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Sample records for aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations

  1. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by chemically modified silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskaya, G. I.; Olenin, A. Yu.; Vasil'Eva, S. Yu.

    2011-02-01

    The ability of silver nanoparticles stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to concentrate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous solutions was shown. It was found that fixed PAH molecules are capable of acting as electronic energy donors and of generating sensibilized fluorescence of silver nanoparticles. It was shown by spectral-luminescent investigations of dilute PAH solutions (5 × 10-10-1 × 10-6 g/ml) in the presence of silver nanoparticles (˜0.7 vol %) that the concentration of PAH molecules from solutions occurs due to its sorption on hydrocarbon CTAB radicals in close contact to the surface of metallic silver. On the basis of the spectral data, the sorption isotherms were obtained and the values of extraction degree and partition coefficients for naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, chrysene, pyrene, and 3,4-benzopyrene were calculated. It was found that the degree of extraction values of the investigated PAHs fall within the range of 73-98%, the partition coefficients (log D) ˜ 6, and the concentration coefficients ˜105.

  2. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in transportation microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun; Yang, Dongwoo; Jaimes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    This study is one of the first case studies to characterize the exposure of urban residents to traffic-related air pollution across locations and transportation microenvironments during everyday activities. Twenty-four adult residents of Boyle Heights, a neighborhood near downtown Los Angeles, carried a portable air pollution monitor and a Global Positioning Systems (GPS) tracking device for a total of 96 days. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pPAH) concentrations in transportation microenvironments. Average pPAH concentrations were higher while walking outdoors (190 ng m-3) compared to traveling in private passenger vehicles (138-155 ng m-3) or traveling in public transportation (61-124 ng m-3). Although travel comprised 5% of participant days, it was associated with 27% of overall daily pPAH exposure. Regression models explained 40-55% of the variation in daily average pPAH concentrations, and 40-44% of the variation in 1-min interval concentrations. Important factors included time spent traveling, travel speed, meteorological and nearby land use factors, time of day, and proximity to roadways. Although future research is needed to develop stronger predictive models, our study demonstrates portable tracking devices can provide a more complete, diurnal characterization of air pollution exposures for urban populations.

  3. Background'' soil concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Burlington, Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, R.L.; Sparks, M.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) were identified in soils from waterfront industrial land in Burlington prior to conversion to a park. PAH's ranged from 2,457 to 16,005 ppb. As a result, this area was placed on the Vt. DEC list of active'' hazardous sites. The few studies available regarding background concentrations of PAH's (i.e. ATSDR, 1990), suggested that the waterfront PAH values were low for urban soils. To provide a context for evaluating the waterfront PAH concentrations, a background study of soils in the City of Burlington was conducted. Twelve composite soil samples were collected from within a 1-mile radius of the proposed park; an area that encompasses a large portion of the City. To correlate PAH concentrations with land-uses, three samples were collected from each of four zones: industrial, mixed commercial-residential, residential and recreational. Samples (and one field blank) were analyzed via EPA method 8100. Total PAH's from the study ranged from 105.7 to 122,035 ppb. The minimum value was from a baseball field; the maximum value from a residential lawn. The arithmetic mean for the Burlington study was 19,380 ppb (compared to 10,530 ppb for the waterfront). The background'' values indicate that the waterfront park soils are below the study background'' mean. It is difficult to assess the origin of the elevated PAH values because of the numerous contributors of environmental PAH. One common element that appears to characterize soils with the highest background'' PAH values is linkage to recent or historic building fires. In many instances building combustion may be a dominant local source of soil PAH's.

  4. Atmospheric concentrations of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons around a Greek oil refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalabokas, P. D.; Hatzianestis, J.; Bartzis, J. G.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.

    Petroleum refineries are large industrial installations that are responsible for the emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons are among the most important air pollutants that are emitted by petroleum refineries, since they are involved in almost every refinery process. The ambient air concentrations of many saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in several sites around an oil refinery, near the city of Corinth in Greece, during 1997. At the same time several meteorological parameters were also recorded. The seasonal, diurnal and spatial variations of the ambient air concentrations of these hydrocarbons were investigated and analyzed. An estimation of the contribution of the refinery to the measured atmospheric levels of hydrocarbons was also performed. The ambient air mixing ratios of the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in a large area outside the refinery were generally low, in ppbv range, much lower than the ambient air quality standards or the ambient air concentrations in the two largest urban centers in Greece, Athens and Thessaloniki.

  5. Anomalously high efficiencies for electronic energy transfer from saturated to aromatic hydrocarbons at low aromatic concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Yiming Wang; Johnston, D.B.; Lipsky, S. )

    1993-01-14

    The absolute efficiency of electric energy transfer from cis-decalin excited at 161 nm to 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) has been measured over a PPO concentration range from 1.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] to 2.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] M via measurements of both the cis-decalin and the PPO fluorescence. At concentrations above ca. 10[sup [minus]3] M, the normal fluorescing state of cis-decalin plays the dominant role in the energy transfer. At lower concentrations, however, there appears to be an important contribution from some other nonfluorescing state of cis-decalin. The fraction of PPO fluorescence generated by this dark state rises from ca.10% at 0.01 M to ca. 70% at 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] M. The effects of addition of O[sub 2] of dilution with isooctane, and of cooling to [minus]35[degrees]C on the quantum yield of this process are reported. The results obtained here confirm earlier results with other saturated hydrocarbon donor + aromatic acceptor systems that have suggested the existence of a dark donor state that dominates the transfer process at low acceptor concentrations via some anomalously efficient mechanism. For the system cis-decalin + PPO at 21[degrees]C, the transfer probability for this process at the lowest concentration studied of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] M is 2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] per photon absorbed and 0.060 per dark state produced. 34 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. A STUDY OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN GAS WORKS RETORT HOUSES

    PubMed Central

    Lawther, P. J.; Commins, B. T.; Waller, R. E.

    1965-01-01

    Measurements of the concentration of 3:4-benzpyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been made in gas works retort houses of several types. The tarry fumes which escaped from retorts contained extremely high concentrations of polycyclic hydrocarbons, but in general men were only exposed to these very briefly. The mean concentration of 3:4-benzpyrene determined from long-period samples at sites representative of normal working conditions in three works was 3 μg./m.3, over 100 times the normal level in the City of London. Above the retorts in an old horizontal retort house the concentration was over 200 μg./m.3, about 10,000 times that in the City, and the `top-man' working there could be exposed to this in the normal course of his duty. We found no working areas in the vertical retort houses where men could be exposed to such massive concentrations of polycyclic hydrocarbons. Apart from defining these special conditions above horizontal retorts our results did not reveal any gross differences in pollution of the general air in horizontal and continuous vertical retort houses. Images PMID:14261701

  7. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poor, Noreen; Tremblay, Raphael; Kay, Heidi; Bhethanabotla, Venkat; Swartz, Erick; Luther, Mark; Campbell, Scott

    2004-11-01

    Sampling of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the Gandy Bridge monitoring site between May and August 2002 provided preliminary ambient air concentrations and dry deposition rates for Tampa Bay. The HiC-IOGAPS dramatically improved the recovery of lower molecular weight gas and particle PAHs, as evidenced by the recoveries of PAHs in back-up denuders and filter packs. Total PAH (gas+particle) concentrations ranged from 80 to 190 ng m-3. Concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were consistently higher than concentrations of the remaining 10 PAHs. Assuming an unidirectional flux of these compounds from air to water, the estimated total (gas+particle) dry deposition flux was 11.5 μg m-2 d-1, or 6.7 μg m-2 d-1 if naphthalene is excluded.

  8. Concentration and particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed by thermal cooking.

    PubMed

    Saito, E; Tanaka, N; Miyazaki, A; Tsuzaki, M

    2014-06-15

    The concentration and particle size distribution of 19 major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by thermal cooking were investigated. Corn, trout, beef, prawns, and pork were selected for grilling. The PAHs in the oil mist emitted when the food was grilled were collected according to particle size range and analysed by GC/MS. Much higher concentrations of PAHs were detected in the oil mist emitted by grilled pork, trout, and beef samples, which were rich in fat. The main components of the cooking exhaust were 3- and 4-ring PAHs, regardless of food type. The particle size distribution showed that almost all the PAHs were concentrated in particles with diameters of <0.43 μm. For pork, the toxic equivalent of benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 50% of the PAHs in particles with diameters of <0.43 μm. From these results, we estimated that >90% of the PAHs would reach the alveolar region of the lungs.

  9. Effect of concentration on sequestration and bioavailability of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, N.; Alexander, M.

    1999-10-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of concentration on sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. The compounds at 1.0, 10, and 100 mg/kg of soil became increasingly resistant to a mild solvent extraction and progressively less bioavailable to earthworms (Eisenia foetida) as a result of aging for 120 days. Aging also resulted in both compounds at 1.0 and 10 mg/kg and phenanthrene but not pyrene at 100 mg/kg becoming more resistant to microbial degradation. Increasing the concentration led to an increase in the percentages of the unaged and aged compounds that were susceptible to microbial degradation. Some of each of the two compounds was still available to earthworms following biodegradation. The data show that sequestration of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurs at both low and high concentrations.

  10. Regionalized concentrations and fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd M; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Samples of 474 forest stands in Germany were analysed for concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three sampling depths. Enhanced concentrations were mainly found at spots relatively close to densely industrialized and urbanized regions and at some topographically elevated areas. Average enrichment factors between mineral soil and humic layer depend on humus type i.e. decrease from mull via moder to mor. Based on their compound-patterns, the observed samples could be assigned to three main clusters. For some parts of our study area a uniform assignment of samples to clusters over larger regions could be identified. For instance, samples taken at vicinity to brown-coal strip-mining districts are characterized by high relative abundances of low-molecular-weight PAHs. These results suggest that PAHs are more likely originated from local and regional emitters rather than from long-range transport and that specific source-regions can be identified based on PAH fingerprints. PMID:25863006

  11. Regionalized concentrations and fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd M; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Samples of 474 forest stands in Germany were analysed for concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three sampling depths. Enhanced concentrations were mainly found at spots relatively close to densely industrialized and urbanized regions and at some topographically elevated areas. Average enrichment factors between mineral soil and humic layer depend on humus type i.e. decrease from mull via moder to mor. Based on their compound-patterns, the observed samples could be assigned to three main clusters. For some parts of our study area a uniform assignment of samples to clusters over larger regions could be identified. For instance, samples taken at vicinity to brown-coal strip-mining districts are characterized by high relative abundances of low-molecular-weight PAHs. These results suggest that PAHs are more likely originated from local and regional emitters rather than from long-range transport and that specific source-regions can be identified based on PAH fingerprints.

  12. A survey on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soil in Chiang-Mai, Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Amagai, Takashi; Takahashi, Yukari; Matsushita, Hidetsuru; Morknoy, D.; Sukasem, P.; Taucanon, M.

    1999-07-01

    Soil samples were collected at 30 sampling sites along roadsides in the city of Chiang-Mai, Thailand, in February 1996, and concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The distribution of PAH concentration in the soil samples was almost log-normal for all PAHs. Concentrations of pyrene (Py) and fluoranthene (Fluor) were the highest, followed by those of benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene (Cor). Since PAH concentrations were highest on the roadside where the traffic density was high, vehicles were the main determinants of PAH concentration in soil in Chiang-Mai. Significant correlations among PAH concentrations were found for almost all PAHs. PAH profiles in the air were different from those in the soil. For example, relative benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentration in the soil was significantly lower than that in the air. Relative concentrations of Fluor, Py, chrysene, and Cor in the soil were considerably higher than those in the air, due presumably to their difference in photochemical reactivities and in sources. The sampling of soil has advantages relative to that of air: (1) collection of soil is easy; (2) it needs no special equipment and electricity; (3) it takes little time; and (4) it can be collected anywhere. Therefore PAH analysis in soil was useful as a proxy-screening tool for air pollution levels with consideration of compositional differences between soil and air samples.

  13. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soils in the Region of Valasske Mezirici, the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of urban, agricultural and forest soil samples was investigated from samples obtained in the surroundings of Valasske Mezirici. Valasske Mezirici is a town located in the north-east mountainous part of the Czech Republic, where a coal tar refinery is situated. 16 PAHs listed in the US EPA were investigated. Organic oxidizable carbon was also observed in the forest soils. The PAH concentrations ranged from 0.86-10.84 (with one anomalous value of 35.14) and 7.66-79.39 mg/kg dm in the urban/agricultural and forest soils, respectively. While the PAH levels in the urban/agricultural soils are within the range typically found in industrialized areas, the forest soils showed elevated PAH concentrations compared to other forest soils in Western and Northern Europe. The PAH concentrations and their molecular distribution ratios were studied as functions of the sample location and the meteorological history. The soils from localities at higher altitudes above sea level have the highest PAH concentrations, and the PAH concentrations decrease with increasing distance from the town. PMID:20003407

  14. Modeling the changes in the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons from an oil-coated gravel column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a lab-scale flow-through exposure system designed for the evaluation of ecotoxicity due to oil spills was evaluated. The system simulates a spill event using an oil-coated gravel column through which filtered seawater is passed and flows into an aquarium containing fish embryos of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculates). The dissolved concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the column effluent were monitored and compared with theoretical solubilities predicted by Raoult's law. The effluent concentrations after 24 and 48 h were close to the theoretical predictions for the higher molecular weight PAHs, whereas the measured values for the lower molecular weight PAHs were lower than predicted. The ratios of the concentration of PAHs in flounder embryos to that in seawater were close to the lipid-water partition coefficients for the less hydrophobic PAHs, showing that equilibrium was attained between embryos and water. On the other hand, 48 h were insufficient to attain phase equilibrium for the more hydrophobic PAHs, indicating that the concentration in fish embryos may be lower than expected by equilibrium assumption. The results indicate that the equilibrium approach may be suitable for less hydrophobic PAHs, whereas it might overestimate the effects of more hydrophobic PAHs after oil spills because phase equilibrium in an oil-seawater-biota system is unlikely to be achieved. The ecotoxicological endpoints that were affected within a few days are likely to be influenced mainly by moderately hydrophobic components such as 3-ring PAHs.

  15. A Community Woodstove Changeout and Impact on Ambient Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Phenolics

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Tony J.; Palmer, Christopher P.; Houck, James E.; Navidi, William C.; Geinitz, Steve; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2009-01-01

    A large woodstove changeout program was carried out in Libby, Montana with the goal of reducing ambient levels of PM2.5. This provided researchers the opportunity to measure ambient concentrations of phenolic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) before, during, and after the changeout of nearly 1,200 stoves to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Starting in the heating season of 2004/2005 and ending in heating season 2007/2008, 19 compounds were measured every three days using a hivol polyurethane foam (PUF) sampler, followed by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry analysis. Some of the organic species with the highest measured concentrations were also signature chemical markers for wood combustion. When comparing the measurements conducted during the heating season of 2004/2005 (pre-changeout) to the heating season of 2007/2008 (post-changeout), there was a 64% average reduction in the measured concentrations of phenolics and PAHs, while PM2.5 mass dropped by only 20% over the same time period. The results of this four-year sampling program suggest that the Libby woodstove changeout program was successful in reducing overall concentrations of the measured phenolic and PAH compounds. PMID:19708364

  16. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the Great Lakes atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Sun; Pierrette Blanchard; Kenneth A. Brice; Ronald A. Hites

    2006-10-15

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentrations were measured in both the vapor and particle phases at seven sites near the Great Lakes as a part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network. Lower molecular weight PAHs, including fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, and pyrene, were dominant in the vapor phase, and higher molecular weight PAHs, including chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and coronene, were dominant in the particle phase. The highest PAH concentrations in both the vapor and particle phases were observed in Chicago followed by the semiurban site at Sturgeon Point, NY. The major sources of PAHs in and around Chicago are vehicle emissions, coal and natural gas combustion, and coke production. The spatial difference of PAH concentrations can be explained by the local population density. Long-term decreasing trends of most PAH concentrations were observed in both the vapor and particle phases at Chicago, with half-lives ranging from 3-10 years in the vapor phase and 5-15 years in the particle phase. At Eagle Harbor, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and Sturgeon Point, total PAH concentrations in the vapor phase showed significant, but slow, long-term decreasing trends. At the Sturgeon Point site, which was impacted by a nearby city, particle-phase PAH concentrations also declined. However, most particle-phase PAH concentrations did not show significant long-term decreasing trends at the remote sites. Seasonal trends were also observed for particle-phase PAH concentrations, which were higher in the winter and lower in the summer. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust in China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yi-Fan

    2014-09-01

    Indoor dust samples were collected across China in the winter of 2010 from 45 private domiciles and 36 public buildings. 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by GC-MS. Total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.00 μg/g to 470 μg/g with a mean value of 30.9 μg/g. High-molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) are the predominant PAHs found in indoor dust, accounting for 68% of the total PAH concentration in private domiciles, and 84.6% in public buildings. Traffic conditions and cooking methods were the two key factors controlling PAH levels, especially for coal combustion and vehicular traffic emission sources. A significant positive correlation was observed between PAH concentrations in indoor dust and based on location (latitude and longitude). The latitudinal distribution indicated a higher usage of coal for heating in Northern China than in Southern China. The longitudinal distribution indicated that the usage of oil and mineral fuels as well as economic development and population density increased from West China to East China. In addition, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to explore source apportion, as indicated in both the pyrogenic and petrogenic sources of PAHs in indoor dust in China. Furthermore, the BaP equivalent was applied to assess the carcinogenic risk of PAHs, which also indicated that traffic emissions and coal combustion were the two major contributions to carcinogenic risk of PAHs in indoor dust in China.

  18. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban green spaces of Beijing: concentration, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban green spaces of Beijing: concentration, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored. PMID:27502522

  1. Photochemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cosmic Water Ice: The Role of PAH Ionization and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Ricca, Alessandra; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Bouwman, Jordy; Roser, Joseph; Linnartz, Harold; Bregman, Jonathan; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H2O, pyrene:H2O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H2O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H2O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H2O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) n ] and quinones [PAH(O) n ] for all PAH:H2O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati & Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO2 and H2CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) n and PAH(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ~2%-4% level relative to H2O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  2. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dust and surface soil: comparisons of concentration, profile, and source.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Yang, Meng; Jia, Hong-Liang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Yi-Fan

    2009-02-01

    Street dust and surface soil samples in urban areas of Dalian, a coastal city in Liaoning Province, China, were collected and analyzed for 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations, distribution, and sources of PAHs in dust and soil were determined. The concentrations of total PAHs in street dust ranged between 1890 and 17,070 ng/g (dry weight), with an average of 7460 ng/g, whereas the concentrations of total PAHs in surface soil varied greatly, from 650 to 28,900 ng/g, with a mean value of 6440 ng/g. Statistical paired t-test confirmed that total PAH concentrations have no significant difference between street dust and surface soil. Mean PAH concentrations in two type samples were much higher at industrial sites than at business/residential or garden sites. PAHs were dominated by higher molecular weight PAH (4- to 6-ring) homologues, which accounted for about 73% and 72% of total PAHs in street dust and surface soil, respectively. Principal component analysis was used in source apportionment of PAHs in dust and soil. Pyrogenic and petrogenic sources contributed 70% and 22.4% of total PAHs in street dusts, and fossil fuel (coal and petroleum) and biomass combustion accounted for 64.4% and 5.6% of total PAHs in pyrogenic sources, respectively. In surface soil, total PAHs were dominated by pyrogenic sources. The diagnostic ratios of benz[a]anthracene/chrysene confirmed that PAHs in street dust and surface soil of a Dalian urban zone might come mostly from the emission of local sources.

  4. Development and validation of a new bitumen fume generation system which generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations proportional to fume concentrations.

    PubMed

    Binet, S; Bonnet, P; Brandt, H; Castegnaro, M; Delsaut, P; Fabries, J F; Huynh, C K; Lafontaine, M; Morel, G; Nunge, H; Rihn, B; Vu Duc, T; Wrobel, R

    2002-10-01

    Bitumen fumes emitted during road paving and roofing contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of potential health concern. Little information is available for an experimental device devoted to inhalation experiments with animals exposed to bitumen fumes, and in all studies the systems were never validated for a range of fume concentrations, which prohibited their use for toxicological concentration-effect studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to validate a new experimental device able to generate bitumen fumes at different total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations with a linear correlation between TPM and the concentrations of different PACs, thus allowing toxicological dose-response studies with fumes representative of those in the field. Atmosphere samples collected from an animal exposure chamber allowed the determination of TPM, toluene soluble matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatiles. The particulate size distributions were determined in order to assess the deposition pattern in the respiratory tract. The temperature of 170 degrees C was chosen by analogy with the upper range of the temperature used during paving operations. The temperature of the air passing over the fume emission area was regulated to 20 degrees C and stirring of the heated bitumen was restricted to 90 r.p.m. The data show that the objective of developing a static fume generation system that reproducibly produces fumes in the inhalation chamber for specified target concentrations (TPM) were successful. The within-day variation coefficients for TPM were between 2.5 and 6.1%. The day-to-day variations for TPM concentration were between 4.1 and 5.8%. The concentrations of the 4-5 ring PAHs and the polycyclic aromatic sulphur heterocycles were proportional to the TPM concentration. The 2 and 3 ring PAH concentrations showed a deviation from proportionality with the TPM, probably due to their re-evaporation during sampling. The mass median aerodynamic

  5. Spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations at surface sediments from the Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean): relation to ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Darılmaz, Enis; Kontaş, Aynur; Uluturhan, Esin; Akçalı, Idil; Altay, Oya

    2013-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the distribution, sources, origins, and environmental risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 US EPA priority pollutants) pollution in 23 surface sediments from Cyprus coast. The mean total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the sediments from Gemi Konagi, Girne and Gazi Magusa areas were found 47, 52 and 50 ng/g, respectively. Molecular ratios and principle component analysis indicated that PAH pollution originated mainly from fossil sources, with higher pyrolytic contributions. The 2-3 ring PAHs were dominant in Cyprus sediments. Concentrations of PAHs observed in this study were compared with available soil quality guidelines and the concentrations were lower than the guideline values. The guideline values suggested that the Cyprus sediments were likely to be not contaminated by toxic PAH compounds. PMID:23948089

  6. Characterization and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from different heating systems in Damascus, Syria.

    PubMed

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China): concentrations, fluxes, and fate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Guan, Yu-Feng; Ni, Hong-Gang; Luo, Xian-Lin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2007-08-15

    On the basis of a monthly sampling effort from March 2005 to February 2006, the total concentrations of the sums of 27 and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (defined as sigma27PAHs and sigma15PAHs, respectively) in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, and associated fluxes were determined. No clear temporal and spatial trends of PAH concentrations were found at all eight riverine runoff outlets where the samples were collected. The annual fluxes of sigma27PAHs and sigma15PAHs from the PRD to the coastal ocean were 60.2 and 33.9 metric tons, respectively. Assuming that riverine flux was positively related to the regional emission of PAHs, the annual riverine fluxes from five major rivers in China to the global oceans were estimated, which are quite significant relative to other major rivers of the world. On the basis of mass balance considerations, approximately 87% of sigma15PAHs inputting to the Pearl River Estuary and northern South China Sea was derived from riverine runoff from the PRD. In addition, approcimately 22.3 metric tons of sigma15PAHs annually outflow to open seas, which is equivalent to a concentration of 0.34 pg/L in the global oceans if the PAHs are evenly distributed in the upper 200 m of the water column. A comparison with the global background level of PAHs indicated that approximately 0.4% of PAHs in the open oceans may have been contributed by 1-year discharge from the PRD.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels on the Korean peninsula between 2006 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang Thi; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, C-J; Oh, J-M

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds - benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHRY), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DahA), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (I123P), and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) - in air were measured as the sum of gas and particle fractions at 32 monitoring stations dispersed across Korea during a 2-year period (February 2006 to January 2008). The data sets were collected at intervals of 1 day (24 h) per month from each monitoring station. According to our analysis, the spatial distribution of PAH is distinguished by manmade activities between different land use types. Evaluation of total PAH (T-PAH) concentration levels, which were derived by summing up all individual compounds, revealed that the T-PAH value varied on the order of commercial (4.85 + or - 4.40 ng m(-3)) rural (4.42 + or - 2.73 ng m(-3)), industrial (4.27 + or - 1.79 ng m(-3)), greenland (3.09 + or - 3.86 ng m(-3)), and background (2.60 + or - 2.54 ng m(-3)) areas. The PAH values, when compared across seasons, tend to peak consistently during the winter (or spring) due to the active consumption of fossil fuels. The overall results of this study confirm that the pollution status of PAH compounds are clearly discernible not only between areas with different levels of anthropogenic activities, but also between periods with changes in environmental conditions. PMID:20062948

  9. Silicone rubber passive samplers for measuring pore water and exchangeable concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments.

    PubMed

    Yates, Kyari; Pollard, Pat; Davies, Ian; Webster, Lynda; Moffat, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The use of a silicone rubber passive sampler for the assessment of the availability of lipophilic organic contaminants in sediments is described. The passive sampler accumulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments with an equilibration time of 20 days for most PAHs. The method was used to measure the free dissolved concentrations in pore water of 30 PAHs (parent and alkylated), their water exchangeable concentrations and sediment-water partition coefficients in field sediments from a Scottish sea loch that supports fish farming. Fluoranthene and pyrene dominated the PAH concentration composition in the pore waters. The water exchangeable concentration reflected the pyrogenic pollution pattern found in the sediments and indicated that a proportion of the PAHs were not available for exchange with the aqueous phase. Strong linear relationships between organic carbon normalised sediment-water partition coefficients (logK(oc)) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients of PAHs were obtained. The logK(oc) values obtained are on average, 0.6 log units higher than literature values commonly used in sediment risk assessments, consequently direct measurements of logK(oc) in field sediments should be used to improve the reliability of risk assessments. PMID:23872250

  10. Evaluation of ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany from 1990 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Fertmann, Regina; Tesseraux, Irene; Schümann, Michael; Neus, Hermann

    2002-03-01

    All available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration data in ambient air obtained over the past 10 years in Germany were evaluated to clarify whether it is justified to use benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker compound for the total PAH exposure. The data basis comprises annual mean concentrations from 1990 to 1998 supplied by the emission protection authorities of the federal states with additional information on the region, year and site of measurement. The data are very heterogeneous with respect to sample size, the number of individual PAHs analyzed, place of origin and year. Nine of 25 individual compounds with sufficient sample size (74concentration data of BaA, BeP, BaP, DBA, BghiP, COR, BbF, BkF and INP are not normally distributed and demonstrate great variability. Location, East-West differences persisting after the German reunion and time characterize the distributive patterns, e.g., from 1991 to 1997, a significant decrease in BaP could be determined based on the data from North Rhine-Westphalia (1991, N=51, median 1.6 ng/m(3); 1997, N=45, median 0.7 ng/m(3); Pconcentrations in the new federal states in the East (N=80, median 2.2 ng/m(3)) are about twice as high compared to the ones in the old federal states in the West (N=438, median 1.1 ng/m(3); P

  11. Assessment of concentration, bioaccumulation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay.

    PubMed

    Ziyaadini, Morteza; Mehdinia, Ali; Khaleghi, Leila; Nassiri, Mahmoud

    2016-06-15

    The amounts and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the zooplankton community of Chabahar Bay were investigated. The highest amounts of total PAHs (tPAHs) in the water and zooplankton samples were 62.2ngL(-1) and 1478.6ngg(-1) dry weights, in near the Shahid Beheshti Port and desalination, respectively. The greatest amount of BAF (51,780) was obtained in the entry of Bay, and it was related to the phenanthrene accumulation. Using molecular ratio, the results showed that the major input source of PAH compounds in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay was pyrolytic (fuel) source.

  12. Seasonal change in the atmospheric concentration of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Mio, Chihiro; Fujimori, Keiichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Shibutani, Yasuhiko; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We analyzed atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for 19 months. The average concentrations of total PAHs at dry and rainy seasons were 4.28 +/- 2.83 and 15.71 +/- 8.21 ng m(-3), respectively. The use of motorcycles without catalytic converters, estimated to be main emission sources of PAHs, would be higher during the dry season. PAH concentrations show a negative correlation with sunshine duration (r = -0.51). Furthermore, the ratio of average PAH concentration in the dry season to that in the rainy season shows a positive correlation with photolytic half-life (r = 0.94). Thus, seasonal changes in PAH concentrations are attributable to their photolytic degradation. PMID:19471847

  13. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C.; Ball, J.C.; Stevens, R.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  14. City centre concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using supercritical fluid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Alastair C.; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Bartle, Keith D.; Pilling, Michael J.

    A method has been developed to allow routine quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in urban dust particulates with a 12 h sampling time. Supercritical CO 2 with polar modifier was used for extraction from sampling media and subsequent sample clean-up and analysis was performed using on-line HPLC-GC. Recoveries of PAH from a NIST certified urban dust sample SRM1649 were comparable with those quoted by NIST. A sample of data from three continuous monitoring programs of particulate phase PAH is presented along with accompanying results from ambient gas analysis of NO x, SO 2, O 3, and CO. One sampling period includes a meteorological temperature inversion, when PAH levels rose to 6-7 times their mean values. Pearson correlation coefficients have been calculated to test for correlations between PAH levels and other atmospheric pollutants. The PAH show a very strong correlation within a given ring group and strong correlation between ring groups. The temporal variations of the PAH are also quite closely correlated with NO x and CO.

