Science.gov

Sample records for aroma detection technology

  1. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshick, Stacy-Ann; Griest, Wayne H.; Vass, Arpad A.

    1997-02-01

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic 'fingerprint' pattern representative of the vapor-phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The result to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  2. Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.

    PubMed

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2014-10-24

    Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  4. Dried-bonito aroma components enhance salivary hemodynamic responses to broth tastes detected by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomona; Saito, Kana; Nakamura, Akio; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-01-25

    To elucidate the effects of aroma from dried bonito (katsuo-bushi) on broth tastes caused by the central integration of flavor, optical imaging of salivary hemodynamic responses was conducted using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A reconstituted dried bonito flavored broth produced a significantly larger hemodynamic response than the odorless broth taste solutions for 5 of the 10 panelists, who felt that the combination of the aroma with the tastes was congruent. In the remaining 5 panelists who felt the combination incongruent, the flavored broth did not cause the enhancement of response. Moreover, when the odor-active smoky parts were removed from the flavoring, the reconstituted flavoring did not enhance the response in the former five panelists. These results indicate that NIRS offers a sensitive method to detect the effect of specific congruent aroma components from dried-bonito broth on the taste-related salivary hemodynamic responses, dependent on the perceptual experience of the combination of aromas and tastes.

  5. Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection.

    PubMed

    Capobiango, Michely; Mastello, Raíssa Bittar; Chin, Sung-Tong; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Marriott, Philip John

    2015-04-03

    Fruit spirits have been produced and consumed throughout the world for centuries. However, the aroma composition of banana spirits is still poorly characterised. We have investigated the aroma-impact compounds of the banana Terra spirit for the first time, using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC and GC × GC) in a multi-hyphenated system - i.e., coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID), mass spectrometry (MS), and olfactometry (O). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to isolate the headspace aroma compounds of the banana spirit. The detection frequency (DF) technique was applied and aroma regions, detected in the first column separation at >60% Nasal Impact Frequency (NIF), were screened as target potent odour regions in the sample. Using a polar/non-polar phase column set, the potent odour regions were further subjected to MDGC separation with simultaneous O and MS detection for correlation of the aroma perception with MS data for individual resolved aroma-impact compounds. GC-O analysis enabled 18 aroma-impact regions to be located as providing volatiles of interest for further study; for example, those comprising perceptions of flower, whisky, green, amongst others. Compounds were tentatively identified through MS data matching and retention indices in both first and second dimensions. The principal volatile compounds identified in this work, which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of the banana spirit, are 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. This is the first such study to reveal the major aroma compounds that contribute to banana spirit aroma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of aroma compounds of pitaya fruit wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiao; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Shaodan; Lin, Mao

    2017-12-01

    In order to analyze the volatile components in red pitaya fruit wine, the study using headspace solid phase microextractionand gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology of pitaya fruit juice and wine aroma composition analysis comparison. Results showed that 55 volatile components were detected in red pitaya fruit wine, including 12 kinds of alcohol (18.16%), 18 kinds of esters (66.17%), 7 kinds of acids (5.94%), 11 kinds of alkanes (4.32%), one kind of aldehyde (0.09%), 2 kinds of olefins (0.09%) and 3 kinds of other volatile substances (0.23%). Relative contents among them bigger have 11 species, such as decanoic acid, ethyl ester (22.92%), respectively, diisoamylene (20.75%), octanoic acid, ethyl ester (17.73%), etc. The red pitaya fruit wine contained a lot of aroma components, which offer the products special aroma like brandy, rose and fruit.

  7. Odor detection of mixtures of homologous carboxylic acids and coffee aroma compounds by humans.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Toshio; Gallagher, Michele; Preti, George; Wise, Paul M

    2009-11-11

    Mixture summation among homologous carboxylic acids, that is, the relationship between detection probabilities for mixtures and detection probabilities for their unmixed components, varies with similarity in carbon-chain length. The current study examined detection of acetic, butyric, hexanoic, and octanoic acids mixed with three other model odorants that differ greatly from the acids in both structure and odor character, namely, 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one, furan-2-ylmethanethiol, and (3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutyl) acetate. Psychometric functions were measured for both single compounds and binary mixtures (2 of 5, forced-choice method). An air dilution olfactometer delivered stimuli, with vapor-phase calibration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Across the three odorants that differed from the acids, acetic and butyric acid showed approximately additive (or perhaps even supra-additive) summation at low perithreshold concentrations, but subadditive interactions at high perithreshold concentrations. In contrast, the medium-chain acids showed subadditive interactions across a wide range of concentrations. Thus, carbon-chain length appears to influence not only summation with other carboxylic acids but also summation with at least some unrelated compounds.

  8. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  9. Encapsulation of Aroma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  10. Detecting technology of biophotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junfu; Zhu, Zhaohui; Zhu, Yanbin

    2002-03-01

    A key technique of detecting the ultra-weak photon emission from biological system (UPE) is to change the light signal of an extremely weak level into electric signal of a considerable level when the photo-electric detecting system were be applied. This paper analyzed the difficult for detecting the ultra-weak photon emission from biological system (UPE) mainly is in the absence of high sensitivity detector in UV-visible-infra spectra region. An experimental setup for testing UPE in different spectral region was designed. Using the experimental setup the test data of different several spectral regions from 300 nm to 1060 nm has were tested. The test result show the UPE of living biological system exists in wide spectra region from UV- visible to infrared.

  11. Explosive detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doremus, Steven; Crownover, Robin

    2017-05-01

    The continuing proliferation of improvised explosive devices is an omnipresent threat to civilians and members of military and law enforcement around the world. The ability to accurately and quickly detect explosive materials from a distance would be an extremely valuable tool for mitigating the risk posed by these devices. A variety of techniques exist that are capable of accurately identifying explosive compounds, but an effective standoff technique is still yet to be realized. Most of the methods being investigated to fill this gap in capabilities are laser based. Raman spectroscopy is one such technique that has been demonstrated to be effective at a distance. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a technique capable of identifying chemical compounds inside of containers, which could be used to detect hidden explosive devices. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) utilized a coherent pair of lasers to excite a sample, greatly increasing the response of sample while decreasing the strength of the lasers being used, which significantly improves the eye safety issue that typically hinders laser-based detection methods. Time-gating techniques are also being developed to improve the data collection from Raman techniques, which are often hindered fluorescence of the test sample in addition to atmospheric, substrate, and contaminant responses. Ultraviolet based techniques have also shown significant promise by greatly improved signal strength from excitation of resonance in many explosive compounds. Raman spectroscopy, which identifies compounds based on their molecular response, can be coupled with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) capable of characterizing the sample's atomic composition using a single laser.

  12. Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

    2013-11-27

    The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and γ-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, β-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine.

  13. Pipe Leak Detection Technology Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that one of the nation’s biggest infrastructural needs is the replacement or rehabilitation of the water distribution and transmission systems. The institution of more effective pipe leak detection technology will im...

  14. Elucidation of key aroma compounds in traditional dry fermented sausages using different extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    The use of different extraction techniques - solid phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) - can deliver different aroma profiles and it is essential to determine which is most suitable to extract the aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages. Forty-five aroma-active compounds were detected by SPME and SAFE, with 11 of them reported for the first time as aroma compounds in dry fermented sausages: ethyl 3-hydroxy butanoate, trimethyl pyrazine, D-pantolactone, isobutyl hexanoate, ethyl benzoate, α-terpineol, ethyl 3-pyridinecarboxylate, benzothiazole, 2,3-dihydrothiophene, methyl eugenol, γ-nonalactone. The aroma concentration and odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Flavour reconstitution analyses were performed using 20 odorants with OAVs above 1 obtained from the SAFE and SPME extracts to prepare the aroma model. SPME and SAFE techniques were complementary and necessary to reproduce the overall dry fermented sausage aroma. The final aroma model included the odorants from both extraction techniques (SPME and SAFE) but it was necessary to incorporate the compounds 2,4-decadienal (E,E), benzothiazole, methyl eugenol, α-terpineol, and eugenol to the final aroma model to evoked the fresh sausage aroma although a lowest cured meat aroma note was perceived. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

  16. Determination of blueberry and strawberry maturity and aroma quality and effect of HLB on orange juice aroma: comparison of Z-nose, E-nose and GC-MS technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electronic nose technology could be very useful in quality control discrimination of products. The Z-nose (Electronic Sensory Technology, Model 4500) was equipped with a Tenax trap (2 mg, 225 ºC), and 1 m DB5 column, an acoustic wave detector and an oven set to ramp from 40-180 ºC at a rate of 10 ºC...

  17. Characteristic aroma components of rennet casein.

    PubMed

    Karagül-Yüceer, Yonca; Vlahovich, Katrina N; Drake, MaryAnne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2003-11-05

    Rennet casein, produced by enzymatic (rennet) precipitation of casein from pasteurized skim milk, is used in both industrial (technical) and food applications. The flavor of rennet casein powder is an important quality parameter; however, the product often contains an odor described as like that of animal/wet dog. Two commercial rennet casein powders were evaluated to determine the compounds responsible for the typical odor. Aroma extracts were prepared by high-vacuum distillation of direct solvent (ether) extracts and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Odorants detected by GCO were typical of those previously reported in skim milk powders and consisted mainly of short-chain volatile acids, phenolic compounds, lactones, and furanones. Results of AEDA indicated o-aminoacetophenone to be a potent odorant; however, sensory descriptive sensory analysis of model aroma systems revealed that the typical odor of rennet casein was principally caused by hexanoic acid, indole, guaiacol, and p-cresol.

  18. 77 FR 55199 - Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc. AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... given to an intent to grant to Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc., of Manhattan, Kansas, an... Assistant General Counsel for Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000...

  19. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yukiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Hirai, Sachi; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-05-01

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of an ether extract prepared from beef extract (BE) and subsequent identification experiments led to the determination of seven aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-128. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the seven aroma compounds suggested that 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of BE. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of the four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted BE showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombination mixture and BE showed a high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been identified successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Key Aroma Compounds in Lippia dulcis (Dushi Button).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Rainer; Cappi, Michael; Pollner, Gwendola; Greger, Veronika

    2018-03-14

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied on aroma extracts prepared from the edible flower Dushi Button ( Lippia dulcis) resulted in the detection of 34 odor-active compounds. The highest flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined for methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, an unknown caramel-like compound, and vanillin. Quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), resulted in the revelation of 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, linalool, myrcene, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and ( Z)-3-hexenal as important contributors to the flavor of Dushi Buttons.

  1. Contraband detection using acoustic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Robert D.; Gauthier, Ronald D.; Denslow, Kayte D.; Cinson, Anthony M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Griffin, Molly

    2008-03-01

    Maritime security personnel have a need for advanced technologies to address issues such as identification, confirmation or classification of substances and materials in sealed containers, both non-invasively and nondestructively in field and first response operations. Such substances include items such as hazardous/flammable liquids, drugs, contraband, and precursor chemicals used in the fabrication of illicit materials. Our initial efforts focused specifically on a commercial portable acoustic detector technology that was evaluated under operational conditions in a maritime environment. Technical/operational limitations were identified and enhancements were incorporated that would address these limitations. In this paper, application-specific improvements and performance testing/evaluation results will be described. Such enhancements will provide personnel/users of the detector a significantly more reliable method of screening materials for contraband items that might be hidden in cargo containers.

  2. Aroma Glycosides in Grapes and Wine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Ullah, Niamat; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The major aroma components in grapes and wine include free volatile compounds and glycosidic nonvolatile compounds. The latter group of compounds is more than 10 times abundant of the former, and constitutes a big aroma reserve in grapes and wine. This review summarizes the research results obtained recently for the identification of aroma glycosides in grapes and wine, including grape glycoside structures, differences in aroma glycosides among grape varieties, hydrolysis mechanisms, and the factors that influence them. It also presents the analytical techniques used to identify the glycosidic aroma precursors. The operational strategies, challenges, and improvements of each step encountered in the analysis of glycosidic aroma precursors are described. This review intends to provide a convenient reference for researchers interested in the methods used for the determination of the aroma glucosides composition and the recognition of their chemical structures. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Nuclear technologies for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Curtis J.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents an exploration of several techniques for detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) using interactions of specific nuclei with gammarays or fast neutrons. Techniques considered use these interactions to identify the device by measuring the densities and/or relative concentrations of the elemental constituents of explosives. These techniques are to be compared with selected other nuclear and non-nuclear methods. Combining of nuclear and non-nuclear techniques will also be briefly discussed.

  4. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R., E-mail: marat.1994@me.com

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content ofmore » infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.« less

  5. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R.; Soicher, E. M.; Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  6. Advances in fruit aroma volatile research.

    PubMed

    El Hadi, Muna Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Feng-Jie; Wu, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jun

    2013-07-11

    Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

  7. From wine to pepper: rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claudia; Siebert, Tracey E; Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P; Eggers, Marcus; Meier, Manfred; Vössing, Tobias; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard; Sefton, Mark A; Herderich, Markus J

    2008-05-28

    An obscure sesquiterpene, rotundone, has been identified as a hitherto unrecognized important aroma impact compound with a strong spicy, peppercorn aroma. Excellent correlations were observed between the concentration of rotundone and the mean 'black pepper' aroma intensity rated by sensory panels for both grape and wine samples, indicating that rotundone is a major contributor to peppery characters in Shiraz grapes and wine (and to a lesser extent in wine of other varieties). Approximately 80% of a sensory panel were very sensitive to the aroma of rotundone (aroma detection threshold levels of 16 ng/L in red wine and 8 ng/L in water). Above these concentrations, these panelists described the spiked samples as more 'peppery' and 'spicy'. However, approximately 20% of panelists could not detect this compound at the highest concentration tested (4000 ng/L), even in water. Thus, the sensory experiences of two consumers enjoying the same glass of Shiraz wine might be very different. Rotundone was found in much higher amounts in other common herbs and spices, especially black and white peppercorns, where it was present at approximately 10000 times the level found in very 'peppery' wine. Rotundone is the first compound found in black or white peppercorns that has a distinctive peppery aroma. Rotundone has an odor activity value in pepper on the order of 50000-250000 and is, on this criterion, by far the most powerful aroma compound yet found in that most important spice.

  8. The impact of wood ice cream sticks' origin on the aroma of exposed ice cream mixes.

    PubMed

    Jiamyangyuen, S; Delwiche, J F; Harper, W J

    2002-02-01

    The effect of volatile compounds in white birch sticks obtained from four different geographical locations on the aroma of ice cream mix was investigated. Sensory evaluation, (specifically, a series of warmed-up paired comparisons) was conducted on stick-exposed ice cream mixes to determine whether aroma differences in those mixes could be detected. Batches of ice cream mix were exposed to the sticks and aged for 6 d at 4 degrees C and then assessed by the panelists by pairwise comparison. Findings suggest that differences in aroma of mixes that have been exposed to white birch sticks from four different geographical origins can be distinguished perceptually.

  9. Monoclonal antibody technologies and rapid detection assays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel methodologies and screening strategies will be outlined on the use of hybridoma technology for the selection of antigen specific monoclonal antibodies. The development of immunoassays used for diagnostic detection of prions and bacterial toxins will be discussed and examples provided demonstr...

  10. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  11. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique.

    PubMed

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-02-08

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica . Aroma components of the S. officinalis , L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  12. Detection of off-flavor in catfish using a conducting polymer electronic-nose technology

    Treesearch

    Alphus D Wilson; Charisse Oberle; Daniel F. Oberle

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by...

  13. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies á la chef by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Christlbauer, Monika; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-10-14

    By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on an aroma distillate isolated from a freshly prepared, stewed beef/vegetable gravy, 52 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-4096. On the basis of high FD factors in combination with the results of the identification experiments, 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (gravy-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried, fatty), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (lovage-like), vanillin (vanilla-like), (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried), and (E)-2-undecenal (metallic) are suggested as key contributors to the aroma of the gravy. To get an insight into the role of the vegetables as sources of gravy odorants, a beef gravy was prepared without vegetables. The AEDA results revealed that, in particular, onions and leek are important sources of gravy aroma compounds, adding particularly the very potent, gravy-like smelling 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol to the overall aroma profile. Further compounds that were clearly derived from the vegetables and, thus, are important modifiers of the overall aroma were 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, (E)-beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-(sec-butyl)-3-methoxypyrazine. Interestingly, none of the key odorants detected in the gravy can be assumed to be formed from a reaction between beef and vegetable constituents. A comparison of the odorants in the beef/vegetable gravy with a gravy prepared according to the same procedure, but substituting beef by pork meat, indicated that most of the aroma compounds were identical-although different in FD factors-but the tallowy smelling 12-methyltridecanal was detected as key odorant only in the beef/vegetable gravy.

  14. Technology-enhanced caries detection and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Strassler, Howard E; Sensi, Luis Guilherme

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in children and adults in the United States has been declining the past 40 years primarily because of increased use of fluoride, improved oral hygiene and better oral hygiene devices, a greater emphasis on disease prevention and control, and better access to dental care made available by the dental profession. Caries diagnosis and detection for pit-and-fissure lesions has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. Research has confirmed that the carious process is bacterially mediated and is accompanied by changes in salivary flow and pH and the intake of refined carbohydrates. In recent years a number of new technologies have become available as adjuncts to traditional methods of diagnosing carious lesions. While using these new technologies, the clinician still needs to understand the concepts of caries risk, diagnosis, detection, and assessment. Working from the evidence, dental practitioners can decide on a sound clinical diagnosis and treatment plan.

  15. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Oberle, Charisse S.; Oberle, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P < 0.05). The A32S e-nose effectively discriminated between good-flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed. PMID:24287526

  16. Sensory-Analytical Comparison of the Aroma of Different Horseradish Varieties (Armoracia rusticana)

    PubMed Central

    Kroener, Eva-Maria; Buettner, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is consumed and valued for the characteristic spicy aroma of its roots in many countries all over the world. In our present study we compare six different horseradish varieties that were grown under comparable conditions, with regard to their aroma profiles, using combined sensory-analytical methods. Horseradish extracts were analyzed through gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and their aroma-active compounds ranked according to their smell potency using the concept of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Identification was carried out through comparison of retention indices, odor qualities and mass spectra with those of reference substances. Besides some differences in relative ratios, we observed some main odorants that were common to all varieties such as 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and allyl isothiocyanate, but also characteristics for specific varieties such as higher contents for 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine in variety Nyehemes. Moreover, three odorous compounds were detected that have not been described in horseradish roots before. PMID:29868555

  17. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. FAA bulk technology overview for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakoff, Alan K.

    1993-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the leading federal agency responsible for encouraging and fostering the development of a safe, secure, and efficient national airspace system (NAS). Our goal is to establish an operating environment that ensures a threat-free system to preclude acts of terrorism and fatalities. As part of the process to meet this goal, our research and development activities continually search for technologies to ensure aviation security. Recent acts of terrorism against the aviation community have demonstrated an increasing level of sophistication in the design and deployment of explosive devices. In order to prevent the introduction of explosives onto an aircraft they must be detected prior to passenger and baggage loading. The Bulk Detection program is one method of developing a number of technologies that 'see' into and 'alarm' on suspect baggage. These detection devices must be capable of providing this serve with a confidence commensurate with the state-of-the- art available today. This program utilizes the expertise of government agencies, universities and industries working toward constructing their plans and executing their designs to produce the best available equipment.

  19. Advances in radiation detection technologies for responders.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Michael P; Pibida, Leticia S

    2005-11-01

    The Department of Homeland Security is supporting the development of a large number of standards for first responders. In the area of detection of radioactive and nuclear materials, four new standards (ANSI N42.32, N42.33, N42.34, and N42.35) and their corresponding test and evaluation protocols were developed to meet Department of Homeland Security needs. Testing of the standards and protocols was carried out at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  20. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  1. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  2. Field application of pathogen detection technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Call, Douglas R.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    Over the last 10 years there has been a significant increase in commercial products designed for field-based detection of microbial pathogens. This is due, in part, to the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001, and the need for first responders to quickly identify the composition of suspected white powders and other potential biothreats. Demand for rapid detection is also driven by the need to ensure safe food, water, and environmental systems. From a technology perspective, rapid identification methods have largely capitalized on PCR and other molecular recognition techniques that can be deployed as robust field instrumentation. Examples ofmore » the relevant needs include the ability to: 1) declare a water distribution system free of microbial pathogens after a pipe/main break repair; 2) assess risks of contamination such as when produce production and processing plants are located near concentrated animal feeing operations; 3) evaluate the safety of ready-to-eat products; 4) determine the extent of potential serious disease outbreaks in remote and/or disaster stricken areas where access to clinical laboratories is not an immediate option; and 5) quickly assess credible biological terrorism events. Many of the principles underlying rapid detection methods are derived from methods for environmental microbiology, but there is a dearth of literature describing and evaluating field-based detection systems. Thus, the aims of this chapter are to: 1) summarize the different kinds of commercially available sampling kits and field-based biological detectors; 2) highlight some of the continued challenges of sample preparation to stimulate new research towards minimizing the impact of inhibitors on PCR-based detection systems; 3) describe our general rationale and statistically-based approach for instrument evaluation; 4) provide statistical and spatial guidelines for developing valid sampling plans; and 5) summarize some current needs and emerging technologies

  3. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma

    PubMed Central

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives. PMID:27746799

  4. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pork soup stock by using an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yukiko; Osanai, Hiroki; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis of an extract prepared from pork stock and subsequent experiments led to the identification of 15 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 64-2048. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the 15 odor compounds suggested acetol, octanoic acid, δ-decalactone, and decanoic acid as the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of pork stock. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of these four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted pork stock showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombined mixture and pork stock showed strong similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been successfully identified.

  5. Application of harmonic detection technology in methane telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yuehua; Fan, Weiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Methane telemetry plays a vital role in ensuring the safe production of coal mines and monitoring the leakage of natural gas pipelines. Harmonic detection is the key technology of methane telemetry accuracy and sensitivity, but the current telemetry distance is short, the relationship between different modulation parameters is complex, and the harmonic signal is affected by noise interference. These factors seriously affect the development of harmonic detection technology. In this paper, the principle of methane telemetry based on harmonic detection technology is introduced. The present situation and characteristics of harmonic detection technology are expounded. The problems existing in harmonic detection are analyzed. Finally, the future development trend is discussed.

  6. Development of Conductive Polymer Analysis for the Rapid Detection and Identification of Phytopathogenic Microbes

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; C.S. Oberle

    2004-01-01

    Conductive polymer analysis, a type of electronic aroma detection technology, was evaluated for its efficacy in the detection, identification, and discrimination of plant-pathogenic microorganisms on standardized media and in diseased plant tissues. The method is based on the acquisition of a diagnostic electronic fingerprint derived from multisensor responses to...

  7. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    a novel method for the detection of the mecA gene that confers the principle mechanism of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus . CPT is a...with the mecA gene was used to develop a culture confirmation F-33 assay for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus . The CPT assay was used to...compounds. Examples of signatures would include peptides, aptamers and phage. These are being sought to serve as adjuncts and/or replacements for antibody

  8. Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Technologies for Detecting Explosives and Narcotics

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined information on explosives and narcotics detection technologies that are available or under development. This report discusses (1) funding for those technologies, (2) characteristics and limitations of avai...

  9. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies for the Detection of Volatile Biomarker Metabolites in the Human Breath

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs. PMID:25738426

  10. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  11. Characterization of aroma compounds in apple cider using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Fan, Wenlai; Qian, Michael C

    2007-04-18

    The aroma-active compounds in two apple ciders were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. The volatile compounds were extracted using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). On the basis of odor intensity, the most important aroma compounds in the two apple cider samples were 2-phenylethanol, butanoic acid, octanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, and 4-vinylphenol. Sulfur-containing compounds, terpene derivatives, and lactones were also detected in ciders. Although most of the aroma compounds were common in both ciders, the aroma intensities were different. Comparison of extraction techniques showed that the SAFE technique had a higher recovery for acids and hydroxy-containing compounds, whereas the HS-SPME technique had a higher recovery for esters and highly volatile compounds.

  12. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  13. Aroma characterization of tangerine hybrids by gas-chromatography-olfactometry and sensory evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although a total of 150 volatiles were detected by GC-MS, only 49 aroma active peaks were found in a consensus by the three panelists. Aldehydes were the most important group with odor activity, as well as monoterpenes, esters, alcohols and ketones. 1,8-Cineole, ·-myrcene, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, hexa...

  14. Identification of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Volatiles and Localization of Aroma-Active Constituents by GC-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xueli; Cao, Jianmin; Wang, Dabin; Qiu, Jun; Kong, Fanyu

    2017-05-24

    For the characterization of chemical components contributing to the aroma of ginger, which could benefit the development of deep-processed ginger products, volatile extracts were isolated by a combination of direct solvent extraction-solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and static headspace analysis. Aroma-impact components were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry, and the most potent odorants were further screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA). The AEDA results revealed that geranial, eucalyptol, β-linalool, and bornyl acetate were the most potent odorants, exhibiting the highest flavor dilution factor (FD factor) of 2187. SHDA indicated that the predominant headspace odorants were α-pinene and eucalyptol. In addition, odorants exhibiting a high FD factor in SHDA were estimated to be potent aroma contributors in AEDA. The predominant odorants were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, as along with their oxygenated derivatives, providing minty, lemon-like, herbal, and woody aromas. On the other hand, three highly volatile compounds detected by SHDA were not detected by AEDA, whereas 34 high-polarity, low-volatility compounds were identified only by AEDA, demonstrating the complementary natures of SHDA and AEDA and the necessity of utilizing both techniques to accurately characterize the aroma of ginger.

  15. Effect of temperature on microbial composition of starter culture for Chinese light aroma style liquor fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Xu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Light aroma style liquor is one of the basic types of Chinese liquor and is produced with a special technique of using a combination of three types of Daqu as starter culture. The succession of incubation temperature, a main operating parameter, and microbial composition in Daqu were investigated during the manufacturing process. The most significant difference in temperature occurred during the middle stage at which the highest and the lowest temperatures were detected in Houhuo (HH) and Qingcha (QC), respectively. It was shown that for the counting data, the population of fungi was identical and that of bacteria was different between three types of Daqu. According to analysis results of microbial community structure using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), lactic acid bacteria were one of the dominant bacterial groups in all of Daqu and fungal diversity in QC was higher than that in HH and Hongxin (HX). The difference in incubation temperature led to the accumulation of different heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive fungi in the completed Daqu. PCA of DGGE profiles revealed that microbial community structure was distinct between three types of Daqu. It was presumed that temperature might play a decisive role in the formation of micro-organism composition in starter cultures. The usage of a combination of three types of Daqu including Qingcha, Hongxin and Houhuo as starter culture is an important characteristic of production technology of Chinese light aroma style liquor. Micro-organisms from the environment naturally inoculated in Daqu are propagated to form the special microbial community under the control of several operating parameters, especially temperature, and finally play various roles in the fermentation process of liquor. An in-depth study of the relationship between incubation temperature and microbiota in Daqu during the manufacturing is fundamental to understand this complicated process and to prepare high-quality starter culture for

  16. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Syrah Wine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry-Mass Spectrometry and Aroma Reconstitution Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengtao; Gao, Jinxin; Qian, Michael; Li, Hua

    2017-06-24

    The key aroma compounds and the organoleptic quality of two Chinese Syrah wines from the Yunnan Shangri-La region and Ningxia Helan mountain region were characterized. The most important eighty aroma-active compounds were identified by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry. In both Syrah samples, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 2- and 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-phenethyl acetate, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, β -damascenone, guaiacol, 2-phenylethanol, trans -whiskylactone, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, and sotolon were detected to have the highest odor intensities. In the chemical analysis, 72 compounds were quantitated by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction combined with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Based on the Odor Activity Value (OAV), the aromas were reconstituted by combining aroma compounds in the synthetic wine, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to verify the chemical data. Fatty acid ethyl esters, acetate esters, and β -damascenone were found with higher OAVs in the more fruity-smelling sample of Helan Mountain rather than Shangri-La.

  17. Personnel Detection Technology Assessment Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-16

    3.1.2.1 Bioelectric Activity Nerve impulses generate very weak bioelectric signals that can be detected by external probes at short ranges. The...covert detection /tracking scenarios. It was concluded that, in general , distributed sensor networks will be required to meet the scenario...personnel detection was recognized by the US Army Research Office (ARO). The Ohio State University was tasked to assess the status of sensors and signal

  18. Bed bug detection: Current technologies and future directions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluates current technologies used to detect bed bug infestations, and presents new information regarding the underlying chemical basis of canines scent detection. The manuscript also reports new and future devices that may play a part in bed bug detection in the future....

  19. What Do We Know about the Chemistry of Strawberry Aroma?

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Detlef; Kecke, Steffen; Olbricht, Klaus

    2018-04-04

    The strawberry, with its unique aroma, is one of the most popular fruits worldwide. The demand for specific knowledge of metabolism in strawberries is increasing. This knowledge is applicable for genetic studies, plant breeding, resistance research, nutritional science, and the processing industry. The molecular basis of strawberry aroma has been studied for more than 80 years. Thus far, hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOC) have been identified. The qualitative composition of the strawberry volatilome remains controversial though considerable progress has been made during the past several decades. Between 1997 and 2016, 25 significant analytical studies were published. Qualitative VOC data were harmonized and digitized. In total, 979 VOC were identified, 590 of which were found since 1997. However, 659 VOC (67%) were only listed once (single entries). Interestingly, none of the identified compounds were consistently reported in all of the studies analyzed. The present need of data exchange between "omic" technologies requires high quality and robust metabolic data. Such data are unavailable for the strawberry volatilome thus far. This review discusses the divergence of published data regarding both the biological material and the analytical methods. The VOC extraction method is an essential step that restricts interlaboratory comparability. Finally, standardization of sample preparation and data documentation are suggested to improve consistency for VOC quantification and measurement.

  20. Emotionally Responsive Wearable Technology and Stress Detection for Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21 st century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.

  1. Retort beef aroma that gives preferable properties to canned beef products and its aroma components.

    PubMed

    Migita, Koshiro; Iiduka, Takao; Tsukamoto, Kie; Sugiura, Sayuri; Tanaka, Genichiro; Sakamaki, Gousuke; Yamamoto, Yasufumi; Takeshige, Yusuke; Miyazawa, Toshio; Kojima, Ayako; Nakatake, Tomoko; Okitani, Akihiro; Matsuishi, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the properties and responsible compounds for the aromatic roast odor (retort beef aroma) that commonly occurs in canned beef products and could contribute to their palatability. The optimal temperature for generating retort beef aroma was 121°C. An untrained panel evaluated both uncured corned beef and canned yamato-ni beef and found that they had an aroma that was significantly (P < 0.01) similar to the odor of 121°C-heated beef than 100°C-heated beef. The panel also noted that the aroma of 121°C-heated beef tended to be (P < 0.1) preferable than that of 100°C-heated beef. These results suggest that retort beef aroma is one constituent of palatability in canned beef. GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis of the volatile fraction obtained from 100°C- and 121°C-heated beef showed that the amounts of pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and diacetyl were higher in the 121°C-heated beef than in the 100°C-heated beef. GC-sniffing revealed that the odor quality of pyrazines was similar to that of retort beef aroma. Therefore, pyrazines were suggested to be a candidate responsible for the retort beef aroma. Analysis of commercial uncured corned beef and cured corned beef confirmed the presence of pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Design of fire detection equipment based on ultraviolet detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenji; Liu, Jin; Chu, Sheng; Ping, Chao; Yuan, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Utilized the feature of wide bandgap semiconductor of MgZnO, researched and developed a kind of Mid-Ultraviolet-Band(MUV) ultraviolet detector which has passed the simulation experiment in the sun circumstance. Based on the ultraviolet detector, it gives out a design scheme of gun-shot detection device, which is composed of twelve ultraviolet detectors, signal amplifier, processor, annunciator , azimuth indicator and the bracket. Through Analysing the feature of solar blind, ultraviolet responsivity, fire feature of gunshots and detection distance, the feasibility of this design scheme is proved.

  3. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA).

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF SEVEN TECHNOLOGIES DETECTING TOXICITY IN DRINKING WATER (R2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid toxicity technologies can detect certain toxins and with testing it can be determined their susceptibility to interfering chemical in controlled experimental matrix. Rapid toxicity technologies do not identify or determine the concentrations of specific contaminants, but s...

  6. Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, M M; Balaban, M O; Marshall, M R; Rouseff, R L

    2011-03-01

    Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ≫ DCE > FHE ≫ FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify

  7. Aroma Leakage from Orange Juice Packed in Gable-Top Paper Containers for Chilled Distribution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Risa; Tokuda, Aika; Shigemura, Yasutaka; Mineki, Machiko; Sato, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a study to examine aroma leakage from orange juice packed in gable-top paper containers for chilled distribution. Limonene, an aromatic component of orange juice, was considered as an index compound of aroma leakage, and its seepage on the surface of the container and concentration in the orange juice were measured by GC-MS for 12 commercial samples. After 3 days of storage, limonene was detected on the surface of 8 orange juice containers, and the concentration of limonene in the orange juice was found to have decreased. Thus, limonene leaked through the container within a few days, and the extent of leakage differed between containers, presumably depending upon their barrier properties. In addition, limonene was detected in green tea and milk that was stored together with the unopened orange juice containers at 4℃. The transference of orange aroma into milk was significant, because the contamination of the milk was confirmed by subjective sensory evaluation. This study suggests the possibility of transfer of aroma compounds through paper containers to other beverages.

  8. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.; Colas, P.; Consiglio, L.; Dafni, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Deaconu, C.; De Lellis, G.; Descombes, T.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Druitt, G.; Eggleston, R.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Galán, J.; Galati, G.; García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gentile, V.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giomataris, Y.; Guerrero, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Guler, A. M.; Harton, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Hedges, M. T.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ikeda, T.; Jaegle, I.; Kadyk, J. A.; Katsuragawa, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Kuge, K.; Lamblin, J.; Lauria, A.; Lee, E. R.; Lewis, P.; Leyton, M.; Loomba, D.; Lopez, J. P.; Luzón, G.; Mayet, F.; Mirallas, H.; Miuchi, K.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Monacelli, P.; Monroe, J.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, H.; Ochi, A.; Papevangelou, T.; Parker, J. D.; Phan, N. S.; Pupilli, F.; Richer, J. P.; Riffard, Q.; Rosa, G.; Santos, D.; Sawano, T.; Sekiya, H.; Seong, I. S.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Sugiyama, A.; Taishaku, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Thorpe, T. N.; Tioukov, V.; Tomita, H.; Umemoto, A.; Vahsen, S. E.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshimoto, M.; Zayas, E.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  9. Detection of foodborne pathogens using microarray technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are now accepted methods for rapidly confirming the presence or absence of specific pathogens in foods and other types of samples. Conventional PCR requires the use of agarose gel electrophoresis to detect the PCR product; whereas, real-time PCR c...

  10. Sensor Technologies for Particulate Detection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    Planned Lunar missions have resulted in renewed attention to problems attributable to fine particulates. While the difficulties experienced during the sequence of Apollo missions did not prove critical in all cases, the comparatively long duration of impending missions may present a different situation. This situation creates the need for a spectrum of particulate sensing technologies. From a fundamental perspective, an improved understanding of the properties of the dust fraction is required. Described here is laboratory-based reference instrumentation for the measurement of fundamental particle size distribution (PSD) functions from 2.5 nanometers to 20 micrometers. Concomitant efforts for separating samples into fractional size bins are also presented. A requirement also exists for developing mission compatible sensors. Examples include provisions for air quality monitoring in spacecraft and remote habitation modules. Required sensor attributes such as low mass, volume, and power consumption, autonomy of operation, and extended reliability cannot be accommodated by existing technologies.

  11. ETV Tech Brief: Rapid Fungi and Bacteria Detection Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical brief that summarizes the results for Mycometer, Inc. Mycometer®-test and Bactiquant®-test, which are rapid detection technologies for fungi and bacteria. The brief summarizes the results of the verification report and statement.

  12. Detection technology for IVHS : Volume I: Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-12-01

    The Detection Technology for the IVHS project identified traffic parameters and their required accuracies for characterizing traffic flow in conventional and newer intelligent transportation systems (ITS); obtained state-of-the-art detectors and inst...

  13. Airborne radar technology for windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Khalaf, Camille S.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and accomplishments of the two-and-a-half year effort to describe how returns from on-board Doppler radar are to be used to detect the presence of a wind shear are reported. The problem is modeled as one of first passage in terms of state variables, the state estimates are generated by a bank of extended Kalman filters working in parallel, and the decision strategy involves the use of a voting algorithm for a series of likelihood ratio tests. The performance issue for filtering is addressed in terms of error-covariance reduction and filter divergence, and the performance issue for detection is addressed in terms of using a probability measure transformation to derive theoretical expressions for the error probabilities of a false alarm and a miss.

  14. New technologies in cervical cancer precursor detection.

    PubMed

    Soler, M E; Blumenthal, P D

    2000-09-01

    The current literature reflects three routes toward improving cervical cancer screening. The first is to improve the test qualities of cytology-based screening. The use of liquid-based cytology and computerized analysis of Papanicolaou tests are examples of attempts at this approach. Secondly, through various combinations of parallel or sequential tests, either the sensitivity or the specificity of a given test could be improved depending on the tests chosen and the order in which they were performed (eg, Papanicolaou test followed by human papillomavirus [HPV] or vice versa). Several excellent studies have been published this year on the use of HPV DNA testing as a primary screening modality and as an adjunct to the triage of mildly abnormal cytologic findings. The recent literature also reflects increasing interest in visual inspection of the cervix and self-collected samples for HPV testing as an equally effective and viable alternative to cytology in low-resource settings. A third possibility is to make use of advances in digital and spectroscopic techniques. In these cost-conscious times, a significant number of articles address the cost-effectiveness of these technologies and the real value of cervical cancer screening. This article reviews the current literature concerning both the advent of new cervical cancer screening technologies and the rediscovery of old ones.

  15. Human-technology interaction for standoff IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Evan; Zou, Yiyang; Zachrich, Liping; Fulton, Jack

    2011-03-01

    IEDs kill our soldiers and innocent people every day. Lessons learned from Iraq and Afghanistan clearly indicated that IEDs cannot be detected/defeated by technology alone; human-technology interaction must be engaged. In most cases, eye is the best detector, brain is the best computer, and technologies are tools, they must be used by human being properly then can achieve full functionality. In this paper, a UV Raman/fluorescence, CCD and LWIR 3 sensor fusion system for standoff IED detection and a handheld fusion system for close range IED detection are developed and demonstrated. We must train solders using their eyes or CCD/LWIR cameras to do wide area search while on the move to find small suspected area first then use the spectrometer because the laser spot is too small, to scan a one-mile long and 2-meter wide road needs 185 days although our fusion system can detect the IED in 30m with 1s interrogating time. Even if the small suspected area (e.g., 0.5mx0.5m) is found, human eyes still cannot detect the IED, soldiers must use or interact with the technology - laser based spectrometer to scan the area then they are able to detect and identify the IED in 10 minutes not 185 days. Therefore, the human-technology interaction approach will be the best solution for IED detection.

  16. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Anthony A.; de Ruiter, C. J.; Ehlerding, Anneli; McFee, John E.; Svinsås, Eirik; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and counter-IED operations during route or area clearance; and static roles such as hasty or deliberate checkpoints, critical infrastructure protection and support to public security. The detection of hidden explosive hazards is an extremely challenging problem, as evidenced by the fact that related research has been ongoing in many countries for at least seven decades and no general purpose solution has yet been found. Technologies investigated have spanned all major scientific fields, with emphasis on the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, robotics, computer technology and mathematics. This paper will present a limited, operationally-focused overview of the current status of detection technologies. Emphasis will be on those technologies that directly detect the explosive hazard, as opposed to those that detect secondary properties of the threat, such as the casing, associated wires or electronics. Technologies that detect explosives include those based on nuclear radiation and terahertz radiation, as well as trace and biological detection techniques. Current research areas of the authors will be used to illustrate the practical applications.

  17. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Belda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2017-01-24

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non- Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer's preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production of high quality wines are astounding. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the impact of microorganisms in wine aroma and flavour, and the biochemical reactions and pathways in which they participate, therefore contributing to both the quality and acceptability of wine. In this context, an overview of genetic and transcriptional studies to explain and interpret these effects is included, and new directions are proposed. It also considers the contribution of human oral microbiota to wine aroma conversion and perception during wine consumption. The potential use of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as biological tools to enhance wine quality and the advent of promising advice allowed by pioneering -omics technologies on wine research are also discussed.

  18. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  19. Leak Detection and Location Technology Assessment for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Coffey, Neil C.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) and other impacts can cause leaks in the International Space Station and other aerospace vehicles. The early detection and location of leaks is paramount to astronaut safety. Therefore this document surveys the state of the art in leak detection and location technology for aerospace vehicles.

  20. Diversity among mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups in aroma volatiles compositions.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Carmi, Nir; Porat, Ron

    2016-01-15

    Mandarins constitute a large, diverse and important group within the Citrus family. Here, we analysed the aroma volatiles compositions of 13 mandarin varieties belonging to seven genetically different natural sub-groups that included common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). We found that mandarin varieties among tangors ('Temple', 'Ortanique'), tangelos ('Orlando', 'Minneola') and King ('King') had more volatiles, at higher levels, and were richer in sesquiterpene and ester volatiles, than other varieties belonging to the sub-groups common mandarin ('Ora', 'Ponkan'), clementine ('Oroval', 'Caffin'), satsuma ('Okitsu', 'Owari') and Mediterranean mandarin ('Avana', 'Yusuf Efendi'). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis accurately differentiated between mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups according to their aroma-volatile profiles. Although we found wide differences in aroma-volatiles compositions among varieties belonging to different natural sub-groups, we detected only minor differences among varieties within any natural sub-group. These findings suggest that selecting appropriate parents would enable manipulation of aroma-volatile compositions in future mandarin breeding programmes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Linking wine lactic acid bacteria diversity with wine aroma and flavour.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Maria Stella; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Logrieco, Antonio; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2017-02-21

    In the last two decades knowledge on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with wine has increased considerably. Investigations on genetic and biochemistry of species involved in malolactic fermentation, such as Oenococcus oeni and of Lactobacillus have enabled a better understand of their role in aroma modification and microbial stability of wine. In particular, the use of molecular techniques has provided evidence on the high diversity at species and strain level, thus improving the knowledge on wine LAB taxonomy and ecology. These tools demonstrated to also be useful to detect strains with potential desirable or undesirable traits for winemaking purposes. At the same time, advances on the enzymatic properties of wine LAB responsible for the development of wine aroma molecules have been undertaken. Interestingly, it has highlighted the high intraspecific variability of enzymatic activities such as glucosidase, esterase, proteases and those related to citrate metabolism within the wine LAB species. This genetic and biochemistry diversity that characterizes wine LAB populations can generate a wide spectrum of wine sensory outcomes. This review examines some of these interesting aspects as a way to elucidate the link between LAB diversity with wine aroma and flavour. In particular, the correlation between inter- and intra-species diversity and bacterial metabolic traits that affect the organoleptic properties of wines is highlighted with emphasis on the importance of enzymatic potential of bacteria for the selection of starter cultures to control MLF and to enhance wine aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.

    PubMed

    Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-11-12

    Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting.

  3. Research on the attitude detection technology of the tetrahedron robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hao; Chen, Keshan; Ren, Wenqiang; Cai, Xin

    2017-10-01

    The traditional attitude detection technology can't tackle the problem of attitude detection of the polyhedral robot. Thus we propose a novel algorithm of multi-sensor data fusion which is based on Kalman filter. In the algorithm a tetrahedron robot is investigated. We devise an attitude detection system for the polyhedral robot and conduct the verification of data fusion algorithm. It turns out that the minimal attitude detection system we devise could capture attitudes of the tetrahedral robot in different working conditions. Thus the Kinematics model we establish for the tetrahedron robot is correct and the feasibility of the attitude detection system is proven.

