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Sample records for aromatic amine p-anilinoaniline

  1. Suppression of autophagy enhances the cytotoxicity of the DNA-damaging aromatic amine p-anilinoaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Althea; Reiners, John J.

    2008-10-15

    p-Anilinoaniline (pAA) is an aromatic amine that is widely used in hair dying applications. It is also a metabolite of metanil yellow, an azo dye that is commonly used as a food coloring agent. Concentrations of pAA between 10 and 25 {mu}M were cytostatic to cultures of the normal human mammary epithelia cell line MCF10A. Concentrations {>=} 50 {mu}M were cytotoxic. Cytostatic concentrations induced transient G{sub 1} and S cell cycle phase arrests; whereas cytotoxic concentrations induced protracted arrests. Cytotoxic concentrations of pAA caused DNA damage, as monitored by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay, and morphological changes consistent with cells undergoing apoptosis and/or autophagy. Enzymatic and western blot analyses, and binding analyses of fluorescent labeled VAD-FMK, suggested that caspase family members were activated by pAA. Western blot analyses documented the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, a post-translational modification involved in the development of the autophagosome. Suppression of autophagosome formation, via knockdown of ATG7 with shRNA, prevented pAA-induced vacuolization, enhanced the activation of pro-caspase-3, and increased susceptibility of ATG7-deficient cells to the cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of markedly lower concentrations of pAA. Cells stably transfected with a nonsense shRNA behaved like parental MCF10A cells. Collectively, these data suggest that MCF10A cultures undergo autophagy as a pro-survival response to concentrations of pAA sufficient to induce DNA damage.

  2. Aromatic amines and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vineis, P; Pirastu, R

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the relation between aromatic amines and cancer risk is reviewed. In particular, cancer risk in humans resulting from exposure to aromatic amines from occupational sources and tobacco smoking is assessed with reference to ecologic, cohort, and case-control studies. Seven arylamines have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer: benzidine-based dyes and MOCA (4,4'-methylene bis 2-choloroaniline) were considered 'probably' carcinogenic, Group 2A, because of a high level of evidence in experimental animals; two occupational chemicals (2-naphthylamine and benzidine), one drug (Chlornaphazine), and two manufacturing processes (manufacture of auramine and magenta) were included in Group 1 on the basis of 'sufficient' evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Occupational exposures to aromatic amines explain up to 25 percent of bladder cancers in some areas of Western countries; these estimates might be higher in limited areas of developing countries. Aromatic amines contaminate the ambient air as a component of environmental tobacco smoke. There is increasing evidence that the excess of bladder cancer in smokers is attributable to aromatic amines rather than to other contaminants of tobacco smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A modulating role in the risk of bladder cancer associated with exposure to aromatic amines is played by metabolic polymorphisms, such as the N-acetyltransferase genotype, raising important social and ethical issues. The consistent observation of a difference between men and women in bladder cancer risk, after allowing for known risk factors, suggests consideration of gender-related biological determinants for future investigation.

  3. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic, and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic amines has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. PMID:26347719

  4. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  5. Sediment-Associated Reactions of Aromatic Amines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of aromatic amines to sediments and soils can occur by both reversible physical processes and irreversible chemical processes. To elucidate the significance of these sorption pathways, the sorption kinetics of aniline and pyridine were studied in resaturated pond sedimen...

  6. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES. 2. QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of aromatic amines in soils and sediments is dominated by irreversible binding through nucleophilic addition and oxidative radical coupling. Despite the common occurrence of the aromatic amine functional group in organic chemicals, the molecular properties useful for pr...

  7. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  8. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  9. 40 CFR 721.3764 - Fluorene substituted aromatic amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluorene substituted aromatic amine... Substances § 721.3764 Fluorene substituted aromatic amine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a fluorene substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3764 - Fluorene substituted aromatic amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorene substituted aromatic amine... Substances § 721.3764 Fluorene substituted aromatic amine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a fluorene substituted...

  11. Interspecies metabolism of heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Turesky, R.J.; Welti, D.H.; Fay, L.B.

    1996-12-31

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimadazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and other heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are rodent carcinogens and potential human carcinogens formed in cooked meats and fish. Metabolic activation of MeIQx to a genotoxin occurs through cytochrome P450 mediated N-oxidation to form N-hydroxy-MeIQx which may undergo further activation by esterification to product species which bind to DNA. Pathways of MeIQx metabolism have been elucidated in rodents and nonhuman primates to develop strategies of human biomonitoring. In addition to N-oxidation, predominant routes of detoxification include direct conjugation at the exoyclic amino group with sulfate or glucuronic acid and cytochrome P450 mediated ring oxidation. Analysis of urine from five human subjects exposed to MeIQx reveals that phase II conjugation reactions to the exocyclic amine group are prominent detoxifaction pathways while heterocyclic ring oxidation is a minor pathway. Notably, the N{sup 2-} glucuronide conjugate of N-hydroxy-MeIQx is an important metabolite in human urine. Several other metabolites have been detected in human urine which have not been previously identified in rats or nonhuman primates. Similarities and differences exist in the metabolic processing of MeIQx by humans and other species and may be a critical determinant in assessing the human health risk of HAAs.

  12. Detection of azo dyes and aromatic amines in women undergarment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-07-28

    Women are exposed to several chemical additives including azo dyes that exist in textile materials, which are a potential health hazard for consumers. Our objective was to analyze suspected carcinogenic azo dyes and their degradation aromatic amines in women underwear panties using a fast and simple method for quantification. Here, we evaluated 120 different samples of women underwear for their potential release of aromatic amines to the skin. Seventy-four samples yielded low level mixtures of aromatic amines; however eighteen samples were found to produce greater than 200 mg/kg (ppm) of aromatic amines. Azo dyes in these 18 samples were extracted from the fabrics and analyzed by reverse phase thin layer chromatography in tandem with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven azo dyes were identified based on their mass spectral data and the chemical structure of the aromatic amine produced from these samples. We demonstrate that planar chromatography and mass spectrometry can be really helpful in confirming the identity of the azo dyes, offering highly relevant molecular information of the responsible compounds in the fabrics. With the growing concern about the consumer goods, analysis of aromatic amines in garments has become a highly important issue. PMID:27149414

  13. 40 CFR 721.10705 - Aromatic amine with cyclo amino carbonyls (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic amine with cyclo amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10705 Aromatic amine with cyclo amino carbonyls (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic amine with cyclo amino carbonyls (PMN P-12-572) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3764 - Fluorene substituted aromatic amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fluorene substituted aromatic amine. 721.3764 Section 721.3764 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3764...

  15. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  16. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  17. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E.; Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 5-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  18. Metabolic activation of aromatic amines and azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, H

    1981-01-01

    Aromatic amines, amides and nitro compounds are a class of chemicals that produce tumors in a wide variety of tissues in experimental animals, including liver, urinary bladder, forestomach, small intestine, Zymbal's gland, subcutaneous tissue or skin. In man, exposure to some aromatic amines is associated with tumours of the urinary bladder and carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Their biological activity as carcinogens or genotoxic agents is, in all the cases that have been studied in detail, dependent on metabolic activation in vivo, occurring by multiple pathways. Differences in these metabolic pathways may largely account for the differences in tissues and species susceptibilities to cancer induction. Carcinogenicity of aromatic amines or amides is dependent on their oxidation to N-hydroxy derivatives, whilst the carcinogenicity of aromatic nitro compounds is linked to their reduction to hydroxylamines. Further conversion of the N-hydroxylamine or N-hydroxyamide to reactive intermediates can occur in several ways, which include (i) esterification of the N-hydroxy group, (ii) non-enzymic protonation of the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine and (iii) oxidation to a free radical of arylhydroxamic acids. Following generation of such reactive electrophilic intermediates in tissues or cells, macromolecular binding has been observed to nucleic acids and proteins. In many cases, arylamidated and arylaminated products are formed with nucleic acid bases; in the case of the well-studied 2-acetylaminofluorene, nucleophilic atoms of guanine are the predominant site of reaction. Relatively little is known of the structure and biological consequences of DNA adducts formed from other aromatic amines, amides or nitro compounds; more research in these directions is warranted.

  19. Metabolism of aromatic amines by prostaglandin H synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, J A; Eling, T E

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of aromatic amines by the peroxidase activity of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) has been studied in this laboratory by use of two model compounds, the carcinogenic primary amine 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and the substituted amine aminopyrine (AP). 2-AF is oxidized by PHS to 2, 2-azobisfluorene, 2-aminodifluorenylamine, 2-nitrofluorene, polymeric material, and products covalently bound to macromolecules. In the presence of phenolic compounds, 2-AF oxidation results in the formation of amine/phenol adducts. The data are consistent with a one-electron mechanism of 2-AF oxidation by PHS; furthermore, an N-hydroxy intermediate is not involved in 2-AF metabolism by PHS. PHS also catalyzes the binding of 2-AF to DNA in vitro. Unique 2-AF/DNA adducts were isolated and are distinct from the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-AF adduct formed from the reaction of N-hydroxy-2-AF with DNA. These new adducts represent a marker unique to peroxidative activation of 2-AF. AP is oxidized by the peroxidase activity of PHS to the cation radical, with one molecule of hydroperoxy fatty acid reduced for every two molecules of AP free radical formed. The decay of the AP radical follows second order kinetics, supporting the proposed mechanism in which the AP radical disproportionates to an iminium cation, followed by hydrolysis of this species to the demethylated amine and formaldehyde. In the presence of glutathione, the cation radical is reduced to the parent amine, resulting in the formation of the glutathione thiyl radical. It thus appears that both primary and substituted aromatic amines may undergo one-electron oxidation by PHS. PMID:3938394

  20. Metabolism of aromatic amines by prostaglandin H synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.A.; Eling, T.E.

    1985-12-01

    The metabolism of aromatic amines by the peroxidase activity of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) has been studied in this laboratory by use of two model compounds, the carcinogenic primary amine 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and the substituted amine aminopyrine (AP). 2-AF is oxidized by PHS to 2, 2-azobisfluorene, 2-aminodifluorenylamine, 2-nitrofluorene, polymeric material, and products covalently bound to macromolecules. In the presence of phenolic compounds, 2-AF oxidation results in the formation of amine-phenol adducts. The data are consistent with a one-electron mechanism of 2-AF oxidation by PHS; furthermore, an N-hydroxy intermediate is not involved in 2-AF metabolism by PHS. PHS also catalyzes the binding of 2-AF to DNA in vitro. Unique 2-AF/DNA adducts were isolated and are distinct from the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-AF adduct formed from the reaction of N-hydroxy-2-AF with DNA. These new adducts represent a marker unique to peroxidative activation of 2-AF. AP is oxidized by the peroxidase activity of PHS to the cation radical, with one molecule of hydroperoxy fatty acid reduced for every two molecules of AP free radical formed. The decay of the AP radical follows second order kinetics, supporting the proposed mechanism in which the AP radical disproportionates to an iminium cation, followed by hydrolysis of this species to the demethylated amine and formaldehyde. In the presence of glutathione, the cation radical is reduced to the parent amine, resulting in the formation of the glutathione thiyl radical. It thus appears that both primary and substituted aromatic amines may undergo one-electron oxidation by PHS. 19 references.

  1. Amination of electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Schmidt, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process to aminate electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen using quaternary hydrazinium salts. The use of trialkylhydrazinium halide, e.g., trimethylhydrazinium iodide, as well as hydroxylamine, alkoxylamines, and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole to produce aminated aromatic structures, such as 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT), is described. DATB and TATB are useful insensitive high explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  2. Amination of electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    2000-05-30

    The present invention relates to a process to aminate electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen using quaternary hydrazinium salts. The use of trialkylhydrazinium halide, e.g., trimethylhydrazinium iodide, as well as hydroxylamine, alkoxylamines, and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole to produce aminated aromatic structures, such as 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT), is described. DATB and TATB are useful insensitive high explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  3. Bacterial fermentation platform for producing artificial aromatic amines

    PubMed Central

    Masuo, Shunsuke; Zhou, Shengmin; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Takaya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic amines containing an aminobenzene or an aniline moiety comprise versatile natural and artificial compounds including bioactive molecules and resources for advanced materials. However, a bio-production platform has not been implemented. Here we constructed a bacterial platform for para-substituted aminobenzene relatives of aromatic amines via enzymes in an alternate shikimate pathway predicted in a Pseudomonad bacterium. Optimization of the metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli cells converted biomass glucose to 4-aminophenylalanine with high efficiency (4.4 g L−1 in fed-batch cultivation). We designed and produced artificial pathways that mimicked the fungal Ehrlich pathway in E. coli and converted 4-aminophenylalanine into 4-aminophenylethanol and 4-aminophenylacetate at 90% molar yields. Combining these conversion systems or fungal phenylalanine decarboxylases, the 4-aminophenylalanine-producing platform fermented glucose to 4-aminophenylethanol, 4-aminophenylacetate, and 4-phenylethylamine. This original bacterial platform for producing artificial aromatic amines highlights their potential as heteroatoms containing bio-based materials that can replace those derived from petroleum. PMID:27167511

  4. Covalent Binding of Aromatic Amines to Natural Organic Matter: Study of Reaction Mechanisms and Development of Remediation Schemes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatic amines comprise an important class of environmental contaminants. Concern over their environmental fate arises from the toxic effects that certain aromatic amines exhibit toward microbial populations and reports that they can be toxic or carcinogenic to animals. Aromatic...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. Molecular dosimetry of aromatic amines in human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, P.L.; Tannenbaum, S.R.

    1994-10-01

    Certain aromatic amines carcinogenic for the human urinary bladder, such as 4-aminobiphenyl, undergo hepatic metabolic activation to N-hydroxylamines, which are transported to the bladder. During the transport process, these reactive species come in contact with hemoglobin and react with this blood protein. The principal hemoglobin adduct formed is a cysteine sulfinamide, and quantitative methods have been developed for the analysis of sulfinamide adducts at the levels present in ordinary human blood specimens. N-acetylation is an alternative metabolic fate to N-hydroxylation. The amount of hemoglobin adduct is decreased to the extent that this pathway is increased relative to N-hydroxylation. Thus, the hemoglobin adduct is sensitive to dose, cytochrome P-450-mediated activation, and N-acetyltransferase-mediated detoxification. In addition, it has been shown that DNA adduct concentration of 4-aminobiphenyl present in human bladder epithelial cells is significantly associated with hemoglobin adduct levels. Thus, the hemoglobin adduct of 4-aminobiphenyl, and perhaps several other aromatic amines, is a good dosimeter for the target tissue dose of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of these amines. Several studies have been undertaken in which the hemoglobin adducts of aminobiphenyls in human blood specimens were determined quantitatively. Information concerning exposure status and acetylator phenotype of the same individuals was obtained simultaneously. The results of these studies indicate that the hemoglobin adduct of 4-aminobiphenyl is closely associated with three major risk factors for bladder cancer; cigarette smoking, type of tobacco smoked, and acetylator phenotype. They also support a major etiologic role for aromatic amines in much of human bladder cancer. 42 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Mutagenicity of photochemically-transformed polycyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.; Okinaka, R.T.; Whaley, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic amines (PAA) constitute a class of suspect genotoxic chemicals found in certain energy-related complex organic mixtures. A variety of studies are reported on the photochemical transformation (oxidation) of polycyclic aromatic amines and the increase in genotoxicity of the resulting complex mixtures of radiation-generated products. Biological endpoints of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were measured in the Ames/Salmonella standard-plate assay. Chemical fractionation and identification of various photoproducts was accomplished with h.p.l.c., uv and ir spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. The benchmark PAA in these studies was aminofluorene (2-AF). Photooxidation of 2-AF can occur at both the exocyclic nitrogen and certain ring positions resulting in the formation of direct-acting and potent bacterial mutagens, including 2-nitrosofluorene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-nitrofluoren-9-one. UVA-irradiated 2-AF solutions also contain promutagenic compounds, i.e., is 2-aminofluoren-9-one. These results support the hypothesis that the critical step in the activation of major, identified direct-acting mutagenic 2-AF photoproducts is their reduction by bacterial nitroreductase enzymes to reactive hydroxylamines. Photochemical oxidation is an alternative mechanism of transforming PAA into direct-acting genotoxins. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  13. [Present aspects and problems regarding occupational bladder cancer due to exposure to aromatic amines].

    PubMed

    Yamamura, J

    1989-12-01

    About a century has passed since the first case of bladder cancer due to occupational exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines was reported. In the major developed countries of the world, it is forbidden to manufacture and/or to use such aromatic amines. In Japan in the 1950's, many workers were exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines, but in 1972, the Labor Safety and Health Act came into force and manufacturing and/or using of four kinds of aromatic amines were forbidden. Recently it has been reported that the risk of bladder cancer in workers exposed to aromatic amines before the ban of these chemicals is approximately from several times to a hundred times compared with the general population, and some reports say that dose-response relationship was observed. The important issues now are the carcinogenicity of other kinds of aromatic amines besides benzidine and 2-naphthylamine, carcinogenicity of metabolites of several substances like synthetic dyes, and carcinogenic aromatic amines as impurities in substances imported from developing countries. The type of exposure to these carcinogens changes low level and long period exposures. In addition to the chemical or dye industries, an increased risk of bladder cancer was observed among workers handling leather and rubber and those engaged in printing, textile industries, hairdressing, truck driving and so on. In the future, it will be necessary to cooperate with the departments of epidemiology, toxicology and clinical medicine for the purpose of estimating the risk of these occupations and the health care administration of the exposed workers.

  14. Prediction of aromatic amine carcinogenicity: QSAR base on calculated delocalizibility of hypothetical nitrenium ion intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, R.

    1995-12-31

    Predictors for the reactivity of primary aromatic amines were hypothesized and tested on a small set of amines. It was found that the delocalizibility on the nitrogen of the previously hypothesized nitrenium ion intermediate was the only good predictor. The strength of this predictor was tested on a larger set of amines and a cut off value for discriminating between carcinogens and noncarcinogens was chosen. This QSAR supports the hypothesis that a nitrenium ion is an intermediate in the activation of primary aromatic amines to active carcinogens.

  15. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Knize, M G; Salmon, C P; Pais, P; Felton, J S

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagens and animal carcinogens sometimes formed when foods are heated or processed. Determining their role in cancer etiology depends on comparing human exposures and determining any significant dose-related effects. Chemical analysis of foods shows that flame-grilling can form both PAH and HAA, and that frying forms predominantly HAA. With detection limits of about 0.1 ng/g, amounts found in commercially processed or restaurant foods range from 0.1 to 14 ng/g for HAA, and levels of PAH up to 1 ng/g in a liquid smoke flavoring. Laboratory fried samples have greater amounts of PAH, up to 38 ng/g in hamburgers, and high levels of HAA, over 300 ng/g, are measured in grilled chicken breast. Understanding the processing conditions that form PAH and HAA can lead to methods to greatly reduce their occurrence in processed foods.

  16. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Knize, M G; Salmon, C P; Pais, P; Felton, J S

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagens and animal carcinogens sometimes formed when foods are heated or processed. Determining their role in cancer etiology depends on comparing human exposures and determining any significant dose-related effects. Chemical analysis of foods shows that flame-grilling can form both PAH and HAA, and that frying forms predominantly HAA. With detection limits of about 0.1 ng/g, amounts found in commercially processed or restaurant foods range from 0.1 to 14 ng/g for HAA, and levels of PAH up to 1 ng/g in a liquid smoke flavoring. Laboratory fried samples have greater amounts of PAH, up to 38 ng/g in hamburgers, and high levels of HAA, over 300 ng/g, are measured in grilled chicken breast. Understanding the processing conditions that form PAH and HAA can lead to methods to greatly reduce their occurrence in processed foods. PMID:10335376

  17. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES: 1. ELUCIDATION OF SORPTION MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of aromatic amines to sediments and soils can occur by both reversible physical processes and irreversible chemical processes. To elucidate the significance of these sorption pathways, the sorption kinetics of aniline and pyridine were studied in resaturated pond sedimen...

  18. [Determination of primary aromatic amines in crayons gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kang, Suyuan; Zhang, Qing; Bai, Hua; Wang, Chao; Lü, Qing

    2011-05-01

    A method for the determination of nine primary aromatic amines in crayon by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The alkanes in the sample were removed with n-hexane. Then the sample was extracted twice with ultrasonic extraction by methanol. The extract was evaporated, then the concentrated solution reacted with the reducing agent (sodium hydrosulfite) for 30 min at 70 degrees C. After the extraction with a diatomite SPE column, the aromatic amines were collected and separated on an HP-5M column, determined by MS. The nine primary aromatic amines can be separated and determined successfully. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits were 5 mg/kg and the spiked recoveries of the samples were in the range of 86.02%-102.43%. The method is accurate and stable. It can be applied in the analysis of the primary aromatic amine of real crayon samples. PMID:21847976

  19. Formation and mitigation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Chundi; Mei, Jingbo; Wang, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potent mutagens and carcinogens generated during the heat processing of meat. HAAs, which are abundant in processed meat products, include 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP). The content of these three HAAs in fried pork was determined by LC-MS/MS. The effects of frying time and temperature, sample shape, and addition of antioxidants on the generation of HAAs were investigated. The results show that HAAs were produced during frying, and their levels increased with increasing frying time and temperature. Pork patties had the highest concentration of HAAs compared with pork meatballs and pork strips. The addition of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), liquorice extract, tea polyphenol, phytic acid and sodium iso-ascorbate to pork before frying had an inhibitory effect on HAA generation, with AOB being the most effective antioxidant. Inhibition levels of nearly 69.73% for MeIQx, 53.59% for 4,8-DiMeIQx and 77.07% for PhIP in fried pork were achieved when the concentrations of AOB added were 0.02, 0.01 and 0.10 g kg⁻¹, respectively.

  20. Amine α-heteroarylation via photoredox catalysis: a homolytic aromatic substitution pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Prier, Christopher K.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The direct α-heteroarylation of tertiary amines has been accomplished via photoredox catalysis to generate valuable benzylic amine pharmacophores. A variety of five-and six-membered chloroheteroarenes are shown to function as viable coupling partners for the α-arylation of a diverse range of cyclic and acyclic amines. Evidence is provided for a homolytic aromatic substitution mechanism, in which a catalyticallygenerated α-amino radical undergoes direct addition to an electrophilic chloroarene. PMID:26236461

  1. Facile synthesis of unsymmetrical acridines and phenazines by a Rh(III)-catalyzed amination/cyclization/aromatization cascade.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yajing; Hummel, Joshua R; Bergman, Robert G; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2013-08-28

    We report formal [3 + 3] annulations of aromatic azides with aromatic imines and azobenzenes to give acridines and phenazines, respectively. These transformations proceed through a cascade process of Rh(III)-catalyzed amination followed by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution and aromatization. Acridines can be directly prepared from aromatic aldehydes by in situ imine formation using catalytic benzylamine. PMID:23957711

  2. Facile Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Acridines and Phenazines by a Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Amination, Cyclization and Aromatization Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yajing; Hummel, Joshua R.; Bergman, Robert G.; Ellman, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    New formal [3 + 3] annulations have been developed to obtain acridines and phenazines from aromatic azides and aromatic imines and azobenzenes, respectively. These transformations proceed through a cascade process of Rh(III)-catalyzed amination followed by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution and aromatization. Acridines can be directly prepared from aromatic aldehydes by in situ imine formation using catalytic benzylamine. PMID:23957711

  3. An Acetyltransferase Conferring Tolerance to Toxic Aromatic Amine Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Marta; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Lamouri, Aazdine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AA) are a major class of environmental pollutants that have been shown to have genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials toward most living organisms. Fungi are able to tolerate a diverse range of chemical compounds including certain AA and have long been used as models to understand general biological processes. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this tolerance may improve our understanding of the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments and pave the way for novel pharmaceutical and/or biotechnological applications. We have identified and characterized two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes (PaNAT1 and PaNAT2) from the model fungus Podospora anserina that acetylate a wide range of AA. Targeted gene disruption experiments revealed that PaNAT2 was required for the growth and survival of the fungus in the presence of toxic AA. Functional studies using the knock-out strains and chemically acetylated AA indicated that tolerance of P. anserina to toxic AA was due to the N-acetylation of these chemicals by PaNAT2. Moreover, we provide proof-of-concept remediation experiments where P. anserina, through its PaNAT2 enzyme, is able to detoxify the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline in experimentally contaminated soil samples. Overall, our data show that a single xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme can mediate tolerance to a major class of pollutants in a eukaryotic species. These findings expand the understanding of the role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme and in particular of NATs in the adaptation of organisms to their chemical environment and provide a basis for new systems for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19416981

  4. Analysis of cooked foods for new heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA), which are formed in meats during cooking, are a potential dietary health hazard as they are potent mutagens in bacterial test systems and carcinogens in laboratory animals. Several novel HAA have been (partially) characterized in cooked foods: dimethylimidazopyridine (DMIP), a trimethylimidazopyridine (TMIP), and dimethylimidazofuropyridine (IFP). A solid-phase-extraction method for the analysis of these compounds was developed. Samples were homogenized in 0.1 M HCl:CH3OH (7:3), centrifuged and the supernatant applied to a C18 cartridge coupled to an SCX cartridge. The C18 cartridge trapped contaminants while allowing the HAA to pass to the SCX cartridge where they were retained. The C18 cartridge was discarded, while the SCX cartridge was washed sequentially with 0.1 M HCl, CH3OH, water, and 1 M CH3COONH4. HAA were eluted with CH3OH:NH4OH (9:1), dried under nitrogen, redissolved in CH2Cl2:CH3OH (19:1), and applied to a PRS cartridge. The PRS cartridge was washed with 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M HCl:CH3OH (3:2), and water before elution with CH3OH:NH4OH (9:1). The purified extract was analyzed by reversed phase HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. The presence of DMIP, 1,5,6-TMIP, and IFP was detected in grilled and pan-fried ground beef. Recoveries of the new HAA for this extraction procedure will be presented.

  5. CZE study on adsorption processes of aliphatic and aromatic amines on PMMA chip.

    PubMed

    Masár, Marián; Kruk, Pavol; Luc, Milan; Bodor, Róbert; Danč, Ladislav; Troška, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Adsorption processes on a PMMA chip linked with CZE separations of a group of 13 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and di-amines were studied. Due to the lack of chromophores within aliphatic amines, contact conductivity detection implemented directly onto the chip was used for monitoring of cationic CZE separations. To prevent an adsorption of studied amines to the chip channels, the surface of PMMA chip was modified by dynamic coating. Different surface modifiers, such as aliphatic oligoamines (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine), were added to the BGE solutions filling the chip channels. The effect of various concentrations of surface modifiers on peak profiles and separation parameters of amines was monitored. Of these, mainly, aliphatic di-amines and aromatic mono-amines adversely affected the CZE resolution of a whole group of analytes by their strong adsorption to the chip channels. A propionate BGE with pH 3.2 containing 100 μM triethylenetetramine and 25 mM 18-crown-6-ether was found suitable for CZE resolution of 12 from a total of 13 amines studied. Simple dynamic modification of the surface of PMMA chip enabled fast (analysis time lasted 9 min), sensitive (sub-μM LODs reached) and reproducible (1-3% RSD of the peak areas) CZE analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic amines.

  6. Changes in gene expression induced by aromatic amine drugs: testing the danger hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Winnie; Uetrecht, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all drugs that contain a primary aromatic amine are associated with a high incidence of idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs), suggesting that this functional group has biological effects that may be used as biomarkers to predict IDR risk. Most IDRs exhibit evidence of immune involvement and the ability of aromatic amines to form reactive metabolites and redox cycle may be responsible for initiation of an immune response through induction of cell stress, as postulated by the Danger Hypothesis. If true, danger signals could be biomarkers of IDR risk. A previous attempt to test the Danger Hypothesis found that sulfamethoxazole (SMX), the only aromatic amine tested, was also the only drug not associated with an increase of cell stress genes in mice. To ensure that these observations were not species-specific, and to determine biomarkers of IDR risk common to aromatic amines, rats were treated with SMX and two other aromatic amine drugs, dapsone (DDS) and aminoglutethimide (AMG), and hepatic gene expression was determined using microarrays. As in mice, SMX induced minimal gene changes in the rat, and none indicated cell stress, whereas DDS and AMG induced several changes including up-regulation of enzymes such as aldo-keto reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which may represent danger signals. Early insulin-induced hepatic gene (Eiih) was up-regulated by all three drugs. Some mRNA changes were observed in the Keap-1-Nrf2-ARE pathway; however, the pattern was significantly different for each drug. Overall, the most salient finding was that the changes in the liver were minimal, even though aromatic amines cause a high incidence of IDRs. The liver generates a large number of reactive species; however, the ability of aromatic amines to be bioactivated by cells of the immune system may be why they cause a high incidence of IDRs.

  7. Structure-Activity Relationships for Rates of Aromatic Amine Oxidation by Manganese Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J; Bylaska, Eric J; Lyon, Molly A; Ness, Stuart C; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2016-05-17

    New energetic compounds are designed to minimize their potential environmental impacts, which includes their transformation and the fate and effects of their transformation products. The nitro groups of energetic compounds are readily reduced to amines, and the resulting aromatic amines are subject to oxidation and coupling reactions. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is a common environmental oxidant and model system for kinetic studies of aromatic amine oxidation. In this study, a training set of new and previously reported kinetic data for the oxidation of model and energetic-derived aromatic amines was assembled and subjected to correlation analysis against descriptor variables that ranged from general purpose [Hammett σ constants (σ(-)), pKas of the amines, and energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO)] to specific for the likely rate-limiting step [one-electron oxidation potentials (Eox)]. The selection of calculated descriptors (pKa, EHOMO, and Eox) was based on validation with experimental data. All of the correlations gave satisfactory quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), but they improved with the specificity of the descriptor. The scope of correlation analysis was extended beyond MnO2 to include literature data on aromatic amine oxidation by other environmentally relevant oxidants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and phosphate and carbonate radicals) by correlating relative rate constants (normalized to 4-chloroaniline) to EHOMO (calculated with a modest level of theory). PMID:27074054

  8. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  9. Ultimate carcinogenic metabolites from aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic amines: a computational study in relation to their mutagenic potency.

    PubMed

    Borosky, Gabriela L

    2007-02-01

    The formation of nitrenium ions from their precursors was examined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to analyze the role of these electrophilic intermediates on the mutagenic activity of the parent amines. The relative reactivities for N-O bond dissociation from the N-hydroxy, N-acetoxy and N-sulfate derivatives of aniline were evaluated. Furthermore, the N-acetoxy esters from a set of 17 aromatic and heteroaromatic amines of diverse structure were considered, and correlations were sought between the calculated properties and the reported mutagenic potencies. The mutagenic activity was found to increase when a more negative charge developed at the exocyclic nitrogen of the nitrenium ion (qN) and with nitrenium ion stability. Different functional correlations were observed for the amine derivatives grouped according to their classification as aromatic (Ar), imidazo-carbocyclic (Imi-C), and imidazo-heterocyclic (Imi-H). The formation of N-acetyl nitrenium ions from aromatic amides was also considered and found to be less favorable than nitrenium ion generation from the corresponding amines. PMID:17261035

  10. Mechanism of isomerization of 11-cis-retinal in lipid dispersions by aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, B.S.; Rando, R.R.

    1987-01-13

    It has previously been shown that retinotoxic, primary aromatic amines catalyze the isomerization of 11-cis-retinal to its all-trans congener after Schiff base formation. This process led to the short-circuiting of the visual cycle and the observed retinotoxicity when it occurred in vivo. The catalysis was also observed to occur in vitro in phosphatidylcholine-based vesicles but not in hydrocarbon solutions. The rate of isomerization of an aromatic amine Schiff base of 11-cis-retinal in the phospholipid vesicles was typically 10/sup 3/-fold more rapid than in hydrocarbon solutions. In this article, the mechanistic basis of this apparently membrane-specific catalysis is described. It was found that the rate enhancement effect observed was independent of the lipid used. Moreover, a bilayer structure was not important because rate enhancements were also observed in micelles. The rapid isomerization rates observed in lipid dispersions appear not be free radical initiated because free radical quenching agents, such as ..cap alpha..-tocopherol and BETA-carotene, had little effect on the isomerization rates. It was further found that aliphatic amines, such as n-dodecylamine, could be substituted for the aromatic amines in phospholipid. Finally, and most importantly, it was found that the isomerization of the aromatic amine retinal Schiff bases in phospholipid vesicles was acid-catalyzed. It is concluded that the rate enhancements observed for the isomerization of 11-cis-retinal aromatic amine Schiff bases in lipid dispersions over that in hydrocarbon solvents are due to the occurrence of acid-base catalysis in the former.

  11. Spectrofluorimetric evaluation of total aliphatic and aromatic amines in well waters and wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Djozan, D.; Faraj-Zadeh, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic amines are important metabolic intermediates in decomposition processes and are distributed in wastewaters. Monitoring of these compounds in the water samples can indicate whether the environmental waters are contaminated with wastewaters. A simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines on the basis of ammonia and aniline, respectively. Aromatic amines in samples were reacted at pH 5.5 with fluram immobilized on an Octadecylsilane Solid Phase Extraction (ODS-SPE) cartridge. The produced pyrrolinones were adsorbed on SPE and separated from the aliphatic amines. Analysis of these compounds was carried out by elution of SPE with 1 ml Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and determination of fluorescence intensity at excitation wavelength 400 nm and emission wavelength 475 nm. Aliphatic amines after passing from SPE were collected and reacted with fluram at pH 9.2, and extracted into dichloromethane at pH 3 and quantitated fluorimetrically. Linear dynamic ranges and detection limits (LOD) were 1-20, 0.43 mg l{sup {minus}1} and 1-200, 0.39 {micro}g l{sup {minus}1} for ammonia and aniline, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the evaluation of these compounds in local well waters and municipality wastewaters.

  12. Removal of chlorine gas by an amine functionalized metal-organic framework via electrophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    DeCoste, Jared B; Browe, Matthew A; Wagner, George W; Rossin, Joseph A; Peterson, Gregory W

    2015-08-11

    Here we report the removal of chlorine gas from air via a reaction with an amine functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF). It is found that UiO-66-NH2 has the ability to remove 1.24 g of Cl2 per g of MOF via an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction producing HCl, which is subsequently neutralized by the MOF.

  13. Rapid separation and sensitive determination of banned aromatic amines with plastic microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruina; Wang, Lili; Gao, Xiaotong; Du, Gangfeng; Zhai, Honglin; Wang, Xiayan; Guo, Guangsheng; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2013-03-15

    Rapid analysis of trace amount of aromatic amines in environmental samples and daily necessities has attracted considerable attentions because some of them are strongly toxic and carcinogenic. In this study, fast and efficient electrophoretic separation and sensitive determination of 5 banned aromatic amines were explored for practical analysis using disposable plastic microchips combined with a low-cost laser-induced fluorescence detector. The effect of running buffer and its additive was systematically investigated. Under the selected condition, 5 fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled aromatic amines could be baseline separated within 90s by using a 10mmol/L borate buffer containing 2% (w/v) hydroxypropyl cellulose. Calibration curves of peak areas vs. concentrations were linear up to 40 or 120μmol/L for different analytes and limits of detection were in a range of 1-3nmol/L. Theoretical plate numbers of 6.8-8.5×10(5)/m were readily achieved. The method exhibited good repeatability, relative standard deviations (n=5) of peak areas and migration times were no more than 4.6% and 0.9%, respectively. The established method was successfully applied in the quantitative analysis of these banned aromatic amines in real samples of waste water and textile, recoveries of added standards were 85-110%.

  14. Adsorption and oxidation of aromatic amines by metal hexacyanoferrates(II).

    PubMed

    Alam, T; Tarannum, H; Ravi Kumar, M N; Kamaluddin

    2000-05-01

    Interaction of aniline, p-toluidine and p-chloroaniline with nickel, cadmium and manganese hexacyanoferrates(II) has been studied. Nickel and cadmium hexacyanoferrates(II) showed maximum adsorption at neutral pH, whereas, manganese hexacyanoferrate(II) reacts with aniline, p-toluidine and p-chloroaniline forming the colored oligomers on its surface. The adsorption data obtained at neutral pH is fitted in Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption behavior of the studied aromatic amines followed the order: p-toluidine>aniline>p-chloroaniline, which is related to the basicities of the amines. Results of the present study suggest the importance of metal hexacyanoferrates(II) and metal ions in stabilization of aromatic amines during the processes of prebiotic condensation reactions.

  15. N-acetylation of three aromatic amine hair dye precursor molecules eliminates their genotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Andreas; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    N-acetylation has been described as a detoxification reaction for aromatic amines; however, there is only limited data available showing that this metabolic conversion step changes their genotoxicity potential. To extend this database, three aromatic amines, all widely used as precursors in oxidative hair dye formulations, were chosen for this study: p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2,5-diaminotoluene (DAT) and 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT). Aiming at a deeper mechanistic understanding of the interplay between activation and detoxification for this chemical class, we compared the genotoxicity profiles of the parent compounds with those of their N-acetylated metabolites. While PPD, DAT and AHT all show genotoxic potential in vitro, their N-acetylated metabolites completely lack genotoxic potential as shown in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, micronucleus test with cultured human lymphocytes (AHT), chromosome aberration assay with V79 cells (DAT) and Comet assay performed with V79 cells. For the bifunctional aromatic amines studied (PPD and DAT), monoacetylation was sufficient to completely abolish their genotoxic potential. Detoxification through N-acetylation was further confirmed by comparing PPD, DAT and AHT in the Comet assay using standard V79 cells (N-acetyltransferase (NAT) deficient) and two NAT-proficient cell lines,V79NAT1*4 and HaCaT (human keratinocytes). Here we observed a clear shift of dose-response curves towards decreased genotoxicity of the parent aromatic amines in the NAT-proficient cells. These findings suggest that genotoxic effects will only be found at concentrations where the N-acetylation (detoxifying) capacity of the cells is overwhelmed, indicating that a 'first-pass' effect in skin could be taken into account for risk assessment of these topically applied aromatic amines. The findings also indicate that the use of liver S-9 preparations, which generally underestimate Phase II reactions, contributes to the generation of irrelevant

  16. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-01

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues. PMID:26377931

  17. Iron-catalyzed aromatic amination for nonsymmetrical triarylamine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takuji; Imayoshi, Ryuji; Yoshimoto, Yuya; Ghorai, Sujit K; Jin, Masayoshi; Takaya, Hikaru; Norisuye, Kazuhiro; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2012-12-19

    Novel iron-catalyzed amination reactions of various aryl bromides have been developed for the synthesis of diaryl- and triarylamines. The key to the success of this protocol is the use of in situ generated magnesium amides in the presence of a lithium halide, which dramatically increases the product yield. The present method is simple and free of precious and expensive metals and ligands, thus providing a facile route to triarylamines, a recurrent core unit in organic electronic materials as well as pharmaceuticals.

  18. Interaction of aromatic amines with iron oxides: implications for prebiotic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Uma; Singh, Gurinder; Kamaluddin

    2013-06-01

    The interaction of aromatic amines (aniline, p-chloroaniline, p-toludine and p-anisidine) with iron oxides (goethite, akaganeite and hematite) has been studied. Maximum uptake of amines was observed around pH 7. The adsorption data obtained at neutral pH were found to follow Langmuir adsorption. Anisidine was found to be a better adsorbate probably due to its higher basicity. In alkaline medium (pH > 8), amines reacted on goethite and akaganeite to give colored products. Analysis of the products by GC-MS showed benzoquinone and azobenzene as the reaction products of aniline while p-anisidine afforded a dimer. IR analysis of the amine-iron oxide hydroxide adduct suggests that the surface acidity of iron oxide hydroxides is responsible for the interaction. The present study suggests that iron oxide hydroxides might have played a role in the stabilization of organic molecules through their surface activity and in prebiotic condensation reactions.

  19. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Salmon, C.P.; Felton, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    Several heterocyclic amines that are mutagenic and carcinogenic have been found as cooking products of muscle meats and some grain-based foods. Amounts in meats range from undetectable levels (less than 0.5 ppb) after boiling, microwave-cooking, and baking, to tens to hundreds of ppb for frying/grilling at high temperatures. A mutagenic response, believed to be caused by aromatic amines, was shown with some toasted foods, but the identity of the mutagenic chemicals are different from those found in meats. The airborne products from cooking also contain many of the same heterocyclic amines. Commercial cooking generally forms less of the heterocyclic amines than home cooking due to industry cooking practices.