  15. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  17. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts. PMID:27498800

  18. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

  19. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  20. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  1. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  2. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois: 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, R.T.; Arnold, T.L.; Cannon, W.F.; Graham, D.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of ambient surface soils were collected from 56 locations in Chicago, Illinois, using stratified random sampling techniques and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and inorganic constituents. PAHs appear to be derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels and may be affected by proximity to industrial operations, but do not appear to be substantially affected by the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to nonindustrial land uses, or proximity to a roadway. Atmospheric settling of particulate matter appears to be an important mechanism for the placement of PAH compounds into soils. Concentrations of most inorganic constituents are affected primarily by soil-forming processes. Concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium are elevated in ambient surface soils in Chicago in comparison to the surrounding area, indicating anthropogenic sources for these elements in Chicago soils. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in Chicago soils appear to reflect the influence of the carbonate bedrock parent material on the chemical composition of the soil, although the effects of concrete and road fill cannot be discounted. Concentrations of inorganic constituents appear to be largely unaffected by the type of nearby land use. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Predicting Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Resident Aquatic Organisms Using Passive Samplers and Partial Least-Squares Calibration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current work sought to develop predictive models between time-weighted average polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the freely dissolved phase and those present in resident aquatic organisms. We deployed semipermeable membrane passive sampling devices (SPMDs) and collected resident crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) at nine locations within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Mega-site in Portland, OR. Study results show that crayfish and aqueous phase samples collected within the Mega-site had PAH profiles enriched in high molecular weight PAHs and that freely dissolved PAH profiles tended to be more populated by low molecular weight PAHs compared to crayfish tissues. Results also show that of several modeling approaches, a two-factor partial least-squares (PLS) calibration model using detection limit substitution provided the best predictive power for estimating PAH concentrations in crayfish, where the model explained ≥72% of the variation in the data set and provided predictions within ∼3× of measured values. Importantly, PLS calibration provided a means to estimate PAH concentrations in tissues when concentrations were below detection in the freely dissolved phase. The impact of measurements below detection limits is discussed. PMID:24800862

  4. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p < 0.05), and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs. During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket. PMID:23923426

  5. The effect of EURO-0 vehicle substitution on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide concentrations in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Federico; Stella, Anna; Pala, Mauro; Balducci, Daniele; Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Cipolla, Massimo

    From 1994 to 2003, daily air concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbon monoxide (CO) were regularly monitored at two traffic-oriented sampling sites (A and B) in urban Genoa, Italy. The data were used to estimate effects on air quality in real situations due to progressive substitution of EURO-0 vehicles, started in 1993, with less-polluting vehicles (EURO-1, EURO-2), mainly gasoline vehicles with a catalyst. PAH profile classification and diagnostic PAH ratios were used to identify 345 samples of predominantly traffic origin. At both sites, CO and PAH daily concentrations decreased exponentially with time and the apparent half-life values calculated were 6.3 and 5.5 for CO and 3.7 and 3.5 years for PAHs at sites A and B, respectively. At site A, monitored for traffic intensity, multiple regression analyses confirmed that daily PAH and CO concentrations were positively correlated with the number of non-catalytic vehicles estimated to cross this site during sampling and negatively correlated with seasonal variables (air temperature, ozone concentration, relative air humidity). The reduction in air pollution estimated for complete substitution of non-catalytic gasoline vehicles was 89% for BaP, 85% for total PAHs and 69% for CO.

  6. Concentrations, Source and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuyi; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples collected from Midway Atoll and evaluate their potential risks to human health. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 3.55 to 3200 µg kg−1 with a mean concentration of 198 µg kg−1. Higher molecular weight PAHs (4–6 ring PAHs) dominated the PAH profiles, accounting for 83.3% of total PAH mass. PAH diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that primary sources of PAHs in Midway Atoll could be combustion. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in most of the study area (86.5%) was less than 40 µg kg−1 BaPeq and total incremental lifetime cancer risks of PAHs ranged from 1.00×10−10 to 9.20×10−6 with a median value of 1.24×10−7, indicating a minor carcinogenic risk of PAHs in Midway Atoll. PMID:24466100

  7. Developing risk-based target concentrations for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds assuming human consumption of aquatic biota.

    PubMed

    Petito Boyce, Catherine; Garry, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As part of the remediation process at a former creosote-handling facility in Washington, target groundwater concentrations were developed as goals for the planned cleanup efforts. Considering state regulatory requirements and site-specific conditions, these concentrations were established to protect surface water in the lake adjacent to the site. These risk-based values were calculated assuming that chemicals will (1) be transported in groundwater, (2) discharge into the lake, and (3) be taken up by aquatic organisms that may be consumed by humans. Among the primary chemicals driving remediation decisions at this site are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (cPAH) compounds, which have limited environmental mobility and are metabolized by many types of potentially edible aquatic organisms. This work included assessing the validity for cPAH compounds of the required default regulatory assumptions and deriving alternative risk-based concentrations. These analyses focused on factors that would modify the generic assumption regarding bioconcentration of cPAH compounds in aquatic biota and influence bioavailability of cPAH compounds to humans consuming the biota. Modifications based on these factors and the use of toxicity equivalency factors resulted in alternative risk-based concentrations for individual cPAH compounds that ranged from approximately 7 to 700 times greater than the default value of 0.03 microg/l.

  8. Variations of Flame Retardant, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, and Pesticide Concentrations in Chicago's Atmosphere Measured using Passive Sampling.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; Ma, Yuning; Venier, Marta; Rodenburg, Zachary; Spak, Scott N; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides were measured using passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam disks to find spatial information in and around Chicago, Illinois. Samplers were deployed around the greater Chicago area for intervals of 6 weeks from 2012 to 2013 (inclusive). Volumes were calculated using passive sampling theory and were based on meteorology and the compounds' octanol-air partition coefficients. Geometric mean concentrations of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers ranged from 11 to 150 pg/m3, and tributyl phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate concentrations were in the ranges of 54-290, 32-340, 130-580, and 170-580 pg/m3, respectively. The summed concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 8700 to 52,000 pg/m3 over the sampling area, and DDT, chlordane, and endosulfan concentrations were in the ranges of 2.7-9.9, 8.2-66, and 16-85 pg/m3, respectively. Sampling sites were split into two groups depending on their distances from the Illinois Institute of Technology campus in Chicago. With a few exceptions, the concentrations of most compound groups in the city's center were the same or slightly higher than those measured >45 km away. The data also showed that the concentrations measured with a passive atmospheric sampling system are in good agreement with those measured with an active, high-volume, sampling system. Given that the sampling times are different (passive, 43 days; active, 1 day), and that both of these measured concentrations cover about 5 orders of magnitude, the agreement between these passive and active sampling methods is excellent.

  9. Variations of Flame Retardant, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, and Pesticide Concentrations in Chicago's Atmosphere Measured using Passive Sampling.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; Ma, Yuning; Venier, Marta; Rodenburg, Zachary; Spak, Scott N; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides were measured using passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam disks to find spatial information in and around Chicago, Illinois. Samplers were deployed around the greater Chicago area for intervals of 6 weeks from 2012 to 2013 (inclusive). Volumes were calculated using passive sampling theory and were based on meteorology and the compounds' octanol-air partition coefficients. Geometric mean concentrations of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers ranged from 11 to 150 pg/m3, and tributyl phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate concentrations were in the ranges of 54-290, 32-340, 130-580, and 170-580 pg/m3, respectively. The summed concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 8700 to 52,000 pg/m3 over the sampling area, and DDT, chlordane, and endosulfan concentrations were in the ranges of 2.7-9.9, 8.2-66, and 16-85 pg/m3, respectively. Sampling sites were split into two groups depending on their distances from the Illinois Institute of Technology campus in Chicago. With a few exceptions, the concentrations of most compound groups in the city's center were the same or slightly higher than those measured >45 km away. The data also showed that the concentrations measured with a passive atmospheric sampling system are in good agreement with those measured with an active, high-volume, sampling system. Given that the sampling times are different (passive, 43 days; active, 1 day), and that both of these measured concentrations cover about 5 orders of magnitude, the agreement between these passive and active sampling methods is excellent. PMID:25874663

  10. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-03-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57-410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01-9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters. PMID:25549861

  11. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-03-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57-410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01-9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters.

  12. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  13. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Their potential health risks and sources at three non-urban sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Waqar A; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2016-09-18

    This investigation was undertaken to monitor particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in order to determine their emission sources and potential human health risks in remote and rural areas of Japan. Seventeen PAHs in aerosol samples collected in remote (Kamihaya), coastal (Hiki) and inland (Higashi-Hiroshima) areas of Japan during 2013-2014 were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total PAH (Σ17PAH) concentrations in aerosol samples were in the range of 0.08-6.51 ng m(-3), 0.09-4.74 ng m(-3), and 0.21-6.53 ng m(-3) at Kamihaya, Hiki, and Higashi-Hiroshima sites, with mean concentrations of 1.63, 1.18, and 2.43 ng m(-3), respectively. Significant seasonal variation in concentrations occurred at Hiki and Higashi-Hiroshima, while no significant variation occurred at Kamihaya. Ambient air temperature greatly affected PAH concentrations in Higashi-Hiroshima, but had only moderate effects in Kamihaya and Hiki. Wind direction also influenced the concentrations of PAHs. Vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, biomass combustion, and domestic heating and cooking were identified as the main PAH emission sources using principal component analysis. Backward trajectory calculations showed that domestically generated PAHs were significant in Kamihaya and Hiki, while in Higashi-Hiroshima concentrations were mainly influenced by long-range transport. The incremental lifetime lung cancer risk had values of 3.38 × 10(-5) and 1.84 × 10(-5) at Higashi-Hiroshima and Hiki, which are greater than the US EPA acceptable level (10(-6)). Typically, 5-6-ring PAHs contributed 95% to this overall health risk, of which benzo(a)pyrene was the largest contributor, followed by dibenz(a,h)anthracene at both residential sites. Clearly, stricter guidelines for PAHs need to be implemented at these sites to protect the population.

  14. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in New York City community garden soils: Potential sources and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Briggs, Dean; Shayler, Hannah; McBride, Murray; Lopp, Donna; Stone, Edie; Ferenz, Gretchen; Bogdan, Kenneth G; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 69 soil samples from 20 community gardens in New York City (New York, USA) were collected and analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon. For each garden, samples were collected from nongrowing areas (non-bed) and from vegetable-growing beds, including beds with and without visible sources of PAHs. The sum of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs ranged up to 150 mg/kg, and the median (5.4 mg/kg) and mean (14.2 mg/kg) were similar to those previously reported for urban areas in the northeast United States. Isomer ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs were petroleum, coal, and wood combustion. The PAH concentrations were significantly and positively associated with black carbon and with modeled air PAH concentrations, suggesting a consistent relationship between historical deposition of atmospheric carbon-adsorbed PAHs and current PAH soil concentrations. Median PAH soil concentration from non-bed areas was higher (7.4 mg/kg) than median concentration from beds in the same garden (4.0 mg/kg), and significantly higher than the median from beds without visible sources of PAHs (3.5 mg/kg). Median PAH concentration in beds from gardens with records of soil amendments was 58% lower compared with beds from gardens without those records. These results suggest that gardening practices in garden beds without visible sources of PAHs contribute to reduce PAH soil concentrations. PMID:26636429

  15. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Their potential health risks and sources at three non-urban sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Waqar A; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2016-09-18

    This investigation was undertaken to monitor particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in order to determine their emission sources and potential human health risks in remote and rural areas of Japan. Seventeen PAHs in aerosol samples collected in remote (Kamihaya), coastal (Hiki) and inland (Higashi-Hiroshima) areas of Japan during 2013-2014 were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total PAH (Σ17PAH) concentrations in aerosol samples were in the range of 0.08-6.51 ng m(-3), 0.09-4.74 ng m(-3), and 0.21-6.53 ng m(-3) at Kamihaya, Hiki, and Higashi-Hiroshima sites, with mean concentrations of 1.63, 1.18, and 2.43 ng m(-3), respectively. Significant seasonal variation in concentrations occurred at Hiki and Higashi-Hiroshima, while no significant variation occurred at Kamihaya. Ambient air temperature greatly affected PAH concentrations in Higashi-Hiroshima, but had only moderate effects in Kamihaya and Hiki. Wind direction also influenced the concentrations of PAHs. Vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, biomass combustion, and domestic heating and cooking were identified as the main PAH emission sources using principal component analysis. Backward trajectory calculations showed that domestically generated PAHs were significant in Kamihaya and Hiki, while in Higashi-Hiroshima concentrations were mainly influenced by long-range transport. The incremental lifetime lung cancer risk had values of 3.38 × 10(-5) and 1.84 × 10(-5) at Higashi-Hiroshima and Hiki, which are greater than the US EPA acceptable level (10(-6)). Typically, 5-6-ring PAHs contributed 95% to this overall health risk, of which benzo(a)pyrene was the largest contributor, followed by dibenz(a,h)anthracene at both residential sites. Clearly, stricter guidelines for PAHs need to be implemented at these sites to protect the population. PMID:27314274

  16. An assessment of the concentrations of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aftermath of a chemical store fire incident.

    PubMed

    Abas, M Radzi Bin; Omar, Nasr Yousef M J; Maah, M Jamil

    2004-01-01

    PM10 airborne particles and soot deposit collected after a fire incident at a chemical store were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples were extracted with 1:1 hexane-dichloromethane by ultrasonic agitation. The extracts were then subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The total PAHs concentrations in airborne particles and soot deposit were found to be 3.27 +/- 1.55 ng/m3 and 12.81 +/- 24.37 microg/g, respectively. Based on the molecular distributions of PAHs and the interpretation of their diagnostic ratios such as PHEN/(PHEN + ANTH), FLT/(FLT + PYR) and BeP/(BeP + BaP), PAHs in both airborne particles and soot deposit may be inferred to be from the same source. The difference in the value of IP/(IP + BgP) for these samples indicated that benzo[g, h, i] perylene and coronene tend to be attached to finer particles and reside in the air for longer periods. Comparison between the molecular distributions of PAHs and their diagnostic ratios observed in the current study with those reported for urban atmospheric and roadside soil particles revealed that they are of different sources. PMID:15559805

  17. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate A; Yunker, Mark B; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2011-10-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills.

  18. Biogeochemical and physical controls on concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and plankton of the Mediterranean and Black Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Ojeda, MaríA. José; Valle, MaríA. Carmen; Castro-JiméNez, Javier; Wollgast, Jan; Ghiani, Michela; Hanke, Georg; Zaldivar, José Manuel

    2011-12-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to atmospheric and riverine inputs of organic pollutants. They include regions of different physical and trophic characteristics, which allow the studying of the controls on pollutant occurrence and fate under different conditions in terms of particles, plankton biomass, interactions with the atmosphere, biodegradation, and their dependence on the pollutant physical chemical properties. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured in samples of seawater (dissolved and particulate phases) and plankton during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of dissolved PAHs were higher in the south-western Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean than in the Western Mediterranean, reflecting different pollutant loads, trophic conditions and cycling. Particle and plankton phase PAH concentrations were higher when lower concentrations of suspended particles and biomass occurred, with apparent differences due to the PAH physical chemical properties. The surface PAH particle phase concentrations decreased when the total suspended particles (TSP) increased for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds, consistent with controls due to particle settling depletion of water column compounds and dilution. Conversely, PAH concentrations in plankton decreased at higher biomass only for the low MW PAHs, suggesting that biodegradative processes in the water column are a major driver of their occurrence in the photic zone. The results presented here are the most extensive data set available for the Mediterranean Sea and provide clear evidence of the important physical and biological controls on PAH occurrence and cycling in oceanic regions.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in commercially available infant formulae in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Edeme, Justy N; Tesi, Godswill O; Bassey, Francisca I; Martincigh, Bice S; Nwajei, Godwin E

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in commercially available infant formulae and follow-up formulae in Nigeria were determined with a view to providing information on the health risks to children from the consumption of these infant foods. The concentrations of PAHs were measured by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after extraction by ultrasonication with acetone/dichloromethane and clean-up. The concentrations of the Σ16 PAHs in these infant formulae ranged from 0.102 to 1.98 μg kg(-1), 0.054-1.98 μg kg(-1), 0.081-2.54 μg kg(-1) and 0.51-0.70 μg kg(-1) for infants of ages 0-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-3 years and 0-12 months respectively. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in all samples investigated were below the 1 μg kg(-1) European Commission permissible limit for BaP in foods meant for infants. The estimated daily intake of PAHs based on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) suggested indicators of occurrence and effects of PAHs in foods were not detected (nd) to 2.67 ng BaP kg(-1) bw day(-1), nd-5.29 ng PAH2 kg(-1) bw day(-1), nd-11.20 ngPAH4 kg(-1) bw day(-1) and nd-34.96 ng PAH8 kg(-1) bw day(-1). The estimated margin of exposure (MOE) values: BaP-MOE, PAH2-MOE, PAH4-MOE and PAH8-MOE values were greater than 10,000 which indicates that there are no health risks from the consumption of these products by infants. The concentrations and dietary exposure to PAHs from these products were similar to values reported in the literature for European Communities.

  20. Concentrations and potential health hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in shallow groundwater of a metal smelting area in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Zhu, Hao; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A total of 20 shallow groundwater samples were collected from a metal smelting area in southeastern China to determine the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), calculate their toxic equivalents (TEQs) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and estimate the carcinogenic risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. The total concentrations of the 16PAHs (∑PAHs) in the shallow groundwater ranged from 9.62 to 1663.93ngL(-1), with a mean value of 312.63ngL(-1), and the total concentrations of the 7 potentially carcinogenic PAHs (∑PAHC7) ranged from 3.11 to 33.60ngL(-1), with a mean value of 9.61ngL(-1). Naphthalene and BaP, were the dominant PAH species and potentially carcinogenic PAH species in the shallow groundwater of the study area, and they account for 89.97% of ∑PAHs and 82.62% of ∑PAHC7, respectively. High molecular weight-PAHs (HM-PAHs) accounted for a relatively high proportion in the majority of shallow groundwater samples with lower concentrations of ΣPAHs, indicated that HM-PAHs were mainly from historical residues. The TEQs to BaP of the 16PAHs in the 20 shallow groundwater samples varied greatly from 2.55 to 32.73ngL(-1), with a mean value of 8.61ngL(-1), and BaP was the dominant contributor. The total carcinogenic risk levels caused by the 16PAHs in the shallow groundwater in majority of the area were found to be higher than the limit set by the US EPA, posing a potentially serious health risk to those who depend on shallow groundwater for drinking water. PMID:27396317

  1. Concentrations and potential health hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in shallow groundwater of a metal smelting area in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Zhu, Hao; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A total of 20 shallow groundwater samples were collected from a metal smelting area in southeastern China to determine the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), calculate their toxic equivalents (TEQs) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and estimate the carcinogenic risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. The total concentrations of the 16PAHs (∑PAHs) in the shallow groundwater ranged from 9.62 to 1663.93ngL(-1), with a mean value of 312.63ngL(-1), and the total concentrations of the 7 potentially carcinogenic PAHs (∑PAHC7) ranged from 3.11 to 33.60ngL(-1), with a mean value of 9.61ngL(-1). Naphthalene and BaP, were the dominant PAH species and potentially carcinogenic PAH species in the shallow groundwater of the study area, and they account for 89.97% of ∑PAHs and 82.62% of ∑PAHC7, respectively. High molecular weight-PAHs (HM-PAHs) accounted for a relatively high proportion in the majority of shallow groundwater samples with lower concentrations of ΣPAHs, indicated that HM-PAHs were mainly from historical residues. The TEQs to BaP of the 16PAHs in the 20 shallow groundwater samples varied greatly from 2.55 to 32.73ngL(-1), with a mean value of 8.61ngL(-1), and BaP was the dominant contributor. The total carcinogenic risk levels caused by the 16PAHs in the shallow groundwater in majority of the area were found to be higher than the limit set by the US EPA, posing a potentially serious health risk to those who depend on shallow groundwater for drinking water.

  2. Particle-phase concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of rural residential areas in southern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Günter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2010-01-01

    An important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential areas, particularly in the winter season, is the burning process when wood is used for domestic heating. The target of this study was to investigate the particle-phase PAH composition of ambient samples in order to assess the influence of wood combustion on air quality in residential areas. PM10 samples (particulate matter <10 μm) were collected during two winter seasons at two rural residential areas near Stuttgart in Germany. Samples were extracted using toluene in an ultrasonic bath and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Twenty-one PAH compounds were detected and quantified. The PAH fingerprints of different wood combustion emissions were found in significant amounts in ambient samples and high correlations between total PAHs and other wood smoke tracers were found, indicating the dominant influence of wood combustion on air quality in residential areas. Carcinogenic PAHs were detected in high concentrations and contributed 49% of the total PAHs in the ambient air. To assess the health risk, we investigated the exposure profile of individual PAHs. The findings suggest that attention should be focused on using the best combustion technology available to reduce emissions from wood-fired heating during the winter in residential areas. PMID:20495599

  3. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 PAH compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant PAH compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual PAH compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured PAH concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.

  4. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  5. Concentrations and inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in watershed soils in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Zou, Mengyao

    2008-10-01

    The concentration levels, source, and inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 55 surface vegetable soils in the watershed of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed and compared with those of the surface sediments in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and northern South China Sea (SCS). The 16 priority PAHs on US EPA list range from 58 to 3,077 microg/kg (average: 315 microg/kg). The concentrations of DDTs and HCHs range from 3.58 to 831 microg/kg (average: 82.1 microg/kg) and from 0.19 to 42.3 microg/kg (average: 4.42 microg/kg). The ratios of DDT/ (DDD+DDE) are higher than 2 in majority of the soil samples, suggesting that DDT contamination still exists. The PAH ratios suggest that the source of PAHs is petroleum, and combustion of fossil fuel, biomass, and coal. The average concentrations of PAHs and the linear regression slope between PAHs and TOC for the soils and the sediments are quite similar. It was estimated that the soil mass inventories at 0-20 cm depth are 1,292 metric tons for PAHs and 356 metric tons for OCPs in the studied region. The average PAHs inventory per unit area for the soil samples investigated in PRD is about 0.86 time that of surface sediments in the Pearl River Estuary, and about 2.43 times that of surface sediments in the northern South China Sea. PAHs in the soils in PRD have similar source to those of the surface sediments in PRE. All of those may suggest that PAHs in PRE and SCS are probably mainly inputted from the soils in PRD via soil erosion and river transport.

  6. [Concentrations and influencing factors of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in residential air in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhi-cheng; Chang, Biao; Qiu, Wei-xun; Wang, Yi; Wu, Shi-min; Xing, Bao-shan; Liu, Wen-xin; Tao, Shu

    2007-09-01

    7 gas phase PAHs components in indoor air collected from 38 families were investigated by modified passive air samplers in Beijing areas during the local heating and non-heating seasons, and the influencing factors were discussed as well. The analytical results indicate that the gasous PAHs in local indoor air are dominated by 2 and 3 rings compounds, the mean concentrations for the 7 individual gaseous components range from 1 to 40 ng/m3, and the average concentration of total gaseous PAHs is about 100 ng/m3. There is no significant difference in total gaseous PAHs concentrations between the heating and the non-heating seasons, while some apparent seasonal changes occur in ACY and FLA concentrations. Compared with heating season, contribution of 2 rings compounds decreases while the proportions of 3 and 4 rings species increase during the non-heating season. Based on household activity questionnaires and actual analytical concentrations, the main influencing factors accounted for gaseous PAHs in indoor air, identified by multifactor analysis of variance, include cigarette smoking, use of moth ball, intensity of draft, cuisine frequency and built age.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. PMID:27266522

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    PubMed

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil.

  10. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the eggs of predatory birds in Britain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Walker, Lee A; Wright, Julian; Best, Jennifer; Shore, Richard F

    2009-12-01

    The eggs of gannets from two Scottish colonies (Ailsa Craig, Bass Rock) of golden eagles from the Hebrides and Highlands and of merlin eggs from the Scottish borders were analyzed for 52 PAHs, including 2-7 ring parent and alkylated PAHs. Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH in gannet eggs from Ailsa Craig, and methylnaphthalenes predominated in the eggs from other locations and species. Most PAHs were detected in eggs but none were at likely embryotoxic concentrations. The sum concentrations for all the PAHs analyzed (3.1-5.7 ng g(-1) wet wt.) and for the U.S. EPA 16 priority PAHs (2.0-4.3 ng g(-1) wet wt.) did not differ significantly between species or locations. This uniform, low-level accumulation suggests background exposure to diffuse sources. PCA indicated that 3 ring parent and alkylated PAHs predominated in the eggs of merlins and gannets from Ailsa Craig and Hebridean golden eagles; other eggs had a more mixed profile. Source signature diagnostics largely suggested a petrogenic origin for the PAHs in the merlin eggs that we analyzed but otherwise gave equivocal results and further work is needed to determine which diagnostics can be successfully applied to PAHs in eggs. PMID:19943681

  11. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Arnold, Terri L.; Cannon, William F.; Graham, David; Morton, Eric; Bienert, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are ubiquitous in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago, Illinois. PAH concentrations in samples collected in June 2001 and January 2002 were typically in the following order from highest to lowest: fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and anthracene. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, and fluorene were consistently at the lowest concentrations in each sample. Concentrations of the PAH compounds showed variable correlation. Concentrations of PAH compounds with higher molecular weights typically show a higher degree of correlation with other PAH compounds of higher molecular weight, whereas PAH compounds with lower molecular weights tended to show a lower degree of correlation with all other PAH compounds. These differences indicate that high and low molecular-weight PAHs behave differentl y once released into the environment. Concentrations of individual PAH compounds in soils typically varied by at least three orders of magnitude across the city and varied by more than an order of magnitude over a distance of about 1,000 feet. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils are affected by a variety of site-specific factors, and may be affected by proximity to industrial areas. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils did not appear to be affected the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to non-industrial land use, or proximity to a roadway. The concentration of the different PAH compounds in ambient surface soils appears to be affected by the propensity for the PAH compound to be in the vapor or particulate phase in the atmosphere. Lower molecular-weight PAH compounds, which are primarily in the vapor phase in the atmosphere, were detected in lower concentrations in the surface soils. Higher molecular-weight PAH

  12. Use of bioassays and sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to assess toxicity at coastal sites impacted by Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Weston, James; Warren, Crystal; Chaudhary, Amit; Emerson, Beth; Argote, Kate; Khan, Shabana; Willett, Kristine L

    2010-07-01

    The goal of the present study was twofold: to rapidly assess the potential environmental toxicological response following the storm surge and flooding caused by Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, USA, in August 2005, and to establish post-Katrina baseline toxicological profiles for three environmental matrices (water, suspended sediments, and sediments) within the intertidal zone. Sediment and water samples were collected monthly from September 2005 to 2006 from 10 sites along the Gulf Coast from Gulfport, Mississippi, to Mobile Bay, Alabama. Water samples and suspended sediment matrices were extracted, assayed, and toxic equivalent values calculated for compounds with estrogenic potential, using the yeast estrogen screen, and CYP1A induction potential, using the H4IIE rat hepatoma ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface sediments. It was hypothesized that the more heavily storm impacted sites, those closest to Katrina's path and time of landfall (e.g., Gulfport, September-October 2005), would elicit higher bioassay responses and PAH concentrations compared to those further east or approximately a year post-Katrina (e.g., Mobile Bay, August- September 2006). Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents decreased along spatial and temporal storm intensity gradients, but estrogenic compounds and sediment PAHs did not. Estrogen equivalents (approximately 1 ng/L) from water and suspended sediment samples occurred primarily in samples collected within a few months post-Katrina. Site-averaged surface sediment total PAHs varied significantly between sites and were higher than the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's probable effects level at the Gulfport Marina and Back Biloxi Bay, Mississippi, sites. Results from the present study suggest that CYP1A inducing compounds elicited a short-term bioassay response in the water matrix shortly (within weeks) after Katrina's passing but were quickly

  13. Soot formation during pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A study combining experimental, empirical modeling, and detailed modeling techniques has been conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in soot formation during the high-temperature pyrolysis of aromatic and other unsaturated hydrocarbons. The experiments were performed behind reflected shock waves in a conventional shock-tube with soot formation monitored via attenuation of a laser beam at 633 nm. Soot-formation measurements were conducted with toluene-argon and benzene-argon mixtures. Detailed kinetic models of soot formation were developed for pyrolyzing acetylene, butadiene, ethylene and benzene. The computational results indicate the importance of compact, fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as soot intermediates and the importance of the reactivation of these intermediates by hydrogen atoms to form aromatic radicals. The overshoot by hydrogen atoms of their equilibrium concentration provides a driving kinetic force for soot formation. The results with ethylene and butadiene indicate that acetylene is an important growth species for soot formation for these fuels. The benzene model suggests that reactions between aromatic species may be important for soot formation from aromatic fuels.

  14. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Azaarenes in Runoff from Freshly Applied Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT-sealcoat) is extensively applied to asphalt parking lots and driveways in the U.S. and Canada. Toxicity to fish and invertebrates of runoff from pavement to which CT-sealcoat has been freshly applied has been reported, but relatively little is known about how concentrations of chemicals in runoff change in the hours to days following sealcoat application. We measured the concentrations of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 azaarenes in 9 samples of simulated runoff from a coal-tar-sealed test plot collected at increasing intervals from 5 hours to 16 weeks following application. Azaarenes, several of which are common constituents in coal-tar pitch, and their oxidized derivatives, azaarones, are an emerging group of little-studied heterocyclic chemicals. Runoff samples were collected by spraying 25 L of a diluted groundwater to 10 m2 on sealed pavement and retrieving the runoff downgradient where the runoff pooled against spill berms. Unfiltered samples were analyzed by GC/MS following liquid-liquid extraction. In the first sample (t=5 hr), phenanthrene had the highest concentration (130 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Concentrations of the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2 and 3 ring) decreased during the 16 weeks following application, and concentrations of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 ring) increased, coincident with an increase in the concentration of suspended particulates. In the final sample (t=16 weeks), fluoranthene had the highest concentration (36 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Of the azaarenes measured, concentrations of acridine and carbazole (107 and 750 μg/L, respectively) in the initial sample exceeded those of any of the PAHs measured except phenanthrene; acridine and carbazole concentrations decreased over the 5 weeks to <5% of their initial values. Samples of dried sealcoat were analyzed the day of application and 5 weeks later. Samples were

  15. Concentrations and origins of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in urban and rural areas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Zhong, Qirui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2015-02-01

    Twelve nitro-PAHs (nPAHs) and four oxy-PAHs (oPAHs) were measured in air samples for 12 months at 18 sites in urban settings, rural villages, or rural fields in northern China. The nPAH concentrations were higher in urban areas (1.3 ± 1.3 ng/m(3)), and nPAH/parent PAH ratios were higher (suggesting important contributions from motor vehicles and secondary formation) in urban sites than in rural villages. oPAHs are primarily emitted from solid fuel combustion and motor vehicles, and similar oPAH concentrations were found in urban areas (23 ± 20 ng/m(3)) and rural villages (29 ± 24 ng/m(3)). The high numbers of motor vehicles in Beijing and intensive industrial activity in Taiyuan and Dezhou caused higher nPAH concentrations. No spatial trend in oPAH concentrations was found in the rural villages, because similar oPAH mixtures are emitted from solild fuel combustion. The nPAH and oPAH concentrations were higher in the winter, and correlated with residential energy consumption and precipitation.