  4. xMAP Technology: Applications in Detection of Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Reslova, Nikol; Michna, Veronika; Kasny, Martin; Mikel, Pavel; Kralik, Petr

    2017-01-01

    xMAP technology is applicable for high-throughput, multiplex and simultaneous detection of different analytes within a single complex sample. xMAP multiplex assays are currently available in various nucleic acid and immunoassay formats, enabling simultaneous detection and typing of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi and also antigen or antibody interception. As an open architecture platform, the xMAP technology is beneficial to end users and therefore it is used in various pharmaceutical, clinical and research laboratories. The main aim of this review is to summarize the latest findings and applications in the field of pathogen detection using microsphere-based multiplex assays. PMID:28179899

  5. Integrated Giant Magnetoresistance Technology for Approachable Weak Biomagnetic Signal Detections.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-Min; Hu, Liang; Fu, Xin

    2018-01-07

    With the extensive applications of biomagnetic signals derived from active biological tissue in both clinical diagnoses and human-computer-interaction, there is an increasing need for approachable weak biomagnetic sensing technology. The inherent merits of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and its high integration with multiple technologies makes it possible to detect weak biomagnetic signals with micron-sized, non-cooled and low-cost sensors, considering that the magnetic field intensity attenuates rapidly with distance. This paper focuses on the state-of-art in integrated GMR technology for approachable biomagnetic sensing from the perspective of discipline fusion between them. The progress in integrated GMR to overcome the challenges in weak biomagnetic signal detection towards high resolution portable applications is addressed. The various strategies for 1/ f noise reduction and sensitivity enhancement in integrated GMR technology for sub-pT biomagnetic signal recording are discussed. In this paper, we review the developments of integrated GMR technology for in vivo/vitro biomagnetic source imaging and demonstrate how integrated GMR can be utilized for biomagnetic field detection. Since the field sensitivity of integrated GMR technology is being pushed to fT/Hz 0.5 with the focused efforts, it is believed that the potential of integrated GMR technology will make it preferred choice in weak biomagnetic signal detection in the future.

  6. Integrated Giant Magnetoresistance Technology for Approachable Weak Biomagnetic Signal Detections

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui-Min; Hu, Liang; Fu, Xin

    2018-01-01

    With the extensive applications of biomagnetic signals derived from active biological tissue in both clinical diagnoses and human-computer-interaction, there is an increasing need for approachable weak biomagnetic sensing technology. The inherent merits of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and its high integration with multiple technologies makes it possible to detect weak biomagnetic signals with micron-sized, non-cooled and low-cost sensors, considering that the magnetic field intensity attenuates rapidly with distance. This paper focuses on the state-of-art in integrated GMR technology for approachable biomagnetic sensing from the perspective of discipline fusion between them. The progress in integrated GMR to overcome the challenges in weak biomagnetic signal detection towards high resolution portable applications is addressed. The various strategies for 1/f noise reduction and sensitivity enhancement in integrated GMR technology for sub-pT biomagnetic signal recording are discussed. In this paper, we review the developments of integrated GMR technology for in vivo/vitro biomagnetic source imaging and demonstrate how integrated GMR can be utilized for biomagnetic field detection. Since the field sensitivity of integrated GMR technology is being pushed to fT/Hz0.5 with the focused efforts, it is believed that the potential of integrated GMR technology will make it preferred choice in weak biomagnetic signal detection in the future. PMID:29316670

  7. Biosensing Technologies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Detection: Status and New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lixia; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Dinggeng; Wang, Kemin; Qin, Dilan

    2011-01-01

    Biosensing technologies promise to improve Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) detection and management in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, bioprocess, and environmental monitoring. A variety of portable, rapid, and sensitive biosensors with immediate “on-the-spot” interpretation have been developed for M. tuberculosis detection based on different biological elements recognition systems and basic signal transducer principles. Here, we present a synopsis of current developments of biosensing technologies for M. tuberculosis detection, which are classified on the basis of basic signal transducer principles, including piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and magnetoelastic biosensors. Special attention is paid to the methods for improving the framework and analytical parameters of the biosensors, including sensitivity and analysis time as well as automation of analysis procedures. Challenges and perspectives of biosensing technologies development for M. tuberculosis detection are also discussed in the final part of this paper. PMID:21437177

  8. Agroecosystem development of industrial fermentation waste -- characterization of aroma-active compounds from the cultivation medium of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shinpuku, Hideto; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) during the cultivation process of Lactobacillus brevis were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed to determine the utility of the liquid waste. The composition of the volatile oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 55 and 36 compounds were detected in the volatile oils from MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were N-containing compounds, including 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (16, 37.1 %), methylpyrazine (4, 17.1 %). The important aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O), and their intensity of aroma were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Expressly, pyrazine compounds were determined as key aroma components; in particular, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were the most primary aroma-active compound in MAI oil. These results imply that the waste medium after incubation of L. brevis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  9. Standoff detection of explosives: a challenging approach for optical technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désilets, S.; Hô, N.; Mathieu, P.; Simard, J. R.; Puckrin, E.; Thériault, J. M.; Lavoie, H.; Théberge, F.; Babin, F.; Gay, D.; Forest, R.; Maheux, J.; Roy, G.; Châteauneuf, M.

    2011-06-01

    Standoff detection of explosives residues on surfaces at few meters was made using optical technologies based on Raman scattering, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and passive standoff FTIR radiometry. By comparison, detection and analysis of nanogram samples of different explosives was made with a microscope system where Raman scattering from a micron-size single point illuminated crystal of explosive was observed. Results from standoff detection experiments using a telescope were compared to experiments using a microscope to find out important parameters leading to the detection. While detection and spectral identification of the micron-size explosive particles was possible with a microscope, standoff detection of these particles was very challenging due to undesired light reflected and produced by the background surface or light coming from other contaminants. Results illustrated the challenging approach of detecting at a standoff distance the presence of low amount of micron or submicron explosive particles.

  10. Phenolic and Aroma Composition of White Wines Produced by Prolonged Maceration and Maturation in Wooden Barrels

    PubMed Central

    Jedrejčić, Nikolina; Ganić, Karin Kovačević; Staver, Mario; Peršurić, Đordano

    2015-01-01

    Summary To investigate the phenolic and aroma composition of Malvazija istarska (Vitis vinifera L.) white wines produced by an unconventional technology comprising prolonged maceration followed by maturation in wooden barrels, representative samples were subjected to analysis by UV/Vis spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When compared to standard wines, the investigated samples contained higher levels of dry extract, volatile acidity, lactic acid, phenols, colour intensity, antioxidant activity, majority of monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, branched-chain esters and esters of hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids, ethylphenols, furans, and acetals, as well as lower levels of malic acid, β-damascenone, straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl and acetate esters. It was estimated that maceration had a stronger influence on phenols, and maturation on volatile aromas. Despite different vintages and technological details, the investigated wines showed a relative homogeneity in the composition, representing a clear and distinctive type. PMID:27904375

  11. Advanced Virus Detection Technologies Interest Group (AVDTIG): Efforts on High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) for Virus Detection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arifa S; Vacante, Dominick A; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Ng, Siemon H S; Lambert, Christophe; Charlebois, Robert L; King, Kathryn E

    Several nucleic-acid based technologies have recently emerged with capabilities for broad virus detection. One of these, high throughput sequencing, has the potential for novel virus detection because this method does not depend upon prior viral sequence knowledge. However, the use of high throughput sequencing for testing biologicals poses greater challenges as compared to other newly introduced tests due to its technical complexities and big data bioinformatics. Thus, the Advanced Virus Detection Technologies Users Group was formed as a joint effort by regulatory and industry scientists to facilitate discussions and provide a forum for sharing data and experiences using advanced new virus detection technologies, with a focus on high throughput sequencing technologies. The group was initiated as a task force that was coordinated by the Parenteral Drug Association and subsequently became the Advanced Virus Detection Technologies Interest Group to continue efforts for using new technologies for detection of adventitious viruses with broader participation, including international government agencies, academia, and technology service providers. © PDA, Inc. 2016.

  12. Passive IR polarization sensors: a new technology for mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Blair A.; Jones, Michael W.; Barnes, Howard B.; Lewis, Charles P.

    1998-09-01

    The problem of mine and minefield detection continues to provide a significant challenge to sensor systems. Although the various sensor technologies (infrared, ground penetrating radar, etc.) may excel in certain situations there does not exist a single sensor technology that can adequately detect mines in all conditions such as time of day, weather, buried or surface laid, etc. A truly robust mine detection system will likely require the fusion of data from multiple sensor technologies. The performance of these systems, however, will ultimately depend on the performance of the individual sensors. Infrared (IR) polarimetry is a new and innovative sensor technology that adds substantial capabilities to the detection of mines. IR polarimetry improves on basic IR imaging by providing improved spatial resolution of the target, an inherent ability to suppress clutter, and the capability for zero (Delta) T imaging. Nichols Research Corporation (Nichols) is currently evaluating the effectiveness of IR polarization for mine detection. This study is partially funded by the U.S. Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The goal of the study is to demonstrate, through phenomenology studies and limited field trials, that IR polarizaton outperforms conventional IR imaging in the mine detection arena.

  13. Flavor perception and aroma release from model dairy desserts.

    PubMed

    Lethuaut, Laurent; Weel, Koen G C; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Brossard, Chantal D

    2004-06-02

    Six model dairy desserts, with three different textures and two sucrose levels, were equally flavored with a blend of four aroma compounds [ethyl pentanoate, amyl acetate, hexanal, and (E)-2-hexenal] and evaluated by a seven person panel in order to study whether the sensory perception of the flavor and the aroma release during eating varied with the textural characteristics or the sweetness intensity of the desserts. The sensory perception was recorded by the time intensity (TI) method, while the in vivo aroma release was simultaneously measured by the MS-nose. Considering the panel as a whole, averaged flavor intensity increased with sucrose level and varied with the texture of the desserts. Depending on the aroma compound, the averaged profile of in vivo aroma release varied, but for each aroma compound, averaged aroma release showed no difference with the sucrose level and little difference with the texture of the desserts. Perceptual sweetness-aroma interactions were the main factors influencing perception whatever the texture of the desserts.

  14. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-10-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  15. Bed Bug Detection: Current Technologies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use. PMID:23553226

  16. The technology on noise reduction of the APD detection circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-ying; Zheng, Yong-chao; Cui, Jian-yong

    2013-09-01

    The laser pulse detection is widely used in the field of laser range finders, laser communications, laser radar, laser Identification Friend or Foe, et al, for the laser pulse detection has the advantage of high accuracy, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference. The avalanche photodiodes (APD) has the advantage of high quantum efficiency, high response speed and huge gain. The APD is particularly suitable for weak signal detection. The technology that APD acts as the photodetector for weak signal reception and amplification is widely used in laser pulse detection. The APD will convert the laser signal to weak electrical signal. The weak signal is amplified, processed and exported by the circuit. In the circuit design, the optimal signal detection is one key point in photoelectric detection system. The issue discusses how to reduce the noise of the photoelectric signal detection circuit and how to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, related analysis and practice included. The essay analyzes the mathematical model of the signal-to-noise ratio for photoelectric conversion and the noise of the APD photoelectric detection system. By analysis the bandwidth of the detection system is determined, and the circuit devices are selected that match the APD. In the circuit design separated devices with low noise are combined with integrated operational amplifier for the purpose of noise reduction. The methods can effectively suppress the noise, and improve the detection sensitivity.

  17. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry To Control the Aroma Fingerprint of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Three Tunisian Cultivars at Three Harvest Times.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Amanpour, Asghar; Chtourou, Fatma; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-03-21

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry was used for the analysis of volatile compounds and key odorants of three less studied Tunisian olive oil cultivars for the first time. A total of 42 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in extra virgin olive oils. The present study revealed that the most dominant volatiles in olive oil samples qualitatively and quantitatively were aldehydes and alcohols, followed by terpenes and esters. Indeed, chemometric analysis has shown a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. The determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oil samples was carried out using aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 15 aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract of extra virgin olive oil, of which 14 were identified. On the basis of the flavor dilution (FD) factor, the most potent aromatic active compound was hexanal (FD = 512) in Fakhari olive oil, (FD = 256) in Touffehi oils, and (FD = 128) in Jemri olive oil.

  18. Acoustic-based Technology to Detect Buried Pipes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-29

    The objective of this project is to build a pre-commercial device, improve its performance to detect multiple buried pipes, and evaluate the pre-commercial device at utility sites. In the past, Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and SoniVerse Inc. (SVI) ...

  19. New technology for early detection of health threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern, Šárka O.; Lilienthal, Gerald W.

    2008-04-01

    Governmental agencies charged with protecting the health of the population and agriculture have several main strategic objectives including the detection of harmful agents, the identification of vulnerable biological targets, the prediction of health outcomes and the development of countermeasures. New technologies are urgently needed in several critical areas of bio-chemical defense: economical and minimally invasive biosensors for field use in humans and other species important for agriculture and infrastructure, universal analytical platforms for broad-based, early warnings of threats and technologies guiding the development of countermeasures. A new technology called Stress Response Profiling (SRP) was recently developed by the Gaia Medical Institute. SRP provides a universal analytical platform for monitoring health status based on measurements of physiological stress. The platform is implemented through handheld devices that can be used for noninvasive detection of early-stage health problems. This paper summarizes SRP features, advantages and potential benefits for critical areas of homeland defense.

  20. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  1. Key Aroma Compounds in Smoked Cooked Loin.

    PubMed

    Kosowska, Monika; Majcher, Małgorzata A; Jeleń, Henryk H; Fortuna, Teresa

    2018-04-11

    Smoked cooked loin is one of the most popular meat products in Poland. In this study, key volatile compounds in this traditional Polish meat product were determined using gas chromatography-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In total, 27 odor-active volatile compounds were identified, with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 4 to 1024, with the highest FD factors noted for 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-(prop-2-enyl)phenol, and 2-methoxy-4-( E)-(prop-1-en-1-yl)phenol. Results of the quantitative analyses based on determinations with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) and standard addition (SA), followed by calculations of the odor activity value (OAV), enabled identifying 24 of the volatile compounds responsible for flavor development in the analyzed smoked cooked loin. The highest OAVs were obtained for 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octen-3-one, and 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan.

  2. Classification of white wine aromas with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Horrillo, M C

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports the use of a tin dioxide multisensor array based electronic nose for recognition of 29 typical aromas in white wine. Headspace technique has been used to extract aroma of the wine. Multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) as well as probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), has been used to identify the main aroma added to the wine. The results showed that in spite of the strong influence of ethanol and other majority compounds of wine, the system could discriminate correctly the aromatic compounds added to the wine with a minimum accuracy of 97.2%.

  3. Near field ice detection using infrared based optical imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Moati, Hazem; Morris, Jonathan; Zeng, Yousheng; Corie, Martin Wesley; Yanni, Victor Garas

    2018-02-01

    If not detected and characterized, icebergs can potentially pose a hazard to oil and gas exploration, development and production operations in arctic environments as well as commercial shipping channels. In general, very large bergs are tracked and predicted using models or satellite imagery. Small and medium bergs are detectable using conventional marine radar. As icebergs decay they shed bergy bits and growlers, which are much smaller and more difficult to detect. Their low profile above the water surface, in addition to occasional relatively high seas, makes them invisible to conventional marine radar. Visual inspection is the most common method used to detect bergy bits and growlers, but the effectiveness of visual inspections is reduced by operator fatigue and low light conditions. The potential hazard from bergy bits and growlers is further increased by short detection range (<1 km). As such, there is a need for robust and autonomous near-field detection of such smaller icebergs. This paper presents a review of iceberg detection technology and explores applications for infrared imagers in the field. Preliminary experiments are performed and recommendations are made for future work, including a proposed imager design which would be suited for near field ice detection.

  4. Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine

    PubMed Central

    Piombino, Paola; Genovese, Alessandro; Esposito, Silvia; Moio, Luigi; Cutolo, Pier Paolo; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Smith, Daniel P.; Owens, Sarah M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Ercolini, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine) after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O) and 28 normal-weight (N) individuals. Methods and Findings Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. Conclusion Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity. PMID:24465618

  5. Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine

    DOE PAGES

    Piombino, Paola; Genovese, Alessandro; Esposito, Silvia; ...

    2014-01-22

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. Here in this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine) after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O) and 28 normal-weight (N) individuals. Methods andmore » Findings: Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. Conclusion: Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity.« less

  6. Multimodal sensory integration during sequential eating--linking chewing activity, aroma release, and aroma perception over time.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Ségolène; Blancher, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The respective effects of chewing activity, aroma release from a gelled candy, and aroma perception were investigated. Specifically, the study aimed at 1) comparing an imposed chewing and swallowing pattern (IP) and free protocol (FP) on panelists for in vivo measurements, 2) investigating carryover effects in sequential eating, and 3) studying the link between instrumental data and their perception counterpart. Chewing activity, in-nose aroma concentration, and aroma perception over time were measured by electromyography, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and time intensity, respectively. Model gel candies were flavored at 2 intensity levels (low-L and high-H). The panelists evaluated 3 sequences (H then H, H then L, and L then H) in duplicates with both IP and FP. They scored aroma intensity over time while their in-nose aroma concentrations and their chewing activity were measured. Overall, only limited advantages were found in imposing a chewing and swallowing pattern for instrumental and sensory data. In addition, the study highlighted the role of brain integration on perceived intensity and dynamics of perception, in the framework of sequential eating without rinsing. Because of the presence of adaptation phenomena, contrast effect, and potential taste and texture cross-modal interaction with aroma perception, it was concluded that dynamic in-nose concentration data provide only one part of the perception picture and therefore cannot be used alone in prediction models.

  7. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  8. Great interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria in the production of cheese aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Yee, Alyson L; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Roland, Nathalie; Chuat, Victoria; Leclerc, Aurélie; Pogačić, Tomislav; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2014-11-17

    Flavor is an important sensory property of fermented food products, including cheese, and largely results from the production of aroma compounds by microorganisms. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the most widely used species of dairy propionibacteria; it has been implicated in the production of a wide variety of aroma compounds through multiple metabolic pathways and is associated with the flavor of Swiss cheese. However, the ability of other dairy propionibacteria to produce aroma compounds has not been characterized. This study sought to elucidate the effect of interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria on the production of aroma compounds in a cheese context. A total of 76 strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium jensenii, Propionibacterium thoenii, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici were grown for 15 days in pure culture in a rich medium derived from cheese curd. In addition, one strain each of two phylogenetically related non-dairy propionibacteria, Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum and Propionibacterium microaerophilum were included. Aroma compounds were analyzed using headspace trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An analysis of variance performed on GC-MS data showed that the abundance of 36 out of the 45 aroma compounds detected showed significant differences between the cultures. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for these 36 compounds. The first two axes of the PCA, accounting for 60% of the variability between cultures, separated P. freudenreichii strains from P. acidipropionici strains and also differentiated P. freudenreichii strains from each other. P. freudenreichii strains were associated with greater concentrations of a variety of compounds, including free fatty acids from lipolysis, ethyl esters derived from these acids, and branched-chain acids and alcohols from amino acid catabolism. P. acidipropionici strains produced less of these compounds but more sulfur

  9. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  10. Study on methenamine detection in starch products through SERS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yu; Qu, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Using silver sol as a strengthened base, this paper concludes that l0ppb-0.1ppb methenamine aqueous solution has a better signal in 1052cm-1 Raman feature. And the lower limit of the aqueous solution is about 0.1ppb. Adding corresponding amount methenamine in vermicelli sample, the lower limit is about 10ppm. This is a safest and pollution-free detection process. Furthermore, the pretreatment process is simple, which will be finished in 20 minutes. Hence, it is better than other detection methods. SERS technology provides a simple, rapid and efficient detection method for field measurement and real time detection modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  11. Aroma Release in Wine Using Co-Immobilized Enzyme Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Katherine; Martínez-Gil, Ana; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Illanes, Andrés; Wilson, Lorena

    2016-11-08

    Aroma is a remarkable factor of quality and consumer preference in wine, representing a distinctive feature of the product. Most aromatic compounds in varietals are in the form of glycosidic precursors, which are constituted by a volatile aglycone moiety linked to a glucose residue by an O -glycosidic bond; glucose is often linked to another sugar (arabinose, rhamnose or apiose). The use of soluble β-glycosidases for aroma liberation implies the addition of a precipitating agent to remove it from the product and precludes its reuse after one batch. An attractive option from a technological perspective that will aid in removing such constraints is the use of immobilized glycosidases. Immobilization by aggregation and crosslinking is a simple strategy producing enzyme catalysts of very high specific activity, being an attractive option to conventional immobilization to solid inert supports. The purpose of this work was the evaluation of co-immobilized β-glycosidases crosslinked aggregates produced from the commercial preparation AR2000, which contains the enzymes involved in the release of aromatic terpenes in Muscat wine (α-l-arabinofuranosidase and β-d-glucopyranosidase). To do so, experiments were conducted with co-immobilized crosslinked enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs), and with the soluble enzymes, using an experiment without enzyme addition as control. Stability of the enzymes at the conditions of winemaking was assessed and the volatiles composition of wine was determined by SPE-GC-MS. Stability of enzymes in combi-CLEAs was much higher than in soluble form, 80% of the initial activity remaining after 60 days in contact with the wine; at the same conditions, the soluble enzymes had lost 80% of their initial activities after 20 days. Such higher stabilities will allow prolonged use of the enzyme catalyst reducing its impact in the cost of winemaking. Wine treated with combi-CLEAs was the one exhibiting the highest concentration of total terpenes (18% higher

  12. Development of Solid-State Nanopore Technology for Life Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bywaters, K. B.; Schmidt, H.; Vercoutere, W.; Deamer, D.; Hawkins, A. R.; Quinn, R. C.; Burton, A. S.; Mckay, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers for life on Earth are an important starting point to guide the search for life elsewhere. However, the search for life beyond Earth should incorporate technologies capable of recognizing an array of potential biomarkers beyond what we see on Earth, in order to minimize the risk of false negatives from life detection missions. With this in mind, charged linear polymers may be a universal signature for life, due to their ability to store information while also inherently reducing the tendency of complex tertiary structure formation that significantly inhibit replication. Thus, these molecules are attractive targets for biosignature detection as potential "self-sustaining chemical signatures." Examples of charged linear polymers, or polyelectrolytes, include deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) as well as synthetic polyelectrolytes that could potentially support life, including threose nucleic acid (TNA) and other xenonucleic acids (XNAs). Nanopore analysis is a novel technology that has been developed for singlemolecule sequencing with exquisite single nucleotide resolution which is also well-suited for analysis of polyelectrolyte molecules. Nanopore analysis has the ability to detect repeating sequences of electrical charges in organic linear polymers, and it is not molecule- specific (i.e. it is not restricted to only DNA or RNA). In this sense, it is a better life detection technique than approaches that are based on specific molecules, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which requires that the molecule being detected be composed of DNA.

  13. Characterization and comparison of key aroma compounds in raw and dry porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis) by aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitation and aroma recombination experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiying; Pu, Dandan; Sun, Baoguo; Ren, Fazheng; Zhang, Yuyu; Chen, Haitao

    2018-08-30

    A study was carried out to determine and compare the key aroma compounds in raw and dry porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis). The volatile fractions were prepared by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to identify the odorants. Selected aroma compounds were quantitated and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥ 1 for 12 compounds in raw porcini, among which 1-octen-3-one showed the highest OAV. In addition to compounds with eight carbon atoms, 3-methylbutanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal were also responsible for the unique aroma profile. In dry mushroom OAVs ≥ 1 were obtained for 20 odorants. Among them, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-one and pyrazines were determined as predominant odorants. Overall, drying increased complexity of volatile compounds, thus significantly changing the aroma profile of porcini, providing more desirable roasted and seasoning-like flavor and less grass-like and earthy notes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Botulinum neurotoxin: where are we with detection technologies?

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Stanker, Larry H; Sharma, Shashi K

    2013-02-01

    Because of its high toxicity, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) poses a significant risk to humans and it represents a possible biological warfare agent. Nevertheless, BoNT serotypes A and B are considered an effective treatment for a variety of neurological disorders. The growing applicability of BoNT as a drug, and its potential use as a biological threat agent, highlight the urgent need to develop sensitive detection assays and therapeutic counter measures. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in BoNT detection technologies but none have fully replaced the mouse lethality assay, the current "gold standard". Recently, new advances in robotics and the availability of new reagents have allowed development of methods for rapid toxin analysis. These technologies while promising need further refinement.

  15. The aroma volatile repertoire in strawberry fruit: a review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jia-Wei; Ban, Zhao-Jun; Lu, Hong-Yan; Li, Dong; Poverenov, Elena; Li, Li; Luo, Zi-Sheng

    2018-03-30

    Aroma significantly contributes to flavor, which directly affects commercial quality of strawberry. Strawberry aroma is complex as many kinds of volatile compounds are found in strawberries. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of constituents and biosynthesis of strawberry volatile compounds, and the effect of postharvest treatments on aroma profiles. The characteristic strawberry volatile compounds consist of furanones, such as 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone; esters including ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate; sulfur compounds such as methanethiol, and terpenoids including linalool and nerolidol. As for postharvest treatment, the present review discusses the overview of aroma volatiles in response to temperature, atmosphere, and exogenous hormone as well as other treatments including ozone, edible coating and ultraviolet radiation. In addition, the future prospects for strawberry volatile biosynthesis and metabolism are presented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  17. Rapid determination of floral aroma compounds of lilac blossom by fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Yeon; Shin, Hyun Du; Kim, Sung Jean; Hong, Jongki

    2008-03-07

    A novel analytical method using fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been developed for the detection of volatile aroma compounds emanated from lilac blossom (Syringa species: Syringa vulgaris variginata and Syringa dilatata). GC/SAW could detect and quantify various fragrance emitted from lilac blossom, enabling to provide fragrance pattern analysis results. The fragrance pattern analysis could easily characterize the delicate differences in aromas caused by the substantial difference of chemical composition according to different color and shape of petals. Moreover, the method validation of GC/SAW was performed for the purpose of volatile floral actual aroma analysis, achieving a high reproducibility and excellent sensitivity. From the validation results, GC/SAW could serve as an alternative analytical technique for the analysis of volatile floral actual aroma of lilac. In addition, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS was employed to further confirm the identification of fragrances emitted from lilac blossom and compared to GC/SAW.

  18. Aroma recovery from roasted coffee by wet grinding.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, J; Thomann, D; Perren, R; Escher, F

    2010-01-01

    Aroma recovery as determined by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was compared in coffees resulting from conventional grinding processes, and from wet grinding with cold and hot water. Freshly roasted coffee as well as old, completely degassed coffee was ground in order to estimate the relationship of internal carbon dioxide pressure in freshly roasted coffee with the aroma loss during grinding. The release of volatile aroma substances during grinding was found to be related to the internal carbon dioxide pressure, and wet grinding with cold water was shown to minimize losses of aroma compounds by trapping them in water. Due to the high solubility of roasted coffee in water, the use of wet-grinding equipment is limited to processes where grinding is followed by an extraction step. Combining grinding and extraction by the use of hot water for wet grinding resulted in considerable losses of aroma compounds because of the prolonged heat impact. Therefore, a more promising two-step process involving cold wet grinding and subsequent hot extraction in a closed system was introduced. The yield of aroma compounds in the resulting coffee was substantially higher compared to conventionally ground coffee. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Aroma barrier properties of sodium caseinate-based films.

    PubMed

    Fabra, Maria José; Hambleton, Alicia; Talens, Pau; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Chiralt, Amparo; Voilley, Andrée

    2008-05-01

    The mass transport of six different aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, 2-hexanone, 1-hexanol, and cis-3-hexenol) through sodium caseinate-based films with different oleic acid (OA)/beeswax (BW) ratio has been studied. OA is less efficient than BW in reducing aroma permeability, which can be attributed to its greater polarity. Control film (without lipid) and films prepared with 0:100 OA/BW ratio show the lowest permeability. OA involves a decrease in aroma barrier properties of the sodium caseinate-based films due to its plasticization ability. Preferential sorption and diffusion occurs through OA instead of caseinate matrix and/or BW. The efficiency of sodium caseinate-based films to retain or limit aroma compound transfers depend on the affinity of the volatile compound to the films, which relates physicochemical interaction between volatile compound and film. Specific interactions (aroma compound-hydrocolloid and aroma compound-lipid) induce structural changes during mass transfer.

  20. Detection of falls using accelerometers and mobile phone technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond Y W; Carlisle, Alison J

    2011-11-01

    to study the sensitivity and specificity of fall detection using mobile phone technology. an experimental investigation using motion signals detected by the mobile phone. the research was conducted in a laboratory setting, and 18 healthy adults (12 males and 6 females; age = 29 ± 8.7 years) were recruited. each participant was requested to perform three trials of four different types of simulated falls (forwards, backwards, lateral left and lateral right) and eight other everyday activities (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, level walking, walking up- and downstairs, answering the phone, picking up an object and getting up from supine). Acceleration was measured using two devices, a mobile phone and an independent accelerometer attached to the waist of the participants. Bland-Altman analysis shows a higher degree of agreement between the data recorded by the two devices. Using individual upper and lower detection thresholds, the specificity and sensitivity for mobile phone were 0.81 and 0.77, respectively, and for external accelerometer they were 0.82 and 0.96, respectively. fall detection using a mobile phone is a feasible and highly attractive technology for older adults, especially those living alone. It may be best achieved with an accelerometer attached to the waist, which transmits signals wirelessly to a phone.

  1. Detection of BRAF mutations from solid tumors using Tumorplex™ technology

    PubMed Central

    Yo, Jacob; Hay, Katie S.L.; Vinayagamoorthy, Dilanthi; Maryanski, Danielle; Carter, Mark; Wiegel, Joseph; Vinayagamoorthy, Thuraiayah

    2015-01-01

    Allele specific multiplex sequencing (Tumorplex™) is a new molecular platform for the detection of single base mutation in tumor biopsies with high sensitivity for clinical testing. Tumorplex™ is a novel modification of Sanger sequencing technology that generates both mutant and wild type nucleotide sequences simultaneously in the same electropherogram. The molecular weight of the two sequencing primers are different such that the two sequences generated are separated, thus eliminating possible suppression of mutant signal by the more abundant wild type signal. Tumorplex™ platform technology was tested using BRAF mutation V600E. These studies were performed with cloned BRAF mutations and genomic DNA extracted from tumor cells carrying 50% mutant allele. The lower limit of detection for BRAF V600E was found to be 20 genome equivalents (GE) using genomic DNA extracted from mutation specific cell lines. Sensitivity of the assay was tested by challenging the mutant allele with wild type allele at 20 GE, and was able to detect BRAF mutant signal at a GE ration of 20:1 × 107 (mutant to wild-type). This level of sensitivity can detect low abundance of clonal mutations in tumor biopsies and eliminate the need for cell enrichment. • Tumorplex™ is a single tube assay that permits the recognition of mutant allele without suppression by wildtype signal. • Tumorplex™ provides a high level of sensitivity. • Tumorplex™ can be used with small sample size with mixed population of cells carrying heterogeneous gDNA. PMID:26258049

  2. Progress in magnetic sensor technology for sea mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Ted R.

    1997-07-01

    A superconducting magnetic-field gradiometer developed in the 1980's has been demonstrated infusion with acoustic sensors to enhance shallow water sea mine detection and classification, especially for buried mine detection and the reduction of acoustic false alarm rates. This sensor incorporated niobium bulk and wire superconducting components cooled by liquid helium to a temperature of 4 degrees K. An advanced superconducting gradiometer prototype is being developed to increase sensitivity and detection range. This sensor features all thin film niobium superconducting components and a new liquid helium cooling concept. In the late 1980's, a new class of 'high Tc' superconductors was discovered with critical temperatures above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. The use of liquid nitrogen refrigeration offers new opportunities for this sensor technology, providing significant reduction in the size of sensor packages and in the requirements for cryogenic support and logistics. As a result of this breakthrough, a high Tc sensor concept using liquid nitrogen refrigeration has been developed for mine reconnaissance applications and a test article of that concept is being fabricated and evaluated. In addition to these developments in sensor technology, new signal processing approaches and recent experimental results have ben obtained to demonstrate an enhanced D/C capability. In this paper, these recent advances in sensor development and new results for an enhanced D/C capability will be reviewed and a current perspective on the role of magnetic sensors for mine detection and classification will be addressed.

  3. Developmental GPR mine detection technology known as Balanced Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Lang, David A.

    1995-06-01

    The Balanced Bridge (BB) detection concept was developed just after the end of WWII. It has been researched for many years since then but it has never truly overcome the following inherent problems: sensitivity to antenna height and tilt variations, detectability of flush mines, sensitivity to soil moisture content, high false alarms, and most importantly, the inability to detect small anti-personnel (AP) mines. Even with all of these shortcomings, the BB sensor technology is still one of the most promising electrmagnetic mine detection systems. This paper will address a new BB detector and its preliminary field performance compared to earlier BB research. The new BB detector has superior capabilities compared to earlier BB efforts involving single frequency or single octave excitation because the new BB operates over a multi-octave bandwidth. The new BB detector also incorporates audio and visual presentations of digitally processed signals where earlier versions only had an audible announcement derived from a simple thresholding algorithm. New BB designs addressing previous BB deficiencies will also be discussed. Design changes include using a broadband printed circuit board antenna, RF transmit and receive components, and a digital signal processor. This new BB detector will be tested at an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) evaluation in FY95. The ATD exit criteria will be discussed and compared to recent field testing of the new BB detector. Preliminary results with the new BB system have demonstrated encouraging results which will be incorporated in this paper.

  4. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  5. Advances in human chorionic gonadotropin detection technologies: a review.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Wang, Mandy; Wang, Chengyin; Cao, Yu

    2017-10-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a glycoprotein secreted by placental trophoblast cells in pregnancy. HCG is a heterodimer composed of two different α- and β-subunits, with the latter being unique to HCG. As well as being the most important diagnostic markers for pregnancy, HCG is also a tumor marker, therefore, quantitative detection of HCG is of great value. Numerous advanced technologies have been developed for HCG concentration detection including electrochemical immunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, resonance scattering spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry, radioimmunoassay, MS and so on. Some have pursued simple and easy operation, while others have emphasized on accuracy and applications in clinical medicine. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various methods of detecting HCG.

  6. Risk assessment of technologies for detecting illicit drugs in containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenstein, Albert E.

    1995-03-01

    This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national

  7. Biosensor technology for the detection of illegal drugs II: antibody development and detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilpert, Reinhold; Bauer, Christian; Binder, Florian; Grol, Michael; Hallermayer, Klaus; Josel, Hans-Peter; Klein, Christian; Maier, Josef; Makower, Alexander; Oberpriller, Helmut; Ritter, Josef

    1994-10-01

    In a joint project of Deutsche Aerospace, Boehringer Mannheim and the University of Potsdam portable devices for the detection of illegal drugs, based on biosensor technology, are being developed. The concept enrichment of the drug from the gas phase and detection by immunological means. This publication covers the development of specific antibodies and various detection procedures. Antibodies with a high affinity for cocaine have been developed with the aid of specially synthesized immunogens. A competitive detection procedure with biosensors based on optical grating couplers and applying particulate labels has been established, showing a lower detection limit of 10-10 mol/l for cocaine. Additionally, a combination of a displacement-immunoreactor and an enzymatically amplified electrode was investigated, which at present still suffers from insufficient sensitivity of the immunoreactor. An alternative, fleece-matrix based test procedure, where enrichment and detection steps are integrated in a single unit, is promising in terms of simplicity and sensitivity. A simple swab-test for the detection of cocaine at surfaces has been developed, which has a lower detection limit of about 10 ng and which can be performed within one minute.

  8. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-06

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbe participation in aroma production during soy sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2018-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning that contains various constituents such as amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles that are produced during the long fermentation process. Although studies regarding the correlation between microbes and aroma constituents have been performed, there are no reports about the influences of the microbial products, such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol, during fermentation. Because it is known that these compounds contribute to microbial growth and to changes in the constituent profile by altering the moromi environment, understanding the influence of these compounds is important. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites, is a promising strategy for the deep understanding of constituent contributions to food characteristics. Therefore, the influences of microbes and their products such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol on aroma profiles were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolic profiling. The presence of aroma constituents influenced by microbes and chemically influenced by lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol were proposed. Most of the aroma constituents were not produced by adding ethanol alone, confirming the participation of yeast in aroma production. It was suggested that lactic acid bacterium relates to a key aromatic compound, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone. However, most of the measured aroma constituents changed similarly in both samples with lactic acid bacterium and acids. Thus, it was clear that the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the aroma profile was significant. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wind shear detection. Forward-looking sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, E. M. (Compiler); Delnore, V. E. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    A meeting took place at NASA Langley Research Center in February 1987 to discuss the development and eventual use of forward-looking remote sensors for the detection and avoidance of wind shear by aircraft. The participants represented industry, academia, and government. The meeting was structured to provide first a review of the current FAA and NASA wind shear programs, then to define what really happens to the airplane, and finally to give technology updates on the various types of forward-looking sensors. This document is intended to informally record the essence of the technology updates (represented here through unedited duplication of the vugraphs used), and the floor discussion following each presentation. Also given are key issues remaining unresolved.

  11. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  13. Hazard of Sulfonamides and Detection Technology Research Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiahui; Wang, Guangyu

    2017-12-01

    As a kind of widely used antibiotic with typical characteristics, sulfonamides have been greatly applied in clinical medicine for long time. It can’t be effectively treated by pollutant disposal system during pharmaceutical process and utilization and will be discharged into natural environment to be one of the antibiotics with great effect. This kind of substance is difficult to be biodegraded and will be easy to accumulate in the environment, generating huge eco-toxicological effect with significant mutagenicity and teratogenic effect. It is the severe threat for ecological balance, human health and drinking water safety. Its environmental behavior and detection technology attract extensive attention home and abroad.

  14. ARPA surveillance technology for detection of targets hidden in foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Lawrence E.; Stotts, Larry B.

    1994-02-01

    The processing of large quantities of synthetic aperture radar data in real time is a complex problem. Even the image formation process taxes today's most advanced computers. The use of complex algorithms with multiple channels adds another dimension to the computational problem. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is currently planning on using the Paragon parallel processor for this task. The Paragon is small enough to allow its use in a sensor aircraft. Candidate algorithms will be implemented on the Paragon for evaluation for real time processing. In this paper ARPA technology developments for detecting targets hidden in foliage are reviewed and examples of signal processing techniques on field collected data are presented.

  15. Effect of sweet orange aroma on experimental anxiety in humans.

    PubMed

    Goes, Tiago Costa; Antunes, Fabrício Dias; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anxiolytic effect of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) aroma in healthy volunteers submitted to an anxiogenic situation. Forty (40) male volunteers were allocated to five different groups for the inhalation of sweet orange essential oil (test aroma: 2.5, 5, or 10 drops), tea tree essential oil (control aroma: 2.5 drops), or water (nonaromatic control: 2.5 drops). Immediately after inhalation, each volunteer was submitted to a model of anxiety, the video-monitored version of the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT). Psychologic parameters (state-anxiety, subjective tension, tranquilization, and sedation) and physiologic parameters (heart rate and gastrocnemius electromyogram) were evaluated before the inhalation period and before, during, and after the SCWT. Unlike the control groups, the individuals exposed to the test aroma (2.5 and 10 drops) presented a lack of significant alterations (p>0.05) in state-anxiety, subjective tension and tranquillity levels throughout the anxiogenic situation, revealing an anxiolytic activity of sweet orange essential oil. Physiologic alterations along the test were not prevented in any treatment group, as has previously been observed for diazepam. Although more studies are needed to find out the clinical relevance of aromatherapy for anxiety disorders, the present results indicate an acute anxiolytic activity of sweet orange aroma, giving some scientific support to its use as a tranquilizer by aromatherapists.

  16. Enabling Technologies for Microfluidic Flow Control and Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Daniel Christopher

    Advances in microfluidic technologies have expanded conventional chemical and biological techniques to the point where we can envision rapid, inexpensive and portable analysis. Among the numerous challenges in the development of portable, chip-based technologies are simple flow control and detection strategies, which will be essential to widespread acceptance and implementation at both the point-of-care and in locales with limited facilities/resources. The research presented in this dissertation is focused on the development of precise flow control techniques and new, simplified detection technologies aimed at addressing these challenges. An introduction to the concepts important to microfluidics and a brief history to the field are presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 will present the development of a technique for the precise control of small volumes of liquids, where well-studied electrical circuit concepts are employed to create frequency-dependent microfluidic circuits. In this system, elastomeric thin films act as fluidic capacitors and diodes, which, when combined with resistors (channels), make fluidic circuits that are described by analytical models. Metering of two separate chemical inputs with a single oscillatory pneumatic control line is demonstrated by combining simple fluidic circuits (i.e., band-pass filters) to significantly reduce the external hardware required for microfluidic flow control. In order to quantify multiple flow profiles in microfluidic circuits, a novel multiplexed flow measurement method using visible dyes is introduced in Chapter 3 and rapidly determines individual flow in connected channels, post-fabrication device quality and solution viscosity. Another thrust of this dissertation research has been to develop miniaturized bioanalytical systems. Chapter 4 describes the adaption of a nucleic-acid-tagged antibody protein detection reaction to a microfluidic platform for detection of down to 5 E. coli O157:H7 cells. Furthermore, a

  17. Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Grande, Nancy K.; Clark, Gregory A.; Durbin, Philip F.; Fields, David J.; Hernandez, Jose E.; Sherwood, Robert J.

    1991-08-01

    A precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement is developed. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. The methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. The method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 degree(s)C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1 degree(s)C or 2 degree(s)C; this mask hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, it is possible to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectral, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. The authors have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less than 60 m deep. The technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. For the former, buried tunnels, underground structures built beneath typical surface structures, roof-tops disguised by jungle canopies, and covered containers used for contraband would be located. For the latter, buried waste containers, sludge migration pathways from faulty containers, and the juxtaposition of groundwater channels, if present, nearby, would be depicted. The precise airborne temperature-sensing technology has a promising potential

  18. An ethical assessment model for digital disease detection technologies.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2017-09-20

    Digital epidemiology, also referred to as digital disease detection (DDD), successfully provided methods and strategies for using information technology to support infectious disease monitoring and surveillance or understand attitudes and concerns about infectious diseases. However, Internet-based research and social media usage in epidemiology and healthcare pose new technical, functional and formal challenges. The focus of this paper is on the ethical issues to be considered when integrating digital epidemiology with existing practices. Taking existing ethical guidelines and the results from the EU project M-Eco and SORMAS as starting point, we develop an ethical assessment model aiming at providing support in identifying relevant ethical concerns in future DDD projects. The assessment model has four dimensions: user, application area, data source and methodology. The model supports in becoming aware, identifying and describing the ethical dimensions of DDD technology or use case and in identifying the ethical issues on the technology use from different perspectives. It can be applied in an interdisciplinary meeting to collect different viewpoints on a DDD system even before the implementation starts and aims at triggering discussions and finding solutions for risks that might not be acceptable even in the development phase. From the answers, ethical issues concerning confidence, privacy, data and patient security or justice may be judged and weighted.

  19. Implementation of a new technology for point detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petinarides, John; Griffin, M. Todd; Miller, Ranaan A.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.; Bashall, Anthony D.