  20. Effect of microwave pretreatment on heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Felton, J S; Fultz, E; Dolbeare, F A; Knize, M G

    1994-10-01

    To investigate a method to reduce the amount of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines formed during frying of ground beef, the mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98 was assessed and the amount of known heterocyclic amines was determined by solid-phase extraction and HPLC. The beef patties received microwave treatment for various times before frying. Microwave pretreatment for 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 3 min before frying at either 200 degrees C or 250 degrees C for 6 min per side reduced heterocyclic aromatic amine precursors (creatine, creatinine, amino acids, glucose), water, and fat up to 30%, in the patties and resulted in a decrease in mutagenic activity up to 95%. The sum of the four heterocyclic aromatic amines shown to be present--2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)--decreased three- to nine-fold compared with control, non-microwaved beef patties fried under identical conditions.

  1. Selective determination of phenols and aromatic amines based on horseradish peroxidase-nanoporous gold co-catalytic strategy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Liu, Zhuang; Sun, Huihui; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2016-05-15

    Aromatic compounds, such as phenols and aromatic amines, are environmental contaminants suspected of posing human health risks. For phenols and aromatic amines reliable detection, promoting selectivity and sensitivity for phenols and aromatic amines is crucial in biosensor design. Here, a biosensor combined the advantages of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic electrochemical sensors is constructed. Nanoporous gold (NPG) is selected as an enzyme carrier for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) biosensor fabrication due to its three-dimension structure with unique properties. It is firstly discovered that NPG can achieve selective oxidation for phenols and aromatic amines. Thus, the electrochemical reaction on the resulting HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode is attributed to the co-catalysis of HRP and NPG. For the detection of catechol (Cat), 4-aminophenol (p-AP), o-phenylenediamine (o-PD), and p-phenylenediamine (p-PD), linear responses are observed in large concentration ranges with high sensitivities and low detection limits. Further, the HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode presents strong reproducibility, specificity, selectivity and anti-interference capability in detecting the mixture of phenols and aromatic amines along with a long shelf-life, and the real sea water sample analysis was achieved. These unique properties make the HRP/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for phenols and aromatic amines reliable detection.

  2. Determination of aromatic amines from textiles using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Yiwei, Wang; Caiying, Lou; Yan, Zhu

    2013-03-01

    A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure coupled with GC-MS is described for preconcentration and determination of banned aromatic amines from textile samples. Experimental conditions affecting the microextraction procedure were optimized. A mixture of 30 μL chlorobenzene (extraction solvent) and 800 μL ACN (disperser solvent), 5 min extraction time, and 5 mL aqueous sample volume were chosen for the best extraction efficiency by the proposed procedure. Satisfactory linearity (with correlation coefficients >0.9962) and repeatability (<9.78%) were obtained for all 20 aromatic amines; detection limits attained were much lower than the standardized liquid-liquid method. The proposed method has advantages of being quicker and easier to operate, and lower consumption of organic solvent.

  3. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange of aromatic amines and amides using deuterated trifluoroacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Richard; Lee, Amy; Jung, Erica; Kang, Aaron; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2014-01-01

    The H-D exchange of aromatic amines and amides, including pharmaceutically relevant compounds such as acetaminophen and diclofenac, was investigated using CF3COOD as both the sole reaction solvent and source of deuterium label. The described method is amenable to efficient deuterium incorporation for a wide variety of substrates possessing both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents. Best results were seen with less basic anilines and highly activated acetanilides, reflecting the likelihood of different mechanistic pathways. PMID:25641994

  4. Synthesis of modified vermiculite by interaction with aromatic heterocyclic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Maria G.; Cardoso, Cassio M.; Wanderley, Albaneide F.; Arakaki, Luiza N. H.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2006-08-01

    Vermiculite of general formula [Si6.85Al1.15][Mg4.68Al0.51Fe0.63]O20(OH)4Ca0.128Na0.032K0.094 reacted with heteroaromatic amines α-, β-, and γ-picolines from aqueous solution. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The intercalated nanocompounds maintained the crystallinity and changed the original interlayer distance of 1422 pm to 1474, 1456, and 1474 pm, for the sequence of the guest picoline molecules. Natural and intercalated vermiculite can remove copper at the solid/liquid interface; removal 0.40 mmol g-1 was obtained for the original matrix, and 1.10, 0.92, and 1.33 mmol g-1 for the intercalated forms. These values are near the capacity of cation exchange (CEC) of this clay mineral, which can be possibly used as source of copper removal from aqueous solution.

  5. Polymorphisms for aromatic amine metabolism in humans: relevance for human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kadlubar, F F; Butler, M A; Kaderlik, K R; Chou, H C; Lang, N P

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic pathways associated with carcinogenic aromatic amines in humans provide an excellent example of polymorphisms that appear to be relevant to human carcinogenesis. In this regard, the N-acetylation of arylamines and the O-acetylation of their N-hydroxy metabolites are catalyzed preferentially by a genetically polymorphic acetyltransferase, high activity of which has been correlated with decreased risk for urinary bladder cancer and increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Cytochrome P450IA2, the principal liver enzyme involved in aromatic amine N-oxidation, exhibits a wide interindividual variation that appears trimodal in several populations and is clearly inducible by cigarette smoking and probably other host factors as well. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases, which catalyze the N-glucuronidation of N-hydroxyarylamines and are likely to be responsible for their transport to the colon, show widely varied but unimodal distributions in humans. In contrast, human liver sulfotransferase activity for N-hydroxyarylamines, which would be expected to decrease their transport through the circulation, is catalyzed by a polymorphic enzyme(s) that is expressed at higher levels in blacks, as compared to whites, and could contribute to their relatively lower incidence of urinary bladder cancer. Peroxidative activation of aromatic amines can also occur, especially from prostaglandin H synthase in the urinary bladder and myeloperoxidase in the lungs of cigarette smokers, and both show considerable individual variability, apparently due to the extent of tissue inflammation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1486865

  6. Separation of aromatic amines by an open-tubular capillary electrochromatography method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Li, Yaping; Qiao, Juan; Wang, Minglin

    2013-11-01

    A new and simple open-tubular CEC (OT-CEC) method with a novel diblock copolymer poly(butyl methacrylate)71 -block-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)9 as the coating based on its self-assembled properties has been developed. Compared with the bare capillary, this coating could act as a surfactant and improve the separation efficiency of aromatic amines. Meanwhile, the effects of pH value, buffer concentration, and the copolymer block ratio on the separation efficiencies were investigated in detail. It has been found that the three tested aromatic amines could be baseline separated by the OT-CEC method with the cooperation of SDS. The proposed OT-CEC method showed good repeatability with RSDs <3.2% for testing the EOF. Moreover, it was also well validated by satisfactory linearity and favorable recovery, which ensured its successful application in the separation of aromatic amines in nail polish samples. The results revealed the potential applicability of the OT-CEC method in cosmetic analysis. PMID:24039094

  7. Identification of primary aromatic amines in mutagenically active subfractions from coal liquefaction materials.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B W; Pelroy, R; Cresto, J T

    1980-11-01

    Gas-chromatographic mass spectral (GCMS) analyses were performed on mutagenically active components from the basic, basic tar and neutral tar subfractions of a coal-derived liquid heavy distillate. The latter material is a component fraction of an experimental oil produced in a solvent refined coal process (SRC II) pilot plant. Mutagenicity was determined with the Ames/Salmonella assay system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to separate mutagenically active components of the basic, basic tar and neutral tar fractions from some of the other compounds contained in these complex materials. For the 3 fractions tested, mutagenic activity was localized in approx. the same TLC regions, with relative mobilities (Rf) ranging from 0.1 to 0.3. GCMS analysis of the TLC regions showed that the concentrations of primary aromatic amines, as obtained by measuring peak areas for the (M + 1)+ ion as formed in the chemical ionization mode, followed essentially the same distribution as the mutagenic activity. Primary aromatic amines identified in the active regions included aminonaphthalenes, aminoanthracenes, aminophenanthrenes, aminopyrenes and aminochrysenes. With the exception of small amounts of aminonaphthalene, primary aromatic amines were not found in TLC regions that lacked mutagenic activity.

  8. Occurrence of aromatic amines and N-nitrosamines in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-09-15

    The occurrence of 24 amines within a full scale drinking water treatment plant that used chlorinated agents as disinfectants was evaluated for the first time in this research. Prior to any treatment (raw water), aniline, 3-chloroaniline, 3,4-dichloroaniline and N-nitrosodimethylamine were detected at low levels (up to 18 ng/L) but their concentration increased ∼10 times after chloramination while 9 new amines were produced (4 aromatic amines and 5 N-nitrosamines). Within subsequent treatments, there were no significant changes in the amine levels, although the concentrations of 2-nitroaniline, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine increased slightly within the distribution system. Eleven of the 24 amines studied were undetected either in the raw and in the treatment plant samples analysed. There is an important difference in the behaviour of the aromatic amines and N-nitrosamines with respect to water temperature and rainfall events. Amine concentrations were higher in winter due to low water temperatures, this effect being more noticeable for N-nitrosamines. Aromatic amines were detected at their highest concentrations (especially 3,4-dichloroaniline and 2-nitroaniline) in treated water after rainfall events. These results may be explained by the increase in the levels of amine precursors (pesticides and their degradation products) in raw water since the rainfall facilitated the transport of these compounds from soil which was previously contaminated as a result of intensive agricultural practices.

  9. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Ante; Sanvito, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    Two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based around a common hexagonal scaffolding, with single and dual terminal amine groups have been considered as potential molecular wires in a junction formed by gold leads. Charge transport through the two-terminal device has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self-interaction correction) and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The effects of wire length, multiple terminal contacts, and pathways across the junction have been investigated. For nanoribbons with the oligopyrene motif and conventional single amine terminal groups, an increase in the wire length causes an exponential drop in the conductance. In contrast, for the nanoribbons with the oligoperylene motif and dual amine anchoring groups the predicted conductance rises with the wire length over the whole range of investigated lengths. Only when the effects of self-interaction correction are taken into account, the conductance of the oligoperylene ribbons exhibits saturation for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction.

  10. Antimutagenicity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) juice on the mutagenesis produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2004-11-01

    Aromatic amines are metabolically activated into mutagenic compounds by both animal and plant systems. The 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOP) is a well-known direct-acting mutagen whose mutagenic potential can be enhanced by plant metabolism; m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) is converted to mutagenic products detected by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain, and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) is the plant-activated promutagen most extensively studied. Plant cells activate both 2-AF and m-PDA into potent mutagens producing DNA frameshift mutations. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a common plant included in the Mexican diet, usually consumed uncooked. The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenicity assay (his- to his+) with the S. typhimurium TA98 strain as indicator organism. The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay was used as the activating system for aromatic transformation and plant extract interaction. Aqueous crude coriander juice significantly decreased the mutagenicity of metabolized aromatic amines (AA) in the following order: 2-AF (92.43%) > m-PDA (87.14%) > NOP (83.21%). The chlorophyll content in vegetable juice was monitored and its concentration showed a positive correlation with the detected antimutagenic effect. Protein content and peroxidase activity were also determined. The concentration of coriander juice (50-1000 microl/coincubation flask) was neither toxic nor mutagenic. The similar shape of the antimutagenic response curves obtained with coriander juice and chlorophyllin (used as a subrogate molecule of chlorophyll) indicated that comparable mechanisms of mutagenic inhibition could be involved. The negative correlation between chlorophyll content and mutagenic response of the promutagenic and direct-acting used amines allows us to deduce that a chemical interaction takes place between the two molecules

  11. Carcinogens as Frameshift Mutagens: Metabolites and Derivatives of 2-Acetylaminofluorene and Other Aromatic Amine Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Bruce N.; Gurney, E. G.; Miller, James A.; Bartsch, H.

    1972-01-01

    Several carcinogenic metabolites of the carcinogen 2-acetyl-aminofluorene, especially 2-nitrosofluorene and N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene, are potent frameshift mutagens for Salmonella typhimurium. 2-Nitrosonaphthalene, 2-nitrosophenanthrene, 4-nitroso-trans-stilbene, 4-nitrosobiphenyl, and 4-nitrosoazobenzene, all of which are metabolites or likely metabolites of carcinogenic aromatic amines, are also potent frameshift mutagens. These compounds may be frameshift mutagens of the class that intercalates into DNA and then reacts covalently with the DNA; various ultimate carcinogens may be of this type. The utility of a set of bacterial strains for detecting carcinogens as mutagens is shown. PMID:4564203

  12. Roles of free radicals in type 1 phototherapeutic agents: aromatic amines, sulfenamides, and sulfenates.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tien-Sung; Rajagopalan, Raghavan; Shen, Yuefei; Park, Sungho; Poreddy, Amruta R; Asmelash, Bethel; Karwa, Amolkumar S; Taylor, John-Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Detailed analyses of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra, cell viability, and DNA degradation studies are presented for the photolyzed Type I phototherapeutic agents: aromatic amines, sulfenamides, and sulfenates. The ESR studies provided evidence that copious free radicals can be generated from these N-H, N-S, and S-O containing compounds upon photoirradiation with UV/visible light. The analyses of spectral data allowed us to identify the free radical species. The cell viability studies showed that these agents after exposure to light exert cytotoxicity to kill cancer cells (U937 leukemia cell lines HTC11, KB, and HT29 cell lines) in a dosage- and time-dependent manner. We examined a possible pathway of cell death via DNA degradation by a plasmid cleavage assay for several compounds. The effects of photosensitization with benzophenone in the presence of oxygen were examined. The studies indicate that planar tricyclic amines and sulfenamides tend to form π-electron delocalized aminyl radicals, whereas nonplanar ones tend to yield nitroxide radicals resulting from the recombination of aminyl radicals with oxygen. The ESR studies coupled with the results of cell viability measurements and DNA degradation reveal that planar N-centered radicals can provide higher potency in cell death and allow us to provide some insights on the reaction mechanisms. We also found the formation of azatropylium cations possessing high aromaticity derived from azepines can facilitate secondary electron transfer to form toxic O2(•-) radicals, which can further exert oxidative stress and cause cell death.

  13. Aromatic amine degradation in a UASB/CSTR sequential system treating Congo Red dye.

    PubMed

    Işik, Mustafa; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this study an anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor)/aerobic (completely stirred tank reactor) sequential system was used to treat a synthetic wastewater with minerals and co-substrate together with 100-4000 mg L(-1) of Congo Red dye (Direct red 28) (CR), which is a banned azo dye in Turkey. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the decolorization and the COD removal efficiency was investigated at constant 100 mg L(-1) Congo Red concentration. 77% of COD and 95% of color was removed at a HRT of 0.486 days and a maximum organic loading rate of 6.656 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) in the anaerobic/aerobic stage. In the continuous operations, 88% of COD, 99% of color and 91% of total aromatic amine (TAA) were removed at a HRT of 3.60 days and at a CR concentration of 4000 mg L(-1). This corresponds to an organic loading rate of 1.81 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), and a CR dye loading rate of 46.37 g dye m(-3) h(-1), respectively, in the whole system. The TAA produced under anaerobic conditions was ultimately removed in the aerobic stage, resulting in very low aromatic amine recoveries (5-18%) in the last one. Therefore the aerobic effluents exhibited higher IC50 and specific methanogenic activities (SMA) compared to anaerobic and dye containing samples, indicating the reduced toxicity. PMID:14524683

  14. Solvent-free functionalization of fullerene C60 and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes with aromatic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J.; Meza-Laguna, Victor; Gromovoy, Taras Yu.; Chávez-Uribe, Ma. Isabel; Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Basiuk, Elena V.

    2015-02-01

    We employed a direct one-step solvent-free covalent functionalization of solid fullerene C60 and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with aromatic amines 1-aminopyrene (AP), 2-aminofluorene (AF) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The reactions were carried out under moderate vacuum, in a wide temperature range of 180-250 °C, during relatively short time of about 2 h. To confirm successful amine attachment, a large number of analytical techniques were used (depending on the nanomaterial functionalized) such as Fourier transform infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometric detection, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nucleophilic addition of the aromatic amines to C60 molecule was studied theoretically by using density functional theory (PBE GGA functional with Grimme dispersion correction in conjunction with the DNP basis set). In the case of crystalline C60, the solvent-free technique has a limited applicability due to poor diffusion of vaporous aromatic amines into the bulk. Nevertheless, the approach proposed allows for a facile preparation of aromatic amine-functionalized pristine MWCNTs without contamination with other chemical reagents, detergents and solvents, which is especially important for a vast variety of nanotube applications spanning from nanoelectronics to nanomedicine.

  15. Formation of a carcinogenic aromatic amine from an azo dye by human skin bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Platzek, T; Lang, C; Grohmann, G; Gi, U S; Baltes, W

    1999-09-01

    Azo dyes represent the major class of dyestuffs. They are metabolised to the corresponding amines by liver enzymes and the intestinal microflora following incorporation by both experimental animals and humans. For safety evaluation of the dermal exposure of consumers to azo dyes from wearing coloured textiles, a possible cleavage of azo dyes by the skin microflora should be considered since, in contrast to many dyes, aromatic amines are easily absorbed by the skin. A method for measuring the ability of human skin flora to reduce azo dyes was established. In a standard experiment, 3x10(11) cells of a culture of Staphylococcus aureus were incubated in synthetic sweat (pH 6.8, final volume 20 mL) at 28 degrees C for 24 h with Direct Blue 14 (C.I. 23850, DB 14). The reaction products were extracted and analysed using HPLC. The reduction product o-tolidine (3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, OT) could indeed be detected showing that the strain used was able to metabolise DB 14 to the corresponding aromatic amine. In addition to OT, two further metabolites of DB 14 were detected. Using mass spectrometry they were identified as 3,3'-dimethyl-4-amino-4'-hydroxybiphenyl and 3, 3'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl. The ability to cleave azo dyes seems to be widely distributed among human skin bacteria, as, under these in vitro conditions, bacteria isolated from healthy human skin and human skin bacteria from strain collections also exhibited azo reductase activity. Further studies are in progress in order to include additional azo dyes and coloured textiles. At the moment, the meaning of the results with regard to consumer health cannot be finally assessed.

  16. Co(II) PCP Pincer Complexes as Catalysts for the Alkylation of Aromatic Amines with Primary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Tomsu, Gerald; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-07-15

    Efficient alkylations of amines by alcohols catalyzed by well-defined Co(II) complexes are described that are stabilized by a PCP ligand (N,N'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)-N,N'-dimethyl-1,3-diaminobenzene) based on the 1,3-diaminobenzene scaffold. This reaction is an environmentally benign process implementing inexpensive, earth-abundant nonprecious metal catalysts and is based on the acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation concept. A range of primary alcohols and aromatic amines were efficiently converted into mono-N-alkylated amines in good to excellent isolated yields. PMID:27356282

  17. Identification of non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern which can be cleaved from azo dyes used in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Brüschweiler, Beat J; Küng, Simon; Bürgi, Daniel; Muralt, Lorenz; Nyfeler, Erich

    2014-07-01

    Azo dyes in textiles may release aromatic amines after enzymatic cleavage by skin bacteria or after dermal absorption and metabolism in the human body. From the 896 azo dyes with known chemical structure in the available textile dyes database, 426 azo dyes (48%) can generate one or more of the 22 regulated aromatic amines in the European Union in Annex XVII of REACH. Another 470 azo dyes (52%) can be cleaved into exclusively non-regulated aromatic amines. In this study, a search for publicly available toxicity data on non-regulated aromatic amines was performed. For a considerable percentage of non-regulated aromatic amines, the toxicity database was found to be insufficient or non-existent. 62 non-regulated aromatic amines with available toxicity data were prioritized by expert judgment with objective criteria according to their potential for carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and/or skin sensitization. To investigate the occurrence of azo dye cleavage products, 153 random samples of clothing textiles were taken from Swiss retail outlets and analyzed for 22 high priority non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern. Eight of these 22 non-regulated aromatic amines of concern could be detected in 17% of the textile samples. In 9% of the samples, one or more of the aromatic amines of concern could be detected in concentrations >30 mg/kg, in 8% of the samples between 5 and 30 mg/kg. The highest measured concentration was 622 mg/kg textile. There is an obvious need to assess consumer health risks for these non-regulated aromatic amines and to fill this gap in the regulation of clothing textiles.

  18. Determination of polar aromatic amines using newly synthesized sol-gel titanium (IV) butoxide cyanopropyltriethoxysilane as solid phase extraction sorbent.

    PubMed

    Miskam, Mazidatulakmam; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini; Mohamad, Sharifah

    2014-03-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.

  19. SEDIMENT-MEDIATED REDUCTION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE AND FATE OF THE RESULTING AROMATIC (POLY)AMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene is a major surface and subsurface contaminant found at numerous munitions production and storage facilities. The reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to aromatic (poly)amines and the consequent fate of these products were studied in anaer...

  20. Selective Release of Aromatic Heterocycles from Ruthenium Tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine with Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ao; White, Jessica K.; Arora, Karan; Herroon, Mackenzie K.; Martin, Philip D.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Podgorski, Izabela; Turro, Claudia; Kodanko, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Three complexes of the general formula [Ru(TPA)L2](PF6)2 [TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine], where L = pyridine (1), nicotinamide (2), and imidazole (3), were prepared and characterized spectroscopically. X-ray crystallographic data were obtained for 1 and 3. Complexes 1–3 show strong absorption in the visible region and selective release of heterocycles upon irradiation with visible light. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are consistent with the presence of singlet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands in the visible region in 1–3. Caged heterocycles 1–3 are highly stable in solution in the dark, including in cell growth media. Cell viability data show no signs of toxicity of 1–3 against PC-3 cells at concentrations up to 100 μM under light and dark conditions, consistent with Ru(TPA) acting as a nontoxic and effective photocaging group for aromatic heterocycles. PMID:26670781

  1. The biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of promutagenic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.D.; Verdier, M.M.; Plewa, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Using specific monooxygenase and oxidase inhibitors in a plant cell/microbe coincubation assay, the biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of two aromatic amines were compared. The biological endpoints included mutation induction, inhibition of mutagenicity, viability of the plant cells (activating system), and viability of the microbial cells. The activation of m-phenylenediamine by TX1 cells was mediated by enzyme systems that were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, potassium cyanide, methimazole, (+)-catechin or acetaminophen. The inhibition by metyrapone was attended by toxicity in the plant cells. These data implicate a TX1 cell peroxidase and a FAD-dependent monoxygenase in the plant activation of m-phenylenediamine. The TX1 cell activation of 2-aminofluorene was inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, 7,8-benzoflavone, acetaminophen or (+)-catechin.

  2. The enhanced bladder cancer susceptibility of NAT2 slow acetylators towards aromatic amines: a review considering ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Prior, Verena; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-03-10

    Human bladder cancer may be caused by exposure to aromatic amines. The polymorphic enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. Two classical studies on chemical workers in Europe, exposed in the past to aromatic amines like benzidine, unambiguously showed that the slow acetylator status is a genetic risk factor for arylamine-induced bladder cancer. In the former benzidine industry in Huddington, Great Britain, 22 of 23 exposed cases with bladder cancer, but only 57% of 95 local controls without bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype. In Leverkusen, Germany, 82% of 92 benzidine-exposed chemical workers with bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype, whereas only 48% of 331 chemical workers who had worked at that plant were of the slow acetylator phenotype. This is in line with several smaller studies, which also show an over-representation of the slow acetylator status in formerly arylamine-exposed subjects with bladder cancer. Some of these studies included also subjects that were exposed to aromatic amines by having applied dyes, paints and varnishes. These European findings are in contrast to a large study on Chinese workers occupationally exposed to aromatic amines. In this study, only five of 38 bladder cancer cases occupationally exposed to arylamines were of the slow acetylator genotype. This is much lower than the ratio of slow acetylators to the general population in China. This points to different mechanisms of susceptibility for bladder cancer upon exposure to aromatic amines between European (Caucasian) and Chinese populations.

  3. Selective iridium-catalyzed alkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines and diamines with alcohols under mild reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Blank, Benoît; Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2009-01-01

    A P,N-ligand-coordinated iridium complex has been employed as an efficient catalyst for the selective monoalkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines with alcohols. A significant improvement of this alkylation method has been achieved, such that it can be performed at a temperature of 70 degrees C and with catalyst loadings as low as 0.1 mol % Ir, while still affording excellent yields of secondary amines. Furthermore, the high selectivity of this catalyst for the monoalkylation of aromatic amino functions has been successfully exploited for the alkylation of diamines in both symmetric and nonsymmetric fashions, providing a novel and very efficient synthetic tool for the preparation of N,N'-dialkylated aromatic diamines.

  4. Copper-Catalyzed Aza-Michael Addition of Aromatic Amines or Aromatic Aza-Heterocycles to α,β-Unsaturated Olefins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongcheol; Kang, Seongil; Kim, Gihyeon; Lee, Yunmi

    2016-05-20

    A highly efficient and mild Cu-catalyzed conjugate addition reaction of aromatic amines and aromatic aza-heterocycles to α,β-unsaturated olefins is described. The transformation is promoted by 3-7 mol % of a Cu complex generated in situ from a mixture of inexpensive CuCl, a readily available phosphine or imidazolium salt, and KOt-Bu at ambient temperature. A wide range of β-amino sulfone, β-amino nitrile, and β-amino carbonyl compounds is efficiently and selectively synthesized in high yields (62-99%). PMID:27080327

  5. π(+)-π interactions between (hetero)aromatic amine cations and the graphitic surfaces of pyrogenic carbonaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Pignatello, Joseph J

    2015-01-20

    Many organic compounds of environmental concern contain amine groups that are positively charged at environmental pH. Here we present evidence that (hetero)aromatic amine cations can act as π acceptors in forming π(+)–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interactions with the π electron-rich, polyaromatic surface of pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCMs) (i.e., biochar, black carbon, and graphene). The π(+)–π EDA interactions combine a cation−π force with a π–π EDA force resulting from charge polarization of the ring’s quadrupole. Adsorption on a biochar and reference adsorbent graphite was conducted of triazine herbicides, substituted anilines, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and other amines whose charge is insulated from the aromatic ring. When normalized for the hydrophobic effect, the adsorption increased with decreasing pH as the amines became ionized, even on graphite that had no significant fixed or variable charge. The cationic π acceptor (quinolinium ion) was competitively displaced more effectively by the π acceptor 2,4-dinitrobenzene than by the π donor naphthalene. The maximum electrostatic potential of organocations computed with density functional theory was found to be a strong predictor of the π(+)–π EDA interaction. The π(+)–π EDA interaction was disfavored by electropositive alkyl substituents and by charge delocalization into additional rings. Amines whose charge was insulated from the ring fell far out of the correlation (more positive free energy of adsorption). Identifying and characterizing this novel π(+)–π EDA interaction on PCMs will help in predicting the fate of organocations in both natural and engineered systems.

  6. π(+)-π interactions between (hetero)aromatic amine cations and the graphitic surfaces of pyrogenic carbonaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Pignatello, Joseph J

    2015-01-20

    Many organic compounds of environmental concern contain amine groups that are positively charged at environmental pH. Here we present evidence that (hetero)aromatic amine cations can act as π acceptors in forming π(+)–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interactions with the π electron-rich, polyaromatic surface of pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCMs) (i.e., biochar, black carbon, and graphene). The π(+)–π EDA interactions combine a cation−π force with a π–π EDA force resulting from charge polarization of the ring’s quadrupole. Adsorption on a biochar and reference adsorbent graphite was conducted of triazine herbicides, substituted anilines, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and other amines whose charge is insulated from the aromatic ring. When normalized for the hydrophobic effect, the adsorption increased with decreasing pH as the amines became ionized, even on graphite that had no significant fixed or variable charge. The cationic π acceptor (quinolinium ion) was competitively displaced more effectively by the π acceptor 2,4-dinitrobenzene than by the π donor naphthalene. The maximum electrostatic potential of organocations computed with density functional theory was found to be a strong predictor of the π(+)–π EDA interaction. The π(+)–π EDA interaction was disfavored by electropositive alkyl substituents and by charge delocalization into additional rings. Amines whose charge was insulated from the ring fell far out of the correlation (more positive free energy of adsorption). Identifying and characterizing this novel π(+)–π EDA interaction on PCMs will help in predicting the fate of organocations in both natural and engineered systems. PMID:25569811

  7. Cytosolic activation of aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Inhibition by dicoumarol and enhancement in viral hepatitis B.

    PubMed Central

    De Flora, S; Bennicelli, C; D'Agostini, F; Izzotti, A; Camoirano, A

    1994-01-01

    The aromatic amines 2-aminofluorene (2AF), 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 2-aminoanthracene, and the heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and 3-amino-1-methyl-SH-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) were activated by rat liver cytosolic fractions to form mutagenic metabolites in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA98NR, and TA98/1,8-DNP6. In the case of the Trp-P-2, the cytosolic activation was even more potent than the microsomal activation, which is classically ascribed to N-hydroxylation and subsequent esterification. The cytosolic activation was a) NADPH-dependent, b) induced by pretreatment of rats with 3-methylcholanthrene and especially Aroclor 1254 but not by phenobarbital, and c) inhibited by dicoumarol. The hypothesis is that, following a preliminary oxidative step in the cytosol (pure cytosolic activation) or in microsomes via prostaglandin H synthase (mixed microsomal-cytosolic activation), an oxidized intermediate of amino compounds may serve as substrate for DT diaphorase activity and bielectronically reduced to the corresponding N-hydroxyamino derivative. Purified DT diaphorase, in the presence of either NADPH or NADH as electron donor, produced mutagenic derivatives from IQ and Trp-P-2. An NADPH-dependent activation of Trp-P-2 also occurred in the liver cytosol of woodchucks (Marmota monax), but was not inhibited by dicoumarol. As previously demonstrated with liver S-12 fractions in both humans and woodchucks, the cytosolic activation of Trp-P-2 was enhanced in animals affected by hepatitis B virus infection. This enhanced metabolism, which persisted even after appearance of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in virus carriers, is likely to be ascribed to mechanisms other than DT diaphorase induction, such as glutathione depletion. PMID:7534225

  8. DNA Adduct Formation of 4-Aminobiphenyl and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaers, Gwendoline; Bessette, Erin E.; Gu, Dan; Tang, Yijin; Rageul, Julie; Fessard, Valérie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA adduct formation of the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a known human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke, and the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), potential human carcinogens, which are also present in tobacco smoke or formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats, was investigated in freshly cultured human hepatocytes. The carcinogens (10 μM) were incubated with hepatocytes derived from eight different donors for time periods up to 24 h. The DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The principal DNA adducts formed for all of the carcinogens were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. The levels of adducts ranged from 3.4 to 140 adducts per 107 DNA bases. The highest level of adduct formation occurred with AαC, followed by 4-ABP, then by PhIP, MeIQx, and IQ. Human hepatocytes formed dG-C8-HAA-adducts at levels that were up to 100-fold greater than the amounts of adducts produced in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to HAA adducts, the levels of dG-C8-4-ABP adduct formation were similar in human and rat hepatocytes. These DNA binding data demonstrate that the rat, an animal model that is used for carcinogenesis bioassays, significantly underestimates the potential hepatic genotoxicity of HAAs in humans. The high level of DNA adducts formed by AαC, a carcinogen produced in tobacco smoke at levels that are up to 100-fold higher than the amounts of 4-ABP, is noteworthy. The possible causal role of AαC in tobacco-associated cancers warrants investigation. PMID:21456541

  9. Nonlinearity of cationic aromatic amine sorption to aluminosilicates and soils: role of intermolecular cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Dharni; Arey, Teresa A; Dickstein, Daniel R; Newman, Mark H; Zhang, Tina Y; Kinnear, Heather M; Bader, Mohammad M

    2013-12-17

    Through the study of substituted anilines and benzylamines, we demonstrated that cooperative cation-π, π-π, and van der Waals interactions can increase aromatic cationic amine sorption to Na/Ca-montmorillonite well beyond the extent expected by cation exchange alone. Cationic amines exhibiting cooperative interactions displayed nonlinear S-shaped isotherms and increased affinity for the sorbent at low surface coverage; parallel cation exchange and cooperative interactions were noted above a sorption threshold of 0.3-2.3% of exchange sites occupied. Our experiments revealed the predominance of intermolecular cation-π interactions, which occurred between the π system of a compound retained on the surface via cation exchange and the cationic amine group of an adjacent molecule. Compounds with greater amine charge/area and electron-donating substituents that allowed for greater electron density at the center of the aromatic ring showed a greater potential for cation-π interactions on montmorillonite surfaces. However, benzylamine sorption to nine soils, at charge loadings comparable to the experiments with montmorillonite, revealed no significant cooperative interactions. It appears that cation-π interactions may be likely in soils with exceptionally high cation exchange capacities (>0.7 mol charge/kg) and low organic matter contents, abundant in montmorillonite and other expanding clay minerals.

  10. Removal of phenols and aromatic amines from wastewater by a combination treatment with tyrosinase and a coagulant

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Shinji; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Tatsumi, Kenji )

    1995-02-20

    Removal of phenols and aromatic amines from industrial wastewater by tyrosinase was investigated. A color change from colorless to dark brown was observed, but no precipitate was formed. Colored products were found to be easily removed by a combination treatment with tyrosinase and a cationic polymer coagulant containing amino group, such as hexamethylenediamine-epichlorohidrin polycondensate, polyethleneimine, or chitosan. The first two coagulants, synthetic polymers, were more effective than chitosan, a polymer produced in crustacean shells. Phenols and aromatic amines are not precipitated by any kind of coagulants, but their enzymatic reaction products are easily precipitated by a cationic polymer coagulant. These results indicate that the combination of tyrosinase and a cationic polymer coagulant is effective in removing carcinogenic phenols and aromatic amines from an aqueous solution. Immobilization of tyrosinase on magnetite gave a good retention of activity (80%) and storage stability i.e., only 5% loss after 15 days of storage at ambient temperature. In the treatment of immobilized tyrosinase, colored enzymatic reaction products were removed by less coagulant compared with soluble tyrosinase.

  11. Frameshift mutagenicity of aromatic amines related to aminofluorene in a lacZ reversion assay in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, G.R.; Janel-Bintz, R.; Fuchs, R.P.P.

    1997-10-01

    We studied in the mutagenicity of three aromatic amines in a lacZ reversion assay in E. coli: 2-nitrofluorene (NF), N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), and N-hydroxy-N-2-acetylaminofluorene (NHA). Mutations that confer the Lac{sup +} phenotype were measured using an F{prime} factor from strain CC109 of Cupples et al. The F{prime} contains a lacZ mutation that reverts by a -2 frameshift at a site of repetitive dinucleotides (CG{sub 5} to CG{sub 4}). The F{prime} was transferred into strains carrying an LPS{sup d} mutation that increases permeability to aromatic amines and a plasmid (pYG219) that contains the Salmonella nat gene, which confers N- and O-acetyltransferase (NAT/OAT) activity. Mutagenesis was measured by papillation assays and quantitative reversion assays. The results show that the LPS{sup d} mutation, conferring enhanced permeability, facilitates measuring the mutagenicity of aromatic amines but is not absolutely required, in that a lower level of mutagenicity is detected in LPS{sup +} strains. The NAT/OAT activity conferred by pYG219 strongly potentiates the mutagenicity of NF and NHA. The mutagenicity of NF is undoubtedly ascribable to aminofluorene (AF) adducts: The mutagenicity of NHA may be due either to AAF adducts or to AF adducts produced by deacetylation. Surprisingly, AAF was weakly mutagenic in a NAT/OAT LPS{sup d} strain even without metabolic activation by a mammalian cytochrome P450.

  12. Survey of Primary Aromatic Amines and Colorants in Polyurethane, Nylon and Textile Toys.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    The residual and migration levels of 28 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in polyurethane and nylon toys were determined using LC-MS/MS, and the migration and residual amounts of PAAs and 15 colorants in textile toys were determined using LC-MS/MS and LC-TOF-MS according to the European Standard EN71. Among 34 polyurethane toy samples, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 2,4-diaminotoluene were detected in the same 12 samples at residual levels ranging from 2.1 to 19.7 and from 7.6 to 39.6 μg/g, respectively. Furthermore, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (4,4'-MDA) and aniline were detected in 9 samples (from 0.2 to 8.7 μg/g), and one sample (0.4 μg/g), respectively. PAAs were not detected in the 8 samples of nylon toys. As for the migration test into water, only 4,4'-MDA migrated from 3 polyurethane toys at levels ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 μg/g. PAAs did not migrate from the 43 textile toys, but colorants such as Solvent Yellow 1 and Basic Red 9 were detected at the residual level of 0.02 μg/g. The residual levels of PAAs and colorants detected in this study were significantly lower than the limit values established by the European Union regulation. PMID:27211915

  13. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  14. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and Their Tolerance to Aromatic Amines, a Major Class of Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil. PMID:23728813

  15. Glycosylation of aromatic amines I: Characterization of reaction products and kinetic scheme.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Madhushree Y; Kearney, William R; Kirsch, Lee E

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of aliphatic and aromatic amines with reducing sugars are important in both drug stability and synthesis. The formation of glycosylamines in solution, the first step in the Maillard reaction, does not typically cause browning but results in decreased potency and is hence significant from the aspect of drug instability. The purpose of this research was to present (1) unreported ionic equilibria of model reactant (kynurenine), (2) the analytical methods used to characterize and measure reaction products, (3) the kinetic scheme used to measure reaction rates and (4) relevant properties of various reducing sugars that impact the reaction rate in solution. The methods used to identify the reversible formation of two products from the reaction of kynurenine and monosaccharides included LC mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, and 1-D and 2-D (1)H-(1)H COSY NMR spectroscopy. Kinetics was studied using a stability-indicating HPLC method. The results indicated the formation of alpha and beta glycosylamines by a pseudo first-order reversible reaction scheme in the pH range of 1-6. The forward reaction was a function of initial glucose concentration but not the reverse reaction. It was concluded that the reaction kinetics and equilibrium concentrations of the glycosylamines were pH-dependent and also a function of the acyclic content of the reacting glucose isomer. PMID:19306062

  16. Aromatic amine contents, component distributions and risk assessment in sludge from 10 textile-dyeing plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Liang, Jie-Ying; Li, Rui-Jing; Hong, Zhen; Wang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Ken-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yang, Zuo-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs), which are components of synthetic dyes, are recalcitrant to the wastewater treatment process and can accumulate in sludge produced by textile-dyeing, which may pose a threat to the environment. A comprehensive investigation of 10 textile-dyeing plants was undertaken in Guangdong Province in China. The contents and component distributions of AAs were evaluated in this study, and a risk assessment was performed. The total concentrations of 14 AAs (Σ14 AAs) varied from 11 μg g(-1)dw to 82.5 μg g(-1)dw, with a mean value of 25 μg g(-1)dw. The component distributions of AAs were characterized by monocyclic anilines, of which 2-methoxy-5-methylaniline and 5-nitro-o-toluidine were the most dominant components. The risk quotient (RQ) value was used to numerically evaluate the ecological risk of 14 AAs in the environment. The result showed that the 14 AAs contents in textile-dyeing sludge may pose a high risk to the soil ecosystem after being discarded on soil or in a landfill.

  17. Sapindus mukorossi mediated green synthesis of some manganese oxide nanoparticles interaction with aromatic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Shanker, Uma; Gahlot, Sweta; Kaith, B. S.; Kamaluddin; Iqubal, Md Asif; Samuel, Pankaj

    2016-04-01

    A green route was successfully used to synthesize some manganese oxides (MO) nanoparticles like MnO2, Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 with varied Mn/O ratio. This approach involved utilization of Sapindus mukorossi (raw reetha)-water as a natural surfactant-solvent system. The most important feature of present work was that during the synthesis of nanoparticles, no harmful toxic solvent or chemicals were used in order to follow the principles of green chemistry. The size of nanoparticles was recorded below 100 nm with different shapes and morphologies. MnO2 nanoparticles were found to have needle shape, Mn2O3: spherical and Mn3O4: cubic shape. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized MO nanoparticles were found to act as a solid support cum catalysts for the oxidation and polymerization of some aromatic amines like p-anisidine, p-toluidine, p-chloroaniline and aniline.

  18. Bladder tumors and aromatic amines - historical milestones from Ludwig Rehn to Wilhelm Hueper.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Holger Georg; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We know today that environmental factors must be regarded as a significant cause of the urinary bladder carcinoma. In Germany, the urinary bladder carcinoma is the second most common urological tumor among men and the most common among women and more than 100 occupational bladder cases are recognized and compensated per year. Scientific studies of this problem reach back to the 18th century. However it was only in 1895 that the surgeon Ludwig Rehn firstly described 3 cases of occupational bladder tumors in at most 45 fuchsine workers in Frankfurt / M. This extremely significant discovery was followed by a description of a large number of cases of urinary bladder tumors among workers in the paint industry. Nevertheless, it was impossible to induce bladder cancer in animals by aromatic amines for many years. In the 1930s, the pathologist Wilhelm C. Hueper was the first to induce bladder cancer in animal experiments, applying beta-naphthylamine to dogs. Based on these experiments and corroborated by epidemiologic studies, beta-naphthylamine was banned in Germany and many countries from the 1950s on. This review will highlight work and life of these two pioneering medical researchers.