  16. Effects of open burning of rice straw on concentrations of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang-Shin; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Peng, Yen-Ping; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Hsiu; Lai, Chia-Hsiang

    2008-10-01

    The sizes and concentrations of 21 atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at Jhu-Shan (a rural site) and Sin-Gang (a town site) in central Taiwan in October and December 2005. Air samples were collected using semi-volatile sampling trains (PS-1 sampler) over 16 days for rice-straw burning and nonburning periods. These samples were then analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC/FID). Particle-size distributions in the particulate phase show a bimode, peaking at 0.32-0.56 microm and 3.2-5.6 microm at the two sites during the nonburning period. During the burning period, peaks also appeared at 0.32-0.56 microm and 3.2-5.6 microm at Jhu-Shan, with the accumulation mode (particle size between 0.1 and 3.2 microm) accounting for approximately 74.1% of total particle mass. The peaks at 0.18-0.32 microm and 1.8-3.2 microm at Shin-Gang had an accumulation mode accounting for approximately 70.1% of total particle mass. The mass median diameter (MMD) of 3.99-4.35 microm in the particulate phase suggested that rice-straw burning generated increased numbers of coarse particles. The concentrations of total PAHs (sum of 21 gases + particles) at the Jhu-Shan site (Sin-Gang site) were 522.9 +/- 111.4 ng/ml (572.0 +/- 91.0 ng/ml) and 330.1 +/- 17.0 ng/ml (or 427.5 +/- 108.0 ng/ml) during burning and nonburning periods, respectively, accounting for a roughly 58% (or 34%) increase in the concentrations of total PAHs due to rice-straw burning. On average, low-weight PAHs (about 87.0%) represent the largest proportion of total PAHs, followed by medium-weight PAHs (7.1%), and high-weight PAHs (5.9%). Combustion-related PAHs during burning periods were 1.54-2.57 times higher than those during nonburning periods. The results of principal component analysis (PCA)/absolute principal component scores (APCS) suggest that the primary pollution sources at the two sites are similar and include vehicle exhaust, coal/wood combustion, incense

  17. Intraurban concentrations, spatial variability and correlation of ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulos, Angelos T.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Karman, Deniz; Kulka, Ryan H.

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the intraurban spatial variability of air toxics associated with respirable particulate matter (PM), ambient PM2.5 and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) species (vapour phase plus 2.5 μm particle phase) were sampled over a dense network of sites in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in June/July 2009 and December 2009. PM2.5 levels ranged from 2.46 to 11.0 μg m-3 in the summer campaign and 6.52 to 13.4 μg m-3 in the winter campaign. Total sampled PAH (Σ16PAH) levels ranged from 10.2 to 83.7 ng m-3 in the summer campaign and 8.31 to 52.1 ng m-3 in the winter campaign. Ambient PM2.5 and PAH concentrations were greater below the city's escarpment with a below/above escarpment difference in concentration much greater for PAH than for PM2.5 in both summer and winter sampling campaigns. Elevated levels of both pollutants were observed to occur near or downwind of the central business district and industrialized harbourfront area, suggesting the contribution of local sources. Ambient PAH exhibited a substantially greater degree of intraurban variability than PM2.5 (coefficient of variation approximately three times greater in summer campaign, four times greater in winter campaign) both above and below the escarpment, particularly for heavy MW species found predominantly in the particle phase. Benzo(a)Pyrene-equivalent toxicity (BaP-TEQ) associated with ambient PAH showed a generally similar spatial distribution to Σ16PAH; however, several sites with relatively low Σ16PAH had high BaP-TEQ (enriched in more toxic heavy MW species), indicating potential hotspots for elevated PAH exposures and local source contributions. Co-located field sampling data showed that central site monitoring was a poor proxy for PM2.5 and particularly for PAH and associated toxicity (BaP-TEQ) across the urban centre, underestimating levels at many sites, likely due to the significant number of locally distributed sources and mixed land use. The much greater intraurban

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profile of kitchen dusts.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in thirty dust samples collected from kitchens that use wood cook system (WCS), kerosene stove cook system (KSCS) and butane gas cook system (BGCS). The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 52 to 497, 39 to 96 and 37 to 155 μg kg(-1) for WCS, KSCS and BGCS respectively. The results indicate predominance of lower molecular weight (2-3 rings) over higher molecular weight PAHs and users of wood cook system are more exposed to higher levels of PAHs than the users of either kerosene cook system or butane gas cook system.

  19. High atmosphere-ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Méjanelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piña, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 102-103 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr-1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake.

  20. Characterization and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, G.M.; Smith, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sampling and analytical procedures were developed for determining the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in animal-exposure chambers during studies on exposure to diesel exhaust, coal dust, or mixtures of these two pollutants. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were used as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for analysis. Coal-dust only samples revealed a broad, rising background in the chromatogram with small peaks superimposed corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene, diesel exhaust only samples showed many peaks on a flat baseline including those corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. In general, no polynuclear aromatics were noted in the clean air samples. The authors note that relatively minor changes in air/fuel ratio, lubricant, fuel, and load may have substantial effects on very minor components of the exhaust emission.

  1. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter--Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here.

  2. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter--Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here. PMID:26412199

  3. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations across the Florida Panhandle continental shelf and slope after the BP MC 252 well failure.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Richard A; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick; Moss, Joseph A; Amick, Lauren; Carruth, Rebecca; Head, Marie; Marks, Joel; Tominack, Sarah; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2014-12-15

    The Florida Panhandle continental shelf environment was exposed to oil from the BP oil well failure in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010. Floating mats of oil were documented by satellite, but the distribution of dissolved components of the oil in this region was unknown. Shipek® grab samples of sediments were taken during repeated cruises between June 2010 and June 2012 to test for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicators of this contamination. Sediments were collected as composite samples, extracted using standard techniques, and PAHs were quantified by GC/MS-SIM. PAHs in samples from the continental slope in May 2011 were highest near to the failed well site and were reduced in samples taken one year later. PAHs from continental shelf sediments during the spill (June 2010) ranged from 10 to 165 ng g(-1). Subsequent cruises yielded variable and reduced amounts of PAHs across the shelf. The data suggest that PAHs were distributed widely across the shelf, and their subsequent loss to background levels suggests these compounds were of oil spill origin. PAH half-life estimates by regression were 70-122 days for slope and 201 days for shelf stations. PMID:25444619

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations across the Florida Panhandle continental shelf and slope after the BP MC 252 well failure.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Richard A; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick; Moss, Joseph A; Amick, Lauren; Carruth, Rebecca; Head, Marie; Marks, Joel; Tominack, Sarah; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2014-12-15

    The Florida Panhandle continental shelf environment was exposed to oil from the BP oil well failure in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010. Floating mats of oil were documented by satellite, but the distribution of dissolved components of the oil in this region was unknown. Shipek® grab samples of sediments were taken during repeated cruises between June 2010 and June 2012 to test for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicators of this contamination. Sediments were collected as composite samples, extracted using standard techniques, and PAHs were quantified by GC/MS-SIM. PAHs in samples from the continental slope in May 2011 were highest near to the failed well site and were reduced in samples taken one year later. PAHs from continental shelf sediments during the spill (June 2010) ranged from 10 to 165 ng g(-1). Subsequent cruises yielded variable and reduced amounts of PAHs across the shelf. The data suggest that PAHs were distributed widely across the shelf, and their subsequent loss to background levels suggests these compounds were of oil spill origin. PAH half-life estimates by regression were 70-122 days for slope and 201 days for shelf stations.

  6. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2011-02-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH{sup +}s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 {mu}m interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH{sup +}s have a band near 6.2 {mu}m, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH{sup +}s still have emission near 6.2 {mu}m, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 {mu}m overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 {mu}m, so that the 6.2 {mu}m band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH{sup +}s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 {mu}m (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 {mu}m Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  7. Changes and variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in fish, barnacles and crabs following an oil spill in a mangrove of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Neves, Roberta L; Aucélio, Ricardo; Van Der Ven, Paulo H; Pitombo, Fábio B; Mendes, Carla L T; Ziolli, Roberta L

    2010-08-01

    On April 26th, 2005, an accident caused a leak of 60,000L of Diesel Oil Type "B", freighted by train wagons upstream on a mangrove area within Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. After the accident, samples from animals with different biological requirements were collected in order to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations for the following 12months. Sessile, mobile, carnivorous, omnivorous, organic detritus feeders, planktivorous and suspension feeders were some of the attributes compared. Concentrations of PAHs did not vary in relation to different dietary habits and the best response was from the sessile suspensivorous barnacles. A background level of <50microgkg(-1) was suggested based on the reference site and on values observed in the following months after the accident. The highest values of PAH concentrations were observed in barnacles in the first month immediately after the spill, decreasing to background levels after few months. Barnacles are suggested as a sentinel species.

  8. Exposure of commuters to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons from petrol exhaust.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, L; Persson, K; Strömvall, A M; Petersson, G

    1991-10-15

    Twenty-two volatile aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in the air of an automobile during commuting. Sampling was made on Tenax cartridges and laboratory determinations were carried out using thermal desorption combined with temperature-programmed capillary gas chromatography. Selected hydrocarbons representative of petrol exhaust were determined in the automobile and in an electric commuter train during eight parallel commuter trips. In the automobile, the concentrations of benzene were 35-70 micrograms/m3 and those of total aromatic hydrocarbons 200-400 micrograms/m3. The petrol exhaust levels were 5-10 times higher in the automobile than in the compartment of the commuter train.

  9. Occurrence and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and clams in three urban streams of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J.B.; Rose, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and Asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea (MuLLER), were deployed at stream sites in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area to assess the presence of bioavailable, dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twenty-four PAHs were detected in SPMDs, 20 of which occurred at all sites. Only three PAHs were detected in the co-deployed clams. Throughout all sites, non-alkylated PAHs were found at greater levels in SPMDs than alkylated forms. Nine of 16 Priority Pollutant PAHs were detected in SPMDs. Estimated concentrations of PAHs in water were generally two to three orders of magnitude less than standard minimum analytical reporting levels; however, for bent (a) anthracene, benzo (a) pyrene, and chrysene, estimated concentrations in water exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's human health criteria for these carcinogens in water and aquatic organisms.

  10. Dependence of the extractability of aromatic hydrocarbons on their structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yanbukhtina, R.A.; Semenov, L.V.; Gaile, A.A.; Li, I.F.

    1988-08-10

    Liquid extraction is widely used in industry for extracting aromatic hydrocarbons from reforming catalyzates and hydrorefined pyrocondensates, and for purification of components which worsen the operating properties of fuels and oils from kerosene-gas oil and oil fractions of petroleum. The maximum distribution coefficients of arenes of different structure were determined in extraction from mixtures with n-tetradecane by acetonitrile (AN), previously proposed for purification of aromatic impurities from liquid paraffins, for a more complete study of the effect of the structure of aromatic hydrocarbons on their extractability. The conditions and results of one-stage extraction are reported. The concentration of arenes in the equilibrium phases was determined spectrophotometrically. The results obtained on the relative extractability of hydrocarbons can be used in selecting the key components in processes of extraction separation of different types of hydrocarbon raw material.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values <20% for all analytes. The results obtained demonstrate that acenaphthene, fluorantene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found in all samples with a similar distribution, but different content when yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  12. Increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Alpine streams during annual snowmelt: investigating effects of sampling method, site characteristics, and meteorology.

    PubMed

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Alumbaugh, Robert E; Cook, Michelle E

    2014-10-01

    Silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates were used to measure time-integrated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in alpine streams during annual snowmelt. The three sampling sites were located near a main highway in Arthur's Pass National Park in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A similar set of PAH congeners, composed of 2-4 rings, were found in silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates. The background PAH concentrations were similar at all sites, implying that proximity to the highway did not affect concentrations. In passive samplers, an increase of PAH concentrations by up to seven times was observed during snowmelt. In macroinvertebrates, the concentration changes were moderate; however, macroinvertebrate sampling did not occur during the main pulse observed in the passive samplers. The extent of vegetation in the catchment appeared to affect the concentration patterns seen at the different stream sites. A strong correlation was found between PAH concentrations in passive samplers and the amount of rainfall in the study area, indicating that the washout of contaminants from snowpack by rainfall was an important process.

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in southern Chesapeake Bay surface water: Evaluation of three methods for determining freely dissolved water concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, K.E.; Dickhut, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    Gas sparging, semipermeable-membrane devices (SPMDs), and filtration with sorption of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to XAD-2 resin were evaluated for determining the concentrations of freely dissolved PAHs in estuarine waters of southern Chesapeake Bay at sites ranging from rural to urban and highly industrialized. Gas sparging had significant sampling artifacts due to particle scavenging by rising bubbles, and SPMDs were kinetically limited for four-ring and larger PAHs relative to short-term temporal changes in water concentrations. Filtration with sorption of the dissolved contaminant fraction to XAD-2 resin was found to be the most accurate and feasible method for determining concentrations of freely dissolved PAHs in estuarine water. Concentrations and distribution coefficients of dissolved and particulate PAHs were measured using the filtration/XAD-2 method. Concentrations of PAHs in surface waters of southern Chesapeake Bay were higher than those reported for the northern bay; concentrations in the Elizabeth River were elevated relative to all other sites. A gradient for particulate PAHs was observed from urban to remote sites. No seasonal trends were observed in dissolved or particle-bound PAH fractions at any site. Distributions of dissolved and particulate PAHs in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay are near equilibrium at all locations and during all seasons.

  14. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995.

  15. Estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column based on tissue residues in mussels and salmon: An equilibrium partitioning approach

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1996-12-01

    Equilibrium partitioning was used to estimate concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column from PAH residues in tissues of mussels and juvenile pink salmon collected from coastal marine waters affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Estimated concentrations were within factors of 2 to 5 for fish and 5 to 10 for mussels of average total dissolved and particulate PAHs measured in concurrent water samples. Temporal trends of estimated and measured water-column PAH concentrations were comparable. Water-column PAH concentrations estimated from residues in tissues of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were higher than estimates based on residues in tissues of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Possible reasons for this difference include seasonal variations in mussel lipid content, differences in PAH uptake and depuration rates between fish and mussels, differences in how fish and mussels interact with particulate oil, and possible short exposure times for juvenile pink salmon. All of these factors may play a role. In any event, estimates of dissolved PAHs in the water column, based on PAH residues in either fish or mussel tissue, confirm that PAH concentrations generally did not exceed water quality standards for protection of marine life.

  16. Concentrations, particle-size distributions, and indoor/outdoor differences of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a middle school classroom in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Niu, Xinyi; Cao, Junji; Ho, Kin Fai; Zhao, Zhuohui; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) attached to particulate matter can affect respiratory health, especially the health of children, but information on the air quality in schools is generally lacking. This study investigated the PAH concentrations in a naturally ventilated classroom in Xi'an, China, from 16 to 31 May 2012. Particulate PAH concentrations were measured for samples collected on five-stage cascade impactors deployed inside the classroom and outside. PM2.5-bound PAH concentrations were 53.2 ng m(-3) indoors and 72.9 ng m(-3) outdoors. PAHs attached to very fine particles (VFPs) accounted for ~70% of the total PAHs. The PAH concentrations indoors were affected by the students' activities, cleaning, and smoking, while outdoors, the main sources were motor vehicle emissions and contaminated road dust. Particle-bound PAHs infiltrated the classroom through open windows, but the activities of the students and staff were also associated with an increase of PAHs attached to particles larger than 1.0 µm, most likely through resuspension. Cycles in the sources led to PAH concentrations 2-3 times higher on weekdays compared to weekends, both indoors and outdoors. PAH toxicity risks inside the classroom were substantially lower than those outdoors, and the highest risks were associated with VFPs.

  17. Concentrations, particle-size distributions, and indoor/outdoor differences of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a middle school classroom in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Niu, Xinyi; Cao, Junji; Ho, Kin Fai; Zhao, Zhuohui; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) attached to particulate matter can affect respiratory health, especially the health of children, but information on the air quality in schools is generally lacking. This study investigated the PAH concentrations in a naturally ventilated classroom in Xi'an, China, from 16 to 31 May 2012. Particulate PAH concentrations were measured for samples collected on five-stage cascade impactors deployed inside the classroom and outside. PM2.5-bound PAH concentrations were 53.2 ng m(-3) indoors and 72.9 ng m(-3) outdoors. PAHs attached to very fine particles (VFPs) accounted for ~70% of the total PAHs. The PAH concentrations indoors were affected by the students' activities, cleaning, and smoking, while outdoors, the main sources were motor vehicle emissions and contaminated road dust. Particle-bound PAHs infiltrated the classroom through open windows, but the activities of the students and staff were also associated with an increase of PAHs attached to particles larger than 1.0 µm, most likely through resuspension. Cycles in the sources led to PAH concentrations 2-3 times higher on weekdays compared to weekends, both indoors and outdoors. PAH toxicity risks inside the classroom were substantially lower than those outdoors, and the highest risks were associated with VFPs. PMID:25537162

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from urban to rural areas in Nanjing: Concentration, source, spatial distribution, and potential human health risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Sheng Lu; Wang, Hui; Li, Baojie; Chen, Hao; Yu, Yanna; Shi, Yaxing

    2015-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have become a major type of pollutant in urban areas and their degree of pollution and characteristics of spatial distribution differ between various regions. We conducted a comprehensive study about the concentration, source, spatial distribution, and health risk of 16 PAHs from urban to rural soils in Nanjing. The mean total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16PAHs) were 3330 ng g(-1) for urban soils, 1680 ng g(-1) for suburban soils, and 1060 ng g(-1) for rural soils. Five sources in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Nanjing were identified by positive matrix factorization. Their relative contributions of sources to the total soil PAH burden in descending order was coal combustion, vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coke tar, and oil in urban areas; in suburban areas the main sources of soil PAHs were gasoline engine and diesel engine, whereas in rural areas the main sources were creosote and biomass burning. The spatial distribution of soil PAH concentrations shows that old urban districts and commercial centers were the most contaminated of all areas in Nanjing. The distribution pattern of heavier PAHs was in accordance with ∑16PAHs, whereas lighter PAHs show some special characteristics. Health risk assessment based on toxic equivalency factors of benzo[a]pyrene indicated a low concentration of PAHs in most areas in Nanjing, but some sensitive sites should draw considerable attention. We conclude that urbanization has accelerated the accumulation of soil PAHs and increased the environmental risk for urban residents. PMID:25981936

  19. High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) failed to explain biochar's capacity to reduce soil nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Alburquerque, J A; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Cayuela, M L

    2015-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been postulated as a mechanism by which biochar might mitigate N(2)O emissions. We studied whether and to what extent N(2)O emissions were influenced by the three most abundant PAHs in biochar: naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene. We hypothesised that biochars contaminated with PAHs would show a larger N(2)O mitigation capacity and that increasing PAH concentrations in biochar would lead to higher mitigation potentials. Our results demonstrate that the high-temperature biochar (550 °C) had a higher capacity to mitigate soil N(2)O emissions than the low-temperature biochar (350 °C). At low PAH concentrations, PAHs do not significantly contribute to the reductions in soil N(2)O emissions; while biochar stimulated soil N(2)O emissions when it was spiked with high concentrations of PAHs. This study suggests that the impact of biochar on soil N(2)O emissions is due to other compositional and/or structural properties of biochar rather than to PAH concentration. PMID:25305467

  20. Pyrene biotransformation products as biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in terrestrial Isopoda: concentration-response relationship, and field study in a contaminated forest.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, Gerard J; Ariese, Freek; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; van Hattum, Bert; Velthorst, Nel H; van Straalen, Nico M

    2003-01-01

    In this study, biotransformation products of pyrene were measured in the hepatopancreas of terrestrial isopods as biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. These products--pyrene-1-glucoside, pyrene-1-sulfate, an unknown pyrene conjugate, and 1-hydroxypyrene--were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. In a controlled exposure experiment, a linear relationship was established between pyrene exposure and pyrene metabolite concentrations in the hepatopancreas of Porcellio scaber Latr. To this end, isopods of the species P. scaber were exposed to a range of pyrene concentrations spiked to their food. A linear response was found for all pyrene conjugates in the range 0.67 to 67 microg/g of pyrene (dry wt). Hepatopancreatic pyrene metabolite concentrations were also measured in isopods (P. scaber and Oniscus asellus L.) from PAH-contaminated field sites. The sites and the inhabiting isopods were located in a gradient of atmospheric PAH deposition caused by a nearby blast furnace plant. The highest levels of conjugated 1-hydroxypyrene in the hepatopancreas were 3.8 pmol/g fresh weight (pyrene-1-glucoside) and 2.8 pmol/g fresh weight (pyrene-1-sulfate) (expressed on whole-body basis). The levels of the pyrene metabolites correlate with reported pyrene concentrations in spite of these sites. As pyrene is one of the most predominant PAHs, analysis of its metabolites provides a good tool for environmental risk assessment of ecosystems with regard to PAH exposure, bioavailability, and biotransformation.

  1. Variability of urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolite in general population and comparison of spot, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Urinary mono-hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4-35 h). Little information is available on their variability in urinary concentrations over time in non-occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) examine the variability of nine urinary OH-PAH metabolite concentrations over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies on the basis of spot urine, first-morning void, and 24-h void sampling. Individual urine samples (n=427) were collected during 1 week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CVs) for the wet-weight concentration of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19-288% (P<0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-h void concentrations were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging from 13% to 182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.65 [corrected] for first-morning voids, and 0.77 [corrected] for 24-h voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects required for detecting differences in the geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and in

  2. On the aromatic stabilization of benzenoid hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Stepień, Dorota K; Dobrowolski, Michał A; Dobrzycki, Łukasz; Cyrański, Michał K

    2012-10-18

    A general scheme for estimation of aromatic stabilization energies of benzenoid hydrocarbons based on selected topological features has been presented. The reactions have been applied to benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, tetracene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, [4]-helicene, anthanthrene and coronene.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10259 - Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10259 Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09-540) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10259 - Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10259 Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09-540) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10259 - Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10259 Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09-540) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. Aquatic predicted no-effect concentration for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and probabilistic ecological risk assessment in Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Juying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Zhen; Yao, Ziwei; Lin, Zhongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) is often used in ecological risk assessment to determine low-risk concentrations for chemicals. In the present study, native marine species were selected for toxicity testing. The PNECs for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), specifically phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were derived from chronic and acute toxicity data with log-normal statistical methods. The achieved PNECs for Phe, Pyr, and BaP were 2.33, 1.09, and 0.011 μg/L, respectively. In Jinzhou Bay and the Shuangtaizi River Estuary of Liaodong Bay in the Bohai Sea, China, the surface water concentrations of the three PAHs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on two probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) methods, namely probabilistic risk quotient and joint probability curve, the potential risk of Phe, Pyr, and BaP in Jinzhou Bay and Shuangtaizi River Estuary was assessed. The same order of ecological risk (BaP > Phe > Pyr) was found by both models. Our study considered regional characteristics of marine biota during the calculation of PNECs, and the PERA methods provided probabilities of potential ecological risks of chemicals. Within the study area, further research on BaP is required due to its high potential ecological risk.

  10. Measurement of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments and toxic units used for estimating risk to benthic invertebrates at manufactured gas plant sites.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Miller, David J; Kreitinger, Joseph P

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) narcosis model requires the measurement of 18 parent and 16 groups of alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (so-called 34 PAHs) in sediments to calculate the number of PAH toxic units (TU) available to benthic organisms. If data for the 34 PAHs are not available, the U.S. EPA proposes estimating the risk by multiplying the TU for 13 parent PAHs by 11.5 (95% confidence interval) based on data from 488 sediments. This estimate is overly conservative for PAHs from pyrogenic manufactured gas plant (MGP) processes based on the analysis of 45 sediments from six sites. Parent PAHs contributed approximately 40% of the total concentrations and TU for MGP sediments. In contrast, parent PAHs from diesel fuel and petroleum crude oil contributed only 2 and 1%, respectively, of the PAH concentrations and TU, compared to approximately 98 to 99% contributed by the alkyl PAHs. Statistical comparison of the TU based on the measured 34 alkyl and parent PAHs and those based on only 13 parent PAHs demonstrated that a factor of 4.2 (rather than 11.5) is sufficient to estimate total TU within a 95% confidence level for MGP sites. Similarly, measurement of parent PAHs is sufficient to accurately estimate the total 34 alkyl and parent PAH concentrations for MGP-impacted sediments. PMID:16494254

  11. Atmospheric concentration and carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo[c]fluorene, cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene, and benzo[j]fluoranthene in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagishita, Mayuko; Kageyama, Shiho; Ohshima, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Michi; Aoki, Yasunobu; Goto, Sumio; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-08-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of both gas-phase and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (16 PAHs) were measured in eleven cities across Japan. Using the measured average concentrations and toxic equivalency factors (TEF) of the 16 PAHs, the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-toxic equivalent for eight major PAHs was obtained: the ratio of BaP to the eight major PAH toxicities ranged from 0.23 to 0.47. Among the target PAHs, from the viewpoint of carcinogenicity, we focused on benzo[c]fluorene (BcFE), which was detected in both the gas and particulate phase in contrast to BaP. The relative potency factor (RPF) of BcFE was evaluated as 6.46 based on its cancer slope factor relative to that of BaP determined in the benchmark dose calculations for mice. The relative carcinogenic risk of BcFE to BaP was obtained by multiplying the averaged concentrations of BaP and BcFE by the RPF value: the risk of BcFE was 6.8 and 5.1 times higher than that of BaP in summer and winter, respectively. These results show that the collection of atmospheric samples including the gas phase is important when assessing the carcinogenic risk of atmospheric PAHs.

  12. Comparison of concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue concentrations because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH metabolites in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low concentrations in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only

  13. Composition, distribution, and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil in Linfen, China

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, S.; Cheng, H.X.; Liu, Y.H.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B.

    2009-02-15

    A total of 10 surface soil samples representing the entire area of Linfen City were collected and analyzed for the presence of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration ranged from 1.1 to 63.7 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soil were derived from combustion sources. Specifically, the primary source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was coal combustion, but the samples were also effected to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Furthermore, increased levels of contamination were observed in northeast Linfen due to the distribution of industrial plants.

  14. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  15. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure. PMID:23473585

  16. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the Marseilles area (South of France): concentrations and sources.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Alexandre; Leoz-Garziandia, Eva; Budzinski, Hélène; Viilenave, Eric

    2007-10-01

    Ambient measurements (gas+particle phases) of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during July 2004 on three different sites (urban, sub-urban and rural) in the region of Marseilles (South of France). Atmospheric concentrations of these classes of polyaromatics are great of interest because of their high potential mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. OPAH concentrations were of the same order of magnitude as those of PAHs while NPAH concentrations were one to two orders lower. 9-Fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for about 60% and 20% of the total OPAH concentration. Respectively 1-and 2-nitronaphthalene were the most abundant NPAHs and were accounting for about 30-50% and 15-30% of the total NPAH concentration. NPAHs and OPAHs concentration levels were consistent with the characteristics of the sampling sites. Study of source specific ratios (2-nitrofluoranthene/1-nitropyrene) clearly showed those primary NPAH sources influence the urban and sub-urban sites whereas production of secondary NPAHs by gas phase reactions was prevalent at the rural site. The study of NPAH and OPAH sources suggested that gasoline engines were an important source of such compounds Whereas the dominant source of 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, 6-nitrochrysene and benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione seems to be diesel vehicles. Finally, 9,10-anthraquinone presents a double origin: primary diesel emission and photochemical processes. Formation of 9,10-anthraquinone from anthracene ozonation was shown at the rural site. Further investigations will be necessary in order to discriminate when (before or during the sampling) the OPAHs are formed. PMID:17590415

  18. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Sampling of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Otson, R.; Leach, J.M.; Chung, L.T.K.

    1987-07-01

    Limitations of NIOSH sampling method P and CAM 183 were defined for airborne standard mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) generated as vapors in a flow-through apparatus. The PAH fell into three categories: those that were too volatile to be collected by the NIOSH filtration method at normal ambient temperatures and were best sampled with Tenax or XAD-2 sorbent (i.e., indane, naphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, fluorene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, phenathrene, and anthracene); those that were quantitatively collected by filters, even after a brief airborne residence time (i.e., benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(ghi)perylene); and those that partitioned between filter and sorbent (i.e., fluoranthene and pyrene). A combination glass fiber/silver membrane filter backed by two sorbent tubes in series gave overall mean recoveries of 94-96% for the 15 PAH studied at total concentrations of, nominally, 0.2 and 0.02 mg/m/sup 3/. Individual PAH concentrations were 0.03-0.05 and 0.003-0.005 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively.

  20. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  1. In situ biodegradation potential of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, D. W.; Barker, J. F.

    1992-04-01

    Three types of experiments were conducted to assess the potential for enhancing the in situ biodegradation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic, leachate-impacted aquifers at North Bay, Ontario, and at Canada Forces Base Borden. Laboratory micrososms containing authentic aquifer material and groundwater from the North Bay site were amended with nitrate and glucose. No significant losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed compared to unamended controls, over a period of 187 days. A total of eight in situ biodegradation columns were installed in the North Bay and Borden aquifers. Remedial additions included electron acceptors (nitrate and sulphate) and primary substrates (acetate, lactate and yeast extract). Six aromatic hydrocarbons [toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, cumene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ( 1,2,4-TMB)] were completely degraded in at least one in situ column at the North Bay site. Only toluene was degraded in the Borden aquifer. In all cases, aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation was attributed to biodegradation by methanogenic and fermentative bacteria. No evidence of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was observed in columns remediated with nitrate or primary substrates. A continuous forced gradient injection experiment with sulphate addition was conducted at the North Bay site over a period of 51 days. The concentration of six aromatic hydrocarbons was monitored over time in the injection wells and at piezometer fences located 2, 5 and 10 m downgradient. All compounds except toluene reached injection concentration between 14 and 26 days after pumping began, and showed some evidence of selective retardation. Toluene broke through at a subdued concentration (˜ 50% of injection levels), and eventually declined to undetectable levels on day 43. This attenuation was attributed to adaptation and biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria. The results from these experiments indicate that considerable anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in

  2. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff From Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001?02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the possibility that PAHs from seal-coated parking lots might be transported to urban creeks, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Austin, sampled runoff and scrapings from four test plots and 13 urban parking lots. The surfaces sampled comprise coal-tar-emulsion-sealed, asphalt-emulsion-sealed, unsealed asphalt, and unsealed concrete. Particulates and filtered water in runoff and surface scrapings were analyzed for PAHs. In addition, particulates in runoff were analyzed for major and trace elements. Samples of all three media from coal-tar-sealed parking lots had concentrations of PAHs higher than those from any other types of surface. The average total PAH concentrations in particulates in runoff from parking lots in use were 3,500,000, 620,000, and 54,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed (asphalt and concrete combined) lots, respectively. The probable effect concentration sediment quality guideline is 22,800 micrograms per kilogram. The average total PAH (sum of detected PAHs) concentration in filtered water from parking lots in use was 8.6 micrograms per liter for coal-tar-sealed lots; the one sample analyzed from an asphalt-sealed lot had a concentration of 5.1 micrograms per liter and the one sample analyzed from an unsealed asphalt lot was 0.24 microgram per liter. The average total PAH concentration in scrapings was 23,000,000, 820,000, and 14,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed asphalt lots, respectively. Concentrations were similar for runoff and scrapings from the test plots. Concentrations of lead and zinc in particulates in runoff frequently exceeded the probable effect concentrations, but trace element concentrations showed no

  3. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: SOA Yield and Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Qi, Li; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for 20%-30% of urban atmospheric VOCs and are major contributors to anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, prediction of SOA from aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of structure, NOx concentration, and OH radical levels remains elusive. Innovative SOA yield and chemical composition evaluation approaches are developed here to investigate SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield is redefined in this work by adjusting the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of benzene (Yield'= Yieldi×(MWi/MWBenzene); i: aromatic hydrocarbon precursor). Further, SOA elemental ratio is calculated on an aromatic ring basis rather than the classic mole basis. Unified and unique characteristics in SOA formed from aromatic hydrocarbons with different alkyl groups (varying in carbon number and location on aromatic ring) are explored by revisiting fifteen years of UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 129 experiments from 17 aromatic precursors at urban region relevant low NOx conditions (HC:NO 11.1-171 ppbC:ppb). Traditionally, SOA mass yield of benzene is much greater than that of other aromatic species. However, when adjusting for molecular weight, a similar yield is found across the 17 different aromatic precursors. More importantly, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in the resulting SOA regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring, which majorly affect H/C ratio in SOA. Therefore, resulting SOA bulk composition from aromatic hydrocarbons can be predicted as C6+nH6+2nO4 (n: alkyl substitute carbon number). Further, the dominating role of the aromatic ring carbons is confirmed by studying the chemical composition of SOA formed from the photooxidation of an aromatic hydrocarbon with a 13C isotopically labeled alkyl carbon. Overall, this study unveils the similarity in SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons enhancing the understanding of SOA formation from

  4. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. PMID:27245129

  5. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  6. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the water environment*

    PubMed Central

    Andelman, Julian B.; Suess, Michael J.

