that msec7-1, a rat homologue of cytohesin-1, translocates ARF6 to the plasma membrane in living cells. Overexpression of msec7-1 leads to an increase in basal synaptic transmission at the Xenopus neuromuscular junction. msec7-1-containing synapses have a 5-fold higher frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents than control synapses. On stimulation, the amplitudes of the resulting evoked postsynaptic currents of msec7-1-overexpressing neurons are increased as well. However, further stimulation leads to a decline in amplitudes approaching the values of control synapses. This transient effect on amplitude is strongly reduced on overexpression of msec7-1E157K, a mutant incapable of translocating ARFs. Our results provide evidence that small G proteins of the ARF family and activating factors like msec7-1 play an important role in synaptic transmission, most likely by making more vesicles available for fusion at the plasma membrane. PMID:9927699

  5. A Hazard Assessment and Proposed Risk Index for Art, Architecture, Archive and Artifact Protection: Case Studies for Assorted International Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Clara J.

    This study proposes a hazard/risk index for environmental, technological, and social hazards that may threaten a museum or other place of cultural storage and accession. This index can be utilized and implemented to measure the risk at the locations of these storage facilities in relationship to their geologic, geographic, environmental, and social settings. A model case study of the 1966 flood of the Arno River and its impact on the city of Florence and the Uffizi Gallery was used as the index focus. From this focus an additional eleven museums and their related risk were assessed. Each index addressed a diverse range of hazards based on past frequency and magnitude. It was found that locations nearest a hazard had exceptionally high levels of risk, however more distant locations could have influences that would increase their risk to levels similar to those locations near the hazard. Locations not normally associated with a given natural hazard can be susceptible should the right conditions be met and this research identified, complied and assessed those factions found to influence natural hazard risk at these research sites.

  6. Integrability of N=6 Chern-Simons theory at six loops and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu; Min, Hyunsoo; Rey, Soo-Jong


    We study issues concerning perturbative integrability of N=6 Chern-Simons theory at planar and weak 't Hooft coupling regime. By Feynman diagrammatics, we derive so-called maximal-ranged interactions in the quantum dilatation generator, originating from homogeneous and inhomogeneous diagrams. The dilatation operator requires proper regularization of ultraviolet and infrared divergences and also bears scheme dependence depending on operator-mixing or two-point function methods adopted. We first consider the standard operator-mixing method. We show that homogeneous diagrams are obtainable by recursive method to all orders. The method, however, is not easily extendable to inhomogeneous diagrams. We thus consider two-point function method and study both operator contents and the spectrum of the quantum dilatation generator up to six-loop orders. Within this scheme, we show that, of two possible classes of operators, only one linear combination actually contributes. Curiously, this is exactly the same combination as in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. From these operators, we extract a spectrum of anomalous dimension up to six loops. We find that the spectrum agrees perfectly with the prediction based on quantum integrability. In evaluating the six-loop diagrams, we utilized a remarkable integer-relation algorithm developed by Ferguson, Baily, and Arno.

  7. Ral-Arf6 crosstalk regulates Ral dependent exocyst trafficking and anchorage independent growth signalling.


    Pawar, Archana; Meier, Jeremy A; Dasgupta, Anwesha; Diwanji, Neha; Deshpande, Neha; Saxena, Kritika; Buwa, Natasha; Inchanalkar, Siddhi; Schwartz, Martin Alexander; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj


    Integrin dependent regulation of growth factor signalling confers anchorage dependence that is deregulated in cancers. Downstream of integrins and oncogenic Ras the small GTPase Ral is a vital mediator of adhesion dependent trafficking and signalling. This study identifies a novel regulatory crosstalk between Ral and Arf6 that controls Ral function in cells. In re-adherent mouse fibroblasts (MEFs) integrin dependent activation of RalA drives Arf6 activation. Independent of adhesion constitutively active RalA and RalB could both however activate Arf6. This is further conserved in oncogenic H-Ras containing bladder cancer T24 cells, which express anchorage independent active Ral that supports Arf6 activation. Arf6 mediates active Ral-exocyst dependent delivery of raft microdomains to the plasma membrane that supports anchorage independent growth signalling. Accordingly in T24 cells the RalB-Arf6 crosstalk is seen to preferentially regulate anchorage independent Erk signalling. Active Ral we further find uses a Ral-RalBP1-ARNO-Arf6 pathway to mediate Arf6 activation. This study hence identifies Arf6, through this regulatory crosstalk, to be a key downstream mediator of Ral isoform function along adhesion dependent pathways in normal and cancer cells. PMID:27269287

  8. Microwave Spectroscopy and Internal Dynamics of the Ne-NO2 Van Der Waals Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brian J.; Economides, George; Dyer, Lee


    The rotational spectrum of the open-shell complex Ne-NO2 in the 6 - 18 GHz region is reported. Both fine and hyperfine structure are observed. However, the spectrum does not fit a semi-rigid model as well as the related species Ar-NO2, Kr-NO2 and Xe-NO2. This is almost certainly a result of the "floppy" nature of this species. In order to model the dynamics of the complex and to reproduce the observed spectrum, we have obtained an accurate intermolecular potential surface using the RCCSD(T) method and aug-cc-pV(D/T)Z basis sets (extrapolated to the complete basis set limit). Full quantum dynamics calculations were then performed on this surface to give the rotational energy levels and the effective fine and hyperfine structure constants. R.J. Low, M.D. Brooks, C.J. Whitham and B.J. Howard J. Chem. Phys., 105, 6756 (1996) S. Blanco, C.J. Whitham, H. Qian and B.J. Howard, PCCP., 3, 3895 (2001). C.J. Whitham, R.J. Low and B.J. Howard, Chem. Phys. Lett., 286, 408 (1998).

  9. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy.