    2005-05-01

    General Dynamics ATP (GDATP) and Sionex Corporation (Sionex) are carrying out a cooperative development for a handheld chemical agent detector, being called JUNO, which will have lower false positives, higher sensitivity, and improved interference rejection compared with presently available detectors. This enhanced performance is made possible by the use of a new principle of ion separation called Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS). The enhanced selectivity is provided by the field tunable nature of the Sionex differential mobility technology (microDMxTM) which forms the analytical heart of the JUNO system and enables fingerprinting of molecules by characterization of the ionized molecular behavior under multiple electric field conditions. This enhanced selectivity is valuable in addressing not only the traditional list of chemical warfare agents (CWA) but also the substantial list of Toxic Industrial Compounds (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) which may be released in warfare or terrorist situations. Experimental results showing the ability of the microDMx to reject interferences, detect and resolve live agents are presented. An additional breakthrough in the technology was realized by operating the device at a reduced pressure of around 0.5 atmospheres. This reduced pressure operation resulted in roughly doubling the spectrometers resolution over what has previously been reported [1]. Advances have also been made in power consumption and packaging leading to a device suitable for portable, handheld, applications. Experimental results illustrating the performance of the microDMx technology employed in JUNO are highlighted.

  20. Using Scientific Detective Videos to Support the Design of Technology Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kuang-Chao; Fan, Szu-Chun; Tsai, Fu-Hsing; Chu, Yih-hsien

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of scientific detective video as a vehicle to support the design of technology activities by technology teachers. Ten graduate students, including current and future technology teachers, participated in a required technology graduate course that used scientific detective videos as a pedagogical tool to motivate…

  1. Physiology, ecology and industrial applications of aroma formation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dzialo, Maria C; Park, Rahel; Steensels, Jan; Lievens, Bart; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yeast cells are often employed in industrial fermentation processes for their ability to efficiently convert relatively high concentrations of sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Additionally, fermenting yeast cells produce a wide range of other compounds, including various higher alcohols, carbonyl compounds, phenolic compounds, fatty acid derivatives and sulfur compounds. Interestingly, many of these secondary metabolites are volatile and have pungent aromas that are often vital for product quality. In this review, we summarize the different biochemical pathways underlying aroma production in yeast as well as the relevance of these compounds for industrial applications and the factors that influence their production during fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the different physiological and ecological roles of aroma-active metabolites, including recent findings that point at their role as signaling molecules and attractants for insect vectors. PMID:28830094

  2. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma in naturally fermented sausages by gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize naturally fermented dry sausages produced without the use of microbial starters and to determine which odour-active compounds are responsible for their aroma. The traditional manufacture was responsible for different chemical characteristics and consumer's acceptance. The volatile compounds detected in the headspace comprised a complex mixture of volatile compounds derived from bacterial metabolism (mainly esterase activity of Staphyloccoci), spices and lipid auto-oxidation. The odour-active volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O) using the detection frequency method. The aroma profile was characterized by the presence of several compounds such as acetic acid, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, 1-octen-3-ol, benzeneacetaldehyde and 4-methyl-phenol. However, naturally fermented sausages were also characterized by numerous esters, both ethyl and methyl esters, which impart a wide variety of fruity notes. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R2 > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L−1 of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg−1) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L−1) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages. PMID:25473493

  5. Feature detection in satellite images using neural network technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augusteijn, Marijke F.; Dimalanta, Arturo S.

    1992-01-01

    A feasibility study of automated classification of satellite images is described. Satellite images were characterized by the textures they contain. In particular, the detection of cloud textures was investigated. The method of second-order gray level statistics, using co-occurrence matrices, was applied to extract feature vectors from image segments. Neural network technology was employed to classify these feature vectors. The cascade-correlation architecture was successfully used as a classifier. The use of a Kohonen network was also investigated but this architecture could not reliably classify the feature vectors due to the complicated structure of the classification problem. The best results were obtained when data from different spectral bands were fused.

  6. Recent advances in research on volatile aroma compounds in tomatoes and their impacting factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aroma is an important sensory attribute of tomatoes. Tomato aroma is formed by a complex mixture of more than 400 volatile compounds, and it plays an important role in the classification and consumer acceptability of tomato products. This article provides a brief overview of the volatile aroma compo...

  7. Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogs: The AROMA Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Bonnamy, Anthony; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Cernicharo, Jose; Martín-Gago, Jose-Angel; Joblin, Christine

    2017-07-01

    We developed a new analytical experimental setup called AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) that combines laser desorption/ionization techniques with ion trap mass spectrometry. We report here on the ability of the apparatus to detect aromatic species in complex materials of astrophysical interest and characterize their structures. A limit of detection of 100 femto-grams has been achieved using pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples, which corresponds to 2 × 108 molecules in the case of coronene (C24H12). We detected the PAH distribution in the Murchison meteorite, which is made of a complex mixture of extraterrestrial organic compounds. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments were performed on selected species detected in Murchison, which led to the first firm identification of pyrene and its methylated derivatives in this sample.

  8. Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogs: The AROMA Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, Hassan; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine

    We developed a new analytical experimental setup called AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) that combines laser desorption/ionization techniques with ion trap mass spectrometry. We report here on the ability of the apparatus to detect aromatic species in complex materials of astrophysical interest and characterize their structures. A limit of detection of 100 femto-grams has been achieved using pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples, which corresponds to 2 × 10{sup 8} molecules in the case of coronene (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}). We detected the PAH distribution in the Murchison meteorite, which is made of a complex mixture of extraterrestrialmore » organic compounds. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments were performed on selected species detected in Murchison, which led to the first firm identification of pyrene and its methylated derivatives in this sample.« less

  9. Detection of Iberian ham aroma by a semiconductor multisensorial system.

    PubMed

    Otero, Laura; Horrillo, M A Carmen; García, María; Sayago, Isabel; Aleixandre, Manuel; Fernández, M A Jesús; Arés, Luis; Gutiérrez, Javier

    2003-11-01

    A semiconductor multisensorial system, based on tin oxide, to control the quality of dry-cured Iberian hams is described. Two types of ham (submitted to different drying temperatures) were selected. Good responses were obtained from the 12 elements forming the multisensor for different operating temperatures. Discrimination between the two types of ham was successfully realised through principal component analysis (PCA).

  10. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. PMID:23698265

  11. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wenyan; Li, Yuecheng; Qu, Ruowei; Baranowski, Thomas; Burke, Lora E; Zhang, Hong; Bai, Yicheng; Mancino, Juliet M; Xu, Guizhi; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-03-26

    To develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment. To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable device, called eButton, from free-living individuals. Three thousand nine hundred images containing real-world activities, which formed eButton data set 1, were manually selected from thirty subjects. eButton data set 2 contained 29 515 images acquired from a research participant in a week-long unrestricted recording. They included both food- and non-food-related real-life activities, such as dining at both home and restaurants, cooking, shopping, gardening, housekeeping chores, taking classes, gym exercise, etc. All images in these data sets were classified as food/non-food images based on their tags generated by a convolutional neural network. A cross data-set test was conducted on eButton data set 1. The overall accuracy of food detection was 91·5 and 86·4 %, respectively, when one-half of data set 1 was used for training and the other half for testing. For eButton data set 2, 74·0 % sensitivity and 87·0 % specificity were obtained if both 'food' and 'drink' were considered as food images. Alternatively, if only 'food' items were considered, the sensitivity and specificity reached 85·0 and 85·8 %, respectively. The AI technology can automatically detect foods from low-quality, wearable camera-acquired real-world egocentric images with reasonable accuracy, reducing both the burden of data processing and privacy concerns.

  12. Volatile aroma compounds in various brewed green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Adhikari, Koushik; Yoon, Youngmo

    2013-08-20

    This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

  13. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina; Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees.

  14. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees. PMID:29389969

  15. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-02-27

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  16. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    PubMed

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Optimizing substance detection by integration of canine-human team with machine technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestrude, Al M.; Ternes, J. W.

    1994-02-01

    There are several promising methods and technologies for substance detection. The oldest of these methods is the trained detector or `sniffer' dog. We summarize what is known about the capabilities of dogs in substance detection and recommend comparative testing of the canine- human team with current technology to identify the optimum combination of methods to maximize the detection of explosives and contraband.

  18. Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Clark, G.A.; Durbin, P.F.

    1991-03-01

    We have developed a precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. Our patented methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. Our method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 {degrees}C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1{degrees}C or 2{degrees}C; this maskmore » hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, were are able to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectra, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. We have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less 60 m deep. Our technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. 16 refs., 14 figs.« less

  19. Detection of Septic System Performance via Remote Sensing Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, A. H.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Harvey, C.

    2005-05-01

    Failing and improperly managed septic systems can affect water quality in their environs and cause health problems for individuals or community residents. When unchecked, failing systems can allow disease-causing pathogens to enter groundwater aquifers and pollute surface waters, contaminating drinking water, recreational waterways, and fishing grounds. Early detection of septic system leakage and failure can limit the extent of these problems. External symptoms which occur over an improperly functioning septic system can include lush or greener growth of vegetation, distress of vegetation, excessive soil moisture levels, or pooling of surface effluent. The use of remote sensing technologies coupled with attainable permit records to successfully identify these features could enable the appropriate agencies to target problem areas without extensive field inspection. High-resolution, airborne imagery was identified as having the potential to detect relative changes in soil moisture, to delineate individual leach fields, and to locate effluent discharges into water bodies. In addition, vegetation patterns responding to nutrient-rich effluent and increased soil moisture could be examined using a vegetation index. Both thermal- and color-infrared imagery were acquired for a study area in Jackson County, Mississippi, adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. Within this coastal neighborhood known to have significant septic system failures, over 50 volunteer residents supplied information regarding the function of their systems and access to their property. Following data collection, regression methods were used to nominate the major indicators of malfunctioning systems. A ranking system for the "level of function" was derived from these analyses. A model was created which inputs data from attainable records and imagery analysis and outputs a predicted level of septic system function. The end product of this research will permit evaluation of septic system performance to be

  20. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit.

  1. Identification of aroma volatiles and understanding 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthetic mechanism in aromatic mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Attar, Usmangani; Hinge, Vidya; Zanan, Rahul; Adhav, Rahul; Nadaf, Altafhusain

    2017-04-01

    Mung bean having high food value and easily digestible proteins, is one of the socioeconomically important crop of India. Among the varied cultivars, Sona mung is having aroma and hence popularly cultivated in the pockets of Ganga river basin at Bhutnir char village of Malda District in the West Bengal state. In the present study, aroma volatiles with special reference to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) were analyzed using HS-SPME-GCMS from Sona mung bean and compared with non-scented mung bean (PHULE M-9339). 26 volatiles in seeds of Sona mung and 20 in non-scented mung bean were identified, in which 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal, (2 E )-2-decen-1-ol, 2-ethyl-1-dodecanol and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one are first time reported. 0.19 ± 0.001 ppm 2AP was recorded in Sona mung seeds whereas it was not detected in non-scented mung bean. PCA analysis indicated that 2AP, octanal, 1 pentanol, decanal, phenylmethanol and 2-nonen-1-ol were the major contributors in the aroma of Sona mung bean. The significantly higher level proline, methylglyoxal and lower level of BADH2 transcript were detected in Sona mung than non-scented mung, suggesting similar 2AP biosynthesis mechanism in Sona mung bean as reported in scented rice, sorghum and soybean.

  2. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    PubMed

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

  4. Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; SCHMITT, RANDAL L.

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has recognized that biological and chemical toxins are a real and growing threat to troops, civilians, and the ecosystem. The Explosives Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working with the University of Montana, the Southwest Research Institute, and other agencies to evaluate the feasibility of directing honeybees to specific targets, and for environmental sampling of biological and chemical ''agents of harm''. Recent work has focused on finding and locating buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Tests have demonstrated that honeybees can be trained to efficiently and accurately locate explosive signaturesmore » in the environment. However, it is difficult to visually track the bees and determine precisely where the targets are located. Video equipment is not practical due to its limited resolution and range. In addition, it is often unsafe to install such equipment in a field. A technology is needed to provide investigators with the standoff capability to track bees and accurately map the location of the suspected targets. This report documents Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) tests that were performed by SNL. These tests have shown that a LIDAR system can be used to track honeybees. The LIDAR system can provide both the range and coordinates of the target so that the location of buried munitions can be accurately mapped for subsequent removal.« less

  5. Characterization of the aroma profile of novel Brazilian wines by solid-phase microextraction using polymeric ionic liquid sorbent coatings.

    PubMed

    Crucello, Juliana; Miron, Luiz F O; Ferreira, Victor H C; Nan, He; Marques, Marcia O M; Ritschel, Patricia S; Zanus, Mauro C; Anderson, Jared L; Poppi, Ronei J; Hantao, Leandro W

    2018-05-28

    In this study, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings is evaluated for the extraction of polar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Brazilian wines using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), including samples from 'Isabella' and 'BRS Magna' cultivars-the latter was recently introduced by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - National Grape & Wine Research Center. The structurally tuned SPME coatings were compared to the commercial SPME phases, namely poly(acrylate) (PA) and divinylbenzene/carboxen/poly(dimethylsiloxane) (DVB/CAR/PDMS). The separation, detection and identification of the aroma profiles were obtained using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The best performing PIL-based SPME fiber, namely 1-hexadecyl-3-vinylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide with 1,12-di(3-vinylimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide incorporated cross-linker supported on an elastic nitinol wire, exhibited superior performance to DVB/CAR/PDMS regarding the average number of extracted peaks and extracted more polar analytes providing additional insight into the aroma profile of 'BRS Magna' wines. Four batches of wine were evaluated, namely 'Isabella' and 'BRS Magna' vintages 2015 and 2016, using highly selective PIL-based SPME coatings and enabled the detection of 350+ peaks. Furthermore, this is the first report evaluating the aroma of 'BRS Magna' wines. A hybrid approach that combined pixel-based Fisher ratio and peak table-based data comparison was used for data handling. This proof-of-concept experiment provided reliable and statistically valid distinction of wines that may guide regulation agencies to create high sample throughput protocols to screen wines exported by Brazilian vintners. Graphical abstract Highly selective extraction of wine aroma using polymeric ionic liquid.

  6. Multi-volatile method for aroma analysis using sequential dynamic headspace sampling with an application to brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2014-12-05

    A novel multi-volatile method (MVM) using sequential dynamic headspace (DHS) sampling for analysis of aroma compounds in aqueous sample was developed. The MVM consists of three different DHS method parameters sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. The first DHS sampling at 25 °C using a carbon-based adsorbent trap targets very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>20 kPa). The second DHS sampling at 25 °C using the same type of carbon-based adsorbent trap targets volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-20 kPa). The third DHS sampling using a Tenax TA trap at 80 °C targets solutes with low vapor pressure (<1 kPa) and/or hydrophilic characteristics. After the 3 sequential DHS samplings using the same HS vial, the three traps are sequentially desorbed with thermal desorption in reverse order of the DHS sampling and the desorbed compounds are trapped and concentrated in a programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) inlet and subsequently analyzed in a single GC-MS run. Recoveries of the 21 test aroma compounds for each DHS sampling and the combined MVM procedure were evaluated as a function of vapor pressure in the range of 0.000088-120 kPa. The MVM provided very good recoveries in the range of 91-111%. The method showed good linearity (r2>0.9910) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 1.0-7.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed coffee. Ten potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 4-ethyl guaiacol, furaneol, guaiacol, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, vanillin, and 4-vinyl guaiacol) could be identified together with an additional 72 aroma compounds. Thirty compounds including 9 potent aroma compounds were quantified in the range of 74-4300 ng mL(-1) (RSD<10%, n=5). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. State-of-the-art technologies for intrusion and obstacle detection for railroad operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-07-01

    This report provides an update on the state-of-the-art technologies with intrusion and obstacle detection capabilities for rail rights of way (ROW) and crossings. A workshop entitled Intruder and Obstacle Detection Systems (IODS) for Railroads Requir...

  8. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  9. Detection of Neisseria meningitidis in cerebrospinal fluid using a multiplex PCR and the Luminex detection technology.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid clinical and laboratory diagnoses are the foundation for a successful management of serious infections with Neisseria meningitidis. A species-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with fluidic microarrays using microbeads (the Luminex xMAP™ Technology) can detect pathogens most frequently found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients. The Luminex suspension array system uniquely combines flow cytometry, microspheres, laser technology, digital signal processing, and traditional chemistry. In this method, the reaction is carried out in one vessel, in which distinctly color-coded bead sets, each conjugated with a different specific nucleic acid reactant, are hybridized with the PCR products, and a reporter molecule is used to quantify the interaction. The flow-based Luminex array reader identifies each reaction (bead set) after excitation by a red classification laser. Reporter signals from each reaction are simultaneously quantified by fluorescence generated by a green reporter laser. This nonculture, multiplex assay may prove to be an important tool for optimal laboratory diagnosis, not only of meningococcal meningitis, but also of meningitis caused by other bacterial or viral pathogens.

  10. Biosensor technology: recent advances in threat agent detection and medicine.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Jeffrey; Siltanen, Christian; Zhou, Qing; Revzin, Alexander; Simonian, Aleksandr

    2013-11-21

    Biosensors are of great significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of analytical problems and challenges in very diverse areas such as defense, homeland security, agriculture and food safety, environmental monitoring, medicine, pharmacology, industry, etc. The expanding role of biosensing in society and a real-world environment has led to an exponential growth of the R&D efforts around the world. The world market for biosensor devices, according to Global Industry Analysts, Inc., is expected to reach $12 billion by 2015. Such expedient growth is driven by several factors including medical and health problems, such as a growing population with a high risk of diabetes and obesity, and the rising incidence of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, etc.; significant problems with environmental monitoring; and of course serious challenges in security and military applications and agriculture/food safety. A review paper in the biosensor technology area may be structured based on (i) the principles of detection, such as the type of transducer platform, bioanalytical principles (affinity or kinetic), and biorecognition elements origin/properties (i.e. antibodies, enzymes, cells, aptamers, etc.), and (ii) the application area. This review follows the latter strategy and focuses on the applications. This allows discussion on how different sensing strategies are brought to bear on the same problem and highlights advantages/disadvantages of these sensing strategies. Given the broad range of biosensor related applications, several particularly relevant areas of application were selected for review: biological threat agents, chemical threat agents, and medicine.

  11. Effect of five enological practices and of the general phenolic composition on fermentation-related aroma compounds in Mencia young red wines.

    PubMed

    Añón, Ana; López, Jorge F; Hernando, Diego; Orriols, Ignacio; Revilla, Eugenio; Losada, Manuel M

    2014-04-01

    The effects of five technological procedures and of the contents of total anthocyanins and condensed tannins on 19 fermentation-related aroma compounds of young red Mencia wines were studied. Multifactor ANOVA revealed that levels of those volatiles changed significantly over the length of storage in bottles and, to a lesser extent, due to other technological factors considered; total anthocyanins and condensed tannins also changed significantly as a result of the five practices assayed. Five aroma compounds possessed an odour activity value >1 in all wines, and another four in some wines. Linear correlation among volatile compounds and general phenolic composition revealed that total anthocyanins were highly related to 14 different aroma compounds. Multifactor ANOVA, considering the content of total anthocyanins as a sixth random factor, revealed that this parameter affected significantly the contents of ethyl lactate, ethyl isovalerate, 1-pentanol and ethyl octanoate. Thus, the aroma of young red Mencia wines may be affected by levels of total anthocyanins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

  13. Current technologies for detection of ricin in different matrices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricin is a convenient, potent, and available toxin for terrorist acts. The importance of detecting it in various matrices is obvious. This chapter reviews methods for ricin detection based on the mechanisms used for assay development. Five detection approaches are reviewed: 1. Antibody-based metho...

  14. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma

    PubMed Central

    DiVerdi, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest. PMID:29401526

  15. Investigations on the Aroma of Cocoa Pulp ( Theobroma cacao L.) and Its Influence on the Odor of Fermented Cocoa Beans.

    PubMed

    Chetschik, Irene; Kneubühl, Markus; Chatelain, Karin; Schlüter, Ansgar; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo

    2018-03-14

    The odor-active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities, in terms of flavor dilution (FD) factors, in comparison to varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. To gain first insights on a molecular level of how the cocoa pulp odorants affected the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of 2-phenylethanol and 3-methylbutyl acetate in pulp than in the bean during the different time steps of the fermentation, whereas the reverse could be observed for the odorants linalool and 2-methoxyphenol. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the aroma formation of cocoa during fermentation.

  16. Characterization of the Potent Odorants Contributing to the Characteristic Aroma of Matcha by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Techniques.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryoko; Amano, Yohei; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-03-31

    The odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of matcha were investigated by analysis of the headspace samples and the volatile fractions prepared by a combination of solvent extraction and the SAFE techniques using three matcha powders of different grades (high, medium, and low). Gas chromatography-olfactometry of the headspace samples (GCO-H) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 16 (FD factor ≥1) and 39 (FD factor ≥4 3 ) odor-active peaks, respectively. Among them, 14 and 37 of the odorants, most of which were newly detected in matcha, were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O, respectively. By comparing the perceived odorants of three matcha powders, it was revealed that eight compounds with sweet, green, metallic, and floral notes showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors irrespective of the grades. In addition, some odorants were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each grade. Furthermore, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, one of the potent odorants of matcha, was revealed to exist as a racemic mixture in matcha. This result suggested that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal is formed by a nonenzymatic reaction in matcha, different from that in black tea, and that the unique manufacturing process of matcha has a close connection with its formation.

  17. A Plane Target Detection Algorithm in Remote Sensing Images based on Deep Learning Network Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuxin, Li; Zhilong, Zhang; Biao, Li

    2018-01-01

    Plane is an important target category in remote sensing targets and it is of great value to detect the plane targets automatically. As remote imaging technology developing continuously, the resolution of the remote sensing image has been very high and we can get more detailed information for detecting the remote sensing targets automatically. Deep learning network technology is the most advanced technology in image target detection and recognition, which provided great performance improvement in the field of target detection and recognition in the everyday scenes. We combined the technology with the application in the remote sensing target detection and proposed an algorithm with end to end deep network, which can learn from the remote sensing images to detect the targets in the new images automatically and robustly. Our experiments shows that the algorithm can capture the feature information of the plane target and has better performance in target detection with the old methods.

  18. [Aroma and perfume allergy: anathema for some epicurean appeal?].

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Nikkels, A F; Cornil, F; Deleixhe-Mauhin, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-09-01

    Aromas and fragrances are present in many cosmetics, some topical drugs, food and various hygiene, household and industrial products. They can be responsible for contact dermatitis. Multiple sensitizations can even involve in various combinations some fragrance compounds, a given degradation product or a contaminant. The diagnosis relies on clinical examination and oriented anamnesis. A histological examination is sometimes necessary. Specific path testing brings insight on the culprit chemical compounds.

  19. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  20. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Sensing the deadliest toxin: technologies for botulinum neurotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Capek, Petr; Dickerson, Tobin J

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive and rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous substances known to date, is essential for studies of medical applications of BoNTs and detection of poisoned food, as well as for response to potential bioterrorist threats. Currently, the most common method of BoNT detection is the mouse bioassay. While this assay is sensitive, it is slow, quite expensive, has limited throughput and requires sacrificing animals. Herein, we discuss and compare recently developed alternative in vitro detection methods and assess their ability to supplement or replace the mouse bioassay in the analysis of complex matrix samples.

  3. Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Gear Damage Detection Technologies Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spur gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, wear debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Experimental data were collected during experiments performed in this test rig with and without pitting. Results show combining the two measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears.

  4. Ultra-sensitive detection using integrated waveguide technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a pressing need to detect analytes at very low concentrations, such as food- and water-borne pathogens (e.g. E. coli O157:H7) and biothreat agents (e.g., anthrax, toxins). Common fluorescence detection methods, such as 96 well plate readers, are not sufficiently sensitive for low concentra...

  5. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition.

  6. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation project was undertaken to provide an analysis on the current state of Laser based technology and its applicability, : potential accuracies and information content with respect to Missouri Department of Transportation( MODOT) applications.

  7. New technologies for the detection of millimeter and submillimeter waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, P. L.; Clarke, J.; Gildemeister, J. M.; Lanting, T.; Lee, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    Voltage-biased superconducting bolometers have many operational advantages over conventional bolometer technology including sensitivity, linearity, speed, and immunity from environmental disturbance. A review is given of the Berkeley program for developing this new technology. Developments include fully lithographed individual bolometers in the spiderweb configuration, arrays of 1024 close-packed absorber-coupled bolometers, antenna-coupled bolometers, and a frequency-domain SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readout multiplexer.

  8. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  9. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  10. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  11. Alternative vehicle detection technologies for traffic signal systems : technical report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    Due to the well-documented problems associated with inductive loops, most jurisdictions have : replaced many intersection loops with video image vehicle detection systems (VIVDS). While VIVDS : have overcome some of the problems with loops such as tr...

  12. State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    security incident response teams ) - the role of IDS in threat management, such as defining alarm severity, monitoring, alerting, and policy-based...attacks in an effort to sneak under the radar of security specialists and intrusion detection software, a U.S. Navy network security team said today...to get the smoking gun," said Stephen Northcutt, head of the Shadow intrusion detection team at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. "To know what’s

  13. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-04

    extensive use of photons, packets of energy with no rest mass and no electrical charge. Electromagnetic radiation consists of photons, and may be measured...bulk property, expressed as mass per unit volume. In general, the densest materials are those of high Z. These properties may be used to detect...SNM by detecting the time pattern of neutron generation. A subcritical mass of highly enriched uranium or weapons-grade plutonium can support a

  14. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  15. Particle Based Technologies for Osteoarthritis Detection and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Taylor E.; Werfel, Thomas A.; Cho, Hongsik; Hasty, Karen A.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease characterized by degradation of joints with the development of painful osteophytes in the surrounding tissues. Currently, there are a limited number of treatments for this disease and many of these only provide temporary, palliative relief. In this review, we discuss polymer drug delivery systems that can provide targeted and sustained delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents to OA-affected sites. We focus on technologies such as polymeric micelles and nano- / micro-particles, liposomes, and dendrimers for their potential treatment and/or diagnosis of OA. Several promising studies are highlighted, motivating the continued development of delivery technologies to improve treatments for OA. PMID:25990835

  16. How can clinicians detect and treat autism early? Methodological trends of technology use in research

    PubMed Central

    Bölte, S; Bartl-Pokorny, KD; Jonsson, U; Berggren, S; Zhang, D; Kostrzewa, E; Falck-Ytter, T; Einspieler, C; Pokorny, FB; Jones, EJH; Roeyers, H; Charman, T; Marschik, PB

    2018-01-01

    We reviewed original research papers that used quantifiable technology to detect early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and identified 376 studies from 34 countries from 1965-2013. Publications have increased significantly since 2000, with most coming from the USA. Electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking were the most frequently used technologies. Conclusion The use of quantifiable technology to detect early ASD has increased in recent decades, but has had limited impact on early detection and treatment. Further scientific developments are anticipated and we hope that they will increasingly be used in clinical practice for early ASD screening, diagnosis and intervention. PMID:26479859

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, TNT DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, SPREETA TM SENSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  18. Aroma Effects on Physiologic and Cognitive Function Following Acute Stress: A Mechanism Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Barry S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated. Methods: Ninety-two healthy adults (mean age, 58.0 years; 79.3% women) were randomly assigned to three aroma groups (lavender, perceptible placebo [coconut], and nonperceptible placebo [water] and to two prime subgroups (primed, with a suggestion of inhaling a powerful stress-reducing aroma, or no prime). Participants' performance on a battery of cognitive tests, physiologic responses, and subjective stress were evaluated at baseline and after exposure to a stress battery during which aromatherapy was present. Participants also rated the intensity and pleasantness of their assigned aroma. Results: Pharmacologic effects of lavender but not placebo aromas significantly benefited post-stress performance on the working memory task (F(2, 86) = 5.41; p = 0.006). Increased expectancy due to positive prime, regardless of aroma type, facilitated post-stress performance on the processing speed task (F(1, 87) = 8.31; p = 0.005). Aroma hedonics (pleasantness and intensity) played a role in the beneficial lavender effect on working memory and physiologic function. Conclusions: The observable aroma effects were produced by a combination of mechanisms involving aroma-specific pharmacologic properties, aroma hedonic properties, and participant expectations. In the future, each of these mechanisms could be manipulated to produce optimal functioning. PMID:27355279

  19. Detection of ricin in food using electrochemiluminescence-based technology.

    PubMed

    Garber, Eric A E; O'Brien, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    Ricin is a toxic ribosome inactivating protein (RIP-II) present in beans of the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Its potential as a biodefense threat has made the rapid, sensitive detection of ricin in food important to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Samples of juice, dairy products, soda, vegetables, bakery products, chocolate, and condiments were spiked with varying concentrations of ricin and analyzed using a 96-well format, electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay. Assay configurations included the use of a monoclonal capture antibody coupled with either a polyclonal or monoclonal detector antibody. The samples and detector antibodies were either added sequentially or in combination during the capture step. Using the polyclonal antibody, 0.04 ng/mL ricin was detected in analytical samples prepared from several beverages. By simultaneously incubating the sample with detector antibody, it was possible to decrease the assay time to a single 20 min incubation step with a limit of detection <10 ng/mL. Assays run according to this single incubation step exhibited a hook effect (decrease in signal at high concentrations of ricin), but because of the large signal-to-noise ratio associated with the ECL assay, the response remained above background and detectable. Thus, the ECL assay was uniquely suited for the screening of samples for ricin.

  20. Investigations of Novel Sensor Technology for Explosive Specific Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    considered impractical due to oxidation , however, a zinc analogue was synthesized to improve the photostability. [67] They concluded that AcrH2 is...of 2,4-dinitrotoluene in a γ- CD/metal oxide matrix and its sensitive detection via a cyclic surface polarization impedance (cSPI) method”, Chemistry...sensor ........................................................................................... 40 6.3.13 Nanofibrous membranes

  1. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment. To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable devic...

  2. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source "Virtual Gas Field" Simulator.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Chandler E; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Brandt, Adam R

    2016-04-19

    We present a tool for modeling the performance of methane leak detection and repair programs that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of detection technologies and proposed mitigation policies. The tool uses a two-state Markov model to simulate the evolution of methane leakage from an artificial natural gas field. Leaks are created stochastically, drawing from the current understanding of the frequency and size distributions at production facilities. Various leak detection and repair programs can be simulated to determine the rate at which each would identify and repair leaks. Integrating the methane leakage over time enables a meaningful comparison between technologies, using both economic and environmental metrics. We simulate four existing or proposed detection technologies: flame ionization detection, manual infrared camera, automated infrared drone, and distributed detectors. Comparing these four technologies, we found that over 80% of simulated leakage could be mitigated with a positive net present value, although the maximum benefit is realized by selectively targeting larger leaks. Our results show that low-cost leak detection programs can rely on high-cost technology, as long as it is applied in a way that allows for rapid detection of large leaks. Any strategy to reduce leakage should require a careful consideration of the differences between low-cost technologies and low-cost programs.

  3. Wide modulation bandwidth terahertz detection in 130 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Shamsun; Shafee, Marwah; Blin, Stéphane; Pénarier, Annick; Nouvel, Philippe; Coquillat, Dominique; Safwa, Amr M. E.; Knap, Wojciech; Hella, Mona M.

    2016-11-01

    Design, manufacturing and measurements results for silicon plasma wave transistors based wireless communication wideband receivers operating at 300 GHz carrier frequency are presented. We show the possibility of Si-CMOS based integrated circuits, in which by: (i) specific physics based plasma wave transistor design allowing impedance matching to the antenna and the amplifier, (ii) engineering the shape of the patch antenna through a stacked resonator approach and (iii) applying bandwidth enhancement strategies to the design of integrated broadband amplifier, we achieve an integrated circuit of the 300 GHz carrier frequency receiver for wireless wideband operation up to/over 10 GHz. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of low cost 130 nm Si-CMOS technology, plasma wave transistors based fast/wideband integrated receiver operating at 300 GHz atmospheric window. These results pave the way towards future large scale (cost effective) silicon technology based terahertz wireless communication receivers.

  4. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample.

  5. Cancer Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment Technologies for Global Health: Supporting the developmen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI, Center for Global Health supports the development and validation of low-cost, portable technologies that can improve cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment in low-and middle-income countries.

  6. Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Responsibilities for Developing Explosives and Narcotics Detection Technologies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-01

    This report discusses (1) the roles, responsibilities, and authority of : agencies that establish policy, provide funds or oversee funding requests, : and develop explosives and narcotics detection technologies; : (2) mechanisms used to coordinate th...

  7. Detecting asphalt pavement raveling using emerging 3D laser technology and macrotexture analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-08-01

    This research project comprehensively tested and validated the automatic raveling detection, classification, : and measurement algorithms using 3D laser technology that were developed through a project sponsored by : the National Cooperative Highway ...

  8. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-04

    use of photons, packets of energy with no rest mass and no electrical charge. Electromagnetic radiation consists of photons, and may be measured as...density is a bulk property, expressed as mass per unit volume. In general, the densest materials are those of high Z. These properties may be used...generally dictate detection threshold settings through their impact on innocent alarm rates. Characterization of these factors is critical to

  9. Verification of key odorants in rose oil by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis, odour activity value and aroma recombination.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Li, Jing; Niu, Yunwei; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Junhua

    2017-10-01

    Rose oil is much too expensive but very popular. It's well known that the flower oil's aroma profile hasn't been intensively investigated. In order to verify the aroma profile of rose oil, the synthetic blend of odorants was prepared and then compared with the original rose oil using electronic nose analysis (ENA) combined with quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The odorants from rose oils were screened out by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) combined with odour activity value (OAV). Both ENA and QDA indicated the recombination model derived from OAV and GC-O/AEDA closely resembled the original rose oil. The experiment results show that rose oxide, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, nonanal, heptanal citronellal, phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β-citronellol, hexyl acetate, β-ionone, nerol, etc. are very important constituent to rose oil aroma profile.

  10. Predictive Detection of Tuberculosis using Electronic Nose Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Tim; Kolk, Arend; Reither, Klaus; Kuipers, Sjoukje; Hallam, Viv; Chandler, Rob; Dutta, Ritaban; Maboko, Leonard; Jung, Jutta; Klatser, Paul

    2009-05-01

    The adaptation and use of a Bloodhound® ST214 electronic nose to rapidly detect TB in sputum samples has been discussed in the past, with some promising results being obtained in 2007. Some of the specific VOC's associated with Mycobacteria tuberculosis organisms are now being discovered and a paper was published in 2008, but the method of predicting the presence of TB in sputum samples using the VOC biomarkers has yet to be fully optimised. Nevertheless, with emphasis on the sampling techniques and with new data processing techniques to obtain consistent results progress is being made Sensitivity and specificity levels for field detection of TB have been set by WHO at a minimum level of 85% and 95% respectively, and the e-nose technique is working towards these figures. In a series of experiments carried out in Mbeya, Tanzania, Africa, data from a full 5 days of sampling was combined giving a total of 248 sputum samples analysed. From the data obtained we can report results that show specificities and sensitivities in the 70-80% region when actually predicting the presence of TB in unknown sputum samples. The results are a further step forward in the rapid detection of TB in the clinics in developing countries and show continued promise for future development of an optimised instrument for TB prediction.

  11. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Yang, Huan-yi; Liu, Tong-jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies. PMID:27704748

  12. Black tea aroma inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin-A after arithmetic tasks.

    PubMed

    Yoto, Ai; Fukui, Natsuki; Kaneda, Chisa; Torita, Shoko; Goto, Keiichi; Nanjo, Fumio; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2018-01-24

    Growing attention has been paid to the effects of food flavor components on alleviating negative brain functions caused by stressful lifestyles. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effect of two kinds of black tea aromas on physical and psychological stress induced by the Uchida-Kraepelin test, based on salivary chromogranin-A (CgA) levels as a stress marker and subjective evaluations (Profile of Mood States). Compared with the water exposure control, inhaling black tea aroma (Darjeeling and Assam in this study) induced lower salivary CgA concentration levels after 30 min of mental stress load tasks. This anti-stress effect of black tea aroma did not differ between the two tea types even though the concentration of the anti-stress components in the Darjeeling tea aroma was higher than that in the Assam aroma. However, Darjeeling tea aroma tended to decrease the tension and/or anxiety score immediately after the first exposure. Inhaling black tea aroma may diminish stress levels caused by arithmetic mental stress tasks, and Darjeeling tea aroma tended to improve mood before mental stress load.

  13. Stabilization of aroma compounds through sorption-release by packaging polymers.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Alain; Dole, Patrice; Fricoteaux, Florence; Saillard, Philippe; Feigenbaum, Alexandre E

    2004-09-08

    Plastic packaging materials are often associated to aroma losses and to a decrease of the organoleptic quality of foods. This work defines situations where, on the contrary, plastics play a regulating role on the concentration of reactive aroma compounds in foods. These systems can be described by a two step mechanism; first, aroma is sorbed in the polymer, while the fraction in solution degrades quickly; in a second step, as the concentration is close to zero in the solution, the polymer liberates progressively the sorbed aroma back to the food. A simple numerical model is proposed, describing competitive processes of aroma degradation in solution and sorption by a polymer in contact with a homogeneous aqueous food. The classical limonene/low density polyethylene (LDPE) system is studied experimentally for the validation of the model: in an acidic medium, limonene both degrades quickly and is sorbed quickly, with a large solubility in LDPE. To define which aroma packaging systems could also display this interesting behavior, all types of possible interactions, using thermodynamic and kinetic parameters describing most practical situations, are simulated. For that purpose, 35 values of reference diffusion coefficients and 35 partition coefficients of usual aroma compounds between polymers and water have been measured and combined with the few available data from literature. The situations where polymers regulate the aroma concentration in food correspond to large partition coefficients (above 10), large diffusion coefficients (>10(-9) cm2 x s(-1)), and large degradation constants.

  14. The state of knowledge on technologies and their use for fall detection: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, N; Neubauer, N; Miguel-Cruz, A; Rios Rincon, A; Liu, L; Rousseau, J

    2018-03-01

    Globally, populations are aging with increasing life spans. The normal aging process and the resulting disabilities increase fall risks. Falls are an important cause of injury, loss of independence and institutionalization. Technologies have been developed to detect falls and reduce their consequences but their use and impact on quality of life remain debatable. Reviews on fall detection technologies exist but are not extensive. A comprehensive literature review on the state of knowledge of fall detection technologies can inform research, practice, and user adoption. To examine the extent and the diversity of current technologies for fall detection in older adults. A scoping review design was used to search peer-reviewed literature on technologies to detect falls, published in English, French or Spanish since 2006. Data from the studies were analyzed descriptively. The literature search identified 3202 studies of which 118 were included for analysis. Ten types of technologies were identified ranging from wearable (e.g., inertial sensors) to ambient sensors (e.g., vision sensors). Their Technology Readiness Level was low (mean 4.54 SD 1.25; 95% CI [4.31, 4.77] out of a maximum of 9). Outcomes were typically evaluated on technological basis and in controlled environments. Few were evaluated in home settings or care units with older adults. Acceptability, implementation cost and barriers were seldom addressed. Further research should focus on increasing Technology Readiness Levels of fall detection technologies by testing them in real-life settings with older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging Endoscopic Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Aristeo; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern urologic endoscopy is the result of continuous innovations since early 19th century. White light cystoscopy is the primary strategy for identification, resection, and local staging of bladder cancer. While highly effective, white light cystoscopy has several well-recognized shortcomings. Recent advances in optical imaging technologies and device miniaturization hold the potential to improve bladder cancer diagnosis and resection. Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging are the first to enter the clinical arena. Confocal laser endomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy, UV autofluorescence, and others have shown promising clinical and pre-clinical feasibility. We review their mechanisms of action, highlight their respective advantages, and propose future directions. PMID:24658832

  16. Analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma by desiccated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Qiong; Zhong, Cai-Hong; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-04-01

    A new method for desiccated headspace (DHS) sampling of aqueous sample to GC-MS for the analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma in different kiwifruit cultivars has been developed based on the complete hydrate formation between the sample solvent (water) with anhydrous salt (calcium chloride) at an elevated temperature (above the boiling point of the aqueous sample) in a non-contact format, which overcame the water-effect challenge to directly introduce aqueous sample into GC-MS analysis. By means of DHS, the volatile compounds in three different kiwifruit cultivars were analyzed and compared under the optimized operating conditions, mainly time and temperature for headspace equilibration, column temperature program for GC-MS measurement. As a result, 20 peaks of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma were detected and remarkable differences were found in the relative contents of three major volatile compounds among the three different kiwifruit cultivars, i.e., acetaldehyde, ethanol and furfural. The DHS sampling technique used in the present method can make the GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds in the aqueous sample within complex matrix possible without contaminating the GC-MS instrument. In terms of the analysis of volatile compounds in kiwifruit, the present method enabled a direct measurement on the filtrate of the aqueous kiwifruit pulp, without intermediate trap phase for the extraction of analytes, which will be more reliable and simpler as compared with any other headspace method in use. Thus, DHS coupled with GC-MS will be a new valuable tool available for the kiwifruit related research and organoleptic quality control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How ingredients influence furan and aroma generation in sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Vázquez, Mayela; Rega, Barbara; Descharles, Nicolas; Camel, Valérie

    2018-04-15

    A wide range of compounds can be formed during thermal processing of food, some of which are relevant for aroma (e.g., furfural), while others are of great health concern (e.g., furan). This paper presents the study of formulation as affecting the simultaneous generation of furan and furfural, along with other aroma quality markers, in sponge cake by means of headspace trap/GC-MS. Ingredients were screened according to their category (fat, salt, sugar, egg-based). Glucose-containing formulation resulted in the highest content of furan and furfural (12.5 ± 0.5 ng g -1 and 9.2 ± 0.2 μg g -1 , dry basis, respectively), while their lowest amount was found in the egg-white recipe (3.1 ± 0.1 ng g -1 for furan and 0.287 ± 0.078 µg g -1 for furfural, dry basis). The latter also related negatively to all studied compounds. This work will be useful for developing novel strategies to deliver safe foods with appealing organoleptic attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg−1 and 380.66 μg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple. PMID:22837701

  19. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust

    PubMed Central

    Sellaro, Roberta; van Dijk, Wilco W.; Paccani, Claudia Rossi; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more “inclusive” or a more “exclusive” cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another participant (the trustee), while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and control (no aroma) conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations), bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance. PMID:25628577

  20. A further tool to monitor the coffee roasting process: aroma composition and chemical indices.

    PubMed

    Ruosi, Manuela R; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Liberto, Erica

    2012-11-14

    Coffee quality is strictly related to its flavor and aroma developed during the roasting process, that, in their turn, depend on variety and origin, harvest and postharvest practices, and the time, temperature, and degree of roasting. This study investigates the possibility of combining chemical (aroma components) and physical (color) parameters through chemometric approaches to monitor the roasting process, degree of roasting, and aroma formation by analyzing a suitable number of coffee samples from different varieties and blends. In particular, a correlation between the aroma composition of roasted coffee obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS and degree of roasting, defined by the color, has been researched. The results showed that aroma components are linearly correlated to coffee color with a correlation factor of 0.9387. The study continued looking for chemical indices: 11 indices were found to be linearly correlated to the color resulting from the roasting process, the most effective of them being the 5-methylfurfural/2-acetylfuran ratio (index).