    1970-01-01

    Many polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known to be carcinogenic to animals and probably to man. This review is concerned with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAH in the water environment, with emphasis on 3,4-benzpyrene (BP) because it is ubiquitous, is one of the most potent of the carcinogenic PAH and has been widely studied. Although PAH are formed in combustion and other high-temperature processes, there is also evidence for their endogenous formation in plants, which may explain their ubiquity therein. Although the solubility of these compounds in pure water is very low, they may be solubilized by such materials as detergents, or they may otherwise occur in aqueous solution associated with or adsorbed on to a variety of colloidal materials or biota, and thereby be transported through the water environment. A notable characteristic of PAH is their sensitivity to light. PAH have been found in industrial and municipal waste effluents, and occur in soils, ground waters and surface waters, and their sediments and biota. With the exception of filtration or sorption by activated carbon, conventional water treatment processes do not efficiently remove them, and they have been found in domestic water supplies. Because of the ubiquity of PAH in the environment, it is impossible to prevent completely man's exposure to them; nevertheless their surveillance should be continued and their concentrations in the environment should be reduced where practicable. PMID:4100719

  7. Association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (estimated from job category) with concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in urine from workers at a steel plant.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D; Rothman, N; Cho, S H; Lim, H S; Kwon, H J; Kim, S M; Schwartz, B; Strickland, P T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Increased risk of lung cancer has been associated with employment in the steel industry. This association is thought to be due in part to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air found in this work environment. Measurement of PAH metabolites in human urine provides a means of assessing individual internal dose of PAHs. This study examined the relative contribution of occupation and smoking to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) among a group of workers at a steel plant. METHODS--Concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine from 44 workers with jobs associated with increased air concentrations of PAHs and 40 workers with jobs with low or no exposure to PAHs were measured. 20 workers in each group were not current smokers. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy after immunoaffinity chromatography specific for PAH metabolites. RESULTS--Mean (SEM) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.16 (0.42) pmol/ml urine among the 44 occupationally exposed workers compared with 0.38 (0.05) among the 40 workers with no or low exposure (P < 0.0001). Mean urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 1.82 (0.41) pmol/ml urine among the 44 current smokers compared with 0.75 (0.20) among the 40 non-smokers (P < 0.005). Mean 1-OHPG concentrations in non-smokers were 0.26 (n = 20), 0.70 (n = 15), and 2.84 pmol/ml urine (n = 5) for strata of exposure to PAHs (no or low, mid, and high) based on job category; the corresponding values in smokers were 0.55 (n = 20), 0.94 (n = 12), and 4.91 pmol/ml (n = 12), respectively. Multiple linear regression showed significant differences between subjects in different PAH exposure with increased concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine. Amounts of foods containing PAHs ingested by this group of workers were relatively low and did not contribute significantly to urinary 1-OHPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that 1-OHPG is a common urinary metabolite in people with

  8. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  9. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-02-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  10. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  11. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  12. A comparison of temporal variation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) concentration in different urban environments: Tokyo, Japan, and Bangkok, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetwittayachan, T.; Shimazaki, D.; Yamamoto, K.

    A comparative study of the real-time ambient concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) in the vicinity of roads in Tokyo (Japan) and in Bangkok (Thailand) in summertime was carried out by using a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), which gives continuous signal in relation to the total amount of pPAHs concentration. The PAS output gave a good correlation to the total concentration of the selected PAHs determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This technique was then employed to observe temporal variation of total pPAHs. The measurements at roadside and general areas in Tokyo and in Bangkok were performed for seven consecutive days in August 2000, and in March 2001, respectively. The diurnal profiles of pPAHs concentrations in both cities were generally similar; explicit peak concentrations were observed in early morning in association with the traffic growth in the morning rush hours. A significant reduction occurred during the daytime was probably due to rising in the mixing zone. At roadside areas, the average pPAHs concentrations throughout the sampling period in Bangkok were significantly higher than those of Tokyo, owing to the larger contribution of vehicular traffic, especially heavy-duty vehicles, on the roads near the sampling site. Otherwise, all average concentrations in the general area in Tokyo were slightly higher than that of Bangkok. This was probably due to the percentage of road coverage in Tokyo being higher than that in Bangkok, creating a higher possibility for pPAHs evolving from road traffic, and the transportation pattern of the pPAHs in Tokyo showed a more broadly diffused profile than that of Bangkok. This suggests the widespread dispersion of pPAHs over the entire study area in Tokyo. At this study scale especially at the roadside, however, a high pPAHs concentration observed in Tokyo and in Bangkok was predominantly located at low wind speed, <1.0 and 0.4 m s -1, respectively, and along

  13. Dual-mode modeling of competitive and concentration-dependent sorption and desorption kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongye; Pignatello, Joseph J.; White, Jason C.; Braida, Washington; Ferrandino, Francis

    2001-08-01

    A radial dual-mode diffusion model is proposed for mass transfer of hydrophobic compounds in soil organic matter (SOM) that is able to predict competitive and concentration effects on sorption and desorption rates. On the basis of dual-mode sorption theory for glassy polymers the model assumes a population of specific adsorption sites ("holes") interspersed uniformly in the dissolution (partition) domain of SOM. It further assumes Fickian diffusion in the dissolution domain and immobilization in the holes, with microscopic local equilibrium between the two domains. The model is solved numerically (Crank-Nicolson implicit method). Using parameters from single-solute equilibrium and kinetic experiments, the model adequately predicts batch transient sorption and desorption of phenanthrene (primary solute) as a function of pyrene (cosolute) concentration, and batch transient sorption of phenanthrene as a function of its own concentration, in two soils. The model shows that phenanthrene sorption approaches equilibrium faster with increasing cosolute or self-concentration owing to the concentration dependence of the apparent diffusivity, as predicted by a simple hole-plugging mechanism (i.e., fewer and fewer holes are available). Simulations show the effect to be greatest under infinite bath uptake conditions. Under finite bath conditions this positive effect on rate may be opposed by a batch process temporal bias present when the water:soil ratio is kept constant in a series of experiments. The bias is due to gradient driving force effects that slow the rate as a result of the decrease in percent of solute finally taken up by the solid as cosolute or concentration increases.

  14. PM 10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Concentrations, source characterization and estimating their risk in urban, suburban and rural areas in Kandy, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, A. P.; Karunaratne, D. G. G. P.; Sivakanesan, R.

    2011-05-01

    Kandy, a world heritage city, is a rapidly urbanized area in Sri Lanka, with a high population density of ˜6000 hab km -2. As it is centrally located in a small valley of 26 km 2 surrounded by high mountains, emissions from the daily flow of >100,000 vehicles, most are old and poorly maintained, get stagnant over the study area with an increased emphasis on the associated health impacts. Particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be major pollutants in vehicular emissions; while PAHs account for the majority of mutagenic potency of PM. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 8 h average concentrations of ambient PM 10 PAHs at twenty sites distributed in the urban, suburban and rural Kandy. Samples on glass micro fibre filters were collected with a high volume air sampler from July/2008 to March/2009, prepared through standard procedures and analyzed for PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet visible detection. Further, the type and strength of possible anthropogenic emission sources that cause major perturbations to the atmosphere were assessed by traffic volume (24 h) counts and firewood mass burnt/d at each sampling site, with the subsequent societal impact through quantitative cancer risk assessment. The results can serve as a base set to assess the PAH sources, pollution levels and human exposure. Mean total concentrations of 16 prioritized PAHs (∑PAHs) ranged from 57.43 to 1246.12 ng m -3 with 695.94 ng m -3 in urban heavy traffic locations (U/HT), 105.55 ng m -3 in urban light traffic locations, 337.45 ng m -3 in suburban heavy traffic stations, 154.36 ng m -3 in suburban light traffic stations, 192.48 ng m -3 in rural high firewood burning area and 100.31 ng m -3 in rural low firewood burning area. The mean PM 10 concentration was 129 μg m -3 (55-221 μg m -3); which is beyond the WHO air quality standards. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon signature and the spatial variation

  15. Bioaccumulation of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sediment by a polychaete and a gastropod: freely dissolved concentrations and activated carbon amendment.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Naes, Kristoffer; Oen, Amy M P; Ruus, Anders

    2006-09-01

    The present paper describes a study on the bioaccumulation of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three harbors in Norway using the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the gastropod Hinia reticulata. First, biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were measured in laboratory bioassays using the original sediments. Median BSAFs were 0.004 to 0.01 kg organic carbon/kg lipid (10 PAHs and 6 organism-sediment combinations), which was a factor of 89 to 240 below the theoretical BSAF based on total sediment contents (which is approximately one). However, if BSAFs were calculated on the basis of measured freely dissolved PAH concentrations in the pore water (measured with polyoxymethylene passive samplers), it appeared that these BSAFfree values agreed well with the measured BSAFs, within a factor of 1.7 to 4.3 (median values for 10 PAHs and six organism-sediment combinations). This means that for bioaccumulation, freely dissolved pore-water concentrations appear to be a much better measure than total sediment contents. Second, we tested the effect of 2% (of sediment dry wt) activated carbon (AC) amendments on BSAE The BSAFs were significantly reduced by a factor of six to seven for N. diversicolor in two sediments (i.e., two of six organism-sediment combinations), whereas no significant reduction was observed for H. reticulata. This implies that either site-specific evaluations of AC amendment are necessary, using several site-relevant benthic organisms, or that the physiology of H. reticulata caused artifactually high BSAF values in the presence of AC.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10676 - Aromatic hydrocarbon mixture (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon mixture (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10676 Aromatic hydrocarbon mixture (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... hydrocarbon mixture (PMN P-12-551) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  18. The distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in western Lake Erie

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Koenig, B.G.; Haffner, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    In order to determine whether biota in western Lake Erie are exposed to elevated concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, the authors collected biota along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie and determined concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebra mussels, and levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in the bile of freshwater drum and gizzard shad. In addition, they deployed semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) at various locations along this corridor to monitor for PAHs in water. PAHs were elevated in SPMDs and zebra mussels from the Detroit River, and PAH concentrations declined from west to east in Lake Erie. There were elevated levels of bile FACs in drum and gizzard shad from highly contaminated regions of the Detroit River. These data are consistent with the Detroit River being a significant source of PAH contamination in western Lake Erie. Since the ratios of concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in zebra mussels did not vary throughout the study area, it appears that both classes of aromatic contaminants are distributed by similar mechanisms throughout western Lake Erie.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    PubMed

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee. PMID:23242460

  20. Aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their ecological risks in surface seawater of Liaodong Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Juying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Zhen; Cong, Yi; Yao, Ziwei; Lin, Zhongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of ubiquitous pollutants in marine environments, exhibit moderate to high adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. However, the lack of PAH toxicity data for aquatic organism has limited evaluation of their ecological risks. In the present study, aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of 16 priority PAHs were derived based on species sensitivity distribution models, and their probabilistic ecological risks in seawater of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea, China, were assessed. A quantitative structure-activity relationship method was adopted to achieve the predicted chronic toxicity data for the PNEC derivation. Good agreement for aquatic PNECs of 8 PAHs based on predicted and experimental chronic toxicity data was observed (R(2)  = 0.746), and the calculated PNECs ranged from 0.011 µg/L to 205.3 µg/L. A significant log-linear relationship also existed between the octanol-water partition coefficient and PNECs derived from experimental toxicity data (R(2)  = 0.757). A similar order of ecological risks for the 16 PAH species in seawater of Liaodong Bay was found by probabilistic risk quotient and joint probability curve methods. The individual high ecological risk of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene needs to be determined. The combined ecological risk of PAHs in seawater of Liaodong Bay calculated by the joint probability curve method was 13.9%, indicating a high risk as a result of co-exposure to PAHs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1587-1593. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Concentration profiles, source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dumpsite soils from Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site, Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Akortia, Eric; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2016-06-01

    The concentrations of eighteen (18) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including the 16 USEPA's priority PAHs as well as two alkyl-substituted naphthalenes were determined in dumpsite soils collected from different sampling sites within the Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site in Accra, Ghana. Following their isolation with ultrasonic-assisted extraction technique, the concentrations of the PAHs were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Loss-on-ignition (LOI) method was employed for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) of the soil samples. The mean Σ18PAHs obtained were 3006, 5627, 3046, 5555, and 7199 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sampling sites A (mosque), B (dismantling site), C (residential house/police station), D (personal computer repairers' shop) and E (e-waste open burning area), respectively. In all cases, the prevalence of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene was generally observed across the sampling sites. In this study, PAHs with two to three rings and four to six rings exhibited strong positive correlations, whereas BbF and BkF showed weak positive and negative correlations with other PAHs investigated. With the exception of BbF and BkF, all the PAHs had moderate to strong positive correlations with the TOC. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration is a useful indicator of the carcinogenic potency of environmental matrices and these ranged between 111 and 454 ng g(-1), which are generally below the 'safe' level of 600 ng g(-1) established for the protection of the environment and human health. Interestingly, the seven carcinogenic PAHs were the major contributors to the BaPeq concentrations accounting between 97.7 and 98.3 %. Despite the minimal risk to cancer via exposure to the investigated dumpsite soil as indicated in the present study, the prolonged exposure to these pollutants via various exposure pathways may result in increased risk to cancer over time. The application of several

  2. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  3. Concentration profiles, source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dumpsite soils from Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site, Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Akortia, Eric; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2016-06-01

    The concentrations of eighteen (18) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including the 16 USEPA's priority PAHs as well as two alkyl-substituted naphthalenes were determined in dumpsite soils collected from different sampling sites within the Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site in Accra, Ghana. Following their isolation with ultrasonic-assisted extraction technique, the concentrations of the PAHs were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Loss-on-ignition (LOI) method was employed for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) of the soil samples. The mean Σ18PAHs obtained were 3006, 5627, 3046, 5555, and 7199 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sampling sites A (mosque), B (dismantling site), C (residential house/police station), D (personal computer repairers' shop) and E (e-waste open burning area), respectively. In all cases, the prevalence of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene was generally observed across the sampling sites. In this study, PAHs with two to three rings and four to six rings exhibited strong positive correlations, whereas BbF and BkF showed weak positive and negative correlations with other PAHs investigated. With the exception of BbF and BkF, all the PAHs had moderate to strong positive correlations with the TOC. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration is a useful indicator of the carcinogenic potency of environmental matrices and these ranged between 111 and 454 ng g(-1), which are generally below the 'safe' level of 600 ng g(-1) established for the protection of the environment and human health. Interestingly, the seven carcinogenic PAHs were the major contributors to the BaPeq concentrations accounting between 97.7 and 98.3 %. Despite the minimal risk to cancer via exposure to the investigated dumpsite soil as indicated in the present study, the prolonged exposure to these pollutants via various exposure pathways may result in increased risk to cancer over time. The application of several

  4. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  5. Differences in Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations between Streets and Alleys in New York City: Open Space vs. Semi-Closed Space

    PubMed Central

    Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Miller, Rachel L.; Bautista, Joshua; Gil, Eric N.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yan, Beizhan; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Jung, Kyung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations are variable throughout an urban environment. However, little is known about how variation in semivolatile and nonvolatile PAHs related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space) contributes to differences in concentrations. Methods: We simultaneously collected 14, two-week samples of PAHs from the outside of windows facing the front (adjacent to the street) open side of a New York City apartment building and the alley, semi-closed side of the same apartment unit between 2007 and 2012. We also analyzed samples of PAHs measured from 35 homes across Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, 17 from street facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 2–26) and 18 from alley-facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 1–15). Results: Levels of nonvolatile ambient PAHs were significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street (an open space), compared to a window 30 feet away, adjacent to an alley (a semi-closed space) (street geometric mean (GM) 1.32 ng/m3, arithmetic mean ± standard deviation (AM ± SD) 1.61 ± 1.04 ng/m3; alley GM 1.10 ng/m3, AM ± SD 1.37 ± 0.94 ng/m3). In the neighborhood-wide comparison, nonvolatile PAHs were also significantly higher when measured adjacent to streets compared with adjacent to alley sides of apartment buildings (street GM 1.10 ng/m3, AM ± SD 1.46 ± 1.24 ng/m3; alley GM 0.61 ng/m3, AM ± SD 0.81 ± 0.80 ng/m3), but not semivolatile PAHs. Conclusions: Ambient PAHs, nonvolatile PAHs in particular, are significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street compared to a window adjacent to an alley, despite both locations being relatively close to street traffic. This study highlights small-scale spatial variations in ambient PAH concentrations that may be related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space) from which the samples are measured, as well as the relative distance

  6. PHOTOACTIVATION AND TOXICITY OF MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The direct toxicity and photoinduced toxicity of sediment-associated acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were determined for the marine amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. The four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were spiked into sediment in a concentration se...

  7. Modeling the Role of Alkanes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Their Oligomers in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computationally efficient method to treat secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from various length and structure alkanes as well as SOA from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to predict aerosol concentrations ...

  8. Laboratory Investigation of Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Zhang, Renyi

    2006-08-23

    Our work for this DOE funded project includes: (1) measurements of the kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase oxidation reactions of the aromatic hydrocarbons initiated by OH; (2) measurements of aerosol formation from the aromatic hydrocarbons; and (3) theoretical studies to elucidate the OH-toluene reaction mechanism using quantum-chemical and rate theories.

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons /Aromatics, BDNF and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica; Phillips, David H.; Wang, Ya; Roen, Emily; Herbstman, Julie; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Within a New York City (NYC) birth cohort, we assessed the associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and other aromatic DNA adducts and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in umbilical cord blood, and neurodevelopment at age 2 years and whether BDNF is a mediator of the associations between PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts and neurodevelopment. Methods PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentrations in cord blood were measured in 505 children born to nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women residing in NYC, and a subset was assessed for neurodevelopment at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Development Index (MDI). A spectrum of PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts was measured using the 32P-postlabeling assay; DNA adducts formed by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative PAH, were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence. BDNF mature protein in cord blood plasma was quantified by an ELISA. Multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, was conducted. Results PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentration measured by postlabeling was inversely associated with BDNF concentration (p=0.02) and with MDI scores at 2 years (p=0.04). BDNF level was positively associated with MDI scores (p=0.003). Restricting to subjects having all three measures (PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts by postlabeling, MDI, and BDNF), results were similar but attenuated (p=0.13, p=0.05, p=0.01, respectively). Associations between B[a]P-DNA adducts and BDNF and B[a]P-DNA adducts and MDI at age 2 years were not significant. At age 3 years, the positive association of BDNF with MDI was not observed. Conclusions The results at age 2 suggest that prenatal exposure to a spectrum of PAH/aromatic pollutants may adversely affect early neurodevelopment, in part by reducing BDNF levels during the fetal period. However, the same relationship was not seen at age 3. PMID:26301740

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, S.; Li, K.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B.

    2009-02-15

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the Nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites. PMID:18773130

  13. Scavenging of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by rain

    SciTech Connect

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Wondergem, E.

    1985-11-01

    The variation of the concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rain with time during three precipitation events was determined. On all occasions these concentrations were found to decrease during the precipitation events. The apparent removal rate constants on a precipitation amount base for two of the three events were calculated to be 1.46 and ca. 3 mm/sup -1/. For the third event the concentration decrease did not allow the calculation of the apparent removal rate constant. Furthermore, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rain sampled simultaneously at ground level and at an altitude of 22 m were determined. These measurements demonstrate that concentrations of phenanthrene and fluoranthene in rainwater at ground level are noticeably higher than those at 200 m. No significant differences in concentrations of benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene in rain at the two altitudes were found. It is concluded on the basis of these findings that at least on the event with sampling at two altitudes the main process responsible for the presence of phenanthrene in rain is below-cloud gas-phase scavenging and that for the other compounds except fluoranthene and benz(a)anthracene it holds that in-cloud scavenging is the main process; for fluoranthene and benz(a)anthracene below-cloud gas-phase scavenging and in-cloud scavenging are about equally important.

  14. Ultrasound induced aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wheat, P E; Tumeo, M A

    1997-01-01

    An investigation to determine the ability of ultrasonic radiation to chemically alter polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous solution has been conducted. The data indicate that chemical alteration of PAHs can be induced under intense ultrasonic treatment. The extent and outcome of reaction is a function of irridation time and aqueous solution parameters. Reaction products were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Reaction products from ultrasonic treatment of aqueous solutions of biphenyl include ortho, meta, and para-1,1 biphenols. The principal product from ultrasonic treatment of aqueous phenanthrene solutions appears to be a phenanthrene-diol. The number and composition of reaction products for both PAHs tested suggest that a free radical mechanism is likely during aqueous high intensity ultrasonic treatment. The use of ultrasound to treat PAH contaminated aqueous solutions in tandem with other methodologies appears promising. However, the toxicity of reaction products produced by treatment remains to be determined. PMID:11233926

  15. Structural Evolution of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammonds, Mark; Candian, Alessandra; Mori, Tamami; Usui, Fumihiko; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important reservoir for molecular carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM), and investigations into their chemistry and behaviour may be important to the understanding of how carbon is processed from simple forms into complex prebiotic molecules such as those detected in chondritic meteorites. In this study, infrared astronomical data from AKARI and other observatories are used together with laboratory and theoretical data to study variations in the structure of emitting PAHs in interstellar environments using spectroscopic decomposition techniques and bands arising from carbon-hydrogen bond vibrations at wavelengths from 3 - 14 microns. Results and inferences are discussed in terms of the processing of large carbonaceous molecules in astrophysical environments.

  16. Risk assessment of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, L. ); Lax, I. ); Torndal, U.B.; Eriksson, L.C. )

    1993-06-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) constitute a group of substances formed during incomplete combustion. Sources include diesel vehicles, heating, smoking, certain types of food-processing, and incomplete combustion in general. 2-Nitrofluorene (NF) represents a model substance for the nitro-PAHs. An attempt has been made to estimate the lifetime human cancer risk due to background exposure to nitro-PAHs by two different models. The first model is based on genotoxic lesions produced by gamma-irradiation and the second model is based on an earlier published mega study (24,000 animals) on the carcinogenicity of the major metabolite of NF. Both models agreed well -- representing a yearly human cancer risk in the range of 0.15--49 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] for an urban citizen. The weaknesses and strengths of the models are discussed. 55 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cancer in man

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrangelo, G.; Marzia, V.; Fadda, E.

    1996-11-01

    Various substances and industrial processes, surrogates of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are currently classified as human carcinogens. This paper reviews recent epidemiological studies reporting direct evidence of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs in occupationally exposed subjects. Risks of lung and bladder cancer were dose dependent when PAHs were measured quantitatively and truly nonexposed groups were chosen for comparison. These new findings suggest that the current threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} of benzene soluble matter (which indicates PAH exposure) is unacceptable because, after 40 years of exposure, it involves a relative risk of 1.2-1.4 for lung cancer and 2.2 for bladder cancer. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by maize plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Tao, S; Zuo, Q; Coveney, R M

    2007-07-01

    Roots and above-ground parts (tops) of maize plants, comprising cuticles, leaves and stems, have been exposed separately to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of air-tight bicameral exposure devices. Maize roots and tops of plants directly accumulate PAHs from aqueous solutions and from air in proportion to exposure levels. Root and leaf concentration factors (log RCF and log LCF) are log-linear functions of log-based octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) and log-based octanol-air partition coefficient (log Koa). The PAHs' concentrations among cuticles, leaves and stems display good correlations with each other. PAH concentrations in each part of the plant tested correlated positively with atmospheric PAHs' concentrations. Comparisons between PAHs' concentrations of root epidermis and root tissue showed similar correlations. Bulk concentrations of contaminants in various plant tissues differed greatly, but these differences disappeared after normalization to lipid contents suggesting lipid-based partitioning of PAHs among maize tissues.

  19. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air with chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Zhong; Shen, Xueyou; Liu, Yong-Jian

    2003-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of four typical homes in Hangzhou, China were determined with a highly automated chromatographic method. The results indicated that the concentrations of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor air were between 1.907 microg/m3 and 14.29 microg/m3, which were much higher than those in the corresponding outdoor air. Because of the popular use of mothball in wardrobes, naphthalene had the highest concentration in all the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which was up to 13.17 microg/m3 and contributed 68% to the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the room. In kitchen, because of the representative cooking method, there had much of three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The indoor smoking not only led to high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor air, but also contributed almost all the benzo(a)pyrene. Naphthalene, acenaphthene and pyrene were considered being generated by the indoor sources in all the four homes.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  1. NATURAL BIOLOGICAL ATTENUATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is little consistent difference in the calculated half-lives of aromatic hydrocarbons in different anaerobic environments, but methanogenic environments might be generally the least supportive of rapid biotransformation. Toluene was usually the most rapidly biotransformed...

  2. PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COASTAL GREAT LAKES WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoinduced toxicity is the exacerbated toxicity of environmental contaminants by UV radiation. Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been well established in the laboratory for numerous aquatic species including larval fish. The contaminants sub-p...

  3. ADSORPTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AGED HARBOR SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of hydrophobic organic contaminants which have low aqueous solubilities and are common pollutants in harbor sediments. Adsorption and desorption isotherms for PAHs are conducted to study the abiotic sorption of PAHs in uncontami...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Parisa; Peters, Kamau O; Bidad, Katayoon; Strickland, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness in children living in developed countries and the leading cause of childhood hospitalization and school absenteeism. Prevalence rates of asthma are increasing and show disparities across gender, geographic regions, and ethnic/racial groups. Common risk factors for developing childhood asthma include exposure to tobacco smoke, previous allergic reactions, a family history of asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema, living in an urban environment, obesity and lack of physical exercise, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and male gender. Asthma exacerbation in children can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens (e.g., pollen, dust mites, and animal dander), viral and bacterial infections, exercise, and exposure to airway irritants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a major component of fine particulate matter from combustion sources, is also associated with onset of asthma, and increasing asthmatic symptoms. In this paper, we review sources of childhood PAH exposure and the association between airborne PAH exposure and childhood asthma prevalence and exacerbation.

  5. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and birth defects].

    PubMed

    Lin, S S; Huang, Y; Wang, C Y; Ren, A G

    2016-06-01

    Birth defects are one of the most common adverse birth outcomes, which create a heavy economic burden to the country, society and family. And they are also one of the biggest problems facing public health today. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic pollutants existing in the environment widely, resulting from incomplete organic matter combustion, and can be taken into the body through various ways including the digestive tract, respiratory tract and so on. Recent researches suggest that the exposure of PAHs may be associated with various birth defects, while the special mechanism isn't very clear. This paper is a review of the relationship between PAHs and birth defects from the aspects of epidemiological data, experimental evidence on animals, which indicates that exposure of PAHs during pregnancy may be associated with birth defects including congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and cleft lip/plate. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism, including oxidative stress, oxidative damage and the changes of signal transduction pathway in order to provide some recommendations and suggestions on the future work.

  6. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao

    2006-02-01

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Mechanisms for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by ligninolytic fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, K.E.

    1995-06-01

    Ligninolytic fungi accomplish the partial degradation of numerous aromatic organopollutants. Their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is particularly interesting because eukaryotes were previously considered to be unable to cleave fused-ring aromatics. Recent results indicate that extracellular peroxidases of these fungi are responsible for the initial oxidation of PAHs. Fungal lignin peroxidases oxidize certain PAHs directly, whereas fungal manganese peroxidases co-oxidize them indirectly during enzyme-mediated lipid peroxidation. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration as an exposure biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mexican women from different hot spot scenarios and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Orta-García, Sandra T; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge A; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    Recently, in developing countries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been considered contaminants of grave concern for women and children. Therefore, the aim of this study was twofold: (1) evaluate exposure assessment to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker and (2) perform a health risk assessment in women from four different high risk scenarios in Mexico. From 2012 to 2013, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 184 healthy women from the following scenarios: (A) indoor biomass combustion site (n = 50); (B) brick manufacturing site using different materials such as fuel sources (n = 70); (C) industrial site (n = 44); and (D) high vehicular traffic site (n = 20). 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Afterward, a probabilistic health risk assessment was performed (Monte Carlo analysis). Mean urinary 1-OHP levels found were 0.92 ± 0.92; 0.91 ± 0.83; 0.22 ± 0.19; and 0.14 ± 0.17 μg/L for scenario A, B, C, and D, respectively. Then, based on the measured urinary 1-OHP levels, the estimated median daily intake doses of pyrene were calculated: 659, 623, 162, and 77.4 ng/kg/day for the women participating in the study living in areas A, B, C, and D, respectively, and finally, the hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated (22 ± 21, 21 ± 20, 5.5 ± 5.5, and 2.6 ± 3.5; for areas A, B, C, and D, respectively), high health risk was noted for the women living in the studied communities. The data shown in this study (exposure levels to PAHs and health risk assessment) made it reasonable to conclude that the exposure levels found have a significant potential for generating adverse effects on human health in the studied scenarios.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Liu, Hsu-Chung; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan

    Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 2-7 ring) and regulated air pollutants (CO, HC, NO x, PM) from 2-stroke carburetor (2-Stk/Cb), 4-stroke carburetor (4-Stk/Cb) and 4-stroke fuel injection (4-Stk/FI) motorcycles were investigated by testing these vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samplings were carried out on diluted exhausts in a dilution tunnel connected to a constant volume sampling system. Measurements were performed on a standard driving cycle. The results reveal that low molecular weight PAHs (especially naphthalene) dominated in the exhaust gas. The averages of soluble organic fractions were 86.4%, 46.3% and 48.9% for the 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emissions are greater from cold-start driving than those from hot-start driving cycle for all these three kinds of motorcycles. Total PAH emission factors were 8320, 5990 and 3390 μg km -1 for the in-used 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emission factors were the largest for the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycles. Besides, the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle had the largest total BaP equivalent emission factor of 10.8 μg km -1, indicating that the emission exhaust from the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle was most carcinogenic. HC, PM and PAH emissions were the lowest for the 4-Stk/FI motorcycles. The correlation coefficient between CO and total PAH emissions for all the test motorcycles was 0.51, indicating that CO and PAH emissions are not highly correlated.