    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Cocumelli, C; Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Eleni, C; Siemoni, N; Fischetti, R; Susini, F


    Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post-mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed herpesvirus-like particles, subsequently identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus-2 (CyHV-2) with a nested PCR protocol. Although it was not possible to attribute a pathogenic role to CyHV-2 in this mortality event, the identification of this herpesvirus in crucian carp increases the concern about its potential role in this species. PMID:23488630

  10. Hydrogeological study of the intensely exploited aquifer of the Santa Croce leather-producing district, Tuscany (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Sergio; Doveri, Marco; Cortecci, Gianni; Amadori, Michele


    A hydrogeological study was undertaken to define the groundwater circulation in the Santa Croce area (Tuscany, central Italy) where the existing multilayered aquifer has long been intensively exploited. Investigations carried out on about 150 wells revealed the existence of a deep piezometric depression (to 20 m below sea level) which drains groundwater from the entire surrounding area. Samples from about 70 water points, collected twice in 2007, were analysed for major elements and stable isotope composition. Three major groups of waters, which mix in the study area, have been distinguished: (1) waters of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type mainly flowing along the Arno River Plain; (2) waters of the Na-K-Cl/Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, type with SO4 content up to 275 mg/L, inflowing from the Pisane Hills; (3) relatively high-salinity waters mainly of the Na-HCO3 type which, with Cl concentrations up to 750 mg/L, likely arise from a normal fault located at the foot of the northern hills. The characteristics of the different components are greatly affected by significant modifying processes such as cation exchange and sulfate reduction. The achieved conceptual model suggests the southern hills as the main recharging area of the aquifer system from which water circulation, characterized by pathways of different length and depth, develops.

  11. A new GTO-based single-phase to three-phase static converter for loco auxiliaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.V.V.R.; Rajgopal, P.V.; Saxena, S.N.; Mondal, S.K.; Muni, B.P.; Vithal, J.V.R.


    Presently a rotating Arno converter is being used to drive the auxiliary motors inside the 25 kV AC locomotive. A GTO based Single-Phase to Three-Phase static converter has been developed to give a balanced three-phase ac supply for feeding the auxiliaries, in spite of wide voltage variations in the overhead catenary. This paper presents the salient features of the development, which was successfully tested inside a locomotive. The authors have successfully developed 180 kVA single-phase to three-phase static converter (hereafter referred to as static converter) for feeding the auxiliary motors in locomotives. The main advantage of the development is that the three-phase output voltage of converter (which is fed to all the three-phase induction motors) remains constant and perfectly balanced even with wide variations in the catenary voltage and under varying load conditions. The various other special features of the development are discussed in this paper.

  12. Spatial relationship between landslide occurrence and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.


    Landslide represents a major type of natural hazards. It may leave great threat to human lives as well as infrastructures. In this study, we tried to understand the spatial relationship between landslide occurrences and land cover types through spatial statistics. The approach was based on the bivariate K-functions which can be used to analyze whether there is spatial clustering, repelling or randomness for landslide occurring in areas within different land covers. The Arno River basin in central Italy was chosen as the study area because the landslide inventory is complete with acquired records of more than 27,000 events. According to the inventory, we divided landslides into four classifications according to their types: slides, sofluctions, falls and flows. The land cover data was derived from the CORINE Land Cover map. The land cover types of artificial lands, natural and forest areas, and agriculture lands were focused on. The results indicate that landslides tend to occur in a clustering way within both three land covers. The difference is from the clustering level and spatial dependence distance. Therefore, no evidence can be found that the spatial pattern of landslide occurrence is dependent on changes of land covers.

  13. SCAMP2 Interacts with Arf6 and Phospholipase D1 and Links Their Function to Exocytotic Fusion Pore Formation in PC12 CellsD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixia; Liao, Haini; Castle, Anna; Zhang, Jie; Casanova, James; Szabo, Gabor; Castle, David


    SNAP receptor (SNARE)-mediated fusion is regarded as a core event in exocytosis. Exocytosis is supported by other proteins that set up SNARE interactions between secretory vesicle and plasma membranes or facilitate fusion pore formation. Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are candidate proteins for functioning in these events. In neuroendocrine PC12 cells, SCAMP2 colocalizes on the cell surface with three other proteins required for dense-core vesicle exocytosis: phospholipase D1 (PLD1), the small GTPase Arf6, and Arf6 guanine nucleotide exchange protein ARNO. Arf6 and PLD1 coimmunoprecipitate (coIP) with SCAMP2. These associations have been implicated in exocytosis by observing enhanced coIP of Arf6 with SCAMP2 after cell depolarization and in the presence of guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate and by inhibition of coIP by a SCAMP-derived peptide that inhibits exocytosis. The peptide also suppresses PLD activity associated with exocytosis. Using amperometry to analyze exocytosis, we show that expression of a point mutant of SCAMP2 that exhibits decreased association with Arf6 and of mutant Arf6 deficient in activating PLD1 have the same inhibitory effects on early events in membrane fusion. However, mutant SCAMP2 also uniquely inhibits fusion pore dilation. Thus, SCAMP2 couples Arf6-stimulated PLD activity to exocytosis and links this process to formation of fusion pores. PMID:16030257

  14. Seawater intrusion in the gravelly confined aquifer of the coastal Pisan Plain (Tuscany): hydrogeological and geochemical investigation to assess causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doveri, M.; Giannecchini, R.; Butteri, M.


    The gravelly horizon of the Pisa plain multilayered system is a confined aquifer tapped by a large number of wells. It hosts a very important water resource for drinking, industrial and irrigable uses, but may be affected by seawater intrusion coming from the coastal area; most wells is distributed inland, anyway a significant exploitation along the coastal area is also present to supply farms and tourist services. Previous hydrogeological and geochemical investigations carried out in coastal area stated maximum percentage of seawater in gravelly aquifer of about 7-9% and suggested the presence of two different mechanisms (Doveri et alii, 2010): i) a direct seawater intrusion from the zone where the gravelly aquifer is in contact with the sea floor; ii) a mixing process between freshwater and seawater, the latter deriving from the Arno river-shallow sandy aquifer system. Basing on these results, since January 2012 a new two-year project was financed by the MSRM Regional Park. Major aims are a better definition of such phenomena and their distribution on the territory, and an assessing of the seawater intrusion trend in relation to groundwater exploitation. Eleven piezometers were realised during first semester of 2012, thus improving the measurement network, which is now made up by 40 wells/piezometers distributed on about 60 km^2. Comparing new and previous borehole data a general confinement of the gravelly aquifer is confirmed, excepting in the northern part where the aquifer is in contact with the superficial sandy one. Preliminary field measurement was performed in June 2012, during which water level (WL) and electrical conductivity (EC) data were collected. WLs below the sea-level were observed on most of the studied area, with a minimum value of about -5 m a.s.l. in the inner part of the northern zone, where major exploitation is present. Moreover, a relative minimum of WL (about -2 m a.s.l.) is present near the shoreline in the southern zone. In the latter