  19. Primary aromatic amine migration from polyamide kitchen utensils: method development and product testing.

    PubMed

    McCall, E; Keegan, J; Foley, B

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the identification, quantification and confirmation of six primary aromatic amines (PAAs) was developed and validated to ISO 17025:2005. From a literature survey, 57 frequently used PAA compounds were identified and subsequently reduced to six - aniline, 4,4'-MDA, 3,3'-DMB, 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA and o-T - based on results from migration studies on a range of utensils. Low LOQs of between 0.075 and 0.496 µg l(-1) were determined for the six analytes, thereby quantifying well below the legal limit of 10 µg kg(-1) total PAAs. Furthermore, low measurement uncertainties were calculated for the analytical method, in the range of 3.15-3.20%. Mean recoveries were between 98% and 102% and spanned over ±12% at 95% CI. Following the analysis of 84 black polyamide kitchen utensils, the migration of PAAs detected was significant and is therefore of concern. The six analytes identified, quantified and confirmed in this survey could be utilised as possible markers for the identification of PAA migration, thereby improving the time and cost-efficiency of food control laboratories. PMID:22029685

  20. Preparation of monodispersed vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene porous copolymer resins and their application to high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Kei-Ichi; Okuya, Shuji; Yoshihama, Isao; Hanada, Takako; Nagashima, Kunio; Arai, Sadao

    2009-10-30

    For the separation of aromatic amines, two types of monodispersed porous polymer resins were prepared by the copolymerization of 2-vinylpyridine and 4-vinylpyridine with divinylbenzene in the presence of template silica gel particles (particle size 5 microm), followed by dissolution of the template silica gel in an alkaline solution. The transmission electron micrographs and the scanning electron micrograph revealed that these templated polymer resins have a spherical morphology with a good monodispersity and porous structure. Using these monodispersed polymer resins, the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of aromatic amines in the mobile phases of pHs 2.0, 2.9, 4.1, 7.2 and 11.7 were carried out. The 2-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymer resins showed slightly stronger retentions for aromatic amines than the 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymer resins. Under acidic conditions (around pH 2.0), aniline and the toluidines showed no retention on these copolymer resins due to the repulsion between the cationic forms of these amines and pyridinium cations in the stationary phase, whereas less basic aromatic amines or non-basic acetanilide showed slight retentions. Above pH 4.1, the separation of aromatic amines with these polymer resins showed a typical reversed-phase mode separation. Therefore, the separation patterns of aromatic amines are effectively tunable by changing the pH value of the mobile phases. A good separation of eight aromatic amines was achieved at pH 2.9 using the 2-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymer resins. PMID:19442983

  1. Validation a solid-phase extraction-HPLC method for determining the migration behaviour of five aromatic amines from packaging bags into seafood simulants.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Xiao-Kun; Luo, Yu-Yang; Wang, Yang-Guang; Yang, Li-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of five aromatic amines and their potential migration from packaging bags into seafood simulants were investigated. A validated HPLC method was developed for the separation and qualification of five aromatic amines in seafood simulants. By combining solid-phase extraction (SPE), these amines were efficiently separated on a Halo C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d., 2.7 μm, particle size) using a mobile phase of methanol/phosphate buffer solution (5 mmol l(-1), pH 6.9) with gradient elution. The linear range was 0.1-10.0 mg l(-1); the absolute recoveries ranged from 85.3% to 98.4%; and the limits of detection of the five aromatic amines were between 0.015 and 0.08 mg l(-1). In this work the migration profile of aromatic amines from black plastic bags was investigated at temperatures of 4°C with water, 3% acetic acid solution, 10% ethanol solution and 50% ethanol solution as seafood simulants, respectively. The migration of the five aromatic amines under different conditions showed that residual o-methoxyaniline, p-chloroaniline, aniline and 2,6-dimethylaniline leaching from black plastic bags increased with incubation time. No detectable 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine was found to leach from the bags.

  2. Migration kinetics of primary aromatic amines from polyamide kitchenware: Easy and fast screening procedure using fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sanllorente, S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2016-11-01

    Primary aromatic amines, PAAs, and their derivatives constitute a health risk and control of their migration from food contact materials is the subject of permanent attention by the authorities. 25.1% of notifications made by Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed in the European Union between 2010 and 2015 concerned PAAs, polyamide cooking utensils being a common source. It is thus useful to have fast and efficient analytical methods for their control. In this work a non-separative, easy, fast and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric method based on the second order calibration of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) was proposed for the determination of aniline (ANL), 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-TDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) in polyamide cooking utensils. The procedure made it possible to identify unequivocally each analyte. Trilinearity of the data tensor guarantees the uniqueness of the solution obtained through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), so the factors of the decomposition match up with the analytes. The three analytes were unequivocally identified by the correlation between the pure spectra and the PARAFAC excitation and emission spectral loadings. The recovery percentages found were, 82.6%, 112.7% and 84.4% for ANL, 2,4-TDA and 4,4'-MDA respectively. The proposed method was applied to carry out a migration test from polyamide cooking utensils, using a 3% (w/v) acetic acid in aqueous solution as food simulant. Detectable levels of 4,4'-MDA were found in food simulant from some of the investigated cooking utensils. Finally, a kinetic model for the migration of 4,4'-MDA has been fitted to experimental data obtained in the migration test. Thanks to the selectivity of PARAFAC calibration, which greatly simplifies sample treatment avoiding the use of toxic solvents, the developed method follows most green analytical chemistry principles. PMID:27591586

  3. Evaluation of aromatic amines with different purities and different solvent vehicles in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Harding, Alexander P; Popelier, Paul L A; Harvey, James; Giddings, Amanda; Foster, Graham; Kranz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Of all the in vitro mutagenicity assays, the Ames test displays the best correlation with rodent carcinogenicity and therefore carries significant weight with the food and drug regulatory bodies. Aromatic amines (AA) are ubiquitous structural groups in food and drug molecules despite the well-documented mutagenic and carcinogenic propensity for many representatives. Furthermore, recent regulatory guidelines (that is ICH M7) requires the hazard assessment of actual and potential impurities by two complementary (Q)SAR prediction methodologies if no carcinogenicity or bacterial mutagenicity data is available. One methodology should be expert-rule-based and the second should be statistics-based. Having encountered numerous reports of contradictory Ames results for members of this chemotype, we undertook systematic Ames tests on a diverse set of 14 AAs of differing purities in different solvents, and as free bases and their salts. The aim of this work was to investigate the reliability of the Ames test for this chemotype leading to the creation of a reference set of AAs for use by medicinal chemists and in silico modelling. Contrary to previous experience, which led to the investigations reported in this publication, the anticipated transformation from an Ames-positive to an Ames-negative after purification only occurred for one compound. Furthermore, this result proved inconclusive after testing as the HCl salt in DMSO and in water. The anticipated change in class from mutagen to non-mutagen, did not occur and this can be read as evidence for the reliability of the Ames test for AAs. PMID:25542092

  4. Migration kinetics of primary aromatic amines from polyamide kitchenware: Easy and fast screening procedure using fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sanllorente, S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2016-11-01

    Primary aromatic amines, PAAs, and their derivatives constitute a health risk and control of their migration from food contact materials is the subject of permanent attention by the authorities. 25.1% of notifications made by Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed in the European Union between 2010 and 2015 concerned PAAs, polyamide cooking utensils being a common source. It is thus useful to have fast and efficient analytical methods for their control. In this work a non-separative, easy, fast and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric method based on the second order calibration of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) was proposed for the determination of aniline (ANL), 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-TDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) in polyamide cooking utensils. The procedure made it possible to identify unequivocally each analyte. Trilinearity of the data tensor guarantees the uniqueness of the solution obtained through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), so the factors of the decomposition match up with the analytes. The three analytes were unequivocally identified by the correlation between the pure spectra and the PARAFAC excitation and emission spectral loadings. The recovery percentages found were, 82.6%, 112.7% and 84.4% for ANL, 2,4-TDA and 4,4'-MDA respectively. The proposed method was applied to carry out a migration test from polyamide cooking utensils, using a 3% (w/v) acetic acid in aqueous solution as food simulant. Detectable levels of 4,4'-MDA were found in food simulant from some of the investigated cooking utensils. Finally, a kinetic model for the migration of 4,4'-MDA has been fitted to experimental data obtained in the migration test. Thanks to the selectivity of PARAFAC calibration, which greatly simplifies sample treatment avoiding the use of toxic solvents, the developed method follows most green analytical chemistry principles.

  5. Differential toxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines and their mixture in metabolically competent HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie; Josse, Rozenn; Lambert, Carine; Antherieu, Sebastien; Le Hegarat, Ludovic; Aninat, Caroline; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane

    2010-06-01

    Human exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) usually occurs through mixtures rather than individual compounds. However, the toxic effects and related mechanisms of co-exposure to HAA in humans remain unknown. We compared the effects of two of the most common HAA, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), individually or in combination, in the metabolically competent human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Various endpoints were measured including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage by the comet assay. Moreover, the effects of PhIP and/or MeIQx on mRNA expression and activities of enzymes involved in their activation and detoxification pathways were evaluated. After a 24 h treatment, PhIP and MeIQx, individually and in combination, exerted differential effects on apoptosis, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. Only PhIP induced DNA damage. It was also a stronger inducer of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and activity than MeIQx. In contrast, only MeIQx exposure resulted in a significant induction of CYP1A2 activity. The combination of PhIP with MeIQx induced an oxidative stress and showed synergistic effects on apoptosis. However, PhIP-induced genotoxicity was abolished by a co-exposure with MeIQx. Such an inhibitory effect could be explained by a significant decrease in CYP1A2 activity which is responsible for PhIP genotoxicity. Our findings highlight the need to investigate interactions between HAA when assessing risks for human health and provide new insights in the mechanisms of interaction between PhIP and MeIQx.

  6. Quantification of two aromatic amine mutagens, PBTA-1 and PBTA-2, in the yodo river system.

    PubMed Central

    Ohe, T; Takeuchi, N; Watanabe, T; Tada, A; Nukaya, H; Terao, Y; Sawanishi, H; Hirayama, T; Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K

    1999-01-01

    The levels of two aromatic amine mutagens, 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-am ino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-1) and 2-[2-(acetylamino-4-[N-(2-cyanoethyl)ethylamino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-a mino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-2), were quantitatively analyzed in the Yodo River system in Japan. The river water samples were collected at nine sampling sites from the Yodo River system twice or three times between May and July in 1997. PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 in the river water samples were concentrated on blue rayon columns, partially purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reverse-phase columns, then quantified by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The amounts of PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 in the water samples were < 0.01-1.91 and < 0.01-2.25 ng/L, respectively. High levels of PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 were detected in the samples collected within 4 km downstream of two sewage plants, which are located along the banks of the Nishitakase River, a tributary of the Yodo River system, and these samples showed stronger mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with S9 mix than the other water samples. On the other hand, the river water samples from upstream of the sewage plant were weakly or not mutagenic and PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 were not detected. These results confirmed that a major source of PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 in the Yodo River system is effluent from the sewage plants and that discharged mutagens, including PBTA-1 and PBTA-2, are diluted and/or decomposed while moving down the Yodo River system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10464068

  7. [Determination of carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from azo colorants in plastic components of electrical and electronic products by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Niu, Zengyuan; Luo, Xin; Ye, Xiwen; Wang, Huihui; Li, Jingying

    2014-01-01

    A study for the simultaneous determination of 21 primary aromatic amines derived from the reduction of the azo colorants in plastic components of electrical and electronic products was conducted. Organic solvents were used to dissolve or swell the plastics to release the azo dyes existing in the plastic components. The azo colorants were reduced to aromatic amines under strong reducing condition of dithionite. Aromatic amines were extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether. Methanol-water (1: 1, v/v) was used to concentrate the extract to constant-volume for HPLC-MS analysis. The analytes were separated on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column using the gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The analyte confirmation was performed using retention time and characteristic ions in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The correlation coefficients (r) of all the standard curves were more than 0.998, and the limits of quantification of the analytes were 0.5 mg/kg. The recoveries were 60.1% - 129.5% for the 21 aromatic amines with the RSDs not more than 14.0% except for a few compounds. The results showed that the banned azo colorants in the plastic products can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through reductive conversion into aromatic amines. In addition, this method has high accuracy and good precision.

  8. Inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef and chicken meatballs after cooking by four different methods.

    PubMed

    Keşkekoğlu, Hasan; Uren, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Beef and chicken meatballs with a 0.5% (w/w) pomegranate seed extract were cooked using four different cooking methods (oven roasting, pan cooking, charcoal-barbecue, and deep-fat frying) and six heterocyclic aromatic amines; IQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, norharman, and harman were observed. In the beef meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on heterocyclic aromatic amines formation were 68% for PhIP, 24% for norharman, 18% for harman, 45% for IQ, and 57% for MeIQx. Total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was reduced by 39% and 46% in beef meatballs cooked by charcoal-barbecue and deep-fat frying, respectively. In the chicken meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects were 75% for PhIP, 57% for norharman, 28% for harman, 46% for IQ, and 49% for MeIQx. When the pomegranate seed extract was added to the chicken meatballs cooked by deep-fat frying, the total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was inhibited by 49%, in contrast the total heterocyclic aromatic amine contents after oven roasting increased by 70%.

  9. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  10. Biomonitoring of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Hair: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Bessette, Erin E.; Yasa, Isil; Dunbar, Deborah; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Marchand, Loic Le; Turesky, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A facile method was established to measure heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) accumulated in human hair and rodent fur. The samples were digested by base hydrolysis, and the liberated HAAs were isolated by tandem solvent/solid-phase extraction. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode. In a pilot study of 12 human volunteers, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was detected in hair of six meat-eaters at levels ranging from 290 to 890 pg/g hair. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) (50 pg/g hair) in hair from meat-eaters and six vegetarians. PhIP was detected in the hair from one vegetarian, and at level just above the LOQ (65 pg/g hair), indicating PhIP exposure occurs primarily through meat consumption. The levels of PhIP in hair samples from two meat-eaters varied by less than 24% over a 6-month interval, signifying that the exposure to PhIP and its accumulation in hair are relatively constant over time. In a controlled feeding study, female C57BL/6 mice were given these HAAs in their drinking water for 1 month, at six daily dose concentrations ranging from 0, 0.080 to 800 µg/kg body weight. PhIP was detected in fur of mice at all doses, whereas AαC and MeIQx were detected in fur at dosages ≥0.8 µg AαC/kg body weight and ≥8 µg MeIQx/kg body weight. There was a strong positive relationship between dosage and each of the HAAs accumulated in fur and their DNA adducts formed in liver and colon (p-values <0.0001); however, the levels of HAA in fur did not correlate to the levels of DNA adducts after adjustment of dose. Thus, hair appears to be a promising long-lived biomarker with by which we can assess the exposure to PhIP, a potential human carcinogen. PMID:19588936

  11. Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, irreversibly inhibits the acetylation of aromatic amine xenobiotics by human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Bui, Linh C; Manaa, Amine; Xu, Ximing; Duval, Romain; Busi, Florent; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien

    2013-07-01

    Acrolein is an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde of industrial, pharmaceutic, and toxicologic importance to which we are exposed in environmental, occupational, and therapeutic situations. Acrolein is known to exert different biologic effects through reactions with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, certain proteins, or glutathione. In many situations (such as in tobacco smoke or other fumes), exposure to acrolein occurs concomitantly with other compounds such as aromatic amine chemicals. Interestingly, it has been shown that acrolein could impact the cellular metabolism of aromatic xenobiotics through an indirect mechanism based on the transcriptional induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Here we report a novel mechanism by which acrolein acts on the metabolism of aromatic foreign chemicals. We provide molecular, kinetic, and cellular evidence that acrolein can react directly and irreversibly with arylamine N-acetyltransferases, a major family of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolization of aromatic amine chemicals. Formation of an acrolein adduct with a catalytic cysteine residue in the active site is responsible for the impairment of aromatic amine acetylation by the enzyme. This biochemical process may represent an additional mechanism by which acrolein impacts the metabolism and fate of aromatic amine drugs and pollutants.

  12. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M; Assis, Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2013-07-01

    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1 × 10(-4)molL(-1) and generation of 7.6 × 10(-7)molL(-1) to 0.31 × 10(-4)molL(-1) of aniline, o-anisidine, 2-methoxi-5-methylaniline, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-oxydianiline; 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 2,6-dimethylaniline. The results were confirmed by LC-MS-MS experiments. We also correlate the mutagenic effects of Sudan III using S. typhimurium with the strain TA1535 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9) with the metabolization products of this compound. Our findings clearly indicate that aromatic amines are formed due to oxidative reactions that can be promoted by hepatic cells, after the ingestion of Sudan III. Considering that, the use of azo compounds as food dyestuffs should be carefully controlled. PMID:23562707

  13. Suitability of the in vitro Caco-2 assay to predict the oral absorption of aromatic amine hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Obringer, Cindy; Manwaring, John; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola J; Rothe, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Oral absorption is a key element for safety assessments of cosmetic ingredients, including hair dye molecules. Reliable in vitro methods are needed since the European Union has banned the use of animals for the testing of cosmetic ingredients. Caco-2 cells were used to measure the intestinal permeability characteristics (Papp) of 14 aromatic amine hair dye molecules with varying chemical structures, and the data were compared with historical in vivo oral absorption rat data. The majority of the hair dyes exhibited Papp values that indicated good in vivo absorption. The moderate to high oral absorption findings, i.e. ≥60%, were confirmed in in vivo rat studies. Moreover, the compound with a very low Papp value (APB: 3-((9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-(methylamino)-1-anthracenyl)amino)-N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-1-propanaminium) was poorly absorbed in vivo as well (5% of the dose). This data set suggests that the Caco-2 cell model is a reliable in vitro tool for the determination of the intestinal absorption of aromatic amines with diverse chemical structures. When used in combination with other in vitro assays for metabolism and skin penetration, the Caco-2 model can contribute to the prediction and mechanistic interpretation of the absorption, metabolism and elimination properties of cosmetic ingredients without the use of animals. PMID:26578466

  14. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Wolfgang; Rosenvold, Katja; Young, Jette F

    2006-12-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing sugars and creatine or creatinine. Groups of ten Duroc and ten Landrace pigs received feed supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CMH) for five days prior to slaughter at dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 g per animal per day. Ten control animals of each breed received the non-supplemented feed. Meat from Duroc pigs had been shown to respond to CMH supplementation with regard to waterholding capacity, juiciness, post slaughter pH and colour parameters, meat from Landrace pigs was unaffected. Indeed, while creatine phosphate levels in meat from Duroc pigs increased in a dose-dependent manner with CMH supplementation, no effect was observed in meat from Landrace pigs. Meat slices from longissimus dorsi were fried and considerable mutagenic activity was detected in meat extracts in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. However, no effect of breed or CMH supplementation was observed in fried pork on the formation of HAA determined as mutagenic activity. It may be concluded that feed supplementation with CMH at levels up to 50 g per day for five days prior to slaughter does not increase the level of heterocyclic aromatic amines detected as mutagenic activity formed upon frying of pork.

  15. Preparation of symmetric and asymmetric aromatic azo compounds from aromatic amines or nitro compounds using supported gold catalysts.

    PubMed

    Grirrane, Abdessamad; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2010-03-01

    This protocol describes the aerobic oxidation of aromatic anilines to aromatic azo compounds using gold (Au) nanoparticles supported on TiO(2) as a catalyst. Yields above 98% are achieved under a few bars of oxygen pressure. It should be noted that the use of stoichiometric amounts of environmentally unfriendly reagents, e.g., transition metals and nitrites, commonly used in current syntheses of azo compounds, is avoided using this approach. The protocol is illustrated with the synthesis of parent azobenzene from aniline, and this reaction takes 22 h. Au on TiO(2) can also be used as a hydrogenation catalyst, making it possible to prepare azo compounds directly from nitroaromatics through a two-step (hydrogenation followed by aerobic oxidation), one-pot, one-catalyst reaction. In addition, the catalytic process is efficient for the synthesis of symmetric and a range of asymmetric aromatic azo compounds from the mixtures of two anilines substituted with electron-donor and electron-acceptor substituents.

  16. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines.

    PubMed

    Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Pati, Sarah G; Bolotin, Jakov; Eustis, Soren N; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the mechanisms and isotope effects associated with the N-dealkylation and N-atom oxidation of substituted N-methyl- and N,N-dimethylanilines to identify isotope fractionation trends for the assessment of oxidations of aromatic N-alkyl moieties by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). In laboratory batch model systems, we determined the C, H, and N isotope enrichment factors for the oxidation by MnO(2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), derived apparent (13)C-, (2)H-, and (15)N-kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs), and characterized reaction products. The N-atom oxidation pathway leading to radical coupling products typically exhibited inverse (15)N-AKIEs (up to 0.991) and only minor (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs. Oxidative N-dealkylation, in contrast, was subject to large normal (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs (up to 1.019 and 3.1, respectively) and small (15)N-AKIEs. Subtle changes of the compound's electronic properties due to different types of aromatic and/or N-alkyl substituents resulted in changes of reaction mechanisms, rate-limiting step(s), and thus isotope fractionation trends. The complex sequence of electron and proton transfers during the oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines suggests highly compound- and mechanism-dependent isotope effects precluding extrapolations to other organic micropollutants reacting along the same degradation pathways. PMID:22681573

  17. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines.

    PubMed

    Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Pati, Sarah G; Bolotin, Jakov; Eustis, Soren N; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the mechanisms and isotope effects associated with the N-dealkylation and N-atom oxidation of substituted N-methyl- and N,N-dimethylanilines to identify isotope fractionation trends for the assessment of oxidations of aromatic N-alkyl moieties by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). In laboratory batch model systems, we determined the C, H, and N isotope enrichment factors for the oxidation by MnO(2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), derived apparent (13)C-, (2)H-, and (15)N-kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs), and characterized reaction products. The N-atom oxidation pathway leading to radical coupling products typically exhibited inverse (15)N-AKIEs (up to 0.991) and only minor (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs. Oxidative N-dealkylation, in contrast, was subject to large normal (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs (up to 1.019 and 3.1, respectively) and small (15)N-AKIEs. Subtle changes of the compound's electronic properties due to different types of aromatic and/or N-alkyl substituents resulted in changes of reaction mechanisms, rate-limiting step(s), and thus isotope fractionation trends. The complex sequence of electron and proton transfers during the oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines suggests highly compound- and mechanism-dependent isotope effects precluding extrapolations to other organic micropollutants reacting along the same degradation pathways.

  18. Influence of hydrophobicity on the ion exchange selectivity coefficients for aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Kril, M B; Fung, H L

    1990-05-01

    Hydrophobic effects could play an important role in determining the selectivity of organic ions for ion-exchange resins in aqueous solutions. We used the octanol-water partition coefficient (P) and the chromatographic capacity factor (K') as indices of hydrophobicity of a series of primary and secondary amines, and examined their relationships with the amine selectivity coefficient (K) in binding to the Amberlite IRP-69 ion-exchange resin. Good correlations were found between log K versus log P and log K versus log K', but the relationship appears to be dependent on the degree of substitution at the amino nitrogen. These relationships may be useful for the estimation of selectivity coefficients of various amine drug candidates when they are considered for incorporation with ion-exchange resins in potential controlled-release systems.

  19. Effect of charcoal types and grilling conditions on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled muscle foods.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O; Novo, P; Pinto, E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2012-06-01

    Grilling muscle foods involves high temperatures that lead to production of cooking toxicants, such as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To obtain realistic exposure levels of these two groups of mutagens analyses of the same samples using similar separation/detection techniques were performed. HAs and PAHs were quantified in well-done meat and fish samples grilled with wood and coconut shell charcoal at 200°C. Quantitative HAs and PAHs profiles were different for beef and salmon using the same type of charcoal. Higher levels of HAs and PAHs were found in salmon samples. No significant differences were observed for HAs and PAHs in beef samples grilled with both charcoal types, whereas salmon grilled with coconut shell charcoal presented significantly lower amounts of HAs and PAHs than salmon grilled with usual wood charcoal. Continuous barbecuing with the same charcoal shown that combustion of fat that dropped along the grilling period contributed to higher formation of HAs and PAHs. Special attention must be given to the intake of barbecued foods since high amounts of HAs and PAHs can be taken in a single meal.

  20. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  1. The effect of aromatic amines and phenols in the thiyl-induced reactions of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaro Bujak, Ivana; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Carla; Valgimigli, Luca; Amorati, Riccardo; Mihaljević, Branka

    2016-07-01

    Thiols are well known for their role in cellular redox homeostasis, while aromatic amines and phenols are the best known classes of chain-breaking antioxidants. On the other hand, thiyl radicals are known to catalyse the double bond isomerization in PUFA. We investigated the role and interplay of 2-mercaptoethanol and diphenylamine in the parallel processes of peroxidation and cis-trans isomerization of linoleic acid (LA) during gamma radiolysis, both in solution and micelles. Both compounds, used alone were able to protect LA from oxidation; however pro-oxidant activity and enhanced isomerization was observed when they were used together, depending on the experimental settings. Instead, α-tocopherol protected LA from both oxidation and isomerization in the presence of thiols under any tested settings. The mechanistic scenario is discussed highlighting the role of diphenylaminyl radicals in promoting thiyl-radical-induced cis-trans isomerization in the presence of oxygen.

  2. Aromatic amine pesticide use and human cancer risk: results from the U.S. Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Lynch, Charles F.; Ma, Xiaomei; Lee, Won Jin; Hoppin, Jane A.; Christensen, Carol H.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Freeman, Laura Beane; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hou, Lifang; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Imazethapyr, a heterocyclic aromatic amine, is a widely used crop herbicide first registered for use in the United States in 1989. We evaluated cancer incidence among imazethapyr-exposed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. The Agricultural Health Study is a prospective cohort of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in the U.S., enrolled from 1993-1997. Among the 49,398 licensed pesticide applicators eligible for analysis, 20,646 applicators reported use of imazethapyr and 2,907 incident cancers developed through 2004. Imazethapyr exposure was classified by intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days calculated as [years of use × days per year × intensity level]. Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between imazethapyr exposure and cancer incidence. We found significant trends in risk with increasing lifetime exposure for bladder cancer (p for trend 0.01) and colon cancer (p for trend 0.02). Rate ratios were increased by 137% for bladder cancer and 78% for colon cancer when the highest exposed were compared with the nonexposed. The excess risk for colon cancer was limited to proximal cancers, (Rate Ratio =2.73, 95% confidence intervals 1.42, 5.25, p for trend 0.001). No association was observed for prostate, lung, rectum, kidney, oral, pancreas, lymphohematopoietic cancers or melanoma. These findings provide new evidence that exposure to aromatic amine pesticides may be an overlooked exposure in the etiology of bladder and colon cancer. The use of imazethapyr and other imidazolinone compounds should continue to be evaluated for potential risk to humans. PMID:19058219

  3. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483

  4. A sensitive and efficient procedure for the high throughput determination of banned aromatic amines in textiles and leather products aided by advanced sample composition.

    PubMed

    García-Lavandeira, J; Salgado-Petinal, C; Blanco, E; Cela, R

    2010-05-01

    A highly sensitive procedure for the efficient routine control of aromatic amines derived from banned azo dyes in textile and leather products was developed and optimized. The procedure involves the extraction and reduction of azo dyes from solid samples following the sample preparation protocols outlined in EN 14362-1:2003, EN 14362-2:2003, and ISO/TS 17234:2003 standards, and cleanup and concentration of aromatic amines by solid-phase extraction, with Oasis HLB and ENVI-Carb sorbents in series. The elution was carried out with the cartridges connected in series, although the positions of the cartridges were reversed and the ENVI-Carb cartridge was placed in the backflush mode. Extracted and concentrated aromatic amines were separated and analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The chromatographic separation was optimized by means of computer-assisted method development with a special chemometric tool (the PREGA LC-MS module), developed specifically for LC-MS systems. This system enables the unattended optimization of separations after a few priming isocratic and gradient experiments. The optimized separation program enables accurate detection and measurement of all the 23 aromatic amines considered, at very low quantification limits and without any notable matrix effects. Strategic sample composition was applied as an efficient means of reducing the costs and work involved in the control of aromatic amines in finished textile and leather products. The benefits of strategic sample composition are demonstrated by means of a case study of 20 sample specimens. PMID:20213165

  5. Quantum-chemical studies on mutagenicity of aromatic and heteroaromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Borosky, Gabriela L

    2013-01-01

    Arylamines are well-known as widespread industrial and environmental mutagens and carcinogens. Their bioactivity stems from enzymatic metabolic activation to reactive and highly electrophilic intermediates. In this work, computational investigations related to the biological activity of these compounds have been reviewed, especially focusing on studies reporting results from quantum-mechanical calculations. Correlations between relative mutagenicities and structural and electronic features of the parent amines and of their derived nitrenium ion intermediates were examined, with the aim of achieving a clearer comprehension of the main factors determining the genotoxic potential of this type of compounds. PMID:23277072

  6. Enantioselective molecular sensing of aromatic amines using tetra-(S)-di-2-naphthylprolinol calix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Jennings, K; Diamond, D

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents new analytical data, and evidence of the fluorescence quenching mechanism involved in enantioselective signals obtained with the chiral host tetra-(S)-di-2-naphthylprolinol calix[4]arene. Excellent selectivity is obtained with phenylglycinol and norephidrine in methanol, and samples of unknown enantiomeric composition have been determined with an average error of 1.08 and 0.62%, respectively (n = 6), on the basis of a single fluorescence measurement. The absence of any quenching observed with the related amines of phenylalaninol is attributed to a methylene spacer which inhibits efficient interaction between the aryl group of the guest and the naphthyl group of the host. The importance of the phenyl group of the guest in the quenching mechanism is confirmed by the complete absence of any quenching effect with cyclohexylethylamine. PMID:11478636

  7. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A.; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  8. Gas chromatographic determination of N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using an automatic solid-phase extraction system.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2011-07-13

    A reliable analytical method was presented for the simultaneous determination of six N-nitrosamines, nine aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The sample treatment includes the precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile, centrifugation, solvent changeover by evaporation, and continuous solid-phase extraction for cleanup and preconcentration purposes. Samples (5 g) containing 0.15-500 ng of each amine were analyzed, and low detection limits (15-130 ng/kg) were achieved. Recoveries for milk and dairy products samples spiked with 1, 10, and 50 μg/kg ranged from 92% to 101%, with intraday and interday relative standard deviation values below 7.5%. The method was successfully applied to determine amine residues in several milk types (human breast, cow, and goat) and dairy products.

  9. The interaction of diamines and polyamines with the peroxidase-catalyzed metabolism of aromatic amines: a potential mechanism for the modulation of aniline toxicity.

    PubMed

    Michail, Karim; Aljuhani, Naif; Siraki, Arno G

    2013-03-01

    Synthetic and biological amines such as ethylenediamine (EDA), spermine, and spermidine have not been previously investigated in free-radical biochemical systems involving aniline-based drugs or xenobiotics. We aimed to study the influence of polyamines in the modulation of aromatic amine radical metabolites in peroxidase-mediated free radical reactions. The aniline compounds tested caused a relatively low oxidation rate of glutathione in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and H2O2; however, they demonstrated marked oxygen consumption when a polyamine molecule was present. Next, we characterized the free-radical products generated by these reactions using spin-trapping and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Primary and secondary but not tertiary polyamines dose-dependently enhanced the N-centered radicals of different aniline compounds catalyzed by either HRP or myeloperoxidase, which we believe occurred via charge transfer intermediates and subsequent stabilization of aniline-derived radical species as suggested by isotopically labeled aniline. Aniline/peroxidase reaction product(s) were monitored at 435 nm by kinetic spectrophotometry in the presence and absence of a polyamine additive. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the dimerziation product of aniline, azobenzene, was significantly amplified when EDA was present. In conclusion, di- and poly-amines are capable of enhancing the formation of aromatic-amine-derived free radicals, a fact that is expected to have toxicological consequences.

  10. Microextraction by packed sorbent and salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of aromatic amines formed from azo dyes in textiles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Miguel del Nogal; Santos, Patricia Martín; Sappó, Cristina Pérez; Pavón, José Luis Pérez; Cordero, Bernardo Moreno

    2014-02-01

    EU legislation prohibits the use of certain azo dyes which, on reduction, form any of 22 aromatic amines listed in Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 at concentrations above the threshold limit of 30 mg Kg(-1). Two different extraction techniques for the determination of aromatic amines formed from azo dyes in textiles in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are described. The first one is based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and the other approach involves salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE). The influence of several parameters on the efficiency of the extraction using MEPS (sorbent material, sample volume, elution solvent, elution volume and washing steps, among others) and SALLE (extraction volume and amount of salt) were investigated. In addition, chromatographic separation was optimized and quadrupole mass spectrometry was evaluated using the synchronous SIM/scan data acquisition mode. The repeatability (n=8, S/N=3) of the methods, calculated as the relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 15 and 11% for all compounds when MEPS and SALLE were used, respectively. Standard additions procedure was used to quantify the aromatic amines in the textil samples. The detection limits in the samples for both methods were lower than the maximum value allowed by legislation. The results obtained in the analysis of textiles revealed the presence of o-anisidine, p-chloroaniline, 4-chloro-o-toluidine, 2-naphthylamine and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine in some of them.

  11. Effects of varying degrees of doneness on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and beef satay.

    PubMed

    Jinap, S; Mohd-Mokhtar, M S; Farhadian, A; Hasnol, N D S; Jaafar, S N; Hajeb, P

    2013-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (p<0.05) lower HAs concentration as compared to those charcoal grilled (A). Both medium and well done cooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B).

  12. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p < 0.05). 4,8-DiMeIQx formation was inhibited only by BB marinade. No significant effect was observed on MeAαC formation. All beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  13. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation.

  14. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation. PMID:22642699

  15. Heterocyclic aromatic amines and their contribution to the bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Ewald; Meisgen, Thomas; Diekmann, Joerg; Conroy, Lynda; Stabbert, Regina

    2016-01-22

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) rank among the strongest known mutagens. Approximately 30 HAAs have been found in cooked foods (broiled, fried, and grilled) and several HAAs have been characterized as animal carcinogens. Nine HAAs have also been reported to be constituents of cigarette smoke (CS) raising concerns that HAAs might contribute significantly to the known carcinogenicity of CS. As HAAs are found predominantly in the total particulate matter (TPM) of CS, an improved method for the quantification of HAAs in TPM is reported allowing detection and quantification of 8 HAAs in a single run. The mutagenic potency of these HAAs and that of TPM from the reference cigarette 2R4F was determined in the Salmonella Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames assay) with tester strain TA98 and a metabolic activation system. The 8 HAAs, when applied together in the Ames assay, showed a clear sub-additive response. Likewise, the combination of HAAs and TPM, if at all, gave rise to a slight sub-additive response. In both cases, however, the sub-additive response in the Ames assay was observed at HAA doses that are far above the amounts found in CS. The contribution of the individual HAAs to the total mutagenic activity of TPM was calculated and experimentally confirmed to be approximately 1% of the total mutagenic activity. Thus, HAAs do not contribute significantly to the bacterial in vitro mutagenicity of CS TPM. PMID:26724587

  16. The mechanism of action of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. Inhibition by amino acid derivatives and amines; activation by aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Metrione, R M; MacGeorge, N L

    1975-12-01

    A variety of amino acid and peptide amides have been shown to be inhibitors of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. Among these compounds derivatives of strongly hydrophobic amino acids are the strongest inhibitors (Phe-NH2, Ki = 1.0 +/- 0.2 mM), while amides of basic amino acids were somewhat less effective (Lys-NH2, Ki = 36 +/- 3 mM). Short chain amino acid amides are notably weaker inhibitors (Gly-NH2, Ki = 293 +/- 50 mM). The interaction of the side chains of compounds with the enzyme appears to be at a site other than that at which the side chain of the amino-penultimate residue of the substrate interacts since the specificity of binding is different. Primary amines have been shown to inhibit, e.g., butylamine, Ki = 340 +/- 40 mM, and aromatic compounds have been shown to stimulate activity toward Gly-Gly-NH2 and Gly-Gly-OEt (phenol, 35% stimulation of activity at a 1:1 molar ratio with the substrate). The data suggest that inhibition involves binding at the site occupied by the free alpha-amino group and the N-terminal amino acid.

  17. Sediment-mediated reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and fate of the resulting aromatic (poly)amines

    SciTech Connect

    Elovitz, M.S. ); Weber, E.J. )

    1999-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene is a major surface and subsurface contaminant found at numerous munitions production and storage facilities. The reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to aromatic (poly)amines and the consequent fate of these products were studied in anaerobic and aerobic sediment-water systems. Reduction of TNT was rapid under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Nitro-reduction was regioselective, leading to the preferential formation of 4-amino-2,6 dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) and 2,4-diamino-6 nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT). Subsequent sorption of 2,4-DANT was rapid under aerobic conditions and resulted in nearly complete, irreversible retention by the sediment phase. Under anaerobic conditions, the rapidly formed 2,4-DANT displayed little affinity for the sediment phase. Instead, 2,4 DANT was further transformed to products that remained in the aqueous phase. Sorption studies in nontransforming sediments indicated increased irreversible sorption with replacement of nitro groups with amino groups. Covalent binding of the DANTs was partially inhibited under anoxic conditions, but sorption of TNT and the ADNTs was unaffected by changes in redox conditions.

  18. Evolutionarily Distinct BAHD N-Acyltransferases Are Responsible for Natural Variation of Aromatic Amine Conjugates in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Meng; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wensheng; Shen, Shuangqian; Shi, Jian; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Li; Wang, Shouchuang; Wan, Jian; Liu, Xianqing; Gong, Liang; Luo, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Phenolamides (PAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites mainly synthesized by BAHD N-acyltransferases. Here, we report metabolic profiling coupled with association and linkage mapping of 11 PAs in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 22 loci affecting PAs in leaves and 16 loci affecting PAs in seeds. We identified eight BAHD N-acyltransferases located on five chromosomes with diverse specificities, including four aromatic amine N-acyltransferases. We show that genetic variation in PAs is determined, at least in part, by allelic variation in the tissue specificity of expression of the BAHD genes responsible for their biosynthesis. Tryptamine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-THT1/2) and tryptamine benzoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-TBT1/2) were found to be bifunctional tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases. The specificity of Os-THT1 and Os-TBT1 for agmatine involved four tandem arginine residues, which have not been identified as specificity determinants for other plant BAHD transferases, illustrating the versatility of plant BAHD transferases in acquiring new acyl acceptor specificities. With phylogenetic analysis, we identified both divergent and convergent evolution of N-acyltransferases in plants, and we suggest that the BAHD family of tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases evolved conservatively in monocots, especially in Gramineae. Our work demonstrates that omics-assisted gene-to-metabolite analysis provides a useful tool for bulk gene identification and crop genetic improvement. PMID:27354554

  19. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in deep fried lamb meat: The influence of spices marination and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    S, Jinap; Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Talib, Nur Hafiza; Hasnol, N D S

    2016-03-01

    The present study was focused to investigate the effect of selected spices (turmeric, torch ginger, lemongrass and curry leaves) on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IQ, harman, norharman, and AαC) in deep fried lamb meat. Meat samples were marinated with optimized levels of turmeric (4 %), 10 % each of torch ginger, lemon grass, curry leaves at medium (70 °C) and well done (80 °C) doneness temperatures. The concentration of HCAs in deep fried meat samples were analysed using LC-MS/MS technique. The results revealed that torch ginger (10 %) has reduced 74.8 % of Me1Qx (1.39 to 0.35 ng/g) at medium doneness, followed by the 64.7 % reduction, using curry leaves and turmeric at medium degree of doneness. Torch ginger has reduced 86.6 % of AαC (2.59 to 0.40 ng/g) at well done doneness. The most prevalence level of HCAs was found in deep fried meat i.e. DiMeIQ (3.69 ng/g) at well done doneness. The sensory evaluation, using a 7 point hedonic test design for colour and texture in deep fried meat samples were resulted in a preferred color of golden brown and slightly tough texture. The use of local spices in marinating of deep fried lamb meat samples will certainly inhibit/reduce the level of these toxic and harmful HCAs.