  10. Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  11. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  12. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee

    PubMed Central

    JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; ADISA, AFOLABI; WOODHAM, CARA; SALEH, MAHMOUD

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g−1 for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g−1 for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g−1 for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g−1 for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  13. Phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at varying light intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Ankley, G.T.; Phipps, G.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Erickson, R.J.; Kosian, P.A.; Cox, J.S.; Sheedy, B.R.; Mount, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Conceptual models suggest that the toxicity of photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a function both of chemical (PAH) dose, and intensity of the ultraviolet (UV) light to which the organism is exposed (photon dose). However, there have been no systematic studies with aquatic organisms to quantify the relationship between PAH dose and UV intensity in producing phototoxicity. In these studies, oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed, via the water, to multiple concentrations of individual PAHs known to be photoactivated (fluoranthene, pyrene, anthracene), and then placed under UV light of three different intensities. The resultant phototoxicity clearly was a function both of PAH dose and light intensity. A joint toxicity model relating toxicity to PAH concentrations and light intensity will be presented.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Duan, Xiaoyong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing pollution pressures were placed in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems in China because of the elevated pollutants discharged from various sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment were closely linked to human activities, which have been intensively studied for their geochemical interest as markers. In this review, the status of PAH contamination in China Sea was assessed by comprehensive reviews of the concentrations, sources, and fates of PAHs in sediments of China Sea. PAH concentrations in China Sea sediments decreased from north to south due to the higher emissions in North China. Atmosphere was probably the main carrier of PAHs in the north due to the higher contents of atmospheric fine particles and higher wind speeds. However, riverine inputs were probably the most important sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of South China due to higher rainfall.

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Angelica; Adisa, Afolabi; Woodham, Cara; Saleh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g(-1) for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g(-1) for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g(-1) for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g(-1) for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  16. Development of a groundwater biobarrier for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, and heterocyclic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Tiehm, A; Müller, A; Alt, S; Jacob, H; Schad, H; Weingran, C

    2008-01-01

    A full scale funnel-and-gate biobarrier has been developed for the removal of tar oil pollutants at an abandoned tar factory site near the city of Offenbach, Germany. Laboratory and on-site column studies were done to determine the operation parameters for microbiological clean-up of the groundwater polluted with 12,000 microg/L mono- aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and the xylenes, 4,800 microg/L polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene and acenaphthene, and 4,700 microg/L heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzofuran and benzothiophene. In the laboratory study, a residence time of approx. 70 h proved to be sufficient for aerobic pollutant biodegradation. Up to 180 mg/L H(2)O(2) were added and did not lead to any toxic effects to the degrading bacteria. The feasibility of the concept was confirmed in an on-site pilot study performed with a sedimentation tank (removal of ferric iron) and two bioreactors. In the bioreactors, >99.3% of the pollutants were degraded. Biodegradation activity corresponded to a significant increase in numbers of pollutant degrading bacteria. In the bioreactors, a fast dissociation of H(2)O(2) was observed resulting in losses of oxygen and temporary gas clogging. Therefore, a repeated addition of moderate concentrations of H(2)O(2) proved to be more favourable than the addition of high concentrations at a single dosing port. The full scale biobarrier consists of three separated bioreactors thus enabling extended control and access to the reactors. The operation of the funnel-and-gate biobarrier started in April 2007, and represents the first biological permeable reactive barrier with extended control (EC-PRB) in Germany.

  17. In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Carvan, M.J. III.

    1993-01-01

    Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

  18. Gas-particle concentrations of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at an urban and a residential site in Osaka, Japan: effect of the formation of atmospherically stable layer on their temporal change.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Nishikawa, Ayako; Fujimori, Keiichi; Shibutani, Yasuhiko

    2011-09-15

    A comparative study on atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter and the gaseous phase was performed at an urban and a residential site in Osaka, Japan, during 2005-2006. PAH concentrations at the urban site were found to be approximately twice higher than those at the residential site. At both sites, particulate PAH concentrations increased mainly in winter while the trends of temporal change in gaseous PAH concentrations were not clearly observed. The main sources of PAHs were estimated to be local traffic, e.g., diesel engines with catalytic converter. PAH concentrations did not significantly negatively correlate with ozone concentrations and meteorological parameters. Gas-particle partitioning coefficients of representative PAHs with low molecular weight (LMW) significantly negatively correlated with ambient temperature, showing that temporal change in the LMW PAH concentrations in PM could be attributable to the shift of their gas-particle distribution caused by the change in ambient temperature. For the first time, we studied the effect of the formation of atmospherically stable layer following an increase in PAH concentrations in Japan. At the urban site, PAHs showed a significant positive correlation with potential temperature gradients, indicating that temporal variability in PAH concentrations would be dominantly controlled by the formation of atmospherically stable layer in Osaka area.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

  1. AROMATIC AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN A LAMINAR PREMIXED N-BUTANE FLAME. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane¯oxygen¯argon burner s...

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Far-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, C.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A. L.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2011-03-01

    The far-IR characteristics of astrophysically relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) averaging in size around 100 carbon atoms have been studied using the theoretical spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. These spectra were calculated using density functional theory. Selections of PAH species are made, grouped together by common characteristics or trends, such as size, shape, charge, and composition, and their far-IR spectra compared. The out-of-plane modes involving the entire molecule are explored in detail, astronomical relevance is assessed, and an observing strategy is discussed. It is shown that PAHs produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing size. PAHs also produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing number of irregularities. However, series of irregular-shaped PAHs with the same compact core have common "Jumping-Jack" modes that "pile up" at specific frequencies in their average spectrum. For the PAHs studied here, around 100 carbon atoms in size, this band falls near 50 μm. PAH charge and nitrogen inclusion affect band intensities but have little effect on far-IR band positions. Detailed analysis of the two-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "drumhead" modes in the coronene and pyrene "families" and the one-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "bar" modes in the acene "family" show that these molecular vibrations can be treated as classical vibrating sheets and bars of graphene, respectively. The analysis also shows that the peak position of these modes is very sensitive to the area of the emitting PAH and does not depend on the particular geometry. Thus, these longest wavelength PAH bands could provide a unique handle on the size of the largest species in the interstellar PAH family. However, these bands are weak. Observing highly excited regions showing the mid-IR bands in which the emission from classical dust peaks at short wavelengths offers the best chance of detecting PAH emission in the far-IR. For these regions

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. PMID:26776034

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  5. Simulated transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bartell, S.M.; Landrum, P.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Leversee, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    A model was constructed to predict the pattern of flow and accumulation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (anthracene, naphthalene, and benzo(a)pyrene) in artificial streams located on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Predictions were based upon the premise that the fundamental chemistry of individual PAH contains useful information for predictive purposes. Model processes included volatilization, photolysis, sorption to sediments and particulates, and net accumulation by biota. Simulations of anthracene transport were compared to results of an experiment conducted in the streams. The model realistically predicted the concentration of dissolved anthracene through time and space. Photolytic degradation appeared to be a major pathway of anthracene flux from the streams.

  6. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon analysis using the synchronous scanning luminoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyfantis, George J., Jr.; Teglas, Matthew S.; Wilbourn, Robert G.

    2001-02-01

    12 The Synchronous Scanning Luminoscope (SSL) is a field- portable, synchronous luminescence spectrofluorometer that was developed for on-site analysis of contaminated soil and ground water. The SSL is capable of quantitative analysis of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using phosphorescence and fluorescence techniques with a high correlation to laboratory data as illustrated by this study. The SSL is also capable of generating benzo(a)pyrene equivalency results, based on seven carcinogenic PAHs and Navy risk numbers, with a high correlation to laboratory data as illustrated by this study. These techniques allow rapid field assessments of total PAHs and benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations. The Luminoscope is capable of detecting total PAHs to the parts per billion range. This paper describes standard field methods for using the SSL and describes the results of field/laboratory testing of PAHs. SSL results from two different hazardous waste sites are discussed.

  7. Fog processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Khadapkar, K.; Ehrenhauser, F. S.; Hutchings, J. W.; Wornat, M. J.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Herckes, P.

    2010-07-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic species of concern for environmental and human health. The present work will present initial finding of a comprehensive study on the fate of PAHs in multiphase fog/cloud systems and across consecutive fog/smog cycles. Field observations were conducted in Fresno, CA in Winter 2010. Simultaneous measurements of gas phase, aerosol and fog PAH allowed to gain insights on the partitioning of PAH in a multiphase fog system. Partitioning results as well as temporal evolution of PAH concentrations across different phases will be discussed. Select known degradation products (oxy-PAH) from the processing of PAHs were also analyzed in the fog systems, although frequently their concentrations were close to or below detection limits, even in the polluted urban study setting. The field observations are complemented by laboratory investigations on the reactivity of PAH in fog systems, both heterogeneously and in the aqueous phase. Heterogeneously a novel reactor design is being tested to simulate fog systems and allow for repeat fog/smog cycles. A separate series of measurements investigated the processing of PAH in the aqueous phase in a solar simulator set-up.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF BLACK CARBON IN DISTRIBUTION AND BIOACCUMULATION MODELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The roles and relative importance of nonpyrogenic organic carbon (NPOC) and black carbon (BC) as binding phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed by their ability to estimate pore water concentrations and biological uptake in various marine sediments. Sedim...

  9. Genetic association of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms with dioxin blood concentrations among pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Sata, Fumihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Ban, Susumu; Miyashita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Limpar, Mariko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are metabolized by cytochrome P450, family 1 (CYP1) via the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We determined whether different blood dioxin concentrations are associated with polymorphisms in AHR (dbSNP ID: rs2066853), AHR repressor (AHRR; rs2292596), CYP1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1; rs4646903 and rs1048963), CYP1 subfamily A polypeptide 2 (CYP1A2; rs762551), and CYP1 subfamily B polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1; rs1056836) in pregnant Japanese women. These six polymorphisms were detected in 421 healthy pregnant Japanese women. Differences in dioxin exposure concentrations in maternal blood among the genotypes were investigated. Comparisons among the GG, GA, and AA genotypes of AHR showed a significant difference (genotype model: P=0.016 for the mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and toxicity equivalence quantities [TEQs]). Second, we found a significant association with the dominant genotype model ([TT+TC] vs. CC: P=0.048 for the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin TEQs; P=0.035 for polychlorinated dibenzofuran TEQs) of CYP1A1 (rs4646903). No significant differences were found among blood dioxin concentrations and polymorphisms in AHRR, CYP1A1 (rs1048963), CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Thus, polymorphisms in AHR and CYP1A1 (rs4646903) were associated with maternal dioxin concentrations. However, differences in blood dioxin concentrations were relatively low. PMID:23528250

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    PubMed

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (< 0.1 microg/L), vanadium concentrations ranged 0.66-1.96 microg/L, chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  11. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijing; Fokkink, Remco; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has become an emerging contaminant of global concern. Bulk plastic can degrade to form smaller particles down to the nanoscale (<100 nm), which are referred to as nanoplastics. Because of their high surface area, nanoplastic may bind hydrophobic chemicals very effectively, increasing their hazard when such nanoplastics are taken up by biota. The present study reports distribution coefficients for sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to 70 nm polystyrene in freshwater, and PAH adsorption isotherms spanning environmentally realistic aqueous concentrations of 10(-5)  μg/L to 1 μg/L. Nanopolystyrene aggregate state was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, and the distribution coefficients at the lower ends of the isotherms were very high, with values up to 10(9) L/kg. The high and nonlinear sorption was explained from π-π interactions between the planar PAHs and the surface of the aromatic polymer polystyrene and was higher than for micrometer-sized polystyrene. Reduction of nanopolystyrene aggregate sizes had no significant effect on sorption, which suggests that the PAHs could reach the sorption sites on the pristine nanoparticles regardless of the aggregation state. Pre-extraction of the nanopolystyrene with C18 polydimethylsiloxane decreased sorption of PAHs, which could be explained by removal of the most hydrophobic fraction of the nanopolystyrene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1650-1655. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in house dust

    PubMed Central

    WHITEHEAD, TODD; METAYER, CATHERINE; GUNIER, ROBERT B.; WARD, MARY H.; NISHIOKA, MARCIA G.; BUFFLER, PATRICIA; RAPPAPORT, STEPHEN M.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of human exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often desired for the epidemiological studies of cancer. One way to obtain information about indoor levels of PAHs is to measure these chemicals in house dust. In this study, we evaluated the predictive value of self-reported and geographic data for estimating measured levels of nine PAHs in house dust from 583 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS). Using multivariable linear regression models, we evaluated the effects on house-dust PAH concentrations from the following covariates: residential heating sources, smoking habits, house characteristics, and outdoor emission sources. House dust was collected from 2001 to 2007, usingboth high-volume surface samplers and household vacuum cleaners, and was analyzed for nine PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All nine PAHs were detected in more than 93% of dust samples, with median concentrations ranging from 14 to 94 ng/g dust. Statistically significant effects on PAH concentrations in house dust were found for gas heating, outdoor PAH concentrations, and residence age. Yet, the optimal regression model only explained 15% of the variation in PAH levels in house dust. As self-reported data and outdoor PAH sources were only marginally predictive of observed PAH levels, we recommend that PAH concentrations be measured directly in dust samples for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:20040932

  13. New SERS Substrates For Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Detection: Towards Quantitative SERS Sensors For Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peron, O.; Rinnert, E.; Compere, C.; Toury, T.; Lamy de la Chapelle, M.

    2010-08-06

    In the investigation of chemical pollutions, such as PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) at low concentration in aqueous medium, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) stands for an alternative to the inherent low cross-section of normal Raman scattering. Indeed, SERS is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique due to the excitation of the surface plasmon modes of the nanostructured metallic film.

  14. SOLAR RADIATION DOSE AND PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increases by as much as three orders of magnitude in the presence of solar radiation. The risk of this photoactive toxicity is thus based on both tissue concentrations of potentially photo activated compounds and the levels of subs...

  15. THE EFFECT OF IRRADIANCE SPECTRA ON THE PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY OF THREE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light recieved. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events un...

  16. EFFECT OF IRRADIANCE SPECTRA ON THE PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY OF THREE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light received. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events un...

  17. Public Health Impacts of Secondary Particulate Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from gasoline‐powered vehicles contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which increases the atmospheric mass concentration of fine particles (PM2.5). Here we estimate the public health burden associated w...

  18. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON BIODEGRADATION AS A FUNCTION OF OXYGEN TENSION IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the effect of soil gas oxygen concentration on the degradation and mineralization of spiked 14C-pyrene and nonspiked 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in the soil. The soil used for the evaluation was...

  19. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1996-02-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  20. Infrared spectra of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keqing; Guo, B.; Bernath, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Recording the spectra of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules is of great astronomical interest. Infrared spectra of gas-phase naphthalene, pyrene, and chrysene were obtained in absorption and emission. The band positions and relative intensities were measured and compared with theoretical calculations. These data will be compared to the astronomical observations of the unidentified infrared emission bands.

  1. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  2. CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been frequently detected at children's homes and day care centers and may pose health concerns due to their carcinogenicity. Most PAHs have been persistent indoors and outdoors, therefore, children may be exposed to chronic low level...

  3. THE RATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM INCENSE BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of experiments performed to determine the amounts of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in incense smoke. Ten brands of incense, 3 of stick, 2 of joss stick, and one each of cone, smudge bundle, rope, powder, and rock, w...

  4. Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Tang, Deliang; Roen, Emily L.; Herbstman, Julie; Margolis, Amy; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Miller, Rachel L.; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Importance Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread urban air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material shown previously to be neurotoxic. Objective In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems and prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for postnatal exposure. Materials and Methods Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City were followed from in utero to 9 years. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was estimated by levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- DNA adducts in maternal and cord blood collected at delivery. Postnatal exposure was estimated by the concentration of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites at ages 3 or 5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Conners Parent Rating Scale- Revised. Results High prenatal adduct exposure, measured by elevated maternal adducts was significantly associated with all Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised subscales when the raw scores were analyzed continuously (N = 233). After dichotomizing at the threshold for moderately to markedly atypical symptoms, high maternal adducts were significantly associated with the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised DSM-IV Inattentive (OR = 5.06, 95% CI [1.43, 17.93]) and DSM-IV Total (OR = 3.37, 95% CI [1.10, 10.34]) subscales. High maternal adducts were positivity associated with the DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist, albeit not significant. In the smaller sample with cord adducts, the associations between outcomes and high cord adduct exposure were not statistically significant (N = 162). Conclusion The results suggest that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons encountered in New York City air may play a role in childhood Attention

  5. Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a laminar premixed n-butane flame

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.; Vincitore, A.M.; Castaldi, M.J.; Senkan, S.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane-oxygen-argon burner stabilized flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.6 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer technique. Measurements were made in the main reaction and post-reaction zones for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-fused aromatic rings. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis were used to help identify the important reaction sequences leading to aromatic and PAH growth and destruction in the n-butane flame. Reaction flux analysis showed the propargyl recombination reaction was the dominant pathway to benzene formation. The consumption of propargyl by H atoms was shown to limit propargyl, benzene, and naphthalene formation in flames as exhibited by the large negative sensitivity coefficients. Naphthalene and phenanthrene production was shown to be plausibly formed through reactions involving resonantly stabilized cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Many of the low molecular weight aliphatics, combustion by-products, aromatics, branched aromatics, and PAHs were fairly well simulated by the model. Additional work is required to understand the formation mechanisms of phenyl acetylene, pyrene, and fluoranthene in the n-butane flame. 73 refs.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p < 0.01, it was demonstrated that all individual PAHs, including their totals, were bound to the PM2.5 fraction. Exceptions were seen in the cases of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, the concentrations of which fluctuated around the detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  7. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during woodworking operations.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin D; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common wood working operations, PAH concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAH concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24-7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal PAH exposures were between 37.5-119.8 ng m(-3) during wood working operations. Our results suggest that PAH exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road dust over Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Latif, Nasser M

    2008-02-28

    Road dust samples were collected during 2005 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. Sites under investigation were selected to represent the different parts of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Estimation and spatial distribution pattern of PAHs in road dust were the main objectives of this study. The road dust samples were collected from 17 sites over greater Cairo. The concentration of PAHs was determined by using HPLC technique. Twelve common environmental PAHs were found to be distributed. The present data illustrated that the total average of PAHs over the investigated sites was ranged from 0.045 to 2.6 mg/kg. On individual scale, the highest concentrations were 1.031 and 1.028 mg/kg for pyrene and phenanthrene, meanwhile the lowest was benzo(a)pyrene with value 0.0001 mg/kg. The obtained results showed that the carcinogenic content of PAHs (naphthalene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene) ranged from 0.8 to 46.6% of total PAHs. It has been concluded from the present work that PAHs concentrations are greater and closer to traffic routes and industrial activities.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in drinking water of Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and seasonal variation of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the drinking water of Tehran, the capital of Iran. Detected single and total PAHs concentrations were in the range of 2.01-38.96 and 32.45-733.10 ng/L, respectively, which were quite high compared to the values recorded in other areas of the world. The average occurrence of PAHs with high molecular weights was 79.55%; for example, chrysene occurred in 60.6% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 438.96 ng/L. In addition, mean carcinogen to non-carcinogen PAHs ratio was 63.84. Although the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, as an indicator of water pollution to PAHs, was lower than the guideline value proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) as well as that of Iranian National Drinking Water Standards for all of the samples, the obtained results indicated that carcinogen PAHs present in the drinking water of Tehran can cause threats to human health. PMID:24499505

  10. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Exciton properties of selected aromatic hydrocarbon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Friedrich; Mahns, Benjamin; Hampel, Silke; Nohr, Markus; Berger, Helmuth; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin

    2013-02-01

    We have examined the singlet excitons in two representatives of acene-type (tetracene and pentacene) and phenacene-type (chrysene and picene) molecular crystals, respectively, using electron energy-loss spectroscopy at low temperatures. We show that the excitation spectra of the two hydrocarbon families significantly differ. Moreover, close inspection of the data indicates that there is an increasing importance of charge-transfer excitons at lowest excitation energy with increasing length of the molecules.

  12. Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in an extremely acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, R.D.; Savage, D.C.; Sayler, G.S.; Stacey, G.

    1998-11-01

    The potential for biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was evaluated in soil samples recovered along gradients of both contaminant levels and pH values existing downstream of a long-term coal pile storage basin. pH values for areas greatly impacted by runoff from the storage basin were 2.0. Even at such a reduced pH, the indigenous microbial community was metabolically active, showing the ability to oxidize more than 40% of the parent hydrocarbons, naphthalene and toluene, to carbon dioxide and water. Treatment of the soil samples with cycloheximide inhibited mineralization of the aromatic substrates. DNA hybridization analysis indicated that whole-community nucleic acids recovered from these samples did not hybridize with genes, such as nahA, nahG, nahH, todC1C2, and tomA, that encode common enzymes from neutrophilic bacteria. Since these data suggested that the degradation of aromatic compounds may involve a microbial consortium instead of individual acidophilic bacteria, experiments using microorganisms isolated from these samples were initiated. While no defined mixed cultures were able to evolve {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from labeled substrates in these mineralization experiments, an undefined mixed culture including a fungus, a yeast, and several bacteria successfully metabolized approximately 27% of supplied naphthalene after 1 week. This study shows that biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in environments with extremely low pH values.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by a mixed bacterial culture

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, G.; Koenig, J.; Ringpfeil, M.

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are a complex mixture of organic compounds, was demonstrated using a bacterial mixed culture selected from a contaminated site by the BIOPRACT GmbH. The investigations were carried out in a laboratory fermenter using emulsified tar oil as the substrate to determine the following: (1) concentration of the single PAH and of the sum of PAHs relative to fermentation time, (2) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and oxygen (O{sub 2}) content in the outflowing air during fermentation, (3) chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the broth, and (4) toxicity of the broth before and after fermentation according to the bioluminescence test (DIN 38412, part 34/1). The results of this model experiment indicated that the investigated mixed culture is able to effectively metabolize the PAHs contained in tar oil, including the higher condensed compounds such as benzo(a)pyrene. In the first 8 days of fermentation, the PAH sum decreased to below 5% of the starting concentration connected with a five-fold reduction of the toxic effect on Vibrio fischeri. The PAH degradation rate correlated with the rate of COD decrease, the rate of evolving CO{sub 2}, and the consumption of O{sub 2}.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household dust near diesel transport routes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chen, Heng-Chun; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Huang, Li-Ru; Chien, Po-Shan; Wang, Jing-Ya

    2012-02-01

    A river-dredging project has been undertaken in Nantou, Taiwan. A large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand shuttle back and forth on the main roads. Ten stations along major thoroughfares were selected as the exposure sites for testing, while a small village located about 9 km from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. Levels of household dust loading at the exposure sites (60.3 mg/m(2)) were significantly higher than those at the control site (38.2 mg/m(2)). The loading (μg/m(2)) of t-PAHs (total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the household dust at the exposure sites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than was the case at the control site. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed that diesel emissions were the dominant source of PAHs at the exposure sites. The lack of a significant correlation between the concentrations of Fe and t-PAHs suggested that the t-PAHs in household dust might come from diverse sources. However, a significant correlation (P = 0.003) between the concentrations of Mo and t-PAHs implied that the most of the t-PAHs in the household dust might have resulted from diesel emissions. The lifetime cancer risks of BaP(eq) from household dust exposure were markedly higher than those resulting from inhalation exposure.

  16. Solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by perfluorinated surfactant micelles.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Carraway, Elizabeth R; Schlautman, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    Due to their chemical and thermal stability, perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) are promising materials for the development of novel environmental remediation applications. This stability also leads to the persistence of PFS in the environment; therefore, their properties and behavior should be well understood. This study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PFS interactions, particularly the solubilization of PAHs by PFS micelles. Naphthalene. phenanthrene, and pyrene were selected as representative PAHs and an anionic PFS, ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) was used. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of APFO measured by surface tension, fluorescence probe, and solubility enhancement methods fell in the range of 20-30 mM at 22 +/- 1 degrees C. Apparent solubilities of molecular oxygen and PAHs in APFO micellar solutions depended linearly on the APFO concentration. Molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values were determined to be 9.50 x 10(-4), 4.17 x 10(-3), 2.31 x 10(-4), and 4.09 x 10(-5) and mole fraction micellar partition coefficient (Kmic) values were found to be 1.89 x 10(2), 9.50 x 10(2), 2.12 x 10(3), and 3.79 x 10(3) for oxygen, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, respectively at 22 +/- 1 degrees C. log Kmic values for three PAHs were shown to be linearly correlated with the log values of octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow).

  17. Metabolic Pathways for Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ladino-Orjuela, Guillermo; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto; Salt, Christopher; Parsons, John R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to build an updated collection of information focused on the mechanisms and elements involved in metabolic pathways of aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria. Enzymes as an expression of the genetic load and the type of electron acceptor available, as an environmental factor, were highlighted. In general, the review showed that both aerobic routes and anaerobic routes for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons are divided into two pathways. The first, named the upper pathways, entails the route from the original compound to central intermediate compounds still containing the aromatic ring but with the benzene nucleus chemically destabilized. The second, named the lower pathway, begins with ring de-aromatization and subsequent cleavage, resulting in metabolites that can be used by bacteria in the production of biomass. Under anaerobic conditions the five mechanisms of activation of the benzene ring described show the diversity of chemical reactions that can take place. Obtaining carbon and energy from an aromatic hydrocarbon molecule is a process that exhibits the high complexity level of the metabolic apparatus of anaerobic microorganisms. The ability of these bacteria to express enzymes that catalyze reactions, known only in non-biological conditions, using final electron acceptors with a low redox potential, is a most interesting topic. The discovery of phylogenetic and functional characteristics of cultivable and noncultivable hydrocarbon degrading bacteria has been made possible by improvements in molecular research techniques such as SIP (stable isotope probing) tracing the incorporation of (13)C, (15)N and (18)O into nucleic acids and proteins. Since many metabolic pathways in which enzyme and metabolite participants are still unknown, much new research is required. Therefore, it will surely allow enhancing the known and future applications in practice.

  18. Phototransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into stable, mutagenic components

    SciTech Connect

    Okinaka, R.T.; Nickols, J.W.; Whaley, T.W.; Strniste, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    This report compares the mutagenicity of photochemical products produced by exposure of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo(a)pyrene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene or the aromatic amines 2-aminofluorene, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminonaphthalene to sunlight or to ultraviolet light (UVA). 2-Aminofluorene, giving the most active products, was further investigated with respect to the mechanism of photoactivation and the chemical identity of the photochemical products. Screening of HPLC resolved photochemical products demonstrated that the majority of the mutagenicity was localized to one peak - which co-chromatographed with 2-nitrofluorene.

  19. Public health impacts of secondary particulate formation from aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from gasoline-powered vehicles contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which increases the atmospheric mass concentration of fine particles (PM2.5). Here we estimate the public health burden associated with exposures to the subset of PM2.5 that originates from vehicle emissions of aromatics under business as usual conditions. Methods The PM2.5 contribution from gasoline aromatics is estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and the results are compared to ambient measurements from the literature. Marginal PM2.5 annualized concentration changes are used to calculate premature mortalities using concentration-response functions, with a value of mortality reduction approach used to monetize the social cost of mortality impacts. Morbidity impacts are qualitatively discussed. Results Modeled aromatic SOA concentrations from CMAQ fall short of ambient measurements by approximately a factor of two nationwide, with strong regional differences. After accounting for this model bias, the estimated public health impacts from exposure to PM2.5 originating from aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline lead to a central estimate of approximately 3800 predicted premature mortalities nationwide, with estimates ranging from 1800 to over 4700 depending on the specific concentration-response function used. These impacts are associated with total social costs of $28.2B, and range from $13.6B to $34.9B in 2006$. Conclusions These preliminary quantitative estimates indicate particulates from vehicular emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrate a nontrivial public health burden. The results provide a baseline from which to evaluate potential public health impacts of changes in gasoline composition. PMID:23425393

  20. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Sanches, S; Leitão, C; Penetra, A; Cardoso, V V; Ferreira, E; Benoliel, M J; Crespo, M T Barreto; Pereira, V J

    2011-09-15

    The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm(2), anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  1. Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T. ); Hoylman, A.M. )

    1992-12-01

    A review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the potential for plants to take up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils and the possibility of PAH movement from soils into vegetation at waste disposal sites associated with manufactured gas plants (MGP). Studies published since 1983 are considered in conjunction with previous publications and literature reviews on PAH uptake by vegetation. These studies indicate that the extent to which sorption to roots occurs is likely to be influenced by species-specific properties of the plant, physicochemical properties of each PAH, soil properties, and biodegradation rates of the PAHs in soil. PAHs containing five or more rings may sorb to plant roots but are not expected to be translocated to foliage in other than trace quantities. Uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene by roots has been reported in the literature. In addition, eight PAHs of three and four rings (acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene) were isolated from leaves and roots of four plant species collected near a coal tar disposal trench in eastern Tennessee. A total concentration of 5519 ng/g was observed for the eight PAHs in roots of lamb's quarters. Coal tar, in soil, was implicated as the source of PAHs in the four plant species.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Simona; Soceanu, Alina; Popescu, Viorica; Coatu, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This Research Communication reports analysis of 37 compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPS and OPPS) in milk powder (one brand each of commercial infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby formulae purchased from a local supermarket in Romania). The selected analytes were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the μg/kg level (range 0·001-0·320 µg/kg). The purpose of the study was to determine the selected analytes, to assess the exposure of babies and infants and to produce data for comparison with tolerable limits according to the European Union Regulations. In most of the samples the organochlorine pesticides values were under the limit of detection. Exceptions were heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan sulphate, the last of which was found in all analysed samples at low concentrations. We also found detectable levels of ethoprophos, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, guthion, disulfoton and fenchlorphos in most of the analysed samples. Benzo[a]pyrene, which is used as an indicator for the presence of PAHs, was not detected in selected samples. The low level of exposure to contaminants indicates that there are no health risks for the infants and babies that consume this brand of milk powder formulae. PMID:27210498

  3. Magnetic Beads-based Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) has been developed to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PAH-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PAH (HRP-PAH). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreaction among PAH-antibody-coated MBs, PAH analyte, and HRP-PAH. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing 3, 3´, 5, 5´- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for electrochemical detection. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate were investigated, and the reduction peak current of TMB was used to quantify the concentration of PAH. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PAH conjugates, the enzyme catalytic reaction time, and the pH of the supporting electrolyte that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 50 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical magnetic immunoassay was successfully evaluated with tap water spiked with PAHs, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

  4. Fibrous adsorbent for removal of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Jun; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Yamada, Toshiro; Takagi, Hiroo; Nishimura, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bundles of a strongly hydrophobic fibrous material (p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole; PBO; Zylon) were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of aqueous aromatic compounds, because the PBO fibers are too rigid to be woven and did not entrap suspended solids. The removal performance for nine kinds of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was evaluated. PAHs and DEHP at initial concentrations of 50 microg L(-1) were removed at 72.5-99.9% and ca. 95%, respectively, although the removal efficiencies were affected by the phase ratio (fiber weight/solution volume). The logarithm of the partition coefficient (log K) for planar PAHs was linearly correlated with the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), but nonplanar PAHs, such as cis-stilbene, p-terphenyl, and o-terphenyl, showed significantly lower adsorption performance. The adsorbed PAHs were not desorbed effectively with CH3CN, CH2Cl2, and toluene. On the other hand, DEHP was effectively desorbed with methanol.