  1. Using terrestrial light detection and ranging (lidar) technology for land-surface analysis in the Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Bogle, Rian

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies provide scientists with methods to measure Earth processes in new ways. One of these technologies--ultra-high-resolution, ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar)--is being used by USGS Western Geographic Science Center scientists to characterize the role of wind and fire processes in shaping desert landscapes of the Southwest United States.

  2. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Leak Detection and Repair Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the leak detection and repair (LDAR) test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial LDAR technologies. The purpose of the verification test is to evaluate the performance of participating technologies in b...

  3. Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping

    Treesearch

    J. David Nichols; John R. Warren

    1987-01-01

    The Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST) project is developing a data system to provide near-real-time forest fire information to fire management at the fire Incident Command Post (ICP). The completed conceptual design defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that is based upon technology available in the 1990's. System component...

  4. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  5. Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinwei; Cook, Joseph P; Watkinson, Michael; Yang, Shoufeng; Douglas, Ian; Rawlinson, Andrew; Krause, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting tissues of teeth and can lead to destruction of the bone support and ultimately tooth loss if untreated. Progression of periodontitis is usually site specific but not uniform, and currently there are no accurate clinical methods for distinguishing sites where there is active disease progression from sites that are quiescent. Consequently, unnecessary and costly treatment of periodontal sites that are not progressing may occur. Three proteases have been identified as suitable markers for distinguishing sites with active disease progression and quiescent sites: human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and MMP8. Generic sensor materials for the detection of these three proteases have been developed based on thin dextran hydrogel films cross-linked with peptides. Degradation of the hydrogel films was monitored using impedance measurements. The target proteases were detected in the clinically relevant range within a time frame of 3 min. Good specificity for different proteases was achieved by choosing appropriate peptide cross-linkers.

  6. [The advance of detection technology of HIV self-testing].

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Xiao, P P; Yan, H J; Huan, X P; Fu, G F; Li, J J; Yang, H T

    2017-11-06

    At present, China's AIDS testing increased rapidly, but there are still many people living with HIV do not recognize their status, thus postponing the antiviral treatment time. HIV self-testing (HST) is an effective method to expand the testing, not only simple operation, easy to get a result, effectively protect the detection privacy, expand the selection of testers, suit to the entire population, but also the premise and basis of other AIDS comprehensive prevention measures, all over the world are promoting it. Because the HST has controversies in the window period, price and before and after controversial, and our country is in the initial stage of HST, so it is not to develop related policies, but more and more countries are in accordance with their own situations are modified or developed to allow to use rapid detection of AIDS policy to regulate the field. This paper analyzed and summarized the advantage and influence factors of HST promotion, HST believes that in the long term, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, we need to formulate relevant policies, and improve the sensitivity of the kit, shorten the window period of time, production and promotion of operation standard of video, specification and testing the operating practices, preventing and reporting the possible social harm, investigation and understanding of the needs of the people of the crowd, to maximize the advantages of HST, find more infection, so as to curb the epidemic of AIDS.

  7. Technologies for Detecting Falsified and Substandard Drugs in Low and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Stephanie; Hawes, Stephen E.; Maley, Stephen N.; Mosites, Emily; Wong, Ling; Stergachis, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Falsified and substandard drugs are a global health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) that have weak pharmacovigilance and drug regulatory systems. Poor quality medicines have important health consequences, including the potential for treatment failure, development of antimicrobial resistance, and serious adverse drug reactions, increasing healthcare costs and undermining the public's confidence in healthcare systems. This article presents a review of the methods employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. Technologies for detecting substandard and falsified drugs were identified primarily through literature reviews. Key-informant interviews with experts augmented our methods when warranted. In order to aid comparisons, technologies were assigned a suitability score for use in LMIC ranging from 0–8. Scores measured the need for electricity, need for sample preparation, need for reagents, portability, level of training required, and speed of analysis. Technologies with higher scores were deemed the most feasible in LMICs. We categorized technologies that cost $10,000 USD or less as low cost, $10,000–100,000 USD as medium cost and those greater than $100,000 USD as high cost technologies (all prices are 2013 USD). This search strategy yielded information on 42 unique technologies. Five technologies were deemed both low cost and had feasibility scores between 6–8, and an additional four technologies had medium cost and high feasibility. Twelve technologies were deemed portable and therefore could be used in the field. Many technologies can aid in the detection of substandard and falsified drugs that vary from the simplest of checklists for packaging to the most complex mass spectrometry analyses. Although there is no single technology that can serve all the requirements of detecting falsified and substandard drugs, there is an opportunity to bifurcate the technologies into specific niches to address specific sections

  8. Innovative Acoustic Sensor Technologies for Leak Detection in Challenging Pipe Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-30

    correlation features to detect and pinpoint leaks in challenging pipe types, as well as metallic pipes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leak detection; acoustic... correlation ; water distribution systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18.NUMBER OF PAGES 109 19a. NAME OF...6 1.3.2 State Regulations and Voluntary Water Industry Standards .......................... 7 2.0 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION

  9. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  10. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Coliform Detection Technologies for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The coliform detection technologies to be tested use chromatogenic and fluorogenic growth media to detect coliforms and E. coli based on the enzymatic activity of these organisms. The systems consist of single-use sample containers that contain pre-measured reagents and can be u...

  11. Calculus detection technologies: where do we stand now?

    PubMed

    Archana, V

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated dental calculus as an ideal substrate for subgingival microbial colonization. Therefore, the main objective of periodontal therapy is to eliminate the microbial biofilm along with the calculus deposits from the root surface by root surface debridement. Over the past years, a large number of clinical and laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calculus removal by various methods. None of these conventional methods or devices was effective in completely eliminating all the calculus from the diseased root surfaces. In this context, a number of newer technologies have been developed to identify and selectively remove the dental calculus. Regarding this fact, the present article highlights a critical review of these devices based on published clinical and experimental data.

  12. Calculus detection technologies: where do we stand now?

    PubMed Central

    Archana, V

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated dental calculus as an ideal substrate for subgingival microbial colonization. Therefore, the main objective of periodontal therapy is to eliminate the microbial biofilm along with the calculus deposits from the root surface by root surface debridement. Over the past years, a large number of clinical and laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calculus removal by various methods. None of these conventional methods or devices was effective in completely eliminating all the calculus from the diseased root surfaces. In this context, a number of newer technologies have been developed to identify and selectively remove the dental calculus. Regarding this fact, the present article highlights a critical review of these devices based on published clinical and experimental data. PMID:25870667

  13. Technology of focus detection for 193nm projection lithographic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Chengliang; Yan, Wei; Hu, Song; Xu, Feng; Li, Jinglong

    2012-10-01

    With the shortening printing wavelength and increasing numerical aperture of lithographic tool, the depth of focus(DOF) sees a rapidly drop down trend, reach a scale of several hundred nanometers while the repeatable accuracy of focusing and leveling must be one-tenth of DOF, approximately several dozen nanometers. For this feature, this article first introduces several focusing technology, Obtained the advantages and disadvantages of various methods by comparing. Then get the accuracy of dual-grating focusing method through theoretical calculation. And the dual-grating focusing method based on photoelastic modulation is divided into coarse focusing and precise focusing method to analyze, establishing image processing model of coarse focusing and photoelastic modulation model of accurate focusing. Finally, focusing algorithm is simulated with MATLAB. In conclusion dual-grating focusing method shows high precision, high efficiency and non-contact measurement of the focal plane, meeting the demands of focusing in 193nm projection lithography.

  14. Can Handheld Thermal Imaging Technology Improve Detection of Poachers in African Bushveldt?

    PubMed Central

    Dandy, Shantelle; Stubbs, Hannah; MacTavish, Dougal; MacTavish, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Illegal hunting (poaching) is a global threat to wildlife. Anti-poaching initiatives are making increasing use of technology, such as infrared thermography (IRT), to support traditional foot and vehicle patrols. To date, the effectiveness of IRT for poacher location has not been tested under field conditions, where thermal signatures are often complex. Here, we test the hypothesis that IRT will increase the distance over which a poacher hiding in African scrub bushveldt can be detected relative to a conventional flashlight. We also test whether any increase in effectiveness is related to the cost and complexity of the equipment by comparing comparatively expensive (22000 USD) and relatively inexpensive (2000 USD) IRT devices. To test these hypotheses we employ a controlled, fully randomised, double-blind procedure to find a poacher in nocturnal field conditions in African bushveldt. Each of our 27 volunteer observers walked three times along a pathway using one detection technology on each pass in randomised order. They searched a prescribed search area of bushveldt within which the target was hiding. Hiding locations were pre-determined, randomised, and changed with each pass. Distances of first detection and positive detection were noted. All technologies could be used to detect the target. Average first detection distance for flashlight was 37.3m, improving by 19.8m to 57.1m using LIRT and by a further 11.2m to 68.3m using HIRT. Although detection distances were significantly greater for both IRTs compared to flashlight, there was no significant difference between LIRT and HIRT. False detection rates were low and there was no significant association between technology and accuracy of detection. Although IRT technology should ideally be tested in the specific environment intended before significant investment is made, we conclude that IRT technology is promising for anti-poaching patrols and that for this purpose low cost IRT units are as effective as units ten

  15. Distributed wireless sensing for methane leak detection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Levente; van Kesse, Theodor

    Large scale environmental monitoring requires dynamic optimization of data transmission, power management, and distribution of the computational load. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a wireless sensor network for detection of chemical leaks on gas oil well pads. The sensor network consist of chemi-resistive and wind sensors and aggregates all the data and transmits it to the cloud for further analytics processing. The sensor network data is integrated with an inversion model to identify leak location and quantify leak rates. We characterize the sensitivity and accuracy of such system under multiple well controlled methane release experiments. It ismore » demonstrated that even 1 hour measurement with 10 sensors localizes leaks within 1 m and determines leak rate with an accuracy of 40%. This integrated sensing and analytics solution is currently refined to be a robust system for long term remote monitoring of methane leaks, generation of alarms, and tracking regulatory compliance.« less

  16. Coupling loss reducing for fiber Raman gas detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jialin; Jiang, Shubo; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-01-01

    During the design of the photonic crystal fiber Raman gas detection device and taking the cost and practicability in to consideration, we choose to use a stainless steel tube as a connector for the connecting of the HCPCF and SMF to replace the fiber fusing splice. Basis on the measurement to reduce coupling loss, we calculated the optimum fiber gap for maximum light coupling and to reduce Fresnel loss. Using the stainless steel tube not only result in low loss but also benefit input of the sample gas and recycling of the fiber which is very expensive. By adjusting the central alignment of the stainless steel tube we can easily control the fiber deviation loss for specific type of SMF and HCPCF. The mode mismatch is also demonstrated.

  17. Navy/Marine Corps innovative science and technology developments for future enhanced mine detection capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, John H., Jr.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Miller, Richard E.; Davis, Kenn S.; Suiter, Harold R.; Hilton, Russell J.

    2000-08-01

    JMDT is a Navy/Marine Corps 6.2 Exploratory Development program that is closely coordinated with the 6.4 COBRA acquisition program. The objective of the program is to develop innovative science and technology to enhance future mine detection capabilities. The objective of the program is to develop innovative science and technology to enhance future mine detection capabilities. Prior to transition to acquisition, the COBRA ATD was extremely successful in demonstrating a passive airborne multispectral video sensor system operating in the tactical Pioneer unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), combined with an integrated ground station subsystem to detect and locate minefields from surf zone to inland areas. JMDT is investigating advanced technology solutions for future enhancements in mine field detection capability beyond the current COBRA ATD demonstrated capabilities. JMDT has recently been delivered next- generation, innovative hardware which was specified by the Coastal System Station and developed under contract. This hardware includes an agile-tuning multispectral, polarimetric, digital video camera and advanced multi wavelength laser illumination technologies to extend the same sorts of multispectral detections from a UAV into the night and over shallow water and other difficult littoral regions. One of these illumination devices is an ultra- compact, highly-efficient near-IR laser diode array. The other is a multi-wavelength range-gateable laser. Additionally, in conjunction with this new technology, algorithm enhancements are being developed in JMDT for future naval capabilities which will outperform the already impressive record of automatic detection of minefields demonstrated by the COBAR ATD.

  18. Screening technologies for detection of swallowed packages of narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Kumar, Sankaran

    1997-01-01

    An increasingly popular method of transporting modest quantities of narcotics across international borders is to employ 'swallowers'. These are people who typically enter the country as international airline passengers after swallowing small, water-tight packages of heroin and/or cocaine. Rapid and accurate identification of swallowers in the airport environment poses difficult technical changes. Commonly used medical inspection technologies fall into one of two categories. Either they are unsuitable for widespread use, or they do not provide adequate information. An example of the former is x-ray scanning, while an example of the latter is ultrasonic imaging. Quantum Magnetics has developed a system to screen selected airline passengers for the presence of swallowed narcotics. The system utilizes magnetic resonance, which provides the physical basis for the magnetic resonance imaging systems widely used in the medical community as an alternative to x-rays. The system is currently operational, and laboratory performance testing is complete. Both the design of the system and its performance will be discussed. This work was sponsored in part by the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the US Customs Service.

  19. Multi-object detection and tracking technology based on hexagonal opto-electronic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Li, Xiang

    2008-02-01

    A novel multi-object detection and tracking technology based on hexagonal opto-electronic detector is proposed, in which (1) a new hexagonal detector, which is composed of 6 linear CCDs, has been firstly developed to achieve the field of view of 360 degree, (2) to achieve the detection and tracking of multi-object with high speed, the object recognition criterions of Object Signal Width Criterion (OSWC) and Horizontal Scale Ratio Criterion (HSRC) are proposed. In this paper, Simulated Experiments have been carried out to verify the validity of the proposed technology, which show that the detection and tracking of multi-object can be achieved with high speed by using the proposed hexagonal detector and the criterions of OSWC and HSRC, indicating that the technology offers significant advantages in Photo-electric Detection, Computer Vision, Virtual Reality, Augment Reality, etc.

  20. Technological advances for improving adenoma detection rates: The changing face of colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Sauid; Siau, Keith; Harrison, Elizabeth; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Hoffman, Arthur; Gross, Seth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Neumann, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer. Over 90% follow an adenoma-to-cancer sequence over many years. Colonoscopy is the gold standard method for cancer screening and early adenoma detection. However, considerable variation exists between endoscopists' detection rates. This review considers the effects of different endoscopic techniques on adenoma detection. Two areas of technological interest were considered: (1) optical technologies and (2) mechanical technologies. Optical solutions, including FICE, NBI, i-SCAN and high definition colonoscopy showed mixed results. In contrast, mechanical advances, such as cap-assisted colonoscopy, FUSE, EndoCuff and G-EYE™, showed promise, with reported detections rates of up to 69%. However, before definitive recommendations can be made for their incorporation into daily practice, further studies and comparison trials are required. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of FTA technology for detection of Trichomonas gallinae.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jennifer C; Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard

    2015-09-15

    Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent for avian trichomonosis, which can have important population implications for domestic turkeys, columbids, raptors, and various passeriformes. Continued population surveillance and genotype distribution is needed to elucidate transmission dynamics and prevalence of T. gallinae among free-ranging birds. However, obtaining live cultures for laboratory testing is logistically challenging, limiting the ability to perform surveillance and genotype investigations. In this study, we evaluated non-indicating FTA Elute cards as a potential sampling storage substrate for downstream use in molecular identification of two T. gallinae isolates. Isolate concentrations of 10 or 100 trichomonads/40 μl were inoculated onto a FTA Elute card in triplicate. At each time point (48 h, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks), DNA elution procedures were performed on the cards, and the eluents were analyzed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trichomonad-specific primers. Three PCR-positive samples were detected at 48 h from one isolate; however, all eluents from cards held for 2 and 3 weeks were PCR-negative. Our results suggest that use of FTA Elute cards for nucleic acid storage can lead to low PCR sensitivity of T. gallinae in low concentrations, such as those found in non-clinical birds; however, more research is needed to fully evaluate the efficacy of FTA Elute cards as a diagnostic tool for T. gallinae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Label-free glucose detection using cantilever sensor technology based on gravimetric detection principles.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shuchen; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chiung-Wen; Lin, Po-Chiao; Wu, Chun-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Efficient maintenance of glucose homeostasis is a major challenge in diabetes therapy, where accurate and reliable glucose level detection is required. Though several methods are currently used, these suffer from impaired response and often unpredictable drift, making them unsuitable for long-term therapeutic practice. In this study, we demonstrate a method that uses a functionalized atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever as the sensor for reliable glucose detection with sufficient sensitivity and selectivity for clinical use. We first modified the AFM tip with aminopropylsilatrane (APS) and then adsorbed glucose-specific lectin concanavalin A (Con A) onto the surface. The Con A/APS-modified probes were then used to detect glucose by monitoring shifts in the cantilever resonance frequency. To confirm the molecule-specific interaction, AFM topographical images were acquired of identically treated silicon substrates which indicated a specific attachment for glucose-Con A and not for galactose-Con A. These results demonstrate that by monitoring the frequency shift of the AFM cantilever, this sensing system can detect the interaction between Con A and glucose, one of the biomolecule recognition processes, and may assist in the detection and mass quantification of glucose for clinical applications with very high sensitivity.

  3. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    PubMed

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aroma profile of malbec red wines from La Mancha region: Chemical and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Trujillo, M; García Ruiz, A; González Viñas, M A

    2017-10-01

    The aroma of La Mancha Malbec red wines over four consecutive vintages was characterized by chemical and sensory analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to isolate and analyze free volatile compounds. Quantitative Descriptive Sensory Analysis (QDA) was carried out to characterize the sensory aroma profile. A total of 79 free volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the wines over these four vintages. Volatile aroma compounds were classified into seven aromatic series and their odour activity values were calculated in order to determine the aroma impact compounds in these wines. The aroma sensory profile of these wines was characterized by red fruit, fresh, prune, liquorice, clove, caramel, leather, tobacco and coffee aromas. This study provides a complete aroma characterization of La Mancha Malbec red wines and it is proposed that these wines can be considered as an alternative to wines from traditional grape varieties of this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of characteristic aroma compounds in raw and thermally processed African giant snail (Achatina fulica).

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola; Muniady, Megala; Lin, Mee; Dabaj, Fatma

    2018-04-24

    Food flavor appreciation is one of the first signals along with food appearance and texture encountered by consumers during eating of food. Also, it is well known that flavor can strongly influence consumer's acceptability judgment. The increase in the consumption of snail meat across the world calls for the need to research into the aroma compounds responsible for the distinctive aroma notes of processed snail meat. The odorants responsible for the unique aroma notes in thermally processed giant African snail meats were evaluated by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and odor activity values (OAVs) respectively. Results revealed significant differences in the aroma profiles of the raw and thermally processed snail meats. Whilst the aroma profile of the raw snail meat was dominated with the floral-like β-ionone and β-iso-methyl ionone, sweaty/cheesy-like butanoic acid, and the mushroom-like 1-octen-3-one, the boiled and fried samples were dominated with the thermally generated odorants like 2-methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylthiazole and 2-acetylpyridine. Finally, results have shown that sotolon, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-furanmethanethiol, 2-methylbutanal, 1-octen-3-one, octanal, furanone, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-acetylpyridine, 2-acetylthiazole, and 2-methylpyrazine contributed to the overall aroma of the thermally processed snail meat.

  6. Aroma improvement by repeated freeze-thaw treatment during Tuber melanosporum fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Deng-Rong; Liu, Rui-Sang; He, Long; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy are the most important characteristics of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum. However, these three aroma attributes are absent in the T. melanosporum fermentation system. To improve the quality of the aroma, repeated freeze-thaw treatment (RFTT) was adopted to affect the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using RFTT, not only was the score on the hedonic scale of the aroma increased from the “liked slightly” to the “liked moderately” grade, but the aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy could also be smelled in the T. melanosporum fermentation system for the first time. A total of 29 VOCs were identified, and 9 compounds were identified as the key discriminative volatiles affected by RFTT. Amino acid analysis revealed that methionine, valine, serine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine were the key substrates associated with the biosynthesis of the 9 key discriminative VOCs. This study noted that amino acid metabolism played an important role in the regulation of the aroma of the T. melanosporum fermentation system. PMID:26607288

  7. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    PubMed

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  8. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  9. Microelectrode-based technology for the detection of low levels of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tom D.; Hitchens, G. D.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    A microelectrode-based electrochemical detection method was used for quantitation of bacteria in water samples. The redox mediator, benzoquinone, was used to accept electrons from the bacterial metabolic pathway to create a flow of electrons by reducing the mediator. Electrochemical monitoring electrodes detected the reduced mediator as it diffused out of the cells and produced a small electrical current. By using a combination of microelectrodes and monitoring instrumentation, the cumulative current generated by a particular bacterial population could be monitored. Using commercially available components, an electrochemical detection system was assembled and tested to evaluate its potential as an emerging technology for rapid detection and quantitation of bacteria in water samples.

  10. Evaluation of aroma enhancement for "Ecolly" dry white wines by mixed inoculation of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Chen; Li, Ai-Hua; Dizy, Marta; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Wei-Xuan; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    To improve the aroma profile of Ecolly dry white wine, the simultaneous and sequential inoculations of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed in wine making of this work. The two yeasts were mixed in various ratios for making the mixed inoculum. The amount of volatiles and aroma characteristics were determined the following year. Mixed fermentation improved both the varietal and fermentative aroma compound composition, especially that of (Z)-3-hexene-1-ol, nerol oxide, certain acetates and ethyls group compounds. Citrus, sweet fruit, acid fruit, berry, and floral aroma traits were enhanced by mixed fermentation; however, an animal note was introduced upon using higher amounts of R. mucilaginosa. Aroma traits were regressed with volatiles as observed by the partial least-square regression method. Analysis of correlation coefficients revealed that the aroma traits were the multiple interactions of volatile compounds, with the fermentative volatiles having more impact on aroma than varietal compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    product used as a diesel product for ground use (1). Free water contamination (droplets) may appear as fine droplets or slugs of water in the fuel...methods and test procedures for the calibration and use of automatic particle counters. The transition of this technology to the fuel industry is...UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18

  12. Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenting; Hewson, Louise; Linforth, Robert; Taylor, Moira; Fisk, Ian D

    2017-07-01

    Food flavour is important in appetite control. The effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake, were studied. Twenty-six females (24 ± 4 years, 20.9 ± 1.9 kg⋅m -2 ) consumed, over 15 min period, one of four sample drinks as a preload, followed by an ad libitum consumption of a pasta meal (after 65 min). Sample drinks were: water (S1, 0 kcal), water with strawberry aroma (S2, 0 kcal), water with sucrose and citric acid (S3, 48 kcal) and water with strawberry aroma, sucrose and citric acid (S4, 48 kcal). Appetite sensation did not differ between the S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste) conditions. Compared with S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste), S4 (aroma + taste) suppressed hunger sensation over the 15 min sample drink consumption period (satiation) (p < 0.05). S4 (aroma + taste) further reduced hunger sensation (satiety) more than S1 at 5, 20 and 30 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), more than S2 (aroma) at 5 and 20 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), and more than S3 (taste) at 5 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05). Subsequent pasta energy intake did not vary between the sample drink conditions. S4 (aroma + taste) had the strongest perceived flavour. This study suggests that the combination of aroma and taste induced greater satiation and short-term satiety than the independent aroma or taste and water, potentially via increasing the perceived flavour intensity or by enhancing the perceived flavour quality and complexity as a result of aroma-taste cross-modal perception. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Advances in automatic detection technology for images of thin blood film of malaria parasite].

    PubMed

    Juan-Sheng, Zhang; Di-Qiang, Zhang; Wei, Wang; Xiao-Guang, Wei; Zeng-Guo, Wang

    2017-05-05

    This paper reviews the computer vision and image analysis studies aiming at automated diagnosis or screening of malaria in microscope images of thin blood film smears. On the basis of introducing the background and significance of automatic detection technology, the existing detection technologies are summarized and divided into several steps, including image acquisition, pre-processing, morphological analysis, segmentation, count, and pattern classification components. Then, the principles and implementation methods of each step are given in detail. In addition, the promotion and application in automatic detection technology of thick blood film smears are put forwarded as questions worthy of study, and a perspective of the future work for realization of automated microscopy diagnosis of malaria is provided.

  14. Interference and deception detection technology of satellite navigation based on deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiyi; Deng, Pingke; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yaping

    2017-10-01

    Satellite navigation system plays an important role in people's daily life and war. The strategic position of satellite navigation system is prominent, so it is very important to ensure that the satellite navigation system is not disturbed or destroyed. It is a critical means to detect the jamming signal to avoid the accident in a navigation system. At present, the detection technology of jamming signal in satellite navigation system is not intelligent , mainly relying on artificial decision and experience. For this issue, the paper proposes a method based on deep learning to monitor the interference source in a satellite navigation. By training the interference signal data, and extracting the features of the interference signal, the detection sys tem model is constructed. The simulation results show that, the detection accuracy of our detection system can reach nearly 70%. The method in our paper provides a new idea for the research on intelligent detection of interference and deception signal in a satellite navigation system.

  15. Technologies and methods used for the detection, enrichment and characterization of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subclass of tumour cells with the ability for self-renewal, production of differentiated progeny, prolonged survival, resistance to damaging therapeutic agents, and anchorage-independent survival, which together make this population effectively equipped to metastasize, invade and colonize secondary tissues in the face of therapeutic intervention. In recent years, investigators have increasingly focused on the characterization of CSCs to better understand the mechanisms that govern malignant disease progression in an effort to develop more effective, targeted therapeutic agents. The primary obstacle to the study of CSCs, however, is their rarity. Thus, the study of CSCs requires the use of sensitive and efficient technologies for their enrichment and detection. This review discusses technologies and methods that have been adapted and used to isolate and characterize CSCs to date, as well as new potential directions for the enhanced enrichment and detection of CSCs. While the technologies used for CSC enrichment and detection have been useful thus far for their characterization, each approach is not without limitations. Future studies of CSCs will depend on the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of currently available technologies, and the development of novel technologies for increased detection and enrichment of CSCs.

  16. Design of oil pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yaqing; Chen, Huabo

    1999-08-01

    The integrity of oil pipeline is always a major concern of operators. Pipeline leak not only leads to loss of oil, but pollutes environment. A new pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology to ensure the pipeline reliability is presented. Combined direct leak detection method with an indirect one, the system will greatly reduce the rate of false alarm. According, to the practical features of oil pipeline,the pipeline communication system is designed employing the state-of-the-art optic fiber communication technology. The system has such feature as high location accuracy of leak detection, good real-time characteristic, etc. which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional leak detection methods and communication system effectively.

  17. Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS)—A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Oguzhan; Lortlar Ünlü, Nese; Yalçın Özkumur, Ayça; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growing need in disease diagnostics has stimulated rapid development of new technologies with unprecedented capabilities. Recent emerging infectious diseases and epidemics have revealed the shortcomings of existing diagnostics tools, and the necessity for further improvements. Optical biosensors can lay the foundations for future generation diagnostics by providing means to detect biomarkers in a highly sensitive, specific, quantitative and multiplexed fashion. Here, we review an optical sensing technology, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), and the relevant features of this multifunctional platform for quantitative, label-free and dynamic detection. We discuss two distinct modalities for IRIS: (i) low-magnification (ensemble biomolecular mass measurements) and (ii) high-magnification (digital detection of individual nanoparticles) along with their applications, including label-free detection of multiplexed protein chips, measurement of single nucleotide polymorphism, quantification of transcription factor DNA binding, and high sensitivity digital sensing and characterization of nanoparticles and viruses. PMID:26205273

  18. Fiber-Optic Array Scanning Technology (FAST) for Detection and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Ao, Zheng; Liu, Xiaohe

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) as an important component in "liquid biopsy" holds crucial clinical relevance in cancer prognosis, treatment efficiency evaluation, prediction and potentially early detection. Here, we present a Fiber-optic Array Scanning Technology (FAST) that enables antigen-agnostic, size-agnostic detection of CTC. By immunofluorescence staining detection of a combination of a panel of markers, FAST technology can be applied to detect rare CTC in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) setting with high sensitivity and specificity. In combination with Automated Digital Microscopy (ADM) platform, companion markers on CTC such as Vimentin and Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) can also be analyzed to further characterize these CTCs. FAST data output is also compatible with downstream single cell picking platforms. Single cell can be isolated post ADM confirmation and used for "actionable" genetic mutations analysis.

  19. SSME leak detection feasibility investigation by utilization of infrared sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shohadaee, Ahmad A.; Crawford, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation examined the potential of using state-of-the-art technology of infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems combined with computer, digital image processing and expert systems for Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) propellant path peak detection as an early warning system of imminent engine failure. A low-cost, laboratory experiment was devised and an experimental approach was established. The system was installed, checked out, and data were successfully acquired demonstrating the proof-of-concept. The conclusion from this investigation is that both numerical and experimental results indicate that the leak detection by using infrared sensor technology proved to be feasible for a rocket engine health monitoring system.

  20. Millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed threats: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Michael C.

    2006-09-01

    There has been intense interest in the use of millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed weapons, explosives and other threats. Electromagnetic waves at these frequencies are safe, penetrate barriers and have short enough wavelengths to allow discrimination between objects. In addition, many solids including explosives have characteristic spectroscopic signatures at terahertz wavelengths which can be used to identify them. This paper reviews the progress which has been made in recent years and identifies the achievements, challenges and prospects for these technologies in checkpoint people screening, stand off detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and suicide bombers as well as more specialized screening tasks.

  1. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Adak, M. Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data. PMID:26927124

  2. INNOVATIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR LEAK DETECTION IN CHALLENGING PIPE TYPES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-30

    through focused acoustic surveys that are typically conducted at the correlated location prior to marking the leak location. All three technologies were...shift” survey with cross- correlation Echologics LeakFinderRTT M Field survey of leak signatures. Recommended every 3-5 years Contractor...cross- correlation features to detect and pinpoint leaks in challenging pipe types, as well as metallic pipes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leak detection

  3. Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Prion Protein in Blood Using Isothermal Amplification Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    cattle products are admitted into the food chain, the Western Blot or ELISA in an antigen detection format are used to test the bovine brain stems...the most sensitive fluorescent dye (SYBR Green I, SYBR Green II, or SYBR Gold) detection of transcription products using real-time technology...RNA products from ug quantities of DNA template. Figure 3 shows that SYBR Green II exhibited higher relative fluorescence units (RFU) than SYBR

  4. Proof of Concept of Automated Collision Detection Technology in Rugby Sevens.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B

    2017-04-01

    Clarke, AC, Anson, JM, and Pyne, DB. Proof of concept of automated collision detection technology in rugby sevens. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1116-1120, 2017-Developments in microsensor technology allow for automated detection of collisions in various codes of football, removing the need for time-consuming postprocessing of video footage. However, little research is available on the ability of microsensor technology to be used across various sports or genders. Game video footage was matched with microsensor-detected collisions (GPSports) in one men's (n = 12 players) and one women's (n = 12) rugby sevens match. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative events between video and microsensor-detected collisions were used to calculate recall (ability to detect a collision) and precision (accurately identify a collision). The precision was similar between the men's and women's rugby sevens game (∼0.72; scale 0.00-1.00); however, the recall in the women's game (0.45) was less than that for the men's game (0.69). This resulted in 45% of collisions for men and 62% of collisions for women being incorrectly labeled. Currently, the automated collision detection system in GPSports microtechnology units has only modest utility in rugby sevens, and it seems that a rugby sevens-specific algorithm is needed. Differences in measures between the men's and women's game may be a result of physical size, and strength, and physicality, as well as technical and tactical factors.

  5. NASA's Technology Transfer Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gregory; Frey, Mary Anne; Vernikos, Joan; Winfield, Daniel; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of advanced imaging sensors and image processing technologies for space science and Earth science missions. NASA considers the transfer and commercialization of such technologies a fundamental mission of the agency. Over the last two years, efforts have been focused on the application of aerospace imaging and computing to the field of diagnostic imaging, specifically to breast cancer imaging. These technology transfer efforts offer significant promise in helping in the national public health priority of the early detection of breast cancer.

  6. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of aroma compound absorption in plastic packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenström, Kristina; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, Ragnar; Wiebert, Anders; Skog, Göran; Nielsen, Tim

    1994-05-01

    Absorption of aroma compounds in plastic packaging materials may affect the taste of the packaged food and it may also change the quality of the packaging material. A method to determine the aroma compound absorption in polymers by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being developed at the Lund Pelletron AMS facility. The high sensitivity of the AMS method makes it possible to study these phenomena under realistic conditions. As a first test low density polyethylene exposed to 14C-doped ethyl acetate is examined. After converting the polymer samples with the absorbed aroma compounds to graphite, the {14C }/{13C } ratio of the samples is measured by the AMS system and the degree of aroma compound absorption is established. The results are compared with those obtained by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography (SFE-GC).

  7. Rapid volatile metabolomics and genomics in large strawberry populations segregating for aroma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) represent a large portion of the fruit secondary metabolome, and contribute significantly to aroma, flavor, disease resistance, pest resistance and overall fruit quality. Understanding the basis for volatile compound biosynthesis and it...

  8. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  9. Aroma volatility from aqueous sucrose solutions at low and subzero temperatures.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias-Cervantes, Marco; Champion, Dominique; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Voilley, Andrée

    2004-11-17

    The gas-liquid partition coefficients of ethyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate have been measured in water and aqueous sucrose solutions from 25 to -10 degrees C by dynamic headspace. Experiments were carried out on sucrose solutions at temperatures where no ice formation was possible. Results showed that when sucrose concentration increased, aroma volatility increased except for ethyl hexanoate and in the highest sucrose concentration solution (57.5%). A quasi-linear temperature decrease on aroma volatility was observed in sucrose solutions from 25 to around 4 and 0 degrees C. Then, from 0 to -10 degrees C, aroma volatility did not decrease: ethyl acetate volatility remained constant but that of ethyl hexanoate increased. Enthalpy of vaporization and activity coefficients of the aroma compounds were calculated.

  10. Seeking the Tricorder: Report on Workshops on Advanced Technologies for Life Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, D.; Boston, P. J.; Partridge, H.; Lindensmith, C.; Nadeau, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    There's great excitement about life prospects on icy fluid-containing moons orbiting our Solar System's gas giant planets, newly discovered planet candidates and continuing long-term interest in possible Mars life. The astrobiology/planetary research communities require advanced technologies to explore and study both Solar System bodies and exoplanets for evidence of life. The Tricorder Workshop, held at Ames Research Center May 19-20, 2017, explored technology topics focused on non-invasive or minimally invasive methods for life detection. The workshop goal was to tease out promising ideas for low TRL concepts for advanced life detection technologies that could be applied to the surface and near-subsurface of Mars and Ocean Worlds (such as Europa and Enceladus) dominated by icy terrain. The workshop technology focus centered on mid-to-far term instrument concepts or other enabling technologies (e.g. robotics, machine learning, etc.) primarily for landed missions, which could detect evidence of extant, extinct and/or "weird" life including the notion of "universal biosignatures". Emphasis was placed on simultaneous and serial sample measurements using a suite of instruments and technological approaches with planetary protection in mind. A follow-on workshop, held July 24 at Caltech, sought to develop a generic flowchart of in situ observations and measurements to provide sufficient information to determine if extant life is present in an environment. The process didn't require participant agreement as to definition of extant life, but instead developed agreement on necessary observations and instruments. The flowchart of measurements was designed to maximize the number of simultaneous observations on a single sample where possible, serializing where necessary, and finally dividing it into parts for the most destructive analyses at the end. Selected concepts from the workshops outlined in this poster provide those technology areas necessary to solicit and develop

  11. Effects of maltose and lysine treatment on coffee aroma by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Yuqin; Zhang, Haide; Wen, Nana; Hu, Rongsuo; Wu, Guiping; Zeng, Ying; Li, Xiong; Miao, Xiaodan

    2018-01-01

    Arabica coffee is a sub-tropical agricultural product in China. Coffee undergoes a series of thermal reactions to form abundant volatile profiles after roasting, so it loses a lot of reducing sugars and amino acids. Adding carbonyl compounds with amino acids before roasting could ensure the nutrition and flavour of coffee. The technology is versatile for the development of coffee roasting process. This investigation evaluates the effects of combining maltose and lysine (Lys) to modify coffee aroma and the possibly related mechanisms. Arabica coffee was pretreated with a series of solvent ratios of maltose and Lys with an identical concentration (0.25 mol L -1 ) before microwave heating. It was found that the combination of maltose and Lys significantly (P ≤ 0.05) influenced quality indices of coffee (pH and browning degree). Ninety-six aromatic volatiles have been isolated and identified. Twelve volatile profiles revealed the relationship between fragrance difference and compound content in coffee. Moreover, coffee aroma was modified by a large number of volatiles with different chemical classes and character. Thus, our results suggest that the combination of reagents changed overall aroma quality through a series of complex thermal reactions, especially the ratio of Lys/maltose over 2:1. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Polysaccharide microarray technology for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei antibodies.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Narayanan; DeShazer, David; England, Marilyn; Waag, David M

    2006-11-01

    A polysaccharide microarray platform was prepared by immobilizing Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei polysaccharides. This polysaccharide array was tested with success for detecting B. pseudomallei and B. mallei serum (human and animal) antibodies. The advantages of this microarray technology over the current serodiagnosis of the above bacterial infections were discussed.

  13. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Treesearch

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  14. Sub-Audio Magnetics: Miniature Sensor Technology for Simultaneous Magnetic and Electromagnetic Detection of UXO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    is comprised of 4 x 40 m lengths of braided copper wire (Figure 29) with a diameter of 15 mm, capable of passing a 500 amp current. In normal...fuel tank and rubber hoses . Sub-Audio Magnetics: Technology for Simultaneous Magnetic and Electromagnetic Detection 77 Figure 31 Quad

  15. Identification of Aroma-active Compounds in Essential Oil from Uncaria Hook by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Megumi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maki, Yusuke; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Usami, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Uncaria Hook ("Chotoko" in Japanese), the branch with curved hook of the herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla has been investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Eighty-four compounds, representing 90.8% of the total content was identified in oil obtained from Uncaria Hook. The main components i were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (13.4%), α-copaene (8.0%), methyl eugenol (6.8%), δ-cadinene (5.3%), and curcumene (3.6%). The important key aroma-active compounds in the oil were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), using the flavor dilution (FD) factor to express the odor potency of each compounds. Furthermore, the odor activity value (OAV) has been used as a measure of the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of the Uncaria Hook oil. The GC-O and AEDA results showed that α-copaene (FD = 4, OAV = 4376), (E)-linalool oxide (FD = 64, OAV = 9.1), and methyl eugenol (FD = 64, OAV = 29) contributed to the woody and spicy odor of Uncaria Hook oil, whereas furfural (FD = 8, OAV = 4808) contributed to its sweet odor. These results warrant further investigations of the application of essential oil from Uncaria Hook in the phytochemical and medicinal fields.

  16. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development ofmore » room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.« less

  17. Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch-aroma compound inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yibin; Jin, Shanshan; Meng, Xin; Yang, Liping; Wang, Haisong

    2017-01-01

    Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm -1 and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch-polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS 13 C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Intra-oral adsorption and release of aroma compounds following in-mouth wine exposure.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Rocha-Alcubilla, Nuria; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2016-08-15

    Wine "after-odour" defined as the long lasting aroma perception that remains after wine swallowing is an outstanding characteristic in terms of wine quality but a relatively unstudied phenomenon. Among the different parameters that might affect wine after-odour, the adsorption of odorants by the oral mucosa could be important but has been little explored. In this work, the impact of the chemical characteristics of aroma compounds on intra-oral adsorption was assessed by an in vivo approach that determined the amounts of odorants remaining in expectorated wine samples. In addition, the subsequent aroma release after in-mouth wine exposure was studied by means of intra-oral SPME/GC-MS using three different panellists. Oral adsorption of the aroma compounds added to the wines ranged from 6% to 43%, depending on their physicochemical characteristics. A progressive intra-oral aroma decrease at different decay rates depending on compound type and panellist was also found. The strength of the aroma-oral mucosa interactions seems to explain these results more than the amount of compound adsorbed by the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the model soup. The aroma intensity of 0.4% NaCl solution containing the aroma chicken model (ACM) with added Glu and IMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 0.4% NaCl solution containing only ACM. The quantitative analyses showed that adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-04

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  1. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  2. Array-based infra-red detection: an enabling technology for people counting, sensing, tracking, and intelligent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stogdale, Nick; Hollock, Steve; Johnson, Neil; Sumpter, Neil

    2003-09-01

    A 16x16 element un-cooled pyroelectric detector array has been developed which, when allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has created a universal detector with multiple applications. Low-cost manufacturing techniques are used to fabricate a hybrid detector, intended for economic use in commercial markets. The detector has found extensive application in accurate people counting, detection, tracking, secure area protection, directional sensing and area violation; topics which are all pertinent to the provision of Homeland Security. The detection and tracking algorithms have, when allied with interpolation techniques, allowed a performance much higher than might be expected from a 16x16 array. This paper reviews the technology, with particular attention to the array structure, algorithms and interpolation techniques and outlines its application in a number of challenging market areas. Viewed from above, moving people are seen as 'hot blobs' moving through the field of view of the detector; background clutter or stationary objects are not seen and the detector works irrespective of lighting or environmental conditions. Advanced algorithms detect the people and extract size, shape, direction and velocity vectors allowing the number of people to be detected and their trajectories of motion to be tracked. Provision of virtual lines in the scene allows bi-directional counting of people flowing in and out of an entrance or area. Definition of a virtual closed area in the scene allows counting of the presence of stationary people within a defined area. Definition of 'counting lines' allows the counting of people, the ability to augment access control devices by confirming a 'one swipe one entry' judgement and analysis of the flow and destination of moving people. For example, passing the 'wrong way' up a denied passageway can be detected. Counting stationary people within a 'defined area' allows the behaviour and size of groups of stationary people to be

  3. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  4. Effects of different animal waste treatment technologies on detection and viability of porcine enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Verónica P; Azevedo, Ana C; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C; Michel, Frederick C; Saif, Linda J

    2007-08-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units.

  5. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B. M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731

  6. Applied behavior analysis is ideal for the development of a land mine detection technology using animals.

    PubMed

    Jones, B M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining.

  7. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering-Based Immunoassay Technologies for Detection of Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Smolsky, Joseph; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Hayashi, Chihiro; Batra, Surinder K.; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V.

    2017-01-01

    Detection of biomarkers is of vital importance in disease detection, management, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of novel diagnostic methods that detect and quantify biomarkers with higher sensitivity and reliability, contributing to better disease diagnosis and prognosis. When it comes to such devastating diseases as cancer, these novel powerful methods allow for disease staging as well as detection of cancer at very early stages. Over the past decade, there have been some advances in the development of platforms for biomarker detection of diseases. The main focus has recently shifted to the development of simple and reliable diagnostic tests that are inexpensive, accurate, and can follow a patient’s disease progression and therapy response. The individualized approach in biomarker detection has been also emphasized with detection of multiple biomarkers in body fluids such as blood and urine. This review article covers the developments in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and related technologies with the primary focus on immunoassays. Limitations and advantages of the SERS-based immunoassay platform are discussed. The article thoroughly describes all components of the SERS immunoassay and highlights the superior capabilities of SERS readout strategy such as high sensitivity and simultaneous detection of a multitude of biomarkers. Finally, it introduces recently developed strategies for in vivo biomarker detection using SERS. PMID:28085088

  8. A review on several key problems of standoff trace explosives detection by optical-related technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Cheng; Xiao, Wenjian; Qin, Mengze; Liu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    To prevent tragic disasters caused by terror acts and warfare threats, security check personnel must be capable of discovering, distinguishing and eliminating the explosives at multiple circumstances. Standoff technology for the remote detection of explosives and their traces on contaminated surfaces is a research field that has become a heightened priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. There has been a huge increase in research within this area, the improvement of standoff trace explosives detection by optical-related technology. This paper provides a consolidation of information relating to recent advances in several key problems of, without being limited to one specific research area or explosive type. Working laser wavelength of detection system is discussed. Generation and collection of explosives spectra signal are summarized. Techniques for analysing explosives spectra signal are summed up.