  20. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in deep fried lamb meat: The influence of spices marination and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    S, Jinap; Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Talib, Nur Hafiza; Hasnol, N D S

    2016-03-01

    The present study was focused to investigate the effect of selected spices (turmeric, torch ginger, lemongrass and curry leaves) on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IQ, harman, norharman, and AαC) in deep fried lamb meat. Meat samples were marinated with optimized levels of turmeric (4 %), 10 % each of torch ginger, lemon grass, curry leaves at medium (70 °C) and well done (80 °C) doneness temperatures. The concentration of HCAs in deep fried meat samples were analysed using LC-MS/MS technique. The results revealed that torch ginger (10 %) has reduced 74.8 % of Me1Qx (1.39 to 0.35 ng/g) at medium doneness, followed by the 64.7 % reduction, using curry leaves and turmeric at medium degree of doneness. Torch ginger has reduced 86.6 % of AαC (2.59 to 0.40 ng/g) at well done doneness. The most prevalence level of HCAs was found in deep fried meat i.e. DiMeIQ (3.69 ng/g) at well done doneness. The sensory evaluation, using a 7 point hedonic test design for colour and texture in deep fried meat samples were resulted in a preferred color of golden brown and slightly tough texture. The use of local spices in marinating of deep fried lamb meat samples will certainly inhibit/reduce the level of these toxic and harmful HCAs. PMID:27570265

  1. Theoretical Study of Plasmon-Enhanced Surface Catalytic Coupling Reactions of Aromatic Amines and Nitro Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liu-Bin; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Yi-Fan; Williams, Christopher T; Wu, De-Yin; Ren, Bin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2014-04-01

    Taking advantage of the unique capacity of surface plasmon resonance, plasmon-enhanced heterogeneous catalysis has recently come into focus as a promising technique for high performance light-energy conversion. This work performs a theoretical study on the reaction mechanism for conversions of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) and p-nitrothiophenol (PNTP) to aromatic azo species, p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB). In the absence of O2 or H2, the plasmon-driven photocatalysis mechanism (hot electron-hole reactions) is the major reaction channel. In the presence of O2 or H2, the plasmon-assisted surface catalysis mechanism (activated oxygen/hydrogen reactions) is the major reaction channel. The present results show that the coupling reactions of PATP and PNTP strongly depend on the solution pH, the irradiation wavelength, the irradiation power, and the nature of metal substrates as well as the surrounding atmosphere. The present study has drawn a fundamental physical picture for understanding plasmon-enhanced heterogeneous catalysis.

  2. [Studies on primary aromatic amines (PAAs) migration from multi-layer plastic food packaging by HPLC method].

    PubMed

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Pawlicka, Marzena; Starski, Andrzej; Półtorak, Hanna; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and to determine their migration from plastic food packaging. The magnitude of the migration of these substances from plastic food packaging consists a base for the evaluation of their compliance with the requirements of EU legislation and hazard for human health taking into account their migration into food. The unprinted and printed multi-layer plastic packaging (laminates), domestic and imported, were examined in these studies. PAAs migration tests from the laminates into food simulant (3% acetic acid) was performed according to the appropriate procedures recommended in the EU for testing migration from food contact articles under standard conditions reflecting the real use of laminates (10 days, 40 degrees C) and under ,, worst case scenario" conditions (2 h, 70 degrees C). PAAs present in migration solutions were concentrated on SPE columns and then seven PAAs (aniline, 1,3-phenylenediamine, 2, 6-toluenediamine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and 3,3 '-dimethylbenzidyne) were identified and determined by previously validated HPLC-DAD method. Depending on the migration conditions the PAAs content was different. When the "worst case scenario" conditions were applied the migration of 4,4 '-methylenedianiline (4,4 '-MDA) ranged from below detection limit (LOD = 0.51 microg/kg) up to 9.86 microg/kg, and aniline was released in the range from below detection limit (LOD = 0,98 microg/kg) up to 7.04 microg/kg. In two laminate samples of eight examined, the sum of PAAs (aniline and 4,4'-MDA) was 13.32 microg/kg and 14.72 microg/kg showing that the permitted limit (10 microg/kg) was exceeded. In the standard conditions, the migration of aniline and 4,4'-MDA was significantly lower Regarding the carcinogenic potential of PAAs, the laminates causing the amines migration above the permitted limit should not be used as food packaging.

  3. Determination of Aromatic Amines Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Based on an Ionic Liquid-Mediated Sol-Gel Technique.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Vajihe; Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Amiri, Amirhassan; Vatani, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method was developed for isolation of monocyclic aromatic amines from water samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this work, the effect of the presence of ionic liquid (namely, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C6MIM][PF6]) was investigated in the sol-gel coating solutions on the morphology and extraction behavior of the resulting hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel sorbents utilized in SPME. Hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was used as the sol-gel active organic component for sol-gel hybrid coatings. Two different coated fibers that were prepared are PDMS and PDMS-IL ([C6MIM][PF6]) fibers. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits (S/N = 3) with PDMS-IL were in the range of 0.001-0.1 ng/mL and the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) between 0.005 and 0.5 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations for one fiber (n = 5) were obtained from 3.1 up to 8.5% and between fibers or batch to batch (n = 3) in the range of 5.3-10.1%. The developed method was successfully applied to real water and juice fruits samples while the relative recovery percentages obtained for the spiked water samples at 0.1 ng/mL were from 83.3 to 95.0%.

  4. Kinetic and chemical mechanisms for the effects of univalent cations on the spectral properties of aromatic amine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Davidson, V L

    1998-01-01

    Univalent cations and pH influence the UV-visible absorption spectrum of the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) enzyme, aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH). Little spectral perturbation was observed when pH was varied in the absence of univalent cations. The addition of alkali metal univalent cations (K+, Na+, Li+, Rb+ or Cs+) to oxidized AADH caused significant changes in its absorption spectrum. The apparent Kd for each cation, determined from titrations of the spectral perturbation, decreased with increasing pH. Transient kinetic studies involving rapid mixing of AADH with cations and pH jump revealed that the rate of the cation-induced spectral changes initially decreased with increasing cation concentration to a minimum value, then increased with increasing cation concentration. A kinetic model was developed to fit these data, determine the true pH-independent Kd values for K+ and Na+, and explain the pH-dependence of the apparent Kd. A chemical reaction mechanism, based on the kinetic data, is presented in which the metallic univalent cation facilitates the chemical modification of the TTQ prosthetic group to form an hydroxide adduct which gives rise to the spectral change. Addition of NH4(+)/NH3 to AADH caused changes in the absorption spectrum which were very different form those caused by addition of the metallic univalent cations. The kinetics of the reaction induced by addition of NH4+/NH3 were also different, being simple saturation kinetics. Another reaction mechanism is proposed for the NH4+/NH3-induced spectral change that involves nucleophilic addition of the unprotonated NH3 to TTQ. The general relevance of these data and models to the physiological reactions of TTQ-dependent enzymes and to the roles of univalent cations in modulating enzyme activity are discussed. PMID:9405291

  5. Determination of Aromatic Amines Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Based on an Ionic Liquid-Mediated Sol-Gel Technique.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Vajihe; Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Amiri, Amirhassan; Vatani, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method was developed for isolation of monocyclic aromatic amines from water samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this work, the effect of the presence of ionic liquid (namely, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C6MIM][PF6]) was investigated in the sol-gel coating solutions on the morphology and extraction behavior of the resulting hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel sorbents utilized in SPME. Hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was used as the sol-gel active organic component for sol-gel hybrid coatings. Two different coated fibers that were prepared are PDMS and PDMS-IL ([C6MIM][PF6]) fibers. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits (S/N = 3) with PDMS-IL were in the range of 0.001-0.1 ng/mL and the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) between 0.005 and 0.5 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations for one fiber (n = 5) were obtained from 3.1 up to 8.5% and between fibers or batch to batch (n = 3) in the range of 5.3-10.1%. The developed method was successfully applied to real water and juice fruits samples while the relative recovery percentages obtained for the spiked water samples at 0.1 ng/mL were from 83.3 to 95.0%. PMID:26759488

  6. Percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines in rubber industry workers: impact of impaired skin and skin barrier creams

    PubMed Central

    Korinth, G; Weiss, T; Penkert, S; Schaller, K H; Angerer, J; Drexler, H

    2007-01-01

    Background Several aromatic amines (AA) could cause bladder cancer and are an occupational hygiene problem in the workplace. However, little is known about the percutaneous absorption of chemicals via impaired skin and about the efficacy of skin protection measures to reduce internal exposure. Aims To determine the impact of skin status and of skin protection measures on the internal exposure to AA in workers manufacturing rubber products. Methods 51 workers occupationally exposed to aniline and o‐toluidine were examined. The workplace conditions, risk factors for skin and the use of personal protective equipment were assessed by means of a self‐administered questionnaire. The skin of hands and forearms was clinically examined. Exposure to aniline and o‐toluidine was assessed by ambient air and biological monitoring (analyses of urine samples and of haemoglobin adducts). Results Haemoglobin‐AA‐adduct levels in workers with erythema (73%) were significantly higher (p<0.04) than in workers with healthy skin (mean values: aniline 1150.4 ng/l vs 951.7 ng/l, o‐toluidine 417.9 ng/l vs 118.3 ng/l). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that wearing gloves significantly reduced the internal exposure. A frequent use of skin barrier creams leads to a higher internal exposure of AA (p<0.03). However, the use of skincare creams at the workplace was associated with a reduced internal exposure (p<0.03). From these findings we assume that internal exposure of the workers resulted primarily from the percutaneous uptake. Conclusions The study demonstrates a significantly higher internal exposure to AA in workers with impaired skin compared with workers with healthy skin. Daily wearing of gloves efficiently reduced internal exposure. However, an increased use of skin barrier creams enhances the percutaneous uptake of AA. Skincare creams seem to support skin regeneration and lead to reduced percutaneous uptake. PMID:17182646

  7. Conversion to isothiocyanates via dithiocarbamates for the determination of aromatic primary amines by headspace-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jain, Archana; Reddy-Noone, Kishan; Pillai, Aradhana K K V; Verma, Krishna K

    2013-11-01

    A novel and highly selective method has been developed for the determination of aromatic primary amines by their conversion to dithiocarbamates by reaction with carbon disulphide, and then to isothiocyanates, which are volatile, by heating in the presence of a heavy metal ion. Zinc(II) was selected owing to its low toxicity and optimum yield of isothiocyanates. The latter were sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) on divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fibre, 50/30 μm. The HS-SPME procedure was optimized to provide adequate limits of detection in the analysis of aromatic amines in their real samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The method gave rectilinear calibration graph, correlation coefficient and limit of detection, respectively, over the range 0.08-100 μg L(-1), 0.9950-0.9990 and 25-240 ng L(-1) in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 0.01-10 mg L(-1), 0.9910-0.9991 and 0.8-3.0 μg L(-1) in gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. At two different levels, 10 and 40 μg L(-1), the range of intra-day RSD was 3.7-8.5% (GC-MS) and 3.3-9.2% (GC-FID), respectively. The proposed method is simple and rapid, and has been applied to determine aromatic primary amines in the environmental waters, food samples of ice cream powder and soft drinks concentrate, and food colours. The intra-day RSD in the analysis of real samples by GC-MS was in the range 3.6-6.2%. The food/colour samples were found to contain elevated levels of aniline and 2-toluidine. PMID:24139574

  8. Binding of aromatic amines to the rat hepatic Ah receptor in vitro and in vivo and the 8S and 4S estrogen receptor of rat uterus and rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Cikryt, P.; Kaiser, T.; Gottlicher, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Studies on structurally related aromatic amines with different carcinogenic properties have shown that 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and 2-acetylaminophenanthrene (AAP) inhibit the binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the Ah receptor in vitro. The apparent inhibitor constants (K{sub i}) are 2.3 {mu}M for 2-AAF and 2.7 {mu}M for AAP. In contrast, 4-acetylaminofluorene, an isomer of 2-AAF, and trans-4-acetylaminostilbene do not bind to the rat hepatic cytosolic Ah receptor. Pretreating female Wistar rats with 2-AAF or AAP leads to the induction of the P-450 isoenzymes that are under the control of the Ah receptor. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is induced by all aromatic amines tested irrespective of their Ah receptor affinity. The aromatic amines used as model compounds do not inhibit the binding of 17-{beta}-estradiol to the 8S and 4S estrogen receptor of rat uterus or rat liver in a competition assay analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. On the other hand, the aromatic amines bind to varying extents to another estrogen-binding protein of rat liver whose function and identity is still unknown. The study demonstrates that structurally related aromatic amines in their unmetabolized form interact differentially with a cellular target protein, the Ah receptor, in vitro as well as in vivo. However, a relationship between these effects and the postulated promoting properties of 2-AAF remains to be established.

  9. A base-mediated self-propagative Lossen rearrangement of hydroxamic acids for the efficient and facile synthesis of aromatic and aliphatic primary amines.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Naoya; Okuno, Moriaki; Hoshino, Yujiro; Honda, Kiyoshi

    2016-10-14

    A variety of aromatic and aliphatic hydroxamic acids were converted to the corresponding primary amines via base-mediated rearrangement. This rearrangement could proceed with less than 1 equiv. of K2CO3 in polar solvents under thermal conditions with no external reagents. This rearrangement has several features including no external activating agents needed for promoting the rearrangement, less than one equivalent of a base is sufficient for the reaction, and a clean reaction in which only carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product. A self-propagating mechanism via an isocyanate intermediate is proposed and elementary reaction steps, namely, chain propagation reactions are supported by experiments. PMID:27605448

  10. A base-mediated self-propagative Lossen rearrangement of hydroxamic acids for the efficient and facile synthesis of aromatic and aliphatic primary amines.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Naoya; Okuno, Moriaki; Hoshino, Yujiro; Honda, Kiyoshi

    2016-10-14

    A variety of aromatic and aliphatic hydroxamic acids were converted to the corresponding primary amines via base-mediated rearrangement. This rearrangement could proceed with less than 1 equiv. of K2CO3 in polar solvents under thermal conditions with no external reagents. This rearrangement has several features including no external activating agents needed for promoting the rearrangement, less than one equivalent of a base is sufficient for the reaction, and a clean reaction in which only carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product. A self-propagating mechanism via an isocyanate intermediate is proposed and elementary reaction steps, namely, chain propagation reactions are supported by experiments.

  11. Kinetics of the reactions of the acid anhydrides with aromatic amines in aprotic solvents. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, E.; Mason, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Work has revealed that diamine derivatives of diphenylmethane (IV), diphenyl ether (V), benzophenone (IV), fluorene (VII), and fluorenone (VIII) polymerizations with pyromellitic dianhydride in DMA were dependent on the basicity of the amine compound. The correlation between the basicity of the amine and its reactivity with phthalic anhydride was determined. Basicity measurements were made by potentiometric titration of each amine in an acetonitrile-water solvent system, from which the pKa of the amine could be determined. Reactivity was defined in terms of the second order rate constant derived form spectrophotometric examination of the reaction between each amine and phthalic anhydride in DMA. This reaction was expected to proceed in either one (for a monoamine) or two (for a diamine) stages.

  12. Determination of 2,5-toluylenediamine (2,5-TDA) and aromatic amines in urine after personal application of hair dyes: kinetics and doses.

    PubMed

    Schettgen, Thomas; Heinrich, K; Kraus, T; Gube, Monika

    2011-02-01

    The personal use of hair dye products is currently under discussion due to the potentially increased risk of bladder cancer among long-time users described in epidemiological literature. In order to investigate the dermal absorption of aromatic diamines as well as aromatic amines possibly present as contaminants in hair dye formulations, we conducted a biomonitoring study under real-life conditions and calculated kinetics and doses for the urinary excretion. Urine samples of two female subjects were collected for a time period of 48 h after personal application of a hair dye cream and analysed for aromatic diamines as well as o-toluidine and 4-aminobiphenyl using highly specific GC/MS-methods. 2,5-Toluylenediamine (2,5-TDA) as active ingredient of hair dyes is rapidly absorbed dermally. After a distribution phase of 12 h, 2,5-TDA is excreted with a half-time of 8 h. Excretion was 90% complete within 24 h after application. The doses of 2,5-TDA excreted within 48 h were 700 μg for application of a brown-reddish hair dye cream and 1.5 mg for the application of a brown-black hair dye cream. Urinary 4-aminobiphenyl as well as contaminations with other aromatic diamines were not detectable in our study. Due to the artifactual formation of o-toluidine in the presence of high concentrations of urinary 2,5-TDA, our results could not prove an increased internal exposure of humans to carcinogenic amines after personal application of hair dyes.

  13. [Determination of free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiwen; Peng, Yan; Niu, Zengyuan; Gao, Yonggang; Luo, Xin; Zou, Li

    2015-04-01

    A method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was used to determine 24 free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles. The main factors influencing the method, including the extraction solvent, the extraction temperature and the extraction time, were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytes were extracted by dichloromethane for 10 min and loaded into a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 µm) with a gradient elution of methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid solution, and finally detected by LTQ/Orbitrap MS. The screening and quantitative analysis were carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion and the peak in extracted chromatogram with accurate mass respectively. The correlation coefficients (R2) were higher than 0.99. The recoveries were 87.8%-105.6% with the RSDs were 1.6%-3.4%. The limits of detection were 0.5-1 µg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 1.5-3 µg/kg. The proposed method was applied to 14 textile samples containing spandex. 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane was determined in five samples and the contents were 0.21-25.6 mg/kg. The results indicate that the developed method is a simple, efficient, precise and reliable technique for the determination of free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles.

  14. Aerobic oxidative amidation of aromatic and cinnamic aldehydes with secondary amines by CuI/2-pyridonate catalytic system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingwen; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Ryohei

    2012-10-19

    A simple and convenient CuI/2-pyridonate catalytic system for the oxidative amidation of aldehydes with secondary amines has been developed. With this system, a variety of useful arylamides have been synthesized in moderate to good yields in the presence of small amount of copper catalyst and the pyridonate ligand, generating only water as a coproduct. Synthesis of cinnamamides was also achieved by the reactions of cinnamaldehydes with secondary amines in moderate yields. Air was successfully employed as a green oxidant in this catalytic system, achieving a safe and atom-efficient system for the synthesis of amides. PMID:23006061

  15. Facile construction of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones via a redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade reaction and discovery of novel topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanchao; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Ma, Lin; Wang, Shengzheng; Shi, Wencai; Fang, Kun; Chen, Shuqiang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-21

    An efficient redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade process from trans-4-hydroxyproline and 2-formylbenzoic acids has been developed for the synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones. Compound 3h was identified as a new potent dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor. PMID:27400278

  16. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in food products: automation of the sample preparation method prior to HPLC and HPLC-MS quantification.

    PubMed

    Fay, L B; Ali, S; Gross, G A

    1997-05-12

    Heat-processing protein-rich foods may cause the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), all of which have mutagenic and some also carcinogenic potential. Accurately measuring HAA levels in food products is therefore a necessary to realistically assess this risk factor. A solid-phase extraction method for quantitative HAA analysis has been developed by us over the last few years. This method has recently been automated using a robotic workstation and now allows almost unattended sample preparation, a process which saves a human operator about five hours of benchwork. Cleaned-up samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet (UV) or mass spectrometric (MS) detection. While HPLC-UV remains the daily tool to quantify HAAs, we found HPLC-electrospray-MS to be an alternative detection method with unique advantages, suited for both HAA identification and quantification.

  17. Cyclic amines as less mutagenic replacements for dimethyl amino (--NMe2) substituents on aromatic organic compounds: implications for carcinogenicity and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Paton, D; Lefevre, P A

    1983-01-01

    Replacement of the dimethylamino (--NMe2) group of the rodent liver carcinogens 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB) and 6-dimethylaminophenylazobenzthiazole (6BT) with a pyrrolidinyl group leads to a marked attenuation of their mutagenicity to S. typhimurium in vitro. Replacement with the 6-membered piperidinyl group leads to a virtual loss of mutagenic activity. These results are discussed within the context of a possible, albeit limited correlation between carcinogenic potency to rodents and mutagenic potency to S. typhimurium. Based on these observations, it is suggested that replacement of the --NMe2 group of a toxic/carcinogenic/mutagenic aromatic chemical by a cyclic amine substituent may produce a less toxic (etc.) analogue with similar gross molecular properties. The significance of weak (less than 2-fold increase) mutagenic responses is discussed in relation to potential carcinogenicity.

  18. Role of human N-acetyltransferases, NAT1 or NAT2, in genotoxicity of nitroarenes and aromatic amines in Salmonella typhimurium NM6001 and NM6002.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Yamazaki, H; Shimada, T

    1999-06-01

    Human NAT1 and NAT2 genes were subcloned into pACYC184 vector and the plasmids thus obtained were introduced into Salmonella typhimurium O-acetyltransferase-deficient strain NM6000 (TA1538/1, 8-DNP/pSK1002), establishing new strains NM6001 and NM6002, respectively. We compared the sensitivities of these two strains with those of NM6000 towards carcinogenic nitroarenes and aromatic amines in the SOS/umu response. The induction of umuC gene expression by these chemicals in the presence and absence of the S9 fraction was assayed by measuring the cellular beta-galactosidase activity expressed by the umuC"lacZ fusion gene in the tester strains. 2-Nitrofluorene and 2-aminofluorene induced umuC gene expression more strongly in the NM6001 strain than in the NM6002 strain. In contrast, induction of umuC gene expression by 1, 8-dinitropyrene, 6-aminochrysene and 2-amino-3,5-dimethylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline was weaker in the NM6001 strain than in the NM6002 strain. 1-Nitropyrene, 2-amino-6-methyl-dipyrido[1,2-a:3', 2'-d]imidazole, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole were found to induce umuC gene expression at similar extents in both strains. These results suggest that the newly developed strains can be employed for the studies on mechanisms of genotoxicity of a variety of nitroarenes and aromatic amines, along with the assessment of cancer risk to humans. PMID:10357791

  19. Impact of bacteria in dairy products and of the intestinal microflora on the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Knasmüller, S; Steinkellner, H; Hirschl, A M; Rabot, S; Nobis, E C; Kassie, F

    2001-09-01

    This article gives a short overview on the present state of knowledge of the effects of the intestinal microflora on the health hazards of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs). Results of single cell gel electrophoresis assays with conventional, germ free and human flora associated rats indicate that the presence of intestinal microorganisms strongly enhances the induction of DNA-damage in colon and liver cells by IQ. Furthermore, it was found that supplementation of the feed with Lactobacilli attenuates the induction of colon cancer by this same amine. These recent findings suggest that the intestinal microflora and lactic acid bacilli in dairy products strongly affect the health risks of HAs. Nevertheless, most previous experiments with HAs focused on the involvement of mammalian enzymes in the biotransformation of these compounds and only a few articles are available which concern interactions of bacteria with HAs. Some of these studies suggested that the formation of directly mutagenic hydroxy-metabolites of the amines by fecal bacteria might be an important activation pathway but it turned out that the hydroxy-derivative of IQ is not genotoxic in mammalian cells and does not cause colon cancer in laboratory rodents. There is some evidence that hydrolysis of HA-metabolites by bacterial ss-glucuronidase might play a role in the activation of HAs but experimental data are scarce and no firm conclusions can be drawn at present. The most important detoxification mechanism appears to be the direct binding of the HAs to the cell walls of certain bacterial strains contained in fermented foods. It was shown that these effects do also take place under physiologically relevant conditions. Overall, it seems that intestinal bacteria play a key role in the activation and detoxification of HAs which has been an area of research long ignored. The elucidation of these mechanisms may enable the development of biomarkers for colon cancer risk and nutritional strategies of

  20. Determination of total non-sulphonated aromatic amines in soft drinks and hard candies by reduction and derivatization followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

    1992-01-01

    Utilizing elements of methodology developed previously for food colours, total free and bound non-sulphonated aromatic amines (NSAA) were determined in commercial samples of soft drink beverages and hard candies. Bound amines in the samples were reduced using sodium dithionite, then total NSAA were extracted into chlorofom, transferred to aqueous acid solution and diazotized with sodium nitrite before coupling with 2-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid, disodium salt (R-salt). The coloured derivatives were analysed using reversed-phase ion pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an absorbance detector set at 512 nm. Solid phase extraction cartridges were utilized for extraction and clean-up of the food colours present in the sample, and the concentration of each dye was determined quantitatively using HPLC and absorbance detector wavelengths of 426, 516 or 625 nm. Levels of total NSAA were compatible with those observed previously in food colours. Commercial soft drinks were found to contain (expressed in terms of total free plus bound NSAA in the beverage) 0.19-12.6 ng/ml of aniline, 0.83-8.25 ng/ml 1-naphthylamine and 0.62-1.12 ng/ml 2-naphthylamine. Levels of 0.66-9.15 ng/g of aniline and 2.48-10.6 ng/g 1-naphthylamine were found in commercial samples of hard candies. Bound NSAA in hard candies appeared to survive the manufacturing process. Recoveries averaged 96.9% for tartrazine and 89.6-97.2% for the bound amines when hard candies were prepared in the laboratory.

  1. Liquid chromatography-full scan-high resolution mass spectrometry-based method towards the comprehensive analysis of migration of primary aromatic amines from food packaging.

    PubMed

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Lambertini, Francesca; Suman, Michele; Careri, Maria

    2013-12-13

    European Union legislation has established that plastic food contact materials shall not release primary aromatic amines (PAAs), which are toxic compounds and suspected human carcinogens. As valid alternative to existing methods for PAA determination, which are based on spectrophotometric test or targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches, in this study a LC-Orbitrap-full scan-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method was devised and validated for the determination of migration levels of 22 PAAs from food contact materials, thus exploiting the specificity of accurate mass measurement. Direct injection of the simulant (acetic acid 3%, w/v) into the LC-MS system after migration, without any pre-treatment step, makes the developed method of great value for rapid screening analysis of a large number of amines. A very fast and efficient separation (<11min) of PAAs was achieved. Detection limits in the 0.06-0.7μgkg(-1) range were calculated for 17 out of 22 of the investigated PAAs, however obtaining values within 5.3μgkg(-1) for the other 5 amines. Good dynamic linear ranges from two to four orders of magnitude (r(2)≥0.990) were obtained and satisfying results were achieved in terms of intra-day (RSDs<10%) and inter-day repeatability (RSDs<17%). Trueness values in the 70±1-131±5% range proved reliability of the developed method for PAAs quantification also at very low concentration levels. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a range of different real plastic multilayer food packaging materials, noticing in all cases levels below the established limits of detection.

  2. Comparison of carbon-sulfur and carbon-amine bond in therapeutic drug: 4β-S-aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives display antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Long; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Herein is a first effort to systematically study the significance of carbon-sulfur (C-S) and carbon-amine (C-NH) bonds on the antitumor proliferation activity of podophyllum derivatives and their precise mechanism of apoptosis. Compared with the derivative modified by a C-NH bond, the derivative modified by a C-S bond exhibited superior antitumor activity, the inhibition activity of target proteins tubulin or Topo II, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis induction. Antitumor mechanistic studies showed that the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways were simultaneously activated by the C-S bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives with a higher cellular uptake percentage of 60–90% and induction of a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Only the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was activated by the C-NH bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives, with a lower cellular uptake percentage of 40–50%. This study provided insight into effects of the C-S and C-NH bond modification on the improvement of the antitumor activity of Podophyllum derivatives. PMID:26443888

  3. Comparison of carbon-sulfur and carbon-amine bond in therapeutic drug: 4β-S-aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives display antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Long; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-10-07

    Herein is a first effort to systematically study the significance of carbon-sulfur (C-S) and carbon-amine (C-NH) bonds on the antitumor proliferation activity of podophyllum derivatives and their precise mechanism of apoptosis. Compared with the derivative modified by a C-NH bond, the derivative modified by a C-S bond exhibited superior antitumor activity, the inhibition activity of target proteins tubulin or Topo II, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis induction. Antitumor mechanistic studies showed that the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways were simultaneously activated by the C-S bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives with a higher cellular uptake percentage of 60-90% and induction of a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Only the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was activated by the C-NH bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives, with a lower cellular uptake percentage of 40-50%. This study provided insight into effects of the C-S and C-NH bond modification on the improvement of the antitumor activity of Podophyllum derivatives.

  4. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user. PMID:25230184

  5. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user.

  6. Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Aryl and Heterocyclic Amines by Human Cytochromes P450 2A13 and 2A6

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Komori, Masayuki; Kim, Donghak; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A13 was found to interact with several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to produce Type I binding spectra, including acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, fluoranthene, fluoranthene-2,3-diol, and 1-nitropyrene. P450 2A6 also interacted with acenaphthene and acenaphthylene, but not with fluoranthene, fluoranthene-2,3-diol, or 1-nitropyrene. P450 1B1 is well known to oxidize many carcinogenic PAHs, and we found that several PAHs (i.e., 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-5,6-diol, benzo[c]phenanthrene, fluoranthene, fluoranthene-2,3-diol, 5-methylchrysene, benz[a]pyrene-4,5-diol, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol, 1-nitropyrene, 2-aminoanthracene, 2-aminofluorene, and 2-acetylaminofluorene) interacted with P450 1B1, producing Reverse Type I binding spectra. Metabolic activation of PAHs and aryl- and heterocyclic amines to genotoxic products was examined in Salmonella typhimurium NM2009, and we found that P450 2A13 and 2A6 (as well as P450 1B1) were able to activate several of these procarcinogens. The former two enzymes were particularly active in catalyzing 2-aminofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene activation, and molecular docking simulations supported the results with these procarcinogens, in terms of binding in the active sites of P450 2A13 and 2A6. These results suggest that P450 2A enzymes, as well as P450 Family 1 enzymes including P450 1B1, are major enzymes involved in activating PAHs and aryl- and heterocyclic amines, as well as tobacco-related nitrosamines. PMID:23432465

  7. Blue cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines--a review.

    PubMed

    Skog, Kerstin

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of compounds formed when protein-rich foods, such as meat or fish, are prepared under normal cooking conditions, such as frying, grilling, or broiling. To evaluate and estimate the risks associated with HCAs contained in the diet, it is important to determine the levels in cooked foods, and the levels of HCAs and metabolites in the body. HCAs are normally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which necessitates a good purification method and a sensitive detection system. The objective of this review was to briefly present the current knowledge on the use of Blue Cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of HCAs.

  8. Modulation of aromatic amine mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium with rat-liver 9000 g supernatant or monolayers of rat hepatocytes as an activation system.

    PubMed

    Holme, J A; Haug, L T; Dybing, E

    1983-04-01

    2-Aminofluorene (AF), 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) were studied for mutagenic activity in S. typhimurium and either liver 9000 g supernatant fractions (S9) or monolayer cultures of hepatocytes isolated from Wistar rats were used as an activation system. All 3 compounds were converted into mutagens excreted into the incubation medium by the cell-culture system, with N-OH-AAF greater than AF greater than AAF. Cultures used 24 h after plating were less efficient in promutagen conversion than were cultures used after 2 h. Phenobarbital, but not 3-methylcholanthrene, pretreatment of the rats caused similar effects on AF, AAF and N-OH-AAF mutagenicity with both S9 and hepatocyte cultures. The mutagenicities of AF and AAF were reduced by the cytochrome-P-450 inhibitors metyrapone and alpha-naphthoflavone, whereas the mutagenicity of N-OH-AAF was increased by using both inhibitors. Further, the microsomal deacetylase inhibitor paraoxon caused only a moderate reduction in N-OH-AAF mutagenicity, but a total inhibition of AAF mutagenicity. No significant effect of paraoxon on AF mutagenicity was seen. With the S9 system, no effect of ascorbate on the mutagenicity of AF, AAF or N-OH-AAF was observed. In contrast, the mutagenicity of all 3 compounds was increased by ascorbate when hepatocyte cultures were used as activation system. Incubation of hepatocyte monolayers in a sulfate-free medium did not change the mutagenicity of AF, AAF or N-OH-AAF. Galactosamine, an inhibitor of glucuronidation in cells, increased the mutagenicity of AF, AAF and N-OH-AAF with hepatocyte cultures. The addition of cofactor for glucuronidation in the S9 system, however, had no effect. A reduction in mutagenicity of AF and AAF, but not that of N-OH-AAF, was observed with the addition of glutathione (GSH) in both the S9 and the hepatocyte systems. On the other hand, no effect of cellular GSH depletion was seen on aromatic-amine mutagenicity in the

  9. Identification of cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates as direct inhibitors of the arylamine N-acetyltransferase-dependent acetylation and bioactivation of aromatic amine carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Bui, Linh-Chi; Mathieu, Cécile; Petit, Emile; Cariou, Kevin; Dodd, Robert H.; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs) are chemicals of industrial, pharmacological and environmental relevance. Certain AAs, such as 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), are human carcinogens that require enzymatic metabolic activation to reactive chemicals to form genotoxic DNA adducts. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) that play a major role in this carcinogenic bioactivation process. Isothiocyanates (ITCs), including benzyl-ITC (BITC) and phenethyl-ITC (PEITC), are phytochemicals known to have chemopreventive activity against several aromatic carcinogens. In particular, ITCs have been shown to modify the bioactivation and subsequent mutagenicity of carcinogenic AA chemicals such as 4-ABP. However, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms by which these phytochemicals may modulate AA carcinogens bioactivation and AA-DNA damage remains poorly understood. This manuscript provides evidence indicating that ITCs can decrease the metabolic activation of carcinogenic AAs via the irreversible inhibition of NAT enzymes and subsequent alteration of the acetylation of AAs. We demonstrate that BITC and PEITC react with NAT1 and inhibit readily its acetyltransferase activity (ki = 200 M−1.s−1 and 66 M−1.s−1 for BITC and PEITC, respectively). Chemical labeling, docking approaches and substrate protection assays indicated that inhibition of the acetylation of AAs by NAT1 was due to the chemical modification of the enzyme active site cysteine. Moreover, analyses of AAs acetylation and DNA adducts in cells showed that BITC was able to modulate the endogenous acetylation and bioactivation of 4-ABP. In conclusion, we show that direct inhibition of NAT enzymes may be an important mechanism by which ITCs exert their chemopreventive activity towards AA chemicals. PMID:26840026

  10. A comparative study of lysosome-targetable pH probes based on phenoxazinium attached with aliphatic and aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Li, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Ru; Xu, Yu-Jie; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, phenoxazinium was used as a fluorophore for the design of pH probes by the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. Phenoxazinium with an aliphatic morpholinyl group (probe ) gave increased emission at 665 nm with pH ranging from 7.4 to 4.4; meanwhile, the other one with an aromatic diethylaminophenyl group (probe ) gave nearly OFF-ON emission at 679 nm with pH ranging from 7.4 to 4.2. They both were reversible pH probes with good selectivity. Their optical properties, especially the PET mechanism, were illustrated by (TD)DFT theory. Fluorescence confocal imaging of probes and a typical phenoxazinium dye (Oxazine 1) was also performed, and the results indicated that probes are lysosome-targetable biomarkers.

  11. Response surface optimization of effects of some processing variables on carcinogenic/mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) content in cooked patties.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Adnan; Sarıçoban, Cemalettin; Yılmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2012-07-01

    A five-factor Central Composite Orthogonal Design was adopted to study simultaneous effects of some processing variables such as NaCl (0-2%), fat (10-30%), ascorbic acid (0-600 ppm), cooking temperature (150-230°C) and cooking time (5-15 min) on physicochemical properties and heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) contents of cooked beef patties. The HAAs analyzed were 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), as quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detection (HPLC-UV/DAD). It was found that ascorbic acid decreased; however, fat, cooking temperature and time levels increased the contents of IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ and PhIP. In addition, estimated ridge analysis was conducted to find values of the processing variables that maximize and minimize the five HAA contents, revealing that the results obtained would be useful for meat industry aiming to decrease HAA content in cooked meat products.

  12. Aromatic amines from polyurethane adhesives in food packaging: the challenge of identification and pattern recognition using Quadrupole-Time of Flight-Mass SpectrometryE.

    PubMed

    Pezo, Davinson; Fedeli, Mauro; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Toxic primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are reaction products from residual isocyanates in polyurethane adhesives. The maximum migration level of the total sum of PAAs is 10 ng g(-1) of food. This paper reports on a method for quantification of 18 PAAs by UHPLC-MS/MS that was optimised and applied to a series of industrial laminates prepared from polyurethane adhesives. Non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), impurities and other migrants were identified by Q-TOF/MS(E). A comparison of the quantitative values obtained by the colorimetric method using NEDA and by UHPLC-MS/MS confirmed that the first method can overestimate the quantification of PAAs. This could be attributed to the impurities and other NIAS present in the plastic laminate. Values of R(2) in the analytical characteristics of UHPLC-MS/MS were obtained, the best value being 0.9964 and the most unfavourable 0.7626. The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) were 2 pg g(-1) and 7 pg g(-1), respectively. The stability of the PAAs over time in the acidic simulant in contact with the plastic laminate is also reported. PMID:23176739

  13. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    PubMed

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g. PMID:27029998

  14. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    PubMed

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g.

  15. [Applications of multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device for analysis of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiru; Chen, Fangxiang; Shi, Yamei; Tan, Connieal; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    A multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device has been designed and made for the silylation derivatization of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl )-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) with 1% catalyst tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (TBDMCS) at a high temperature. The tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives then could be automatically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using the pressure-assisted device, the silylation reaction may occur at a temperature higher than the boiling points of the reagents, and several micro-volume samples can be simultaneously pretreated in the same device to shorten the sample-preparation time and to improve the repeatability. The derivatization conditions including the headspace volume of the vial, the evaporative surface area of the reagent, derivatization temperature and time have been discussed for the use of the pressure-assisted device. The experimental results proved that the device is an effective way for the simultaneous derivatization of several micro-volume samples at a high temperature. Compared with a common device, the derivative amounts were obviously increased when using the pressure-assisted device at 90 degrees C. Quantitative derivatization can be achieved even at 150 degrees C while there was no common device could be applied at such a high temperature due to the heavy losses of reagents by evaporation. However, no obviously higher reaction speed has been observed in such a circumstance with a higher temperature and a higher pressure using the pressure-assisted device. PMID:23667982

  16. Aromatic amines from polyurethane adhesives in food packaging: the challenge of identification and pattern recognition using Quadrupole-Time of Flight-Mass SpectrometryE.

    PubMed

    Pezo, Davinson; Fedeli, Mauro; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Toxic primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are reaction products from residual isocyanates in polyurethane adhesives. The maximum migration level of the total sum of PAAs is 10 ng g(-1) of food. This paper reports on a method for quantification of 18 PAAs by UHPLC-MS/MS that was optimised and applied to a series of industrial laminates prepared from polyurethane adhesives. Non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), impurities and other migrants were identified by Q-TOF/MS(E). A comparison of the quantitative values obtained by the colorimetric method using NEDA and by UHPLC-MS/MS confirmed that the first method can overestimate the quantification of PAAs. This could be attributed to the impurities and other NIAS present in the plastic laminate. Values of R(2) in the analytical characteristics of UHPLC-MS/MS were obtained, the best value being 0.9964 and the most unfavourable 0.7626. The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) were 2 pg g(-1) and 7 pg g(-1), respectively. The stability of the PAAs over time in the acidic simulant in contact with the plastic laminate is also reported.

  17. Determination of aniline and related mono-aromatic amines in indoor air in selected Canadian residences by a modified thermal desorption GC/MS method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiping; Aikawa, Bio

    2004-04-01

    A modified thermal desorption method to determine low levels of aniline and other related mono-aromatic amines (MAAs) in residential air is described. The method was successfully applied to the determination of levels of these chemicals in residential air from 69 selected homes in two Canadian regions. Instrument detection limits of between 0.02 and 0.06 ng per thermal desorption tube were achieved for aniline and other MAAs. In the absence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) the mean concentrations of aniline in both indoor air and outdoor air were similar, at about 0.01 microgram/m3 after correction with field blanks. There was however a statistically significant difference in aniline concentrations between field blanks and indoor or outdoor air samples. No significant difference of aniline levels in the two study regions was observed. A clear link between aniline concentrations in indoor air and smoking activities inside homes was evident. Analysis of cigarette leaves indicated that aniline was most likely formed due to combustion during smoking. Shoe polishing was identified as another source of aniline in indoor air.

  18. Mechanism of error-free and semitargeted mutagenic bypass of an aromatic amine lesion by Y-family polymerase Dpo4

    SciTech Connect

    Rechkoblit, Olga; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Malinina, Lucy; Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Broyde, Suse; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2010-03-30

    The aromatic amine carcinogen 2-aminofluorene (AF) forms covalent adducts with DNA, predominantly with guanine at the C8 position. Such lesions are bypassed by Y-family polymerases such as Dpo4 via error-free and error-prone mechanisms. We show that Dpo4 catalyzes elongation from a correct 3{prime}-terminal cytosine opposite [AF]G in a nonrepetitive template sequence with low efficiency. This extension leads to cognate full-length product, as well as mis-elongated products containing base mutations and deletions. Crystal structures of the Dpo4 ternary complex, with the 3{prime}-terminal primer cytosine base opposite [AF]G in the anti conformation and with the AF moiety positioned in the major groove, reveal both accurate and misalignment-mediated mutagenic extension pathways. The mutagenic template-primer-dNTP arrangement is promoted by interactions between the polymerase and the bulky lesion rather than by a base pair-stabilized misaligment. Further extension leads to semitargeted mutations via this proposed polymerase-guided mechanism.