  5. Fibrous adsorbent for removal of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Jun; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Yamada, Toshiro; Takagi, Hiroo; Nishimura, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bundles of a strongly hydrophobic fibrous material (p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole; PBO; Zylon) were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of aqueous aromatic compounds, because the PBO fibers are too rigid to be woven and did not entrap suspended solids. The removal performance for nine kinds of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was evaluated. PAHs and DEHP at initial concentrations of 50 microg L(-1) were removed at 72.5-99.9% and ca. 95%, respectively, although the removal efficiencies were affected by the phase ratio (fiber weight/solution volume). The logarithm of the partition coefficient (log K) for planar PAHs was linearly correlated with the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), but nonplanar PAHs, such as cis-stilbene, p-terphenyl, and o-terphenyl, showed significantly lower adsorption performance. The adsorbed PAHs were not desorbed effectively with CH3CN, CH2Cl2, and toluene. On the other hand, DEHP was effectively desorbed with methanol. PMID:17585293

  6. Coarse-graining the structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons clusters.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rojas, J; Calvo, F; Wales, D J

    2016-05-18

    Clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are essential components of soot and may concentrate a significant fraction of carbon matter in the interstellar medium. In this contribution, coarse-grained potentials are parameterized using all-atom reference data to model PAH molecules, such as coronene (C24H12) or circumcoronene (C54H18), and their aggregates. Low-energy structures of pure coronene or circumcoronene clusters obtained using basin-hopping global optimization are found to agree with atomistic results, and consist of finite 1D columnar motifs, sometimes juxtaposed in larger clusters. The structures are only weakly perturbed when quadrupolar interactions are included. π-Stacking also dominates in binary coronene/circumcoronene aggregates, although intriguing motifs are predicted in which one or more molecules are sandwiched between the other PAH species. The coarse-grained model is also extended to account for interaction with a flat graphitic substrate. In this case, binding is stronger with the substrate than with other molecules, and the PAHs are predicted to arrange into a flat triangular monolayer. PMID:27055581

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons incidence in Portuguese traditional smoked meat products.

    PubMed

    Santos, C; Gomes, A; Roseiro, L C

    2011-09-01

    Meat and meat products safety is, nowadays, a priority quality requirement with chemical hazards having a great impact. Amongst the residues and contaminants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be of particular concern, namely in those products having direct smoking during processing. In order to investigate the contamination levels in traditional dry fermented sausages manufactured in Alentejo (South of Portugal), 66 samples were collected from regional producers. PAH8 represented less than 0.5% of the total contamination profile, with benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene being the most concentrated compounds (maximum contents of 7.53 and 8.9 μgkg(-1)), irrespective of the product type analysed. Benzo[a]pyrene content varied between 0.21 and 1.00 μgkg(-1), with only one sample showing this maximum content. Blood sausages were potentially more risky, since total PAH8 contents were generally higher and because its presence in inner parts were significantly superior than that found in casings, comparatively to meat counterparts, which expressed superior benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents.

  8. Plant bioindicators for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity in aquatic microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.; Day, K.E.; Hodson, P.V.; Servos, M.R.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Plant bioindicators are being developed to assess the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in experimental aquatic ecosystems. The approach is to develop and test biomarker assays that are specifically predictive of ecological events at the population and/or community levels of organization in artificial aquatic microcosms. PAH mixtures were introduced into a series of aquatic microcosms using the wood preservative creosote as a PAH source. The authors applied creosote at five dosage levels designed to simulate conductions observed at highly contaminated sites. The growth and biomass of phytoplankton, periphyton, and macrophytes were then measured throughout the growing season, and compared to one or more biomarker assays used to detect PAH contamination. Preliminary results using fluorescence induction on aquatic macrophytes suggest that PAHs can significantly inhibit photosynthesis at even modest concentrations 1--4 hours after exposure. This assay thus is not only a sensitive indicator of PAH exposure, but may also describe mechanisms of PAH toxicity that ultimately reduce biomass or population growth for aquatic plants in these microcosms.

  9. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's greater Al-Burgan oil field on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues of the desert lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, Mona A; Brain, Paul F; Omar, Samira A

    2007-11-01

    Using indicator species to monitor the effects of oil pollution was thought to be useful to assess whether local desert reptiles and their insect prey could fulfill such a role in an area damaged in the second Gulf War (1990). Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot, and clear sites) located at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field were compared with control areas outside this region in study conducted in 2002. Five Acanthodactylus scutellatus lizards from each study and control site were humanely killed and stored in a freezer at -20 degrees C until analysis. Ants from the same sites were also collected and treated in a similar manner. Lizard and ant whole body tissues were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs). The study concentrated on sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), EPA priority pollutants used as indicators of petrogenic HC contamination. There were significantly different concentrations of total PAHs in lizards and ants among all four study sites. Of the 16 PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene were present in both lizard and ant samples from the Greater Al-Burgan oil field sites irrespective of the apparent degree of pollution but were undetectable in materials from the control sites. The range of total PAHs in lizards was 26.5-301 ng g(-1) and it was 6.7-82.1 ng g(-1) in ants. Concentrations increased progressively along an expected contamination gradient. Total PAHs were detected in biota even in an area (clear site) that did not appear, virtually, to contain petroleum soil pollution which supports the value of indicator biota species. For all three sites where PAHs were found in biota, the ratio of total PAHs in ants to lizards was consistently 3.3-3.4. These data show that, although 12 years have passed since the Kuwait oil spill catastrophe, all sites are still contaminated with PAHs. Use of

  10. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  11. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    [14C]naphthalene and phenanthrene were oxidized to 14CO2 without a detectable lag under strict anaerobic conditions in sediments from San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., that were heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not in less contaminated sediments. Sulfate reduction was necessary for PAH oxidation. These results suggest that the self-purification capacity of PAH-contaminated sulfate-reducing environments may be greater than previously recognized.

  12. Chromatographic methods for carcinogenic/mutagenic nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, K

    2000-10-01

    Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), which are known to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic, are considered to be one of the air pollutants that cause lung cancer. In the last two decades, a number of sensitive and selective methods have been developed for the determination of NPAHs and related compounds in environmental and biological samples. This paper describes the state of the art of the methods and applications. PMID:11002277

  13. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Zonca, Alberto E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 Multiplication-Sign 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  14. Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

    1997-01-01

    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies. PMID:11541329

  15. Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

    1997-01-01

    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies.

  16. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  17. Simulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons transport in multimedia

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chu, C.J.

    1999-07-01

    Many studies have indicated that the threat from toxic air pollutants such as VOCs comes not through inhalation by humans while the pollutants are in a gaseous state but through absorption when the pollutants are in a solid state such as in an aerosol or particulate form. Pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) usually exist in a semi-volatile state. To assess the risk of the PAHs, one needs to estimate the dose of the pollutants to which a human would be exposed through various pathways. In this study, the authors modified a Spatial Multimedia Compartmental Model (SMCM) originally developed by UCLA Professor Cohen to predict the PAHs distribution among multimedia such as air, water, soil and sediment in the Taipei metropolitan area. Three PAHs were considered in this study. They are Benzo(a)pyrene, Pyrene and Chrysene. When PAHs are emitted into atmosphere, physical and chemical mechanisms may redistribute the PAHs among multimedia. Five cases of PAHs distribution in multimedia were simulated: (1) PAHs distribution in a dry condition, (2) PAHs distribution when there are different dry deposition velocities, (3) PAHs distribution under a single rainfall event, (4) PAHs distribution when there are different soil properties, (5) PAHs distribution under a random rainfall case. The simulation results are concluded: (1) In the dry case, the PAHs accumulate mostly in soil and air compartments, (2) Different dry depositing velocities will affect the PAHs distribution among compartments. (3) Different soil properties affect the PAHs concentration in the soil and sediment compartments, (4) The soil PAHs concentrations usually increase for those PAHs with a high solid/gas ratio. (5) The random rainfall only affects the PAHs concentration in the soil.

  18. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during woodworking operations

    PubMed Central

    Bruschweiler, Evin D.; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common wood working operations, PAH concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAH concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24–7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal PAH exposures were between 37.5–119.8 ng m−3 during wood working operations. Our results suggest that PAH exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure. PMID:23087908

  19. Environmental quality objectives for 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    PubMed

    Kalf, D F; Crommentuijn, T; van de Plassche, E J

    1997-02-01

    Environmental quality objectives (EQOs) for water, soil, and sediment are derived for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). EQOs are an important instrument in the effects-oriented environmental policy of the Dutch Ministry of the Environment. These EQOs should be set in such a way that protection of organisms in all compartments is ensured. As intermedia transport of chemicals occurs, this means that EQOs derived for individual compartments have to be harmonized. EQOs are based on scientifically derived risk limits: maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and the negligible concentrations (NCs). MPCs are concentrations above which the risk of adverse effects is considered unacceptable. The NC is defined as the MPC/100 and takes possible effects of combination toxicity due to the presence of other substances into account. In this paper MPCs are derived for haphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene. The MPCs for these PAHs are for water 1.2, 0.07, 0.30, 0.30, 0.01, 0.34, 0.04, 0.05, 0.03, and 0.04 micrograms/liter, respectively; for soil 0.14, 0.12, 0.51, 2.6, 0.25, 10.7, 2.4. 0.26, 7.5, and 5.9 mg/kg, respectively; and for sediment 0.14, 0.12, 0.51, 2.6. 0.36, 10.7, 2.4, 2.7, 7.5, and 5.9 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:9056405

  20. Estimation of Chronic Personal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Zdeb, Michael; Perera, Frederica; Spengler, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure from solid fuel burning represents an important public health issue for the majority of the global population. Yet, understanding of individual-level exposures remains limited. Objectives To develop regionally adaptable chronic personal exposure model to pro-carcinogenic PAH (c-PAH) for the population in Kraków, Poland. Methods We checked the assumption of spatial uniformity in eight c-PAH using the coefficients of divergence (COD), a marker of absolute concentration differences. Upon successful validation, we developed personal exposure models for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH by integrating individual-level data with area-level meteorological or pollutant data. We checked the resulting model for accuracy and precision against home outdoor monitoring data. Results During winter, COD of 0.1 for Kraków suggest overall spatial uniformity in the ambient concentration of the eight c-PAH. The three models that we developed were associated with index of agreement approximately equal to 0.9, root mean square error < 2.6 ng/m3, and 90th percentile of absolute difference ≤ 4 ng/m3 for the predicted and the observed concentrations for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH. Conclusions Inexpensive and logistically feasible information could be used to estimate chronic personal exposure to PAH profiles, in lieu of costly and labor-intensive personal air monitoring at wide scale. At the same time, thorough validation through direct personal monitoring and assumption checking are critical for successful model development. PMID:25965038

  1. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fog-rain events.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Pengfei; Yan, Lili; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Xu, Shifen

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mainly originate from incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of materials containing carbon and hydrogen. They exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). Current studies in atmospheric PAHs are predominantly focused on fog and rainwater samples. Some sampling difficulties are associated with fog samples. This study presented the first observation of the characteristics of PAHs in fog samples using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Eighteen fog samples were collected during ten fog events from March to December 2009 in the Shanghai area. PAHs were extracted by SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As the compounds were partially soluble in water, with solubility decreasing with increasing molecular weight, low molecular weight (LMW) PAH compounds were universally found in the fog water samples. Naphthalene (NaP), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant) and fluoranthene (Flo) were dominant compounds in fog water. The total PAH concentration in fog water ranged from 0.03 to 6.67 μg L(-1) (mean of 1.06 μg L(-1)), and was much higher in winter than in summer. The concentration of PAHs in fog or rain water decreased after undergoing a pre-rain or pre-fog wash. The average concentration of PAHs was higher in fog than in rain. Diagnostic ratio analysis suggested that petroleum and combustion were the dominant contributors to PAHs in urban Shanghai. Backward trajectories were calculated to determine the origin of the air masses, showing that air masses were mostly from the northeast territory.

  2. Biodegradation for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Brake, E.N.; Rothenburger, S.J.

    1996-10-01

    Bioremediation promises to be a cost-effective remediation option for hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments, but much remains to be determined about the molecular fate of specific molecules in spilled oil and refined products. We have examined the biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with two to five rings, in aqueous flask systems, and in soils where the hydrocarbons have been present for many years. We have used consortia of indigenous organisms, and have attempted to use optimal nutrient strategies to stimulate microbial growth. We find that all the alkylated forms of naphthalene with 0-4 methyl groups, and of phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene with 0-3 methyl groups are biodegradable, and that parent compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, dibenzothiophene, benz[a]anthracene, pyrene, chrysene and benz[a]anthracene are all degradable under conditions that mimic field application of nutrient-assisted bioremediation.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in spanish olive oils: relationship between benzo(a)pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acuña, Rafael; del Carmen Pérez-Camino, María; Cert, Arturo; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2008-11-12

    Samples of Spanish virgin olive oils (VOOs) from different categories, origins, varieties, and commercial brands were analyzed by HPLC with a programmable fluorescence detector to determine the content of nine heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perilene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Samples of olive pomace and crude olive pomace oils were also investigated. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were below the allowed limit in the European Union (2 microg/kg) in 97% of the VOO samples. Only those samples coming from contaminated olive fruits or obtained in oil mills with highly polluted environments exceeded this value. High correlation coefficients (<0.99) were obtained between the contents of benzo(a)pyrene and the sum of the nine PAHs for all of the analyzed categories, suggesting that benzo(a)pyrene could be used as a marker of the content of these nine PAHs in olive oils.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in Local Population

    PubMed Central

    Pan, En chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin fei; Chen, Xiao dong; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in China and study their associations with high cancer incidence in local population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in China. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10−4 in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in local drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences. PMID:26688818

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in Local Population.

    PubMed

    Pan, En Chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu Jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin Fei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in China and study their associations with high cancer incidence in local population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in China. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10(-4) in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in local drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in Local Population.

    PubMed

    Pan, En Chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu Jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin Fei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in China and study their associations with high cancer incidence in local population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in China. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10(-4) in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in local drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences. PMID:26688818

  7. Petroleum and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    1995-01-01

    Abridged summary: In general, petroleum negatively affects living organisms through physical contact, toxic action, and habitat modification, whereas individual PAHs have toxic effects. Partially metabolized PAHs can induce genetic damage and developmental abnormalities and can induce cancerous and noncancerous tumors. Evidence linking environmental concentrations of PAHs to the induction of cancer in wild animals is limited. Although concentrations of individual PAHs in aquatic environments are usually much lower than concentrations that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms, sublethal effects can be produced. Population changes caused by petroleum spills are easier to document for macrophytes and animals with limited mobility than for mobile animals (fish, birds, mammals, reptiles). Effects of spills on populations of mobile species have been difficult to determine beyond immediate losses in local populations.

  8. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples.

  9. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks.

    PubMed

    Baraniecka, Joanna; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Dobrzyńska, Elzbieta

    2010-11-15

    The emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks in southern Poland was investigated. Size-segregated samples of air particulate matter (<0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.5 and 2.5-10 μm) were collected at the electric arc furnace and rolling mill. The PAHs were sampled with the personal cascade impactor and identified by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The obtained results showed that collected PAH contents were significantly higher at the electric arc furnace. The highest content of total PAHs (93 ng m(-3)) was present in the smallest particles of 0.5 μm aerodynamic diameter or less, indicating that the ultrafine particles have a high contribution in the overall PM(2.5) fine fraction. Concentrations of Py, CH, BbF, BaP and BghiP came to 76% of total PAHs content in <0.25 μm fraction. The five- and six-ring compounds (BbF, BkF, BaP, DBA, BghiP) with 4-ring chrysene presented typical unimodal size distribution with one predominant peak for this particles' diameter. Phenanthrene and fluoranthene exhibited highest concentrations on coarse particles in the range of 10-2.5 μm, decreasing with decrease of a particle size fraction. Using the toxic equivalent factor (TEF), the mean contributions of the carcinogenic potency of BaP to the air samples collected at the arc furnace and rolling mill (fraction below 0.25 μm) were determined to be 66.3% and 50.3%, respectively.

  10. Atmospheric Concentrations, Gas/Particle Partitioning And Exposure Risk Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) At Background, Rural Village And Urban Sites In The North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Simonich, S.; Zhao, J.; Xue, M.; Wang, W.; Tao, S.

    2009-05-01

    Particle- and gas-phase PAHs were measured in air collected from a background site (Xiaolongmen), two rural village sites (Gubeikou and Donghe), and an urban site (Beijing) located in the North China Plain for four seasons from September 2007 to August 2008 in order to evaluate their concentrations, relative abundance, and gas/particle partitioning. Sixteen PAHs, included in the U.S.EPA priority pollutant list, were determined in the particle (PM10) and gas phases. The annual average 15 PAH concentration in Donghe was 730.7±608.0 ng/m3, which was 18.2, 3.0, 1.8 times higher than Xiaolongmen, Gubeikou and Beijing, respectively. A good linear relationship between gas/particle partitioning coefficients, Kp and subcooled liquid vapor pressure, pl was obtained. At the rural and urban sites, the regression slopes were much steeper than -1, indicating that adsorption of PAH to particulate matter dominated over absorption possibly because, at these sites, the freshly emitted particulate matter and PAHs had not yet reached equilibrium. However, gas/particle partitioning of PAHs approached equilibrium at the background site because of long- range transport of PAHs. In addition, the gas/particle partitioning was studied according to three different models: The Junge-Pankow adsorption model, the Koa absorption model, and the dual organic matter absorption model combined with the soot carbon adsorption model. The Junge-Pankow model and Koa model both under-predicted our experimental Kp values. However, the dual model fit our experimental Kp values well suggesting that the main partitioning mechanism was PAH adsorption onto soot carbon in this region of China. The different particulate matter characteristics (including organic matter and elemental carbon fraction and available adsorption sites), temperature variation during sampling, the presence of a non- exchangeable PAH fraction and non-equilibrium were considered possible reasons for why our experimental Kp values deviated

  11. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Meador, J P; Stein, J E; Reichert, W L; Varanasi, U

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the marine environment, occurring at their highest environmental concentrations around urban centers. While they can occur naturally, the highest concentrations are mainly from human activities, and the primary sources are combustion products and petroleum. Two factors, lipid and organic carbon, control to a large extent the partitioning behavior of PAHs in sediment, water, and tissue; the more hydrophobic a compound, the greater the partitioning to these phases. These two factors, along with the octanol-water partition coefficient, are the best predictors of this partitioning and can be used to determine PAH behavior and its bioavailability in the environment. It is well known that the lipid of organisms contains the highest levels of hydrophobic compounds such as PAHs, and that organic carbon associated with sediment or dissolved in water can have the greatest influence on PAH bioavailability. Partitioning of combustion-derived PAHs between water and sediment may be much less than predicted, possibly because associations with particles are much stronger than expected. This reduced partitioning may produce erroneous results in predicting bioaccumulation where uptake from water is important. Accumulation of PAHs occurs in all marine organisms; however, there is a wide range in tissue concentrations from variable environmental concentrations, level and time of exposure, and species ability to metabolize these compounds. PAHs generally partition into lipid-rich tissues, and their metabolites can be found in most tissues. In fish, liver and bile accumulate the highest levels of parent PAH and metabolites; hence, these are the best tissues to analyze when determining PAH exposure. In invertebrates, the highest concentrations can be found in the internal organs, such as the hepatopancreas, and tissue concentrations appear to follow seasonal cycles, which may be related to variations in lipid content or spawning

  12. Microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: isolation and characterization of a pyrene-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Heitkamp, M A; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1988-01-01

    Microbiological analyses of sediments located near a point source for petrogenic chemicals resulted in the isolation of a pyrene-mineralizing bacterium. This isolate was identified as a Mycobacterium sp. on the basis of its cellular and colony morphology, gram-positive and strong acid-fast reactions, diagnostic biochemical tests, 66.6% G + C content of the DNA, and high-molecular-weight mycolic acids (C58 to C64). The mycobacterium mineralized pyrene when grown in a mineral salts medium supplemented with nutrients but was unable to utilize pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The mycobacterium grew well at 24 and 30 degrees C and minimally at 35 degrees C. No growth was observed at 5 or 42 degrees C. The mycobacterium grew well at salt concentrations up to 4%. Pyrene-induced Mycobacterium cultures mineralized 5% of the pyrene after 6 h and reached a maximum of 48% mineralization within 72 h. Treatment of induced and noninduced cultures with chloramphenicol showed that pyrene-degrading enzymes were inducible in this Mycobacterium sp. This bacterium could also mineralize other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl- and nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, 3-methylcholanthrene, 1-nitropyrene, and 6-nitrochrysene. This is the first report of a bacterium able to extensively mineralize pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing four aromatic rings. Images PMID:3202633

  13. Lymphocyte aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness in acute leukemia of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, J.L.; Dunn, R.; Esterhay, M.D.; Yamashita, T.S.; Gross, S.

    1981-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity and inducibility were examined in mitogen-stimulated cultured lymphocytes from children with acute leukemia in remission, with nonleukemic malignancies, and with no family or personal history of malignant disease. Neither morphological differences nor differences in mitogen responsivelness were observed among the three sources of cells studied. Levels of constitutive and dibenzanthracene-induced AHH activity were found to be similar among the three groups by analysis of variance. However, when results were analyzed in terms of inducibility ratios, it was found that cells from leukemic children were significantly less inducible (p < 0.005) than cells from unaffected children or children with nonleukemic malignancies. The reason for this difference became apparent when statistical criteria were employed for the phenotypic separation of individuals who were highly aromatic hydrocarbon responsive and minimally responsive. A significantly larger proportion (p < 0.001) of leukemic children than unaffected children or children with nonleukemic malignancy were found to be minimally aromatic hydrocarbon responsive. Moreover, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsing while on therapy, longer durations of the first remission were correlated (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) with the highly inducible AHH phenotype.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in US and Swedish smokeless tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Debate about the health implications of using smokeless tobacco products (STPs) has prompted considerable interest in characterising their levels of toxic and carcinogenic components. In the present study seventy smokeless tobacco products from the US and Sweden, categorized as chewing tobacco, dry and moist snuff, hard and soft pellets, plug, and loose and portion snus, were analysed for twenty one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The tested brands represented 80-90% of the 2008 market share for the major STP categories in these two countries. Results There were significant differences in the total and individual PAH concentrations in the different styles of product. Substantially higher levels of total PAHs (10–60 fold) were found in moist and dry snuff and soft pellets than in the other smokeless tobacco styles. The individual PAH concentrations followed the same patterns as total PAHs except for naphthalene, for which the highest concentrations were found in snus and moist snuff. Good correlations were obtained between benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and all the other PAHs except naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene, providing evidence for the first time that it can be used as a good marker for PAHs in STPs. Results were generally in good agreement with two previous studies of PAHs in STPs, except for naphthalene for which significantly lower concentrations were found than previously reported. Analysis of the ratios of different PAHs confirmed that the use of fire-cured tobaccos in the snuffs and soft pellet were the major source of PAHs in these product styles, and provided, for the first time, some indications as to the source of PAHs in the other STP styles, including petrogenic and other combustion sources. Conclusions This study confirms the presence of PAHs in STPs, and identifies substantial differences between the levels in different STP categories. Since previous studies of naphthalene concentrations in STPs differed so

  15. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Li, Kun; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang; Yuan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from the mainstream and 22 primary tributaries of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. To accomplish this, the concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediment samples were measured by GC-MS/MS. The result showed that the observed values of PBBs and PBDEs were 22.41 and 35.24 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. PBB1, 31 and 103 were the predominant PBB congeners, while PBDE28, 47, 77 and 99 were the predominant PBDE congeners. PBB209 and BDE209 were detected in >39% of the samples, with geometric means 2.43 and 11.92 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. PCBs were found to be the predominant compounds in sediment samples among the three PHAH subfamilies, with a geometric mean of 1,231.11 pg g(-1) dw, and PCB8, 18, 28, 52 and 66 were the primary PCB congeners. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with results recently reported in the literature and their respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by the USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than their respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwater samples from other regions. Taken together, these results suggest that, in the reservoir, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota in response to PHAHs contamination of sediments can be expected to be negligible. PMID:23043334

  16. The high-temperature oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezinsky, K.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical mechanisms of the atmospheric pressure, high-temperature (875-1500 K) gas-phase oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and propylbenzene are described and discussed. Oxidation trends evident from turbulent flow reactor experiments serve as the basis for the mechanisms of the oxidation of benzene and alkylated aromatics. The potential effects of very high temperatures and pressures on the chemistry of oxidation of aromatics are described. The oxidation of benzene and phenyl radical has been found to proceed in a stepwise C6-C5-C4 sequence. Species profiles obtained from flow-reactor experiments suggest that the oxidation of benzene and phenyl radical follows the generalized route via phenoxy, cyclopentadienyl and butadienyl radical. The oxidation of the C4 species branches into multiple pathways that yield copious amounts of ethylene and acetylene. Certain major trends are evident: the alkylated aromatics on initial attack either form styrene, benzyl radical or benzene. The styrene reacts further to produce a benzyl radical or benzene. The oxidation of an alkylated aromatic hydrocarbon appears eventually to reduce to the oxidation of either phenyl radical or benzene.

  17. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bonassi, S; Merlo, F; Pearce, N; Puntoni, R

    1989-10-15

    The association between occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and bladder cancer development was investigated in a population-based case-control study carried out in the Bormida valley, Italy. One hundred and twenty-one male cases and 342 male controls, matched age, were collected from local hospitals. Occupational exposure to PAH and aromatic amines (AA) was evaluated by means of a job exposure matrix, constructed specifically for this study. Subjects considered as sharing a "definite exposure to PAH" showed an increased risk even after adjustment for cigarette smoking and exposure to AA (OR = 2.14, 95% CL 0.82-5.60). No elevation in risk was found for the category "possible exposure to PAH" (OR = 1.05, 95% CL 0.45-2.44). The findings of this study are consistent with previous studies indicating PAH as a risk factor for bladder cancer. A possible residual confounding effect due to AA impurities is discussed.

  18. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  19. Effects of ozonation on mutagenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Fouillet, B.; Chambon, P.; Chambon, R. ); Castegnaro, M. ); Weill, N. )

    1991-07-01

    In this study, four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were tested. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), Chrysene (CH), 7,12-dimethylbenzo(a)-anthracene (DMBA) and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) in hexane were treated with ozone to determine the effectiveness of degradation and to evaluate the genetic properties of ozone byproducts. Two types of ozonation were carried out: partial ozonation and total ozonation. The disappearance of parent compounds and the appearance of ozone byproducts were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with spectrofluorimetry and U.V. spectrophotometry. Plate incorporation mutagenicity assay, using a Salmonella typhimurium strain, was used to test the ozone byproducts with and without metabolic activation.

  20. Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in He nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschliesser, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Bartl, P.; Denifl, S.; Scheier, P.

    2012-11-01

    Here we report the first mass spectrometric study of the synthesis of larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) out of weakly bound triphenylene agglomerates in cold helium droplets upon electron ionization. A highly abundant single reaction product is observed which indicates an extremely efficient and selective process. We propose that the synthesis of large molecules like fullerenes in interstellar clouds may proceed via similar reactions. Future work on different PAHs like benz[a]anthracene or chrysene will give more insight into this fascinating synthesis process.

  1. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  2. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

  3. Microbial abundance and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.K.; Rao, P.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of highly lipophilic chemicals that are generally formed during combustion, pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis of organic matter and are present ubiquitously in the urban environment as pollutants in very small quantities. The objective of the present study was to determine the activity of indigenous microbial populations of hazardous waste sites, their degree of adaptation, their ability to degrade toxic PAHs, and to study the potentials of different indigenous microbes to degrade the following selected PAHs from the polluted soil environment. PAHs selected for the study were anthracene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and fluoranthene. In this study, the indigenous contaminated soil populations were effective in removing the hydrocarbons and returning the soil to productivity. The biodegradation of PAHs in the selected soil was due to PAH degrader present in the bacterial as well as fungal communities. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Primitive pigment systems in the prebiotic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical evolution of meteoritic organics in the primitive earth is examined experimentally with attention given to the photochemical effects of hydrocarbon/water mixtures. Also addressed are the generation of amphiphilic products by photochemical reactions and the transduction of light energy into potentially useful forms. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb light and exist in carbonaceous chondrites; PAHs are therefore examined as primitive pigments by means of salt solutions with pyrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene derivatives with hexadecane. The hexadecane undergoes photochemical oxidation and yields long-chain amphiphiles with oxygen supplied by water, and acid pH shifts also occur. PAHs are also tested in lipid bilayer membranes to examine light-energy transduction. Protons are found to accumulate within the membrane-bounded volume to form proton gradients, and this reaction is theorized to be a good model of primitive photochemical reactions that related to the transduction of light energy into useable forms.

  5. Assessment of the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of sediment spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Rončević, Srđan; Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Agbaba, Jasmina; Grgić, Marko; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of sediment are dredged globally every year. This sediment is often contaminated with low concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Some of this sediment is disposed of on land, creating a need for risk assessment of the sediment disposal method, to minimize the degradation of environmental quality and prevent risks to human health. Evaluating the available fractions of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is very important, as in the presence of various organisms, they are believed to be easily subject to the processes of bioaccumulation, biosorption and transformation. In order to determine the applicability of applying these methods for the evaluation of pollutant bioavailability in sediments, the desorption kinetics from the sediment of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of Tenax and XAD4 were examined over the course of 216 h. Changes in the PAH concentrations in dredged sediments using five different seed plants during a short time of period (10 days) were also followed. Using chemical extraction techniques with Tenax and XAD4, a time of around 24 h is enough to achieve equilibrium for all four PAHs. Results showed good agreement between the seed accumulation and PAH extraction methods with both agents. If we compare the two extraction techniques, XAD4 gave better results for phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, and Tenax gave better results for chrysene.