  9. Final Report: Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Project, Exploration Technology Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression (FPDS) project is a technology development effort within the Exploration Technology Development Program of the Exploration System Missions Directorate (ESMD) that addresses all aspects of fire safety aboard manned exploration systems. The overarching goal for work in the FPDS area is to develop technologies that will ensure crew health and safety on exploration missions by reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does occur, minimizing the risk to the crew, mission, or system. This is accomplished by addressing the areas of (1) fire prevention and material flammability, (2) fire signatures and detection, and (3) fire suppression and response. This report describes the outcomes of this project from the formation of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) in October 2005 to September 31, 2010 when the Exploration Technology Development Program was replaced by the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program. NASA s fire safety work will continue under this new program and will build upon the accomplishments described herein.

  10. Security inspection in ports by anomaly detection using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Javier; Valverde, Fernando; Saldaña, Manuel; Manian, Vidya

    2013-05-01

    Applying hyperspectral imaging technology in port security is crucial for the detection of possible threats or illegal activities. One of the most common problems that cargo suffers is tampering. This represents a danger to society because it creates a channel to smuggle illegal and hazardous products. If a cargo is altered, security inspections on that cargo should contain anomalies that reveal the nature of the tampering. Hyperspectral images can detect anomalies by gathering information through multiple electromagnetic bands. The spectrums extracted from these bands can be used to detect surface anomalies from different materials. Based on this technology, a scenario was built in which a hyperspectral camera was used to inspect the cargo for any surface anomalies and a user interface shows the results. The spectrum of items, altered by different materials that can be used to conceal illegal products, is analyzed and classified in order to provide information about the tampered cargo. The image is analyzed with a variety of techniques such as multiple features extracting algorithms, autonomous anomaly detection, and target spectrum detection. The results will be exported to a workstation or mobile device in order to show them in an easy -to-use interface. This process could enhance the current capabilities of security systems that are already implemented, providing a more complete approach to detect threats and illegal cargo.

  11. Discrimination of complex mixtures by a colorimetric sensor array: coffee aromas.

    PubMed

    Suslick, Benjamin A; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-03-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA revealed that the sensor array has exceptionally high dimensionality with 18 dimensions required to define 90% of the total variance. In quintuplicate runs of 10 commercial coffees and controls, no confusions or errors in classification by HCA were observed in 55 trials. In addition, the effects of temperature and time in the roasting of green coffee beans were readily observed and distinguishable with a resolution better than 10 degrees C and 5 min, respectively. Colorimetric sensor arrays demonstrate excellent potential for complex systems analysis in real-world applications and provide a novel method for discrimination among closely similar complex mixtures.

  12. Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas

    PubMed Central

    Suslick, Benjamin A.; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA revealed that the sensor array has exceptionally high dimensionality with 18 dimensions required to define 90% of the total variance. In quintuplicate runs of 10 commercial coffees and controls, no confusions or errors in classification by HCA were observed in 55 trials. In addition, the effects of temperature and time in the roasting of green coffee beans were readily observed and distinguishable with a resolution better than 10 °C and 5 min, respectively. Colorimetric sensor arrays demonstrate excellent potential for complex systems analysis in real-world applications and provide a novel method for discrimination among closely similar complex mixtures. PMID:20143838

  13. The application of imaging technologies in the detection of trace evidence in forensic medical investigation.

    PubMed

    Cocks, Jeannie; du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Steffens, Francois; Saayman, Gert

    2015-04-01

    In a country notorious for violent crime, it seems that South African medico-legal laboratories make minimal application of technology in the death investigation process and little attention is given to trace evidence. Non-destructive, non-invasive, portable and cost-effective tools are required. This study was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. The surface area of the bodies and clothing of victims of fatal interpersonal violence were examined using a torch, magnifying lamp, portable digital microscope and alternate light source to gauge their potential for trace evidence detection. Most studies apply these and similar tools to inert surfaces, with few focusing on their application to human skin. There was a statistically significant difference in the detection of many of the evidence types between the naked-eye observation of the pathologists and the technologies. The different imaging technologies were compared as to their cost, evidence detection ability and ease of use. The most common evidence types discovered on the bodies and clothing of victims of fatal interpersonal violence, as well as the propensity of each tool to detect these, was evaluated in order to devise the best option for incorporation into the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory routine. The digital microscope performed best overall followed by the magnifying lamp, torch and the Polilight(®). This study aimed to justify the investment of more time, effort and funding into trace evidence recovery in the South African mortuary environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints: A rapid detection technology for adulteration of sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Shuai, Qian; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    A simple and rapid detection technology was proposed based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) fingerprints to determine potential adulteration of sesame oil. Oil samples were diluted by n-hexane and analyzed by IMS for 20s. Then, chemometric methods were employed to establish discriminant models for sesame oils and four other edible oils, pure and adulterated sesame oils, and pure and counterfeit sesame oils, respectively. Finally, Random Forests (RF) classification model could correctly classify all five types of edible oils. The detection results indicated that the discriminant models built by recursive support vector machine (R-SVM) method could identify adulterated sesame oil samples (⩾ 10%) with an accuracy value of 94.2%. Therefore, IMS was shown to be an effective method to detect the adulterated sesame oils. Meanwhile, IMS fingerprints work well to detect the counterfeit sesame oils produced by adding sesame oil essence into cheaper edible oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insights into the Key Aroma Compounds in Mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden') Fruits by Stable Isotope Dilution Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-four aroma-active compounds, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis, were quantified in tree-ripened fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden'). From the results, the odor activity value (OAV) was calculated for each compound as the ratio of its concentration in the mangoes to its odor threshold in water. OAVs > 1 were obtained for 24 compounds, among which ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 2100), (3E,5Z)-undeca-1,3,5-triene (pineapple-like; OAV 1900), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1600), and ethyl butanoate (fruity; OAV 980) were the most potent, followed by (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (cucumber-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (sulfurous), γ-decalactone (peach-like), β-myrcene (terpeny), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (green), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (tropical fruit-like), and ethyl octanoate (fruity). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that these 15 compounds, when combined in a model mixture in their natural concentrations, were able to mimic the aroma of the fruits.

  16. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  17. Experimental model of the device for detection of nuclear cycle materials by photoneutron technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalyarov, A. M.; Karetnikov, M. D.; Kozlov, K. N.; Lebedev, V. I.; Meleshko, E. A.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Ostashev, I. E.; Tupikin, N. A.; Yakovlev, G. V.

    2007-08-01

    The inherent complexity of sea container control makes them potentially dangerous for smuggling nuclear materials. The experts believe that only active technologies based on recording the products of induced radiation from sensitive materials might solve the problem. The paper reports on the experimental model of the device on the basis of the electron LINAC U-28 for detection of nuclear materials by photonuclear technology. The preliminary numerical optimization of output units (converter, filter, collimator) for shaping the bremsstrahlung was carried out. The setup of experimental device and initial results of recording the prompt and delayed fission products are discussed.

  18. Effect of cofermentation of grape varieties on aroma profiles of la mancha red wines.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Eva Gómez; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Gómez Gallego, Manuel A; González-Viñas, Miguel A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of winemaking using blends of red grape varieties cultivated in La Mancha region (Spain) on the aroma profile of wines was researched by chemical characterization. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively, as solvents in elution and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and bound volatile compounds were analyzed in Cencibel, Bobal, and Moravia Agria monovarietal wines, and in 3 wines obtained with the blending of grapes: Cencibel (50%) + Bobal (50%); Cencibel (50%) + Moravía Agria (50%); Cencibel (33%) + Bobal (33%) + Moravía Agria (33%). Aroma compounds were studied in terms of odor activity values (OAVs). Ninety free aroma compounds and sixty-five bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified. The odor activity values for the different compounds were classified into 7 odorant series. The fruity and sweet series contributed most strongly to the aroma profile of all wines, independently of the winemaking technique used. In general, co-winemaking wines present a more complex chemical profile than monovarietal wines. Practical Application: Some grape varieties could benefit from this process with the presence of other varieties that might have an excess of aroma compounds. In this study, the wines were elaborated by blending different grape varieties together; this process implies co-maceration and co-fermentation steps. The co-winemaking technique could benefit from additional molecules provided by the other varieties, which results in a more complex formation than in the case of monovarietal wines. This technique provides a viable alternative to traditional winemaking methods for improving and enhancing the sensory profile of elaborated wines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effect of antioxidant protection of must on volatile compounds and aroma shelf life of Falanghina (Vitis vinifera L.) wine.

    PubMed

    Moio, Luigi; Ugliano, Maurizio; Genovese, Alessandro; Gambuti, Angelita; Pessina, Rita; Piombino, Paola

    2004-02-25

    Two vinification methods involving different degrees of antioxidant protection of Falanghina must during prefermentative steps, and referred as HAMP (high antioxidant must protection) and LAMP (low antioxidant must protection), were compared in terms of fermentation performances of four different yeast strains, composition of the volatile fraction of wines at the end of alcoholic fermentation, and shelf life of wines during storage. The use of HAMP technology resulted in wines with lower volatile acidity and higher concentrations of medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters, acetates, and volatile fatty acids. For two of the four strains a lower concentration of isoamyl alcohol was also observed. HAMP wines also revealed increased shelf life because of the higher concentration of odor active esters at the end of storage and better preservation of varietal aromas.

  20. Cold-Rolled Strip Steel Stress Detection Technology Based on a Magnetoresistance Sensor and the Magnetoelastic Effect.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ben; Zang, Yong; Han, Xiaohui; Zheng, Kailun

    2018-05-21

    Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress in manufactured cold-rolled strips. An experimental device was designed and produced. Characteristics of this detection technology were investigated through experiments assisted by theoretical analysis. Theoretically, a linear correlation exists between the internal stress of strip steel and the voltage output of a magneto-resistive sensor. Therefore, for this stress detection system, the sensitivity of the stress detection was adjusted by adjusting the supply voltage of the magnetoresistance sensor, detection distance, and other relevant parameters. The stress detection experimental results showed that this detection system has good repeatability and linearity. The detection error was controlled within 1.5%. Moreover, the intrinsic factors of the detected strip steel, including thickness, carbon percentage, and crystal orientation, also affected the sensitivity of the detection system. The detection technology proposed in this research enables online contactless detection and meets the requirements for cold-rolled steel strips.

  1. Cold-Rolled Strip Steel Stress Detection Technology Based on a Magnetoresistance Sensor and the Magnetoelastic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ben; Zang, Yong; Han, Xiaohui; Zheng, Kailun

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress in manufactured cold-rolled strips. An experimental device was designed and produced. Characteristics of this detection technology were investigated through experiments assisted by theoretical analysis. Theoretically, a linear correlation exists between the internal stress of strip steel and the voltage output of a magneto-resistive sensor. Therefore, for this stress detection system, the sensitivity of the stress detection was adjusted by adjusting the supply voltage of the magnetoresistance sensor, detection distance, and other relevant parameters. The stress detection experimental results showed that this detection system has good repeatability and linearity. The detection error was controlled within 1.5%. Moreover, the intrinsic factors of the detected strip steel, including thickness, carbon percentage, and crystal orientation, also affected the sensitivity of the detection system. The detection technology proposed in this research enables online contactless detection and meets the requirements for cold-rolled steel strips. PMID:29883387

  2. [Application of isothermal amplification technology for pathogen detection in parasitic and other diseases].

    PubMed

    Ting, Li; Kun, Yang

    2018-04-16

    The in vitro nucleic acid amplification technique based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been successfully applied to scientific researches. In recent years, the emergence of isothermal amplification technology is increasingly applied in the molecular diagnosis and disease detection because of its advantages of constant temperature, high efficiency, short time-consuming, and less reliance on equipment and instruments. The principle, characteristics and application of the partial isothermal amplification technique in the pathogen detection in parasitic and other diseases are reviewed in this paper, and the prospects of the wide development of the technique are also discussed.

  3. New advances in non-dispersive IR technology for CO2 detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, John W.; Odegard, Wayne L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses new technology developments in CO2 detection using Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) techniques. The method described has successfully been used in various applications and environments. It has exhibited extremely reliable long-term stability without the need of routine calibration. The analysis employs a dual wavelength, differential detection approach with compensating circuitry for component aging and dirt accumulation on optical surfaces. The instrument fails 'safe' and provides the operator with a 'fault' alarm in the event of a system failure. The NDIR analyzer described has been adapted to NASA Space Station requirements.

  4. Detection of active transposable elements in Arabidopsis thaliana using Oxford Nanopore Sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Debladis, Emilie; Llauro, Christel; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Mirouze, Marie; Panaud, Olivier

    2017-07-17

    Transposables elements (TEs) contribute to both structural and functional dynamics of most eukaryotic genomes. Because of their propensity to densely populate plant and animal genomes, the precise estimation of the impact of transposition on genomic diversity has been considered as one of the main challenges of today's genomics. The recent development of NGS (next generation sequencing) technologies has open new perspectives in population genomics by providing new methods for high throughput detection of Transposable Elements-associated Structural Variants (TEASV). However, these have relied on Illumina platform that generates short reads (up to 350 nucleotides). This limitation in size of sequence reads can cause high false discovery rate (FDR) and therefore limit the power of detection of TEASVs, especially in the case of large, complex genomes. The newest sequencing technologies, such as Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) can generate kilobases-long reads thus representing a promising tool for TEASV detection in plant and animals. We present the results of a pilot experiment for TEASV detection on the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana using ONT sequencing and show that it can be used efficiently to detect TE movements. We generated a ~0.8X genome coverage of a met1-derived epigenetic recombinant inbred line (epiRIL) using a MinIon device with R7 chemistry. We were able to detect nine new copies of the LTR-retrotransposon Evadé (EVD). We also evidenced the activity of the DNA transposon CACTA, CAC1. Even at a low sequence coverage (0.8X), ONT sequencing allowed us to reliably detect several TE insertions in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. The long read length allowed a precise and un-ambiguous mapping of the structural variations caused by the activity of TEs. This suggests that the trade-off between read length and genome coverage for TEASV detection may be in favor of the former. Should the technology be further improved both in terms of lower error rate

  5. Older adults' perceptions of technologies aimed at falls prevention, detection or monitoring: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Boulton, Elisabeth; Hall, Alex; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Todd, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Over recent years a number of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have emerged aiming at falls prevention, falls detection and alarms for use in case of fall. There are also a range of ICT interventions, which have been created or adapted to be pro-active in preventing falls, such as those which provide strength and balance training to older adults in the prevention of falls. However, there are issues related to the adoption and continued use of these technologies by older adults. This review provides an overview of older adults' perceptions of falls technologies. We undertook systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO, COMPENDEX and the Cochrane database. Key search terms included 'older adults', 'seniors', 'preference', 'attitudes' and a wide range of technologies, they also included the key word 'fall*'. We considered all studies that included older adults aged 50 and above. Studies had to include technologies related specifically to falls prevention, detection or monitoring. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tool and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies by the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) were used. We identified 76 potentially relevant papers. Some 21 studies were considered for quality review. Twelve qualitative studies, three quantitative studies and 6 mixed methods studies were included. The literature related to technologies aimed at predicting, monitoring and preventing falls suggest that intrinsic factors related to older adults' attitudes around control, independence and perceived need/requirements for safety are important for their motivation to use and continue using technologies. Extrinsic factors such as usability, feedback gained and costs are important elements which support these attitudes and perceptions. Positive messages about the benefits of falls technologies for promoting healthy active ageing and independence are critical, as is ensuring that the technologies are simple

  6. Nondestructive and rapid detection of potato black heart based on machine vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang; Peng, Yankun; Wei, Wensong

    2016-05-01

    Potatoes are one of the major food crops in the world. Potato black heart is a kind of defect that the surface is intact while the tissues in skin become black. This kind of potato has lost the edibleness, but it's difficult to be detected with conventional methods. A nondestructive detection system based on the machine vision technology was proposed in this study to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes according to the different transmittance of them. The detection system was equipped with a monochrome CCD camera, LED light sources for transmitted illumination and a computer. Firstly, the transmission images of normal and black heart potatoes were taken by the detection system. Then the images were processed by algorithm written with VC++. As the transmitted light intensity was influenced by the radial dimension of the potato samples, the relationship between the grayscale value and the potato radial dimension was acquired by analyzing the grayscale value changing rule of the transmission image. Then proper judging condition was confirmed to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes after image preprocessing. The results showed that the nondestructive system built coupled with the processing methods was accessible for the detection of potato black heart at a considerable accuracy rate. The transmission detection technique based on machine vision is nondestructive and feasible to realize the detection of potato black heart.

  7. Online detecting system of roller wear based on laser-linear array CCD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuan

    2010-10-01

    Roller is an important metallurgy tool in the rolling mill. And the surface of a roller affects the quantity of the rolling product directly. After using a period of time, roller must be repaired or replaced. Examining the profile of a working roller between the intervals of rolling is called online detecting for roller wear. The study of online detecting roller wear is very important for selecting the grinding time in reason, reducing the exchanging times of rollers, improving the quality of the product and realizing online grinding rollers. By applying the laser-linear array CCD detective technology, a method for online non-touch detecting roller wear was brought forward. The principle, composition and the operation process of the linear array CCD detecting system were expatiated. And an error compensation algorithm is exactly calculated to offset the shift of the roller axis in this measurement system. So the stability and the accuracy were improved remarkably. The experiment proves that the accuracy of the detecting system reaches to the demand of practical production process. It can provide a new method of high speed and high accuracy online detecting for roller wear.

  8. Norisoprenoids, sesquiterpenes and terpenoids content of Valpolicella wines during ageing: investigating aroma potential in relationship to evolution of tobacco and balsamic aroma in aged wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Ugliano, Maurizio

    2018-03-01

    During wine ageing, tobacco and balsamic aroma notes appear. In this paper, volatile compounds directly or potentially related to those aromas have been investigated in Corvina and Corvinone wines during aging. Corvina and Corvinone are two northern-Italy autochthonous red grape varieties, used to produce Valpolicella Classico and Amarone wines, both characterized by tobacco and balsamic aroma notes. Wines were analysed shortly after bottling or following model ageing at 60 °C for 48, 72, and 168 hours. Volatile compounds were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results showed that compounds related to tobacco aroma (β-damascenone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, (E)-1-(2,3,6-Trimethylphenyl)-buta-1,3-diene (TPB) and megastigmatrienones) increased in relationship to storage time with different patterns. β-Damascenone and 3-oxo-α-ionol rapidly increased to reach a plateau in the first 48-72 hours of model ageing. Instead, TPB and megastigmatrienones concentration showed a linear correlation with ageing time. During model ageing, several cyclic terpenes tended to increase. Among them 1,8-cineole and 1,4-cineole, previously reported to contribute to red wine eucalyptus notes increased proportionally to storage time, and this behavior was clearly associated with reactions involving α-terpineol, limonene and terpinolene, as confirmed by studies with model wine solutions. Among other relevant volatile compounds, sesquiterpenes appear to contribute potentially balsamic and spicy aroma notes. In this study, linear sesquiterpenes (nerolidol, farnesol) underwent acid hydrolysis during long wine ageing, while cyclic sesquiterpenes seemed to increase with time. The chemical pathways associated with evolution of some of the compounds investigated have been studied in model wine.

  9. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  10. Application of Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to the Detection of Defect in Composite Stiffened-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan-Qi; Zhan, Li-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Composite stiffened-structure consists of the skin and stringer has been widely used in aircraft fuselage and wings. The main purpose of the article is to detect the composite material reinforced structure accurately and explore the relationship between defect formation and structural elements or curing process. Based on ultrasonic phased array inspection technology, the regularity of defects in the manufacture of composite materials are obtained, the correlation model between actual defects and nondestructive testing are established. The article find that the forming quality of deltoid area in T-stiffened structure is obviously improved by pre-curing, the defects of hat-stiffened structure are affected by the mandrel. The results show that the ultrasonic phased array inspection technology can be an effectively way for the detection of composite stiffened-structures, which become an important means to control the defects of composite and improve the quality of the product.

  11. Detecting Smoking Events Using Accelerometer Data Collected Via Smartwatch Technology: Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Casey A; Anshari, Dien; Lambert, Victoria; Thrasher, James F

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world today. Ecological research on smoking in context currently relies on self-reported smoking behavior. Emerging smartwatch technology may more objectively measure smoking behavior by automatically detecting smoking sessions using robust machine learning models. Objective This study aimed to examine the feasibility of detecting smoking behavior using smartwatches. The second aim of this study was to compare the success of observing smoking behavior with smartwatches to that of conventional self-reporting. Methods A convenience sample of smokers was recruited for this study. Participants (N=10) recorded 12 hours of accelerometer data using a mobile phone and smartwatch. During these 12 hours, they engaged in various daily activities, including smoking, for which they logged the beginning and end of each smoking session. Raw data were classified as either smoking or nonsmoking using a machine learning model for pattern recognition. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing the output with a detailed description of a modeled smoking session. Results In total, 120 hours of data were collected from participants and analyzed. The accuracy of self-reported smoking was approximately 78% (96/123). Our model was successful in detecting 100 of 123 (81%) smoking sessions recorded by participants. After eliminating sessions from the participants that did not adhere to study protocols, the true positive detection rate of the smartwatch based-detection increased to more than 90%. During the 120 hours of combined observation time, only 22 false positive smoking sessions were detected resulting in a 2.8% false positive rate. Conclusions Smartwatch technology can provide an accurate, nonintrusive means of monitoring smoking behavior in natural contexts. The use of machine learning algorithms for passively detecting smoking sessions may enrich ecological momentary assessment protocols and cessation

  12. Development of Technologies for Early Detection and Stratification of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    at the time of screening, and has an 8-10% false positive rate.3 These drawbacks lead to inaccurate patient diagnosis, which can allow potentially...95% recovery efficiency. Furthermore, using whole blood from healthy donors, we determined we have a zero false positive rate; that is, we have not...detected a single false positive event out of the dozen samples we ran. The technology we developed here is not only useful for the isolation of CTCs

  13. Feasibility of Using Mobile ECG Recording Technology to Detect Atrial Fibrillation in Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Evans, Grahame F; Shirk, Arianna; Muturi, Peter; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2017-12-01

    Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF), a major risk factor for stroke that is on the rise in Africa, is becoming increasingly critical. This study sought to examine the feasibility of using mobile electrocardiogram (ECG) recording technology to detect AF. In this prospective observational study, we used a mobile ECG recorder to screen 50 African adults (66% women; mean age 54.3 ± 20.5 years) attending Kijabe Hospital (Kijabe, Kenya). Five hospital health providers involved in this study's data collection process also completed a self-administered survey to obtain information on their access to the Internet and mobile devices, both factors necessary to implement ECG mobile technology. Outcome measures included feasibility (completion of the study and recruitment of the patients on the planned study time frame) and the yield of the screening by the mobile ECG technology (ability to detect previously undiagnosed AF). Patients were recruited in a 2-week period as planned; only 1 of the 51 patients approached refused to participate (98% acceptance rate). All of the 50 patients who agreed to participate completed the test and produced readable ECGs (100% study completion rate). ECG tracings of 4 of the 50 patients who completed the study showed AF (8% AF yield), and none had been previously diagnosed with AF. When asked about continuous access to Internet and personal mobile devices, almost all of the health care providers surveyed answered affirmatively. Using mobile ECG technology in screening for AF in low-resource settings is feasible, and can detect a significant proportion of AF cases that will otherwise go undiagnosed. Further study is needed to examine the cost-effectiveness of this approach for detection of AF and its effect on reducing the risk of stroke in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Review of Emerging Technologies for the Detection and Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    of Dental Research . 83:39-42. Featherstone JDB. (2008). Dental caries: a dynamic disease process. Australian Dental Journal . 53:286-291... Research Naval Postgraduate Dental School Objectives:  to address emerging technologies presently available to aid in the detection and... research of dental caries in young children, the term early childhood caries was proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1994 to

  15. Transport of hop aroma compounds across Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, A; Metzger, M; Walles, H; Buettner, A

    2014-11-01

    Although being reported and used as a sedative remedy for several years, the bioactive principle of hop preparations is still not decisively clarified. Understanding absorption and transformation processes of potential physiologically active constituents is essential to evaluate the likeliness of biological effects on humans. Therefore, single hop aroma compounds as well as digestive transformation products thereof have been investigated in view of their human intestinal absorption, applying Caco-2 transport experiments as well as investigations on potential biotransformation processes. Selective and sensitive identification and quantification were thereby achieved by application of two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with stable isotope dilution analysis, leading to the determination of apparent permeability values by different mathematical approaches considering sink and non-sink conditions. Overall, calculated permeability values ranged from 2.6 × 10(-6) to 1.8 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) with all mathematical approaches, indicating high absorption potential and almost complete bioavailability for all tested compounds with hydroxyl-functionalities. Considering this high permeability together with the high lipophilicity of these substances, a passive transcellular uptake route can be speculated. Investigated sesquiterpenes and β-myrcene showed flat absorption profiles while the investigated esters showed decreasing profiles. In view of the lipophilic and volatile nature of the investigated substances, special attention was paid to recovery and mass balance determination. Furthermore, in the course of the transport experiments of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, additional biotransformation products were observed, namely 3-octanone and 3-methyl-2-butenal, respectively. The absence of these additional substances in control experiments strongly indicates an intestinal first-pass metabolism of the

  16. Management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia by an aroma-massage with acupressure treatment protocol: A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fung, Jo Kamen Ka-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluates the clinical effectiveness of a multicomponent aroma-massage with an acupressure treatment protocol and compared it to cognitive training for the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Pharmacological interventions have been unsatisfactory in managing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia; thus, complementary and alternative medicine has been extensively researched to identify an adjunct safe and cost-effective intervention. This randomised clinical trial utilised a three-arm parallel group design. Cognitive training was used as a conventional intervention to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, whereas exercise was considered "treatment as usual" in this study; both were used as comparisons with the experimental protocol. There were three treatment groups: Group 1: aroma-massage with acupressure + exercise, Group 2: cognitive training + exercise and Group 3: aroma-massage with acupressure + cognitive training. Sixty older adults were recruited and randomly assigned to the three groups (20 each). Using the 29-item Chinese Version of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Mini-mental State Examination and Barthel Index-20, the outcome measures were assessed at preintervention, postintervention and the 3-month follow-up to assess behaviour, Activities of Daily Living, cognition, and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia severity and distress. Multiple comparisons performed through repeated measures were analysed to detect between-group differences and within-subject differences, as well as the interaction effects between groups and times. The Group 1 and 3 participants showed a significant reduction in the severity and distress caused by behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, whereas Group 2 did not demonstrate similar effects. This clinical study suggests that aroma-massage with acupressure is as effective as cognitive

  17. Progress in Fire Detection and Suppression Technology for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Fire intervention technology (detection and suppression) is a critical part of the strategy of spacecraft fire safety. This paper reviews the status, trends, and issues in fire intervention, particularly the technology applied to the protection of the International Space Station and future missions beyond Earth orbit. An important contribution to improvements in spacecraft fire safety is the understanding of the behavior of fires in the non-convective (microgravity) environment of Earth-orbiting and planetary-transit spacecraft. A key finding is the strong influence of ventilation flow on flame characteristics, flammability limits and flame suppression in microgravity. Knowledge of these flow effects will aid the development of effective processes for fire response and technology for fire suppression.

  18. Technology for Early Detection of Depression and Anxiety in Older People.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jacob A; Astell, Arlene J; Brown, Laura J E; Harrison, Robert F; Hawley, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Under-diagnosis of depression and anxiety is common in older adults. This project took a mixed methods approach to explore the application of machine learning and technology for early detection of these conditions. Mood measures collected with digital technologies were used to predict depression and anxiety status according to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Interactive group activities and interviews were used to explore views of older adults and healthcare professionals on this approach respectively. The results show good potential for using a machine learning approach with mood data to predict later depression, though prospective results are preliminary. Qualitative findings highlight motivators and barriers to use of mental health technologies, as well as usability issues. If consideration is given to these issues, this approach could allow alerts to be provided to healthcare staff to draw attention to service users who may go on to experience depression.

  19. Large-Scale Selection and Breeding To Generate Industrial Yeasts with Superior Aroma Production

    PubMed Central

    Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. PMID:25192996

  20. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang.

    PubMed

    Moss, Mark; Hewitt, Steven; Moss, Lucy; Wesnes, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This study provides further evidence for the impact of the aromas of plant essential oils on aspects of cognition and mood in healthy participants. One hundred and forty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to conditions of ylang-ylang aroma, peppermint aroma, or no aroma control. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery, with mood scales completed before and after cognitive testing. The analysis of the data revealed significant differences between conditions on a number of the factors underpinning the tests that constitute the battery. Peppermint was found to enhance memory whereas ylang-ylang impaired it, and lengthened processing speed. In terms of subjective mood peppermint increased alertness and ylang-ylang decreased it, but significantly increased calmness. These results provide support for the contention that the aromas of essential oils can produce significant and idiosyncratic effects on both subjective and objective assessments of aspects of human behavior. They are discussed with reference to possible pharmacological and psychological modes of influence.

  1. Fetal aneuploidy detection by maternal plasma DNA sequencing: a technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Judith M E; Goldberg, James D

    2013-06-01

    The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists currently recommends that all pregnant women be offered screening for chromosomal abnormalities, regardless of maternal age. Traditional screening tests have detection rates ranging from 85% to 90% and false-positive rates of 3% to 5%. A woman with an abnormal noninvasive test is offered a diagnostic test, but diagnostic tests are associated with a risk of pregnancy loss. Recently, analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood has been shown to have potential for the accurate detection of some of the common fetal autosomal aneuploidies. As part of a technology assessment for the California Technology Assessment Forum, we critically reviewed the evidence for the use of cffDNA as a prenatal screening test. We evaluated the evidence for its use as either a 'primary' or an 'advanced' screening test and for its use in screening for three different trisomies: 21, 18, and 13. We evaluated whether the use of cffDNA met established technology assessment criteria and established conclusions about evidence-based use of this new technology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Implementing Operational Analytics using Big Data Technologies to Detect and Predict Sensor Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J.; Mital, R.; Nittur, S.; SanNicolas, B.; Wolf, C.; Jusufi, R.

    2016-09-01

    Operational analytics when combined with Big Data technologies and predictive techniques have been shown to be valuable in detecting mission critical sensor anomalies that might be missed by conventional analytical techniques. Our approach helps analysts and leaders make informed and rapid decisions by analyzing large volumes of complex data in near real-time and presenting it in a manner that facilitates decision making. It provides cost savings by being able to alert and predict when sensor degradations pass a critical threshold and impact mission operations. Operational analytics, which uses Big Data tools and technologies, can process very large data sets containing a variety of data types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other relevant information. When combined with predictive techniques, it provides a mechanism to monitor and visualize these data sets and provide insight into degradations encountered in large sensor systems such as the space surveillance network. In this study, data from a notional sensor is simulated and we use big data technologies, predictive algorithms and operational analytics to process the data and predict sensor degradations. This study uses data products that would commonly be analyzed at a site. This study builds on a big data architecture that has previously been proven valuable in detecting anomalies. This paper outlines our methodology of implementing an operational analytic solution through data discovery, learning and training of data modeling and predictive techniques, and deployment. Through this methodology, we implement a functional architecture focused on exploring available big data sets and determine practical analytic, visualization, and predictive technologies.

  3. Comparative studies of copy number variation detection methods for next-generation sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Duan, Junbo; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Deng, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) has played an important role in studies of susceptibility or resistance to complex diseases. Traditional methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) suffer from low resolution of genomic regions. Following the emergence of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, CNV detection methods based on the short read data have recently been developed. However, due to the relatively young age of the procedures, their performance is not fully understood. To help investigators choose suitable methods to detect CNVs, comparative studies are needed. We compared six publicly available CNV detection methods: CNV-seq, FREEC, readDepth, CNVnator, SegSeq and event-wise testing (EWT). They are evaluated both on simulated and real data with different experiment settings. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is employed to demonstrate the detection performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity, box plot is employed to compare their performances in terms of breakpoint and copy number estimation, Venn diagram is employed to show the consistency among these methods, and F-score is employed to show the overlapping quality of detected CNVs. The computational demands are also studied. The results of our work provide a comprehensive evaluation on the performances of the selected CNV detection methods, which will help biological investigators choose the best possible method.

  4. Rapid detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus colonies using an optical scattering technology.

    PubMed

    Alsulami, Tawfiq S; Zhu, Xingyue; Abdelhaseib, Maha Usama; Singh, Atul K; Bhunia, Arun K

    2018-05-24

    Staphylococcus species are a major pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections and foodborne illnesses. We applied a laser-based BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology) for rapid colony screening and detection of Staphylococcus on an agar plate and differentiate these from non-Staphylococcus spp. Among the six growth media tested, phenol red mannitol agar (PRMA) was found most suitable for building the Staphylococcus species scatter image libraries. Scatter image library for Staphylococcus species gave a high positive predictive value (PPV 87.5-100%) when tested against known laboratory strains of Staphylococcus spp., while the PPV against non-Staphylococcus spp. was 0-38%. A total of nine naturally contaminated bovine raw milk and ready-to-eat chicken salad samples were tested, and BARDOT detected Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus with 80-100% PPV. Forty-five BARDOT-identified bacterial isolates from naturally contaminated foods were further confirmed by tuf and nuc gene-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequence. This label-free, non-invasive on-plate colony screening technology can be adopted by the food industries, biotechnology companies, and public health laboratories for Staphylococcus species detection including S. aureus from various samples for food safety and public health management. Graphical abstract.

  5. A comprehensive overview of radioguided surgery using gamma detection probe technology

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P; Neff, Ryan L; Mojzisik, Cathy M; O'Malley, David M; Hinkle, George H; Hall, Nathan C; Murrey, Douglas A; Knopp, Michael V; Martin, Edward W

    2009-01-01

    The concept of radioguided surgery, which was first developed some 60 years ago, involves the use of a radiation detection probe system for the intraoperative detection of radionuclides. The use of gamma detection probe technology in radioguided surgery has tremendously expanded and has evolved into what is now considered an established discipline within the practice of surgery, revolutionizing the surgical management of many malignancies, including breast cancer, melanoma, and colorectal cancer, as well as the surgical management of parathyroid disease. The impact of radioguided surgery on the surgical management of cancer patients includes providing vital and real-time information to the surgeon regarding the location and extent of disease, as well as regarding the assessment of surgical resection margins. Additionally, it has allowed the surgeon to minimize the surgical invasiveness of many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, while still maintaining maximum benefit to the cancer patient. In the current review, we have attempted to comprehensively evaluate the history, technical aspects, and clinical applications of radioguided surgery using gamma detection probe technology. PMID:19173715

  6. Application of data fusion technology based on D-S evidence theory in fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhishan; Chen, Musheng

    2015-12-01

    Judgment and identification based on single fire characteristic parameter information in fire detection is subject to environmental disturbances, and accordingly its detection performance is limited with the increase of false positive rate and false negative rate. The compound fire detector employs information fusion technology to judge and identify multiple fire characteristic parameters in order to improve the reliability and accuracy of fire detection. The D-S evidence theory is applied to the multi-sensor data-fusion: first normalize the data from all sensors to obtain the normalized basic probability function of the fire occurrence; then conduct the fusion processing using the D-S evidence theory; finally give the judgment results. The results show that the method meets the goal of accurate fire signal identification and increases the accuracy of fire alarm, and therefore is simple and effective.

  7. Need for new technologies for detection of adventitious agents in vaccines and other biological products.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Laurent; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    From an industrial perspective, the conventional in vitro and in vivo assays used for detection of viral contaminants have shown their limitations, as illustrated by the unfortunate detection of porcine circovirus contamination in a licensed rotavirus vaccine. This contamination event illustrates the gaps within the existing adventitious agent strategy and the potential use of new broader molecular detection methods. This paper serves to summarize current testing approaches and challenges, along with opportunities for the use of these new technologies. Testing of biological products is required to ensure the safety of patients. Recently, a licensed vaccine was found to be contaminated with a virus. This contamination did not cause a safety concern to the patients; however, it highlights the need for using new testing methods to control our biological products. This paper introduces the benefits of these new tests and outlines the challenges with the current tests. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  8. Biosensor technology for the detection of illegal drugs I: objectives, preparatory work, and drug enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilpert, Reinhold; Binder, Florian; Grol, Michael; Hallermayer, Klaus; Josel, Hans-Peter; Klein, Christian; Maier, Josef; Oberpriller, Helmut; Ritter, Josef; Scheller, Frieder W.

    1994-10-01

    In a joint project of Deutsche Aerospace, Boehringer Mannheim and the University of Potsdam portable devices for the detection of illegal drugs, based on biosensor technology, are being developed. The concept enrichment of the drug from the gas phase and detection by immunological means. This publication covers the description of our objectives, preparatory work and results concerning enrichment of drugs from the gas phase. Vapor pressures of cocaine and cannabinoids have been determined. A test gas generator has been constructed which allows for reproducible preparation of cocaine concentrations between 2 ng/l and 2 pg/l. Coupling of a thermodesorption unit with GC/MS has been established for reference analysis. As another analytical tool, an ELISA with a lower detection limit of about 0,5 pg cocaine/assay has been developed. Applying fleece-type adsorbers, enrichment factors for cocaine in the range of 105 have been realized. No significant interference was found with potentially disturbing substances.

  9. Aroma composition of shalgam: a traditional Turkish lactic acid fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Tanguler, Hasan; Selli, Serkan; Sen, Kemal; Cabaroglu, Turgut; Erten, Huseyin

    2017-06-01

    Shalgam, a traditional red, cloudy and sour soft beverage, is produced by lactic acid fermentation of black carrot, sourdough, salt, bulgur flour, turnip and adequate water. The present study was designed to characterize the volatile compounds of shalgam obtained from different methods. The aroma compounds of shalgams produced by traditional and direct methods, and addition of Lactic acid bateria (LAB) cultures were examined. Volatile components of shalgam samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction technique with pentane/dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty aroma compounds were identified in shalgam samples including 20 terpenes, 9 esters, 9 alcohols, 5 volatile acids, 6 volatile phenols, 5 lactones, 3 naphthalenes, 2 carbonyl compounds and 1 C13-norisoprenoids. It was found that the aroma profiles of shalgams were quite similar. However, the total volatile content of the shalgam samples increased with addition of Lb. plantarum .

  10. Aroma Precursors in Grapes and Wine: Flavor Release during Wine Production and Consumption.

    PubMed

    Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Francis, I Leigh; Herderich, Markus J

    2018-03-14

    Pioneering investigations into precursors of fruity and floral flavors established the importance of terpenoid and C 13 -norisoprenoid glycosides to the flavor of aromatic wines. Nowadays flavor precursors in grapes and wine are known to be structurally diverse, encompassing glycosides, amino acid conjugates, odorless volatiles, hydroxycinnamic acids, and many others. Flavor precursors mainly originate in the grape berry but also from oak or other materials involved in winemaking. Flavors are released from precursors during crushing and subsequent production steps by enzymatic and nonenzymatic transformations, via microbial glycosidases, esterases, C-S lyases, and decarboxylases, and through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chemical rearrangements. Flavors can also be liberated from glycosides and amino acid conjugates by oral microbiota. Hence, it is increasingly likely that flavor precursors contribute to retronasal aroma formation through in-mouth release during consumption, prompting a shift in focus from identifying aroma precursors in grapes to understanding aroma precursors present in bottled wine.

  11. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    PubMed

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products.

  13. Effects of bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) fungal diseases on wine aroma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  14. Effects of Bunch Rot (Botrytis cinerea) and Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator) Fungal Diseases on Wine Aroma.

    PubMed

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  15. Field ion spectrometry: a new technology for cocaine and heroin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnahan, Byron L.; Day, Stephen; Kouznetsov, Viktor; Tarassov, Alexandre

    1997-02-01

    Field ion spectrometry, also known as transverse field compensation ion mobility spectrometry, is a new technique for trace gas analysis that can be applied to the detection of cocaine and heroin. Its principle is based on filtering ion species according to the functional dependence of their mobilities with electric field strength. Field ion spectrometry eliminates the gating electrodes needed in conventional IMS to pulse ions into the spectrometer; instead, ions are injected in to the spectrometer and reach the detector continuously, resulting in improved sensitivity. The technique enables analyses that are difficult with conventional constant field strength ion mobility spectrometers. We have shown that a filed ion spectrometer can selectively detect the vapors from cocaine and heroin emitted from both their base and hydrochloride forms. The estimated volumetric limits of detection are in the low pptv range, based on testing with standardized drug vapor generation systems. The spectrometer can detect cocaine base in the vapor phase, at concentrations well below its estimated 100 pptv vapor pressure equivalent at 20 degrees C. This paper describes the underlying principles of field ion spectrometry in relation to narcotic drug detection, and recent results obtained for cocaine and heroin. The work has been sponsored in part by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency under contract DAAB10-95C-0004, for the DOD Counterdrug Technology Development Program.

  16. Effects of Preheating and Storage Temperatures on Aroma Profile and Physical Properties of Citrus-Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shaojie; Bao, Yuming; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-09-06

    Citrus oils are used as good carrier oil for emulsion fabrication due to their special flavor and various health-promoting functions. In this study, the effects of preheating temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) and storage temperature (4, 25, and 37 °C) on aroma profiles and physical properties of three citrus-oil (i.e., mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot oils) emulsions were systematically investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated the significant impact of temperature on aroma profile and physical properties. The abundance of d-limonene was found to be the main factor determining the aroma of the three citrus-oil emulsions at different preheating and storage temperatures, while β-linalool and linalyl acetate were important for the aroma of bergamot oil emulsion. Preheating temperature showed a profound impact on the aroma of citrus-oil emulsions, and the aroma of different citrus oil emulsions showed different sensitivity to preheating temperature. Storage temperature was also able to alter the properties of citrus oil emulsions. The higher was the storage temperature, the more alteration of aroma and more instability of the emulsions there was, which could be attributed to the alteration of the oil components and the properties of emulsions. Among all three emulsions, bergamot-oil emulsion was the most stable and exhibited the most potent ability to preserve the aroma against high temperature. Our results would facilitate the application of citrus-oil emulsions in functional foods and beverages.