  19. DNA-damaging activity in vivo and bacterial mutagenicity of sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives, as related quantitatively to their carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Parodi, S; Taningher, M; Russo, P; Pala, M; Tamaro, M; Monti-Bragadin, C

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives were studied. They were: benzidine; 2-acetylaminofluorene; 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminobenzene; o-aminoazo-toluene; p-dimethylaminoazobenzene; 2,4-diamino-toluene; 4,4'-oxydianiline; 2,4-diaminoanisole; 4,4'-methylenedianiline; 2-naphthylamine; Auramine O; Rhodamine B; Ponceau MX; 1-naphthylamine; p-aminoazobenzene and aniline. The compounds were examined for their capability to induce alkaline DNA fragmentation in rat liver after treatment in vivo, for their mutagenicity in the Salmonella strains TA 98 and TA 100, for their acute toxicity and for their carcinogenicity in mice and rats. For each parameter a quantitative potency index was established, and the correlation existing amongst the different parameters investigated. Only mutagenicity in the strain TA 98 was slightly correlated with carcinogenic potency (r = 0.408). DNA fragmentation and toxicity were not correlated with carcinogenicity. A significant correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and toxicity (r = 0.539). No correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and mutagenicity. The lack of correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity is in contrast with previous results obtained with a family of hydrazine derivatives (12) and a group of nitrosocompounds (22). For these two groups of chemicals correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity existed, but not between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in the Ames' test. It is suggested that short term tests can perform very differently for different classes of chemicals.

  20. The presence of aliphatic and aromatic amines in reservoir and canal water as precursors to disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Phatthalung, Warangkana Na; Musikavong, Charongpun; Suttinun, Oramas

    2016-09-18

    This research aimed at determining the dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA), dibutylamine (DBA), and aromatic aniline (AN) in reservoir and canal water in the U-Tapao River Basin, Songkhla, Thailand. The trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA-FP) of the reservoir and canal water were analyzed. Water samples from two reservoirs and raw water from water treatment plants at upstream, midstream, and downstream locations of the canal were collected twice. The analysis of the DMA, DEA, DBA, and AN were conducted using gas chromatography and spectrofluorometry techniques. The DMA, DEA, and DBA levels in the reservoir and canal waters ranged from not detectable (ND) to 10 µg/L and from ND to 21.2 µg/L, respectively. AN was detected from 123 to 129 ng/L and from 112 to 177 ng/L in the reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The DMA, DEA, DBA, and AN exhibited two fluorescent peaks at 230nmEx/345nmEm and 280 nmEx/355nmEm. These two peaks corresponded to the peak positions of tryptophan. Detection limits of DMA, DEA, and DBA for fluorescent analysis were 500 μg/L whereas that of AN and tryptophan were 10 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively. The NDMA-FP measured in all the water samples was lower than the detection limit of 237 ng/L. THMFP ranged from 175 to 248 μg/L and 214 to 429 μg/L was detected in the reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The THMFP/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the reservoir and canal waters were comparable within the ranges of 73 to 131 µg THMFP/mg DOC.

  1. The presence of aliphatic and aromatic amines in reservoir and canal water as precursors to disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Phatthalung, Warangkana Na; Musikavong, Charongpun; Suttinun, Oramas

    2016-09-18

    This research aimed at determining the dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA), dibutylamine (DBA), and aromatic aniline (AN) in reservoir and canal water in the U-Tapao River Basin, Songkhla, Thailand. The trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA-FP) of the reservoir and canal water were analyzed. Water samples from two reservoirs and raw water from water treatment plants at upstream, midstream, and downstream locations of the canal were collected twice. The analysis of the DMA, DEA, DBA, and AN were conducted using gas chromatography and spectrofluorometry techniques. The DMA, DEA, and DBA levels in the reservoir and canal waters ranged from not detectable (ND) to 10 µg/L and from ND to 21.2 µg/L, respectively. AN was detected from 123 to 129 ng/L and from 112 to 177 ng/L in the reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The DMA, DEA, DBA, and AN exhibited two fluorescent peaks at 230nmEx/345nmEm and 280 nmEx/355nmEm. These two peaks corresponded to the peak positions of tryptophan. Detection limits of DMA, DEA, and DBA for fluorescent analysis were 500 μg/L whereas that of AN and tryptophan were 10 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively. The NDMA-FP measured in all the water samples was lower than the detection limit of 237 ng/L. THMFP ranged from 175 to 248 μg/L and 214 to 429 μg/L was detected in the reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The THMFP/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the reservoir and canal waters were comparable within the ranges of 73 to 131 µg THMFP/mg DOC. PMID:27314493

  2. Determination of primary aromatic amines in cold water extract of coloured paper napkin samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Valzacchi, Sandro; Hoekstra, Eddo; Simoneau, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was the optimisation of a multi-analyte method for the analysis of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) from napkins in order to support official controls and food safety. We developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 36 toxicologically relevant PAAs for paper and board. Good regression coefficients of the calibration curves in a range of 0.992–0.999 and reproducibilities in a range of 2.3–15% were obtained. Limits of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.03–1.4 µg l–1 and recoveries were in a range of 21–110% for all the amines. A total of 93 coloured paper napkin samples from different European countries were bought and extracted with water to determine the PAAs. The results showed that 42 of 93 samples contained at least one PAA. More than half of the detected PAAs are considered as toxic, carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), or are classified as such in the European Union legislation on chemicals. Summed concentrations of PAAs in seven samples were higher than 10 µg l–1, the limit of summed PAA in the European Union plastic food contact material regulation. Also, eight PAAs, classified as Category 1A and 1B carcinogen in the European Union legislation of chemicals, were detected at concentrations higher than 2 µg l–1, exceeding the limit proposed by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Germany. Aniline (n = 14) was most frequently present in higher concentrations followed by o-toluidine, o-anisidine, 2,4-dimethylaniline and 4-aminoazobenzene. Red, orange, yellow and multicoloured paper napkins contained the highest concentrations of total PAAs (> 10 µg l–1). Although the European Union has not harmonised the legislation of paper and board materials and, thus, there is no specific migration limit for PAAs from paper napkins, the present study showed that coloured paper napkins can contain toxic and

  3. Determination of primary aromatic amines in cold water extract of coloured paper napkin samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Valzacchi, Sandro; Hoekstra, Eddo; Simoneau, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was the optimisation of a multi-analyte method for the analysis of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) from napkins in order to support official controls and food safety. We developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 36 toxicologically relevant PAAs for paper and board. Good regression coefficients of the calibration curves in a range of 0.992-0.999 and reproducibilities in a range of 2.3-15% were obtained. Limits of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-1.4 µg l(-1) and recoveries were in a range of 21-110% for all the amines. A total of 93 coloured paper napkin samples from different European countries were bought and extracted with water to determine the PAAs. The results showed that 42 of 93 samples contained at least one PAA. More than half of the detected PAAs are considered as toxic, carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), or are classified as such in the European Union legislation on chemicals. Summed concentrations of PAAs in seven samples were higher than 10 µg l(-1), the limit of summed PAA in the European Union plastic food contact material regulation. Also, eight PAAs, classified as Category 1A and 1B carcinogen in the European Union legislation of chemicals, were detected at concentrations higher than 2 µg l(-1), exceeding the limit proposed by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Germany. Aniline (n = 14) was most frequently present in higher concentrations followed by o-toluidine, o-anisidine, 2,4-dimethylaniline and 4-aminoazobenzene. Red, orange, yellow and multicoloured paper napkins contained the highest concentrations of total PAAs (> 10 µg l(-1)). Although the European Union has not harmonised the legislation of paper and board materials and, thus, there is no specific migration limit for PAAs from paper napkins, the present study showed that coloured paper napkins can contain toxic and carcinogenic PAAs at

  4. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie Josse, Rozenn Lambert, Carine Antherieu, Sebastien Laurent, Veronique Loyer, Pascal Robin, Marie-Anne Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-11-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  5. Amine terminated bisaspartimide polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D. (Inventor); Fohlen, G. M. (Inventor); Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Novel amine terminated bisaspartimides are prepared by a Michael-type reaction of an aromatic bismalteimide and an aromatic diamine in an aprotic solvent. These bisaspartimides are thermally polymerized to yield tough, resinous polymers cross-lined through -NH- groups. Such polymers are useful in applications requiring materials with resistance to change at elevated temperatures, e.g., as lightweight laminates with graphite cloth, molding material prepregs, adhesives and insulating material.

  6. Sensitive Detection of Aromatic Hydrophobic Compounds in Water and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Human Serum by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with Amine Functionalized Graphene-Coated Cobalt Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with the use of amine functionalized graphene-coated cobalt nanoparticles (CoC–NH2 nanoparticles) to analyse aromatic hydrophobic compounds that are known environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Our results demonstrated that SALDI-MS can detect PCP, anthracene, and pyrene in water. In particular, the CoC–NH2 nanoparticles proved to be an efficient means of capturing PCP in water because of the high adsorption capacity of the nanoparticles for PCP, which resulted in a detectability of 100 ppt. Furthermore, the CoC–NH2 nanoparticles also functioned as an adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from human serum, displaying good performance with a detectability of 10 ppb by SALDI-MS. PMID:26819871

  7. Sensitive Detection of Aromatic Hydrophobic Compounds in Water and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Human Serum by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with Amine Functionalized Graphene-Coated Cobalt Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with the use of amine functionalized graphene-coated cobalt nanoparticles (CoC-NH2 nanoparticles) to analyse aromatic hydrophobic compounds that are known environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Our results demonstrated that SALDI-MS can detect PCP, anthracene, and pyrene in water. In particular, the CoC-NH2 nanoparticles proved to be an efficient means of capturing PCP in water because of the high adsorption capacity of the nanoparticles for PCP, which resulted in a detectability of 100 ppt. Furthermore, the CoC-NH2 nanoparticles also functioned as an adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from human serum, displaying good performance with a detectability of 10 ppb by SALDI-MS.

  8. Fruits and vegetables protect against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines activated by human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes expressed in immortal mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Platt, K L; Edenharder, R; Aderhold, S; Muckel, E; Glatt, H

    2010-12-21

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) can be formed during the cooking of meat and fish at elevated temperatures and are associated with an increased risk for cancer. On the other hand, epidemiological findings suggest that foods rich in fruits and vegetables can protect against cancer. In the present study three teas, two wines, and the juices of 15 fruits and 11 vegetables were investigated for their protective effect against the genotoxic effects of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). To closely mimic the enzymatic activation of these HAAs in humans, genetically engineered V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts were employed that express human cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (hCYP) 1A2 (responsible for the first step of enzymatic activation) and human N(O)-acetyltransferase (hNAT) 2*4 or human sulfotransferase (hSULT)1A1*1 (responsible for the second step of enzymatic activation): V79-hCYP1A2-hNAT2*4 for IQ activation and V79-hCYP1A2-hSULT1A1*1 for PhIP activation. HAA genotoxicity was determined by use of the comet assay. Black, green and rooibos tea moderately reduced the genotoxicity of IQ (IC(50)=0.8-0.9%), whereas red and white wine were less active. From the fruit juices, sweet cherry juice exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on IQ genotoxicity (IC(50)=0.17%), followed by juices from kiwi fruit, plum and blueberry (IC(50)=0.48-0.71%). The juices from watermelon, blackberry, strawberry, black currant, and Red delicious apple showed moderate suppression, whereas sour cherry, grapefruit, red currant, and pineapple juices were only weakly active. Granny Smith apple juice and orange juice proved inactive. Of the vegetable juices, strong inhibition of IQ genotoxicity was only seen with spinach and onion juices (IC(50)=0.42-0.54%). Broccoli, cauliflower, beetroot, sweet pepper, tomato, chard, and red-cabbage juices suppressed IQ genotoxicity only moderately, whereas cucumber juice was

  9. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxic potential of three carcinogenic aromatic amines using the Big Blue{trademark} transgenic mouse mutation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, W.; Ahiabor, R.; Blanco, B.

    1996-12-31

    Three genotoxic mouse carcinogens, 4-chloro-o-phenylenediamine (4-C-o-PDA), 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine (2-N-p-PDA), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were tested in the Big Blue{trademark} transgenic mouse mutation assay. Each experiment consisted of a vehicle control group with ten Big Blue{trademark} C57BL/6 mice, five of either sex, and an equally sized group treated with a high dose of the test chemical. In addition, four animals were treated with the vehicle and six animals with the test compound for the measurement of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation to determine cellular proliferation. The doses used in the main study were 200 mg/kg/day for 4-C-o-PDA, 150 mg/kg/day for 2-N-p-PDA, and 80 mg/kg/day for 2,4-DAT. There was no increase in BrdU incorporation immediately after treatment with 4-C-o-PDA or with 2,4-DAT. However, 10 days after the last treatment with 2,4-DAT, a strong mitogenic effect was found with both techniques. 4-C-o-PDA, a liver carcinogen in both genders of mice, induced a small, statistically significant increase of the mutant frequencies in females, none in males. 2-N-p-PDA was found positive in males and was clearly negative in females. 2,4-DAT, a liver carcinogen in female mice, was positive in females and negative in males when the animals were killed 10 days after the last treatment. After an expression time of 28 days, 2,4-DAT induced a statistically significant increase in both sexes. The effect in females was marginally stronger than after 10 days` expression time and almost identical to the effect observed in makes under these test conditions. In conclusion, the experiments showed that the Big Blue{trademark} assay detects the genotoxicity of the three carcinogenic monocyclic aromatic amines tested. However, it seems that the sex specificity of the carcinogenic effects of these compounds is not reflected by the mutagenicity data in Big Blue{trademark} mice. 39 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Atmospheric amines - Part I. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Amines are emitted by a wide range of sources and are ubiquitous atmospheric organic bases. Approximately 150 amines and about 30 amino acids have been identified in the atmosphere. We review the present knowledge of atmospherically relevant amines with respect to their sources, fluxes, and dynamics including gas-phase reactions, gas-to-particle conversion and deposition. The health effects of aliphatic and aromatic amines are briefly summarized as well as the atmospheric occurrence and reactivity of amino acids and urea.

  11. The reaction of primary aromatic amines with alkylene carbonates for the selective synthesis of bis-N-(2-hydroxy)alkylanilines: the catalytic effect of phosphonium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Selva, Maurizio; Fabris, Massimo; Lucchini, Vittorio; Perosa, Alvise; Noè, Marco

    2010-11-21

    At T≥ 140 °C, different primary aromatic amines (pX-C(6)H(4)NH(2); X = H, OCH(3), CH(3), Cl) react with both ethylene- and propylene-carbonates to yield a chemoselective N-alkylation process: bis-N-(2-hydroxyalkyl)anilines [pX-C(6)H(4)N(CH(2)CH(R)OH)(2); R = H, CH(3)] are the major products and the competitive formation of carbamates is substantially ruled out. At 140 °C, under solventless conditions, the model reaction of aniline with ethylene carbonate goes to completion by simply mixing stoichiometric amounts of the reagents. However, a class of phosphonium ionic liquids (PILs) such as tetraalkylphosphonium halides and tosylates turn out to be active organocatalysts for both aniline and other primary aromatic amines. A kinetic analysis monitored by (13)C NMR spectroscopy, shows that bromide exchanged PILs are the most efficient systems, able to impart a more than 8-fold acceleration to the reaction. The reactions of propylene carbonate take place at a higher temperature than those of ethylene carbonate, and only in the presence of PIL catalysts. A mechanism based on the Lewis acidity of tetraalkylphosphonium cations and the nucleophilicity of halide anions has been proposed to account for both the reaction chemoselectivity and the function of the catalysts.

  12. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed N-alkylation of (hetero) aromatic primary amines and N1,C5-dialkylation of 4-phenyl-2-aminothiazoles with benzyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Donthiri, Ramachandra Reddy; Pappula, Venkatanarayana; Mohan, Darapaneni Chandra; Gaywala, Hiren H; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa

    2013-07-01

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of NaOH, the selective N-alkylation of various heteroaromatic primary amines is reported. With 1 equiv of NaOH, N1,C5-dialkylation of 4-phenyl-2-aminothiazoles has been investigated. Reaction of in situ generated aldehyde with amine yields the N-alkylated and N1,C5-dialkylated products through hydride ion transformation from alcohol.

  13. The Caffeine Cytochrome P450 1A2 Metabolic Phenotype Does Not Predict the Metabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J.; White, Kami K.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Marchand, Loïc Le

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed in well-done cooked meats. Chemicals that induce cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2, a major enzyme involved in the bioactivation of HAAs, also form in cooked meat. Therefore, well-done cooked meat may pose an increase in cancer risk because it contains both inducers of P450 1A2 and procarcinogenic HAAs. We examined the influence of components in meat to modulate P450 1A2 activity and the metabolism of PhIP and MeIQx in volunteers during a 4 week feeding study of well-done cooked beef. The mean P450 1A2 activity, assessed by caffeine metabolic phenotyping, ranged from 6.3 to 7.1 before the feeding study commenced and from 9.6 to 10.4 during the meat feeding period: the difference in means was significant (P < 0.001). Unaltered PhIP, MeIQx, and their P450 1A2 metabolites, N2-(β-1-glucosiduronyl-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N2-Gl); N3-(β-1-glucosiduronyl-2-(hydroxyamino)-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HON-PhIP-N3-Gl); 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH); and 2-amino-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH2OH-IQx) were measured in urine during days 2, 14, and 28 days of the meat diet. Significant correlations were observed on these days between the levels of the unaltered HAAs and their oxidized metabolites, when expressed as percent of dose ingested or as metabolic ratios. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the caffeine P450 1A2 phenotype and any urinary HAA biomarker. Although the P450 1A2 activity varied by greater than 20-fold among the subjects, there was a large intra-individual variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype and inconsistent responses to inducers of P450 1A2. The coefficient of variation of the P450 1A2 phenotype within-individual ranged between 1 to 112% (median=40

  14. Application of BTEX/amine VLE data at Hanlan Robb Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hegarty, M.; Hawthorne, D.

    1999-07-01

    The Hanlan Robb Gas Plant has suffered from rapid sulfur plant catalyst deactivation due to fouling of the catalyst beds by aromatics. The aromatics originate in the inlet gas, are absorbed by the circulating amine, and are released to the acid gas stream during amine regeneration. Key factors that affect sulfur catalyst deactivation are the amount of aromatics absorbed in the amine plant and the efficiency of aromatic destruction in the reaction furnace. The criteria and techniques employed at Hanlan Robb for attaining adequate aromatic destruction in the reaction furnace are presented. The GPA has recently sponsored a project to determine aromatic solubility in various amines. These data will be used to develop amine models that will be capable of optimizing the amine plant for minimal aromatic absorption. Solubility measurements by Armines-Ecole des Mines de Paris indicate that the solubility of BTEX in aqueous amines increases substantially as the molar concentration of the amine increases. Predictions of aromatic absorption in the amine plant based on the interim data indicate that there is no strong effect of MDEA concentration on the percentage of BTEX absorbed in the contactor until approximately 45% wt NDEA. Above this concentration, the tendency of the amine to absorb BTEX appears to increase steadily. Operation at high rich amine loadings minimizes the amount of aromatics absorbed. The amine flash drum is not effective in removing BTEX from the rich amine. A rich amine gas stripper requires a significant amount of stripping gas to be effective.

  15. Direct high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of an aromatic amine and four aminoalcohols using polysaccharide chiral stationary phases and acidic additive.

    PubMed

    Caccamese, Salvatore; Bianca, Salvatore; Carter, Guy T

    2007-08-01

    The HPLC enantiomeric separation of N-benzyl-alpha-methyl-benzylamine, phenylalaninol, tryptophanol, 2 (diphenylhydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine, and isoproterenol was accomplished in the normal-phase mode using two polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and various n-hexane/2-propanol mobile phases with acidic (TFA) or basic (DEA) additive. The compounds were separated without any derivatization and separation factor range between 2.09 and 1.09 with resolution factor 3.4 and 0.4, respectively. The best separation of the enantiomers of the amine was achieved on amylose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) CSP with TFA additive in the mobile phase; in acidic conditions, instead, the best enantioseparation of the aminoalcohols was achieved on cellulose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenilcarbamate). A long equilibration time of the CSP when switching from an undoped mobile phase to a doped one is required to obtain reproducible results. PMID:17568428

  16. Evaluation and application of microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines in hamburger patties.

    PubMed

    Aeenehvand, Saeed; Toudehrousta, Zahra; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Mashayekh, Morteza; Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2016-01-01

    This study developed an analytical method based on microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of three polar heterocyclic aromatic amines from hamburger patties. Effective parameters controlling the performance of the microextraction process, such as the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, microwave time, nature of alkaline aqueous solution, pH and salt amount, were optimized. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1), with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) better than 0.9993. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seven analyses were between 3.2% and 6.5%. The recoveries of those compounds in hamburger patties were from 90% to 105%. Detection limits were between 0.06 and 0.21 ng g(-1). A comparison of the proposed method with the existing literature demonstrates that it is a simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive, and it gives good enrichment factors and detection limits for determining HAAs in real hamburger patties samples.

  17. [Stardust Amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the abundances of amino acids and amines, as well as their enantiomeric composition in water extracts of comet Wild 2 exposed aerogel and aluminum foils returned by Stardust using liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection and time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS). A suite of amino acids and amines including glycine, L-alanine, methylamine (MA), and ethylamine (EA) were identified in the Stardust bulk aerogel. With the exception of MA and EA, all other primary amines detected in comet-exposed aerogels were also present in the aerogel witness tile that was not exposed to Wild 2, suggesting that most amines are terrestrial in origin. The enhanced abundances of MA, EA, and possibly glycine in comet-exposed aerogel compared to controls, coupled with MA to EA ratios (approx.1 to 2) that are distinct from preflight aerogels (approx.7 to lo), suggest that these amines were captured from Wild 2. The presence of cometary amines in Stardust material supports the hypothesis that comets were an important source of prebiotic organics on the early Earth. To better understand their origin, a systematic study of all these species with C, N, and H compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) via gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry in with parallel with combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-QMS/IRMS) is being conducted. We will discuss our latest C-CSIA measurements and what they indicate about the origin of the amino acids extracted from Stardust samples.

  18. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H

    2011-11-15

    The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  19. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels. PMID:26445401

  20. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels.

  1. Cobalt-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Yin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Shengping

    2016-01-15

    A well-defined nonprecious metal cobalt(II) catalyst based on a pincer PNP ligand has been employed for the efficient N-alkylation of both aromatic and aliphatic amines with alcohols. A subtle change of reaction conditions (simply adding 4 Å molecular sieves) was observed to readily switch the resulting products (amines vs imines) with high chemoselectivity. A range of alcohols and amines including both aromatic and aliphatic substrates were efficiently converted to secondary amines in good-to-excellent yields when 2 mol % cobalt catalyst was used. Additional experiments indicate that a hydrogen-borrowing mechanism is responsible for the tandem acceptorless dehydrogenation/condensation/hydrogenation process. PMID:26695594

  2. Metabolic activation of N-hydroxy arylamines, N-hydroxy heterocyclic amines and ring-hydroxymethyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by human sulfotransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    Arylamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are two major classes of chemical carcinogens. N-Hydroxylation of arylamines is regarded to be a necessary process for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, while alkyl-hydroxylation is the major metabolic pathway for alkyl-substituted PAHs. Evidence has been presented that sulfation of several N-hydroxy arylamines and hydroxymethyl PAHs is an important pathway leading to the formation of ultimate carcinogens in experiment animals. Sulfation of these chemicals forms putative sulfuric acid ester intermediates that can rearrange to electrophilic nitrenium or carbenium ions capable of forming covalent adducts with important cellular macromolecules. In order to study the metabolic activation by sulfotransferase(s) in various human tissue preparations an in vitro enzymatic assay was established. A metabolic phenotyping method was also developed for thermostable phenolsulfotransferase (TS-PST) in platelet homogenates (correlated with TS-PST activity in other tissues) based on a simple colorimetric assay using 2-naphthol as substrate. By using a PAPS-regenerating system to supply the activated sulfate and calf thymus DNA to trap the reactive metabolites, we found that N-hydroxy derivatives of the carcinogens, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), 4,4[prime]-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido [1,2-1:3[prime],2[prime]-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) were metabolically activated by human TS-PST. On the other hand, three methyl-hydroxylated derivatives (7-OH, 12-OH, and 7,12-diOH) of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) were metabolically activated by human steroid sulfotransferase. Human sulfotransferase(s)-mediated activation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was not observed.

  3. Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines MeIQx and PhIP in bacteria and in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Zegura, Bojana; Pezdric, Marko; Novak, Matjaž; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia; Filipič, Metka

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies showed that xanthohumol (XN), a hop derived prenylflavonoid, very efficiently protects against genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of the food borne carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). In this study, we showed that XN was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and did not induce genomic instability in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In the bacteria XN suppressed the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8 dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) induced mutations in a dose dependent manner and in HepG2 cells it completely prevented PhIP and MeIQx induced DNA strand breaks at nanomolar concentrations. With the QRT-PCR gene expression analysis of the main enzymes involved in the biotransformation of HAAs in HepG2 cells we found that XN upregulates the expression of phase I (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) and phase II (UGT1A1) enzymes. Further gene expression analysis in cells exposed to MeIQx and PhIP in combination with XN revealed that XN mediated up-regulation of UGT1A1 expression may be important mechanism of XN mediated protection against HAAs induced genotoxicity. Our findings confirm the evidence that XN displays strong chemopreventive effects against genotoxicity of HAAs, and provides additional mechanistic information to assess its potential chemopreventive efficiency in humans. PMID:22138251

  4. Asymmetric synthesis of cyclic indole aminals via 1,3-stereoinduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Chen, Cheng-yi; Nguyen, Hoa; Cohen, Ryan; Maligres, Peter E; Yasuda, Nobuyoshi; Mangion, Ian; Zavialov, Ilia; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Chung, John Y L

    2014-09-19

    A general and efficient asymmetric synthesis of cyclic indoline aminals was developed with a high level of 1,3-stereoinduction through a dynamic crystallization-driven condensation. Dehydrogenation of the indoline aminals with potassium permanganate produced the corresponding cyclic indole aminals in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. This general methodology was successfully applied to the synthesis of a wide variety of chiral cyclic indoline aminals and indole aminals with aromatic and aliphatic functional groups. PMID:25162915

  5. A general method for N-methylation of amines and nitro compounds with dimethylsulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Wang, Chao; Wei, Yawen; Xue, Dong; Liu, Zhaotie; Xiao, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    DMSO methylates a broad range of amines in the presence of formic acid, providing a novel, green and practical method for amine methylation. The protocol also allows the one-pot transformation of aromatic nitro compounds into dimethylated amines in the presence of a simple iron catalyst.

  6. Oxidative nucleophilic aromatic amination of nitrobenzenes.

    PubMed

    Khutorianskyi, V V; Sonawane, M; Pošta, M; Klepetářová, B; Beier, P

    2016-06-01

    Nitrobenzenes substituted with electron-acceptor groups such as halogen, nitro, trifluoromethyl, pentafluorosulfanyl, or cyano underwent oxidative nucleophilic substitution with lithium salts of arylamines to afford N-aryl-2-nitroanilines. PMID:27152372

  7. The Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate: Amine Diazotization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that this experiment takes safety and noncarcinogenic reactants into account. Demonstrates the use of diazonium salts for the replacement of an aromatic amine group by a phenolic hydroxyl. Involves two pleasant-smelling organic compounds, methyl anthranilate (grape) and methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). (MVL)

  8. Phenylethynyl amine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Four phenylethynyl amine compounds--3 and 4-aminophenoxy-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, and 3 and 4-amino-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone--were readily prepared and were used to endcap imide oligomers. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers and phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers with various molecular weights and compositions were prepared and characterized. These oligomers were cured at 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. to provide crosslinked polyimides with excellent solvent resistance, high strength and modulus and good high temperature properties. Adhesive panels, composites, films and moldings from these phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers gave excellent mechanical performance.

  9. EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF MUTAGENIC ARYL AMINES IN HUMAN BREAST MILK AND DNA ADDUCTS IN EXFOLIATED BREAST-DUCT EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatic (AA) and heterocyclic amines (HAA) are ubiquitous environmental mutagens present in combustions emissions, fried meats, tobacco smoke, etc., and are suspect human mammary carcinogens. To determine the presence of aryl amines in breast tissue and fluid, we examined exfol...

  10. Copper-catalyzed N-arylation of amines with part-per-million catalyst loadings under air at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruilong; Fu, Hua; Ling, Yun

    2011-08-21

    An efficient copper-catalyzed method for N-arylation of amines has been developed with part-per-million catalyst loadings at room temperature under air. Reactions of substituted (E)-1-(2-halophenyl)alkanone oximes with aliphatic amines or aromatic amines provided the N-arylation products in good to excellent yields. PMID:21727962

  11. Solvent-free functionalization of carbon nanotube buckypaper with amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiuk, Elena V.; Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J.; Meza-Laguna, Victor; Abarca-Morales, Edgar; Pérez-Rey, Luis A.; Re, Marilena; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico; Álvarez-Zauco, Edgar; Basiuk, Vladimir A.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of fast and efficient solvent-free functionalization of buckypaper (BP) mats prefabricated from oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-ox), by using three representative amines of different structure: one monofunctional aliphatic amine, octadecylamine (ODA), one monofunctional aromatic amine, 1-aminopyrene (AP), and one aromatic diamine, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The functionalization procedure, which relies on the formation of amide bonds with carboxylic groups of MWCNTs-ox, is performed at 150-180 °C under reduced pressure and takes about 4 h including auxiliary degassing. The amine-treated BP samples (BP-ODA, BP-AP and BP-DAN, respectively) were characterized by means of a variety of analytical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning helium ion microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The highest amine content was found for BP-ODA, and the lowest one was observed for BP-DAN, with a possible contribution of non-covalently bonded amine molecules in all three cases. Despite of some differences in spectral and morphological characteristics for amine-functionalized BP samples, they have in common a dramatically increased stability in water as compared to pristine BP and, on the other hand, a relatively invariable electrical conductivity.

  12. Benzoquinoline amines - Key intermediates for the synthesis of angular and linear dinaphthonaphthyridines.

    PubMed

    Prabha, Kolandaivel; Rajendra Prasad, K J

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study on the condensation reaction of 2,4-dichlorobenzo[h]quinoline and naphth-1-ylamine in the presence of CuI as catalyst to functionalised mono- and di-substituted (naphthalen-1-yl)benzo[h]quinoline amines was described. Subsequently these mono- and di-substituted amines on polyphosphoric acid catalysed cyclisation reaction with aromatic/heteroaromatic carboxylic acids led to the construction of angular and linear aromatic/heteroaromatic substituted dinaphthonaphthyridines in good yields. PMID:26199754

  13. Boric acid: a highly efficient catalyst for transamidation of carboxamides with amines.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Sorres, Jonathan; Tran, Minh Quan; Ermolenko, Ludmila; Al-Mourabit, Ali

    2012-06-15

    A novel method of transamidation of carboxamides with amines using catalytic amounts of readily available boric acid under solvent-free conditions has been developed. The scope of the methodology has been demonstrated with (i) primary, secondary, and tertiary amides and phthalimide and (ii) aliphatic, aromatic, cyclic, acyclic, primary, and secondary amines.

  14. Copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative N-nitrosation of secondary and tertiary amines with nitromethane under an oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Norio; Sasaki, Minoru; Ogiwara, Yohei

    2015-07-25

    The combination of a catalytic amount of Cu(OTf)2 and less than a stoichiometric amount of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) under an O2 atmosphere effectively promoted the N-nitrosation of both secondary aromatic/aliphatic amines and tertiary aromatic amines with nitromethane (CH3NO2) leading to the preparation of N-nitrosamine derivatives.

  15. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOEpatents

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  16. Formation Mechanism of NDMA from Ranitidine, Trimethylamine, and Other Tertiary Amines during Chloramination: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chloramination of drinking waters has been associated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation as a disinfection byproduct. NDMA is classified as a probable carcinogen and thus its formation during chloramination has recently become the focus of considerable research interest. In this study, the formation mechanisms of NDMA from ranitidine and trimethylamine (TMA), as models of tertiary amines, during chloramination were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). A new four-step formation pathway of NDMA was proposed involving nucleophilic substitution by chloramine, oxidation, and dehydration followed by nitrosation. The results suggested that nitrosation reaction is the rate-limiting step and determines the NDMA yield for tertiary amines. When 45 other tertiary amines were examined, the proposed mechanism was found to be more applicable to aromatic tertiary amines, and there may be still some additional factors or pathways that need to be considered for aliphatic tertiary amines. The heterolytic ONN(Me)2–R+ bond dissociation energy to release NDMA and carbocation R+ was found to be a criterion for evaluating the reactivity of aromatic tertiary amines. A structure–activity study indicates that tertiary amines with benzyl, aromatic heterocyclic ring, and diene-substituted methenyl adjacent to the DMA moiety are potentially significant NDMA precursors. The findings of this study are helpful for understanding NDMA formation mechanism and predicting NDMA yield of a precursor. PMID:24968236

  17. Reduction of Aromatic and Heterocyclic Aromatic N-Hydroxylamines by Human Cytochrome P450 2S1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Many aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are known carcinogens for animals and there is also strong evidence for some in human cancer. The activation of these compounds, including some arylamine drugs, involves N-hydroxylation, usually by cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) in Family 1 (1A2, 1A1, and 1B1). We previously demonstrated that the bioactivation product of the anti-cancer agent 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203), an N-hydroxylamine, can be reduced by P450 2S1 to its amine precursor under anaerobic conditions and, to a lesser extent, under aerobic conditions (Wang, K., and Guengerich, F. P. (2012) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25, 1740–1751). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that P450 2S1 is involved in the reductive biotransformation of known carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs. The N-hydroxylamines of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), 2-naphthylamine (2-NA), and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) were synthesized and found to be reduced by P450 2S1 under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The formation of amines due to P450 2S1 reduction also occurred under aerobic conditions but was less apparent because the competitive disproportionation reactions (of the N-hydroxylamines) also yielded amines. Further, some nitroso and nitro derivatives of the arylamines could also be reduced by P450 2S1. None of the amines tested were oxidized by P450 2S1. These results suggest that P450 2S1 may be involved in the reductive detoxication of several of the activated products of carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs. PMID:23682735

  18. Palladium-catalyzed hydroaminocarbonylation of alkenes with amines: a strategy to overcome the basicity barrier imparted by aliphatic amines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Gao, Bao; Huang, Hanmin

    2015-06-22

    A novel and efficient palladium-catalyzed hydroaminocarbonylation of alkenes with aminals has been developed under mild reaction conditions, and allows the synthesis of a wide range of N-alkyl linear amides in good yields with high regioselectivity. On the basis of this method, a cooperative catalytic system operating by the synergistic combination of palladium, paraformaldehyde, and acid was established for promoting the hydroaminocarbonylation of alkenes with both aromatic and aliphatic amines, which do not react well under conventional palladium-catalyzed hydroaminocarbonylation.

  19. Oxidative aromatic coupling of meso-arylamino-porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Król, Agnieszka; Gryko, Daniel T

    2013-11-15

    Strategic placement of the bis-arylamino group at the meso-position of porphyrins allowed fusion of these two moieties via aromatic dehydrogenation. By placing two di(naphthalene-2-yl)amine or bis(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)amine groups at positions 5 and 15 of the porphyrin, the oxidative aromatic coupling was directed toward closing one six-membered ring. The extension of the porphyrin chromophore leads to significant change in linear optical properties, such as a bathochromic shift of absorption and broadening of the Q-band. PMID:24168727

  20. GC/MS determination of amines following exhaustive trifluoroacetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; McWilliams, T.B.; Yu, S.K.T.

    1993-08-01

    An analytical method for trifluoroacetylation of aromatic amines and GC/MS of the resulting derivatives has been developed. The key feature of the method is its capability to differentiate d tertiary amines; since, using the conditions described in the report, most primary, secondary, an primary amines add two and secondary amines add one trifluoroacetyl group. In general, tertiary amines do not react. Since conventional trifluoroacetylation procedures introduce only a single trifluoroacetyl group into both primary and secondary aminess the procedure reported here improves GC/MS identification of the relatively large number of isomers of nitrogen compounds found in petroleum or similarly complex mixtures. For example, using exhaustive trifluoroacetylation, it is possible to differentiate isomeric forms of C{sub 9}H{sub 11}N (e.g., cyclohexenopyridines, aminoindans, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and tetrahydroisoquinolines). Examples of the application of the method to petroleum and coal liquid products are provided. Because of the limited thermal stability of the derivatives of primary amines, the method is applicable only to distillates boiling below 370{degrees}C (700{degrees}F). To expedite utilization of the method by others, GC retention indices and relative GC/MS total ion current response factors for 102 trifluoroacetyl derivatives are included in the body of the report and their 70 ev mass spectra are reported in Appendix A.

  1. Aromatic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  2. Dehalogenation of aromatics by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution has been implicated as a mechanism for both the biotic and abiotic hydrodehalogenation of aromatics. Two mechanisms for the aqueous dehalogenation of aromatics involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution with hydride as a nucleophile are investigated using a validated density functional and continuum solvation protocol. For chlorinated and brominated aromatics, nucleophilic addition ortho to carbon-halogen bonds via an anionic intermediate is predicted to be the preferred mechanism in the majority of cases, while concerted substitution is predicted to be preferred for most fluorinated aromatics. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with the hydroxide and hydrosulfide anions as nucleophiles are also investigated and compared.

  3. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  4. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  5. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the “classical” biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as “trace” amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  6. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  7. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  8. Polycyclic amines as chloroquine resistance modulating agents in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Jacques; Kapp, Erika; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Malan, Sarel F

    2016-02-15

    Pentacycloundecylamines (PCUs) and adamantane amines, such as NGP1-01 (1) and amantadine, have shown significant channel blocking activities. They are postulated to act as chemosensitizers and circumvent the resistance of the plasmodia parasite against chloroquine (CQ) by inhibiting the p-glycoprotein efflux pump and enabling the accumulation of CQ inside the parasite digestive vacuole. Twelve polycyclic amines containing either a PCU or adamantane amine moiety conjugated to different aromatic functionalities through various tethered linkers were selected based on their channel blocking abilities and evaluated as potential chemosensitizers. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 10 showed significant voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocking ability (IC50=0.27-35 μM) and were able to alter the CQ IC50 in differing degrees (45-81%) in the multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 isolate. Among them, the PCU-dansyl amine compound (4) displayed the best potential to act as a chemosensitizer against the Dd2 strain at a 1 μM concentration (RMI=0.19) while displaying moderate antiplasmodial activity (Dd2 IC50=6.25 μM) and low in vitro cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line (CHO, IC50=119 μM). Compounds 2 and 10 also showed some promising chemosensitizing abilities (RMI=0.36 and 0.35 respectively). A direct correlation was found between the VGCC blocking ability of these polycyclic amines and their capacity to act as CQ resistance modulating agents.

  9. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MSDSs do not apply when the written program and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (a) and (c), respectively. The provisions of § 721.72(g) requiring placement of specific information on a label and MSDS do not apply when a label and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (b) and (c), respectively....

  10. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MSDSs do not apply when the written program and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (a) and (c), respectively. The provisions of § 721.72(g) requiring placement of specific information on a label and MSDS do not apply when a label and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (b) and (c), respectively....

  11. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MSDSs do not apply when the written program and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (a) and (c), respectively. The provisions of § 721.72(g) requiring placement of specific information on a label and MSDS do not apply when a label and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (b) and (c), respectively....

  12. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MSDSs do not apply when the written program and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (a) and (c), respectively. The provisions of § 721.72(g) requiring placement of specific information on a label and MSDS do not apply when a label and MSDS are not required under § 721.72 (b) and (c), respectively....