  15. Slow Moving Hazard Hotspot from InSAR Data: improving communication with decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Casagli, Nicola; Catani, Filippo; Tofani, Veronica


    Slow moving hazards are not always taken seriously in the management and governance of mountain risks. This is because of their relatively low threat to human lives compared to rapid mass movement. However, these kinds of slow processes can remain active for long period of time. Also, it could leave a great threat to properties and infrastructures. Hence, for an advanced risk management strategy, it is important to include slow moving hazards when dealing with long-term mountain risks. Thanks to the rapid development of advanced InSAR processing, especially with the advent of long-term InSAR approaches, it is possible to detect ground motion with millimeter precision for a long period of spanning time. However, considering the complexity and ambiguity of the data processing, for those who are mainly dealing with risk management and governance, the technical part of InSAR processing is sometimes equivocal and difficult to understand. Providing an understandable hazard map might be more helpful for them. With this motive, we introduce an approach of producing slow moving hazard hotspot map from previous InSAR outcomes. Compared to traditional InSAR maps, the hotspot map is straightforward and easy to understand. To present the usefulness of hotspot map, an example in the Arno river basin in central Italy is presented. Several landslides activities are confirmed as active from the hotspot map. Some of them are further investigated in order to evaluate the previous mitigation efforts. Also, the map provides an approach of detecting and mapping new landslides rapidly and accurately. Except for landslide hazards, subsidence dangers are identified in the Mugello Circuit which is the race track for Moto GP and the test track for Ferrari Formula 1 team. In all, the hotspot map is proven to be an efficient, effective and easily understandable communication approach between technicians and decision makers.

  16. A Geomorphological Approach To Landslide Susceptibility Assessment and Its Application To The Virginio River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagli, N.; Catani, F.; Delmonaco, G.; Ermini, L.; Margottini, C.; Puglisi, C.

    The present note presents the results of a research project aimed at developing a ge- omorphology based method for the assessment of landslide susceptibility. The work has been carried out in the Virginio River basin, a tributary of the Arno river with confluence located 20 km downstream from Florence (Italy). Starting from a detailed landslide inventory, essentially carried out by aerial-photograph survey, the first phase of the research was directed to geomorphic field investigations, aimed at determining those hillslope factors influencing landslide triggering. This analysis was carried out for a significant sub-sample of the inventoried landslides, allowing the distinction of the most relevant hillslope factors affecting each type of mass movement. Selected factors are a) the past slope gradient in which landslide originated, b) litology and 3) land use. Once defined as thematic vector data, these factors have been handled by GIS overlay mapping, allowing to single out, for the entire Virginio River basin, homogeneous domains (Unique Condition Units) that contain, for each landslide ty- pology, unique combinations of the selected hillslope factors. Those domains are the basic Terrain Units for the following phase of landslide susceptibility assessment and mapping. The hillslope factors not selected in the first phase, however playing an im- portant role in contributing to the activation of the mass movements, have been taken into account for the definition of a landslide susceptibility function. This function is es- sentially a logic function based on the presence/absence of preparatory factors within the previous selected Unique Condition Terrain Units. The final mapping of the ar- eas characterized by different landslide susceptibility levels was performed by vector and raster based GIS techniques on the basis of the number and rank of predisposing factors. These landslide susceptibility classes, defined by a logic and easily replicable function, can be

  17. DNA adduct formation by alachlor metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kimmel, E.C.; Casida, J.E.


    The extent of DNA adduct formation by alachlor (ArN(CH/sub 2/OCH/sub 3/)C(O)CH/sub 2/Cl wherein Ar is 2,6-diethylphenyl) and its metabolites is used as a guide to deduce the causal agent(s) in the carcinogenicity of this major herbicide. (/sup 14/C-phenyl)Alachlor is compared to its two metabolic cleavage products, (/sup 14/C-phenyl) 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)acetamide (CDEPA) (ArNHC(O)CH/sub 2/Cl) and (/sup 14/C-phenyl)2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) (ArNH/sub 2/), and to (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor in various in vitro and in vivo systems. Horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide activate DEA, but not CEDPA or alachlor, for formation of adducts with calf thymus DNA, which probably involves 2,6-diethylnitrosobenzene (ArNO) as an intermediate. Mouse liver microsomes and NADPH are both required to enhance the binding from each labeled preparation to calf thymus DNA; 4-fold higher labeling is observed from (/sup 14/C-methoxy)- than from (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor. This 4-fold preferential DNA labeling from the /sup 14/C-methoxy compound is likewise found in the liver of mice treated intraperitoneally. Mouse liver protein and hemoglobin are also labeled, in vivo, with (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor, -CDEPA and -DEA, and, as with the DNA, the labeling of these proteins is 1.5- to 2-fold higher with (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor.

  18. β-Arrestin-mediated Angiotensin II Signaling Controls the Activation of ARF6 Protein and Endocytosis in Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.


    Charles, Ricardo; Namkung, Yoon; Cotton, Mathieu; Laporte, Stéphane A; Claing, Audrey


    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasopressive hormone but is also a potent activator of cellular migration. We have previously shown that it can promote the activation of the GTPase ARF6 in a heterologous overexpressing system. The molecular mechanisms by which receptors control the activation of this small G protein remain, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, how ARF6 coordinates the activation of complex cellular responses needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that Ang II receptors engage β-arrestin, but not Gq, to mediate ARF6 activation in HEK 293 cells. To further confirm the key role of β-arrestin proteins, we overexpressed β-arrestin2-(1-320), a dominant negative mutant known to block receptor endocytosis. We show that expression of this truncated construct does not support the activation of the GTPase nor cell migration. Interestingly, β-arrestin2 can interact with the ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO, although the C-terminally lacking mutant does not. We finally examined whether receptor endocytosis controlled ARF6 activation and cell migration. Although the clathrin inhibitor PitStop2 did not impact the ability of Ang II to activate ARF6, cell migration was markedly impaired. To further show that ARF activation regulates key signaling events leading to migration, we also examined MAPK activation. We demonstrate that this signaling axis is relevant in smooth muscle cells of the vasculature. Altogether, our findings show for the first time that Ang II receptor signaling to β-arrestin regulates ARF6 activation. These proteins together control receptor endocytosis and ultimately cell migration. PMID:26703465

  19. Meta-analysis of trials comparing anastrozole and tamoxifen for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aydiner, Adnan; Tas, Faruk