  17. Evaluation of Sensor Technology to Detect Fall Risk and Prevent Falls in Acute Care.

    PubMed

    Potter, Patricia; Allen, Kelly; Costantinou, Eileen; Klinkenberg, William Dean; Malen, Jill; Norris, Traci; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Roney, Wilhemina; Tymkew, Heidi Hahn; Wolf, Laurie

    2017-08-01

    Sensor technology that dynamically identifies hospitalized patients' fall risk and detects and alerts nurses of high-risk patients' early exits out of bed has potential for reducing fall rates and preventing patient harm. During Phase 1 (August 2014-January 2015) of a previously reported performance improvement project, an innovative depth sensor was evaluated on two inpatient medical units to study fall characteristics. In Phase 2 (April 2015-January 2016), a combined depth and bed sensor system designed to assign patient fall probability, detect patient bed exits, and subsequently prevent falls was evaluated. Fall detection depth sensors remained in place on two medicine units; bed sensors used to detect patient bed exits were added on only one of the medicine units. Fall rates and fall with injury rates were evaluated on both units. During Phase 2, the designated evaluation unit had 14 falls, for a fall rate of 2.22 per 1,000 patient-days-a 54.1% reduction compared with the Phase 1 fall rate. The difference in rates from Phase 1 to Phase 2 was statistically significant (z = 2.20; p = 0.0297). The comparison medicine unit had 30 falls-a fall rate of 4.69 per 1,000 patient-days, representing a 57.9% increase as compared with Phase 1. A fall detection sensor system affords a level of surveillance that standard fall alert systems do not have. Fall prevention remains a complex issue, but sensor technology is a viable fall prevention option. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Establishment and verification of detecting multiple biomarkers for ovarian cancer by suspension array technology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, B B; Yang, Z J; Wang, Q; Pan, Z M; Zhang, W; Li, D R; Li, L

    2016-10-25

    Objective: Establish and validation of combined detecting of CCL18, CXCL1, C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ suspension array technology. Methods: (1)CCL18, CXCL1 monoclonal antibody and C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ protein were coupled with polyethylene microspheres. Biotinylated CCL18, CXCL1 polyclonal antibody and sheep anti-human IgG polyclonal antibody were prepared simultaneously. The best packaged concentrations of CCL18, CXCL1 monoclonal antibody and C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ antigens were optimized. The best packaged concentrations of CCL18, CXCL1 polyclonal antibodys and C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ sheep anti-human IgG polyclonal antibody were optimized to establish a stable detected suspension array.(2)Sixty patients confirmed by pathological examination with ovarian cancer(ovarian cancer group)which treated in Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 30 patients with ovarian benign tumor(benign group)and 30 cases of healthy women(control group)were chosen between September 2003 and December 2003. Suspension array technology and ELISA method were used to detect expression of CCL18, CXCL1 antigen and C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1 and TIZ IgG autoantibody contented in 3 groups of serum, then to compare the diagnostic efficiency and diagnostic accuracy of two methods(coefficient of variation between batch and batch). Results: (1)This research successfully established stable detecting system of CCL18, CXCL1, C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1 and TIZ IgG autoantibody. The best concentration of CCL18, CXCL1 monoclonal antibody and C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ antigen package were 8, 8, 12, 8, 4 and 8 μg/ml; the best detection of CCL18, CXCL1 biotin polyclonal antibody and C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ sheep anti-huamne IgG polyclonal antibody were respectively 4, 2, 2, 4, 4 and 2 μg/ml.(2)Suspension array technology and ELISA method were used to detect CCL18, CXCL1 antigen and C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ IgG autoantibody of three groups in serum were similar( P >0.05).(3)The comparison of two methods in the

  19. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems. PMID:23396191

  20. Diverse applications of electronic-nose technologies in agriculture and forestry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alphus D

    2013-02-08

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems.

  1. Acoustic emission detection for mass fractions of materials based on wavelet packet technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianghong; Xiang, Jianjun; Hu, Hongwei; Xie, Wei; Li, Xiongbing

    2015-07-01

    Materials are often damaged during the process of detecting mass fractions by traditional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technology combined with wavelet packet analysis is used to evaluate the mass fractions of microcrystalline graphite/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites in this study. Attenuation characteristics of AE signals across the composites with different mass fractions are investigated. The AE signals are decomposed by wavelet packet technology to obtain the relationships between the energy and amplitude attenuation coefficients of feature wavelet packets and mass fractions as well. Furthermore, the relationship is validated by a sample. The larger proportion of microcrystalline graphite will correspond to the higher attenuation of energy and amplitude. The attenuation characteristics of feature wavelet packets with the frequency range from 125 kHz to 171.85 kHz are more suitable for the detection of mass fractions than those of the original AE signals. The error of the mass fraction of microcrystalline graphite calculated by the feature wavelet packet (1.8%) is lower than that of the original signal (3.9%). Therefore, AE detection base on wavelet packet analysis is an ideal NDT method for evaluate mass fractions of composite materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Review of methodology and technology available for the detection of extrasolar planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J. C.; Black, D. C.; Billingham, J.

    1986-01-01

    Anyone undertaking an interstellar voyage might wish to be assured of the existence of a safe planetary harbor at the other end! Aside from the obvious interest of the participants in this Symposium, astronomers and astrophysicists are also eager to detect and study other planetary systems in order to better understand the formation of our own Solar System. Scientists involved in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence argue that planets suitable for the evolution of life may abound elsewhere within our own Milky Way Galaxy. On theoretical grounds, they are probably correct, but they lack any observational support. For in spite of decades of claimed astrometric detections of planetary companions and the recent exciting and tantalizing observations from the IRAS satellite and the IR speckle observations of Van Biesbroeck 8 and other cool stars, there is no unambiguous proof for the existence of another planetary system beyond our own. In this paper we review the various methods for detecting extrasolar planets and briefly describe the Earth and space based technology currently available and discuss the near-term plans to implement these different search techniques. In each case an attempt is made to identify the limiting source of systematic error inherent to the methodology and to assess the potential for technological improvements.

  3. Review of methodology and technology available for the detection of extrasolar planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Tarter, J C; Black, D C; Billingham, J

    1986-01-01

    Anyone undertaking an interstellar voyage might wish to be assured of the existence of a safe planetary harbor at the other end! Aside from the obvious interest of the participants in this Symposium, astronomers and astrophysicists are also eager to detect and study other planetary systems in order to better understand the formation of our own Solar System. Scientists involved in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence argue that planets suitable for the evolution of life may abound elsewhere within our own Milky Way Galaxy. On theoretical grounds, they are probably correct, but they lack any observational support. For in spite of decades of claimed astrometric detections of planetary companions and the recent exciting and tantalizing observations from the IRAS satellite and the IR speckle observations of Van Biesbroeck 8 and other cool stars, there is no unambiguous proof for the existence of another planetary system beyond our own. In this paper we review the various methods for detecting extrasolar planets and briefly describe the Earth and space based technology currently available and discuss the near-term plans to implement these different search techniques. In each case an attempt is made to identify the limiting source of systematic error inherent to the methodology and to assess the potential for technological improvements.

  4. Is Optical Gas Imaging Effective for Detecting Fugitive Methane Emissions? - A Technological and Policy Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, A. P.; Wang, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mitigating fugitive methane emissions from the oil and gas industry has become an important concern for both businesses and regulators. While recent studies have improved our understanding of emissions from all sectors of the natural gas supply chain, cost-effectively identifying leaks over expansive natural gas infrastructure remains a significant challenge. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended the use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to be used in industry-wide leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. However, there has been little to no systematic study of the effectiveness of infrared-camera-based OGI technology for leak detection applications. Here, we develop a physics-based model that simulates a passive infrared camera imaging a methane leak against varying background and ambient conditions. We verify the simulation tool through a series of large-volume controlled release field experiments wherein known quantities of methane were released and imaged from a range of distances. After simulator verification, we analyze the effects of environmental conditions like temperature, wind, and imaging background on the amount of methane detected from a statistically representative survey program. We also examine the effects of LDAR design parameters like imaging distance, leak size distribution, and gas composition. We show that imaging distance strongly affects leak detection - EPA's expectation of a 60% reduction in fugitive emissions based on a semi-annual LDAR survey will be realized only if leaks are imaged at a distance less than 10 m from the source under ideal environmental conditions. Local wind speed is also shown to be important. We show that minimum detection limits are 3 to 4 times higher for wet-gas compositions that contain a significant fraction of ethane and propane, resulting a significantly large leakage rate. We also explore the importance of `super-emitters' on the performance of an OGI-based leak

  5. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (-)-rotundone.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-02-01

    (-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.; Hernández, Luis M.; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae. PMID

  7. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L; Hernández, Luis M; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae.

  8. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

    2009-05-01

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

  9. Prevention and Early Detection of Occupational Cancers - a View of Information Technology Solutions.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Azadmanjir, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of people die each year from cancer due to occupational causes. To reduce cancer in workers, preventive strategies should be used in the high-risk workplace. The effective prevention of occupational cancer requires knowledge of carcinogen agents. Like other areas of healthcare industry, occupational health has been affected by information technology solutions to improve prevention, early detection, treatment and finally the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the healthcare system. Information technology solutions are thus an important issue in the healthcare field. Information about occupational cancer in information systems is important for policy makers, managers, physicians, patients and researchers; because examples that include high quality data about occupational cancer patients and occupational cancer causes are able to determine the worker groups which require special attention. As a result exposed workers who are vulnerable can undergo screening and be considered for preventive interventions.

  10. Review of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technologies for High-Speed Photo-Detection.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gyu-Seob; Bae, Woorham; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    2017-08-25

    The bandwidth requirement of wireline communications has increased exponentially because of the ever-increasing demand for data centers and high-performance computing systems. However, it becomes difficult to satisfy the requirement with legacy electrical links which suffer from frequency-dependent losses due to skin effects, dielectric losses, channel reflections, and crosstalk, resulting in a severe bandwidth limitation. In order to overcome this challenge, it is necessary to introduce optical communication technology, which has been mainly used for long-reach communications, such as long-haul networks and metropolitan area networks, to the medium- and short-reach communication systems. However, there still remain important issues to be resolved to facilitate the adoption of the optical technologies. The most critical challenges are the energy efficiency and the cost competitiveness as compared to the legacy copper-based electrical communications. One possible solution is silicon photonics which has long been investigated by a number of research groups. Despite inherent incompatibility of silicon with the photonic world, silicon photonics is promising and is the only solution that can leverage the mature complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. Silicon photonics can be utilized in not only wireline communications but also countless sensor applications. This paper introduces a brief review of silicon photonics first and subsequently describes the history, overview, and categorization of the CMOS IC technology for high-speed photo-detection without enumerating the complex circuital expressions and terminologies.

  11. Review of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technologies for High-Speed Photo-Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Gyu-Seob

    2017-01-01

    The bandwidth requirement of wireline communications has increased exponentially because of the ever-increasing demand for data centers and high-performance computing systems. However, it becomes difficult to satisfy the requirement with legacy electrical links which suffer from frequency-dependent losses due to skin effects, dielectric losses, channel reflections, and crosstalk, resulting in a severe bandwidth limitation. In order to overcome this challenge, it is necessary to introduce optical communication technology, which has been mainly used for long-reach communications, such as long-haul networks and metropolitan area networks, to the medium- and short-reach communication systems. However, there still remain important issues to be resolved to facilitate the adoption of the optical technologies. The most critical challenges are the energy efficiency and the cost competitiveness as compared to the legacy copper-based electrical communications. One possible solution is silicon photonics which has long been investigated by a number of research groups. Despite inherent incompatibility of silicon with the photonic world, silicon photonics is promising and is the only solution that can leverage the mature complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. Silicon photonics can be utilized in not only wireline communications but also countless sensor applications. This paper introduces a brief review of silicon photonics first and subsequently describes the history, overview, and categorization of the CMOS IC technology for high-speed photo-detection without enumerating the complex circuital expressions and terminologies. PMID:28841154

  12. Technical note: a novel approach to the detection of estrus in dairy cows using ultra-wideband technology.

    PubMed

    Homer, E M; Gao, Y; Meng, X; Dodson, A; Webb, R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2013-10-01

    Detection of estrus is a key determinant of profitability of dairy herds, but estrus is increasingly difficult to observe in the modern dairy cow with shorter duration and less-intense estrus. Concurrent with the unfavorable correlation between milk yield and fertility, estrus-detection rates have declined to less than 50%. We tested ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology (Thales Research & Technology Ltd., Reading, UK) for proof of concept that estrus could be detected in dairy cows (two 1-wk-long trials; n=16 cows, 8 in each test). The 3-dimensional positions of 12 cows with synchronized estrous cycles and 4 pregnant control cows were monitored continuously using UWB mobile units operating within a network of 8 base units for a period of 7d. In the study, 10 cows exhibited estrus as confirmed by visual observation, activity monitoring, and milk progesterone concentrations. Automated software was developed for analysis of UWB data to detect cows in estrus and report the onset of estrus in real time. The UWB technology accurately detected 9 out of 10 cows in estrus. In addition, UWB technology accurately confirmed all 6 cows not in estrus. In conclusion, UWB technology can accurately detect estrus and hence we have demonstrated proof of concept for a novel technology that has significant potential to improve estrus-detection rates. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detecting Smoking Events Using Accelerometer Data Collected Via Smartwatch Technology: Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Cole, Casey A; Anshari, Dien; Lambert, Victoria; Thrasher, James F; Valafar, Homayoun

    2017-12-13

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world today. Ecological research on smoking in context currently relies on self-reported smoking behavior. Emerging smartwatch technology may more objectively measure smoking behavior by automatically detecting smoking sessions using robust machine learning models. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of detecting smoking behavior using smartwatches. The second aim of this study was to compare the success of observing smoking behavior with smartwatches to that of conventional self-reporting. A convenience sample of smokers was recruited for this study. Participants (N=10) recorded 12 hours of accelerometer data using a mobile phone and smartwatch. During these 12 hours, they engaged in various daily activities, including smoking, for which they logged the beginning and end of each smoking session. Raw data were classified as either smoking or nonsmoking using a machine learning model for pattern recognition. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing the output with a detailed description of a modeled smoking session. In total, 120 hours of data were collected from participants and analyzed. The accuracy of self-reported smoking was approximately 78% (96/123). Our model was successful in detecting 100 of 123 (81%) smoking sessions recorded by participants. After eliminating sessions from the participants that did not adhere to study protocols, the true positive detection rate of the smartwatch based-detection increased to more than 90%. During the 120 hours of combined observation time, only 22 false positive smoking sessions were detected resulting in a 2.8% false positive rate. Smartwatch technology can provide an accurate, nonintrusive means of monitoring smoking behavior in natural contexts. The use of machine learning algorithms for passively detecting smoking sessions may enrich ecological momentary assessment protocols and cessation intervention studies that often rely on self

  14. A study of an aroma extraction method and evaluation of the aroma extract contribution to the palatability and reinforcement effect of dried bonito using mice.

    PubMed

    Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Japanese cuisine has provided satisfying meals by fully utilizing the characteristic aroma and taste of katsuodashi (dried bonito broth), though it is not rich in sugars or fats. Katsuodashi is a very basic and indispensable element in Japanese cuisine, and is a hot water extract of katsuobushi (dried bonito). It has been reported that a dextrin solution containing natural dried bonito broth has a significant reinforcement effect, and has been suggested that the olfactory stimulation is important for the reinforcement effect. We examined various source materials for broth and identified an optimal method of aroma extraction by two-bottle choice and conditioned place preference tests in mice. By two-bottle choice tests, a solution containing arabushi (a type of katsuobushi) aroma extract obtained by a supercritical CO2 extraction method showed a significantly high preference. The conditioned place preference test showed the dashi-taste solution with arabushi supercritical CO2 extract had a reinforcement effect. Our results suggest that the arabushi extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction contains components responsible for preference and reinforcement effects in mice; it could become conducive to making Japanese cuisine more satisfying and palatable.

  15. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  16. Evaluation of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies a la chef by stable isotope dilution assays and aroma recombination experiments.

    PubMed

    Christlbauer, Monika; Schieberle, Peter

    2011-12-28

    Although the aroma compounds of meat processed as such have been studied previously, data on complete homemade dishes containing beef and pork meat were scarcely studied. Recently, 38 odor-active compounds were characterized in beef and pork vegetable gravies using GC-olfactometry. In the present investigation, the most odor-active compounds were quantitated in a freshly prepared stewed beef vegetable gravy (BVG) as well as a stewed pork vegetable gravy (PVG) by means of stable isotope dilution assays. Calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecanal, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone as the most potent odorants in both gravies. However, significantly different OAVs were found for 12-methyltridecanal, which was much higher in the BVG, whereas (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal showed a clearly higher OAV in the PVG. Aroma recombination experiments performed on the basis of the actual concentrations of the odorants in both gravies revealed a good similarity of the aromas of both model mixtures containing all odorants with OAVs > 1 with those of the original gravies.

  17. Automated Technology for In-home Fall Risk Assessment and Detection Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Rantz, Marilyn J.; Skubic, Marjorie; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Pak, Youngju; Ho, Dominic K.C.; Stone, Erik E.; Rui, Liyang; Back, Jessica; Miller, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a major problem for older adults. A continuous, unobtrusive, environmentally mounted in-home monitoring system that automatically detects when falls have occurred or when the risk of falling is increasing could alert health care providers and family members so they could intervene to improve physical function or mange illnesses that are precipitating falls. Researchers at the University of Missouri (MU)Center for Eldercare and Rehabilitation Technology are testing such sensor systems for fall risk assessment and detection in older adults’ apartments in a senior living community. Initial results comparing ground truth fall risk assessment data and GAITRite gait parameters with gait parameters captured from Mircosoft Kinect and Pulse-Dopplar radar are reported. PMID:23675644

  18. A Method of Synchrophasor Technology for Detecting and Analyzing Cyber-Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Roy; Al-Sarray, Muthanna

    Studying cybersecurity events and analyzing their impacts encourage planners and operators to develop innovative approaches for preventing attacks in order to avoid outages and other disruptions. This work considers two parts in security studies; detecting an integrity attack and examining its effects on power system generators. The detection was conducted through employing synchrophasor technology to provide authentication of ACG commands based on observed system operating characteristics. The examination of an attack is completed via a detailed simulation of a modified IEEE 68-bus benchmark model to show the associated power system dynamic response. The results of the simulation are discussed formore » assessing the impacts of cyber threats.« less

  19. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology. [satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  20. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  1. "Off-On"switching electrochemiluminescence biosensor for mercury(II) detection based on molecular recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Wei, BingGuo; He, Ling Ling; Mao, Ling; Zhang, Jie; Ceng, JinXiang; Kong, DeRong; Chen, ChaDan; Cui, HanFeng; Hong, Nian; Fan, Hao

    2017-02-01

    A novel "off-On" electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been developed for the detection of mercury(II) based on molecular recognition technology. The ECL mercury(II) biosensor comprises two main parts: an ECL substrate and an ECL intensity switch. The ECL substrate was made by modifying the complex of Ruthenium(II) tris-(bipyridine)(Ru(bpy) 3 2+ )/Cyclodextrins-Au nanoparticles(CD-AuNps)/Nafion on the surface of glass carbon electrode (GCE), and the ECL intensity switch is the single hairpin DNA probe designed according to the "molecular recognition" strategy which was functionalized with ferrocene tag at one end and attached to Cyclodextrins (CD) on modified GCE through supramolecular noncovalent interaction. We demonstrated that, in the absence of Hg(II) ion, the probe keeps single hairpin structure and resulted in a quenching of ECL of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Whereas, in the presence of Hg(II) ion, the probe prefers to form the T-Hg(II)-T complex and lead to an obvious recovery of ECL of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ , which provided a sensing platform for the detection of Hg(II) ion. Using this sensing platform, a simple, rapid and selective "off-On" ECL biosensor for the detection of mercury(II) with a detection limit of 0.1 nM has been developed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A Novel Displacement and Tilt Detection Method Using Passive UHF RFID Technology.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaozheng; Cai, Zhirong; Xie, Zeming; Zhu, Hailong

    2018-05-21

    The displacement and tilt angle of an object are useful information for wireless monitoring applications. In this paper, a low-cost detection method based on passive radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is proposed. This method uses a standard ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID reader to measure the phase variation of the tag response and detect the displacement and tilt angle of RFID tags attached to the targeted object. An accurate displacement result can be detected by the RFID system with a linearly polarized (LP) reader antenna. Based on the displacement results, an accurate tilt angle can also be detected by the RFID system with a circularly polarized (CP) reader antenna, which has been proved to have a linear relationship with the phase parameter of the tag’s backscattered wave. As far as accuracy is concerned, the mean absolute error (MAE) of displacement is less than 2 mm and the MAE of the tilt angle is less than 2.5° for an RFID system with 500 mm working range.

  3. Computer-Aided Detection of Prostate Cancer with MRI: Technology and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lizhi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    One in six men will develop prostate cancer in his life time. Early detection and accurate diagnosis of the disease can improve cancer survival and reduce treatment costs. Recently, imaging of prostate cancer has greatly advanced since the introduction of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Mp-MRI consists of T2-weighted sequences combined with functional sequences including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and MR spectroscopy imaging. Due to the big data and variations in imaging sequences, detection can be affected by multiple factors such as observer variability and visibility and complexity of the lesions. In order to improve quantitative assessment of the disease, various computer-aided detection systems have been designed to help radiologists in their clinical practice. This review paper presents an overview of literatures on computer-aided detection of prostate cancer with mp-MRI, which include the technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. PMID:27133005

  4. Computer-aided Detection of Prostate Cancer with MRI: Technology and Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Fei, Baowei

    2016-08-01

    One in six men will develop prostate cancer in his lifetime. Early detection and accurate diagnosis of the disease can improve cancer survival and reduce treatment costs. Recently, imaging of prostate cancer has greatly advanced since the introduction of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Mp-MRI consists of T2-weighted sequences combined with functional sequences including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. Because of the big data and variations in imaging sequences, detection can be affected by multiple factors such as observer variability and visibility and complexity of the lesions. To improve quantitative assessment of the disease, various computer-aided detection systems have been designed to help radiologists in their clinical practice. This review paper presents an overview of literatures on computer-aided detection of prostate cancer with mp-MRI, which include the technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection technology of polarization target based on curvelet transform in turbid liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Duan, Jin; Fu, Qiang; Zhan, Juntong; Ma, Wanzhuo

    2015-08-01

    To suppress the interference of the target detecting in the turbid medium, a kind of polarization detection technology based on Curvelet transform was applied. This method firstly adjusts the angles of polarizing film to get the intensity images of the situations at 0°,60° and 120°, then deduces the images of Stokes vectors, degree of polarization (DOP) and polarization angle (PA) according to the Mueller matrix. At last the DOP and intensity images can be decomposed by Curvelet transform to realize the fusion of the high and low coefficients respectively, after the processed coefficients are reconstructed, the target which is easier to detect can be achieved. To prove this method, many targets in turbid medium have been detected by polarization method and fused their DOP and intensity images with Curvelet transform algorithm. As an example screws in moderate and high concentration liquid are presented respectively, from which we can see the unpolarized targets are less obvious in higher concentration liquid. When the DOP and intensity images are fused by Curvelet transform, the targets are emerged clearly out of the turbid medium, and the values of the quality evaluation parameters in clarity, degree of contract and spatial frequency are prominently enhanced comparing with the unpolarized images, which can show the feasibility of this method.

  6. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  7. Technologic developments in the field of photonics for the detection of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Scott; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-12-01

    Bladder cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in an aging population. Each year, thousands of people, mostly men, are diagnosed with this disease, but many of them present too late to receive optimal treatment. As with all cancers, early diagnosis of bladder cancer significantly improves the efficacy of therapy and increases survival and recurrence-free survival rates. Ongoing research has identified many limitations about the sensitivity of standard diagnostic procedures in detecting early-stage tumors and precancerous changes. The consequences of this are often tumor progression and increased tumor burden, leading to a decrease in patient quality of life and a vast increase in treatment costs. The necessity for improved early detection of bladder cancer has spurred on research into novel methods that use a wide range of biological and photonic phenomena. This review will broadly discuss standard detection methodologies and their major limitations before covering novel photonic techniques for early tumor detection and staging, assessing their diagnostic accuracy for flat and precancerous changes. We will do so in the context of both cystoscopic examination and the screening of voided urine and will also touch on the concept of using photonic technology as a surgical tool for tumor ablation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Establishment of animal model for Pneumocystis carinii and study on etiological and molecular biological detection technology].

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-guang; Ai, Lin; Chu, Yan-hong; Wu, Xiu-ping; Cai, Yu-chun; Chen, Zhuo; Chen, Shao-hong; Chen, Jia-xu

    2015-04-01

    To establish an animal model for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and to study the etiological and molecular biological technology for PCP detection. SD and Wistar rats were divided into experimental and control groups randomly. The animals in the experimental group were immunosuppressed by subcutaneous injection with dexamethasone 2 mg per time per rat, twice a week, while those in the control group underwent the same way of injection with physiological saline simultaneously. After the induction for 8 weeks, all the rats were killed and their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected for smear making and microscopic detection. Meanwhile, the BALF samples were detected by PCR, and the products were sequenced and compared with rat source PCP in GenBank. A total of 34 samples of lung tissue and BALF were observed. The etiological detection showed that the infection rates of the rats in the experimental and control groups were 29.2% (7/24) and 0, respectively. In the experimental group, the infection rates of SD and Wistar rats were 25.0% (3/12) and 33.3% (4/12), respectively, and the difference between them was not statistically significant (P = 0.31). The positive detection rates of the lung smears and BALF from SD rats in the experimental group were 25.0% (3/12) and 16.7% (2/12), respectively, while those in Wistar rats in the experimental group were 33.3% (4/12) and 16.7% (2/12), respectively, and there were no statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.34, 0.24). A total of 28 samples of BALF were detected by PCR, and the positive detection rates of rats in the experimental group and control group were 91.7% (26/28) and 0, respectively. The sequence analysis of the PCR products showed that it shared 100% homology with the genes of rat source PCP in Gen Bank (JX499145, GU133622 and EF646865). The animal model of PCP can be established by subcutaneous injection with dexamethasone. As animal models, there are no significant

  9. Life Finder Detectors: An Overview of Detector Technologies for Detecting Life on Other Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Noroozian, Omid; Norton, Tim; Kutyrev, Alexander; Rinehart, Stephen; stock, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Future large space telescopes will seek evidence for life on other worlds by searching for spectroscopic biosignatures. Atmospheric biosignature gases include oxygen, ozone, water vapor, and methane. Non-biological gases, including carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are important for discriminating false positives. All of these gases imprint spectroscopic features in the UV through mid-IR that are potentially detectable using future space based coronagraphs or star shades for starlight suppression.Direct spectroscopic biosignature detection requires sensors capable of robustly measuring photon arrival rates on the order of 10 per resolution element per hour. Photon counting is required for some wavefront sensing and control approaches to achieve the requisite high contrast ratios. We review life finder detector technologies that either exist today, or are under development, that have the potential to meet these challenging requirements. We specifically highlight areas where more work or development is needed.Life finder detectors will be invaluable for a wide variety of other major science programs. Because of its cross cutting nature; UV, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) detector development features prominently in the 2010 National Research Council Decadal Survey, 'New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics', and the NASA Cosmic Origins Program Technology Roadmap.

  10. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis.

  11. Celluclast 1.5L pretreatment enhanced aroma of palm kernels and oil after kernel roasting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wencan; Zhao, Fangju; Yang, Tiankui; Zhao, Feifei; Liu, Shaoquan

    2017-12-01

    The aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO) affects its applications. Little information is available on how enzymatic modification of palm kernels (PK) affects PK and PKO aroma after kernel roasting. Celluclast (cellulase) pretreatment of PK resulted in a 2.4-fold increment in the concentration of soluble sugars, with glucose being increased by 6.0-fold. Higher levels of 1.7-, 1.8- and 1.9-fold of O-heterocyclic volatile compounds were found in the treated PK after roasting at 180 °C for 8, 14 and 20 min respectively relative to the corresponding control, with furfural, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2-furanmethanol and maltol in particularly higher amounts. Volatile differences between PKOs from control and treated PK were also found, though less obvious owing to the aqueous extraction process. Principal component analysis based on aroma-active compounds revealed that upon the proceeding of roasting, the differentiation between control and treated PK was enlarged while that of corresponding PKOs was less clear-cut. Celluclast pretreatment enabled the medium roasted PK to impart more nutty, roasty and caramelic odor and the corresponding PKO to impart more caramelic but less roasty and burnt notes. Celluclast pretreatment of PK followed by roasting may be a promising new way of improving PKO aroma. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

  13. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of volatile compounds associated with the aroma of white strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis).

    PubMed

    Prat, Loreto; Espinoza, María Inés; Agosin, Eduardo; Silva, Herman

    2014-03-15

    Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Mill spp. chiloensis form chiloensis, is a strawberry that produces white fruits with unique aromas. This species, endemic to Chile, is one of the progenitors of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. In order to identify the volatile compounds that might be responsible for aroma, these were extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and compared with sensory analyses. Three methods of extraction were used: solvent-assisted evaporation (SAFE), headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Ninety-nine volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS, of which 75 showed odor activity using GC-O. Based on the highest dilution factor (FD = 1000) and GC-O intensity ≥2, we determined 20 major compounds in white strawberry fruit that contribute to its aroma. We chose 51 compounds to be tested against their commercial standards. The identities were confirmed by comparison of their linear retention indices against the commercial standards. The aroma of white strawberry fruits was reconstituted with a synthetic mixture of most of these compounds. The volatile profile of white strawberry fruit described as fruity, green-fresh, floral, caramel, sweet, nutty and woody will be a useful reference for future strawberry breeding programs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

    2010-06-23

    Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds.

  17. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Petra; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-07-25

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the volatiles isolated from a commercial Japanese soy sauce revealed 30 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096, among which 2-phenylethanol showed the highest FD factor of 4096, followed by 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional), the tautomers 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl- and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDF), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolone), all showing FD factors of 1024. Thirteen odorants were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations and odor thresholds in water. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), sotolone (seasoning-like), 4-HEMF (caramel-like), 2-methylbutanal (malty), methional (cooked potato), ethanol (alcoholic), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest OAVs (>200). An aqueous model aroma mixture containing 13 odorants, which had been identified with the highest OAVs, in concentrations that occur in the soy sauce showed a good similarity with the overall aroma of the soy sauce itself. Heat treatment of the soy sauce resulted in a clear change of the overall aroma. Quantitation of selected odorants revealed a significant decrease in sotolone and, in particular, increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-HDMF, and 4-HEMF induced by heating.

  18. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Identification of QTLs controlling aroma volatiles using a 'Fortune' x 'Murcott' (Citrus reticulata) population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavor is an important attribute of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and flavor improvement via conventional breeding is very challenging largely due to the complexity of the flavor components and traits. Many aroma associated volatiles of citrus fruit have been identified, which are directly rel...

  20. Aroma characterization of tangerine hybrids by gas-chromatography-olfactometry and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takayuki; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I; Gmitter, Fred G

    2012-03-15

    Tangerines have a distinct flavor among citrus fruit. However, information on tangerine volatiles remains limited. Volatile compounds from a breeding population of tangerines were earlier identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In this study, five hybrids with a distinct volatile profile were analyzed by gas-chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and descriptive sensory analysis. Forty-nine aroma active compounds were found in a consensus by GC-O. Aldehydes were the most important group with odor activity, as well as monoterpenes, esters, alcohols and ketones. 1,8-Cineole, β-myrcene, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, hexanal, ethyl-2-methylbutanoate, and linalool were perceived with high intensity in most samples. Two 'Clementine' × 'Minneola' and one 'Fortune' × 'Murcott' hybrids with tangerine, sulfury and woody/spicy flavors had aroma active compounds with terpeney, fatty/vegetable and metallic/rubber descriptors. A tangerine with 'Valencia' orange in its parentage had a characteristic orange flavor, which could be explained by esters and ketones, high in fruity and floral odor intensities. A hybrid of unknown origin had a distinct fruity-non-citrus and pumpkin/fatty flavor; that sample had the lowest amount of aroma-active volatiles, with the least compounds with terpeney odors. There was no one compound characteristic of tangerine flavor. Nevertheless, each sample sensory characteristic could be explained by a set of aroma-active volatile compounds.

  1. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  2. DNA tests for strawberry: mesifurane "sherry" aroma - FaOMT-SI/NO

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The amazing flavor and texture in strawberries is caused by a complex balance of numerous sugars and aromatic compounds. One of the most important aromatic compounds contributing to the flavor we have come to love in strawberries is mesifurane. Mesifurane produces a sweet sherry-like aroma and incre...

  3. Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Martin, F; Cachon, R; Pernin, K; De Coninck, J; Gervais, P; Guichard, E; Cayot, N

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-quality Italian rice cultivars: chemical indices of ageing and aroma quality.

    PubMed

    Griglione, Alessandra; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Bressanello, Davide; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The volatile fractions of six Italian high-quality rice cultivars were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS to define fingerprinting and identify chemical markers and/or indices of ageing and aroma quality. In particular, four non-aromatic (Carnaroli, Carnise, Cerere and Antares) and two aromatic (Apollo and Venere) rices, harvested in 2010 and 2011, were monitored over 12months. Twenty-five aroma components were considered and, despite considerable inter-annual variability, some of them showed similar trends over time, including 2-(E)-octenal as a marker of ageing for all cultivars, and heptanal, octanal and 2-ethyl hexanol as cultivar-specific indicators. The area ratios 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline/1-octen-3-ol, for Venere, and 3-methyl-1-butanol/2-methyl-1-butanol, for Apollo, were also found to act as ageing indices. Additional information on release of key-aroma compounds was also obtained from quantitation and its dependence on grain shape and chemical composition. Heptanal/1-octen-3-ol and heptanal/octanal ratios were also defined as characterising the aroma quality indices of the six Italian rice cultivars investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  6. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds.

    PubMed

    Spada, Fernanda Papa; Zerbeto, Lais Masson; Ragazi, Gabriel Bernardes Cabreira; Gutierrez, Érika Maria Roel; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Parker, Jane K; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2017-02-15

    Jackfruit seeds are an underutilized waste in many tropical countries. This work demonstrates the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying and then roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n = 162), and response surface methodology was used to identify optimum conditions. The results indicated a significant and positive influence of fermentation and acidification on the production of chocolate aroma. SPME/GC-MS of the flours showed that important aroma compounds such as 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate were substantially higher in the fermented product and that the more severe roasting conditions produced 2-3 times more 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, but less 3-methylbutanal. Moisture, a w , pH, luminosity, and color were also monitored to ensure that these properties were similar to those of cocoa powder or cocoa substitutes.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife detection and observation technologies at a solar power tower facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Cryan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Michael J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife. PMID:27462989

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  11. Effectiveness of Several NDE Technologies in Detecting Moisture Pockets and: Artificial Defects in Sawn Timber and Glulam

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Christopher Adam Senalik; Xiping Wang; Frank Jalinoos

    2016-01-01

    Several nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies were studied to determine their efficacy as scanning devices to detect internal moisture and artificial decay pockets. Large bridge-sized test specimens, including sawn timber and glued-laminated timber members, were fabricated with various internal defects. NDE Technologies evaluated in this research were ground...

  12. Active infrared thermal imaging technology to detect the corrosion defects in aircraft cargo door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Cunlin; Zeng, Zhi; Xing, Chunfei; Li, Yanhong

    2009-11-01

    Aircraft fuselage material corrosion problems have been major aviation security issues, which hinder the development of aviation industry. How can we use non-destructive testing methods to detect the internal corrosion defects from the outside of the fuselage, to find the hidden safety problems in advance and update the defective equipment and materials, has great significance for the prevention of accidents. Nowadays, the active infrared thermal imaging technology as a new nondestructive technology has been gradually used on a wide variety of materials, such as composite, metal and so on. This article makes use of this technology on an aircraft cargo door specimen to detect the corrosion defects. Firstly, use High-energy flash pulse to excite the specimen, and use the thermal image processing software to splice the thermal images, so the thermal images of the overall specimen can be showed. Then, heat the defects by ultrasonic excitation, this will cause vibration and friction or thermoelastic effects in the places of defects, so the ultrasonic energy will dissipate into heat and manifested in the uneven temperature of surface. An Infrared camera to capture the changes of temperature of material surface, send data to the computer and records the thermal information of the defects. Finally, extracting data and drawing infrared radiation-time curve of some selected points of interest to analyze the signal changes in heat of defects further more. The results of the experiments show that both of the two ways of heat excitation show a clear position and shape of defects, and the ultrasonic method has more obvious effect of excitation to the defects, and a higher signal to noise ratio than the flash pulse excitation, but flash pulse method do not contact the specimen in the process of excitation, and shows the location and shape of defects in the overall of the specimen has its advantages.

  13. Motion-Based System Identification and Fault Detection and Isolation Technologies for Thruster Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward; Sutter, David W.; Berkovitz, Dustin; Betts, Bradley J.; Kong, Edmund; delMundo, Rommel; Lages, Christopher R.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing the motions of a thruster-controlled spacecraft, it is possible to provide on-line (1) thruster fault detection and isolation (FDI), and (2) vehicle mass- and thruster-property identification (ID). Technologies developed recently at NASA Ames have significantly improved the speed and accuracy of these ID and FDI capabilities, making them feasible for application to a broad class of spacecraft. Since these technologies use existing sensors, the improved system robustness and performance that comes with the thruster fault tolerance and system ID can be achieved through a software-only implementation. This contrasts with the added cost, mass, and hardware complexity commonly required by FDI. Originally developed in partnership with NASA - Johnson Space Center to provide thruster FDI capability for the X-38 during re-entry, these technologies are most recently being applied to the MIT SPHERES experimental spacecraft to fly on the International Space Station in 2004. The model-based FDI uses a maximum-likelihood calculation at its core, while the ID is based upon recursive least squares estimation. Flight test results from the SPHERES implementation, as flown aboard the NASA KC-1 35A 0-g simulator aircraft in November 2003 are presented.

  14. Potential use of ground-based sensor technologies for weed detection.

    PubMed

    Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Weis, Martin; Andújar, Dionisio; Rueda Ayala, Victor; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Site-specific weed management is the part of precision agriculture (PA) that tries to effectively control weed infestations with the least economical and environmental burdens. This can be achieved with the aid of ground-based or near-range sensors in combination with decision rules and precise application technologies. Near-range sensor technologies, developed for mounting on a vehicle, have been emerging for PA applications during the last three decades. These technologies focus on identifying plants and measuring their physiological status with the aid of their spectral and morphological characteristics. Cameras, spectrometers, fluorometers and distance sensors are the most prominent sensors for PA applications. The objective of this article is to describe-ground based sensors that have the potential to be used for weed detection and measurement of weed infestation level. An overview of current sensor systems is presented, describing their concepts, results that have been achieved, already utilized commercial systems and problems that persist. A perspective for the development of these sensors is given. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Automated Micro-Object Detection for Mobile Diagnostics Using Lens-Free Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mohendra; Seo, Dongmin; Oh, Sangwoo; Chae, Yeonghun; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Seo, Sungkyu

    2016-01-01

    Lens-free imaging technology has been extensively used recently for microparticle and biological cell analysis because of its high throughput, low cost, and simple and compact arrangement. However, this technology still lacks a dedicated and automated detection system. In this paper, we describe a custom-developed automated micro-object detection method for a lens-free imaging system. In our previous work (Roy et al.), we developed a lens-free imaging system using low-cost components. This system was used to generate and capture the diffraction patterns of micro-objects and a global threshold was used to locate the diffraction patterns. In this work we used the same setup to develop an improved automated detection and analysis algorithm based on adaptive threshold and clustering of signals. For this purpose images from the lens-free system were then used to understand the features and characteristics of the diffraction patterns of several types of samples. On the basis of this information, we custom-developed an automated algorithm for the lens-free imaging system. Next, all the lens-free images were processed using this custom-developed automated algorithm. The performance of this approach was evaluated by comparing the counting results with standard optical microscope results. We evaluated the counting results for polystyrene microbeads, red blood cells, HepG2, HeLa, and MCF7 cells lines. The comparison shows good agreement between the systems, with a correlation coefficient of 0.91 and linearity slope of 0.877. We also evaluated the automated size profiles of the microparticle samples. This Wi-Fi-enabled lens-free imaging system, along with the dedicated software, possesses great potential for telemedicine applications in resource-limited settings. PMID:27164146

  16. Development of the electromagnetic technology for broken rail detection from a mobil platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Raghunathan, Arun; Kumar, Ajith; Noffsinger, Joseph; Fries, Jeffrey; Ehret, Steven; Frangieh, Tannous; Palanganda, Samhitha

    2016-02-01

    Timely detection of breaks in running rails remains a topic of significant importance for the railroad industry. GE has been investigating new ideas of the Rail Integrity Monitoring or RIM technology that can be implemented on a wide range of the rolling stock platforms including locomotives, passenger and freight cars. The focus of the project is to establish a simple, non-contact, and inexpensive means of nondestructive inspection by fusion of known solutions with new technology development that can result in detection with high reliability. A scaled down model of a typical locomotive-track system has been developed at GE Global research for detailed study of the detection process. In addition, a finite element model has been established and used to understand distribution of the magnetic field and currents in such a system. Both models have been using the rails and wheel-axles geometry to establish a realistic model that would provide the electric current and magnetic field distribution close to the real world phenomenon. Initial magnetic field maps were obtained by scanning a 1:15 model constructed of steel bars using a 3D scanner and an inductive coil. Sensitivity to a broken rail located between two locomotive axles simulated by an opening in this metallic frame was demonstrated. Further investigation and optimization was conducted on a larger, 1:3 scale, physical model and by running mathematical simulations. Special attention was paid to consistency between the finite element and physical model results. The obtained results allowed establishment of a working frequency range, inductive current injection into the rail-wheel-axle loop and measuring the electromagnetic response to a broken rail. The verification and full scale system prototype tests are following the laboratory experiments and mathematical simulations.

  17. Detection and Analysis of Enamel Cracks by Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence Technology.

    PubMed

    Jun, Mi-Kyoung; Ku, Hye-Min; Kim, Euiseong; Kim, Hee-Eun; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2016-03-01

    The ability to accurately detect tooth cracks and quantify their depth would allow the prediction of crack progression and treatment success. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the capabilities of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology in the detection of enamel cracks. Ninety-six extracted human teeth were selected for examining naturally existing or suspected cracked teeth surfaces using a photocuring unit. QLF performed with a digital camera (QLF-D) images were used to assess the ability to detect enamel cracks based on the maximum fluorescence loss value (ΔFmax, %), which was then analyzed using the QLF-D software. A histologic evaluation was then performed in which the samples were sectioned and observed with the aid of a polarized light microscope. The relationship between ΔFmax and the histology findings was assessed based on the Spearman rank correlation. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated to evaluate the validity of using QLF-D to analyze enamel inner-half cracks and cracks extending to the dentin-enamel junction. There was a strong correlation between the results of histologic evaluations of enamel cracks and the ΔFmax value, with a correlation coefficient of 0.84. The diagnostic accuracy of QLF-D had a sensitivity of 0.87 and a specificity of 0.98 for enamel inner-half cracks and a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 1.0 for cracks extending to the dentin-enamel junction. These results indicate that QLF technology would be a useful clinical tool for diagnosing enamel cracks, especially given that this is a nondestructive method. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceptual Characterization and Analysis of Aroma Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Arielle J.; Hirson, Gregory D.; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R), that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1). Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to “cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the “reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola ‘Hidcote Blue’) as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of “lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor. PMID:22912722

  19. Perceptual characterization and analysis of aroma mixtures using gas chromatography recomposition-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Hirson, Gregory D; Ebeler, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R), that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1). Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to "cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the "reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola 'Hidcote Blue') as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of "lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.

  20. Studies on the key aroma compounds in raw (unheated) and heated Japanese soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2013-04-10

    An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from a raw Japanese soy sauce and the heated soy sauce revealed 40 key aroma compounds including 7 newly identified compounds. Among them, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048, followed by 3-(methylthio)propanal, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone having FD factors from 128 to 512 in the raw soy sauce. Furthermore, comparative AEDAs, a quantitative analysis, and a sensory analysis demonstrated that whereas most of the key aroma compounds in the raw soy sauce were common in the heated soy sauce, some of the Strecker aldehydes and 4-vinylphenols contributed less to the raw soy sauce aroma. The model decarboxylation reactions of the phenolic acids during heating of the raw soy sauce revealed that although all reactions resulted in low yields, the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were much more reactive than the hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives due to the stable reaction intermediates. Besides the quantitative analyses of the soy sauces, the estimation of the reaction yields of the phenolic compounds in the heated soy sauce revealed that although only the 4-vinylphenols increased during heating of the raw soy sauce, they might not mainly be formed as decarboxylation products from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids but from the other proposed precursors, such as lignin, shakuchirin, and esters with arabinoxylan.