  13. Steady-state inhibition model for the biodegradation of sulfonated amines in a packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Ramos-Monroy, Oswaldo; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor

    2015-05-25

    Aromatic amines are important industrial products having in their molecular structure one or more aromatic rings. These are used as precursors for the synthesis of dyes, adhesives, pesticides, rubber, fertilizers and surfactants. The aromatic amines are common constituents of industrial effluents, generated mostly by the degradation of azo dyes. Several of them are a threat to human health because they can by toxic, allergenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. The most common are benzenesulfonic amines, such as 4-ABS (4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and naphthalene sulfonic amines, such as 4-ANS (4-amino naphthalene sulfonic acid). Sometimes, the mixtures of toxic compounds are more toxic or inhibitory than the individual compounds, even for microorganisms capable of degrading them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the mixture 4-ANS plus 4-ABS by a bacterial community immobilized in fragments of volcanic stone, using a packed bed continuous reactor. In this reactor, the amines loading rates were varied from 5.5 up to 69 mg L(-1) h(-1). The removal of the amines was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand. With this information, we have studied the substrate inhibition of the removal rate of the aromatic amines during the degradation of the mixture of sulfonated aromatic amines by the immobilized microorganisms. Experimental results were fitted to parabolic, hyperbolic and linear inhibition models. The model that best characterizes the inhibition of the specific degradation rate in the biofilm reactor was a parabolic model with values of RXM=58.15±7.95 mg (10(9) cells h)(-1), Ks=0.73±0.31 mg L(-1), Sm=89.14±5.43 mg L(-1) and the exponent m=5. From the microbial community obtained, six cultivable bacterial strains were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rDNA genes. The strains belong to the genera Variovorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides and Microbacterium. This

  14. Steady-state inhibition model for the biodegradation of sulfonated amines in a packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Ramos-Monroy, Oswaldo; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor

    2015-05-25

    Aromatic amines are important industrial products having in their molecular structure one or more aromatic rings. These are used as precursors for the synthesis of dyes, adhesives, pesticides, rubber, fertilizers and surfactants. The aromatic amines are common constituents of industrial effluents, generated mostly by the degradation of azo dyes. Several of them are a threat to human health because they can by toxic, allergenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. The most common are benzenesulfonic amines, such as 4-ABS (4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and naphthalene sulfonic amines, such as 4-ANS (4-amino naphthalene sulfonic acid). Sometimes, the mixtures of toxic compounds are more toxic or inhibitory than the individual compounds, even for microorganisms capable of degrading them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the mixture 4-ANS plus 4-ABS by a bacterial community immobilized in fragments of volcanic stone, using a packed bed continuous reactor. In this reactor, the amines loading rates were varied from 5.5 up to 69 mg L(-1) h(-1). The removal of the amines was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand. With this information, we have studied the substrate inhibition of the removal rate of the aromatic amines during the degradation of the mixture of sulfonated aromatic amines by the immobilized microorganisms. Experimental results were fitted to parabolic, hyperbolic and linear inhibition models. The model that best characterizes the inhibition of the specific degradation rate in the biofilm reactor was a parabolic model with values of RXM=58.15±7.95 mg (10(9) cells h)(-1), Ks=0.73±0.31 mg L(-1), Sm=89.14±5.43 mg L(-1) and the exponent m=5. From the microbial community obtained, six cultivable bacterial strains were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rDNA genes. The strains belong to the genera Variovorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides and Microbacterium. This

  15. Interaction of protonated merocyanine dyes with amines in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Alberton; Sidooski, Thiago; Nandi, Leandro Guarezi; Machado, Vanderlei Gageiro

    2011-10-01

    2,6-Diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)phenolate ( 1a) and 4-[(1-methyl-4(1 H)-pyridinylidene)-ethylidene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one ( 2a) were protonated in organic solvents (dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and DMSO) to form 1b and 2b, respectively. The appearance of the solvatochromic bands of 1a and 2a was studied UV-vis spectrophotometrically by deprotonation of 1b and 2b in solution in the presence of the following amines: aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (NMAN), N, N-dimethylaniline (NDAN), n-butylamine (BA), diethylamine (DEA), and triethylamine (TEA). Titrations of 1b and 2b with the amines were carried out and the binding constants were determined from the titration curves in each solvent, using a mathematical model adapted from the literature which considers the simultaneous participation of two dye: amine stoichiometries, 1:1 and 1:2. The data obtained showed the following base order for the two compounds in DMSO: BA > DEA > TEA, while aromatic amines did not cause any effect. In dichloromethane, the following base order for 1b was verified: TEA > DEA > BA ≫NDAN, while for 2b the order was: TEA > DEA > BA, suggesting that 1b is more acidic than 2b. The data in acetonitrile indicated for 1b and 2b the following order for the amines: DEA > TEA > BA. The diversity of the experimental data were explained based on a model that considers the level of interaction of the protonated dyes with the amines to be dependent on three aspects: (a) the basicity of the amine, which varies according to their molecular structure and the solvent in which it is dissolved, (b) the molecular structure of the dye, and (c) the solvent used to study the system.

  16. Rodent repellent studies. IV. Preparation and properties of trinitrobenzene-aryl amine complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Bellack, E.; Welch, J.F.

    1953-01-01

    Data are presented on methods of preparation, chemical arid physical characteristics, toxicity, and repellency to rodents of complexes of symmetrical trinitrohenzene with various aromatic amines: When applied in suitable carriers or incorporated in plastic .films, members of this series ofmaterials were shown to offer significant increases in time required by wild rodents to damage common packaging materials.

  17. Biogenic amines in natural ciders.

    PubMed

    Garai, G; Dueñas, M T; Irastorza, A; Martín-Alvarez, P J; Moreno-Arribas, M V

    2006-12-01

    Biogenic amines play an important physiological role in mammals, and high amounts of some exogenous amines in human diet may contribute to a wide variety of toxic effects. These amines are commonly found in many foodstuffs, particularly in fermented products such as cheese, meat products, beer, wine, and ciders. Here, the level of biogenic amines in some natural ciders was examined. Twenty-four samples of cider purchased from commercial sources were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde. Amine levels were variable, ranging from not detected to 23 mg/liter. The average level of total biogenic amines in ciders was 5.94 +/- 8.42 mg/liter. Putrescine, histamine, and tyramine were the prevailing amines being present in 50.0, 37.5, and 33.3% of the ciders studied; very small amounts of ethylamine and phenylethylamine were observed in only one sample. Other cider parameters were analyzed to determine whether they affect the biogenic amine content in ciders, and the results were evaluated by applying cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Ciders that showed lower glycerol contents and higher amounts of 1,3-propanediol had much higher levels of histamine, tyramine, and putrescine, suggesting a high activity of lactic acid bacteria during cider making and thus the need for effective control of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:17186671

  18. Vanadium-catalyzed oxidative Strecker reaction: α-C-H cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Xia, Ji-Bao; Chen, Chuo

    2014-01-01

    We describe an oxidative Strecker reaction that allows for direct cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines. A vanadium(V) complex was used as the catalyst and TBHP as the oxidant. The cyanation occurs at the α-C position bearing either an alkyl or an aromatic group. This method provides a direct access to α-aminonitrile from amines with one-carbon extension.

  19. Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Addition/Amine-Mediated Cyclization of Bis-Michael Acceptors.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tyler J; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-08-01

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond addition/primary amine-promoted cyclization of bis-Michael acceptors is reported. The C-H bond addition step occurs with high chemoselectivity, and the subsequent intramolecular Michael addition, mediated by a primary amine catalyst, sets three contiguous stereocenters with high diastereoselectivity. A broad range of directing groups and both aromatic and alkenyl C-H bonds were shown to be effective in this transformation, affording functionalized piperidines, tetrahydropyrans, and cyclohexanes.

  20. Vanadium-catalyzed oxidative Strecker reaction: α-C–H cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Xia, Ji-Bao; Chen, Chuo

    2013-01-01

    We describe an oxidative Strecker reaction that allows for direct cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines. A vanadium(V) complex was used as the catalyst and TBHP as the oxidant. The cyanation occurs at the α-C position bearing either an alkyl or an aromatic group. This method provides a direct access to α-aminonitrile from amines with one-carbon extension. PMID:24415804

  1. Copper(I)-catalyzed amination of aryl halides in liquid ammonia.

    PubMed

    Ji, Pengju; Atherton, John H; Page, Michael I

    2012-09-01

    The amination of aryl halides in liquid ammonia (LNH(3)) is catalyzed by a copper(I) salt/ascorbate system to yield primary aromatic amines in good to excellent yields. The low concentrations of catalyst required and the ease of product isolation suggest that this process has potential industrial applications. Commonly used ligands for analogous metal-catalyzed reactions are not effective. The rate of amination of iodobenzene in liquid ammonia is first order in copper(I) catalyst concentration. The small Hammett ρ = 0.49 for the amination of 4-substituted iodobenzenes in liquid ammonia at 25 °C indicates that the C-I bond is not significantly broken in the transition state structure and that there is a small generation of negative charge in the aryl ring, which is compatible with the oxidative addition of the copper ion being rate limiting. PMID:22849292

  2. Dirhodium-catalyzed C-H arene amination using hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Mahesh P; Adebesin, Adeniyi Michael; Burt, Scott R; Ess, Daniel H; Ma, Zhiwei; Kürti, László; Falck, John R

    2016-09-01

    Primary and N-alkyl arylamine motifs are key functional groups in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and functional materials, as well as in bioactive natural products. However, there is a dearth of generally applicable methods for the direct replacement of aryl hydrogens with NH2/NH(alkyl) moieties. Here, we present a mild dirhodium-catalyzed C-H amination for conversion of structurally diverse monocyclic and fused aromatics to the corresponding primary and N-alkyl arylamines using NH2/NH(alkyl)-O-(sulfonyl)hydroxylamines as aminating agents; the relatively weak RSO2O-N bond functions as an internal oxidant. The methodology is operationally simple, scalable, and fast at or below ambient temperature, furnishing arylamines in moderate-to-good yields and with good regioselectivity. It can be readily extended to the synthesis of fused N-heterocycles. PMID:27609890

  3. Dirhodium Catalyzed C-H Arene Amination using Hydroxylamines

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Mahesh P.; Adebesin, Adeniyi Michael; Burt, Scott R.; Ess, Daniel H.; Ma, Zhiwei; Kürti, László; Falck, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary and N-alkyl arylamine motifs are key functional groups in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and functional materials as well as in bioactive natural products. However, there is a dearth of generally applicable methods for the direct replacement of aryl hydrogens with –NH2/-NH-alkyl moieties. Here, we present a mild dirhodium-catalyzed C-H amination for conversion of structurally diverse monocyclic and fused aromatics to the corresponding primary and N-alkyl arylamines using either NH2/NHalkyl-O-(sulfonyl)hydroxylamines as aminating agents; the relatively weak RSO2O-N bond functions as an internal oxidant. The methodology is operationally simple, scalable, and fast at or below ambient temperature, furnishing arylamines in moderate-to-good yields and with good regioselectivity. It can be readily extended to the synthesis of fused N-heterocycles. PMID:27609890

  4. Control of Biogenic Amines in Food—Existing and Emerging Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Naila, Aishath; Flint, Steve; Fletcher, Graham; Bremer, Phil; Meerdink, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been reported in a variety of foods, such as fish, meat, cheese, vegetables, and wines. They are described as low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic structures. The most common biogenic amines found in foods are histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, tryptamine, and agmatine. In addition octopamine and dopamine have been found in meat and meat products and fish. The formation of biogenic amines in food by the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids can result in consumers suffering allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, itching, rash, vomiting, fever, and hypertension. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth through chilling and freezing. However, for many fishing based subsistence populations, such measures are not practical. Therefore, secondary control measures to prevent biogenic amine formation in foods or to reduce their levels once formed need to be considered as alternatives. Such approaches to limit microbial growth may include hydrostatic pressures, irradiation, controlled atmosphere packaging, or the use of food additives. Histamine may potentially be degraded by the use of bacterial amine oxidase or amine-negative bacteria. Only some will be cost-effective and practical for use in subsistence populations. PMID:21535566

  5. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Amination and Allylic Amination of Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Liwosz, Timothy W.; Chemler, Sherry R.

    2014-01-01

    Enamines and enamides are useful synthetic intermediates and common components of bioactive compounds. A new protocol for their direct synthesis by a net alkene C–H amination and allylic amination by using catalytic CuII in the presence of MnO2 is reported. Reactions between N-aryl sulfonamides and vinyl arenes furnish enamides, allylic amines, indoles, benzothiazine dioxides, and dibenzazepines directly and efficiently. Control experiments further showed that MnO2 alone can promote the reaction in the absence of a copper salt, albeit with lower efficiency. Mechanistic probes support the involvement of nitrogen-radical intermediates. This method is ideal for the synthesis of enamides from 1,1-disubstituted vinyl arenes, which are uncommon substrates in existing oxidative amination protocols. PMID:23878099

  6. Phototransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into stable, mutagenic components

    SciTech Connect

    Okinaka, R.T.; Nickols, J.W.; Whaley, T.W.; Strniste, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    This report compares the mutagenicity of photochemical products produced by exposure of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo(a)pyrene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene or the aromatic amines 2-aminofluorene, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminonaphthalene to sunlight or to ultraviolet light (UVA). 2-Aminofluorene, giving the most active products, was further investigated with respect to the mechanism of photoactivation and the chemical identity of the photochemical products. Screening of HPLC resolved photochemical products demonstrated that the majority of the mutagenicity was localized to one peak - which co-chromatographed with 2-nitrofluorene.

  7. Copper(i) chloride promoted Csp(2)-N cross-coupling of 1,2-di(pyrimidin-2-yl) disulfides with amines: an efficient approach to obtain C2-amino functionalized pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai-Jie; Quan, Zheng-jun; Zhang, Zhang; Da, Yu-xia; Wang, Xi-cun

    2016-02-28

    The copper(i)-promoted cross-coupling of 1,2-di(pyrimidin-2-yl) disulfides with aromatic amines and aliphatic amines to deliver C-N coupling products in moderate to good yields is reported in this paper. Central to this strategy is the conversion of disulfides into aryl- and alkyl amines by a copper-promoted chemoselective C-S bond cleavage. PMID:26821885

  8. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-12-18

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earth’s climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  9. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayley, Elizabeth; Curley, Su; Walsh, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the ORION Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the ORION vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6-person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload the swingbed unit itself launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open-loop ORION application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  10. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  11. Solid Phase Synthesis of Helically Folded Aromatic Oligoamides.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S J; Hu, X; Claerhout, S; Huc, I

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic amide foldamers constitute a growing class of oligomers that adopt remarkably stable folded conformations. The folded structures possess largely predictable shapes and open the way toward the design of synthetic mimics of proteins. Important examples of aromatic amide foldamers include oligomers of 7- or 8-amino-2-quinoline carboxylic acid that have been shown to exist predominantly as well-defined helices, including when they are combined with α-amino acids to which they may impose their folding behavior. To rapidly iterate their synthesis, solid phase synthesis (SPS) protocols have been developed and optimized for overcoming synthetic difficulties inherent to these backbones such as low nucleophilicity of amine groups on electron poor aromatic rings and a strong propensity of even short sequences to fold on the solid phase during synthesis. For example, acid chloride activation and the use of microwaves are required to bring coupling at aromatic amines to completion. Here, we report detailed SPS protocols for the rapid production of: (1) oligomers of 8-amino-2-quinolinecarboxylic acid; (2) oligomers containing 7-amino-8-fluoro-2-quinolinecarboxylic acid; and (3) heteromeric oligomers of 8-amino-2-quinolinecarboxylic acid and α-amino acids. SPS brings the advantage to quickly produce sequences having varied main chain or side chain components without having to purify multiple intermediates as in solution phase synthesis. With these protocols, an octamer could easily be synthesized and purified within one to two weeks from Fmoc protected amino acid monomer precursors. PMID:27586338

  12. Tunable Control of Polyproline Helix (PPII) Structure via Aromatic Electronic Effects: An Electronic Switch of Polyproline Helix

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic rings exhibit defined interactions via the unique aromatic π face. Aromatic amino acids interact favorably with proline residues via both the hydrophobic effect and aromatic–proline interactions, C−H/π interactions between the aromatic π face and proline ring C–H bonds. The canonical aromatic amino acids Trp, Tyr, and Phe strongly disfavor a polyproline helix (PPII) when they are present in proline-rich sequences because of the large populations of cis amide bonds induced by favorable aromatic–proline interactions (aromatic–cis-proline and proline–cis-proline–aromatic interactions). We demonstrate the ability to tune polyproline helix conformation and cis–trans isomerism in proline-rich sequences using aromatic electronic effects. Electron-rich aromatic residues strongly disfavor polyproline helix and exhibit large populations of cis amide bonds, while electron-poor aromatic residues exhibit small populations of cis amide bonds and favor polyproline helix. 4-Aminophenylalanine is a pH-dependent electronic switch of polyproline helix, with cis amide bonds favored as the electron-donating amine, but trans amide bonds and polyproline helix preferred as the electron-withdrawing ammonium. Peptides with block proline–aromatic PPXPPXPPXPP sequences exhibited electronically switchable pH-dependent structures. Electron-poor aromatic amino acids provide special capabilities to integrate aromatic residues into polyproline helices and to serve as the basis of aromatic electronic switches to change structure. PMID:25075447

  13. Nitrous oxide versus carbon dioxide for supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography of amines

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M.; Taylor, L.T. ); Zimmerman, P. )

    1990-06-01

    Supercritical N{sub 2}O has been evaluated and compared with supercritical CO{sub 2} as a solvent for supercritical fluid extraction of different amines. Supercritical N{sub 2}O showed a higher solubility for amines and easily extracted both aliphatic and aromatic amines. The effect of substrate on extraction has been also examined. Supercritical N{sub 2}O has been used as a mobile phase, with different diameter columns, for supercritical fluid chromatography. The total response of flame ionization detection to supercritical N{sub 2}O using packed capillary and open tubular capillary columns demonstrated the feasibility of flame ionization detection with N{sub 2}O in a density programmed mode.

  14. Photocatalytic Hydrogen-Evolution Cross-Couplings: Benzene C-H Amination and Hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Wen; Chen, Bin; Ye, Pan; Feng, Ke; Wang, Wenguang; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2016-08-17

    We present a blueprint for aromatic C-H functionalization via a combination of photocatalysis and cobalt catalysis and describe the utility of this strategy for benzene amination and hydroxylation. Without any sacrificial oxidant, we could use the dual catalyst system to produce aniline directly from benzene and ammonia, and phenol from benzene and water, both with evolution of hydrogen gas under unusually mild conditions in excellent yields and selectivities. PMID:27467115

  15. Hydroxycruciforms: amine-responsive fluorophores.

    PubMed

    McGrier, Psaras L; Solntsev, Kyril M; Miao, Shaobin; Tolbert, Laren M; Miranda, Oscar R; Rotello, Vincent M; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of three hydroxy-substituted cruciforms (XF, 1,4-bis(4'-hydroxystyryl)-2,5-bis(4''-methoxyphenylethynyl)benzene, 1,4-bis(4'-methoxystyryl)-2,5-bis(4''-hydroxyphenylethynyl)benzene, and 1,4-bis(4'-hydroxystyryl)-2,5-bis(4''-hydroxyphenylethynyl)benzene) starts with a Horner reaction followed by a Sonogashira coupling and subsequent deprotection. The three herein described XFs contain either two or four free phenolic hydroxyl groups. All three XFs were subjected to photometric UV/Vis titrations in a methanol/water mixture. The respective pK(a) values were obtained by data deconvolution. As the three XFs display a significant change in emission color upon photoinduced deprotonation, the XFs were taken up in different solvents and exposed to twelve amines. The amine-dependent change in emissivity of the tetrahydroxy XF is sufficiently distinct in the eight solvents that all of the inspected amines are discerned by a linear discriminant analysis. The tetrahydroxy XF in different solvents forms a sensor array, the response of which is based on the excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) to amines and mediated by the choice of the battery of solvents that are utilized.

  16. Amine catalyzed condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S.

    2001-01-01

    The catalysis of the condensation of hydrolyzed metal alkoxides by amines has been mentioned in the literature, but there has been no systematic study of their influence on the rate of the condensation reaction of the alkoxide and the microstructure of the resultant gel.

  17. Regioselectively N-methylated azacalix[8]arene octamethyl ether prepared by catalytic aryl amination reaction using a temporal N-silylation protocol.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Koichi; Tsue, Hirohito; Tokita, Satoshi; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Tamura, Rui

    2006-12-21

    [Structure: see text] A temporal N-silylation protocol in the catalytic aryl amination reaction has been devised to prepare nitrogen-bridged calixarene analogues. The protocol involves a smooth in situ N-silylation before aryl amination reaction, followed by spontaneous cleavage of the N-Si bond in the usual workup process, to furnish secondary aromatic amines as the cross-coupled product with no silyl group on the nitrogen atom. A successful application to the preparation of regioselectively N-methylated azacalix[8]arene is described, together with the crystallographic analysis.

  18. Impact of biogenic amine molecular weight and structure on surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun

    2016-02-01

    The oligoamines, such as ethylenediamine to pentaethylenetetramine, and the aliphatic biogenic amines, such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, strongly interact with anionic surfactants, such as sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS. It has been shown that this results in pronounced surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface and the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption which depends upon solution pH and oligoamine structure. In the neutron reflectivity, NR, and surface tension, ST, results presented here the role of the oligoamine structure on the adsorption of SDS is investigated more fully using a range of different biogenic amines. The effect of the extent of the intra-molecular spacing between amine groups on the adsorption has been extended by comparing results for cadavarine with putrescine and ethylenediamine. The impact of more complex biogenic amine structures on the adsorption has been investigated with the aromatic phenethylamine, and the heterocyclic amines histamine and melamine. The results provide an important insight into how surfactant adsorption at interfaces can be manipulated by the addition of biogenic amines, and into the role of solution pH and oligoamine structure in modifying the interaction between the surfactant and oligoamine. The results impact greatly upon potential applications and in understanding some of the important biological functions of biogenic amines.

  19. Facile Access to Ring-Fused Aminals via Direct α-Amination of Secondary Amines with ortho-Aminobenzaldehydes. Synthesis of Vasicine, Deoxyvasicine, Deoxyvasicinone, Mackinazolinone and Ruteacarpine

    PubMed Central

    Richers, Matthew T.; Deb, Indubhusan; Platonova, Alena Yu.; Zhang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Secondary amines undergo redox-neutral reactions with aminobenzaldehydes under conventional and microwave heating to furnish polycyclic aminals via amine α-amination/N-alkylation. This unique α-functionalization reaction proceeds without the involvement of transition metals or other additives. The resulting aminal products are precursors for various quinazolinone alkaloids and their analogues. PMID:24052668

  20. Metal Monolithic Amine-grafted Zeolite for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Steven

    2011-03-31

    The solid amine sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO{sub 2} capture capacity or low stability. The solid amine sorbent developed in this project exhibited more than 3.2 mmol/g and degraded less than 10% even after 500 cycles of heating and cooling in absence of steam. The presence of steam further enhanced CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The cost of the sorbent is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb. This sorbent was developed using the results of in situ infrared spectroscopic study. Infrared results showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs on TEPA (tetraethylenepentamine)/PEG (polyethylene glycol) as carbamates and bicarbonates. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and oxidation resistance of the amine sorbent can be enhanced by the interactions between NH{sub 2} of TEPA molecules with the OH group of PEG molecules. PEG was also found to be effectively disperse and immobilize the aromatic amines for SO{sub 2} adsorption. The infrared study also showed that SiO{sub 2} is a significantly better support than zeolites due to its proper hydrophobicity. The results of this study led to the development of a high performance solid amine sorbent under simulated gas flow condition in a fixed bed, a fluidized bed, and a metal monolith unit. This study showed heat transfer could become a major technical issue in scaling up a fixed bed adsorber. The use of the fluidized bed and metal monoliths can alleviate the heat transfer issue. The metal monolith could be suitable for small scale applications due to the high cost of manufacturing; the fluidized bed mode would be most suitable for large scale applications. Preliminary economic analysis suggested that the Akron solid amine process would cost 45% less than that of MEA process.

  1. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  2. Trimerization of aromatic nitriles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Triazine compounds and cross-linked polymer compositions were made by heating aromatic nitriles to a temperature in the range of about 100 C to about 700 C, in the presence of a catalyst or mixture of catalysts. Aromatic nitrile-modified (terminated and/or appended) imide, benzimidazole, imidazopyrrolone, quinoxaline, and other condensation type prepolymers or their precopolymers were made which were trimerized with or without a filler by the aforementioned catalytic trimerization process.

  3. Aromatic Polyimide Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A mechanically undensified aromatic polyimide foam is made from an aromatic polyimide precursor solid residuum and has the following combination of properties: a density according to ASTM D-3574A of about 0.5 pounds/cu.ft to about 20 pounds/cu.ft; a compression strength according to ASTM D-3574C of about 1.5 psi to about 1500 psi; and a limiting oxygen index according to ASTM D-2863 of about 35% oxygen to about 75% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The aromatic polyimide foam has no appreciable solid inorganic contaminants which are residues of inorganic blowing agents. The aromatic polyimide which constitutes the aromatic polyimide foam has a glass transition temperature (Tg) by differential scanning calorimetry of about 235 C to about 400 C; and a thermal stability of 0 to about 1% weight loss at 204 C as determined by thermogravinietric analysis (TGA). The aromatic polyimide foam has utility as foam insulation and as structural foam, for example, for aeronautical, aerospace and maritime applications.

  4. One-pot synthesis of S-alkyl dithiocarbamates via the reaction of N-tosylhydrazones, carbon disulfide and amines.

    PubMed

    Sha, Qiang; Wei, Yun-Yang

    2013-09-14

    A new, convenient and efficient transition metal-free synthesis of S-alkyl dithiocarbamates through one-pot reaction of N-tosylhydrazones, carbon disulfide and amines is reported. Tosylhydrazones derived from various aromatic and aliphatic ketones or aldehydes were tested and gave dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields. The tosylhydrazones can be generated in situ without isolation, which provides a simpler one-pot method to synthesize dithiocarbamates via the reaction of carbonyl compounds, carbon disulfide and amines in the presence of 4-methylbenzenesulfonohydrazide. PMID:23863979

  5. Amine blockers of the cytoplasmic mouth of sodium channels: a small structural change can abolish voltage dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, G W; French, R J

    1994-01-01

    Many drugs block sodium channels from the cytoplasmic end (Moczydlowski, E., A. Uehara, X, Guo, and J. Heiny. 1986. Isochannels and blocking modes of voltage-dependent sodium channels. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 479:269-292.). Lidocaine, applied to either side of the membrane, induces two blocking modes, a rapid, voltage-dependent open-channel block, and a block of the inactivated channel that occurs on a 1000-fold slower timescale. Here we describe the actions of several lidocaine-related amines on batrachotoxin(BTX)-activated bovine cardiac sodium channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. We applied blocking amines from the intracellular side and examined the structural determinants of fast, open-channel block. Neither hydroxyl nor carbonyl groups, present in the aryl-amine link of lidocaine, were necessary, indicating that hydrogen bonding between structures in the aryl-amine link and the channel is not required. Block, however, was significantly enhanced by addition of an aromatic ring, or by the lengthening of aliphatic side chains, suggesting that a hydrophobic domain strengthens binding while the amine group blocks the pore. For most blockers, depolarizing potentials enhanced block, with the charged amine group apparently traversing 45-60% of the transmembrane voltage. By contrast, block by phenylhydrazine was essentially voltage-independent. The relatively rigid planar structure of phenylhydrazine may prevent the charged amino end from entering the electric field when the aromatic ring is bound. The relation between structural features of different blockers and their sensitivity to voltage suggests that the transmembrane voltage drops completely over less than 5 A. We raise the possibility that the proposed hydrophobic binding domain overlaps the endogenous receptor for the inactivation gate. If so, our data place limits on the distance between this receptor and the intrapore site at which charged amines bind. PMID:7811912

  6. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  7. Recovery of free oligosaccharides from derivatives labeled by reductive amination.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigeo; Fujimori, Takahiro; Yodoshi, Masahiro

    2006-07-01

    This study examined chemical regeneration of free oligosaccharides from their fluorescent derivatives prepared by reductive amination with various aromatic amines. Maltose derivatives of ethyl 4-aminobenzoate (p-ABEE), 2-aminobenzonitrile (o-ABN), 4-aminobenzonitrile (p-ABN), 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC), 2-aminobenzoic acid (o-ABA), 2-aminobenzamide (o-ABAD), 2-aminopyridine (AP), and 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) were incubated at 30 degrees C with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid. Recoveries of maltose from p-ABEE, p-ABN, and AMC derivatives were fairly good and gave approximately 90% of maltose. Recoveries of maltose from its o-substituted aniline (o-ABA, o-ABAD, and o-ABN) derivatives were 5-40%, but maltose was unrecoverable from AP and ANTS derivatives. Nevertheless, prior treatment of an AP derivative with cyanogen bromide enabled the regeneration of maltose in high yields. As an application, p-ABEE-labeled N-glycans from some glycoproteins separated on an amide column were identified by converting peak components to their AP derivatives via free saccharides and following mapping by reversed-phase chromatography.

  8. Picosecond dynamics of photochemical systems. Final report, 1/1/79-6/30/80. [(Ketone) fluorenone; 1,4-diazobicyclooctane (amine)

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.S.

    1980-11-17

    The mechanism of the photoreduction of aromatic ketones by amines has been investigated using picosecond absorption spectroscopy. The experiments reveal that the process involves complete electron transfer occurring within a half-life of 20 picoseconds for benzophenone/Dabco and fluorenone/Dabco.

  9. Hordeum vulgare Seedlings Amine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cogoni, Antonina; Piras, Carla; Farci, Raffaele; Melis, Antonello; Floris, Giovanni

    1990-01-01

    Although no amine oxidase could be detected in crude extracts, the enzyme has been purified to apparent homogeneity from Hordeum vulgare seedlings using ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE cellulose, Hydroxylapatite, and Sephadex G200 columns. Gel filtration experiments indicate a molecular weight of about 150,000. The pH optimum of the enzyme was found to be 7.5 in potassium phosphate buffer. The spectrum of ultraviolet and visible regions were similar to Cuamine oxidase from Leguminosae. PMID:16667542

  10. The aromatic ene reaction

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dawen; Hoye, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The ene reaction is a pericyclic process in which an alkene having an allylic hydrogen atom (the ene donor) reacts with a second unsaturated species (the enophile) to form a new product with a transposed π-bond. The aromatic ene reaction, in which the alkene component is embedded in an aromatic ring, has only been reported in a few (four) instances and has proceeded in low yield (≤6%). Here we show efficient aromatic ene reactions in which a thermally generated aryne engages a pendant m-alkylarene substituent to produce a dearomatized isotoluene, itself another versatile but rare reactive intermediate. Our experiments were guided by computational studies that revealed structural features conducive to the aromatic ene process. We proceeded to identify a cascade comprising three reactions: (i) hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (for aryne generation), (ii) intramolecular aromatic ene, and (iii) bimolecular Alder ene. The power of this cascade is evident from the structural complexity of the final products, the considerable scope, and the overall efficiency of these multi-stage, reagent- and byproduct-free, single-pot transformations. PMID:24345944

  11. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bonassi, S; Merlo, F; Pearce, N; Puntoni, R

    1989-10-15

    The association between occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and bladder cancer development was investigated in a population-based case-control study carried out in the Bormida valley, Italy. One hundred and twenty-one male cases and 342 male controls, matched age, were collected from local hospitals. Occupational exposure to PAH and aromatic amines (AA) was evaluated by means of a job exposure matrix, constructed specifically for this study. Subjects considered as sharing a "definite exposure to PAH" showed an increased risk even after adjustment for cigarette smoking and exposure to AA (OR = 2.14, 95% CL 0.82-5.60). No elevation in risk was found for the category "possible exposure to PAH" (OR = 1.05, 95% CL 0.45-2.44). The findings of this study are consistent with previous studies indicating PAH as a risk factor for bladder cancer. A possible residual confounding effect due to AA impurities is discussed.

  12. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  13. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work.

  14. Speaking Personally--with Amin Qazi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interview with Amin Quazi, the founding chief executive officer of Unizin, a university-owned consortium focused on the emerging digital teaching and learning ecosystem. Amin has a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from The University of Iowa and a master's degree in business administration from the Carlson School…

  15. Amine Measurements in Boreal Forest Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmilä, Marja; Hellén, Heidi; Makkonen, Ulla; Hakola, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Amines are reactive, volatile bases in the air with a general formula of RNH2, R2NH or R3N. Especially small amines can stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and hence affect nucleation. Amines react rapidly with hydroxyl radical (OH˙) thus affecting oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The amine concentrations are higher in forest air than in urban air (Hellén et al., 2014), but the sources are not known. In order to get more information concerning amine sources, we conducted a measurement campaign in a boreal forest. At SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä, Southern Finland (61°510'N, 24°170'E, 180 m a.s.l.) The measurements cover seven months, from June to December 2014. For sampling and measuring we used MARGA (The instrument for Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air) which is an on-line ion chromatograph (IC) connected to a sampling system. The IC component of the MARGA system was coupled to an electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) to improve sensitivity of amine measurements. This new set-up enabled amine concentration measurements in ambient air both in aerosol and gas phases with a time resolution of only 1 hour. With MARGA-MS we analysed 7 different amines: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA), propylamine (PA) and butylamine (BA). In preliminary data-analysis we found out, that in June and July most of the measured amines were in gas phase, and particle phase amine concentrations were mostly under detection limits (<1.7 pptv). In June the gaseous amine concentrations were higher than in July. The measured concentrations of gaseous amines followed temperature variation, which could indicate that amines are produced and emitted from the environment or re-emitted from the surfaces as temperature rises after deposition during night-time. All measured amines had similar diurnal variation with maxima during afternoon and minima during night. Results from other months will also

  16. Relaxed specificity in aromatic prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Koehl, Patrice

    2005-07-01

    Prenylation represent a critical step in the biosynthesis of many natural products, A new study reveals how aromatic prenyltransferase enzymes tolerate diverse aromatic polyketides while still controlling the length of prenyl side chains.

  17. Copper-catalyzed three- five- or seven-component coupling reactions: the selective synthesis of cyanomethylamines, N,N-bis(cyanomethyl)amines and N,N'-bis(cyanomethyl)methylenediamines based on a Strecker-type synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Norio; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Inoda, Daiki; Ikeda, Reiko; Konakahara, Takeo

    2013-10-10

    We have demonstrated that a cooperative catalytic system comprised of CuCl and Cu(OTf)(2) could be used to effectively catalyse the three-, five- and seven-component coupling reactions of aliphatic or aromatic amines, formaldehyde, and trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN), and selectively produce in good yields the corresponding cyanomethylamines, N,N-bis(cyanomethyl)amines and N,N'-bis(cyanomethyl)methylenediamines.

  18. Phospholipophilicity of CxHyN(+) amines: chromatographic descriptors and molecular simulations for understanding partitioning into membranes.

    PubMed

    Droge, S T J; Hermens, J L M; Rabone, J; Gutsell, S; Hodges, G

    2016-08-10

    Using immobilized artificial membrane high-performance liquid chromatography (IAM-HPLC) the sorption affinity of 70 charged amine structures to phospholipids was determined. The amines contained only 1 charged moiety and no other polar groups, the rest of the molecule being aliphatic and/or aromatic hydrocarbon groups. We systematically evaluated the influence of the amine type (1°, 2°, 3° amines and quaternary ammonium), alkyl chain branching, phenyl ring positioning, charge positioning (terminal vs. central in the molecule) on the phospholipid-water partitioning coefficient (KPLIPW). These experimental results were compared with quantum-chemistry based three-dimensional (3D) molecular simulations of the partitioning of charged amines, including the most likely solute conformers, using a hydrated phospholipid bilayer in the COSMOmic module of COSMOtherm software. Both IAM-HPLC retention data and the simulations suggest that the molecular orientation of charged amines at the location in the bilayer with the lowest calculated Gibbs free energy exerts a strong influence over the partitioning within the membrane. The most favourable position of charged amines coincides with the region where the phosphate anions in the phospholipid bilayer are most abundant. Hydrocarbon units oriented in this layer are located more towards the aqueous phase and contribute less to the overall membrane affinity than hydrocarbon units extending into the more hydrophobic core of the bilayer. COSMOmic simulations explain most of the trends between the structural differences observed in IAM-HPLC based KPLIPW. For this set of cationic structures, the mean absolute difference between COSMOmic simulations and IAM-HPLC data, accounting only for amine type corrective increments, is 0.31 log units. PMID:27118065

  19. Divergent Coupling of Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Isoelectronic Hydride Mn(I) and Fe(II) PNP Pincer Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Glatz, Mathias; Gorgas, Nikolaus; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-08-22

    Herein, we describe an efficient coupling of alcohols and amines catalyzed by well-defined isoelectronic hydride Mn(I) and Fe(II) complexes, which are stabilized by a PNP ligand based on the 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold. This reaction is an environmentally benign process implementing inexpensive, earth-abundant non-precious metal catalysts, and is based on the acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation concept. A range of alcohols and amines including both aromatic and aliphatic substrates were efficiently converted in good to excellent isolated yields. Although in the case of Mn selectively imines were obtained, with Fe-exclusively monoalkylated amines were formed. These reactions proceed under base-free conditions and required the addition of molecular sieves. PMID:27377955

  20. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  1. Oxidation of tertiary amines by cytochrome p450-kinetic isotope effect as a spin-state reactivity probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsen; Wu, Wei; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Shaik, Sason

    2009-08-24

    Two types of tertiary amine oxidation processes, namely, N-dealkylation and N-oxygenation, by compound I (Cpd I) of cytochrome P450 are studied theoretically using hybrid DFT calculations. All the calculations show that both N-dealkylation and N-oxygenation of trimethylamine (TMA) proceed preferentially from the low-spin (LS) state of Cpd I. Indeed, the computed kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for the rate-controlling hydrogen abstraction step of dealkylation show that only the KIE(LS) fits the experimental datum, whereas the corresponding value for the high-spin (HS) process is much higher. These results second those published before for N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), and as such, they further confirm the conclusion drawn then that KIEs can be a sensitive probe of spin state reactivity. The ferric-carbinolamine of TMA decomposes most likely in a non-enzymatic reaction since the Fe-O bond dissociation energy (BDE) is negative. The computational results reveal that in the reverse reaction of N-oxygenation, the N-oxide of aromatic amine can serve as a better oxygen donor than that of aliphatic amine to generate Cpd I. This capability of the N-oxo derivatives of aromatic amines to transfer oxygen to the heme, and thereby generate Cpd I, is in good accord with experimental data previously reported. PMID:19322770

  2. Efficient and selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols catalysed by manganese pincer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Neumann, Jacob; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste; Junge, Kathrin; Darcel, Christophe; Beller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Borrowing hydrogen (or hydrogen autotransfer) reactions represent straightforward and sustainable C–N bond-forming processes. In general, precious metal-based catalysts are employed for this effective transformation. In recent years, the use of earth abundant and cheap non-noble metal catalysts for this process attracted considerable attention in the scientific community. Here we show that the selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols can be catalysed by defined PNP manganese pincer complexes. A variety of substituted anilines are monoalkylated with different (hetero)aromatic and aliphatic alcohols even in the presence of other sensitive reducible functional groups. As a special highlight, we report the chemoselective monomethylation of primary amines using methanol under mild conditions. PMID:27708259

  3. Efficient and selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols catalysed by manganese pincer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Neumann, Jacob; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste; Junge, Kathrin; Darcel, Christophe; Beller, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Borrowing hydrogen (or hydrogen autotransfer) reactions represent straightforward and sustainable C-N bond-forming processes. In general, precious metal-based catalysts are employed for this effective transformation. In recent years, the use of earth abundant and cheap non-noble metal catalysts for this process attracted considerable attention in the scientific community. Here we show that the selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols can be catalysed by defined PNP manganese pincer complexes. A variety of substituted anilines are monoalkylated with different (hetero)aromatic and aliphatic alcohols even in the presence of other sensitive reducible functional groups. As a special highlight, we report the chemoselective monomethylation of primary amines using methanol under mild conditions.

  4. Viscosities of cetylpyridinium bromide solutions (aqueous and aqueous KBr) in the presence of alcohols and amines

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.L.; Kumar, S.; Kabir-ud-Din

    1997-01-01

    Among the large number of additives, alcohols hold a special place, being by far the most common cosurfactants which are added to surfactant-oil combinations to generate microemulsions. Though the studies using amines as cosurfactant in microemulsions are few, it has been proved that they are also potential candidates for such formulations. The effect of organic additives (aliphatic/aromatic amines or alcohols) on the viscosities of aqueous and 0.1 M KBr solutions of 0.05 or 0.1 M cetylpyridinium bromide have been measured under Newtonian flow conditions. The viscosity changed dramatically in the presence of KBr. This is explained by the favorable conditions produced by the salt which assists the micellar growth by organic additives with a concomitant enhancement in viscosity. Reasons for the effectiveness of these additives are suggested. The causes of the viscosity decrease at higher concentrations of the additive are also explained.

  5. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freshour, N. A.; Carlson, K. K.; Melka, Y. A.; Hinz, S.; Panta, B.; Hanson, D. R.

    2014-04-01

    An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS) that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10-5 M HCl), and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s-1) that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  6. Induction of mouse cytochrome P450 2B enzymes by amine metabolites of musk xylene: contribution of microsomal enzyme induction to the hepatocarcinogenicity of musk xylene.