    Objective It was aimed to review the literature and make a meta-analysis of the trials on both upfront, switching, and sequencing anastrozole in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. Methods The PubMed, and Cochrane databases were systematically reviewed for randomized-controlled trials comparing anastrozole with tamoxifen in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. Results The combined hazard rate of 4 trials for event-free survival (EFS) was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.70–0.85) (P < 0.0001) for patients treated with anastrozole compared with tamoxifen. In the second analysis in which only ITA, ABCSG 8, and ARNO 95 trials were included and ATAC (upfront trial) was excluded, combined hazard rate for EFS was 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52–0.79) (P < 0.0001). In the third analysis including hazard rate for recurrence-free survival (excluding non-disease related deaths) of estrogen receptor-positive patients for ATAC trial and hazard rate for EFS of all patients for the rest of the trials, combined hazard rate was 0.73 (95%CI: 0.65–0.81) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Anastrozole appears to have superior efficacy than tamoxifen in the adjuvant hormonal treatment of early breast cancer. Until further clinical evidence comes up, aromatase inhibitors should be the initial hormonal therapy in postmenopausal early breast cancer patients and switching should only be considered for patients who are currently receiving tamoxifen. PMID:18664277

  20. [Distribution Characteristics of Nitrifiers and Denitrifiers in the River Sediments of Tongling City].


    Cheng, Jian-hua; Dou, Zhi-yong; Sun, Qing-ye


    Rivers in mining areas were influenced by contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter due to domestic and agricultural wastewater discharge in addition to pollutants caused by mining activities. In this study, surface sediment samples of rivers in Tongling city were collected to address the effect of season and pollution type on the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) technique targeting at the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) and nitrite reductase (nir) genes. The results showed that the average ahundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AGA) (ranging from 1.74 x 10⁵ to 1.45 x 10⁸ copies · g⁻¹) was 4.39 times that of ammonia oxidizing hacteria (AGH) (ranging from 1.39 x 10⁵ to 3.39 x 10⁷ copies · g⁻¹); and the average abundance of nirK gene (ranging from 4.45 x 10⁶ to 1.51 x 10⁸ copies · g) was almost a thirtieth part of nirS gene (ranging from 1.69 x 10⁷ to 8.55 x 10⁹ copies · g⁻¹). The abundance of AOA was higher in spring and autumn, and lower in summer and winter. And sediment AOB abundance was higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn. Meanwhile, the abundance of nir genes was in the order of spring (nirS )/autumn (nirK) > summer > winter > autumn (nirS )/spring (nirK). Moreover, the abundance of bacterial and archaeal arnoA and nirS genes in sediments influenced by mine pollution was generally higher than that in sediments influenced by agricultural non-point pollution, whereas the abundance of nirK gene showed an opposite trend. PMID:27548957

  1. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.


    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano


    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromArno present significant concentrations, while concentrations in Tevere and Adige, which are not impacted by relevant industrial activities, are almost all below the detection limits. The total estimated PFAA load of the five rivers was 7.5ty(-1) with the following percentage distribution: 39% PFBS, 32% PFOA, 22% short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively. In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  2. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Roggeri, Daniela Paola; Roggeri, Alessandro; Rossi, Elisa; Cataudella, Salvatore; Martini, Nello


    Purpose Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy, based on administrative database analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in health care costs of preterm infants with and without early hospitalization for bronchiolitis. Patients and methods Preterm infants born in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were selected from the ARNO Observatory database and observed for the first 4 years of life. These preterm infants were compared (paired 1–3) with preterm infants who were not hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life and with similar characteristics. Only direct health care costs reimbursed by the Italian National Health Service were considered for this study (drugs, hospitalizations, and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). Results Of 40,823 newborns in the accrual period, 863 were preterm with no evidence of prophylaxis, and 22 preterm infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis (cases) and paired with 62 controls. Overall, cases had 74% higher average cost per infant in the first 4 years of life than controls (18,624€ versus 10,189€, respectively). The major cost drivers were hospitalizations, accounting for >90% in both the populations. The increase in total yearly health care cost between cases and controls remained substantial even in the fourth year of life for all cost items. A relevant increase in hospitalizations and drug consumption linked to respiratory tract diseases was noted in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis during the entire follow-up period. Conclusion Preterm infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were associated with increased resource consumption and costs throughout the entire period

  3. From magnetism to superconductivity in FeTe1-x Se x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, Dimitri


    The iron chalcogenide FeTe 1-x Se x is structurally the simplest of the Fe-based superconductors and exhibits a Fermi surface similar to iron pnictides. Despite this similarity, the parent compound Fe 1+y Te orders antiferromagnetically with an in-plane magnetic wave vector (π ,0) with an ordered moment of ~ 2 μB /Fe, suggestive of a localized rather than itinerant character of the magnetic order. This contrasts the pnictide parent compounds where the magnetic order has an in-plane magnetic wave vector (π , π) that likely arises from Fermi Surface nesting. Regardless both the pnictide and chalcogenide Fe superconductors exhibit a superconducting spin resonance around (π , π) as probed by neutron scattering. A central question in this burgeoning field is therefore how (π , π) superconductivity emerges from a (π ,0) magnetic instability ? Using neutron scattering we show that incommensurate magnetic excitations around (π , π) are found even in the undoped parent compound Fe 1+y Te. With increasing x , the (π ,0)-type magnetic long-range order becomes unstable and correlates with a weak charge carrier localization, while the mode at (π , π) becomes dominant for x>0.29. Our results suggest a common magnetic origin for superconductivity in iron chalcogenide and pnictide superconductors. This work was carried out in close collaboration with the groups of W.Bao (Renmin), Arno Hies (ILL), Zhiqiang Mao (Tulane), C. Brohom (John Hopkins) and I. Eremin (MPI-Dresden/Bochum). Authors thanks Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin and the DFG (under SPP 1458) for support.

  4. Exclusion of Integrins from CNS Axons Is Regulated by Arf6 Activation and the AIS

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Elske H. P.; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Koseki, Hiroaki; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Hoogenraad, Casper C.