  6. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in oyster tissue around three coastal marinas

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Stokes, T.P.

    1985-12-01

    Marinas present the potential for introduction of various pollutants into the surrounding waters such as coliform bacteria, primary pathogens, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons. Little data have been presented specifically addressing the effects of recreational marinas on petroleum hydrocarbon levels or, for that matter, other constituent levels in oysters near those marinas. In order to obtain such data, a comprehensive assessment of water and oyster quality around three coastal marinas was conducted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC) during 1983. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were selected as the petroleum hydrocarbon fraction of interest since they are mainly of pyrogenic origin; have been shown to be the most toxic/carcinogenic fraction of oil; have been shown to affect the respiration and heart rates of mussels; and have been shown to be linked to neoplasia in clams and proliferative disorders in mussels. C. virginica was chosen as the mollusc of interest because of its widespread distribution in the estuaries of South Carolina, its importance as an economic and recreational resource, and its suitability as a sentinel organism for monitoring coastal pollution.

  7. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, E.; Levsen, K.; Angerer, J.; Schneider, P.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.-E.

    As part of a larger study, personal sampling of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) was carried out by 55 nonsmoking volunteers for a period of 14 days. Thirty-nine persons lived in a rural area near Hannover (Germany) with hardly any traffic at all, while 16 persons lived in a high-traffic city street in Hannover. The personal exposure level of the persons in the rural area (some commuting to Hannover) was: 2.9, 24.8, 2.4 and 7.7 μg m -3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the sum of xylenes, respectively, while the corresponding data for the high traffic city streets were 4.0, 22.2, 2.8 and 9.7 μg m -3 (geometric means). Four microenvironments have been monitored which contribute to the total exposure to BTEX, i.e. the home, the outdoor air, the workplace and the car cabin. The most important microenvironment for non-working persons is the private home. The concentration of most BTEX in the private home is almost equal to the personal exposure level, demonstrating that the indoor pollution in the home makes by far the highest contribution to the total exposure. For working people (mostly office workers), the workplace is the second most important microenvironment contributing to the total BTEX exposure. Taking all working persons into consideration (independent of the location of their private home) the personal exposure level is higher by a factor of 1.2-1.4 than that of the workplace (for toluene this factor is 2.2). As already found by others, very high BTEX concentrations may be found in car cabins, in particular, if the engine is gasoline-driven. In the cabin of 44 cars in the rural/urban area average benzene concentrations (geometric mean) of 12/14 μg m -3 and a maximum value of ˜550 μg m -3 were found. On average, the participating volunteers drove their car for 45 min day -1 (i.e. 3% of the day). Nevertheless, the car cabin constitutes about 10% of the total benzene exposure. Refueling of the

  8. Exposure of Firefighters to Particulates and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, C. Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D.; Knipp, Michael J.; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02–1 μm) and PM2.5 (2.5 μm diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous

  9. Relative rates of coke formation from hydrocarbons in steam cracking of naphtha: 3. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kopinke, F. . Section of Remediation Research); Zimmermann, G. ); Reyniers, G.C.; Froment, G.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Relative rate constants of coke formation (k) from 18 aromatic hydrocarbons during steam cracking of naphtha at 810 C were determined by application of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. Benzene is a poor coke precursor (k = 0.3), whereas polycyclic structures like acenaphthylene, anthracene, and chrysene have a high coking potential in the pyrolysis reactor (k = 4.5--6) as well as in the TLE section (k = 12--30). The relation between structure and coke formation rate of aromatic hydrocarbons can be interpreted on the basis of their reactivity in radical reactions. Constituents of the fuel fraction ([ge] C[sub 9]) derived from nonaromatic feed components are more efficient in the TLE fouling than those stemming from benzene derivatives.

  10. Thermal neutron cross-section libraries for aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantargi, F.; Granada, J. R.

    2010-08-01

    Solid phases of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene and a 3:2 mixture by volume of mesitylene and toluene, were studied as potential moderator materials for a cold neutron source. Existing information on the (lattice) translational and rotational modes of the different molecular species was used to produce generalized frequency spectra; the latter included the internal vibrational modes which in turn involved the analysis of the weights of the different modes. Cross-section libraries were generated in ENDF and ACE formats for hydrogen bounded in those materials at several temperatures, and were used in Monte Carlo calculations to analyze their neutron production compared with standard cryogenic materials like liquid hydrogen and solid methane, the best moderators in terms of cold neutron production. In particular, cross-section libraries were generated at 20 K, which is a typical operating temperature for the majority of the existing cold neutron sources. It was found that those aromatic hydrocarbons produce neutron spectra which are slightly warmer than that of solid methane while presenting a high resistance to radiation, conforming in this way a new and advantageous alternative to traditional moderator materials.

  11. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Neocalanus copepods in Port Valdez, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Carls, Mark G; Short, Jeffrey W; Payne, James

    2006-11-01

    Sampling zooplankton is a useful strategy for observing trace hydrocarbon concentrations in water because samples represent an integrated average over a considerable effective sampling volume and are more representative of the sampled environment than discretely collected water samples. We demonstrate this method in Port Valdez, Alaska, an approximately 100 km(2) basin that receives about 0.5-2.4 kg of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) per day. Total PAH (TPAH) concentrations (0.61-1.31 microg/g dry weight), composition, and spatial distributions in a lipid-rich copepod, Neocalanus were consistent with the discharge as the source of contamination. Although Neocalanus acquire PAH from water or suspended particulate matter, total PAH concentrations in these compartments were at or below method detection limits, demonstrating plankton can amplify trace concentrations to detectable levels useful for study.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    PubMed

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dry tea.

    PubMed

    Adisa, Afolabi; Jimenez, Angelica; Woodham, Cara; Anthony, Kevin; Nguyen, Thao; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight different tea samples sold in the United States were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) for their contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties and have been related to several kinds of cancer in man and experimental animals. The presence of PAHs in environmental samples such as water, sediments, and particulate air has been extensively studied, but food samples have received little attention. Eighteen PAHs congeners were analyzed, with percentage recovery higher than 85%. Contamination expressed as the sum of the 18 analyzed PAHs was between 101 and 1337 μg/kg on dry mass and the average contents in all of the 28 examined samples was 300 μg/kg on dry mass. Seven of the congeners were found in all samples with wide ranges of concentrations as follows: fluorene (7-48 μg/kg), anthracene (1-31 μg/kg), pyrene (1-970 μg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1-18 μg/kg) chrysene (17-365 μg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (1-29 μg/kg), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (4-119 μg/kg). The two most toxic congeners benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were found at high concentrations only in Earl Grey Twinnings, Earl Grey Harney& Sons Fine Teas, and Chai Ultra Spice Black Tea Twinnings. Six PAH congeners are considered as suspected carcinogens (U.S.EPA), formed the basis of the estimation of the toxic equivalent (TEQ), Chai Ultra-Spice Black Tea Twinnings had the highest TEQ (110.9) followed by two grey tea samples, Earl Grey Harney & Sons Fine Tea (57.7) and Earl Grey Twinnings (54.5). Decaffeinated grey teas had the lowest TEQs, decaffeinated Earl Grey Bigelow (9.4) and Green Tea Honey Lemon Decaffeinated Lipton (9.6).

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dry tea

    PubMed Central

    ADISA, AFOLABI; JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; WOODHAM, CARA; ANTHONY, KEVIN; NGUYEN, THAO; SALEH, MAHMOUD A.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-eight different tea samples sold in the United States were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) for their contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties and have been related to several kinds of cancer in man and experimental animals. The presence of PAHs in environmental samples such as water, sediments, and particulate air has been extensively studied, but food samples have received little attention. Eighteen PAHs congeners were analyzed, with percentage recovery higher than 85%. Contamination expressed as the sum of the 18 analyzed PAHs was between 101 and 1337 μg/kg on dry mass and the average contents in all of the 28 examined samples was 300 μg/kg on dry mass. Seven of the congeners were found in all samples with wide ranges of concentrations as follows: fluorene (7–48 μg/kg), anthracene (1–31 μg/kg), pyrene (1–970 μg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1–18 μg/kg) chrysene (17–365 μg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (1–29 μg/kg), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (4–119 μg/kg). The two most toxic congeners benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were found at high concentrations only in Earl Grey Twinnings, Earl Grey Harney& Sons Fine Teas, and Chai Ultra Spice Black Tea Twinnings. Six PAH congeners are considered as suspected carcinogens (U.S.EPA), formed the basis of the estimation of the toxic equivalent (TEQ), Chai Ultra-Spice Black Tea Twinnings had the highest TEQ (110.9) followed by two grey tea samples, Earl Grey Harney & Sons Fine Tea (57.7) and Earl Grey Twinnings (54.5). Decaffeinated grey teas had the lowest TEQs, decaffeinated Earl Grey Bigelow (9.4) and Green Tea Honey Lemon Decaffeinated Lipton (9.6). PMID:26065515

  15. An Emission Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Emission inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field emission measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs emission inventory is needed. In this work, the emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The emission amounts of PAHs were estimated as annual rates of emission-related activities multiplied by respective emission factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. Emission factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported emission factors from local measurements were used. The total emissions of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the total amount. PAHs emission profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The emission profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. Emission per capita showed

  16. Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sese, Beke T; Grant, Alastair; Reid, Brian J

    2009-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment has attracted much concern owing to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Regulatory authorities have favored the use of biological indicators as an essential means of assessing potential toxicity of environmental pollutants. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene to Caenorhabditis elegans by measuring LC50 and EC50 values for growth and reproduction. The exposure to all chemicals was carried out in aqueous medium. All PAHs showed a low acute toxicity to C. elegans. There was no significant mortality in C. elegans after 24 h of exposure at PAH concentrations within (and indeed above) their respective solubility limits. Prolonged exposure (72 h) at high concentrations for acenaphthene (70,573 microg/L), phenanthrene (3758 microg/L), anthracene (1600 microg/L), fluoranthene (1955 microg/L), pyrene (1653 microg/L), and benzo[a]pyrene (80 microg/L) produced mortality. Results also showed that reproduction and growth were much more sensitive parameters of adverse response than lethality, and consequently may be more useful in assessing PAH toxicity using C. elegans. In comparison with previous studies, C. elegans was found to be approximately 2-fold less sensitive to acenaphthene, 5-fold less sensitive to phenanthrene, and 20-fold less sensitive to fluoranthene than Daphnia magna. However, the 48-h LC50 for benzo[a]pyrene (174 microg/L) reported in the present study with C. elegans was similar to that reported elsewhere for Daphnia magna (200 microg/L). Although C. elegans indicated greater sensitivity to benzo[a]pyrene than Artemia salina (174 microg/L vs. 10000 microg/L), the organism showed less sensitivity to pyrene (8 microg/L vs. 2418 microg/L), fluoranthene (40 microg/L vs. 2719 microg/L), and phenanthrene (677 microg/L vs. 4772 microg/L) than Artemia salina. Caenorhabditis elegans, while not the

  17. Partition characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Mcgroddy, S.E.; Kile, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) and water (i.e., K(oc) values) are relatively invariant either for the 'clean' (uncontaminated) soils or for the clean sediments; however, the mean K(oc) values on the sediments are about twice the values on the soils. This disparity is similar to the earlier observation for other nonpolar solutes and reflects the compositional differences between soil and sediment organic matters. No significant differences in K(oc) are observed between a clean coastal marine sediment and freshwater sediments. The coastal sediments that are significantly impacted by organic contaminants exhibit higher K(oc) values. At given K(ow) values (octanol-water), the PAHs exhibit much higher K(oc) values than other relatively nonpolar solutes (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons). This effect is shown to result from the enhanced partition of PAHs to SOM rather than from lower K(ow) values of PAHs at given supercooled liquid solute solubilities in water. The enhanced partition of PAHs over other nonpolar solutes in SOM provides an account of the markedly different correlations between log K(oc) and log K(ow) for PAHs and for other nonpolar solutes. The improved partition of PAHs in SOM stems apparently from the enhanced compatibility of their cohesive energy densities with those of the aromatic components in SOM. The approximate aromatic fraction in soil/sediment organic matter has been assessed by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM

  18. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  19. Evaluation of environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline service stations by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Zambudio, A; Prado, C

    1997-08-22

    The volume of gasoline sold in refuelling operations and the ambient temperature, can increase significantly the environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbon vapours and subsequently, the occupational risk of gasoline service station attendants, specially in the case of benzene. We have evaluated the occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons by means of personal-breathing-zone samples of gasoline vapours in a service station attendant population. This evaluation was carried out using diffusive samplers, in two periods at quite different temperatures (March and July). A significant relationship between the volume of gasoline sold during the shift and the ambient concentration of benzene, toluene, and xylenes was found for each worker sampled. Furthermore a significant difference was found between the time-weighted average concentration of aromatic compounds measured in March, with ambient temperatures of 14-15 degrees C and July, with temperatures of 28-30 degrees C. In addition, 20% of the population sampled in the last period were exposed to a time-weighted average concentration of benzene above the proposed Threshold Limit Value of 960 micrograms/m(3) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  20. Evaluation of environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline service stations by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Zambudio, A; Prado, C

    1997-08-22

    The volume of gasoline sold in refuelling operations and the ambient temperature, can increase significantly the environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbon vapours and subsequently, the occupational risk of gasoline service station attendants, specially in the case of benzene. We have evaluated the occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons by means of personal-breathing-zone samples of gasoline vapours in a service station attendant population. This evaluation was carried out using diffusive samplers, in two periods at quite different temperatures (March and July). A significant relationship between the volume of gasoline sold during the shift and the ambient concentration of benzene, toluene, and xylenes was found for each worker sampled. Furthermore a significant difference was found between the time-weighted average concentration of aromatic compounds measured in March, with ambient temperatures of 14-15 degrees C and July, with temperatures of 28-30 degrees C. In addition, 20% of the population sampled in the last period were exposed to a time-weighted average concentration of benzene above the proposed Threshold Limit Value of 960 micrograms/m(3) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). PMID:9299740

  1. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Knize, M G; Salmon, C P; Pais, P; Felton, J S

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagens and animal carcinogens sometimes formed when foods are heated or processed. Determining their role in cancer etiology depends on comparing human exposures and determining any significant dose-related effects. Chemical analysis of foods shows that flame-grilling can form both PAH and HAA, and that frying forms predominantly HAA. With detection limits of about 0.1 ng/g, amounts found in commercially processed or restaurant foods range from 0.1 to 14 ng/g for HAA, and levels of PAH up to 1 ng/g in a liquid smoke flavoring. Laboratory fried samples have greater amounts of PAH, up to 38 ng/g in hamburgers, and high levels of HAA, over 300 ng/g, are measured in grilled chicken breast. Understanding the processing conditions that form PAH and HAA can lead to methods to greatly reduce their occurrence in processed foods.

  2. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Knize, M G; Salmon, C P; Pais, P; Felton, J S

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagens and animal carcinogens sometimes formed when foods are heated or processed. Determining their role in cancer etiology depends on comparing human exposures and determining any significant dose-related effects. Chemical analysis of foods shows that flame-grilling can form both PAH and HAA, and that frying forms predominantly HAA. With detection limits of about 0.1 ng/g, amounts found in commercially processed or restaurant foods range from 0.1 to 14 ng/g for HAA, and levels of PAH up to 1 ng/g in a liquid smoke flavoring. Laboratory fried samples have greater amounts of PAH, up to 38 ng/g in hamburgers, and high levels of HAA, over 300 ng/g, are measured in grilled chicken breast. Understanding the processing conditions that form PAH and HAA can lead to methods to greatly reduce their occurrence in processed foods. PMID:10335376

  3. Characteristics of wintertime polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon assemblage in aerosol of the Southern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, V. Ž.; Pfendt, P. A.; Filipović, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    Features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblage in aerosol samples collected from the atmosphere of Herceg Novi during the winter months of two successive years were studied. The results showed almost the same concentration profiles of identified PAHs for samples from the two periods analyzed, generally suggesting a similar origin. Diagnostic ratios indicated combustion of wood and coal, emissions from petrol and diesel engines, and dust resuspension as sources that predominantly contributed to the atmospheric PAH concentrations. Statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) in particular, allowed us to identify the impact of meteorological parameters on PAH abundance.

  4. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study

  5. TRENDS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON LEVELS AND MUTAGENICITY IN SANTIAGO'S INHALABLE AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN THE PERIOD 1992-1996.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 1992-1996 (cold season) and their mutagenic activity were investigated in organic extracts from the Santiago. Chile. inhalable particles (PM10). The highest PAH concentrations were observed in 1992 and decline...

  6. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(g,h,i)perylene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Chrysene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Fluoranthene, Fluorene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, Phenanthrene, Pyrene is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information.

  7. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    DouAbdul, A.A.Z.; Abaychi, J.K.; Al-Edanee, T.E.; Ghani, A.A.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1987-03-01

    Emphasis has been placed upon the identification and qualification of compounds with potential adverse health effects on humans. Prominent among this group are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), several of which are known or suspected carcinogens. PAHs enter the marine environment from a variety of sources including petroleum pollution, industrial and domestic effluents, atmospheric particles, and biosynthesis by plants and microorganisms. Although one-third of the world's oil is produced around the Arabian Gulf, no detailed analysis have been conducted to determine PAHs in this region. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have shown the ability of marine organisms including fish to accumulation PAHs from solution or dispersion in seawater. When fish are harvested, a human health hazard may result. In the present communication, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and measure sixteen PAHs priority pollutants issued by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in fourteen species of commercially significant fish from the NW Arabian Gulf.

  8. Magnetic instability and pair binding in aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhongbing; Zhang, Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Understanding magnetism and electron correlation in many unconventional superconductors is essential to explore mechanism of superconductivity. In this work, we perform a systematic numerical study of the magnetic and pair binding properties in recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) superconductors including alkali-metal-doped picene, coronene, phenanthrene, and dibenzopentacene. The π-electrons on the carbon atoms of a single molecule are modelled by the one-orbital Hubbard model, and the energy difference between carbon atoms with and without hydrogen bonds is taking into account. We demonstrate that the spin polarized ground state is realized for charged molecules in the physical parameter regions, which provides a reasonable explanation of local spins observed in PAHs. In alkali-metal-doped dibenzopentacene, our results show that electron correlation may produce an effective attraction between electrons for the charged molecule with one or three added electrons. PMID:23213358

  9. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradative soil Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, S L; Rodriguez Lemoine, V

    1992-01-01

    Nine Pseudomonas strains, able to degrade polycycle aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were isolated from enriched cultures with naphthalene, as carbon source, and soil samples from a land farming process applied on oil sludge, as inocula. Degradative tests showed that all the strains were capable to catabolize naphthalene (Nah) and phenanthrene (Phn). U2 strain transferred the selected function (Nah) to P. aeruginosa T1 (Hgr Oct+), however some of the transconjugants lost the Oct character, suggesting that it is of plasmidic nature. T1 derivatives as well the wild strains U28 and U31 transferred Nah function to P. putida AC165. All of the examined transconjugants also catabolized phenanthrene, suggesting that Nah and Phn functions in U2, U28, and U31 strains are linked and probably encoded by transferable plasmids.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal from water by natural fiber sorption.

    PubMed

    Khan, Eakalak; Khaodhir, Sutha; Rotwiron, Paritta

    2007-08-01

    The use of two natural sorbents, kapok and cattail fibers, were investigated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal from water. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene were the PAHs studied. For comparative purposes, a commercial polyester fiber sorbent was included in the investigation. The PAH sorption and retention capabilities of the three fibers were determined through batch and continuous-flow experiments under non-competitive and competitive conditions. In the batch experiments, cattail fiber was the most effective sorbent. Kapok fiber provided the lowest PAH retention, while cattail fiber had slightly less PAH retention than polyester fiber. When two PAHs were present in the same system, a competitive effect on the much less hydrophobic PAH was observed. Similar results were obtained in the column experiments, except that polyester fiber performed much poorer on naphthalene. Cattail fiber is a promising sorbent for treating PAH-contaminated water, such as urban runoff.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Krelowski, J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Musaev, F. A.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the proposal relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in interstellar clouds. Laboratory spectra of several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices, are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. From this comparison, it is concluded that PAN ions are good candidates to explain some of the DIBs. Unambiguous assignments are difficult, however, due to the shift in wavelengths and the band broadening induced in the laboratory spectra by the solid matrix. Definitive band assignments and, ultimately, the test of the of the proposal that PAH ions carry some of the DIB must await the availability of gas-phase measurements in the laboratory. The present assessment offers a guideline for future laboratory experiments by allowing the preselection of promising PAH molecules to be studied in jet expansions.

  12. Deprotonated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Candidate Anomalous Microwave Emission Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammonds, Mark; Bell, Aaron Christopher; Candian, Alessandra; Sarre, Peter; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) is a major puzzle in studies of the interstellar medium. The precise nature of the AME carrier is still a matter of active research and studies to identify candidate species are important in understanding how AME relates to other chemical and physical processes occurring within the interstellar medium. This work presents deprotonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a variety of large anionic carbonaceous molecules with strong permanent electric dipole moments, as potential candidate AME carriers. Theoretical studies find these molecules to be able to form and persist in the dense interstellar environments where AME is typically observed. Implications of the existence of this class of molecules are discussed in terms of physical and chemical processes in dense molecular clouds.

  13. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county

    SciTech Connect

    Yanxu Zhang; Shu Tao; Jun Cao; Raymond M. Coveney III

    2007-02-15

    Quantitative relationships among social, economic, and climate parameters, and energy consumption for Chinese provinces, provide data for regression models' estimated rates of energy consumption and emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by county. A nonlinear model was used for domestic coal combustion with total population and annual mean temperature as independent variables. Linear regression models were utilized for all other types of fuel consumption. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that emission factors, rather than the regression modeling, constitute the main source of uncertainty in prediction. Models were validated using available energy data of several northern and southern counties of China from the literature. The total PAHs produced by each county is approximately equivalent to the sum of the total emission from energy, coke, and aluminum production. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Failure of hydrogenation in protecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; de Ruette, N.; Chen, T.; Giacomozzi, L.; Nascimento, R. F.; Wolf, M.; Anderson, E. K.; Delaunay, R.; Vizcaino, V.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schmidt, H. T.; Zettergren, H.; Cederquist, H.

    2015-11-01

    A recent study of soft x-ray absorption in native and hydrogenated coronene cations, C24H12+m +m =0 -7 , led to the conclusion that additional hydrogen atoms protect (interstellar) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules from fragmentation [Reitsma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053002 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.053002]. The present experiment with collisions between fast (30-200 eV) He atoms and pyrene (C16H10+m + , m =0 , 6, and 16) and simulations without reference to the excitation method suggests the opposite. We find that the absolute carbon-backbone fragmentation cross section does not decrease but increases with the degree of hydrogenation for pyrene molecules.

  15. Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Unsaturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, Maninder; Flury, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex organic molecules containing 2 or more fused benzene rings. Being hydrophobic and non-polar, PAHs tend to partition to the organic matter in the soil from bulk aqueous phase. Though transport of these contaminants has been well studied in saturated environment, interactive mechanisms of these fluorescent compounds in unsaturated (identified by presence of air-water interface) porous media is still not well understood. We studied is the transport of fluoranthene in unsaturated porous media as facilitated by moving air-water interfaces. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the interactions of fluoranthene particles in a glass channel packed with quartz glass beads. The packed glass channel was used to mimic a porous media and effects of an advancing and receding capillary fringe on the detachment of fluoranthene.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Infrared Astrophysics with Spitzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role that carbon-rich plays in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the possible existence of an abundant population of large, carbon-rich molecules in the ISM was unthinkable. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - shockingly large molecules by the standards of traditional interstellar chemistry -are recognized throughout the Universe. In this presentation, we will examine the current state of the interstellar PAH model and explore how this data, in conjunction with the unparalleled observational data provided by the Spitzer Space Telescope, can be used to draw ever-deeper insights into the physical and chemical natures of a wide range of astrophysical environments.

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by environmentally friendly techniques.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Huey-Min; Hu, Xiaoke; Zhao, Xueheng

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as a worldwide environmental contamination problem because of their intrinsic chemical stability, high resistance to various transformation processes, and toxicity property. Because of the wide distribution of the PAHs in the environment, human exposure to the PAHs is likely to occur from dermal contact, ingestion of particles, inhalation of airborne dust, or bioaccumulation in the food chains. Therefore, their remediation is considered indispensable for environmental clean up and human health. The objective of this article is to provide a quick review on toxicity of PAHs, biodegradation of PAHs, influence of selected environmental factors on PAHs biodegradation, selected techniques for enhancing biodegradation of PAHs, and a detailed description of two environmentally friendly techniques used in our laboratory for PAHs enhanced bioremediation. Finally, an overview on the green chemistry concept and its relevance to development of several environmental fingerprinting tools for predicting successful PAHs detoxification are discussed.

  18. NMR shifts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Thonhauser, Timo; Ceresoli, Davide; Marzari, Nicola N.

    2009-09-03

    We present first-principles, density-functional theory calculations of the NMR chemical shifts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, starting with benzene and increasing sizes up to the one- and two-dimensional infinite limits of graphene ribbons and sheets. Our calculations are performed using a combination of the recently developed theory of orbital magnetization in solids, and a novel approach to NMR calculations where chemical shifts are obtained from the derivative of the orbital magnetization with respect to a microscopic, localized magnetic dipole. Using these methods we study on equal footing the 1H and 13C shifts in benzene, pyrene, coronene, in naphthalene, anthracene, naphthacene, and pentacene, and finally in graphene, graphite, and an infinite graphene ribbon. Our results show very good agreement with experiments and allow us to characterize the trends for the chemical shifts as a function of system size.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air particulates and their relationship to emission sources in the Pan-Japan Sea countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ning; Hattori, Tetsuyuki; Taga, Rina; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Yang, Xiaoyang; Tamura, Kenji; Kakimoto, Hitoshi; Mishukov, Vasiliy F.; Toriba, Akira; Kizu, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    Airborne particulates were collected in seven cities in the Pan-Japan Sea countries, Shenyang (China), Vladivostok (Russia), Seoul (South Korea), Kitakyushu, Kanazawa, Tokyo and Sapporo (Japan), in winter and summer from 1997 to 2002. In addition, particulates from domestic coal-burning heaters and diesel engine automobiles were collected in Shenyang and Kanazawa, respectively. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and four nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in the extracts from the particulates were analysed by HPLC with fluorescence and chemiluminescence detections, respectively. The PAHs were fluoranthene, pyrene (Pyr), benz[ a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[ b]fluoranthene, benzo[ k]fluoranthene, benzo[ a]pyrene, benzo[ ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene, and NPAHs were 1,3-, 1,6-, 1,8-dinitropyrenes, and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP). Mean atmospheric concentrations of PAHs in Shenyang and Vladivostok were substantially higher than those in Seoul, Tokyo, Sapporo, Kitakyushu and Kanazawa. However, the mean atmospheric concentrations of NPAHs were at the same levels in all cities except Kitakyushu. The expected seasonal variations (greater PAH and NPAH concentrations in winter than in summer) were observed in all cities. In order to study the major contributors of atmospheric PAHs and NPAHs, both cluster analysis and factor analysis were used and three large clusters were identified. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of 1-NP to Pyr were significantly smaller in Shenyang, Vladivostok and Kitakyushu and the values were close to those observed in particulates from coal stove exhaust. By contrast, in Seoul, Kanazawa, Tokyo and Sapporo the [1-NP]/[Pyr] ratio reached values similar to those of particulates released from diesel-engine automobiles. The [1-NP]/[Pyr] concentration ratio seemed to be a suitable indicator of the contribution made by diesel-engine vehicles and coal combustion to urban air particulates.

  20. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS AS SOURCES OF INTERSTELLAR INFRARED EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, J. E.; Ricca, A.

    2015-03-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or PAHs) have been the subject of astrochemical research for several decades as principal sources of the interstellar aromatic infrared emission bands. PAH clusters could possibly contribute to these emission bands, but a lack of data on their infrared properties has made this hypothesis difficult to evaluate. Here we investigate homogeneous neutral PAH clusters by measuring the mid-infrared absorption spectra of the five nonlinear PAH molecules phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, perylene, and benzo[ghi]perylene within solid argon ice at a fixed temperature of 5 K. We attribute observed spectral shifts in their principal absorption bands as a function of argon/PAH ratio to clustering of the PAH molecules within the argon matrix. These shifts are related to the cluster structures forming in the matrix and the topology of the monomer PAH molecule. We predict that interstellar PAH molecules that are relatively large (no fewer than 50 carbon atoms per molecule) and compact will have clusters that contribute to the asymmetrically red-shaded profile of the interstellar 11.2 μm emission band.

  1. Thermochemical Properties and Phase Behavior of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of vapor pressure of organic pollutants is essential in predicting their fate and transport in the environment. In the present study, the vapor pressures of 12 halogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), i.e. 9-chlorofluorene, 2,7-dichlorofluorene, 2-bromofluorene, 9-bromofluorene, 2,7-dibromofluorene, 2-bromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 9,10-dibromophenanthrene, 1-chloropyrene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene and 6,12-dibromochrysene, were measured using the Knudsen effusion method over the temperature range of 301 to 464 K. Enthalpies and entropies of sublimation of these compounds were determined via application of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. The data were also compared with earlier published literature values to study the influence of halogen substitution on vapor pressure of PACs. As expected, the halogen substitution decreases vapor pressure compared to parent compounds, but does not necessarily increase the enthalpy of sublimation. Moreover, the decrease of vapor pressure also depends on the substitution position and the substituted halogen, and the di-substitution of chlorine and/or bromine decreases the vapor pressure compared to single halogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the enthalpy of fusion and melting temperature of these 12 PACs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry and melting point analysis. PMID:22139714

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Sagan, C; Khare, B N; Thompson, W R; McDonald, G D; Wing, M R; Bada, J L; Vo-Dinh, T; Arakawa, E T

    1993-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important components of the interstellar medium and carbonaceous chondrites, but have never been identified in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system. Incompletely characterized complex organic solids (tholins) produced by irradiating simulated Titan atmospheres reproduce well the observed UV/visible/IR optical constants of the Titan stratospheric haze. Titan tholin and a tholin generated in a crude simulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter are examined by two-step laser desorption/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. A range of two- to four-ring PAHs, some with one to four alkylation sites are identified, with net abundance approximately 10(-4) g g-1 (grams per gram) of tholins produced. Synchronous fluorescence techniques confirm this detection. Titan tholins have proportionately more one- and two-ring PAHs than do Jupiter tholins, which in turn have more four-ring and larger PAHs. The four-ringed PAH chrysene, prominent in some discussions of interstellar grains, is found in Jupiter tholins. Solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy suggests approximately equal to 25% of the total C in both tholins is tied up in aromatic and/or aliphatic alkenes. IR spectra indicate an upper limit in both tholins of approximately equal to 6% by mass in benzenes, heterocyclics, and PAHs with more than four rings. Condensed PAHs may contribute at most approximately 10% to the observed detached limb haze layers on Titan. As with interstellar PAHs, the synthesis route of planetary PAHs is likely to be via acetylene addition reactions.