    PubMed

    Lehman-McKeeman, L D; Stuard, S B; Caudill, D; Johnson, D R

    1997-11-01

    Musk xylene (MX) is a synthetic nitromusk perfume ingredient that, although uniformly negative in genotoxicity testing, causes liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice. MX is also capable of inducing cytochrome P450 enzymes in a manner similar to that of phenobarbital (PB), which suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the carcinogenic response. At the same time, MX is metabolized in vivo by nitroreduction, a reaction catalyzed by intestinal flora that yields aromatic amine metabolites. These amine metabolites are also capable of inactivating CYP2B10, the major cytochrome P450 enzyme induced by MX treatment. In the study reported here, the monoamine metabolites of MX, o- and p-NH2-MX, were evaluated for their potential to induce CYP2B10 and CYP1A2 mRNAs. Northern blot analyses indicated that both amines markedly induced CYP2B10 mRNA, whereas CYP1A2 mRNA, the enzyme implicated in the bioactivation of aromatic amines and frequently induced by aromatic amines, was induced only slightly, a response that was not different from that seen with PB. Induction of CYP2B10 mRNA suggested that the amine metabolites may contribute to the enzyme induction profile seen with MX treatment. To test this hypothesis, mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (neomycin, tetracycline, and bacitracin) to eliminate the intestinal flora and prevent formation of o- and p-NH2-MX. In antibiotic-treated mice treated with MX (200 mg/kg) for 4 d, no evidence of microsomal enzyme induction was observed, including no increases in liver weight, total cytochrome P450 content, or CYP2B protein levels. These results indicate that the amine metabolites of MX are responsible for the enzyme induction seen after MX administration. Thus, the biochemical and molecular effects of amine metabolites of MX are markedly different from those of other aromatic amines but very similar to those of PB. Therefore, it appears that MX is a non-genotoxic chemical that may cause mouse liver tumors in a manner

  7. Biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds by vegetable and fruit cell extracts*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from various vegetables and fruits were investigated for their abilities to reduce nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). The extracts from grape and onion exhibited an interesting selectivity, yielding corresponding hydroxylamines or amines as major products under mild conditions of 30 °C and pH 7.0. Grape extracts reduced the 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with the highest conversion rate (>99%) and the highest ratio of hydroxylamine to amine (95:5). In contrast, the onion extracts reduced 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with a conversion rate of 94% and a ratio of hydroxylamine to amine of 8:92. The thiol-reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol, and metal cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, greatly increased the reductive efficiency. This work provides an alternative strategy for biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic compounds. PMID:22467365

  8. Photoinduced Cleavage of N–N Bonds of Aromatic Hydrazines and Hydrazides by Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhao

    2012-01-01

    A photocatalytic system involving [Ru(bpyrz)3](PF6)2·2H2O, visible light, and air has been developed for cleavage of the N–N bonds of hydrazines and hydrazides. This catalytic system is generally effective for N,N-disubstituted hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives, including arylhydrazides, N-alkyl-N-arylhydrazines, and N,N-diarylhydrazines. The utility of this cleavage reaction has been demonstrated by synthesizing a variety of secondary aromatic amines. PMID:23543799

  9. Asymmetric Intramolecular Alkylation of Chiral Aromatic Imines via Catalytic C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Watzke, Anja; Wilson, Rebecca; O'Malley, Steven; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2007-04-16

    The asymmetric intramolecular alkylation of chiral aromatic aldimines, in which differentially substituted alkenes are tethered meta to the imine, was investigated. High enantioselectivities were obtained for imines prepared from aminoindane derivatives, which function as directing groups for the rhodium-catalyzed C-H bond activation. Initial demonstration of catalytic asymmetric intramolecular alkylation also was achieved by employing a sterically hindered achiral imine substrate and catalytic amounts of a chiral amine.

  10. Integrated reforming/aromatization process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes an integrated process for increasing the gasoline yield from a catalytic reforming process. It comprises: charging a naphtha boiling range feedstream to a catalytic reforming reaction zone under reforming conversion conditions; withdrawing a reactor effluent stream from the reforming reaction zone; separating the reactor effluent stream into a hydrogen-rich gas stream and an unstabilized reformate stream; further separating the unstabilized reformate in a fractionator into an overhead stream containing C{sub 4} - components and a bottom stream containing C{sub 6} + components; charging the fractionator overhead stream to a catalytic aromatization zone under aromatization conversion conditions; withdrawing an aromatization zone effluent stream from the aromatization zone; cooling the aromatization zone effluent stream; separating the cooled aromatization zone effluent steam into a C{sub 4} - stream and a C{sub 5} + stream; and refluxing the C{sub 5} + aromatic gasoline stream to the fractionation zone.

  11. Bulk Gold-Catalyzed Reactions of Isocyanides, Amines, and Amine N-Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Klobukowski, Erik; Angelici, Robert; Woo, Keith L.

    2012-01-26

    Bulk gold powder (5–50 μm particles) catalyzes the reactions of isocyanides with amines and amine N-oxides to produce ureas. The reaction of n-butyl isocyanide (nBu–N≡C) with di-n-propylamine and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide in acetonitrile, which was studied in the greatest detail, produced 3-butyl-1,1-dipropylurea (O═C(NHnBu)(NnPr2)) in 99% yield at 60 °C within 2 h. Sterically and electronically different isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides react successfully under these conditions. Detailed studies support a two-step mechanism that involves a gold-catalyzed reaction of adsorbed isocyanide with the amine N-oxide to form an isocyanate (RN═C═O), which rapidly reacts with the amine to give the urea product. These investigations show that bulk gold, despite its reputation for poor catalytic activity, is capable of catalyzing these reactions.

  12. Inhibition of pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation by compounds containing primary amine or hydrazine groups.

    PubMed Central

    de Boccardo, G; Drayer, D; Rubin, A L; Novogrodsky, A; Reidenberg, M M; Stenzel, K H

    1985-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of two drugs, which contain either an aromatic amine or hydrazine moiety and are known to induce lupus like syndromes in man (procainamide and hydralazine) and an aliphatic amine (dansylcadaverine), on pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced B cell production of immunoglobulin G (IgG). These compounds all inhibited IgG production and generation of IgG plaque forming cells, whereas derivatives of them, without free amine groups, had little or no effect. The compounds inhibited differentiation of B cells to plasma cells, rather than production and secretion of IgG. Mitogen free culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) activated by the oxidizing mitogen, neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO), prevented the inhibition of B cell maturation. Moreover, incubation of NAGO treated PBM with hydralazine prevented the production of soluble factors capable of promoting B cell maturation in the presence of hydralazine. We conclude from these studies that procainamide, hydralazine and dansylcadaverine inhibit PWM-induced B cell maturation to plasma cells by an indirect mechanism, via inhibition of production of lymphokines by helper cells. The primary amine or hydrazine group appears to be required for the inhibitory effect, since analogues of the inhibitory compounds, without primary amine groups, are non-inhibitory. PMID:3882287

  13. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Khalil Amine

    2016-07-12

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Amines as occupational hazards for visual disturbance

    PubMed Central

    JANG, Jae-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Various amines, such as triethylamine and N,N-dimethylethylamine, have been reported to cause glaucopsia in workers employed in epoxy, foundry, and polyurethane foam industries. This symptom has been related to corneal edema and vesicular collection of fluid within the corneal subepithelial cells. Exposure to amine vapors for 30 min to several hours leads to blurring of vision, a blue-grey appearance of objects, and halos around lights, that are probably reversible. Concentration-effect relationships have been established. The visual disturbance is considered a nuisance, as it could cause onsite accidents, impair work efficiency, and create difficulties in driving back home. Occupational exposure limits have been established for some amines, but there is shortage of criteria. Volatility factors, such as vapor pressure, should be considered in industrial settings to prevent human ocular risks, while trying to reduce levels of hazardous amines in the atmosphere. PMID:26538000

  16. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Biogenic Amine-binding Proteins in Soft Ticks

    SciTech Connect

    Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Andersen, John F.

    2008-08-19

    Two highly abundant lipocalins, monomine and monotonin, have been isolated from the salivary gland of the soft tick Argas monolakensis and shown to bind histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), respectively. The crystal structures of monomine and a paralog of monotonin were determined in the presence of ligands to compare the determinants of ligand binding. Both the structures and binding measurements indicate that the proteins have a single binding site rather than the two sites previously described for the female-specific histamine-binding protein (FS-HBP), the histamine-binding lipocalin of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding sites of monomine and monotonin are similar to the lower, low affinity site of FS-HBP. The interaction of the protein with the aliphatic amine group of the ligand is very similar for the all of the proteins, whereas specificity is determined by interactions with the aromatic portion of the ligand. Interestingly, protein interaction with the imidazole ring of histamine differs significantly between the low affinity binding site of FS-HBP and monomine, suggesting that histamine binding has evolved independently in the two lineages. From the conserved features of these proteins, a tick lipocalin biogenic amine-binding motif could be derived that was used to predict biogenic amine-binding function in other tick lipocalins. Heterologous expression of genes from salivary gland libraries led to the discovery of biogenic amine-binding proteins in soft (Ornithodoros) and hard (Ixodes) tick genera. The data generated were used to reconstruct the most probable evolutionary pathway for the evolution of biogenic amine-binding in tick lipocalins.

  17. Solubility of nitrous oxide in amine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bensetiti, Z.; Iliuta, I.; Larachi, F.; Grandjean, B.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The solubility of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in 13 amine solvents and solutions was correlated to amine mole fractions and temperature using feedforward neural networks. This general correlation, using a massive database, predicted N{sub 2}O solubility at temperatures between 283 and 398 K in pure solvents [H{sub 2}O, monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanolamine (AMP)], in binary aqueous amine solutions [H{sub 2}O/MEA, H{sub 2}O/DEA, H{sub 2}O/MDEA, and H{sub 2}O/AMP], and in ternary aqueous amine blends [AMP/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, AMP/DEA/H{sub 2}O, DEA/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, MDEA/MEA/H{sub 2}O, and AMP/MEA/H{sub 2}O]. Combined with the N{sub 2}O analogy, this present improved correlation can be advantageously implemented in amine plant design software and procedures for the prediction of CO{sub 2} solubility in amine blend solutions over wide temperature and concentration ranges.

  18. Aromaticity Competition in Differentially Fused Borepin-Containing Polycyclic Aromatics.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Reid E; Siegler, Maxime A; Tovar, John D

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the synthesis and characterization of a series of borepin-based polycyclic aromatics bearing two different arene fusions. The borepin synthesis features streamlined Ti-mediated alkyne reduction, leading to Z-olefins, followed by direct lithiation and borepin formation. These molecules allow for an assessment of aromatic competition between the fused rings and the central borepin core. Crystallographic, magnetic, and computational studies yielded insights about the aromaticity of novel, differentially fused [b,f]borepins and allowed for comparison to literature compounds. Multiple borepin motifs were also incorporated into polycyclic aromatics with five or six rings in the main backbone, and their properties were also evaluated.

  19. BINDING OF CARCINOGENS TO DNA AND COVALENT ADDUCTS DNA DAMAGE - PAH, AROMATIC AMINES, NITRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS, AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA adducts are the covalent addition products resulting from binding of reactive chemical species to DNA bases. The cancer initiating role of DNA adducts is well-established, and is clearly reflected in the high cancer incidence observed in individuals with deficiencies in any o...

  20. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  1. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  2. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  3. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  4. Aromatic molecules as spintronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Orellana, P. A.; Laroze, D.

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we study the spin-dependent electron transport through aromatic molecular chains attached to two semi-infinite leads. We model this system taking into account different geometrical configurations which are all characterized by a tight binding Hamiltonian. Based on the Green's function approach with a Landauer formalism, we find spin-dependent transport in short aromatic molecules by applying external magnetic fields. Additionally, we find that the magnetoresistance of aromatic molecules can reach different values, which are dependent on the variations in the applied magnetic field, length of the molecules, and the interactions between the contacts and the aromatic molecule.

  5. Selective concentration of aromatic bases from water with a resin adsorbent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuber, H.A.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic bases are concentrated from water on columns of a resin adsorbent and recovered by aqueous-acid elution. The degree of concentration attainable depends on the ratio of the capacity factor (k) of the neutral form of the amine to that of the ionized form. Capacity factors of ionic forms of amines on XAD-8 resin (a methylacrylic ester polymer) are greater than zero, ranging from 20 to 250 times lower than those of their neutral forms; they increase with increasing hydrophobicity of the amine. Thus, desorption by acid is an edition (k during desorption >0) rather than a displacement (k during desorption = 0) process. The degree of concentration attainable on XAD-8 resin varies with the hydrophobicity of the amine, being limited for hydrophilic solutes (for example, pyridine) by small neutral-form k's, reaching a maximum for amines of intermediate hydrophobicity (for example, quinoline), and decreasing for more hydrophobc solutes (for example, acridine) because of their large ionic-form k's.

  6. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140

  7. Synthesis of Bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine Monomers from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanwei; Yan, Peifang; Liu, Kairui; Wan, Lu; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Huixiang; Liu, Xiumei; Zhang, Z Conrad

    2016-06-01

    We report the synthesis of bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine (BHMFA) from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by reacting 5-HMF with primary amines in the presence of homogeneous Ru(II) catalysts having sterically strained ligands. BHMFA is a group of furan-based monomers that offer great potential to form functional biopolymers with tunable properties. A range of primary amines, such as aliphatic and benzyl amines, are readily converted with 5-HMF to form the corresponding BHMFA in good yields. The reaction proceeds through reductive amination of 5-HMF with primary amine to form secondary amine, followed by reductive amination of 5-HMF with in situ generated secondary amine to produce BHMFA. PMID:27151257

  8. Recent advances in the ruthenium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes with aromatics: synthesis of trisubstituted alkenes.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Rajendran; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2015-11-14

    The hydroarylation of alkynes with substituted aromatics in the presence of a metal catalyst via chelation-assisted C-H bond activation is a powerful method to synthesize trisubstituted alkenes. Chelation-assisted C-H bond activation can be done by two ways: (a) an oxidative addition pathway and (b) a deprotonation pathway. Generally, a mixture of cis and trans stereoisomeric as well as regioisomeric trisubstituted alkenes was observed in an oxidative addition pathway. In the deprotonation pathway, the hydroarylation reaction can be done in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner, and enables preparation of the expected trisubstituted alkenes in a highly selective manner. Generally, ruthenium, rhodium and cobalt complexes are used as catalysts in the reaction. In this review, a ruthenium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes with substituted aromatics is covered completely. The hydroarylation reaction of alkynes with amide, azole, carbamate, phosphine oxide, amine, acetyl, sulfoxide and sulphur directed aromatics is discussed.

  9. Toxicity of N-substituted aromatics to acetoclastic methanogenic activity in granular sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Donlon, B A; Razo-Flores, E; Field, J A; Lettinga, G

    1995-01-01

    N-substituted aromatics are important priority pollutants entering the environment primarily through anthropogenic activities associated with the industrial production of dyes, explosives, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. Anaerobic treatment of wastewaters discharged by these industries could potentially be problematical as a result of the high toxicity of N-substituted aromatics. The objective of this study was to examine the structure-toxicity relationships of N-substituted aromatic compounds to acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria. The toxicity was assayed in serum flasks by measuring methane production in granular sludge. Unacclimated cultures were used to minimize the biotransformation of the toxic organic chemicals during the test. The nature and the degree of the aromatic substitution were observed to have a profound effect on the toxicity of the test compound. Nitroaromatic compounds were, on the average, over 500-fold more toxic than their corresponding aromatic amines. Considering the facile reduction of nitro groups by anaerobic microorganisms, a dramatic detoxification of nitroaromatics towards methanogens can be expected to occur during anaerobic wastewater treatment. While the toxicity exerted by the N-substituted aromatic compounds was closely correlated with compound apolarity (log P), it was observed that at any given log P, N-substituted phenols had a toxicity that was 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of chlorophenols and alkylphenols. This indicates that toxicity due to the chemical reactivity of nitroaromatics is much more important than partitioning effects in bacterial membranes. PMID:8526501

  10. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  11. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2015-09-21

    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  12. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2015-09-21

    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  13. Content of biogenic amines in table olives.

    PubMed

    García-García, P; Brenes-Balbuena, M; Hornero-Méndez, D; García-Borrego, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2000-01-01

    Content of biogenic amines in flesh and brines of table olives was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of their benzoyl derivatives. No biogenic amines were found in the flesh of fresh fruits at any stage of ripeness. Contents of biogenic amines in Spanish-style green or stored olives increased throughout the brining period but were always higher in the former. Putrescine was the amine found in the highest concentration. Small quantities of cadaverine were found in the samples taken after 3 months of brining. This compound and histamine, tyramine, and tryptamine were also found in samples taken after 12 months. Gordal cultivar showed the highest contents, followed by Manzanilla and Hojiblanca. No relationship was found between contents of biogenic amines and lactic acid production or table olive spoilages, although zapatera olives had considerably higher amounts than those brines that had undergone a normal process. Concentrations in directly brined olives were markedly lower than contents in Spanish-style olives. With respect to partition between flesh and brine, there was equilibrium between both media in the case of Spanish-style olives, whereas the contents in directly brined olives were higher in flesh than brine. PMID:10643779

  14. Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

  15. Amine permeation sources characterized with acid neutralization and sensitivities of an amine mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freshour, N. A.; Carlson, K. K.; Melka, Y. A.; Hinz, S.; Panta, B.; Hanson, D. R.

    2014-10-01

    An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS) that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~10-5 M HCl), and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s-1) that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and, using these sensitivities, mixing ratios for ammonia and the alkyl amines are derived from the signals. Correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  16. Effect of oven cooking method on formation of heterocyclic amines and quality characteristics of chicken patties: steam-assisted hybrid oven versus convection ovens.

    PubMed

    Isleroglu, Hilal; Kemerli, Tansel; Özdestan, Özgül; Uren, Ali; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking method in comparison with convection ovens (natural and forced) on quality characteristics (color, hardness, cooking loss, soluble protein content, fat retention, and formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines) of chicken patties. The cooking experiments of chicken patties (n = 648) were conducted at oven temperatures of 180, 210, and 240°C until 3 different end point temperatures (75, 90, and 100°C) were reached. Steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking enabled faster cooking than convection ovens and resulted in chicken patties having lower a* and higher L* value, lower hardness, lower fat, and soluble protein content (P < 0.05), and higher cooking loss than convection ovens. Steam-assisted hybrid oven could reduce the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines that have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on humans.

  17. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOEpatents

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie; Keaton, Richard Jeffrey; Baker, Ralph Thomas

    2009-06-09

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  18. A new amine catalyst for polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziv, M.H.; Mascioli, R.L.

    1982-05-01

    This article reports on a new amine catalyst for polyurethanes, the X-8154, which is a delayed action polyurethane catalyst. Experimental results indicated that unlike conventional amine catalysts, the X-8154's unique property of delayed initiation followed by rapid complete cure provides excellent processing and high quality parts. Good flow ability of the components in the production of rigid foams yields uniformity of properties necessary for a high quality product. X-8154, by virtue of its ability to delay reactivity, should find broad use in rigid foams, both in appliance and structural applications.

  19. The azomethine ylide route to amine C-H functionalization: redox-versions of classic reactions and a pathway to new transformations.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Daniel

    2015-02-17

    identified as common intermediates. Extension of this chemistry to amine α,β-difunctionalization has been shown to be possible by way of converting the intermediate azomethine ylides into transient enamines. This Account details the evolution of this general strategy and the progress made to date. Further included is a discussion of related decarboxylative reactions and transformations that result in the redox-neutral aromatization of (partially) saturated cyclic amines. These processes also involve azomethine ylides, reactive intermediates that appear to be far more prevalent in condensation chemistry of amines and carbonyl compounds than previously considered. In contrast, as exemplified by some redox transformations that have been studied in greater detail, iminium ions are not necessarily involved in all amine/aldehyde condensation reactions.

  20. The azomethine ylide route to amine C-H functionalization: redox-versions of classic reactions and a pathway to new transformations.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Daniel

    2015-02-17

    identified as common intermediates. Extension of this chemistry to amine α,β-difunctionalization has been shown to be possible by way of converting the intermediate azomethine ylides into transient enamines. This Account details the evolution of this general strategy and the progress made to date. Further included is a discussion of related decarboxylative reactions and transformations that result in the redox-neutral aromatization of (partially) saturated cyclic amines. These processes also involve azomethine ylides, reactive intermediates that appear to be far more prevalent in condensation chemistry of amines and carbonyl compounds than previously considered. In contrast, as exemplified by some redox transformations that have been studied in greater detail, iminium ions are not necessarily involved in all amine/aldehyde condensation reactions. PMID:25560649

  1. The Azomethine Ylide Route to Amine C–H Functionalization: Redox-Versions of Classic Reactions and a Pathway to New Transformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    processes, have been identified as common intermediates. Extension of this chemistry to amine α,β-difunctionalization has been shown to be possible by way of converting the intermediate azomethine ylides into transient enamines. This Account details the evolution of this general strategy and the progress made to date. Further included is a discussion of related decarboxylative reactions and transformations that result in the redox-neutral aromatization of (partially) saturated cyclic amines. These processes also involve azomethine ylides, reactive intermediates that appear to be far more prevalent in condensation chemistry of amines and carbonyl compounds than previously considered. In contrast, as exemplified by some redox transformations that have been studied in greater detail, iminium ions are not necessarily involved in all amine/aldehyde condensation reactions. PMID:25560649

  2. DIRECT SYNTHESIS OF TERTIARY AMINES IN WATER USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct synthesis of tertiary amines is presented that proceeds expeditiously via N-alkylation of amines using alkyl halides in alkaline aqueous medium. This environmentally benign reaction is accelerated upon exposure to microwave irradiation resulting in shortened reaction tim...

  3. Effects of marinating on heterocyclic amine carcinogen formation in grilled chicken.

    PubMed

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    1997-05-01

    This study compared heterocyclic aromatic amines in marinated and unmarinated chicken breast meat flame-broiled on a propane grill. Chicken was marinated prior to grilling and the levels of several heterocyclic amines formed during cooking were determined by solid-phase extraction and HPLC. Compared with unmarinated controls, a 92-99% decrease in 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was observed in whole chicken breast marinated with a mixture of brown sugar, olive oil, cider vinegar, garlic, mustard, lemon juice and salt, then grilled for 10, 20, 30 or 40 min. Conversely, 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) increased over 10-fold with marinating, but only at the 30 and 40 min cooking times. Marinating reduced the total detectable heterocyclic amines from 56 to 1.7 ng/g, from 158 to 10 ng/g and from 330 to 44 ng/g for grilling times of 20, 30 and 40 min, respectively. The mutagenic activity of the sample extracts was also measured, using the Ames/Salmonella assay. Mutagenic activity was lower in marinated samples cooked for 10, 20 and 30 min, but higher in the marinated samples cooked for 40 min, compared with unmarinated controls. Although a change in free amino acids, which are heterocyclic amine precursors, might explain the decrease in PhIP and increase in MeIQx, no such change was detected. Marinating chicken in one ingredient at a time showed that sugar was involved in the increased MeIQx, but the reason for the decrease in PhIP was unclear. PhIP decreased in grilled chicken after marinating with several individual ingredients. This work shows that marinating is one method that can significantly reduce PhIP concentration in grilled chicken. PMID:9216741

  4. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers. PMID:8415393

  5. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers.

  6. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  9. Solvent-Free Reductive Amination: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.; Cross, Amely V.

    2015-01-01

    The reductive amination reaction between an amine and an aldehyde or ketone is an important method to add an additional alkyl group to an amine nitrogen. In this experiment, students react a selection of benzylamines with aldehydes to form the corresponding imines. These imines are reduced with a mixture of "p"-toluenesulfonic acid…

  10. Oxidant-free conversion of primary amines to nitriles.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuei-Nin T; Rizzi, Andrew M; Szymczak, Nathaniel K

    2013-11-01

    An amide-derived NNN-Ru(II) hydride complex catalyzes oxidant-free, acceptorless, and chemoselective dehydrogenation of primary and secondary amines to the corresponding nitriles and imines with liberation of dihydrogen. The catalyst system tolerates oxidizable functionality and is selective for the dehydrogenation of primary amines (-CH2NH2) in the presence of amines without α-CH hydrogens. PMID:24144014

  11. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10701 - Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10701 Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyfluorinated alkyl amine (PMN P-11-532) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  15. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  17. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  11. Solid amine compounds as sorbents for carbon dioxide: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Solid amine compounds were examined as possible absorbents for removal of carbon dioxide in life support systems of type which may be employed in high altitude aircraft, spacecraft, or submarines. Many solid amine compounds release absorbed carbon dioxide when heated in vacuum, therefore, when properly packaged spent amine compounds can be readily regenerated and put back into service.

  12. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34636, June... substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  15. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  16. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  20. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  1. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN P-08-471) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN P-08-471) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  14. Synthesis of aromatic secondary diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D.; Kahley, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of N-methyl substituted aromatic polyamides derived from the secondary aromatic diamines, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)diphenylmethane, 3,3'-bis(methylamino) diphenylmethane, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone or 3,3'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone and isophthaloyl dichloride, terphthaloyl dichloride or 3,3'diphenylmethane dicarboxylic acid dichloride was prepared by high temperature solution polymerization in s-tetrachloroethane. Compared to analogous unsubstituted and partially N-methylated aromatic polyamides, the full N-methylated polyamides exhibited significantly lower glass transition temperatures, reduced crystallinity, improved thermal stability and good solubility in chlorinated solvents.

  15. Metal-mediated oxidative amination of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, E.W.; Blanco, F.B.; Cho, T.

    1993-12-31

    Two routes to high-valent imidometal species capable of transferring the nitrene functionality into hydrocarbon substrates have been examined. Transfer of the NH group from 1-aminopyridinium iodide to certain olefins in the presence of base and FeCl(TPP) forms the corresponding aziridine. This systems also aminates ethylbenzene. The three component systems RNH{sub 2}/PhI(OAc){sub 2}/MnCl(TPP) (R=Me,C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, Bu) aminate cyclohexane, ethylbenzene and several olefins. The system with R-Bu yields a high-valent Mn intermediate, tentatively identified as Mn(NBu)(TPP)Cl, which decomposes to Mn(III) over several hours in solution. In this system evidence for a metal-independent for a metal-independent amination pathway has also be obtained. For R=Me, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, a novel C-N bond cleavage process, resulting in the known complex MnN(TPP), apparently competes with substrate amination. The results are consistent with stabilization of reactive Mn(NR)(TPP)Cl either via transfer of NR or formal elimination of RC.

  16. Atmospheric reactivity studies of aliphatic amines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambient studies of particulate matter have shown that alkyl amines are often present in particles in areas impacted by agricultural emissions. These locations include California’s Central Valley and Inland Empire and Utah’s Cache Valley. These compounds are not typically observed in airsheds that so...

  17. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Efficient Lateral Electron Transport inside a Monolayer of Aromatic Amines Anchored on Nanocrystalline Metal Oxide Films.

    PubMed

    Bonhôte, P; Gogniat, E; Tingry, S; Barbé, C; Vlachopoulos, N; Lenzmann, F; Comte, P; Grätzel, M

    1998-02-26

    A monolayer of a phosphonated triarylamine adsorbed on nanocrystalline TiO2, ZrO2, or Al2O3 film deposited on conducting glass displays reversible electrochemical and electrochromic behavior although the redox potential of the electroactive molecules (0.80 V vs NHE) lies in the forbidden band of the semiconducting or insulating oxides. The mechanism of charge transport was found to involve hole injection from the conducting support followed by lateral electron hopping within the monolayer. The apparent diffusion coefficient ranged from 2.8 × 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) in the neat 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EtMeIm(+)Tf2N(-)) to 1.1 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) in acetonitrile + 2 M EtMeIm(+)Tf2N(-). A percolation threshold for electronic conductivity was found at a surface coverage corresponding to 50% of a full monolayer. PMID:27577008

  19. Risk factors for bladder cancer in a cohort exposed to aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, P.A.; Ringen, K.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Altekruse, E.B.; Gullen, W.H.; Tillett, S.; Allsbrook, W.C. Jr.; Crosby, J.H.; Witherington, R.; Stringer, W.

    1986-11-01

    Occupational and nonoccupational risk factors for bladder cancer were analyzed in a cohort of 1385 workers with known exposure to a potent bladder carcinogen, beta-naphthylamine. Bladder cancer was approximately seven times (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9, 12.4) more likely in exposed rather than nonexposed individuals, yet, otherwise, the groups were generally similar in other exogenous or hereditary risk factors. A total of 13 cases of bladder cancer were identified. After the first year of a screening program involving 380 members of the cohort, 9 of the 13 cases of bladder cancer and 36 persons with atypical bladder cytology, histology, or pathology were compared with 335 noncases for distributions of different variables. Occupational variables were significant in a multivariate model that controlled for age, cigarette smoking history, and source of drinking water. The estimated odds ratio for the association for bladder cancer and the duration of employment, when controlling of these other variables, is 4.3 (95% CI = 1.8, 10.3). In addition to the occupational factors, age was significant in the multivariate analysis. Other potential risk factors, such as consumption of coffee or artificial sweeteners, use of phenacetin, or decreased use of vitamin A were not found to be significantly different in cases and noncases.

  20. Electrochemical Oxidative Amination of Sodium Sulfinates: Synthesis of Sulfonamides Mediated by NH4I as a Redox Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang-Ye; Wang, Qing-Qing; Liang, Sen; Hu, Li-Ming; Little, R Daniel; Zeng, Cheng-Chu

    2016-06-01

    An efficient protocol for the synthesis of sulfonamides via the electrochemical oxidative amination of sodium sulfinates has been developed. The chemistry proceeds in a simple undivided cell employing a substoichiometric amount of NH4I that serves both as a redox catalyst and a supporting electrolyte; in this manner additional conducting salt is not required. A wide range of substrates, including aliphatic or aromatic secondary and primary amines, as well as aqueous ammonia, proved to be compatible with the protocol. Scale-up was possible, thereby demonstrating the practicality of the approach. The electrolytic process avoids the utilization of external oxidants or corrosive molecular iodine and therefore represents an environmentally benign means by which to achieve the transformation. PMID:27137813

  1. DETERMINATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF HETEROCYCLIC AROMATIC AMINES USING CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS. (R824100)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a very convenient technique for the determination of ionization constants. The technique is rapid, precise, uses small quantities of solute, and the exact concentration of the compound is not needed. This work represents the first report on...

  2. Polyimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments show variety of polyimidazoles prepared by aromatic nucleophilic displacement, from reactions of bisphenol imidazoles with activated difluoro compounds. Polyimidazoles have good mechanical properties making them suitable for use as films, moldings, and adhesives.

  3. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  4. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  5. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  6. Phase I and phase II reductive metabolism simulation of nitro aromatic xenobiotics with electrochemistry coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-01

    Electrochemistry combined with (liquid chromatography) high resolution mass spectrometry was used to simulate the general reductive metabolism of three biologically important nitro aromatic molecules: 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), niclosamide, and nilutamide. TFM is a pesticide used in the Laurential Great Lakes while niclosamide and nilutamide are used in cancer therapy. At first, a flow-through electrochemical cell was directly connected to a high resolution mass spectrometer to evaluate the ability of electrochemistry to produce the main reduction metabolites of nitro aromatic, nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine functional groups. Electrochemical experiments were then carried out at a constant potential of -2.5 V before analysis of the reduction products by LC-HRMS, which confirmed the presence of the nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine species as well as dimers. Dimer identification illustrates the reactivity of the nitroso species with amine and hydroxylamine species. To investigate xenobiotic metabolism, the reactivity of nitroso species to biomolecules was also examined. Binding of the nitroso metabolite to glutathione was demonstrated by the observation of adducts by LC-ESI(+)-HRMS and the characteristics of their MSMS fragmentation. In conclusion, electrochemistry produces the main reductive metabolites of nitro aromatics and supports the observation of nitroso reactivity through dimer or glutathione adduct formation.

  7. Hydrophilic properties of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Bonadeo, I; Lodi, V; Ghidini, D

    1980-10-01

    Synopsis The study of the behaviour of perfume ingredients in emulsions involves several technological problems. Recently, the scientific and practical validity of the parameter known as 'hydrophilic value' K(d) (according to Bonadeo) was recognised; it relates to the behaviour of fatty materials in emulsions. The purpose of this research was to verify the reliability of the above parameter as applied to perfume ingredients. From the experimental results it is possible to establish a mathematical relationship between K(d) and the 'required emulsification value' (HLB(r)) of the aromatics used in perfuming cosmetics and toiletries. From the K(d) value it is possible to calculate the critical limit of the water phase (CLWP) concerning the single ingredients of a perfume compound. These parameters are particularly important in predicting the optimal behaviour of perfumes in the chemical-physical balance of emulsions, with which are connected the principal parameters of the chemical and olfactive stability. Thus, in practice, it has been demonstrated that the perfumed substances behave as, and can be considered as, other fatty bodies forming the fatty phase of emulsions.

  8. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  9. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  10. Quaternary amines as nitrosamine precursors: a role for consumer products?

    PubMed

    Kemper, Jerome M; Walse, Spencer S; Mitch, William A

    2010-02-15

    Nitrosamine formation has been associated with wastewater-impacted waters, but specific precursors within wastewater effluents have not been identified. Experiments indicated that nitrosamines form in low yields from quaternary amines, and that the nitrosamines form from the quaternary amines themselves, not just lower order amine impurities. Polymeric and benzylated quaternary amines were more potent precursors than monomeric quaternary alkylamines. Pretreatment of quaternary amines with ozone or free chlorine, which deactivate lower order amine impurities, did not significantly reduce nitrosamine formation. The nitrosamine formation pathway is unclear but experiments indicated that transformation of quaternary amines to lower order amine precursors via Hofmann elimination was not involved. Experiments suggest that the pathway may involve quaternary amine degradation by amidogen or chloramino radicals formed from chloramines. Quaternary amines are significant constituents of consumer products, including shampoos, detergents, and fabric softeners. Although quaternary amines may be removed by sedimentation during wastewater treatment, their importance should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The high loadings from consumer products may enable the portion not removed to serve as precursors. PMID:20085252

  11. Nitromethane with IBX/TBAF as a nitrosating agent: synthesis of nitrosamines from secondary or tertiary amines under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Potturi, Hima K; Gurung, Ras K; Hou, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Aliphatic or aromatic N,N-disubstituted nitrosamine was generated in fair to excellent yield from the reaction of a secondary or tertiary amine with o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) or o-iodosylbenzoic acid (IBA)/R(4)NX (X = halide) and nitromethane. The product yield was strongly influenced by both the halide of R(4)NX and iodanes. IBX gave a higher yield than IBA, while the halides follow F(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) ∼ I(-). Nitrous acid formed in situ from nitromethane and IBX (or IBA)/halides is likely responsible for the observed reaction.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  13. Organocatalytic triazole formation, followed by oxidative aromatization: regioselective metal-free synthesis of benzotriazoles.

    PubMed

    Ramachary, Dhevalapally B; Shashank, Adluri B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we report on our studies on the sequential one-pot combinations of amine-catalyzed multicomponent reactions (MCRs). We have developed the copper-free synthesis of functionalized bicyclic N-aryl-1,2,3-triazole and N-arylbenzotriazole products 4 and 5 from the simple unmodified starting materials through [3+2]-cycloaddition ([3+2]-CA) and oxidative aromatization reactions in one pot under amine catalysis. The sequential one-pot reaction proceeds in good yields with high selectivity by using pyrrolidine as the catalyst from the simple unmodified substrates of enones, aryl azides, and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). Furthermore, we have demonstrated the medicinal applications of products 4 and 5 through simple organic reactions. PMID:24038664

  14. Development of a general non-noble metal catalyst for the benign amination of alcohols with amines and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xinjiang; Dai, Xingchao; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng

    2013-03-11

    The N-alkylation of amines or ammonia with alcohols is a valuable route for the synthesis of N-alkyl amines. However, as a potentially clean and economic choice for N-alkyl amine synthesis, non-noble metal catalysts with high activity and good selectivity are rarely reported. Normally, they are severely limited due to low activity and poor generality. Herein, a simple NiCuFeOx catalyst was designed and prepared for the N-alkylation of ammonia or amines with alcohol or primary amines. N-alkyl amines with various structures were successfully synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in the absence of organic ligands and bases. Typically, primary amines could be efficiently transformed into secondary amines and N-heterocyclic compounds, and secondary amines could be N-alkylated to synthesize tertiary amines. Note that primary and secondary amines could be produced through a one-pot reaction of ammonia and alcohols. In addition to excellent catalytic performance, the catalyst itself possesses outstanding superiority, that is, it is air and moisture stable. Moreover, the magnetic property of this catalyst makes it easily separable from the reaction mixture and it could be recovered and reused for several runs without obvious deactivation.

  15. Physico chemical properties of aminated tamarind xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Simi, Chandroth Kalyad; Abraham, Tholath Emilia

    2010-12-01

    Tamarind xyloglucan (XG) has been functionalized with amino group, which forms irreversible hydrogels with blue fluorescence characteristics. Aminated xyloglucan (XG-NH2) at very low concentration (0.2%, w/v) in aqueous medium, forms self assembled spherical nano-particles of 60 nm size, where as at 7% (w/v), it formed a strong hydrogel. The bonding of amino group to the XG polymers was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The XG-NH2 has same solubility as XG. The XG showed a broad melting point around 78°C whereas XG-NH2 was at 115°C. In addition, aminated xyloglucan (XG-NH2) exhibited good thermal properties. The XG-NH2 shows better antimicrobial activity in comparison to chitosan. This modified xyloglucan has potential applications in the medical and biotronics field because it possesses biocompatibility, strong hydrogel behavior with very useful blue fluorescence.

  16. Catalytic dehydrogenation of amine borane complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohajeri, Nahid (Inventor); Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of generating hydrogen includes the steps of providing an amine borane (AB) complex, at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, and a solvent, and mixing these components. Hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen produced is high purity hydrogen suitable for PEM fuel cells. A hydrolytic in-situ hydrogen generator includes a first compartment that contains an amine borane (AB) complex, a second container including at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, wherein the first or second compartment includes water or other hydroxyl group containing solvent. A connecting network permits mixing contents in the first compartment with contents in the second compartment, wherein high purity hydrogen is generated upon mixing. At least one flow controller is provided for controlling a flow rate of the catalyst or AB complex.

  17. Catalytic dehydrogenation of amine borane complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohajeri, Nahid (Inventor); Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Bokerman, Gary (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of generating hydrogen includes the steps of providing an amine borane (AB) complex, at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, and a solvent, and mixing these components Hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen produced is high purity hydrogen suitable for PEM fuel cells. A hydrolytic in-situ hydrogen generator includes a first compartment that contains an amine borane (AB) complex, a second container including at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, wherein the first or second compartment includes water or other hydroxyl group containing solvent. A connecting network permits mixing contents in the first compartment with contents in the second compartment, wherein high purity hydrogen is generated upon mixing. At least one flow controller is provided for controlling a flow rate of the catalyst or AB complex.

  18. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    PubMed

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  19. Dynamics of electron transfer in amine photooxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.S.; Freilich, S.C.; Schaeffer, C.G.

    1980-08-13

    Studies were initiated utilizing picosecond (ps) absorption spectroscopy, to directly monitor the dynamics of electron transfer from 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (Dabco) to the excited states of benzophenone and fluorenone. These two systems were chosen because of their contrasting photochemistry. The quantum yield for photoreduction of benzophenone in polar solvents is generally greater than 0.1, while that of fluorenone is zero. In polar solvents, the proposed mechanism dictates that an electron is transferred to the excited singlet state fluorenone, which then back-transfers the electron, regenerating ground-state fluorenone and amine. Photolysis of benzophenone in the presence of an amine transfers an electron to an excited triplet state, forming an ion pair that is stable relative to diffusional separation. The results of this study verify this proposal.

  20. Survey updates amine stress corrosion cracking data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-13

    The final report by National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) task group T-8-14 has been published, revising and expanding the information on stress information on stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel in diethanolamine and diisopropanolamine service. A major conclusion of the survey was that cracking frequency was more prevalent in monoethanolamine (MEA) than in other amines. This paper reports that further examination of the DEA data indicated that some units were previously in MEA service and the reported cracks were actually associated with that period. A detailed follow-up review of the DEA data also revealed that some cases were caused by processes other than amine cracking. In many cases, further inspection or testing had been done after the original survey was submitted.

  1. Antibacterial activity of novel benzopolycyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Barniol-Xicota, Marta; Escandell, Alex; Valverde, Elena; Julián, Esther; Torrents, Eduard; Vázquez, Santiago

    2015-01-15

    Staphylococcus aureus, especially strains resistant to multiple antibiotics, is a major pathogen for humans and animals. In this paper we have synthesized and evaluated the antibacterial activity of a new series of benzopolycyclic amines. Some of them exhibited μM MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA. Compound 8 that displayed a good selectivity index, showed to be active in eliminating bacterial cells forming a preexisting biofilm. PMID:25515953

  2. Asymmetric Redox-Annulation of Cyclic Amines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic amines such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline undergo regiodivergent annulation reactions with 4-nitrobutyraldehydes. These redox-neutral transformations enable the asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted polycyclic ring systems in just two steps from commercial materials. The utility of this process is illustrated in a rapid synthesis of (−)-protoemetinol. Computational studies provide mechanistic insights and implicate the elimination of acetic acid from an ammonium nitronate intermediate as the rate-determining step. PMID:26348653

  3. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013 and early 2014. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  4. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  5. Amine-containing cells of the lung.