    Integrins are adhesion and survival molecules involved in axon growth during CNS development, as well as axon regeneration after injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Adult CNS axons do not regenerate after injury, partly due to a low intrinsic growth capacity. We have previously studied the role of integrins in axon growth in PNS axons; in the present study, we investigate whether integrin mechanisms involved in PNS regeneration may be altered or lacking from mature CNS axons by studying maturing CNS neurons in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, we find that integrins are present in axons during initial growth but later become restricted to the somato-dendritic domain. We investigated how this occurs and whether it can be altered to enhance axonal growth potential. We find a developmental change in integrin trafficking; transport becomes predominantly retrograde throughout axons, but not dendrites, as neurons mature. The directionality of transport is controlled through the activation state of ARF6, with developmental upregulation of the ARF6 GEF ARNO enhancing retrograde transport. Lowering ARF6 activity in mature neurons restores anterograde integrin flow, allows transport into axons, and increases axon growth. In addition, we found that the axon initial segment is partly responsible for exclusion of integrins and removal of this structure allows integrins into axons. Changing posttranslational modifications of tubulin with taxol also allows integrins into the proximal axon. The experiments suggest that the developmental loss of regenerative ability in CNS axons is due to exclusion of growth-related molecules due to changes in trafficking. PMID:26019348

  5. ESTEC/GEOVUSIE/ILEWG Planetary Student Designer Workshop: a Teacher Training Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, J.; Foing, B. H.; Kaskes, P.


    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sebastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft. Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium "Moon, Mars and More" at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion.

  6. Hydroxamate siderophore-promoted reactions between iron(II) and nitroaromatic groundwater contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Duckworth, Owen W.; Strathmann, Timothy J.


    Recent studies show that ferrous iron (Fe II), which is often abundant in anaerobic soil and groundwater, is capable of abiotically reducing many subsurface contaminants. However, studies also demonstrate that Fe II redox reactivity in geochemical systems is heavily dependent upon metal speciation. This contribution examines the influence of hydroxamate ligands, including the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB), on Fe II reactions with nitroaromatic groundwater contaminants (NACs). Experimental results demonstrate that ring-substituted NACs are reduced to the corresponding aniline products in aqueous solutions containing Fe II complexes with DFOB and two monohydroxamate ligands (acetohydroxamic acid and salicylhydroxamic acid). Reaction rates are heavily dependent upon solution conditions and the identities of both the Fe II-complexing hydroxamate ligand and the target NAC. Trends in the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants for reduction of 4-chloronitrobenzene ( kobs, s -1) are quantitatively linked to the formation of Fe II species with standard one-electron reduction potentials, EH0 (Fe III/Fe II), below -0.3 V. Linear free energy relationships correlate reaction rates with the EH0 (Fe III/Fe II) values of different electron-donating Fe II complexes and with the apparent one-electron reduction potentials of different electron-accepting NACs, EH1'(ArNO 2). Experiments describing a redox auto-decomposition mechanism for Fe II-DFOB complexes that occurs at neutral pH and has implications for the stability of hydroxamate siderophores in anaerobic environments are also presented. Results from this study indicate that hydroxamates and other Fe III-stabilizing organic ligands can form highly redox-active Fe II complexes that may contribute to the natural attenuation and remediation of subsurface contaminants.

  7. Adherence to alendronic or risedronic acid treatment, combined or not to calcium and vitamin D, and related determinants in Italian patients with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, S; Cinconze, E; Rossini, M; Rossi, E; Maggioni, AP; Pedrini, A; De Rosa, M


    Purpose Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and an important health and social burden due to its worldwide prevalence. Literature and clinical experience report incomplete adherence to the therapy. This retrospective observational study aimed at assessing the adherence to first-line antiosteoporosis drugs (AODs; reimbursed by the National Health System, according to the Italian Medicine Agency recommendation number 79), alendronate or risedronate, with or without calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, in a real, Italian clinical setting. Patients and methods Analyses were carried out on data present in the ARNO Observatory, a population-based patient-centric Italian database. From a population of 5,808,832 inhabitants with available data, a cohort of 3.3 million of patients aged ≥40 years was selected. New users of first-line AODs as monotherapy (accrual period, 2007–2009) were followed up over 3 years to assess adherence at 6, 12, and 36 months to AODs and to supplements and related determinants. Results Approximately 40,000 new users were identified: mostly women, aged on average (standard deviation) 71±10 years. Alendronate was the most prescribed (38.2% of patients), followed by risedronate (34.9%) and alendronate with colecalciferol as a fixed-dose combination (25.8%). Adherence at the 6-month follow-up was 54%, and this constantly and significantly decreased after 1 year to 46%, and after 3 years to 33% (P<0.01). Adherence to the fixed-dose combination was higher than to plain alendronate throughout the follow-up period. Similarly, adherence to supplements constantly decreased with the duration of treatment. Women and patients aged >50 years were more likely to adhere to treatment regimen (P<0.001). The use of drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease and of corticosteroids for systemic use were significantly associated with high adherence at different times. Polytherapy (>5 drugs), cardiovascular, and neurological therapies were

  8. Quantitative flood risk assessment in historic cities: sensitivity to hydraulic modeling and open socio-economic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo


    The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data

  9. ALERTES-SC3 Early Warning System prototype for South Iberian Peninsula: on-site approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Martín Davila, José; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Vera, Angel; Ciberia, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Strollo, Angelo; Hanka, Winfried; Carranza, Marta


    In recent years several Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) have been developed for different parts of the world. The area between SW Cape St. Vicente and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the most seismically active zones in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, with predominantly moderate and superficial seismicity, but also big events with associated tsunamis are well documented in the area, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In the frame of the ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) Spanish projects, the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS, regional approach, prototype has been developed at the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and is being tested in near real time for south Iberia. This prototype, based on the SeisComP3 software package, is largely based on algorithms derived from the analysis of the first seconds of the P wave records. Calculation of several parameters are carried out, mainly the characteristic period (τc) and the displacement peak (Pd), but also the velocity peak (Pv), the maximum period (τPmáx), among others. In order to warm the areas closest to the hypocentre, places located inside the "blind zone", a on-site EEWS has also been developed by ROA and integrated in the ALERTES-SC3 prototype. From the on-site approach, a warm level is declared from one station as a function of the estimated characteristic period (τc) and the displacement Peak (Pd), although the earthquake location and therefore the lead time available remains unknown. This on-site EEWS is being tested in several Western Mediterranean net (WM) stations as ARNO (Arenosillo, Huelva,Spain) or CHAS (Chafarinas island, North Africa, Spain). Also an on-site low cost station is being developed based in low cost accelerometers. In this work the current state of the on-site EEWS developed, its integration in the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS system and the low cost seismic stations are shown.