  1. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Two Commercial Rums by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    Two rums differing in their overall aroma profile and price level (rum A, high price; rum B, low price) were analyzed by means of the Sensomics approach. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on a distillate of volatiles prepared from rum A revealed 40 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 8 to 2048. The identification experiments indicated cis-whiskey lactone, vanillin, decanoic acid, and 2- and 3-methylbutanol with the highest FD factors. The AEDA of a distillate prepared from rum B showed only 26 aroma-active compounds in the same FD factor range. Among them, in particular, ethyl butanoate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and decanoic acid appeared with the highest FD factors. Thirty-seven compounds having at least an FD factor ≥32 in one of the two rums were quantitated using stable isotope dilution assays or enzyme kits (2 compounds). The calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) indicated ethanol, vanillin, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and (E)-β-damascenone with the highest OAVs in rum A, whereas ethanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanal, and ethyl butanoate revealed the highest OAVs in rum B. Most compounds were present in similar concentrations in both rums, but significant differences were determined for vanillin, cis-whiskey lactone, and 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (all higher in rum A) and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, and ethyl butanoate (all higher in rum B). Finally, the aromas of both rums were successfully simulated by a recombinate using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they naturally occurred in the spirits.

  2. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  3. [A comparison between effects of aroma massage and meridian massage on constipation and stress in women college students].

    PubMed

    Chung, Miyoung; Choi, Euysoon

    2011-02-01

    This study was done to compare the effects of abdominal aroma massage and meridian massage on constipation and stress in college women with functional constipation. The participants were 38 college women, 18 were in the aroma group and 20 in the meridian group. The aroma massage was given using aroma oil which was a mixture of lemon, lavender, rosemary, and cyprus. The meridian massage was given at 9 accupoints which influence intestinal functions. The treatment was given 5 days a week for 4 weeks. A constipation severity score, weekly defecation frequency, and a stress response score were measured before and every week of 4 weeks of the experiment. While there was no significant difference between two groups, there was a significant difference within the groups in the constipation severity (aroma group: 1st week, meridian group: except 4th week), defecation frequency (aroma group: 3rd week, meridian group: 2nd and 3rd week), and stress (aroma group: all weeks, meridian group: except 4th week) after different duration of experiment. Based on these results, both abdominal massages relieved constipation and stress. Resorting to either types of massage will contribute to the reduction of use of stool softeners, suppositories, or enemas.

  4. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  5. Wearable technology and ECG processing for fall risk assessment, prevention and detection.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Paolo; Castaldo, Rossana; Sannino, Giovanna; Orrico, Ada; de Pietro, Giuseppe; Pecchia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Falls represent one of the most common causes of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life. Subjects with cardiovascular disorders (e.g., related to autonomic dysfunctions and postural hypotension) are at higher risk of falling. Autonomic dysfunctions increasing the risk of falling in the short and mid-term could be assessed by Heart Rate Variability (HRV) extracted by electrocardiograph (ECG). We developed three trials for assessing the usefulness of ECG monitoring using wearable devices for: risk assessment of falling in the next few weeks; prevention of imminent falls due to standing hypotension; and fall detection. Statistical and data-mining methods are adopted to develop classification and regression models, validated with the cross-validation approach. The first classifier based on HRV features enabled to identify future fallers among hypertensive patients with an accuracy of 72% (sensitivity: 51.1%, specificity: 80.2%). The regression model to predict falls due to orthostatic dropdown from HRV recorded before standing achieved an overall accuracy of 80% (sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 90%). Finally, the classifier to detect simulated falls using ECG achieved an accuracy of 77.3% (sensitivity: 81.8%, specificity: 72.7%). The evidence from these three studies showed that ECG monitoring and processing could achieve satisfactory performances compared to other system for risk assessment, fall prevention and detection. This is interesting as differently from other technologies actually employed to prevent falls, ECG is recommended for many other pathologies of later life and is more accepted by senior citizens.

  6. Evaluation of Flinders Technology Associates cards for storage and molecular detection of avian metapneumoviruses.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Baylis, Matthew; Jones, Richard C; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for the molecular detection of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was investigated. Findings showed that no virus isolation was possible from aMPV-inoculated FTA cards, confirming viral inactivation upon contact with the cards. The detection limits of aMPV from the FTA card and tracheal organ culture medium were 10(1.5) median ciliostatic doses/ml and 10(0.75) median ciliostatic doses/ml respectively. It was possible to perform molecular characterization of both subtypes A and B aMPV using inoculated FTA cards stored for up to 60 days at 4 to 6°C. Tissues of the turbinate, trachea and lung of aMPV-infected chicks sampled either by direct impression smears or by inoculation of the tissue homogenate supernatants onto the FTA cards were positive by RT-PCR. However, the latter yielded more detections. FTA cards are suitable for collecting and transporting aMPV-positive samples, providing a reliable and hazard-free source of RNA for molecular characterization.

  7. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco; Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda; Puiu, Adriana

    2010-11-01

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  8. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  9. DHPLC technology for high-throughput detection of mutations in a durum wheat TILLING population.

    PubMed

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Incerti, Ornella; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2016-02-17

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) is a cereal crop widely grown in the Mediterranean regions; the amber grain is mainly used for the production of pasta, couscous and typical breads. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection technologies and high-throughput mutation induction represent a new challenge in wheat breeding to identify allelic variation in large populations. The TILLING strategy makes use of traditional chemical mutagenesis followed by screening for single base mismatches to identify novel mutant loci. Although TILLING has been combined to several sensitive pre-screening methods for SNP analysis, most rely on expensive equipment. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been used in molecular human diagnostic to detect unknown mutations. In this work, we developed a new durum wheat TILLING population (cv. Marco Aurelio) using 0.70-0.85% ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). To investigate the efficiency of the mutagenic treatments, a pilot screening was carried out on 1,140 mutant lines focusing on two target genes (Lycopene epsilon-cyclase, ε-LCY, and Lycopene beta-cyclase, β-LCY) involved in carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains. We simplify the heteroduplex detection by two low cost methods: the enzymatic cleavage (CelI)/agarose gel technique and the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). The CelI/agarose gel approach allowed us to identify 31 mutations, whereas the DHPLC procedure detected a total of 46 mutations for both genes. All detected mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. The estimated overall mutation frequency for the pilot assay by the DHPLC methodology resulted to be of 1/77 kb, representing a high probability to detect interesting mutations in the target genes. We demonstrated the applicability and efficiency of a new strategy for the detection of induced variability. We produced and characterized a new durum wheat TILLING population useful for a better understanding of key gene functions

  10. Combining Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry and Scanning Laser Polarimetry for Glaucoma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Warren, Joshua L.; Hochberg, Jessica T.; Budenz, Donald L.; Chang, Robert T.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ability of frequency doubling technology (FDT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx-VCC) to detect glaucoma when used individually and in combination. Methods One hundred and ten normal and 114 glaucomatous subjects were tested with FDT C-20-5 screening protocol and the GDx-VCC. The discriminating ability was tested for each device individually and for both devices combined using GDx-NFI, GDx-TSNIT, number of missed points of FDT, and normal or abnormal FDT. Measures of discrimination included sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), Akaike’s information criterion (AIC), and prediction confidence interval lengths (PIL). Results For detecting glaucoma regardless of severity, the multivariable model resulting from the combination of GDX-TSNIT, number of abnormal points on FDT (NAP-FDT), and the interaction GDx-TSNIT * NAP-FDT (AIC: 88.28, AUC: 0.959, sensitivity: 94.6%, specificity: 89.5%) outperformed the best single variable model provided by GDx-NFI (AIC: 120.88, AUC: 0.914, sensitivity: 87.8%, specificity: 84.2%). The multivariable model combining GDx-TSNIT, NAPFDT, and interaction GDx-TSNIT*NAP-FDT consistently provided better discriminating abilities for detecting early, moderate and severe glaucoma than the best single variable models. Conclusions The multivariable model including GDx-TSNIT, NAP-FDT, and the interaction GDX-TSNIT * NAP-FDT provides the best glaucoma prediction compared to all other multivariable and univariable models. Combining the FDT C-20-5 screening protocol and GDx-VCC improves glaucoma detection compared to using GDx or FDT alone. PMID:24777046

  11. Combining Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry and Scanning Laser Polarimetry for Glaucoma Detection.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Warren, Joshua L; Hochberg, Jessica T; Budenz, Donald L; Chang, Robert T; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ability of frequency doubling technology (FDT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx-VCC) to detect glaucoma when used individually and in combination. One hundred ten normal and 114 glaucomatous subjects were tested with FDT C-20-5 screening protocol and the GDx-VCC. The discriminating ability was tested for each device individually and for both devices combined using GDx-NFI, GDx-TSNIT, number of missed points of FDT, and normal or abnormal FDT. Measures of discrimination included sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and prediction confidence interval lengths. For detecting glaucoma regardless of severity, the multivariable model resulting from the combination of GDx-TSNIT, number of abnormal points on FDT (NAP-FDT), and the interaction GDx-TSNIT×NAP-FDT (AIC: 88.28, AUC: 0.959, sensitivity: 94.6%, specificity: 89.5%) outperformed the best single-variable model provided by GDx-NFI (AIC: 120.88, AUC: 0.914, sensitivity: 87.8%, specificity: 84.2%). The multivariable model combining GDx-TSNIT, NAP-FDT, and interaction GDx-TSNIT×NAP-FDT consistently provided better discriminating abilities for detecting early, moderate, and severe glaucoma than the best single-variable models. The multivariable model including GDx-TSNIT, NAP-FDT, and the interaction GDx-TSNIT×NAP-FDT provides the best glaucoma prediction compared with all other multivariable and univariable models. Combining the FDT C-20-5 screening protocol and GDx-VCC improves glaucoma detection compared with using GDx or FDT alone.

  12. [The fundamental role of stage control technology on the detectability for Salmonella networking laboratory].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong-ming; Chen, Xiu-hua; Xu, Wen; Jin, Hui-ming; Li, Chao-qun; Liang, Wei-li; Wang, Duo-chun; Yan, Mei-ying; Lou, Jing; Kan, Biao; Ran, Lu; Cui, Zhi-gang; Wang, Shu-kun; Xu, Xue-bin

    2013-11-01

    To evaluated the fundamental role of stage control technology (SCT) on the detectability for Salmonella networking laboratories. Appropriate Salmonella detection methods after key point control being evaluated, were establishment and optimized. Our training and evaluation networking laboratories participated in the World Health Organization-Global Salmonella Surveillance Project (WHO-GSS) and China-U.S. Collaborative Program on Emerging and Re-emerging infectious diseases Project (GFN) in Shanghai. Staff members from the Yunnan Yuxi city Center for Disease Control and Prevention were trained on Salmonella isolation from diarrhea specimens. Data on annual Salmonella positive rates was collected from the provincial-level monitoring sites to be part of the GSS and GFN projects from 2006 to 2012. The methodology was designed based on the conventional detection procedure of Salmonella which involved the processes as enrichment, isolation, species identification and sero-typing. These methods were simultaneously used to satisfy the sensitivity requirements on non-typhoid Salmonella detection for networking laboratories. Public Health Laboratories in Shanghai had developed from 5 in 2006 to 9 in 2011, and Clinical laboratories from 8 to 22. Number of clinical isolates, including typhoid and non-typhoid Salmonella increased from 196 in 2006 to 1442 in 2011. The positive rate of Salmonella isolated from the clinical diarrhea cases was 2.4% in Yuxi county, in 2012. At present, three other provincial monitoring sites were using the SBG technique as selectivity enrichment broth for Salmonella isolation, with Shanghai having the most stable positive baseline. The method of SCT was proved the premise of the network laboratory construction. Based on this, the improvement of precise phenotypic identification and molecular typing capabilities could reach the level equivalent to the national networking laboratory.

  13. A prospective study: Is handheld micropower impulse radar technology (Pneumoscan) a promising method to detect pneumothorax?

    PubMed

    Hocagil, Hilal; Hocagil, Abdullah Cüneyt; Karacabey, Sinan; Akkaya, Tuğba; Şimşek, Gözde; Sanrı, Erkman

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to discuss the effectiveness of Pneumoscan working with micropower impulse radar (MIR) technology in diagnosing pneumothorax (PTX) in the emergency department. Patients with suspicion of PTX and indication for thorax tomography (CT) were included into the study. Findings of the Thorax CT were compared with the results of Pneumoscan. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used in categorical variables. One hundred and fifteen patients were included into the study group; twelve patients presented with PTX diagnosed by CT, 10 of which were detected by Pneumoscan. Thirty-six true negative results, sixty-seven false positive results, and two false negative results were obtained, which resulted in an overall sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity of 35.0% for Pneumoscan. There was no statistically significant difference between the effectiveness of Pneumoscan and CT on the detection of PTX (p=0.33). There was no difference between the size of PTX diagnosed by CT and PTX diagnosed by Pneumoscan (p=0.47). There was no statistically significant difference between Pneumoscan and CT on detecting the localisation of the PTX (p=1.00). For the 10 cases diagnosed by Pneumoscan, mean chest wall thickness was determined as 50.3 mm while mean chest wall thickness for two false negatives diagnosed by Pneumoscan was 56.5 mm. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the chest wall thickness and the effectiveness of Pneumoscan on the detection of the PTX (p=0.77). Among sixty-seven false positives diagnosed by Pneumoscan, 46.3% had additional medical signs such as bronchiectasis, pulmonary consolidation, pulmonary edema or pulmonary tumor when they had a reading with CT. The relationship between having additional medical signs at the reading with CT and the effectiveness of Pneumoscan on the detection of the PTX was investigated and no significant difference was found (p=0.472). Using Pneumoscan to detect PTX is controversial since the device has

  14. Inner structure detection by optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxin; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-05-20

    We describe a new optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers. In the case of feedback light frequency-shifted, light can be magnified by a fact of 10(6) in the Nd:YAG microchip lasers, which makes it possible to realize optical tomography with a greater depth than current optical tomography. The results of the measuring and imaging of kinds of samples are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility and potential of this approach in the inner structure detection. The system has a lateral resolution of ~1 μm, a vertical resolution of 15 μm and a longitudinal scanning range of over 10mm.

  15. Electromagnetic packable technology (EMPACT) for detection and characterization of ordnance in post-conflict areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory; Miller, Jonathan; Keranen, Joe

    2013-06-01

    Land reclamation efforts in post-conflict regions are often hampered by the presence of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW). Surface geophysical methods, such as Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) and magnetometry, are typically applied to screen rehabilitation areas for UXO prior to excavation; however, the prevalence of innocuous magnetic clutter related to indigenous scrap, fragmentation, or geology can severely impede the progress and efficiency of these remediation efforts. Additionally, the variability in surface conditions and local topography necessitates the development of sensor technologies that can be applied to a range of sites including those that prohibit the use of vehicle-mounted or large array systems. We present a man-portable EMI sensor known as the Electromagnetic Packable Technology (EMPACT) system that features a multi-axis sensor configuration in a compact form factor. The system is designed for operation in challenging site conditions and can be used in low ground-standoff modes to detect small and low-metal content objects. The EMPACT acquires high spatial density, multi-axis data that enable high resolution of small objects. This high density data can also be used to provide characterization of target physical features, such as size, material content, and shape. We summarize the development of this system for humanitarian demining operations and present results from preliminary system evaluations against a range of target types. Specifically, we assess the general detection capabilities of the EMPACT system and we evaluate the potential for target classification based on analysis of data and target model features.

  16. Fingerprinting food: current technologies for the detection of food adulteration and contamination.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David I; Brewster, Victoria L; Dunn, Warwick B; Allwood, J William; Golovanov, Alexander P; Goodacre, Royston

    2012-09-07

    Major food adulteration and contamination events seem to occur with some regularity, such as the widely publicised adulteration of milk products with melamine and the recent microbial contamination of vegetables across Europe for example. With globalisation and rapid distribution systems, these can have international impacts with far-reaching and sometimes lethal consequences. These events, though potentially global in the modern era, are in fact far from contemporary, and deliberate adulteration of food products is probably as old as the food processing and production systems themselves. This review first introduces some background into these practices, both historically and contemporary, before introducing a range of the technologies currently available for the detection of food adulteration and contamination. These methods include the vibrational spectroscopies: near-infrared, mid-infrared, Raman; NMR spectroscopy, as well as a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, amongst others. This subject area is particularly relevant at this time, as it not only concerns the continuous engagement with food adulterers, but also more recent issues such as food security, bioterrorism and climate change. It is hoped that this introductory overview acts as a springboard for researchers in science, technology, engineering, and industry, in this era of systems-level thinking and interdisciplinary approaches to new and contemporary problems.

  17. Fluorescence detection, enumeration and characterization of single circulating cells in vivo: technology, applications and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Carolin; Patil, Roshani; Lin, Charles P.; Niedre, Mark

    2018-01-01

    There are many diseases and biological processes that involve circulating cells in the bloodstream, such as cancer metastasis, immunology, reproductive medicine, and stem cell therapies. This has driven significant interest in new technologies for the study of circulating cells in small animal research models and clinically. Most currently used methods require drawing and enriching blood samples from the body, but these suffer from a number of limitations. In contrast, ‘in vivo flow cytometry’ (IVFC) refers to set of technologies that allow study of cells directly in the bloodstream of the organism in vivo. In recent years the IVFC field has grown significantly and new techniques have been developed, including fluorescence microscopy, multi-photon, photo-acoustic, and diffuse fluorescence IVFC. In this paper we review recent technical advances in IVFC, with emphasis on instrumentation, contrast mechanisms, and detection sensitivity. We also describe key applications in biomedical research, including cancer research and immunology. Last, we discuss future directions for IVFC, as well as prospects for broader adoption by the biomedical research community and translation to humans clinically.

  18. Disaster Coverage Predication for the Emerging Tethered Balloon Technology: Capability for Preparedness, Detection, Mitigation, and Response.

    PubMed

    Alsamhi, Saeed H; Samar Ansari, Mohd; Rajput, Navin S

    2018-04-01

    A disaster is a consequence of natural hazards and terrorist acts, which have significant potential to disrupt the entire wireless communication infrastructure. Therefore, the essential rescue squads and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. To provide efficient communication services, and to reduce casualty mortality and morbidity during the catastrophic events, we proposed the Tethered Balloon technology for disaster preparedness, detection, mitigation, and recovery assessment. The proposed Tethered Balloon is applicable to any type of disaster except for storms. The Tethered Balloon is being actively researched and developed as a simple solution to improve the performance of rescues, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication in the disaster area. The most important requirement for rescue and relief teams during or after the disaster is a high quality of service of delivery communication services to save people's lives. Using our proposed technology, we report that the Tethered Balloon has a large disaster coverage area. Therefore, the rescue and research teams are given higher priority, and their performance significantly improved in the particular coverage area. Tethered Balloon features made it suitable for disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. The performance of rescue and relief teams was effective and efficient before and after the disaster as well as can be continued to coordinate the relief teams until disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:222-231).

  19. Fluorescence detection, enumeration and characterization of single circulating cells in vivo: technology, applications and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Carolin; Patil, Roshani; Lin, Charles P; Niedre, Mark

    2017-12-14

    There are many diseases and biological processes that involve circulating cells in the bloodstream, such as cancer metastasis, immunology, reproductive medicine, and stem cell therapies. This has driven significant interest in new technologies for the study of circulating cells in small animal research models and clinically. Most currently used methods require drawing and enriching blood samples from the body, but these suffer from a number of limitations. In contrast, 'in vivo flow cytometry' (IVFC) refers to set of technologies that allow study of cells directly in the bloodstream of the organism in vivo. In recent years the IVFC field has grown significantly and new techniques have been developed, including fluorescence microscopy, multi-photon, photo-acoustic, and diffuse fluorescence IVFC. In this paper we review recent technical advances in IVFC, with emphasis on instrumentation, contrast mechanisms, and detection sensitivity. We also describe key applications in biomedical research, including cancer research and immunology. Last, we discuss future directions for IVFC, as well as prospects for broader adoption by the biomedical research community and translation to humans clinically.

  20. Olfactory and quantitative analysis of aroma compounds in elder flower (Sambucus nigra L.) drink processed from five cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, U; Hansen, M; Christensen, L P; Jensen, K; Kaack, K

    2000-06-01

    Fresh elder flowers (Sambucus nigra L.) were extracted with an aqueous solution containing sucrose, peeled lemon slices, tartaric acid, and sodium benzoate to make elder flower syrup. Aroma compounds emitted from the elder flower syrup were collected by the dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 59 compounds were identified, 18 of which have not previously been detected in elder flower products. The concentrations of the identified volatiles were measured in five elder cultivars, Allesoe, Donau, Sambu, Sampo, and Samyl, and significant differences were detected among cultivars in the concentration levels of 48 compounds. The odor of the volatiles was evaluated by the GC-sniffing technique. cis-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal contributed to the characteristic elder flower odor, whereas linalool, alpha-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-beta-ocimene contributed with floral notes. Fruity odors were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and beta-damascenone. Fresh and grassy odors were primarily correlated with hexanal, hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol.

  1. Detecting and removing multiplicative spatial bias in high-throughput screening technologies.

    PubMed

    Caraus, Iurie; Mazoure, Bogdan; Nadon, Robert; Makarenkov, Vladimir

    2017-10-15

    Considerable attention has been paid recently to improve data quality in high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) technologies widely used in drug development and chemical toxicity research. However, several environmentally- and procedurally-induced spatial biases in experimental HTS and HCS screens decrease measurement accuracy, leading to increased numbers of false positives and false negatives in hit selection. Although effective bias correction methods and software have been developed over the past decades, almost all of these tools have been designed to reduce the effect of additive bias only. Here, we address the case of multiplicative spatial bias. We introduce three new statistical methods meant to reduce multiplicative spatial bias in screening technologies. We assess the performance of the methods with synthetic and real data affected by multiplicative spatial bias, including comparisons with current bias correction methods. We also describe a wider data correction protocol that integrates methods for removing both assay and plate-specific spatial biases, which can be either additive or multiplicative. The methods for removing multiplicative spatial bias and the data correction protocol are effective in detecting and cleaning experimental data generated by screening technologies. As our protocol is of a general nature, it can be used by researchers analyzing current or next-generation high-throughput screens. The AssayCorrector program, implemented in R, is available on CRAN. makarenkov.vladimir@uqam.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    PubMed

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry ( Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars ("Biloxi," "Brigitta Blue," "Centurion," "Chandler," and "Ozark Blue") harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V . corymbosum L. ("Brigitta," "Chandler," "Liberty," and "Ozark Blue"), V. virgatum Aiton ("Centurion," "Powder Blue," and "Sky Blue"), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids

  3. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue”) harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”), V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs

  4. Detecting novel genetic mutations in Chinese Usher syndrome families using next-generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ling-Hui; Jin, Xin; Xu, Hai-Wei; Li, Shi-Ying; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2015-02-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common cause of combined blindness and deafness inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. Molecular diagnosis is of great significance in revealing the molecular pathogenesis and aiding the clinical diagnosis of this disease. However, molecular diagnosis remains a challenge due to high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity in USH. This study explored an approach for detecting disease-causing genetic mutations in candidate genes in five index cases from unrelated USH families based on targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Through systematic data analysis using an established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, 10 pathogenic mutations in the USH disease genes were identified in the five USH families. Six of these mutations were novel: c.4398G > A and EX38-49del in MYO7A, c.988_989delAT in USH1C, c.15104_15105delCA and c.6875_6876insG in USH2A. All novel variations segregated with the disease phenotypes in their respective families and were absent from ethnically matched control individuals. This study expanded the mutation spectrum of USH and revealed the genotype-phenotype relationships of the novel USH mutations in Chinese patients. Moreover, this study proved that targeted NGS is an accurate and effective method for detecting genetic mutations related to USH. The identification of pathogenic mutations is of great significance for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of USH.

  5. Automatic detection and counting of cattle in UAV imagery based on machine vision technology (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Foster, Jamie; Starek, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Beef production is the main agricultural industry in Texas, and livestock are managed in pasture and rangeland which are usually huge in size, and are not easily accessible by vehicles. The current research method for livestock location identification and counting is visual observation which is very time consuming and costly. For animals on large tracts of land, manned aircraft may be necessary to count animals which is noisy and disturbs the animals, and may introduce a source of error in counts. Such manual approaches are expensive, slow and labor intensive. In this paper we study the combination of small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) and machine vision technology as a valuable solution to manual animal surveying. A fixed-wing UAV fitted with GPS and digital RGB camera for photogrammetry was flown at the Welder Wildlife Foundation in Sinton, TX. Over 600 acres were flown with four UAS flights and individual photographs used to develop orthomosaic imagery. To detect animals in UAV imagery, a fully automatic technique was developed based on spatial and spectral characteristics of objects. This automatic technique can even detect small animals that are partially occluded by bushes. Experimental results in comparison to ground-truth show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  6. Study on Classification Accuracy Inspection of Land Cover Data Aided by Automatic Image Change Detection Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.-J.; Zhang, L.; Chen, H.-P.; Zhou, J.; Mao, W.-J.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of carrying out national geographic conditions monitoring is to obtain information of surface changes caused by human social and economic activities, so that the geographic information can be used to offer better services for the government, enterprise and public. Land cover data contains detailed geographic conditions information, thus has been listed as one of the important achievements in the national geographic conditions monitoring project. At present, the main issue of the production of the land cover data is about how to improve the classification accuracy. For the land cover data quality inspection and acceptance, classification accuracy is also an important check point. So far, the classification accuracy inspection is mainly based on human-computer interaction or manual inspection in the project, which are time consuming and laborious. By harnessing the automatic high-resolution remote sensing image change detection technology based on the ERDAS IMAGINE platform, this paper carried out the classification accuracy inspection test of land cover data in the project, and presented a corresponding technical route, which includes data pre-processing, change detection, result output and information extraction. The result of the quality inspection test shows the effectiveness of the technical route, which can meet the inspection needs for the two typical errors, that is, missing and incorrect update error, and effectively reduces the work intensity of human-computer interaction inspection for quality inspectors, and also provides a technical reference for the data production and quality control of the land cover data.

  7. Rapid detection of technological disasters by using a RST-based processing chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Marchese, Francesco; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters may be responsible for technological disasters which may cause injuries to citizens and damages to relevant infrastructures. When it is not possible to prevent or foresee such disasters it is hoped at least to rapidly detect the accident in order to intervene as soon as possible to minimize damages. In this context, the combination of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), able to identify for sure actual (i.e. no false alarm) accidents, and satellite sensors with high temporal resolution seems to assure both a reliable and a timely detection of abrupt Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to dangerous explosions. A processing chain, based on the RST approach, has been developed in the framework of the G-MOSAIC project by DIFA-UNIBAS team, suitable for automatically identify on MSG-SEVIRI images harmful events. Maps of thermal anomalies are generated every 15 minutes (i.e. SEVIRI temporal repetition rate) over a selected area together with kml files (containing information on latitude and longitude of "thermally" anomalous SEVIRI pixel centre, time of image acquisition, relative intensity of anomalies, etc.) for a rapid visualization of the accident position even on google earth. Results achieved in the case of the event occurred in Russia on 10th May 2009 will be presented: a gas pipeline exploded, causing injures to citizens and a huge damage to a Physicochemical Scientific Research Institute which is, according to official data, an organisation, running especially dangerous production and facilities.

  8. Experimental platform utilising melting curve technology for detection of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.

    PubMed

    Broda, Agnieszka; Nikolayevskyy, Vlad; Casali, Nicki; Khan, Huma; Bowker, Richard; Blackwell, Gemma; Patel, Bhakti; Hume, James; Hussain, Waqar; Drobniewski, Francis

    2018-04-20

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infections with approximately a quarter of cases not being identified and/or treated mainly due to a lack of resources. Rapid detection of TB or drug-resistant TB enables timely adequate treatment and is a cornerstone of effective TB management. We evaluated the analytical performance of a single-tube assay for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) on an experimental platform utilising RT-PCR and melting curve analysis that could potentially be operated as a point-of-care (PoC) test in resource-constrained settings with a high burden of TB. Firstly, we developed and evaluated the prototype MDR-TB assay using specimens extracted from well-characterised TB isolates with a variety of distinct rifampicin and isoniazid resistance conferring mutations and nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) strains. Secondly, we validated the experimental platform using 98 clinical sputum samples from pulmonary TB patients collected in high MDR-TB settings. The sensitivity of the platform for TB detection in clinical specimens was 75% for smear-negative and 92.6% for smear-positive sputum samples. The sensitivity of detection for rifampicin and isoniazid resistance was 88.9 and 96.0% and specificity was 87.5 and 100%, respectively. Observed limitations in sensitivity and specificity could be resolved by adjusting the sample preparation methodology and melting curve recognition algorithm. Overall technology could be considered a promising PoC methodology especially in resource-constrained settings based on its combined accuracy, convenience, simplicity, speed, and cost characteristics.

  9. Study of UV imaging technology for noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang

    2013-09-01

    Using UV imaging technology, according to the special absorption 、reflection 、scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carboxylic acid salts etc) to the UV light, weaken or eliminate the background disturbance to increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and design、setup the illumination optical system and UV imaging system, the noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints remaining on various object surface are studied. In the illumination optical system, using the 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as illumination light source, by calculating the best coupling conditions of the laser beam with UV liquid core fiber and analyzing the beam transforming characterizations, we designed and setup the optical system to realize the UV imaging uniform illumination. In the UV imaging system, the UV lens is selected as the fingerprint imaging element, and the UV intensified CCD (ICCD) which consists of a second-generation UV image intensifier and a CCD coupled by fiber plate and taper directly are used as the imaging sensing element. The best imaging conditions of the UV lens with ICCD were analyzed and the imaging system was designed and setup. In this study, by analyzing the factors which influence the detection effect, optimal design and setup the illumination system and imaging system, latent fingerprints on the surface of the paint tin box、plastic、smooth paper、notebook paper and print paper were noninvasive detected and appeared, and the result meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  10. Rapid detection of the CYP2A6*12 hybrid allele by Pyrosequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Deborah A; Huckins, Jacqueline J; Spencer, Antonina; Gallagher, Margaret L

    2009-08-24

    Identification of CYP2A6 alleles associated with reduced enzyme activity is important in the study of inter-individual differences in drug metabolism. CYP2A6*12 is a hybrid allele that results from unequal crossover between CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 genes. The 5' regulatory region and exons 1-2 are derived from CYP2A7, and exons 3-9 are derived from CYP2A6. Conventional methods for detection of CYP2A6*12 consist of two-step PCR protocols that are laborious and unsuitable for high-throughput genotyping. We developed a rapid and accurate method to detect the CYP2A6*12 allele by Pyrosequencing technology. A single set of PCR primers was designed to specifically amplify both the CYP2A6*1 wild-type allele and the CYP2A6*12 hybrid allele. An internal Pyrosequencing primer was used to generate allele-specific sequence information, which detected homozygous wild-type, heterozygous hybrid, and homozygous hybrid alleles. We first validated the assay on 104 DNA samples that were also genotyped by conventional two-step PCR and by cycle sequencing. CYP2A6*12 allele frequencies were then determined using the Pyrosequencing assay on 181 multi-ethnic DNA samples from subjects of African American, European Caucasian, Pacific Rim, and Hispanic descent. Finally, we streamlined the Pyrosequencing assay by integrating liquid handling robotics into the workflow. Pyrosequencing results demonstrated 100% concordance with conventional two-step PCR and cycle sequencing methods. Allele frequency data showed slightly higher prevalence of the CYP2A6*12 allele in European Caucasians and Hispanics. This Pyrosequencing assay proved to be a simple, rapid, and accurate alternative to conventional methods, which can be easily adapted to the needs of higher-throughput studies.

  11. Detection of cell and tissue surface antigens using up-converting phosphors: a new reporter technology.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, H J; Bonnet, J; Burton, J; Kardos, K; Vail, T; Niedbala, R S; Tanke, H J

    1999-02-01

    A novel luminescent reporter for the sensitive detection of antigens in tissue sections or on cell membranes is described. It consists of submicron-size phosphor crystals (0.2-0.4 microm), which are surface labeled with avidin or antibodies and capable of binding specifically to antigens on intact cells or in tissue sections. These phosphor reporters exhibit two-photon, anti-Stokes luminescence by up-converting infrared to visible light and are named Up-converting Phosphor Technology (UPT). They typically consist of yttriumoxysulfides doped with two different lanthanides exhibiting photostable, strong emission in the visible (blue, green, and red) upon excitation in the infrared. This report describes the conjugation of phosphor particles to NeutrAvidin with the subsequent use of this conjugate in a model system consisting of prostate-specific antigen in tissue sections and the CD4 membrane antigen on human lymphocytes. An epi-illumination fluorescence microscope was adapted to provide near-IR excitation using a xenon lamp for visualization of the visible emission. Advantages of UPT are (i) permanent, strong, anti-Stokes emission of discrete wavelengths; (ii) unmatched contrast in biological specimens due to the absence of autofluorescence upon excitation with IR light; (iii) simultaneous detection of multiple target analytes; and (iv) low-cost microscope modifications. The new methodology has not only high potential value in diagnostic pathology as described here, but may offer advantages for the detection of proteins or nucleic acids when applied to molecular biology, genomic research, virology, and microbiology. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. The Chemical Reaction of Glutathione and trans-2-Hexenal in Grape Juice Media To Form Wine Aroma Precursors: The Impact of pH, Temperature, and Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew C; Deed, Rebecca C

    2018-02-07

    The aldehyde 3-S-glutathionylhexanal is an intermediate which is produced during the formation of the wine aroma precursor 3-S-glutathionylhexanol, after the reaction of glutathione with trans-2-hexenal. This study was conducted to assess whether the chemical, as opposed to the enzymatic, production of 3-S-glutathionylhexanal could occur at a significant rate in grape juice. LC-MS/MS was used in low- and high-resolution modes, in combination with functional group derivatization, to identify and quantitate products. In comparison to cysteine, glutathione was found to induce less cyclized products on reaction with trans-2-alkanals and the glutathione-derived products were more reactive to hydrogen sulfite. The zero-order rates for 3-S-glutathionylhexanal formation in model grape juice were 1.08 ± 0.08 and 0.45 ± 0.05 mg/(L·day) glutathione equivalents at 25 and 13 °C, respectively, and the reaction rate increased 3-fold by increasing the pH from 3.2 to 3.8. 3-S-Glutathionylhexanal was detected in all five white grape juices examined. The concentration of the aldehyde could be increased by up to 10-fold after being released from hydrogen sulfite, demonstrating a potentially novel source for the production of varietal thiol aroma compounds in wine.

  13. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and HS-SPME-GCMS quantification of key aroma volatiles for fruit and sap of Australian mango cultivars.

    PubMed

    San, Anh T; Joyce, Daryl C; Hofman, Peter J; Macnish, Andrew J; Webb, Richard I; Matovic, Nicolas J; Williams, Craig M; De Voss, James J; Wong, Siew H; Smyth, Heather E

    2017-04-15

    Reported herein is a high throughput method to quantify in a single analysis the key volatiles that contribute to the aroma of commercially significant mango cultivars grown in Australia. The method constitutes stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) in conjunction with headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Deuterium labelled analogues of the target analytes were either purchased commercially or synthesised for use as internal standards. Seven volatiles, hexanal, 3-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene, α-terpinolene and ethyl octanoate, were targeted. The resulting calibration functions had determination coefficients (R 2 ) ranging from 0.93775 to 0.99741. High recovery efficiencies for spiked mango samples were also achieved. The method was applied to identify the key aroma volatile compounds produced by 'Kensington Pride' and 'B74' mango fruit and by 'Honey Gold' mango sap. This method represents a marked improvement over current methods for detecting and measuring concentrations of mango fruit and sap volatiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasonova, V. V.; Tunieva, E. K.

    2017-09-01

    The use of nitrate-containing vegetable powders instead of sodium nitrite in meat products requires changes in technological production parameters in order to obtain traditional organoleptic characteristics in the finished products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages. Cooked sausage samples were: control with nitrite curing mixture; type 1 sausages with chard powder and ascorbic acid; type 2 sausages with chard powder and sodium ascorbate. To transform nitrate ions contained in the vegetable chard powder to nitrite ions using a denitrifying culture, preliminary thermal treatments were used: 30 and 60 min at 40±2°C, after which the sausages were cooked until a temperature of 72±2°C was achieved. The sausages were stored for 40 days at 0-6°C. When sausage meat was initially held at 40°C for 60 min, a homogenous pink colour formed in the sausages with the vegetable powder. The indicators of lightness, redness and yellowness in cooked sausages as well as the indicators of instrumental odour assessment did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The indicators of colour stability during storage were 1.1-3.0% higher in the sausages with the chard powder compared to the control. The mass fraction of sodium nitrite in the experimental sausages was 2.0-2.2 higher than in the control (p>0.05). As a result of cooked sausage storage, the differences in the sodium nitrite content in the control and types 1 and 2 sausages were similar. During storage, the mass fraction of sodium nitrite decreased in types 1 and 2 sausages by 55.6 and 54.8%, respectively (p<0.05). Cooked sausages with the chard powder contained 2.1-2.4 times more sodium nitrate than did control sausages (p<0.05). However, all tested sausage samples complied with legislative requirements in terms of their sodium nitrite and nitrate levels.

  15. Analysis of the restricting factors of laser countermeasure active detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufa; Sun, Xiaoquan

    2016-07-01

    The detection effect of laser active detection system is affected by various kinds of factors. In view of the application requirement of laser active detection, the influence factors for laser active detection are analyzed. The mathematical model of cat eye target detection distance has been built, influence of the parameters of laser detection system and the environment on detection range and the detection efficiency are analyzed. Various parameters constraint detection performance is simulated. The results show that the discovery distance of laser active detection is affected by the laser divergence angle, the incident angle and the visibility of the atmosphere. For a given detection range, the laser divergence angle and the detection efficiency are mutually restricted. Therefore, in view of specific application environment, it is necessary to select appropriate laser detection parameters to achieve optimal detection effect.

  16. A study on new method of noninvasive esophageal venous pressure measurement based on the airflow and laser detection technology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenghuan; Huang, Feizhou; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Shaihong; Nie, Wanpin; Liu, Xunyang; Liu, Yinglong; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Using optics combined with automatic control and computer real-time image detection technology, a novel noninvasive method of noncontact pressure manometry was developed based on the airflow and laser detection technology in this study. The new esophageal venous pressure measurement system was tested in-vitro experiments. A stable and adjustable pulse stream was produced from a self-developed pump and a laser emitting apparatus could generate optical signals which can be captured by image acquisition and analysis system program. A synchronization system simultaneous measured the changes of air pressure and the deformation of the vein wall to capture the vascular deformation while simultaneously record the current pressure value. The results of this study indicated that the pressure values tested by the new method have good correlation with the actual pressure value in animal experiments. The new method of noninvasive pressure measurement based on the airflow and laser detection technology is accurate, feasible, repeatable and has a good application prospects.

  17. Application of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of circulating cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Katchman, Benjamin A; Smith, Joseph T; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O'Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S

    2016-07-04

    Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm(2). Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are circulating biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers.

  18. Extraction and preparation of high-aroma and low-caffeine instant green teas by the novel column chromatographic extraction method with gradient elution.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Rong; Wu, Min; Huang, Rui-Jie; Chen, Ya-Fei; Chen, Chan-Jian; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2017-06-01

    The lack of aroma and natural taste is a critical problem in production and consumption of instant green teas. A method to prepare instant green teas high in-natural-aroma and low-caffeine by the novel column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution is reported. This method simultaneously extracted aroma (or volatile) and non-aroma compounds from green tea. Green tea was loaded into columns with 2.0-fold of petroleum ether (PE): ethanol (8:2). After standing for 3 h until the aroma compounds dissolved, the column was sequentially eluted with 3.0-fold 40% ethanol and 3.5-fold water. The eluant was collected together and automatically separated into PE and ethanol aqueous phases. The aroma extracts was obtained by vacuum-evaporation of PE phase at 45 °C. The ethanol aqueous phase was vacuum-concentrated to aqueous and partially or fully decaffeinated with 4% or 9% charcoal at 70 °C. A regular instant green tea with epigallocatechin-3-gallate: caffeine of 3.5:1 and a low-caffeine instant green tea (less than 1% caffeine) with excellent aroma and taste were prepared, by combining the aroma and non-aroma extracts at a 1:10 ratio. This work provides a practical approach to solve the low-aroma and low-taste problems in the production of high quality instant green teas.

  19. Changes in sparkling wine aroma during the second fermentation under CO2 pressure in sealed bottle.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Rafael; García-Martínez, Teresa; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2017-12-15

    High quality sparkling wine made by the traditional method requires a second alcoholic fermentation of a base wine in sealed bottles, followed by an aging time in contact with yeast lees. The CO 2 overpressure released during this second fermentation has an important effect on the yeast metabolism and therefore on the wine aroma composition. This study focuses on the changes in chemical composition and 43 aroma compounds released by yeast during this fermentation carried out under two pressure conditions. The data were subjected to statistical analysis allowing differentiating between the base wine and the wine samples taken in the middle and at the end of fermentation. The differentiation among wines obtained to the end of fermentation with or without CO 2 pressure is only achieved by a principal component analysis of 15 selected minor compounds (mainly ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl butanoate and ethyl isobutanoate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed.

  1. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    SciTech Connect

    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found inmore » peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.« less

  2. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comprehensive Study of Volatile Compounds in Two Australian Rosé Wines: Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) of Extracts Prepared Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) or Headspace Solid-Phase Extraction (HS-SPE).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Gambetta, Joanna M; Jeffery, David W

    2016-05-18

    Two rosé wines, representing a tropical and a fruity/floral style, were chosen from a previous study for further exploration by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles were extracted using either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) or a recently developed dynamic headspace (HS) sampling method utilizing solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. AEDA was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and a total of 51 aroma compounds with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ≥3 were detected. Quantitative analysis of 92 volatiles was undertaken in both wines for calculation of odor activity values. The fruity and floral wine style was mostly driven by 2-phenylethanol, β-damascenone, and a range of esters, whereas 3-SHA and several volatile acids were seen as essential for the tropical style. When extraction methods were compared, HS-SPE was as efficient as SAFE for extracting most esters and higher alcohols, which were associated with fruity and floral characters, but it was difficult to capture volatiles with greater polarity or higher boiling point that may still be important to perceived wine aroma.