    PubMed

    Pack, R J; Widdicombe, J G

    1984-11-01

    In many vertebrates, including mammals, there are amine-containing cells in the walls of the airways and the lungs. Despite a plethora of names for these cells, there is a general agreement about their structure. They occur singly or in groups (NEBs), but the functional distinction between the two types of distribution is uncertain. In spite of ultrastructural similarities, the cells may be physiologically heterogenous. The cells are characterised by their staining characteristics and content of electron-dense-core vesicles, which are believed to contain a biogenic amine. They also have additional cytoplasmic features common to other sensory paraganglia. They may be more numerous in certain species and also in the neonate. The NEBs may be innervated with afferent and/or efferent nerves, though physiological evidence of their innervation is scanty. The most popular hypothesis is that they can be stimulated by hypoxia to release mediators or to induce reflex activity. In the healthy animal, the amine-cells may control local ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios via an action on the pulmonary vasculature. In disease, they may cause pulmonary hypertension. They can also give rise to three forms of tumour. Their full significance has yet to be established. PMID:6083878

  6. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA/Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS itself, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  7. Aromatization and etherification process integration

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes a continuous process for the production of aromatics-rich high octane gasoline and ether-rich high octane gasoline. It comprises the steps of: contacting a C/sub 4/+ hydrocarbon feedstream containing iso-olefins and excess methanol based on the iso-olefins with an acid etherification catalyst under etherification conditions in an etherification zone whereby an effluent stream is produced comprising methyl tertiary alkyl ethers, unreacted methanol and hydrocarbons; distilling the effluent stream whereby a distillate bottom stream is produced comprising high octane ether-rich C/sub 5/+ gasoline and a distillate overhead stream comprising unreacted methanol and C/sub 5/- hydrocarbons; passing the distillate overhead stream and an aromatization hydrocarbon feedstream comprising an ethene rich gas feedstream and C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons to an olefins and paraffins fixed, fluid or moving bed aromatization zone under aromatization conditions in contact with medium pore size shape selective metallosilicate catalyst having the structure of ZSM-5 whereby a high octane aromatics-rich C/sub 5/+ gasoline is procluded and hydrogen-rich fuel gas.

  8. 1H NMR analysis of complexation of hydrotropic agents nicotinamide and caffeine with aromatic biologically active molecules in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantushenko, Anastasia O.; Mukhina, Yulia V.; Veselkov, Kyrill A.; Davies, David B.; Veselkov, Alexei N.

    2004-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the molecular mechanism of solubilization action of hydrotropic agents nicotinamide (NA) and caffeine (CAF). Hetero-association of NA with riboflavine-mononucleotide (FMN) and CAF with low soluble in aqueous solution synthetic analogue of antibiotic actinomycin D, actinocyl-bis-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) amine (Actill), has been investigated by 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. Concentration and temperature dependences of proton chemical shifts have been analysed in terms of a statistical-thermodynamic model of indefinite self- and heteroassociation of aromatic molecules. The obtained results enable to conclude that NA-FMN and CAF-Actill intermolecular complexes are mainly stabilized by the stacking interactions of the aromatic chromophores. Hetero-association of the investigated molecules plays an important role in solubilization of aromatic drugs by hydrotropic agents nicotinamide and caffeine.

  9. Complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with aliphatic amines in the catalysis of hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Turisbekova, K.K.; Shuikina, L.P.; Parenago, O.P.; Frolov, V.F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors synthesized new catalysts highly active in the hydrogenations of unsaturated hydrocarbons, based on complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with higher aliphatic amines, which are soluble in aromatic solvents. The complexes acquired catalytic activity in hydrogenation as a result of their treatment with diisobutyl aluminum hydride. Olefins (1-hexene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene) or dienes (isoprene) were used as the unsaturated compounds. For the ruthenium based catalysts, the highest activity was observed during the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. For the rhodium-based catalysts, the activity in the hydrogenation of olefins and dienes was approximately the same. In the case of the rhodium complex catalysts, the hydrogenation of 1-hexene was accompanied by a side-reaction consisting in isomerization into olefins with inner double bonds.

  10. Heterocyclic amine mutagenicity/carcinogenicity: Influence of repair, metabolism, and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Wu, R.; Knize, M.G.; Thompson, L.H.; Hatch, F.T.

    1993-01-15

    Cooking, heat processing, and pyrolysis of protein-rich foods induce the formation of structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines that have been found to be mutagenic in bacteria, mammalian cells in culture and mice. All these compounds are potent mutagens and most are active below 1 ng/plate, in Ames/Salmonella tester strain TA1538 in the presence of S9 liver microsomal preparations from rat, mouse, or hamster. They are also potent in strains TA98, TA97, moderately active in TA1537, weakly active in TA100, and virtually inactive in TA1535 and TA102. Thus, they show powerful frameshift activity in reverting specific GC-rich sequences, but do not cause base substitution mutations or revert an AT-rich sequence. They are 100-fold less active in the uvrB+, repair-proficient strain TA1978, and in the case of IQ, cause insertions and large deletions not seen in TA1538.

  11. Facile amine formation by intermolecular catalytic amidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Fructos, Manuel R; Trofimenko, Swiatoslaw; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Pérez, Pedro J

    2006-09-13

    A simple copper-based catalytic system has been developed for the carbon-hydrogen amidation reaction. The copper-homoscorpionate complex Tp(Br3)Cu(NCMe) catalyzes the transfer of the nitrene unit NTs (Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl) and its subsequent insertion into the sp(3) C-H bonds of alkyl aromatic and cyclic ethers or the sp(2) C-H bonds of benzene using PhI=NTs as the nitrene source, affording the corresponding trisubstitued NR(1)HTs amines in moderate to high yields. The use of the environmentally friendly chloramine-T has also proven effective, with the advantage that sodium chloride is formed as the only byproduct. A tandem, one-pot consecutive nitrene-carbene insertion system has been developed to yield amino acid derivatives.

  12. Vanadium-substituted heteropolyacids immobilized on amine- functionalized mesoporous MCM-41: A recyclable catalyst for selective oxidation of alcohols with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xinbo; Wang, Danjun; Li, Kebin; Zhen, Yanzhong; Hu, Huaiming; Xue, Ganglin

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acids are immobilized on amine- functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 and the hybrid catalyst is proved to be a highly efficient solid catalyst for the oxidation of aromatic alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, featured by the high conversion and selectivity, easy recovery, and quite steady reuse. - Highlights: • Vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acid immobilized on amine-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 are prepared. • HPAs were fixed on the inner surface of mesoporous MCM-41 by chemical bonding to aminosilane groups. • The hybrid catalyst showed much higher catalytic activity than the pure HPAs. • The hybrid catalyst is a highly efficient recyclable solid catalyst for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols. - Abstract: New hybrid materials of vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acids (VHPW) immobilized on amine-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 (VHPW/MCM-41/NH{sub 2}) are prepared and characterized by FT-IR, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption, elemental analysis, SEM and TEM for their structural integrity and physicochemical properties. It is found that the structure of the heteropolyacids is retained upon immobilization over mesoporous materials. The catalytic activities of these hybrid materials are tested in the selective oxidation of alcohols to the carbonyl products with 30% aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant in toluene. The catalytic activities of different number of vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acid are investigated, and among the catalysts, H{sub 5}[PV{sub 2}W{sub 10}O{sub 40}] immobilized on amine-functionalized MCM-41 exhibits the highest activity with 97% conversion and 99% selectivity in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The hybrid catalyst is proved to be a highly efficient recyclable solid catalyst for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  13. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  14. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  15. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also

  16. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed. PMID:10092944

  17. Acid gas absorption in aqueous solutions of mixed amines

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.S.; Sandall, O.C.

    1996-12-31

    A mass transfer model has been developed to describe the rate of absorption (or desorption) of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of a tertiary and a secondary or a primary amine. The model is based on penetration theory, and all significant chemical reactions are incorporated in the model. The reactions are taken to be reversible, with reactions involving only a proton transfer considered to be at equilibrium. The particular amines studied in this research were methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a tertiary amine, and diethanolamine (DEA), a secondary amine. Key physicochemical data needed in the model, such as diffusion coefficients, kinetic rate constants, and gas solubilities, were measured. Experimental absorption rates of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S were measured in a model gas-liquid contacting device and were compared with model predictions. Experiments were carried out for single amine solutions (both MDEA and DEA) and for amine blends.

  18. Volatile profiles of aromatic and non-aromatic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is enjoyed by many people as a staple food because of its flavor and texture. Some scented varieties command a premium in the marketplace because of their distinctive aroma and flavor. The compound most commonly associated with the popcorn or nutty scent of aromatic rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline...

  19. Synthesis, antidepressant and antifungal evaluation of novel 2-chloro-8-methylquinoline amine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Bawa, Sandhya; Drabu, Sushma; Gupta, Himanshu; Machwal, Lalit; Kumar, Rajiv

    2011-02-01

    A new series of N-[(2-chloro-8-methylquinolin-3-yl)methyl]-(substituted)-aniline/butylamine/cyclohexylamine/benzylamine derivatives (4a-p) was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of 2-chloro-3-(chloromethyl)-8-methylquinoline 3 with various aliphatic and aromatic amines in absolute ethanol in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). The newly synthesized secondary amines were characterized by the combined use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectral data and microanalyses. The antidepressant activity of the synthesized compounds (4a-p) was evaluated by Forced swim test in rats and their neurotoxicity was evaluated by the rotarod test. Test compounds and clomipramine were administered intraperitoneally at dose of 100 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg respectively. Preliminary antidepressant screening of compounds (4a-p) revealed that compounds 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4i and 4o significantly (P<0.01) reduces the duration of immobility time. These compounds were also tested in-vitro for MAO inhibitory effect. All the compounds were also screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger MTCC 281, Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277, Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 and Penicillium citrinum NCIM 768 strains. PMID:21194811

  20. Interfacial Modification of Silica Surfaces Through gamma-Isocyanatopropyl Triethoxy Silane-Amine Coupling Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel,B.; DeLongchamp, D.; Mahoney, C.; Lucas, L.; Fischer, D.; Lin, E.

    2008-01-01

    The development of robust, cost-effective methods to modify surfaces and interfaces without the specialized synthesis of unique coupling agents could provide readily accessible routes to optimize and tailor interfacial properties. We demonstrate that -isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane (ISO) provides a convenient route to functionalize silica surfaces through coupling reactions with readily available reagents. ISO coupling agents layers (CALs) can be prepared from toluene with triethylamine (TEA), but the coupling reaction of an amine to the ISO CAL does not proceed. We use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and sessile drop contact angle to demonstrate the isocyanate layer is not degraded under coupling conditions. Access to silanes with chemical functionality is possible with ISO by performing the coupling reaction in solution and then depositing the product onto the surface. Two model CAL surfaces are prepared to demonstrate the ease and robust nature of this procedure. The surfaces prepared using this method are the ISO reacted with octadecylamine to produce a hydrocarbon surface of similar quality to octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS) CALs and with 9-aminofluorene (AFL), an aromatic amine functionality whose silane is otherwise unavailable commercially.

  1. Amination of heterocyclic compounds with o-benzoylhydroxylamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Parlanti, Luca; Discordia, Robert P; Hynes, John; Miller, Michael M; O'Grady, Harold R; Shi, Zhongping

    2007-09-13

    The N-amination of heterocyclic compounds 1a-k with O-benzoylhydroxylamine derivatives 5 was developed and demonstrated to be a superior alternative to existing N-amination methods. A structure-reactivity relationship study was performed on variously substituted O-benzoylhydroxylamine derivatives, leading to the discovery of the novel and more efficient aminating reagents 5h and 5i. PMID:17718497

  2. Evaluation of LX-17 made from water-aminated TATB

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, A.G.

    1982-10-01

    Water-aminated TATB was formulated into LX-17 at both Pantex and Holston. Mechanical properties, growth, pressed density, corner turning and gap sensitivity properties were compared. Mechanical properties, corner turning and gap sensitivity were similar to those of LX-17 made from dry-aminated TATB. Permanent expansion resulting from thermal aging may be slightly greater than that of LX-17 with dry-aminated TATB.

  3. New potential of the reductive alkylation of amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusak, K. N.; Ignatovich, Zh V.; Koroleva, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    Available data on the reductive alkylation of amines with carbonyl compounds — a key method for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amines — are described systematically. The review provides information on the relevant reducing agents and catalysts and on the use of chiral catalysts in stereo- and enantiocontrolled reactions of amine synthesis. The effect of the reactant and catalyst structures on the reaction rates and chemo- and stereo(enantio)selectivity is considered. The bibliography includes 156 references.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  9. Aromatic Gain in a Supramolecular Polymer.

    PubMed

    Saez Talens, Victorio; Englebienne, Pablo; Trinh, Thuat T; Noteborn, Willem E M; Voets, Ilja K; Kieltyka, Roxanne E

    2015-09-01

    The synergy of aromatic gain and hydrogen bonding in a supramolecular polymer is explored. Partially aromatic bis(squaramide) bolaamphiphiles were designed to self-assemble through a combination of hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and aromatic effects into stiff, high-aspect-ratio fibers. UV and IR spectroscopy show electron delocalization and geometric changes within the squaramide ring indicative of strong hydrogen bonding and aromatic gain of the monomer units. The aromatic contribution to the interaction energy was further supported computationally by nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) indices, demonstrating greater aromatic character upon polymerization: at least 30% in a pentamer. The aromatic gain-hydrogen bonding synergy results in a significant increase in thermodynamic stability and a striking difference in aggregate morphology of the bis(squaramide) bolamphiphile compared to isosteres that cannot engage in this effect. PMID:26179942

  10. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  11. Formal Direct Cross-Coupling of Phenols with Amines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengwang; Zeng, Huiying; Girard, Simon A; Wang, Feng; Chen, Ning; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-11-23

    The transition-metal-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has been the most powerful method for the formation of aryl amines over the past decades. Phenols are regarded as ideal alternatives to aryl halides as coupling partners in cross-couplings. An efficient palladium-catalyzed formal cross-coupling of phenols with various amines and anilines has now been developed. A variety of substituted phenols were compatible with the standard reaction conditions. Secondary and tertiary aryl amines could thus be synthesized in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:26531683

  12. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  13. Fuel additives derived from amido-amines

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1993-08-24

    A process is described for producing a dispersant useful as an oil additive which comprises: (a) providing a long chain hydrocarbyl substituted mono- or dicarboxylic acid producing material formed by reacting an olefin polymer of C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] monoolefin having a number average molecular weight of about 300 to 10,000 and at least one of a C[sub 4] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated dicarboxylic acid material and a C[sub 3] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated monocarboxylic acid material, said acid producing material having an average of at least about 0.3 dicarboxylic acid producing moieties, per molecule of said olefin polymer present in the reaction mixture used to form said acid producing material; (b) providing an amido-amine compound having at least one primary amino group prepared by reacting at least one polyamine with at least one alpha, beta-unsaturated compound of the formula: R[sup 1]-(C-R[sup 2])[double bond](C-R[sup 3])-(C[double bond]X)-Y wherein X is sulfur or oxygen, Y is -OR[sup 4],-SR[sup 4], or -NR[sup 4](R[sup 5]), and R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], R[sup 4] and R[sup 5] are the same or different and are hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl; and (c) contacting the said acid producing material with said amido-amine compound under conditions sufficient to effect reaction of at least a portion of the primary amino groups on said amido-amine compound with at least a portion of the acid-producing groups in said acid producing material, to form said dispersant.

  14. The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    2007-01-01

    An approach is presented that starts from two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, and combines them into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Huckel-aromatic and chiral Mobius-aromatic transition states. This is illustrated using an example that leads to apparent…

  15. Evidence of acid-base interactions between amines and model indoor surfaces by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Singer, Brett C.; Gundel, Lara A.

    Molecular associations of pyridine with cellulose and gypsum, surrogates for common indoor surface materials, were studied using an attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometric method. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the molecular interactions of amines with well-characterized materials that affect their partitioning between indoor air and surfaces. The experimental results suggest the presence of at least two sorptive states for volatile and semivolatile amines, attributed to the chemisorbed species and to a more labile surface state (i.e., physisorbed pyridine). Both exhibited spectroscopic signatures corresponding to aromatic C-H stretching modes (2950-3100 cm -1) in the studied spectral region. Chemisorbed pyridine could be identified by the presence of additional IR signals in the N-H and O-H stretching region of the spectrum (2900-3600 cm -1). During desorption under a stream of N 2, surface enrichment in the chemisorbed species was evidenced by a slower reduction of the absorbance of the broad band at 2900-3600 cm -1 in relation to the total pyridine absorbance change. This spectroscopic evidence for acid-base interactions between amines and surfaces is consistent with the desorption behavior observed in previous work for nicotine from model surfaces.

  16. A metal-bridged tricyclic aromatic system: synthesis of osmium polycyclic aromatic complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Congqing; Zhu, Qin; Fan, Jinglan; Zhu, Jun; He, Xumin; Cao, Xiao-Yu; Xia, Haiping

    2014-06-10

    Aromaticity is one of the most important concepts in organic chemistry. A variety of metalla-aromatic compounds have been recently prepared and in most of those examples, the metal participates only in a monocyclic ring. In contrast, metal-bridged bicyclic aromatic molecules, in which a metal is shared between two aromatic rings, have been less developed. Herein, we report the first metal-bridged tricyclic aromatic system, in which the metal center is shared by three aromatic five-membered rings. These metalla-aromatics are formed by reaction between osmapentalyne and arene nucleophiles. Experimental results and theoretical calculations reveal that the three five-membered rings around the osmium center are aromatic. In addition, the broad absorption bands in the UV/Vis absorption spectra of these novel aromatic systems cover almost the entire visible region. This straightforward synthetic strategy may be extended to the synthesis of other metal-bridged polycyclic aromatics. PMID:24782397

  17. Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO₂ Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2015-07-21

    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

  18. Preparation and characterization of amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shihe; Chen, Siyu; Chen, Shuixia; Zhuang, Linzhou; Ma, Nianfang; Xu, Teng; Li, Qihan; Hou, Xunan

    2016-03-01

    A low-cost solid amine adsorbent for CO2 capture was prepared by using sugarcane bagasse (SB), a dominant agro-industrial residue in the sugar and alcohol industry as raw materials. In this preparation process, acrylamide was grafted on SB, and the grafted fiber was then aminated with different type of amine reagents to introduce primary and secondary amine groups onto the surface of SB fibers. The graft and amination conditions were optimized. The prepared solid amine adsorbent showed remarkable CO2 adsorption capacity and the adsorption capacity of the solid amine adsorbent could reach 5.01 mmol CO2/g at room temperature. The comparison of adsorption capacities of amine fibers aminated with various amination agents demonstrated that fibers aminated with triethylenetetramine would obtain higher adsorption capacities and higher amine efficiency. These adsorbents also showed good regeneration performance, the regenerated adsorbent could maintain almost the same adsorption capacity for CO2 after 10 recycles.

  19. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Akhtar Anwar, M; Herbert, Amy A; Fehler, Martina; Jones, Elen M; Davies, Wyn E; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R

    2009-06-01

    Trace amines, including tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called 'friendly' bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus species, which are found in probiotics. We therefore examined whether these dietary amines could exert pharmacological effects on the gut and its vasculature. In the present study we examined the effects of tyramine and beta-PEA on the contractile activity of guinea-pig and rat ileum and upon the isolated mesenteric vasculature and other blood vessels. Traditionally, these amines are regarded as sympathomimetic amines, exerting effects through the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve endings, which should relax the gut. A secondary aim was therefore to confirm this mechanism of action. However, contractile effects were observed in the gut and these were independent of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, histamine and serotonin receptors. They were therefore probably due to the recently described trace amine-associated receptors. These amines relaxed the mesenteric vasculature. In contrast, the aorta and coronary arteries were constricted, a response that was also independent of a sympathomimetic action. From these results, we propose that after ingestion, trace amines could stimulate the gut and improve intestinal blood flow. Restriction of blood flow elsewhere diverts blood to the gut to aid digestion. Thus, trace amines in the diet may promote the digestive process through stimulation of the gut and improved gastrointestinal circulation.

  20. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3740 - Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide... Substances § 721.3740 Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisalkylated fatty alkyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3740 - Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide... Substances § 721.3740 Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisalkylated fatty alkyl...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3740 - Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide... Substances § 721.3740 Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisalkylated fatty alkyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3740 - Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide... Substances § 721.3740 Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisalkylated fatty alkyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3740 - Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide... Substances § 721.3740 Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisalkylated fatty alkyl...

  9. Regioselective C–H Bond Amination by Aminoiodanes

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Abhishek A.; Marchetti, Louis

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for the direct amination of 2-phenylpyridine derivatives using a diphthalimide-iodane and copper triflate has been developed. A series of different 2-phenylpyridine derivatives were aminated with yields up to 88%. Mechanistic investigations indicate that the reaction proceeds via a copper-mediated single electron transfer. PMID:25632832

  10. Amine-selective bioconjugation using arene diazonium salts.

    PubMed

    Diethelm, Stefan; Schafroth, Michael A; Carreira, Erick M

    2014-08-01

    A novel bioconjugation strategy is presented that relies on the coupling of diazonium terephthalates with amines in proteins. The diazonium captures the amine while the vicinal ester locks it through cyclization, ensuring no reversibility. The reaction is highly efficient and proceeds under mild conditions and short reaction times. Densely functionalized, complex natural products were directly coupled to proteins using low concentrations of coupling partners.

  11. Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Frances Helen; Baker, Ralph Thomas

    2010-01-12

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

  12. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  14. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.641 - Alkylpoly(oxyalkylene)amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.641 Alkylpoly(oxyalkylene)amine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylpoly(oxyalkylene)amine (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.641 - Alkylpoly(oxyalkylene)amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.641 Alkylpoly(oxyalkylene)amine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylpoly(oxyalkylene)amine (PMN...

  18. Formation of sulfonyl aromatic alcohols by electrolysis of a bisazo reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-González, María P; Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; García-Díaz, Esmeralda; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M

    2012-12-05

    Five sulfonyl aromatic alcohols, namely 4-((2-hydroxyethyl)sulfonyl)phenol, 4-((2-(2-((4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl)ethoxy)vinyl)sulfonyl)phenol, 4-(ethylsulfonyl)phenol, 4-(vinylsulfonyl)phenol and 5-((4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl)-2-penten-1-ol were identified by LC-ESI-Qq-TOF-MS as products formed by electrolysis of the bisazo reactive dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Since electrolyses were performed in an undivided cell equipped with Ni electrodes in alkaline medium, amines like 4-(2-methoxyethylsulfonyl)benzene-amine (MEBA) with m/z 216 were also suspected to be formed due to the plausible chemical reaction in the bulk or the cathodic reduction of RB5 and its oxidation by-products. Aiming to check this hypothesis, a method was used for the preparation of MEBA with 98% purity, via chemical reduction also of the dye RB5. The logP of the synthesized sulfonyl aromatic compounds was calculated and their logkw values were determined chromatographically. These data were discussed in regard to the relationship between hydrophobicity/lipophilicity and toxicity.

  19. A Family of Bioreducible Poly(disulfide amine)s for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Mei; Xu, Rongzuo; Kim, Sun Hwa; Bull, David A.; Kim, Sung Wan

    2009-01-01

    A family of bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)s, which differ in the length of polymethylene spacer [–(CH2)n–] in the main chain and the side chain, has been synthesized. These bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)s exhibit local environment specific degradability and are associated with lower cytotoxicity than branched poly(ethylenimine) (bPEI, 25kDa). These cationic polymers also show higher buffering capacity and protonation degree than bPEI, facilitating the endosomal escape of carried genetic materials. The transfection efficiency of these agents is polymethylene length dependent. Poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-spermine) [poly(CBA-SP);], poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine) [poly(CBA-APPD);], and poly(cyxtaminebisacrylamide-bis(3-aminopropyl)-ethylenediamine) [ploy(CBA-APED);] with longer propylene [–(CH2)3–] side spacer, demonstrate higher transfection efficacy than the counterpart poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine) [poly(CBA-AEPD);] and poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-triethylenetetramine) [poly(CBA-TETA);], which have shorter ethylene [–(CH2)2–] side spacer. The poly(CBA-SP), poly(CBA-APPD), poly(CBA-APED) with the main chain spacer of –(CH2)4–, –(CH2)3–, –(CH2)2– demonstrate similar transfection efficiency, indicating the length of polymer main chain spacer has less influence on transfection efficiency. However, with the same short ethylene [–(CH2)2–] side spacer, poly(CBA-AEPD), with the longer main chain oligomethylene units [–(CH2)3–], showed relatively higher transfection efficiency than poly(CBA-TETA), having shorter main chain oligomethylene units [–(CH2)2–]. Of these polymeric carriers, poly(CBA-SP) demonstrated the highest transfection in the C2C12 cell line, while poly(CBA-APED) showed the highest transfection in the Hela cell line. All of these agents showed greater transfection activity than commercialized bPEI 25kDa. The poly(disulfide amine)s are promising

  20. Nucleophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R

    2014-03-18

    Iodylbenzene derivatives substituted with electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring are used as precursors in aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The iodyl group (IO.sub.2) is regiospecifically substituted by nucleophilic fluoride to provide the corresponding fluoroaryl derivatives. No-carrier-added [F-18]fluoride ion derived from anhydrous [F-18](F/Kryptofix, [F-18]CsF or a quaternary ammonium fluoride (e.g., Me.sub.4NF, Et.sub.4NF, n-Bu.sub.4NF, (PhCH.sub.2).sub.4NF) exclusively substitutes the iodyl moiety in these derivatives and provides high specific activity F-18 labeled fluoroaryl analogs. Iodyl derivatives of a benzothiazole analog and 6-iodyl-L-dopa derivatives have been synthesized as precursors and have been used in the preparation of no-carrier-added [F-18]fluorobenzothiazole as well as 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa.

  1. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  2. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  7. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.

    2011-12-01

    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  8. Determination of mutagenic amines in water and food samples by high pressure liquid chromatography with amperometric detection using a multiwall carbon nanotubes-glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Ana María; Marín, Miguel Ángel; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Ángel

    2016-02-01

    A chromatographic method, using amperometric detection, for the sensitive determination of six representative mutagenic amines was developed. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE), modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (GCE-CNTs), was prepared and its response compared to a conventional glassy carbon electrode. The chromatographic method (HPLC-GCE-CNTs) allowed the separation and the determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) classified as mutagenic amines by the International Agency for Research of Cancer. The new electrode was systematically studied in terms of stability, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the obtained data demonstrated that the modified electrode provided better sensitivity than the conventional unmodified ones. Detection limits were in the 3.0 and 7.5 ng/mL range, whereas quantification limits ranged between 9.5 and 25.0 ng/mL were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the determination of the amines in several types of samples (water and food samples). Recoveries indicate very good agreement between amounts added and those found for all HAAs (recoveries in the 92% and 105% range).

  9. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  10. Bimolecular electron transfer reactions in coumarin amine systems: Donor acceptor orientational effect on diffusion-controlled reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpati, A. K.; Nath, S.; Kumbhakar, M.; Maity, D. K.; Senthilkumar, S.; Pal, H.

    2008-04-01

    Electron transfer (ET) reactions between excited coumarin dyes and different aliphatic amine (AlA) and aromatic amine (ArA) donors have been investigated in acetonitrile solution using steady-state (SS) and time-resolved (TR) fluorescence quenching measurements. No ground state complex or emissive exciplex formation has been indicated in these systems. SS and TR measurements give similar quenching constants ( kq) for each of the coumarin-amine pairs, suggesting dynamic nature of interaction in these systems. On correlating kq values with the free energy changes (Δ G0) of the ET reactions show the typical Rehm-Weller type of behavior as expected for bimolecular ET reactions under diffusive condition, where kq increases with -Δ G0 at the lower exergonicity (-Δ G0) region but ultimately saturate to a diffusion-limited value (kqDC) at the higher exergonicity region. It is, however, interestingly observed that the kqDC values vary largely depending on the type of the amines used. Thus, kqDC is much higher with ArAs than AlAs. Similarly, the kqDC for cyclic monoamine 1-azabicyclo-[2,2,2]-octane (ABCO) is distinctly lower and that for cyclic diamine 1,4-diazabicyclo-[2,2,2]-octane (DABCO) is distinctly higher than the kqDC value obtained for other noncyclic AlAs. These differences in the kqDC values have been rationalized on the basis of the differences in the orientational restrictions involved in the ET reactions with different types of amines. As understood, n-type donors (AlAs) introduce large orientational restriction and thus significantly reduces the ET efficiency in comparison to the π-type donors (ArAs). Structural constrains are inferred to be the reason for the differences in the kqDC values involving ABCO, DABCO donors in comparison to other noncyclic AlAs. Supportive evidence for the orientational restrictions involving different types of amines donors has also been obtained from DFT based quantum chemical calculations on the molecular orbitals of

  11. The direct aromatization of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  12. New aminating reagents forthe synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB) and other insensitive energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pagoria, P.F.; Mitchell, A.R.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1995-09-19

    We are investigating the amination of electrophilic aromatic systems through the use of Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution (VNS) chemistry. This research has led to a new synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) which uses 2,4,6-trinitroaniline (picramide) or 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene as starting materials. We also describe the development of a new class of VNS aminating reagents based on quarternary hydrazinium halides. 1,1,1-Trimethylhydrazinium iodide (TMHI), available from the methylation of the surplus propellant uns-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), was used in a new synthesis of TATB. The advantages, scope and limitations of the VNS approach to the synthesis of TATB and other amino-substituted nitroarenes are discussed.

  13. Peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1-inhibitory activity of D-glutamic and D-aspartic acid derivatives bearing a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Seike, Suguru; Sugimoto, Masatoshi; Ieda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase that specifically catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated Thr/Ser-Pro peptide bonds in substrate proteins and peptides. Pin1 is involved in many important cellular processes, including cancer progression, so it is a potential target of cancer therapy. We designed and synthesized a novel series of Pin1 inhibitors based on a glutamic acid or aspartic acid scaffold bearing an aromatic moiety to provide a hydrophobic surface and a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety with affinity for the proline-binding site of Pin1. Glutamic acid derivatives bearing cycloalkylamino and phenylthiazole groups showed potent Pin1-inhibitory activity comparable with that of known inhibitor VER-1. The results indicate that steric interaction of the cyclic alkyl amine moiety with binding site residues plays a key role in enhancing Pin1-inhibitory activity.

  14. Crystal structure of bis­(azido-κN)bis­(quinolin-8-amine-κ2 N,N′)iron(II)

    PubMed Central

    Setifi, Fatima; Moon, Dohyun; Koen, Robeyns; Setifi, Zouaoui; Lamsayah, Morad; Touzani, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    The search for new mol­ecular materials with inter­esting magnetic properties using the pseudohalide azide ion and quinolin-8-amine (aqin, C9H8N2) as a chelating ligand, led to the synthesis and structure determination of the title complex, [Fe(N3)2(C9H8N2)2]. The complex shows an octa­hedral geometry, with the FeII atom surrounded by six N atoms; the two N3 − anions coordinate in a cis configuration, while the remaining N atoms originate from the two quinolin-8-amine ligands with the quinoline N atoms lying on opposite sides of the Fe atom. The crystal packing is dominated by layers of hydro­philic and aromatic regions parallel to the ac plane, stabilized by a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network and π–π stacking. PMID:27746947

  15. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-10-15

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry.

  16. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-10-01

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry.

  17. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Amin Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, John C.

    2002-11-01

    Extraordinary claims for the The Amin engine, made recently in full-page paid advertisements in Science Magazine and Physics Today are based upon faulty analysis of the proposed cycle. As presented, the engine constitutes a claim to violate the second law of thermodynamics, purporting to produce net useful work while extracting heat from a reservoir at a single temperature. When analyzed correctly, it conforms to the second law and produces at most zero net work when operating under isothermal conditions. The author neglects the torque-angle work needed to change the angular velocity and/or moment of inertia of the working fluid in the cylinder. When this is correctly accounted for, the contradiction with the second law is resolved.

  19. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  20. The sugar model: catalysis by amines and amino acid products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia and amines (including amino acids) were shown to catalyze the formation of sugars from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, and the subsequent conversion of sugars to carbonylcontaining products under the conditions studied (pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C). Sterically unhindered primary amines were better catalysts than ammonia, secondary amines, and sterically hindered primary amines (i.e. alpha-aminoisobutyric acid). Reactions catalyzed by primary amines initially consumed formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde about 15-20 times faster than an uncatalyzed control reaction. The amine-catalyzed reactions yielded aldotriose (glyceraldehyde), ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone), aldotetroses (erythrose and threose), ketotetrose (erythrulose), pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, pyruvate, glyoxylate, and several unindentified carbonyl products. The concentrations of the carbonyl products, except pyruvate and ketotetrose, initially increased and then declined during the reaction, indicating their ultimate conversion to other products (like larger sugars or pyruvate). The uncatalyzed control reaction yielded no pyruvate or glyoxylate, and only trace amounts of pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde and glyoxal. In the presence of 15 mM catalytic primary amine, such as alanine, the rates of triose and pyruvaldehyde of synthesis were about 15-times and 1200-times faster, respectively, than the uncatalyzed reaction. Since previous studies established that alanine is synthesized from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde via pyruvaldehyde as its direct precursor, the demonstration that the alanine catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde to pyruvaldehyde indicates that this synthetic pathway is capable of autocatalysis. The relevance of this synthetic process, named the Sugar Model, to the origin of life is discussed.

  1. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  2. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D. N.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g., hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The ratio of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3) contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. As relative humidity (RH) increases, inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. The humid BA + N2O5 aerosol products were found to be very sensitive to the temperature at which the measurements were made within the streamwise continuous-flow thermal gradient CCN counter; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The variance of the measured aerosol κ values indicates that simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems' κ ranges within 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that aerosols formed via nighttime reactions with amines are likely to produce hygroscopic and volatile aerosol, whereas photochemical reactions with OH produce secondary organic aerosol of lower CCN activity. The contributions of semivolatile secondary organic and inorganic material from aliphatic amines must be considered for accurate hygroscopicity and CCN predictions from aliphatic amine systems.

  3. Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroamination of Unactivated Internal Olefins to Aliphatic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Herein, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins, an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals, into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥ 96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas. PMID:26138973

  4. Bi(OTf)3-Catalyzed One-Step Catalytic Synthesis of N-Boc or N-Cbz Protected α-Branched Amines.

    PubMed

    Jaratjaroonphong, Jaray; Tuengpanya, Surisa; Ruengsangtongkul, Sureeporn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, N-Boc and N-Cbz protected α-branched amines are synthesized directly from commercially available aromatic/heteroaromatic compounds, aldehydes, and tert-butyl or benzyl carbamate bearing a variety of substituents. Bismuth(III) triflate is found to be a highly effective catalyst for this one-pot, three-component coupling reaction. In addition, the use of mild reaction conditions, low catalytic loading, easy removal of the N-protective group, and one-step synthesis under "open-flask" are advantages of the present procedure. PMID:25479369

  5. Quantum transport through aromatic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Rey-González, R. R.; Laroze, D.

    2013-12-07

    In this paper, we study the electronic transport properties through aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. The molecules are in different geometrical configurations including arrays. Using a nearest neighbor tight-binding approach, the transport properties are analyzed into a Green's function technique within a real-space renormalization scheme. We calculate the transmission probability and the Current-Voltage characteristics as a function of a molecule-leads coupling parameter. Our results show different transport regimes for these systems, exhibiting metal-semiconductor-insulator transitions and the possibility to employ them in molecular devices.

  6. Role of amine structure on carbon dioxide adsorption from ultradilute gas streams such as ambient air.

    PubMed

    Didas, Stephanie A; Kulkarni, Ambarish R; Sholl, David S; Jones, Christopher W

    2012-10-01

    A fundamental study on the adsorption properties of primary, secondary, and tertiary amine materials is used to evaluate what amine type(s) are best suited for ultradilute CO(2) capture applications. A series of comparable materials comprised of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines ligated to a mesoporous silica support via a propyl linker are used to systematically assess the role of amine type. Both CO(2) and water adsorption isotherms are presented for these materials in the range relevant to CO(2) capture from ambient air and it is demonstrated that primary amines are the best candidates for CO(2) capture from air. Primary amines possess both the highest amine efficiency for CO(2) adsorption as well as enhanced water affinity compared to other amine types or the bare silica support. The results suggest that the rational design of amine adsorbents for the extraction of CO(2) from ambient air should focus on adsorbents rich in primary amines.

  7. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  8. Effects of amine molecular structure on carbon nanotubes functionalization.

    PubMed

    Jimeno, A; Goyanes, S; Eceiza, A; Kortaberria, G; Mondragon, I; Corcuera, M A

    2009-10-01

    Three amines with different molecular structure, triethylenetetramine (TETA) and two polyetheramines (Jeffamine D-230 and Jeffamine T-403) were employed to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) previously oxidized by acid treatment. The functionalized MWCNT were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and the surface modification was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to quantify the amount of amine groups anchored to MWCNTs. The results have shown that the efficiency of amine functionalization is in the order TETA > D-230 > T-403, thus showing that amine chemical structure and molecular weight are important parameters on functionalization of carbon nanotubes. PMID:19908518

  9. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  10. Quarternary Amines as Nitrosamine Precursors: A Role for Consumer Products?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrosamine formation is associated with wastewater-impacted water supplies, but the specific precursors within municipal wastewater effluents have not been identified. Quaternary amines are significant constituents of consumer products, including shampoos, detergents and fabric softeners. Experimen...

  11. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  12. Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi Heng; Wright, Stacy C.; Danzig, Morris; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2002-07-17

    A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

  13. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  14. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a lactone modified dispersant additive. It comprises one adduct of a polyolefin of 300 to 10,000 number average molecular weight substituted with at least 0.8 (e.g., from about 1 to 4) dicarboxylic acid producing moieties (preferably acid or anhydride moieties) per polyolefin molecule, an amido-amine or thioamido-amine characterized by being a reaction product of at least a polyamine and an alpha, beta-unsaturated compound.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that ...

  16. Biogenic amines in wines from three Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Landete, José M; Ferrer, Sergi; Polo, Lucía; Pardo, Isabel

    2005-02-23

    One hundred and sixty-three wines from La Rioja, Utiel-Requena, and Tarragona were analyzed to determine if there were any differences in the concentrations of six biogenic amines that are found in these three regions. The influence of grape variety, type of vinification, wine pH, malolactic fermentation, and storage in bottle on biogenic amine concentrations was studied. Results show important differences in putrescine and histamine concentrations among regions, varieties of grape, and type of wine; differences were less appreciable for the remaining biogenic amines studied. Low pH prevented biogenic amine formation. Malolactic fermentation and short storage periods in bottle (3-6 months) showed increases in histamine concentration, whereas longer periods of storage led to a general decrease in histamine. Several strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated in this work, and their ability to form biogenic amines was assayed in synthetic media, grape must, and wine. Grape varieties, different types of winemaking, pH, and lactic acid bacteria may be responsible for the differences observed in the biogenic amine concentrations of the wines analyzed.

  17. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  18. Beyond organic chemistry: aromaticity in atomic clusters.

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, Alexander I; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2016-04-28

    We describe joint experimental and theoretical studies carried out collaboratively in the authors' labs for understanding the structures and chemical bonding of novel atomic clusters, which exhibit aromaticity. The concept of aromaticity was first discovered to be useful in understanding the square-planar unit of Al4 in a series of MAl4(-) bimetallic clusters that led to discoveries of aromaticity in many metal cluster systems, including transition metals and similar cluster motifs in solid compounds. The concept of aromaticity has been found to be particularly powerful in understanding the stability and bonding in planar boron clusters, many of which have been shown to be analogous to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in their π bonding. Stimulated by the multiple aromaticity in planar boron clusters, a design principle has been proposed for stable metal-cerntered aromatic molecular wheels of the general formula, M@Bn(k-). A series of such borometallic aromatic wheel complexes have been produced in supersonic cluster beams and characterized experimentally and theoretically, including Ta@B10(-) and Nb@B10(-), which exhibit the highest coordination number in two dimensions.

  19. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2011-11-18

    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed.

  20. Aromatic Polyimides With Group VI Linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Ely, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    New polymer system combines thermal and solvent resistant properties of aromatic polyimides with processability of PPX polymers. PPX polymers include polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, and polyphenylene sulfone classes. Generally more processable by hot melt or thermoplastic techniques than aromatic polyimides. PPX systems more susceptible to attack by solvents and have lower glass transition temperatures than PI group.