  10. Modeling Soil Moisture Fields Using the Distributed Hydrologic Model MOBIDIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, A. E.; Entekhabi, D.; Castelli, F.


    . Mazzanti (2009), A distributed package for sustainable water management: a case study in the Arno basin, IAHS Publ. 327 Flerchinger, G. N. (2000), The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model: Technical Documentation, Technical Report NWRC 2000-09, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Boise, Idaho

  11. Exploring model sensitivity issues across different scales in landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, F.; Lagomarsino, D.; Segoni, S.; Tofani, V.


    variables and the of RF model random component on the susceptibility results. We apply the model statistics to a test area in central Italy, the basin of the Arno river (ca. 9000 km2), we present the obtained results and discuss them. Results confirm that the choice of parameter set, mapping unit resolution and training sampling method highly influences the overall accuracy of classification and prediction results. This, in turn, implies that a careful sensitivity analysis making use of traditional and new tools should always be performed before producing final susceptibility maps at all levels and scales.

  12. Landslide susceptibility estimation by random forests technique: sensitivity and scaling issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, F.; Lagomarsino, D.; Segoni, S.; Tofani, V.


    the effect of the random component of the RF model on the susceptibility results, are also examined. The model is tested in the Arno River basin (central Italy). We find that the dimension of parameter space, the mapping unit (scale) and the training process strongly influence the classification accuracy and the prediction process. This, in turn, implies that a careful sensitivity analysis making use of traditional and new tools should always be performed before producing final susceptibility maps at all levels and scales.

  13. Sensitivity analysis and scale issues in landslide susceptibility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Filippo; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Segoni, Samuele; Tofani, Veronica


    random forest enables to estimate the relative importance of the single input parameters and to select the optimal configuration of the regression model. The model was initially applied using the complete set of input parameters, then with progressively smaller subsamples of the parameter space. Considering the best set of parameters we also studied the impact of scale and accuracy of input variables and the influence of the RF model random component on the susceptibility results. We apply the model statistics to a test area in central Italy, the hydrographic basin of the Arno river (ca. 9000 km2), we present the obtained results and discuss them. We also use the outcomes of the parameter sensitivity analysis to investigate the different role of environmental factors in the test area.

  14. Oil-in-water nanocontainers as low environmental impact cleaning tools for works of art: two case studies.


    Carretti, Emiliano; Giorgi, Rodorico; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero


    A novel class of p-xylene-in-water microemulsions mainly based on nonionic surfactants and their application as low impact cleaning tool in cultural heritage conservation is presented. Alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and Triton X-100 surfactants allow obtaining very effective low impact oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions as alternatives to pure organic solvents for the removal of polymers (particularly Paraloid B72 and Primal AC33) applied during previous conservation treatments. The ternary APG/p-xylene/water microemulsions have been characterized by quasi elastic light scattering to obtain the hydrodynamic radius and the polydispersity of the microemulsion droplets. Laplace inversion of the correlation function CONTIN analysis provided evidence of acrylic copolymers solubilization into the oil nanodroplets. Contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) data confirmed that microemulsions were effective in removing polymer coatings. The phase diagram of APG microemulsions showed that a reduction >90% (compared to the conventional cleaning methods) of the organic solvent can be achieved by using o/w microemulsions. The microemulsions were successfully tested in two real cases: (1) the APG based microemulsion was used in a Renaissance painting by Vecchietta in Santa Maria della Scala, Siena, Italy, degraded by the presence of a polyacrylate coating applied during a previous restoration and (2) a Triton X-100 oil-in-water microemulsion containing (NH4)2CO3 in the water continuous phase. The association of ammoniun carbonate to the microemusion led to the swelling of an organic deposit (mainly asphaltenes deposited on the fresco in the Oratorio di San Nicola al Ceppo in Florence, still contamined by the water of the Arno river during the 1966 flood) and a very efficient removal of highly insoluble inorganic deposits (mainly gypsum) strongly associated to asphaltenes. These innovative systems are

  15. NO2 and SO2 dispersion modeling and relative roles of emission sources over Map Ta Phut industrial area, Thailand.


    Chusai, Chatinai; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Thepanondh, Sarawut


    Map Ta Phut industrial area (MA) is the largest industrial complex in Thailand. There has been concern about many air pollutants over this area. Air quality management for the area is known to be difficult, due to lack of understanding of how emissions from different sources or sectors (e.g., industrial, power plant, transportation, and residential) contribute to air quality degradation in the area. In this study, a dispersion study of NO2 and SO2 was conducted using the AERMOD model. The area-specific emission inventories of NOx and SO2 were prepared, including both stack and nonstack sources, and divided into 11 emission groups. Annual simulations were performed for the year 2006. Modeled concentrations were evaluated with observations. Underestimation of both pollutants was Jbund, and stack emission estimates were scaled to improve the modeled results before quantifying relative roles of individual emission groups to ambient concentration overfour selected impacted areas (two are residential and the others are highly industrialized). Two concentration measures (i.e., annual average area-wide concentration or AC, and area-wide robust highest concentration or AR) were used to aggregately represent mean and high-end concentrations Jbfor each individual area, respectively. For AC-NO2, on-road mobile emissions were found to be the largest contributor in the two residential areas (36-38% of total AC-NO2), while petrochemical-industry emissions play the most important role in the two industrialized areas (34-51%). For AR-NO2, biomass burning has the most influence in all impacted areas (>90%) exceptJor one residential area where on-road mobile is the largest (75%). For AC-SO2, the petrochemical industry contributes most in all impacted areas (38-56%). For AR-SO2, the results vary. Since the petrochemical industry was often identified as the major contributor despite not being the largest emitter, air quality workers should pay special attention to this emission group

  16. Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara


    The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the

  17. PREFACE: Annual Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies - FM&NT 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis


    Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.