  4. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Aroma compounds and characteristics of noble-rot wines of Chardonnay grapes artificially botrytized in the vineyard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Jie; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yun; An, Rong-Yan; Yue, Zhuo-Ya

    2017-07-01

    Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines. In addition to typical aromas of noble-rot wines, artificial noble-rot wines were found to contain significant cream and dry apricot attributes. Partial Least-Squares Regression models of aroma characteristics against aroma components revealed that non-fermentative odorants were the primary contributor to dry apricot attribute, especially, thiols, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, terpenols and phenolic acid derivatives, while cream attribute was dependent on both fermentative and non-fermentative volatile components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel extracellular glycosidase activity from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa: its application potential in wine aroma enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hu, K; Zhu, X L; Mu, H; Ma, Y; Ullah, N; Tao, Y S

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the application potential of a glycosidase extract of one indigenous non-Saccharomyces strain in wine aroma enhancement. The isolate was selected from a local winemaking region in China for its high β-glucosidase level and was identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The tolerance of the glycosidase extract to the typical winemaking conditions was assessed using the activity of its β-glucosidase. After that, the hydrolysis capacity of R. mucilaginosa glycosidase for liberation of grape aroma glycosides was characterized in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Results of this work revealed that glycosidase extract from R. mucilaginosa proved to be active in the presence of 0-20% (w/v) glucose, 0-20% (v/v) ethanol and at pH 3·0-5·0. In the hydrolysis of aroma precursors, enzymes obtained from different origins possessed various levels of specificity and activity, showing high origin dependence (α = 0·05). Compared to commercial enzymes, the indigenous R. mucilaginosa glycosidase extract presented better catalytic preference for the 'fruity and floral' glycosides of benzenic compounds and C13 -norisoprenoids, but less sensitivity to the glycosides of C6 compounds and volatile phenols. This work presents a novel extracellular glycosidase preparation from an indigenous Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain selected from a local winemaking region in China. This enzyme extract exhibits strong tolerance towards winemaking conditions. It shows hydrolysis specificity for glycosides of benzenic compounds and C13 -norisoprenoids, proving a potential candidate for improving floral and fruity aroma characteristics of wine. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Aroma profile and volatiles odor activity along gold cultivar pineapple flesh.

    PubMed

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical attributes, aroma profile, and odor contribution of pineapple flesh were studied for the top, middle, and bottom cross-sections cut along the central axis of Gold cultivar pineapple. Relationships between volatile and nonvolatile compounds were also studied. Aroma profile constituents were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 30 °C, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 20 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, esters were the major components which accounted for 90% of total extracted aroma. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the 3 most abundant components representing 74% of total volatiles in pineapple samples. Most odor active contributors were methyl and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and 2,5-dimethyl 4-methoxy 3(2H)-furanone (mesifuran). Aroma profile components did not vary along the fruit, but volatile compounds content significantly varied (P < 0.05) along the fruit, from 7560 to 10910 μg/kg, from the top to the bottom cross-sections of the fruit, respectively. In addition, most odor-active volatiles concentration increased from the top to the bottom 3rd of the fruit, concurrently with soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) differences attributed to fruitlets distinct degree of ripening. Large changes in SSC/TA ratio and volatiles content throughout the fruit found through this study are likely to provoke important differences among individual fresh-cut pineapple trays, compromising consumer perception and acceptance of the product. Such finding highlighted the need to include volatiles content and SSC/TA ratio and their variability along the fruit as selection criteria for pineapples to be processed and quality assessment of the fresh-cut fruit. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-06-01

    Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level-dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  10. Radiological Health Protection Issues Associated with Use of Active Detection Technology Systems for Detection of Radioactive Threat Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    detection system available will simply register events resulting from natural background radiation if a suitable source emission is not employed. The...random fluctuations in the natural background radiation level. Noise within the detection system can result from any of the various components that...Uritani et al., 1994). Nothing can generally be done to reduce or stabilize the amount of natural background radiation present for nonstationary

  11. Application of 3D Laser Scanning Technology in Inspection and Dynamic Reserves Detection of Open-Pit Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhumin; Wei, Shiyu; Jiang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The traditional open-pit mine mining rights verification and dynamic reserve detection means rely on the total station and RTK to collect the results of the turning point coordinates of mining surface contours. It resulted in obtaining the results of low precision and large error in the means that is limited by the traditional measurement equipment accuracy and measurement methods. The three-dimensional scanning technology can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate data of the surface of the measured object in a large area at high resolution. This paper expounds the commonly used application of 3D scanning technology in the inspection and dynamic reserve detection of open mine mining rights.

  12. Effect of fat content on aroma generation during processing of dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2011-03-01

    Dry fermented sausages with different fat contents were produced (10%, 20% and 30%). The effect of fat content and ripening time on sensory characteristics, lipolysis, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds generation was studied. Also, the key aroma components were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and olfactometry. High fat sausages showed the highest lipolysis and lipid oxidation, determined by free fatty acid content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), respectively. A total of 95 volatile compounds were identified using SPME, GC and mass spectrometry (MS). Fat reduction decreased the generation of lipid derived volatile compounds during processing while those generated from bacterial metabolism increased, although only at the first stages of processing. The consumers preference in aroma and overall quality of high and medium fat sausages was related to the aroma compounds hexanal, 2-nonenal, 2,4-nonadienal, ethyl butanoate and 1-octen-3-ol which contributed green, medicinal, tallowy, fruity and mushroom notes. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensory analysis and aroma compounds of buckwheat containing products-a review.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, Małgorzata; Koutsidis, Georgios; Zieliński, Henryk

    2017-07-07

    Buckwheat is a rich source of starch, proteins, minerals and antioxidants, and as such has become a popular functional ingredient incorporated in diverse recipes/products with particular use in the gluten free market. Due to the absence of gluten, application of buckwheat or buckwheat derived ingredients in this particular food sector has increased significantly over recent years with many buckwheat-based products appearing globally. Sensory analysis is an integral part of the development of products that fulfill consumer expectations. Therefore, investigations on the incorporation of health promoting functional ingredients such as buckwheat into traditional recipes are often complemented by the evaluation of appearance, aroma, taste and texture as well as overall quality through standardized procedures involving trained judges or consumer panels. Aroma is of particular importance in driving consumer preference and its sensory assessment is often complemented with analytical workflows aiming to isolate and determine the concentration of volatile compounds in food and understand the effect of food components on the overall aroma intensity and/or perception of the final product. The present manuscript provides a review of recent advances and knowledge on the sensory characteristics, consumer preference and volatile compound analysis of buckwheat and buckwheat based products.

  14. Physicochemical and sensory (aroma and colour) characterisation of a non-centrifugal cane sugar ("panela") beverage.

    PubMed

    García, Juliana María; Narváez, Paulo César; Heredia, Francisco José; Orjuela, Álvaro; Osorio, Coralia

    2017-08-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS), also called "panela", is a high carbohydrate-content food obtained by boil evaporation of the sugar cane juice. This study was undertaken to assess physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of panela beverage at two different concentrations. Evaluation of pH, °Brix, and colour (tristimulus colorimetry) was carried out in all panela drink samples. In order to characterise the odour-active volatiles of the beverage, a simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction method was applied using a mixture of diethyl ether-pentane (1:1,w/w) as solvent. The Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis revealed the presence of six odour-active compounds, being 2-methyl pyrazine the key aroma compound of this beverage. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that there were no differences in the aroma and physicochemical properties (pH and °Brix) with respect to the geographical origin of analysed samples; however colour depends on heating during processing of NCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential of Glycosidase from Non-Saccharomyces Isolates for Enhancement of Wine Aroma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Qin, Yi; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Peng, Chuan-Tao; Ullah, Niamat

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to rapidly screen indigenous yeasts with high levels of β-glucosidase activity and assess the potential of glycosidase extracts for aroma enhancement in winemaking. A semiquantitative colorimetric assay was applied using 96-well plates to screen yeasts from 3 different regions of China. Isolates with high β-glucosidase activity were confirmed by the commonly used pNP assay. Among 493 non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 8 generas, 3 isolates were selected for their high levels of β-glucosidase activity and were identified as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa by sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. β-Glucosidase in the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain showed the highest activity in winemaking conditions among the selected isolates. For aroma enhancement in winemaking, the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain exhibited catalytic specificity for aromatic glycosides of C13 -norisoprenoids and some terpenes, enhancing fresh floral, sweet, berry, and nutty aroma characteristics in wine. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  17. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  18. Utilization of Facial Image Analysis Technology for Blink Detection: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Momoko; Yoshimura, Michitaka; Liang, Kuo-Ching; Wada, Satoshi; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2018-06-25

    The assessment of anterior eye diseases and the understanding of psychological functions of blinking can benefit greatly from a validated blinking detection technology. In this work, we proposed an algorithm based on facial recognition built on current video processing technologies to automatically filter and analyze blinking movements. We compared electrooculography (EOG), the gold standard of blinking measurement, with manual video tape recording counting (mVTRc) and our proposed automated video tape recording analysis (aVTRa) in both static and dynamic conditions to validate our aVTRa method. We measured blinking in both static condition, where the subject was sitting still with chin fixed on the table, and dynamic condition, where the subject's face was not fixed and natural communication was taking place between the subject and interviewer. We defined concordance of blinks between measurement methods as having less than 50 ms difference between eyes opening and closing. The subjects consisted of seven healthy Japanese volunteers (3 male, four female) without significant eye disease with average age of 31.4±7.2. The concordance of EOG vs. aVTRa, EOG vs. mVTRc, and aVTRa vs. mVTRc (average±SD) were found to be 92.2±10.8%, 85.0±16.5%, and 99.6±1.0% in static conditions and 32.6±31.0%, 28.0±24.2%, and 98.5±2.7% in dynamic conditions, respectively. In static conditions, we have found a high blink concordance rate between the proposed aVTRa versus EOG, and confirmed the validity of aVTRa in both static and dynamic conditions.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of a novel software technology for detecting pneumothorax in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Summers, Shane M; Chin, Eric J; April, Michael D; Grisell, Ronald D; Lospinoso, Joshua A; Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Salinas, Jose; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to measure the diagnostic accuracy of a novel software technology to detect pneumothorax on Brightness (B) mode and Motion (M) mode ultrasonography. Ultrasonography fellowship-trained emergency physicians performed thoracic ultrasonography at baseline and after surgically creating a pneumothorax in eight intubated, spontaneously breathing porcine subjects. Prior to pneumothorax induction, we captured sagittal M-mode still images and B-mode videos of each intercostal space with a linear array transducer at 4cm of depth. After collection of baseline images, we placed a chest tube, injected air into the pleural space in 250mL increments, and repeated the ultrasonography for pneumothorax volumes of 250mL, 500mL, 750mL, and 1000mL. We confirmed pneumothorax with intrapleural digital manometry and ultrasound by expert sonographers. We exported collected images for interpretation by the software. We treated each individual scan as a single test for interpretation by the software. Excluding indeterminate results, we collected 338M-mode images for which the software demonstrated a sensitivity of 98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92-99%), specificity of 95% (95% CI 86-99), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 21.6 (95% CI 7.1-65), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.02 (95% CI 0.008-0.046). Among 364 B-mode videos, the software demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI 81-90%), specificity of 85% (81-91%), LR+ of 5.7 (95% CI 3.2-10.2), and LR- of 0.17 (95% CI 0.12-0.22). This novel technology has potential as a useful adjunct to diagnose pneumothorax on thoracic ultrasonography. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Technology for detecting spectral radiance by a snapshot multi-imaging spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Ralf; Stührmann, Ansgar; Gugg-Helminger, Anton; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2017-12-01

    Technologies to determine spectral sky radiance distributions have evolved in recent years and have enabled new applications in remote sensing, for sky radiance measurements, in biological/diagnostic applications and luminance measurements. Most classical spectral imaging radiance technologies are based on mechanical and/or spectral scans. However, these methods require scanning time in which the spectral radiance distribution might change. To overcome this limitation, different so-called snapshot spectral imaging technologies have been developed that enable spectral and spatial non-scanning measurements. We present a new setup based on a facet mirror that is already used in imaging slicing spectrometers. By duplicating the input image instead of slicing it and using a specially designed entrance slit, we are able to select nearly 200 (14 × 14) channels within the field of view (FOV) for detecting spectral radiance in different directions. In addition, a megapixel image of the FOV is captured by an additional RGB camera. This image can be mapped onto the snapshot spectral image. In this paper, the mechanical setup, technical design considerations and first measurement results of a prototype are presented. For a proof of concept, the device is radiometrically calibrated and a 10 mm × 10 mm test pattern measured within a spectral range of 380 nm-800 nm with an optical bandwidth of 10 nm (full width at half maximum or FWHM). To show its potential in the UV spectral region, zenith sky radiance measurements in the UV of a clear sky were performed. Hence, the prototype was equipped with an entrance optic with a FOV of 0.5° and modified to obtain a radiometrically calibrated spectral range of 280 nm-470 nm with a FWHM of 3 nm. The measurement results have been compared to modeled data processed by UVSPEC, which showed deviations of less than 30%. This is far from being ideal, but an acceptable result with respect to available state

  1. Feasibility of leakage detection in lake pressure pipes using the Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperl, Benjamin; Pressl, Alexander; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes a feasibility study carried out in the laboratory for the detection of leakages in lake pressure pipes using high-resolution fiber-optic temperature measurements (DTS). The usage of the DTS technology provides spatiotemporal high-resolution temperature measurements along a fibre optic cable. An opto-electrical device serves both as a light emitter as well as a spectrometer for measuring the scattering of light. The fiber optic cable serves as linear sensor. Measurements can be taken at a spatial resolution of up to 25 cm with a temperature accuracy of higher than 0.1 °C. The first warmer days after the winter stagnation provoke a temperature rise of superficial layers of lakes with barely stable temperature stratification. The warmer layer in the epilimnion differs 4 °C to 5 °C compared to the cold layers in the meta- or hypolimnion before water circulation in spring starts. The warmer water from the surface layer can be rinsed on the entire length of the pipe. Water intrudes at leakages by generating a slightly negative pressure in the pipe. This provokes a local temperature change, in case that the penetrating water (seawater) differs in temperature from the water pumped through the pipe. These temperature changes should be detectable and localized with a DTS cable introduced in the pipe. A laboratory experiment was carried out to determine feasibility as well as limits and problems of this methodology. A 6 m long pipe, submerged in a water tank at constant temperature, was rinsed with water 5-10 °C warmer than the water in the tank. Temperature measurements were taken continuously along the pipe. A negative pressure of 0.1 bar provoked the intrusion of colder water from the tank into the pipe through the leakages, resulting in local temperature changes. Experiments where conducted with different temperature gradients, leakage sizes, number of leaks as well as with different positioning of the DTS cable inside the pipe. Results

  2. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) wine production in Angola: Characterisation of volatile aroma compounds and yeast native flora.

    PubMed

    Dellacassa, Eduardo; Trenchs, Oriol; Fariña, Laura; Debernardis, Florencia; Perez, Gabriel; Boido, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2017-01-16

    A pineapple vinification process was conducted through inoculated and spontaneous fermentation to develop a process suitable for a quality beverage during two successive vintages in Huambo, Angola. Wines obtained with the conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, were analysed by gas chromatography, and a total of 61 volatile constituents were detected in the volatile fraction and 18 as glycosidically bound aroma compounds. Concentration levels of carbonyl and sulphur compounds were in agreement with the limited information reported about pineapple fruits of other regions. We report, for the first time in pineapple wines, the presence of significant concentrations of lactones, ketones, terpenes, norisoprenoids and a variety of volatile phenols. Eight native yeast strains were isolated from spontaneous batches. Further single-strain fermentations allowed us to characterise their suitability for commercial fermentation. Three native strains (Hanseniaspora opuntiae, H. uvarum and Meyerozyma guilliermondii) were selected with sensory potential to ferment pineapple fruits with increased flavour diversity. Results obtained here contribute to a better understanding of quality fermentation alternatives of this tropical fruit in subtropical regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly and identification of the gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Saensuk, Chatree; Wanchana, Samart; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Kraithong, Tippaya; Imsabai, Wachiraya; Chaichoompu, Ekawat; Ruanjaichon, Vinitchan; Toojinda, Theerayut; Vanavichit, Apichart; Arikit, Siwaret

    2016-11-01

    Thailand's aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a special type of green dwarf coconut, the liquid endosperm of which is characterized by a pleasant "pandan-like" aroma due to the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transriptome from C. nucifera endosperm and to identify the gene responsible for 2AP biosynthesis. CnAMADH2 was identified as an ortholog of the rice aromatic gene and a G-to-C substitution found in exon 14 was associated with 2AP content in the aromatic green dwarf coconut accessions. The base substitution caused an amino-acid change, alanine-to-proline, at position 442 (P442A). The presence of P at this position might alter the steric conformation at the loop region and subsequently result in an unstabilized dimer conformation that could lower AMADH enzyme activity. Among AMADH/BADH protein sequences in different plant species, the P442A mutation was found exclusively in aromatic coconut. The PCR marker developed based on this sequence variation can perfectly detect the aromatic and non-aromatic alleles of the gene. This study confirms the hypothesis that plants may share a mechanism of 2AP biosynthesis. This is the first identification of the gene associated with 2AP biosynthesis in a tree plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory methods and electronic nose as innovative tools for the evaluation of the aroma transfer properties of food plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Torri, Luisa; Piochi, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Despite the key role of the sensory quality for food acceptance, the aroma transfer properties of food packaging materials have not yet been studied using sensory approaches. This research investigated the suitability of sensory and electronic nose methods to evaluate the aroma transfer properties of plastic materials that come in contact with food. Four (W, X, Y, and Z) commercial freezer bags (polyethylene) for domestic uses were compared. The degree of the aroma transfer through the materials was estimated as the sensory contamination of an odor absorber food (bread) by an odor releaser food (onion), separated by the bags and stored under frozen conditions. Bread samples were analyzed by means of an electronic nose, and 42 assessors used three different sensory methods (triangle, scoring, and partial sorted Napping tests). From the triangle test, none of the plastic bags acted as a complete aroma barrier, showing a sensory contamination of bread stored in all four materials. Partial sorting Napping results clearly described the sensory contamination of bread as "onion flavor", due to the aroma transfer from the odor releaser food to the odor absorber food through the plastic bag. Scoring tests showed significant (p<0.0001) differences of aroma transfer properties among the plastic bags, revealing the highest aroma permeation for W (3.1±0.1), the lowest aroma transfer for X and Y (2.0±0.1), and intermediate aroma transfer properties for Z (2.6±0.1). Electronic nose data were in good agreement with the sensory responses, and a high correlation with the scoring data was observed (R 2 =0.988). The presented approaches had suitable results to provide meaningful information on the aroma transfer properties of freezer plastic bags, and could advantageously be applied in the future for analyzing other finished food containers (e.g. plastic trays, boxes, etc.) or packaging materials of a different nature (multilayer plastic films, biodegradable materials, composites

  5. A highly accurate wireless digital sun sensor based on profile detecting and detector multiplexing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Minsong; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    The advancing growth of micro- and nano-satellites requires miniaturized sun sensors which could be conveniently applied in the attitude determination subsystem. In this work, a profile detecting technology based high accurate wireless digital sun sensor was proposed, which could transform a two-dimensional image into two-linear profile output so that it can realize a high update rate under a very low power consumption. A multiple spots recovery approach with an asymmetric mask pattern design principle was introduced to fit the multiplexing image detector method for accuracy improvement of the sun sensor within a large Field of View (FOV). A FOV determination principle based on the concept of FOV region was also proposed to facilitate both sub-FOV analysis and the whole FOV determination. A RF MCU, together with solar cells, was utilized to achieve the wireless and self-powered functionality. The prototype of the sun sensor is approximately 10 times lower in size and weight compared with the conventional digital sun sensor (DSS). Test results indicated that the accuracy of the prototype was 0.01° within a cone FOV of 100°. Such an autonomous DSS could be equipped flexibly on a micro- or nano-satellite, especially for highly accurate remote sensing applications.

  6. Sensing Technologies for Detection of Acetone in Human Breath for Diabetes Diagnosis and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Saasa, Valentine; Malwela, Thomas; Beukes, Mervyn; Mokgotho, Matlou; Liu, Chaun-Pu; Mwakikunga, Bonex

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the technologies used in the field of breath analysis to diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Currently the diagnosis and monitoring of blood glucose and ketone bodies that are used in clinical studies involve the use of blood tests. This method entails pricking fingers for a drop of blood and placing a drop on a sensitive area of a strip which is pre-inserted into an electronic reading instrument. Furthermore, it is painful, invasive and expensive, and can be unsafe if proper handling is not undertaken. Human breath analysis offers a non-invasive and rapid method for detecting various volatile organic compounds thatare indicators for different diseases. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the body produces excess amounts of ketones such as acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. Acetone is exhaled during respiration. The production of acetone is a result of the body metabolising fats instead of glucose to produce energy. There are various techniques that are used to analyse exhaled breath including Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR–MS), Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT–MS), laser photoacoustic spectrometry and so on. All these techniques are not portable, therefore this review places emphasis on how nanotechnology, through semiconductor sensing nanomaterials, has the potential to help individuals living with diabetes mellitus monitor their disease with cheap and portable devices. PMID:29385067

  7. miRNA assays in the clinical laboratory: workflow, detection technologies and automation aspects.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Andreas; Keller, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Their differential abundance is indicative or even causative for a variety of pathological processes including cancer or cardiovascular disorders. Due to their important biological function, miRNAs represent a promising class of novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose life-threatening diseases, and to monitor disease progression. Further, they may guide treatment selection or dosage of drugs. miRNAs from blood or derived fractions are particularly interesting candidates for routine laboratory applications, as they can be measured in most clinical laboratories already today. This assures a good accessibility of respective tests. Albeit their great potential, miRNA-based diagnostic tests have not made their way yet into the clinical routine, and hence no standardized workflows have been established to measure miRNAs for patients' benefit. In this review we summarize the detection technologies and workflow options that exist to measure miRNAs, and we describe the advantages and disadvantages of each of these options. Moreover, we also provide a perspective on data analysis aspects that are vital for translation of raw data into actionable diagnostic test results.

  8. Nanobody Technology for Mycotoxin Detection in the Field of Food Safety: Current Status and Prospects.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Zhu, Jiang; Nie, Yao; Hu, Rui; Wang, Ting; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yunhuang

    2018-04-29

    Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive and effective determination technologies for mycotoxin surveillance are required. Immunoassays have been regarded as useful supplements to chromatographic techniques. However, conventional antibodies involved in immunoassays are difficult to be expressed recombinantly and are susceptible to harsh environments. Nanobodies (or VHH antibodies) are antigen-binding sites of the heavy-chain antibodies produced from Camelidae. They are found to be expressed easily in prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems, more robust in extreme conditions, and facile to be used as surrogates for artificial antigens. These properties make them the promising and environmentally friendly immunoreagents in the next generation of immunoassays. This review briefly describes the latest developments in the area of nanobodies used in mycotoxin detection. Moreover, by integrating the introduction of the principle of nanobodies production and the critical assessment of their performance, this paper also proposes the prospect of nanobodies in the field of food safety in the foreseeable future.

  9. Research on the development of space target detecting system and three-dimensional reconstruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Wei, Zhen; Song, Dawei; Sun, Wenfeng; Fan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    With the development of space technology, the number of spacecrafts and debris are increasing year by year. The demand for detecting and identification of spacecraft is growing strongly, which provides support to the cataloguing, crash warning and protection of aerospace vehicles. The majority of existing approaches for three-dimensional reconstruction is scattering centres correlation, which is based on the radar high resolution range profile (HRRP). This paper proposes a novel method to reconstruct the threedimensional scattering centre structure of target from a sequence of radar ISAR images, which mainly consists of three steps. First is the azimuth scaling of consecutive ISAR images based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The later is the extraction of scattering centres and matching between adjacent ISAR images using grid method. Finally, according to the coordinate matrix of scattering centres, the three-dimensional scattering centre structure is reconstructed using improved factorization method. The three-dimensional structure is featured with stable and intuitive characteristic, which provides a new way to improve the identification probability and reduce the complexity of the model matching library. A satellite model is reconstructed using the proposed method from four consecutive ISAR images. The simulation results prove that the method has gotten a satisfied consistency and accuracy.

  10. [The progress and prospect of application of genetic testing technology-based gene detection technology in the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary cancer].

    PubMed

    He, J X; Jiang, Y F

    2017-08-06

    Hereditary cancer is caused by specific pathogenic gene mutations. Early detection and early intervention are the most effective ways to prevent and control hereditary cancer. High-throughput sequencing based genetic testing technology (NGS) breaks through the restrictions of pedigree analysis, provide a convenient and efficient method to detect and diagnose hereditary cancer. Here, we introduce the mechanism of hereditary cancer, summarize, discuss and prospect the application of NGS and other genetic tests in the diagnosis of hereditary retinoblastoma, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, hereditary colorectal cancer and other complex and rare hereditary tumors.

  11. Technology Development for Detection of Circulating Disease Biomarkers from Liquid Biopsies Using Multifunctional Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcioglu, Mustafa

    Despite the advance health care, devastating health conditions such as cancer and infectious diseases that affect populations worldwide are too often not diagnosed until morbid symptoms become apparent in the late phase. Obtaining an early and accurate diagnosis that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated may dramatically reduce the severity of its impact on the patient's life and increase the probability of survival. For example, in the case of ovarian cancer, which is the fifth most common malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in women in the US, the 5-year relative survival is 45%. If the diagnosis is made in stages III and IV when the cancer is well established and spreading, 17% of the women survive at five years. However, if ovarian cancer is found (and treated) before the cancer has spread outside the ovary, the survival rate can reach 93%. The sad fact is only 15% of all ovarian cancers are found at this early stage, whereas the vast majority, 70%, are detected in stages three and four. There is therefore an apparent need for the development of highly sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assays for early detection, prognostic evaluation, and recurrence monitoring. This uneasy task, however, is hindered by three existing major limitations; (1) lack of an easy, inexpensive and noninvasive serial sampling method that can replace medical procedures, which is like colonoscopy for colon cancer or mammography for breast cancer. Second, lack of definitive molecular biomarkers for specific diseases as an alternative to protein biomarkers, like PSA for prostate cancer and (3) lack of a rapid multi-marker detection platform with high sensitivity and excellent specificity. Liquid biopsy, a simple non-invasive blood test, is an emerging novel technology has the potential to overcome these restrictions. Because of its non-invasive nature, liquid biopsy can be serially collected to provide a personalized global

  12. Array microscopy technology and its application to digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Brian P.

    Tuberculosis causes more deaths worldwide than any other curable infectious disease. This is the case despite tuberculosis appearing to be on the verge of eradication midway through the last century. Efforts at reversing the spread of tuberculosis have intensified since the early 1990s. Since then, microscopy has been the primary frontline diagnostic. In this dissertation, advances in clinical microscopy towards array microscopy for digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are presented. Digital array microscopy separates the tasks of microscope operation and pathogen detection and will reduce the specialization needed in order to operate the microscope. Distributing the work and reducing specialization will allow this technology to be deployed at the point of care, taking the front-line diagnostic for tuberculosis from the microscopy center to the community health center. By improving access to microscopy centers, hundreds of thousands of lives can be saved. For this dissertation, a lens was designed that can be manufactured as 4x6 array of microscopes. This lens design is diffraction limited, having less than 0.071 waves of aberration (root mean square) over the entire field of view. A total area imaged onto a full-frame digital image sensor is expected to be 3.94 mm2, which according to tuberculosis microscopy guidelines is more than sufficient for a sensitive diagnosis. The design is tolerant to single point diamond turning manufacturing errors, as found by tolerance analysis and by fabricating a prototype. Diamond micro-milling, a fabrication technique for lens array molds, was applied to plastic plano-concave and plano-convex lens arrays, and found to produce high quality optical surfaces. The micro-milling technique did not prove robust enough to produce bi-convex and meniscus lens arrays in a variety of lens shapes, however, and it required lengthy fabrication times. In order to rapidly prototype new lenses, a new diamond machining technique was

  13. Technology of uncooled fast polycrystalline PbSe focal plane arrays in systems for muzzle flash detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Barela, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Vergara, German; Linares, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Raul; Fernandez, Carlos; Montojo Supervielle, Maria Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents some aspects of muzzle flash detection using low resolution polycrystalline PbSe 32×32 and 80×80 detectors FPA operating at room temperature (uncooled performance). These sensors, which detect in MWIR (3 - 5 microns region) and are manufactured using proprietary technology from New Infrared Technologies (VPD PbSe - Vapor Phase Deposition of polycrystalline PbSe), can be applied to muzzle flash detection. The system based in the uncooled 80×80 FPA monolithically integrated with the CMOS readout circuitry has allowed image recording with frame rates over 2000 Hz (true snapshot acquisition), whereas the lower density, uncooled 32×32 FPA is suitable for being used in low cost infrared imagers sensitive in the MWIR band with frame rates above 1000 Hz. The FPA detector, read-out electronics and processing electronics (allows the implementation of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection) of both systems are presented. The systems have been tested at field test ground. Results of detection range measurement with two types of optical systems (wide and narrow field of view) have been shown. The theoretical analysis of possibility detection of muzzle flash and initial results of testing of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection have been presented too.

  14. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  15. Engineering Evaluation of UXO Detection Technologies and Interrogation Methodologies for Use in Panama: Empire, Balboa West and Pina Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    7 2.5 PLANT AND ANIMAL SPECIES...False Alarm Ratio (FAR) ...................................................................... 5 Table 2-1 Plant And Animal Species Found On Areas...be effected by the implementation of UXO detection and interrogation technologies. The ranges contain many species of plants , mammals, and birds

  16. Practices and Exploration on Competition of Molecular Biological Detection Technology among Students in Food Quality and Safety Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula…

  17. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-24

    8, Automatic Particle Counter, cleanliness, free water, Diesel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT none 18. NUMBER OF...aircraft, or up to 10 mg/L for product used as a diesel product for ground use (1). Free water contamination (droplets) may appear as fine droplets or...published several methods and test procedures for the calibration and use of automatic particle counters. The transition of this technology to the fuel

  18. Molecular beacons for DNA binding proteins: an emerging technology for detection of DNA binding proteins and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Dummitt, Benjamin; Chang, Yie-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Quantitation of the level or activity of specific proteins is one of the most commonly performed experiments in biomedical research. Protein detection has historically been difficult to adapt to high throughput platforms because of heavy reliance upon antibodies for protein detection. Molecular beacons for DNA binding proteins is a recently developed technology that attempts to overcome such limitations. Protein detection is accomplished using inexpensive, easy-to-synthesize oligonucleotides, accompanied by a fluorescence readout. Importantly, detection of the protein and reporting of the signal occur simultaneously, allowing for one-step protocols and increased potential for use in high throughput analysis. While the initial iteration of the technology allowed only for the detection of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, more recent adaptations allow for the possibility of development of beacons for any protein, independent of native DNA binding activity. Here, we discuss the development of the technology, the mechanism of the reaction, and recent improvements and modifications made to improve the assay in terms of sensitivity, potential for multiplexing, and broad applicability.

  19. An active-optics image-motion compensation technology application for high-speed searching and infrared detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Lu, Fei; Zou, Kai; Yan, Hong; Wan, Min; Kuang, Yan; Zhou, Yanqing

    2018-03-01

    An ultra-high angular velocity and minor-caliber high-precision stably control technology application for active-optics image-motion compensation, is put forward innovatively in this paper. The image blur problem due to several 100°/s high-velocity relative motion between imaging system and target is theoretically analyzed. The velocity match model of detection system and active optics compensation system is built, and active optics image motion compensation platform experiment parameters are designed. Several 100°/s high-velocity high-precision control optics compensation technology is studied and implemented. The relative motion velocity is up to 250°/s, and image motion amplitude is more than 20 pixel. After the active optics compensation, motion blur is less than one pixel. The bottleneck technology of ultra-high angular velocity and long exposure time in searching and infrared detection system is successfully broke through.

  20. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.

    2004-09-01

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from amore » Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee

  1. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    Full video format focal plane array (FPA) modules with up to 640 X 512 pixels have been developed for high resolution imaging applications in either mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) mid wave (MWIR) infrared (IR) or platinum silicide (PtSi) and quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology as low cost alternatives to MCT for high performance IR imaging in the MWIR or long wave spectral band (LWIR). For the QWIP's, a new photovoltaic technology was introduced for improved NETD performance and higher dynamic range. MCT units provide fast frame rates > 100 Hz together with state of the art thermal resolution NETD < 20 mK for short snapshot integration times of typically 2 ms. PtSi and QWIP modules are usually operated in a rolling frame integration mode with frame rates of 30 - 60 Hz and provide thermal resolutions of NETD < 80 mK for PtSi and NETD < 20 mK for QWIP, respectively. Due to the lower quantum efficiency compared to MCT, however, the integration time is typically chosen to be as long 10 - 20 ms. The heat load of the integrated detector cooler assemblies (IDCAs) could be reduced to an amount as low, that a 1 W split liner cooler provides sufficient cooling power to operate the modules -- including the QWIP with 60 K operation temperature -- at ambient temperatures up to 65 degrees Celsius. Miniaturized command/control electronics (CCE) available for all modules provide a standardized digital interface, with 14 bit analogue to digital conversion for state to the art correctability, access to highly dynamic scenes without any loss of information and simplified exchangeability of the units. New modular image processing hardware platforms and software for image visualization and nonuniformity correction including scene based self learning algorithms had to be developed to accomplish for the high data rates of up to 18 M pixels/s with 14-bit deep data, allowing to take into account nonlinear effects to access the full NETD by accurate reduction of residual

  2. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars.

  3. Evaluation of Low-Energy Microwaves Technology (Termatrac) for Detecting Western Drywood Termite in a Simulated Drywall System.

    PubMed

    Taravati, Siavash

    2018-05-28

    Detecting drywood termites in structures is very challenging. Microwaves technology (Termatrac T3i) is a nondestructive method for detecting drywood termites in structures. Termatrac device and its mobile application provide a bar as well as a line graph when detecting insect movements, but interpreting these graphs is very subjective. In this paper, Termatrac's output signal is quantified using a new method to study the effect of wall layers, wood type, and termite density on signal strength measured as area under curve in a simulated drywall system in laboratory. Two experiments were conducted on Termatrac T3i at its maximum sensitivity (Gain: 10). In experiment I, HEXBUG Nano was used as a source of movement/vibration and two wood types were used in which the wall layers significantly predicted signal strength, but wood type did not. In experiment II, two different densities of live western drywood termites, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae), were used to study the effect of termite density on signal strength. Interestingly, termite density did not significantly predict signal strength. The maximum reliable wood depth for detecting termites was 5 cm. Microwaves produced by Termatrac also showed good penetration into drywall and produced detectable signals even on a single drywood termite which confirms manufacturer's claim. Suggestions on using and improving microwaves technology for detecting termites is provided which can potentially be applied to other types of insects and noninsect animals.

  4. eSensor: an electrochemical detection-based DNA microarray technology enabling sample-to-answer molecular diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Robin H.; Longiaru, Mathew

    2009-05-01

    DNA microarrays are becoming a widespread tool used in life science and drug screening due to its many benefits of miniaturization and integration. Microarrays permit a highly multiplexed DNA analysis. Recently, the development of new detection methods and simplified methodologies has rapidly expanded the use of microarray technologies from predominantly gene expression analysis into the arena of diagnostics. Osmetech's eSensor® is an electrochemical detection platform based on a low-to- medium density DNA hybridization array on a cost-effective printed circuit board substrate. eSensor® has been cleared by FDA for Warfarin sensitivity test and Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Detection. Other genetic-based diagnostic and infectious disease detection tests are under development. The eSensor® platform eliminates the need for an expensive laser-based optical system and fluorescent reagents. It allows one to perform hybridization and detection in a single and small instrument without any fluidic processing and handling. Furthermore, the eSensor® platform is readily adaptable to on-chip sample-to-answer genetic analyses using microfluidics technology. The eSensor® platform provides a cost-effective solution to direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis, and thus have a potential impact in the fields of point-of-care genetic analysis, environmental testing, and biological warfare agent detection.

  5. Effectiveness of medicines authentication technology to detect counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines: a two-stage quantitative secondary care study

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Bernard; Roberts, Lindsey; Dopson, Sue; Chapman, Stephen; Brindley, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the authentication and detection rate of serialised medicines using medicines authentication technology. Design and intervention 4192 serialised medicines were entered into a hospital dispensary over two separate 8-week stages in 2015. Medicines were authenticated using secure external database cross-checking, triggered by the scanning of a two-dimensional data matrix with a unit specific 12-digit serial code. 4% of medicines included were preprogrammed with a message to identify the product as either expired, pack recalled, product recalled or counterfeit. Setting A site within a large UK National Health Service teaching hospital trust. Participants Accredited checking staff, pharmacists and dispensers in a pharmacy department. Primary outcome measures Authentication and detection rate of counterfeit expired and recalled medicines. Results The operational detection rate of counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines scanned as a combined group was 81.4% (stage 1 (S1)) and 87% (stage 2 (S2)). The technology's technical detection rate (TDR) was 100%; however, not all medicines were scanned and of those that were scanned not all that generated a warning message were quarantined. Owing to an operational authentication rate (OAR) of 66.3% (over both stages), only 31.8% of counterfeit medicines, 58% of recalled drugs and 64% of expired medicines were detected as a proportion of those entered into the study. Response times (RTs) of 152 ms (S1) and 165 ms (S2) were recorded, meeting the falsified medicines directive-mandated 300 ms limit. Conclusions TDRs and RTs were not a limiting factor in this study. The suboptimal OAR poses significant quality and safety issues with this detection approach. Authentication at the checking stage, however, demonstrated higher OARs. There is a need for further qualitative research to establish the reasons for less than absolute authentication and detection rates in the hospital environment to improve this

  6. The development of technology for detection of marijuana intoxication by analysis of body fluids

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-09-01

    A method employing high pressure liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry was developed for the detection of low concentrations of various marijuana metabolites in body fluids. A new marijuana metabolite was found which could be detected in blood...

  7. Chemical composition of volatile aroma metabolites and their glycosylated precursors that can uniquely differentiate individual grape cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ghaste, Manoj; Narduzzi, Luca; Carlin, Silvia; Vrhovsek, Urska; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-12-01

    Every grape cultivar has its own unique genetic characteristics, leading to the production of a different secondary metabolite profile. Aroma is one of the most important aspects in terms of the quality of grapes and previous studies have assigned specific aromas to particular grape cultivars. In this study we present the molecular profiling of volatile aroma metabolites and their precursors in ten selected genotypes, including six Vitis vinifera cultivars, two American species (Arizonica Texas, Vitis cinerea) and two interspecific crosses. Chemical profiling was achieved through combined use of two orthogonal techniques, GC-MS and LC-HRMS, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show that both free and glycosidically bound aroma precursors behave differently in each different grape cultivar and species. As many as 66 free aroma volatile molecules (originally existing and released after hydrolysis) were profiled through GC-MS analysis, while 15 glycosylated precursors of volatiles were identified through LC-HRMS and correlation with GC-MS data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparative study of aroma-active compounds between dark and milk chocolate: relationship to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbin; Liu, Mengya; He, Congcong; Song, Huanlu; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ye; Yang, Haiying; Su, Xiaoxia

    2015-04-01

    The most important aroma-active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. A total of 32 major aroma-active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27-729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur-containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma-active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].

    PubMed

    Chang, So Young

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer. This study was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were 58 hospice patients with terminal cancer who were hospitalized. Twenty eight hospice patients with terminal cancer were assigned to the experimental group (aroma hand massage), and 30 hospice patients with terminal cancer were assigned to the control group (general oil hand massage). As for the experimental treatment, the experimental group went through aroma hand massage on each hand for 5 min for 7 days with blended oil-a mixture of Bergamot, Lavender, and Frankincense in the ratio of 1:1:1, which was diluted 1.5% with sweet almond carrier oil 50 ml. The control group went through general oil hand massage by only sweet almond carrier oil-on each hand for 5 min for 7 days. The aroma hand massage experimental group showed more significant differences in the changes of pain score (t=-3.52, p=.001) and depression (t=-8.99, p=.000) than the control group. Aroma hand massage had a positive effect on pain and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer.

  10. [Evaluation of heart impact in the 100 m extreme intensity sport using near-infrared non-invasive muscle oxygen detecting device and sports heart rate detection technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Yong; Long, Fei-Xiao; Fu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yue; Ding, Hai-Shu; Qu, An-Lian; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Using continuous two wavelength near-infrared technology to detect the variation in the consistency of oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle and the sports heart rate wireless real time collection technology, we devised the real time muscle tissue oxygenation and instantaneous heart rate experiment scheme and implemented it for the process of the 100 m run with two parameters given simultaneously. The experiment shows that the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle tissue continues decreasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin attains the minimum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (6.65 +/- 1.10) sec; while the heart rate continues increasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the heart rate attains the maximum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (8.00 +/- 1.57) sec. The results show that the two wavelength near-infrared tissue oxygenation detection technology and the sports heart rate real time collection equipment can accurately measure the sports tissue oxygenation and the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport, and reveal the process of muscle oxygen transportation and consumption and its dynamic character with the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport.

  11. First results on label-free detection of DNA and protein molecules using a novel integrated sensor technology based on gravimetric detection principles.

    PubMed

    Gabl, R; Feucht, H-D; Zeininger, H; Eckstein, G; Schreiter, M; Primig, R; Pitzer, D; Wersing, W

    2004-01-15

    A novel integrated bio-sensor technology based on thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonators on silicon is presented and the feasibility of detecting DNA and protein molecules proofed. The detection principle of these sensors is label-free and relies on a resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of an acoustic resonator, a principle very well known from quartz crystal micro balances. Integrated ZnO bulk acoustic wave resonators with resonance frequencies around 2 GHz have been fabricated, employing an acoustic mirror for isolation from the silicon substrate. DNA oligos have been thiol-coupled to the gold electrode by on-wafer dispensing. In a further step, samples have either been hybridised or alternatively a protein has been coupled to the receptor. The measurement results show the new bio-sensor being capable of both, detecting proteins as well as the DNA hybridisation without using a label. Due to the substantially higher oscillation frequency, these sensors already show much higher sensitivity and resolution comparable to quartz crystal micro balances. The potential for these sensors and sensors arrays as well as technological challenges will be discussed in detail.

  12. Proteins involved in wine aroma compounds metabolism by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor-velum yeast strain grown in two conditions.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Jaime; García-Martínez, Teresa; Millán, M Carmen; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2015-10-01

    A proteomic and exometabolomic study was conducted on Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeast strain growing under biofilm formation condition (BFC) with ethanol and glycerol as carbon sources and results were compared with those obtained under no biofilm formation condition (NBFC) containing glucose as carbon source. By using modern techniques, OFFGEL fractionator and LTQ-Orbitrap for proteome and SBSE-TD-GC-MS for metabolite analysis, we quantified 84 proteins including 33 directly involved in the metabolism of glycerol, ethanol and 17 aroma compounds. Contents in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, decanoic acid, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde and 2-phenethyl acetate, changed above their odor thresholds under BFC, and those of decanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and isoamyl acetate under NBFC. Of the twenty proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde, organic acids and ethyl esters, only Adh2p, Ald4p, Cys4p, Fas3p, Met2p and Plb1p were detected under BFC and as many Acs2p, Ald3p, Cem1p, Ilv2p, Ilv6p and Pox1p, only under NBFC. Of the eight proteins involved in glycerol metabolism, Gut2p was detected only under BFC while Pgs1p and Rhr2p were under NBFC. Finally, of the five proteins involved in the metabolism of higher alcohols, Thi3p was present under BFC, and Aro8p and Bat2p were under NBFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for oil pipeline leak detection based on distributed fiber optic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huabo; Tu, Yaqing; Luo, Ting

    1998-08-01

    Pipeline leak detection is a difficult problem to solve up to now. Some traditional leak detection methods have such problems as high rate of false alarm or missing detection, low location estimate capability. For the problems given above, a method for oil pipeline leak detection based on distributed optical fiber sensor with special coating is presented. The fiber's coating interacts with hydrocarbon molecules in oil, which alters the refractive indexed of the coating. Therefore the light-guiding properties of the fiber are modified. Thus pipeline leak location can be determined by OTDR. Oil pipeline lead detection system is designed based on the principle. The system has some features like real time, multi-point detection at the same time and high location accuracy. In the end, some factors that probably influence detection are analyzed and primary improving actions are given.

  14. Evaluation of PMS-PCR technology for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis directly from bovine fecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Salgado, M; Steuer, P; Troncoso, E; Collins, M T

    2013-12-27

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