  18. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro

  19. Distinguished Astronomer Awarded Jansky Lectureship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Makes Galaxies, at NRAO facilities in Charlottesville, Virginia, Green Bank, West Virginia, and Socorro, New Mexico. The dates of these scientific lectures, which are open to the public, will be announced later. This is the forty-third Jansky Lectureship. First awarded in 1966, it is named in honor of the man who, in 1932, first detected radio waves from a cosmic source. Karl Jansky's discovery of radio waves from the central region of the Milky Way started the science of radio astronomy. Other recipients of the Jansky award include five Nobel laureates (Drs. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson, William Fowler, and Joseph Taylor) as well as Jocelyn Bell-Burnell, discoverer of the first pulsar, and Vera Rubin, discoverer of dark matter in galaxies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. German Astronomer Karl Menten Is 2007 Jansky Awardee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    2001. He initiated the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), a 12-meter diameter telescope high in Chile's Atacama Desert, where the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is being built. APEX pioneered submillimeter-wavelength observations at Atacama, proving the quality of the site for such research. As Jansky Lecturer, Menten will give a presentation entitled, "Tuning in to the Molecular Universe," at NRAO facilities in Charlottesville, Virginia, Green Bank, West Virginia, and Socorro, New Mexico. The dates of these lectures, which are free and open to the public, will be announced later this summer. This is the forty-second Jansky Lectureship. First awarded in 1966, it is named in honor of the man who, in 1932, first detected radio waves from a cosmic source. Karl Jansky's discovery of radio waves from the central region of the Milky Way started the science of radio astronomy. Other recipients of the Jansky award include five Nobel laureates (Drs. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson, William Fowler, and Joseph Taylor) as well as Jocelyn Bell-Burnell, discoverer of the first pulsar, and Vera Rubin, discoverer of dark matter in galaxies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.


    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries FOCUS ON SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH EXOTIC SYMMETRIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru


    here and a consistent theoretical description of all aspects of their superconductivity remains a formidable challenge. While the discovery of the BCS theory led, in only a few years, to the complete and consistent theoretical description of all aspects of conventional superconductivity, we are far from this goal for the exotic superconductors. Hence these superconductors continue to be the focus of most research activity in the field of superconductivity today. The papers in this special issue represent a cross section of current activity in both experiment and theory on these fascinating materials. Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries Contents Phase-sensitive-measurement determination of odd-parity, spin-triplet superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 Ying Liu Striped superconductors: how spin, charge and superconducting orders intertwine in the cuprates Erez Berg, Eduardo Fradkin, Steven A Kivelson and John M Tranquada A twisted ladder: relating the Fe superconductors to the high-Tc cuprates E Berg, S A Kivelson and D J Scalapino Fractional vortex lattice structures in spin-triplet superconductors Suk Bum Chung, Daniel F Agterberg and Eun-A Kim Momentum dependence of pseudo-gap and superconducting gap in variation theory T Watanabe, H Yokoyama, K Shigeta and M Ogata Variational ground states of the two-dimensional Hubbard model D Baeriswyl, D Eichenberger and M Menteshashvili Charge dynamics of vortex cores in layered chiral triplet superconductors M Eschrig and J A Sauls Vortices in chiral, spin-triplet superconductors and superfluids J A Sauls and M Eschrig Flux periodicities in loops of nodal superconductors Florian Loder, Arno P Kampf, Thilo Kopp and Jochen Mannhart Evidence of magnetic mechanism for cuprate superconductivity Amit Keren Wave function for odd-frequency superconductors Hari P Dahal, E Abrahams, D Mozyrsky, Y Tanaka and A V Balatsky Nernst effect as a probe of superconducting fluctuations in disordered thin films A Pourret, P Spathis, H Aubin and K

  3. EDITORIAL: MST Best Paper Award for 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Patrick


    For the last 12 years, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of the journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. An Editorial Board working party, comprising Patrick Gill (Chairman), Ralph Tatam and David Birch, was convened to determine a single contributed paper describing new and significant work, well aligned with the measurement scope of the journal, and presented in clear and rigorous form. They received a number of recommendations from the Editorial and International Advisory Board Members, and they would like to record their thanks to the Members for these recommendations, as they form an all-important first stage in the assessment process. There were responses from some 12 Board Members. In total, there were 31 papers nominated. To aid the process, additional information in the form of the 2003 MST papers top rated by referees, and the top papers ranked by most electronic accesses, was accessed. Reviews, and papers which included a Board Member as an author, were automatically excluded. From the totality of nominations and working party deliberations, there emerged a clear winner. Thus the paper recommended by the working party for the MST Best Paper Award for 2003 is: 'Extension of the torsional crystal viscometer to measurements in the time domain' by Richard F Hafer and Arno Laesecke, 14 663-673 (2003) This paper describes a significant advance in viscosity measurement using torsional vibration in piezoelectric rods. The method reported here demonstrates the use of free-decay time-domain measurements as opposed to the more established steady-state forced-mode resonance technique. The time domain technique is faster and more sensitive, with the potential for improved accuracy due to the lack of large time constants necessary for the interpretation of forced mode data. It offers

  4. ESTEC/Geovusie/ILEWG planetary student design workshop: a teacher training perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, Jolanda; Foing, Bernard H.; Kaskes, Pim

    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sébastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft) Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium “Moon, Mars and More” at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion. The interactive character

  5. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    All papers published in this Volume 12 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga, Dr Sebastian Muntean and Dr Sandor Bernad. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the Scientific Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Anton ANTONTechnical University of Civil Engineering, BucharestRomania François AVELLANEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland Fidel ARZOLAEDELCAVenezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNERVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Anton BERGANTLitostroj Power d.o.o., LjubljanaSlovenia Gerard BOISENSAM, LilleFrance Hermod BREKKENTNU, TrondheimNorway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc., YorkUSA Eduard EGUSQUIZAPolytechnical University Catalonia BarcelonaSpain Arpad FAYUniversity of MiskolczHungary Richard FISHERVoith Hydro Inc., York USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLAInstitut Polytechnique de GrenobleFrance Aleksandar GAJICUniversity of BelgradeSerbia Arno GEHRERAndritz Hydro GrazAustria José GONZÁLEZUniversidad de OviedoSpain François GUIBAULTEcole Polytechnique de MontrealCanada Chisachi KATOUniversity of TokyoJapan Kwang-Yong KIMInha University, IncheonKorea Jiri KOUTNIKVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Adrian LUNGUDunarea de Jos University of GalatiRomania Christophe NICOLETPower Vision Engineering Sàrl, LausanneSwitzerland Torbjøm K. NIELSENNTNU, TrodheimNorway Michihiro NISHIKyushu Institute of TechnologyJapan Maryse PAGEHydro Quebec IREQ, VarennesCanada Etienne PARKINSONAndritz Hydro LtdSwitzerland František POCHYLYBrno UniversityCzech Republic Stefan RIEDELBAUCHVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG

  6. Virtual Telescope Observes Record-Breaking Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    to that of our own Moon), a diameter of no less than 1200 km results. Assuming instead an albedo of 2001 KX76 of only 4 percent - a typical value for icy cometary nuclei - leads to the even larger (although less likely) value of 1400 km. A real name for 2001 KX76 Thanks to the work of this group of astronomers, the orbit of 2001 KX76 may now be considered relatively secure and it may therefore soon receive a real name. Following astronomical tradition, the discoverers have the right to make a suggestion. The current custom dictates that a Kuiper Belt Object must be given a mythological name associated with creation. The name must then be confirmed by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) through its Committee on Small Body Nomenclature before becoming official. With a little bit of luck... The observations made with ESO's Wide Field Imager were crucial for this work to succeed in that they allowed the object's path to be tracked back in time. However, luck admittedly also played a key role. "These observations were originally made for a completely different project" , says Gerhard Hahn , team-leader for the project. "And we found the image of 2001 KX76 right at the edge of the WFI frames" . Jenni Virtanen , another member of the team, agrees: "And if we hadn't used our powerful methods to improve the orbit we would still be searching through the archives." Arno Gnaedig , a German amateur astronomer and team member, performed the new and accurate position measurements and also calculated the new orbit on his home computer: "To me this is a wonderful example of the fruitful collaboration that can take place between well-equipped amateur astronomers and professional astronomers ", he says. "The Web and the access to 'virtual observatories' means that amateur astronomers - located far from any 'real' professional telescopes - can also make important contributions" . Following this success, the group is currently working on a study of the long-term orbital evolution

  7. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck


    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  8. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro

  9. United Kingdom to Join ESO on July 1, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    united European face in astronomy through ESO". The President of the ESO Council, Dr. Arno Freytag , shares this opinion fully. "This is a most important step in the continuing process of European integration. The entry of the UK will of course be very useful to the scientists in that country, but I have no doubt that the benefits will be mutual. With its world-level astronomical and engineering expertise and with one of the most active research communities in Europe, the UK will bring significant intellectual, technical and financial resources to strengthen ESO. I have no doubt that the impressive research that is now being carried out by numerous astronomers with the ESO facilities has been our best advertisement and I am sure that this has had an important effect on the very welcome decision by the UK to join ESO." The UK will pay the usual annual contribution to ESO from the date of its entry. It has also been decided that as an important part of the special contribution to be made on entry, the UK will deliver the VISTA infrared survey telescope to ESO as an in-kind contribution. This wide-field telescope facility is now being constructed in the UK for a consortium of universities and it was decided already last year to place it at Paranal, cf. ESO PR 03/00. It will now become a fully integrated part of the ESO Paranal Observatory providing important survey observations in support of the VLT. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of PPARC, is "delighted that the negotiations with ESO and subsequent Council meetings have passed this critical decision point. We now expect a straightforward parliamentary process to ratify the intergovernmental treaty. This decision will allow UK astronomers to have access to the world-class VLT telescopes at Paranal. Just as importantly UK Astronomy will have a sound basis for the future ALMA and OWL projects in a European context. This is a major increase in investment in, and capability for, UK Astronomy." Notes [1]: Both ESO and PPARC

  10. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close

  11. Obituary: Ralph Asher Alpher, 1921-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Rebecca A.


    conditions in the early Universe prior to nucleosynthesis. Early on, Alpher and Herman realized that if the expanding Universe began in a hot phase, relic radiation from the era when radiation and matter decoupled should fill the Universe. They published this result in Nature in 1948, predicting that the current temperature should be 5K. In talk after talk, and in a series of papers, they publicized their work and urged observers to start looking for this radiation, but without result. At the time, the model of the hot, expanding Universe, scornfully christened "Big Bang" by Fred Hoyle in 1950, was far from accepted by the cosmology community, especially since the measured value of the Hubble constant produced a very small evolutionary age. Even if the Big Bang model was correct, the consensus was that the relic radiation would be much too faint to detect. Dismayed by the lack of interest in their results, both Alpher and Herman decided in 1955 to give up academia, turning down positions offered at the University of Iowa with James van Allen, and instead accepting jobs at General Electric (GE) and General Motors. Both had families by that time. Ralph had met his wife, Louise Ellen Simons, in 1940. They married January 28, 1942, and had two children, Harriet and Victor. Ralph worked for 32 years at GE Research and Development Center in Niskayuna, New York, on a variety of projects including high-speed aerodynamics, theoretical problems involving the physics of television projection systems, magnetohydrodynamic methods, and, eventually, strategic planning and technology forecasting. The papers about the relic radiation languished in the literature, but Alpher and Herman kept up with developments in cosmology. One can imagine their excitement and gratification when they learned of the serendipitous detection of the cosmic microwave background by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 and found that their model temperature (with updated values of cosmological parameters) was in

  12. VLT Observations Confirm that the Universe Was Hotter in the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    UVES Measures the Cosmic Temperature 12 Billion Years Ago Summary A fundamental prediction of the Big Bang theory has finally been verified . For the first time, an actual measurement has been made of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation, at a time when the Universe was only about 2.5 billion years old . This fundamental and very difficult observation was achieved by a team of astronomers from India, France and ESO [1]. They obtained a detailed spectrum of a quasar in the distant Universe, using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) instrument at the ESO 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. If the Universe was indeed formed in a Big Bang, as most astrophysicists believe, the glow of this primeval fireball should have been warmer in the past. This is exactly what is found by the new measurements. The analysis of the VLT spectrum of the distant quasar not only gives the definitive proof of the presence of the relict radiation in the early Universe, it also shows that it was indeed significantly warmer than it is today, as predicted by the theory. PR Photo 35/00 : VLT spectrum of the distant quasar PKS 1232+0815 , displaying lines of carbon atoms from an intervening cloud in which the cosmic temperature was measured. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) One of the fundamental predictions of the Hot Big Bang theory for the creation of the Universe is the existence of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) . This relict radiation of the primeval fireball was discovered in 1964 by means of radio observations by American physicists Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson , who were rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1978. Precision measurements by the COBE satellite later showed that this ancient radiation fills the Universe, with a present-day temperature of slightly less than 3 degrees above the absolute zero (2.7 K [Kelvin], or -270.4 °C). This radiation comes from all directions and is extremely uniform