  3. Heterogeneous catalyzed benzylic acetoxylation of methylated aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Benazzi, E.; Mimoun, H.; Cameron, C.J. )

    1993-04-01

    The palladium-catalyzed acetoxylation of toluene to benzyl acetate is highly dependent on particle size. The rate of reaction is highest with 30--35 [Angstrom] particles corresponding to a 0.33 dispersion. Catalysts prepared and reduced by controlled methods before being contacted with the reaction medium, ex situ catalysts, were found to yield lower reaction rates than catalysts prepared in the reaction medium, in situ. Potassium ion-encapsulation in palladium during in situ preparation is a possible explanation for this result. Tin is required to reduce Pd[sup 2+] to Pd[sup 0] in the in situ system, but is not required for the ex situ catalyst. The improvement in activity of the ex situ catalyst in the presence of tin may be due to the reducibility of Sn[sup 4+] to Sn[sup 2+] during oxygen-poor regimes. Results obtained with diverse methylated aromatic hydrocarbons indicate that the aromatic ring interactions with the palladium surface via [pi]-donation before oxidation occurs. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  5. Diversity of metabolic capacities among strains degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchez, M.; Besnaienou, B.; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Strains of Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus genera were isolated for their capacity to use, as a sole carbon and energy source, one of the following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene (NAP), fluorene (FLU), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FLT), and pyrene (PYR). The range of PAHs supporting growth of these pure strains was usually restricted, but several other hydrocarbons were used by Rhodococcus sp. All strains could grow on simple organic acids. Maximal specific growth rates ({mu}{sub max}) of all strains on their PAH growth substrates were determined by respirometry. No clear relationships between {mu}{sub max} values and the molecular weight or water solubility of PAHs were apparent, but Pseudomonas sp. exhibited the highest {mu}{sub max} values. Carbon balances for PAH biodegradation were established. Differences between strains were observed, but high mineralization rates and low production of soluble metabolites were obtained for all PAHs. Bacterial biomass represented 16% to 35% of the carbon consumed. Strain diversity was also apparent in the interactions observed in the degradation of a mixture of two PAHs by individual strains, which often involved inhibition of PAH substrate degradation, with or without cometabolization of the second PAH.

  6. Autothermal reforming of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of the autothermal reforming of paraffins and aromatics over nickel catalysts. The trials were performed to examine the carbon products that appear when steam is passed over hydrocarbon liquids to form H2-rich gases, i.e., the autothermal process (ATR). Attention was given to n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene with reactant preheat to 1000-1150 F. The carbon-formation limit was sought as a function of the steam-to-carbon and oxygen to carbon molar ratios at constant pressure and the preheat temperatures. The catalyst bed was examined after each trial to identify the locations and types of carbon formed using SEM, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X ray diffraction techniques. The hydrocarbon fuels each had a separate temperature and reaction profile, as well as carbon formation characteristics. No carbon formation was observed in the upper layer of the reactor bed, while both gas phase and surface-grown deposits were present in the lower part. The results are concluded of use in the study of No. 2 fuel oil for ATR feedstock.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cytochrome P450 in HIV pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. S. S.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of cigarette smoking in HIV patients is associated with increased HIV pathogenesis and disease progression. While the effect of smoking on the occurrence of lung cancer has been studied extensively, the association between smoking and HIV pathogenesis is poorly studied. We have recently shown the possible role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in smoking/nicotine-mediated viral replication. In this review, we focus on the potential role of CYP pathway in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), important constituents of cigarette smoke, mediated HIV pathogenesis. More specifically, we will discuss the role of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which are the major PAH-activating CYP enzymes. Our results have shown that treatment with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increases viral replication in HIV-infected macrophages. CSC contains PAH, which are known to be activated by CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 into procarcinogens/toxic metabolites. The expression of these CYPs is regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHR), the cellular target of PAH, and an important player in various diseases including cancer. We propose that PAH/AHR-mediated CYP pathway is a novel target to develop new interventions for HIV positive smokers. PMID:26082767

  8. Inhibitory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on photosynthetic performance are not related to their aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Jajoo, Anjana; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Tomar, Rupal Singh; Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and highly persistent environmental pollutants which accumulate in soil and affect growth of the plants adversely. This study aims to investigate inhibitory effects of 3 major PAH particularly on photosynthetic processes in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in soil treated with PAH. The 3 PAH chosen differ from each other in aromaticity (number of rings) comprising their structure (2 rings: naphthalene, 3 rings: anthracene and 4 rings: pyrene). Several growth parameters and Chlorophyll a fluorescence was monitored in PAH treated plants. BN-PAGe analysis was done in order to get information about change in the protein conformation. PAH treatment led to increased value of Fo which collaborated with increase in the amount of free LHC as seen through BN-Page analysis. Thus PAH were found to inhibit PS II photochemistry and caused distinct change in pigment composition. However the results led us to infer that 3-ring anthracence is more inhibitory as compared to 2-ring naphthalene and 4-ring pyrene. This indicates that aromaticity of PAH is unrelated to their response on photosynthetic processes.

  9. Monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous environments with passive low-density polyethylene membrane devices.

    PubMed

    Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry G; Short, Jeffrey W; Heintz, Ron A; Rice, Stanley D

    2004-06-01

    Low-density polyethylene membranes, typically filled with triolein, have been previously deployed as passive environmental samplers designed to accumulate nonpolar hydrophobic chemicals from water, sediments, and air. Hydrocarbons in such samplers, known as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), diffuse through pores in the membranes and are trapped in the central hydrocarbon matrix, mimicking uptake by living organisms. Here, we describe laboratory and field verification that low-density polyethylene membrane devices (PEMDs) without triolein provide reliable, relatively inexpensive, time-integrated hydrocarbon sampling from water. For comparison, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) uptake in SPMDs and pink salmon eggs also was studied. Total concentrations of PAH accumulated by PEMDs were highly correlated with concentrations in water (r2 > or = 0.99) and linear over the range tested (0-17 microg/L). Higher-molecular-mass PAH preferentially accumulated in PEMDs and in pink salmon eggs, but the source of oil in PEMDs remained identifiable. Accumulations of PAH were highly similar to those in SPMDs. The PEMDs retained approximately 78% of accumulated total PAH for 40 d in clean water. Thus, a simple plastic membrane can be conveniently used for environmental monitoring, particularly during situations in which contaminant concentrations are low (in the parts-per-billion range), variable, and intermittent.

  10. Detection of Medium-Sized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Fluorescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Prignano, Lindsey; Peters, Sean; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of proximity-induced non-covalent energy transfer for the detection of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This energy transfer occurs within the cavity of γ-cyclodextrin in various aqueous environments, including human plasma and coconut water. Highly efficient energy transfer was observed, and the efficiency of the energy transfer is independent of the concentration of γ-cyclodextrin used, demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic binding in facilitating such energy transfer. Low limits of detection were also observed for many of the PAHs investigated, which is promising for the development of fluorescence-based detection schemes. PMID:25821390

  11. Measurement of particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) around a petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Padma S; Ansari, M Faiyaz; Pipalatkar, P; Kumar, A; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2008-02-01

    A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia's largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. " http://www.cpcb.nic.in/ph/ch21103.htm ", 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227-231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279-282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958-2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029-2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387-396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659-668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for

  12. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  13. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination in Different Environmental Media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Seung

    2009-01-01

    Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon. PMID:22303141

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke particles from wood and duff burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yulin L.; Quanci, John F.; Borys, Randolf D.; Quanci, Martin J.

    Smoke particles from wood burning and duff burning were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PAH composition in smoke particles from wood burning was found to resemble those from other environmental samples, such as air particles and sediments where parental PAH are the predominant species. A catalytic combustor retrofitted on the wood-burning stove reduced the PAH concentrations significantly. The reduction was more pronounced for parental PAH than their alkylated homologs. Probably, the molecular configuration affects the catalytic efficiency. Smoke particles from duff burning contained a strikingly different PAH composition, with phenanthrene, alkylated phenanthrenes, alkylated cycolopenta( def)phenanthrene and dodecahydrochrysene as the predominant species.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

  16. Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Zero-Valent Iron and Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Hun; Shin, Won Sik; Ko, Seok-Oh; Kim, Myung-Chul

    2004-03-31

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an alternative technology for soil and groundwater remediation. Zero valent iron, which is the most popular PRB material, is only applicable to halogenated aliphatic organics and some heavy metals. The objective of this study was to investigate reductive dechlorination of halogenated compounds and reduction of non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons using zero valent metals (ZVMs) and catalysts as reactive materials for PRBs. A group of small aromatic hydrocarbons such as monochlorophenols, phenol and benzene were readily reduced with palladium catalyst and zero valent iron. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also tested with the catalysts and zero valent metal combinations. The aromatic rings were reduced and partly reduced PAHs were found as the daughter compounds. The current study demonstrates reduction of aromatic compounds by ZVMs and modified catalysts and implicates that PRB is applicable not only for halogenated organic compounds but nonhalogenated aromatic compounds such as PAHs.

  17. Speciation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present during fog time collected submicron particles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Sharma, Swati; Habib, Gazala; Gupta, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    Airborne submicron particles (PM1) were collected using PM1 sampler during the fog-dominated days (December 2013-January 2014). PM1 values varied between 58.12 μg/m(3) and 198.75 μg/m(3), and average mass concentration was 162.33 ± 38.25 μg/m(3) while total average concentration of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) determined was 616.31 ± 30.31 ng/m(3). This is a signal for an alarming high pollution level at this site situated in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). PAHs were extracted from filters using toluene and acetonitrile. Quantitative measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The extracts were analyzed for 16 target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including carcinogenic compound benzo(a)pyrene (19.86 ± 38.98 ng/m(3)). Fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, anthracene, and fluorene were the predominant compounds found in the samples collected during foggy days. Based on number of rings, four-ring PAH compounds had maximum contribution (43%) in this fog time collected submicron particles followed by three-ring (21%), five-ring (20%), six-ring (13%), and two-ring (3%), respectively. In winter and foggy days, wood and coal combustion and biomass burning also significantly contribute to the PAH levels. However, diagnostic ratio suggests diesel emissions as the prime source of PAHs at this sampling site.

  18. Processing of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fog in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Khadapkar, Kalindi; Wang, Youliang; Hutchings, James W; Delhomme, Olivier; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Herckes, Pierre; Wornat, Mary J; Valsaraj, Kalliat T

    2012-10-26

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous pollutants in the atmosphere, predominantly known for their toxicity. Although there has been substantial work on the atmospheric degradation of PAH, little is known about how the presence of atmospheric droplets (e.g., a fog cloud) affects the fate of PAH. In order to assess the processing of PAH and their corresponding oxidation products during a fog event, two field-sampling campaigns in Fresno, CA and Davis, CA were conducted. The simultaneous evaluation of concentrations of the PAH and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (OPAC) in the gas phase, particulate matter and fog water droplets before, during and after fog allows for the characterization of transformative and transport processes in a fog cloud. By tracking the ratio of OPAC to PAH in the individual atmospheric phases, two major polycyclic aromatic compounds-processing pathways can be identified: (i) the dissolution of OPAC from particulate matter and (ii) the uptake and oxidation of PAH in the fog water droplets. Wet deposition steadily decreases the pollutant concentration in the fog cloud droplets during a fog event; however, uptake and concentration via evaporative water loss upon the dissipation of a fog cloud cause an increase in the atmospheric pollutant concentration.

  19. Peat fires as source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) arrive from pyrogenic sources including volcanism and the combustion of oil products and plant materials. The production of PAHs during the combustion of plant materials was considered in a number of publications, but their results were mainly obtained in laboratory experiments. Insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in environmental objects. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAH sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are available on this topic. On Polistovskii reserve (Russia, Pskov region) the soil series were separated depending on the damage to the plants; these series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities, as well as soils of the background plots. The series of organic and organomineral soils significantly differed in their PAH distributions. In this series, the concentration of PAHs in the upper horizons of the peat soils little varied or slightly decreased, but their accumulation occurred at a depth of 5-10 or 10-20 cm in the soils after the fires. For example, in the series of high moor soils, the content of PAHs in the upper horizons remained almost constant; significant differences were observed in the subsurface horizons: from 2 ng/g in the background soil to 70 ng/g after the fire. In the upper horizons of the oligotrophic peat soils under pine forests, the total PAH content also varied only slightly. At the same time, the content of PAHs in the soil series increased from 15 to 90 ng/g with the increasing pyrogenic damage to the plot. No clear trends of the PAH accumulation were recorded in the organomineral soils. The content of PAHs in the soddy-podzolic soil subjected to fire slightly decreased (from 20 to 10 ng/g) compared to the less damaged soil. In peat fires, the access of oxygen to the fire zone is lower than in forest fires. The oxygen deficit acts as a factor of the organic fragments recombination and

  20. Fate of Soil Organic Carbon and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Vineyard Soil Treated with Biochar.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Alessandro G; Meredith, Will; Snape, Colin E; Baronti, Silvia; Genesio, Lorenzo; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Miglietta, Franco; Fabbri, Daniele

    2015-09-15

    The effect of biochar addition on the levels of black carbon (BC) and polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a vineyard soil in central Italy was investigated within a two year period. Hydropyrolysis (HyPy) was used to determine the contents of BC (BCHyPy) in the amended and control soils, while the hydrocarbon composition of the semi-labile (non-BCHyPy) fraction released by HyPy was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, together with the solvent-extractable PAHs. The concentrations of these three polycyclic aromatic carbon reservoirs changed and impacted differently the soil organic carbon over the period of the trial. The addition of biochar (33 ton dry biochar ha(-1)) gave rise to a sharp increase in soil organic carbon, which could be accounted for by an increase in BCHyPy. Over time, the concentration of BCHyPy decreased significantly from 36 to 23 mg g(-1) and as a carbon percentage from 79% to 61%. No clear time trends were observed for the non-BCHyPy PAHs varying from 39 to 34 μg g(-1) in treated soils, not significantly different from control soils. However, the concentrations of extractable PAHs increased markedly in the amended soils and decreased with time from 153 to 78 ng g(-1) remaining always higher than those in untreated soil. The extent of the BCHyPy loss was more compatible with physical rather than chemical processes.

  1. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  2. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasohol and ethanol vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abrantes, Rui; Vicente de Assunção, João; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Bruns, Roy Edward; Nóbrega, Raimundo Paiva

    The exhaust emission of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered toxic to human health were investigated on two spark ignition light duty vehicles, one being gasohol (Gasohol, in Brazil, is the generic denomination for mixtures of pure gasoline plus 20-25% of anhydrous ethyl alcohol fuel (AEAF).)-fuelled and the other a flexible-fuel vehicle fuelled with hydrated ethanol. The influence of fuel type and quality, aged lubricant oil type and use of fuel additives on the formation of these compounds was tested using standardized tests identical to US FTP-75 cycle. PAH sampling and chemical analysis followed the basic recommendations of method TO-13 (United States. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999. Compendium Method TO-13A - Determination of polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Ambient Air Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (CG/MS). Center for environmental research information, Cincinnati, p. 78), with the necessary modification for this particular application. Results showed that the total PAH emission factor varied from 41.9 μg km -1 to 612 μg km -1 in the gasohol vehicle, and from 11.7 μg km -1 to 27.4 μg km -1 in the ethanol-fuelled vehicle, a significant difference in favor of the ethanol vehicle. Generally, emission of light molecular weight PAHs was predominant, while high molecular weights PAHs were not detected. In terms of benzo( a)pyrene toxicity equivalence, emission factors varied from 0.00984 μg TEQ km -1 to 4.61 μg TEQ km -1 for the gasohol vehicle and from 0.0117 μg TEQ km -1 to 0.0218 μg TEQ km -1 in the ethanol vehicle. For the gasohol vehicle, results showed that the use of fuel additive causes a significant increase in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at a confidence level of 90% or higher; the use of rubber solvent on gasohol showed a reduction in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at the same confidence level; the use of synthetic oil instead of mineral oil also contributed

  3. Identification and discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward; Szymanski, Paul; Applin, Daniel; Goltz, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely present throughout the Solar System and beyond. They have been implicated as a contributor to unidentified infrared emission bands in the interstellar medium, comprise a substantial portion of the insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites, are expected stable components of organic matter on Mars, and are present in a wide range of terrestrial hydrocarbons and as components of biomolecules. However, PAH structures can be very complicated, making their identification challenging. Raman spectroscopy is known to be especially sensitive to the highly polarizable C-C and C=C bonds found in PAHs, and therefore, can be a powerful tool for PAH structural and compositional elucidation. This study examined Raman spectra of 48 different PAHs to determine the degree to which Raman spectroscopy could be used to uniquely identify different species, factors that control the positions of major Raman peaks, the degree to which induced fluorescence affects the intensity of Raman peaks, its usefulness for PAH discrimination, and the effects of varying excitation wavelength on some PAH Raman spectra. It was found that the arrangement and composition of phenyl (benzene) rings, and the type and position of functional groups can greatly affect fluorescence, positions and intensities of Raman peaks associated with the PAH backbone, and the introduction of new Raman peaks. Among the functional groups found on many of the PAHs that were analyzed, only a few Raman peaks corresponding to the molecular vibrations of these groups could be clearly distinguished. Comparison of the PAH Raman spectra that were acquired with both 532 and 785 nm excitation found that the longer wavelength resulted in reduced fluorescence, consistent with previous studies.

  4. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jihua; Hu, Ningjing; Shi, Xuefa

    2015-04-01

    Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China Liu Jihua, Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous organic contaminants in the environment. Indeed, 16 PAH compounds have been listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union because of their potential toxicity to humans and ecosystems. As POPs are released or escape into the environment, their global accumulation in marine sediments generates a complex balance between inputs and outputs. Furthermore, PAHs in coastal sediments can serve as effective tracers of materials transport from land-to-sea (Fang et al., 2009). Hence, investigations of PAHs in sediments can provide useful information for further understanding of environmental processes and material transport. In this study, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from a total of 112 surface sediment samples collected across the entire territory of the Bohai Sea. The detectable concentrations of PAHs ranged from 97.2 to 300.7 ng/g across all samples, indicating low contamination levels of PAHs compared with reported values for other coastal sediments in China and developed countries. The highest concentrations were found within three belts in the vicinity of Luan River Estuary-Qinhuangdao Harbor, the Cao River Estuary-Bohai Sea Center, and north of the Yellow River Estuary. The distribution patterns of PAHs and source identification implied that PAH contamination in the Bohai Sea mainly originates from offshore oil exploration, sewage discharge from rivers and shipping activities. Further Principal components analysis (PCA)/multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis suggested that the contributions of spilled oil products (petrogenic), coal combustion and traffic

  5. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over the Mediterranean Sea: Occurrence and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicre, M. A.; Marty, J. C.; Saliot, A.; Aparicio, X.; Grimalt, J.; Albaiges, J.

    Marine aerosols were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor during the PHYCEMED II cruise in the Western Mediterranean Sea (October 1983). Their composition in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) was analyzed, representing the first time that concentrations of polynuclear aromatic HCs (PAH) are reported in relation to particle size for aerosols of remote marine areas. The HC concentrations were found to be dependent on the origin of the air masses. They were higher for air coming from North European countries than for air originating in the Atlantic and the South of Spain. The concentrations range between 7 and 14 ng m -3for n-alkanes and between 0.2 and 0.4 ng m -3for total PAH. Based on molecular criteria, several sources for these HCs have been identified: continental higher plant waxes, petroleum and pyrolysis (namely coal combustion and vehicular exhausts). Mass medium equivalent diameters (MMED) for the naturally derived n-alkanes are in the 1.79-2.53 μm range, indicating an origin related with the emission of large particles from higher plant waxes or from soil dusts. In contrast, MMED for the anthropogenic HCs, both aliphatic and aromatic, are smaller than the micron, suggesting initial emission of PAH through pyrolytic processes in the vapor phase followed by condensation onto larger sub-μm particles.

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Datuo karst Tiankeng of South China.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Oramah I; Qi, Shihua; Kong, Xiangsheng; Liu, Huafeng; Li, Jun; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Yinhui

    2008-10-01

    Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface soils of Datuo karst Tiankeng (large sinkholes) in South China with the use of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) system. This paper provides data on the levels and distribution of PAHs from the top to the bottom of the Datuo karst Tiankeng. The results showed that the sum of the 16 EPA priority PAHs from the sampled locations from top to bottom had a relative increment in PAHs concentration. summation operatorPAHs ranged from 16.93 ng/g to 68.07 ng/g with a mean concentration of 42.15 ng/g. The correlated results showed the bottom of the large sinkhole, which accounts for the higher concentrations, probably acts like a trap for the PAHs. Thus, the low evaporation rate at the bottom may play a key role in controlling the high concentration of PAHs at the bottom.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons.

    PubMed

    Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan M; Uher-Koch, Hannah; Kovach, Kristin A; Long, Darwin; Perkins, Christopher; Schoch, Nina; Evers, David C

    2016-09-15

    We captured 93 wintering adult and subadult Common Loons (Gavia immer) in coastal Louisiana from 2011 to 2015 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We tested blood samples for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and measured physiological variables including hematocrit, hemoglobin and total blood protein. PAH concentrations in loon blood differed from year to year and by age class. High PAH concentrations were significantly related to lower body masses in both adult and subadult birds and higher serum protein levels in adults only. PAH concentrations had marginal relations with both hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. The types of PAHs detected also underwent a major shift over time. The PAHs detected in 2011, 2012, and 2015 were primarily low molecular weight (three carbon rings); however, in 2013, most detected PAHs were high molecular weight (four carbon rings). It is unclear what events led to the increase in PAH concentrations and the shift in type of PAHs over time. PMID:27177142

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Jeedimetla Industrial Development Area-Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Suneela, Motati; Reddy, M K; Reddy, R C

    2004-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received increased attention in recent years in air pollution studies, as some of these compounds are highly carcinogenic or mutagenic. PAHs are mainly associated with respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) (diameter <10 m in size). Hence, it is important to determine the concentration of PAHs adsorbed on RSPM to know the extent of human exposure to these potentially carcinogenic substances. The study was carried out at 10 locations in and around the Jeedimetla industrial development area, Hyderabad during April 2000. Higher concentrations of B(a)A and B(b)F were observed at Nandanagar, Py and B(a)P at Kukatpally while, F1 concentrations at Allwyn Colony. These variations in the concentration can be attributed to their source and climatic conditions during sampling.

  9. Determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC-photoionization tandem mass spectrometry in wood smoke particles and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A simple and fast method for analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pressurized liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography utilizing photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Simultaneous separation and determination of nine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two hydroxy biphenyls could be performed in negative mode with a run time of 12 min, including equilibration in 5 min. The calibration curves were in two concentration ranges; 1-50 ng/mL and 0.01-50 μg/mL, with coefficients of correlation R (2) > 0.997. The limits of detection and method quantification limits were in the range of 9-56 pg and 5-38 ng/g, respectively. A two-level full factorial experimental design was used for screening of conditions with the highest impact on the extraction. The extraction procedure was automated and suitable for a large number of samples. The extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 102 % and the matrix effects were between 92 and 104 %. The overall method was demonstrated on wood smoke particles and soil samples with good analytical performance, and five OH-PAHs were determined in the concentration range of 0.19-210 μg/g. As far as we know, hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in wood smoke and soil samples using photoionization mass spectrometry for the first time in this present study. Accordingly, this study shows that high performance liquid chromatography photoionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a good option for the determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex environmental samples. Graphical Abstract The method developed in this study was used to determine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood smoke and soil.

  10. The Exobiological Role of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Before this time, the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed-at, the presence of ices in interstellar clouds ignored, and the notion that large, gas phase, carbon rich molecules might be abundant and widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today, the composition of dust in the ISM is reasonably well constrained to micron-sized cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. Shrouded within the protective confines of cold, opaque molecular clouds--the birthplace of stars and planets--these cold dust particles secrete mantles of mixed molecular ices whose compositions are also well constrained. Finally, amidst the molecular inventory of these ice mantles are likely to be found polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by the standards of interstellar chemistry, the telltale infrared spectral signature of which is now recognized throughout the Universe. In the first part of this talk, we will review the spectroscopic evidence that forms the basis for the currently accepted abundance and ubiquity of PANs in the ISM. We will then look at a few specific examples which illustrate how experimental and theoretical data can be applied to interpret the interstellar spectra and track how the PAN population evolves as it passes from its formation site in the circumstellar outflows of dying stars, through the various phases of the ISM, and into forniing planetary systems. Nevertheless, despite the fact that PANs likely represent the single largest molecular reservoir of organic carbon in evolving planetary systems, they are not what would be considered

  11. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  12. ASSAYING PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM ARCHIVED PM2.5 FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne particulate matter contains numerous organic species, including several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are known or suspected carcinogens. Existing methods for measuring airborne PAHs are complex and costly, primarily because they are designed to collect...

  13. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  14. Evidence for the extraterrestrial origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Martian meteorite ALH84001.

    PubMed

    Clemett, S J; Dulay, M T; Gillette, J S; Chillier, X D; Mahajan, T B; Zare, R N

    1998-01-01

    Possible sources of terrestrial contamination are considered for the observation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Contamination is concluded to be negligible. PMID:9809015

  15. AMENDMENT OF SEDIMENTS WITH A CARBONACEOUS RESIN REDUCES BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of laboratory and field test studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Ambersorb, a carbonaceous resin, in reducing bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated sediments collected from the field. Amending contaminated sediment...

  16. DIGESTIVE BIOAVAILABILITY TO A DEPOSIT FEDDER (ARENICOLA MARINA) OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTHRPOGENIC PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine sediments around urban areas serve as catch basins for anthropogenic particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using incubations with gut fluids extracted from a deposit-feeding polychaete (Arenicola marina), we determined the digestive bioavailability ...

  17. Identification of persulfate oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon during remediation of contaminated soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of PAH transformation, the formation and transformation of reaction byproducts during persulfate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coking plant soil was investigated. Pre-oxidation analyses indicated that oxygen-containing PAHs (oxy-PAHs) existed ...

  18. MULTISUBSTRATE BIODEGRADATION KINETICS FOR BINARY AND COMPLEX MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation kinetics were studied for binary and complex mixtures of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2-ethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, fluorene and fluoranthene. Discrepancies between the ...

  19. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR STUDYING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational Methods for Studying the Interaction between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Biological Macromolecules .

    The mechanisms for the processes that result in significant biological activity of PAHs depend on the interaction of these molecules or their metabol...

  20. STUDIES ON BIOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: BIOAVAILABILITY, BIODEGRADABILITY, AND TOXICITY ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread contamination of aquatic sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes, on which the bioavailability and the toxicity of PAHs often have a significant impact. This research investigated the biode...

  1. Model compound study of the pathways for aromatic hydrocarbon formation in soot.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.; Winans, R. E.; Solum, M. S.; Pugmire, R. J.; Fletcher, T. H.

    2002-04-29

    To explore the mechanisms for formation of aromatic hydrocarbons as precursors to soot, a model system using combustion of biphenyl in a fuel rich flame is studied. The soots acquired at three different temperatures are solvent extracted and the extract characterized by both GCMS and high resolution mass spectrometry. A description of the NMR results for the whole soots has been published (1). The production of most products could be rationalized from the coupling of biphenyls and subsequent aromatic species and the addition of acetylenes to existing aromatic molecules. Early work by Badger on pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is used in developing these schemes (2). The reaction schemes to produce larger aromatic hydrocarbons will be discussed. Richter and Howard have discussed in detail potential reaction mechanisms in the formation of aromatics as precursors to soot (3).

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2014-10-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. Σ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below analytical method detection limit (< MDL) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < MDL. Σ PCB and Σ CP concentrations in air ranged from < MDL to 44.6 and < MDL to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The PAH wet scavenging was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. ∑ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below limit of quantification (< LOQ) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < LOQ. ∑ PCB and ∑ CP concentrations in air ranged from < LOQ to 44.6 and < LOQ to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The particulate matter removal by rain, and consequently PAH wet scavenging, was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  4. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles.

  5. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles. PMID:25679824

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from joss paper furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Jung, Ray-Chen; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsieh, Lien-Te

    The emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified for two joss paper furnaces burning two kinds of joss papers (recycled paper made and virgin bamboo made). A cyclone and a wet scrubber were installed in series on one of the two furnaces. Particulate and gaseous PAHs were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of U.S. EPA Modified Method 5. Twenty-one species of PAH were analyzed by GC/MS. Individual PAH emission factors vary from less than 1 mg kg -1 fuel to several tens of mg kg -1 fuel. The total (sum of 21 compounds) and the carcinogenic PAH (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene) emission factors were not statistically different for the two furnaces and averaged 71.0 and 3.2 mg kg -1, respectively. The PAH profiles showed a predominance of naphthalene (58.1%), phenanthrene (11.7%) and fluorene (7.5%). Of the two joss papers examined, bamboo-made joss paper showed less emission in both particulate and gaseous PAHs. For particulate and gaseous PAHs, the removal efficiencies of total PAHs by the air pollution control devices were 42.5% and 11.7%, respectively. PAH emission factors in high airflow conditions were generally lower than those in low airflow condition.

  7. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Burmistrz, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The subject of examinations presented in this paper is the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between solid and liquid phases in samples of raw wastewater and wastewater after treatment. The content of 16 PAHs according to the US EPA was determined in the samples of coke plant wastewater from the Zdzieszowice Coke Plant, Poland. The samples contained raw wastewater, wastewater after physico-chemical treatment as well as after biological treatment. The ΣPHA16 content varied between 255.050 μg L(-1) and 311.907 μg L(-1) in raw wastewater and between 0.940 and 4.465 μg L(-1) in wastewater after full treatment. Investigation of the distribution of PAHs showed that 71-84% of these compounds is adsorbed on the surface of suspended solids and 16-29% is dissolved in water. Distribution of individual PAHs and ΣPHA16 between solid phase and liquid phase was described with the use of statistically significant, linear equations. The calculated values of the partitioning coefficient Kp changed from 0.99 to 7.90 for naphthalene in samples containing mineral-organic suspension and acenaphthylene in samples with biological activated sludge, respectively.

  8. Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of PAH's. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the PAH's are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, PAH's in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopic study of vinyl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Anju; Rastogi, Shantanu

    2015-12-01

    The mid infrared emission features observed in various astrophysical sources are attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The models of emission spectra from a collection of PAHs show uncertainty in matching the 6.2 μm feature. This indicates the need to consider a larger variety of PAHs and PAH derivatives. Chemical pathways towards formation of PAHs in the astrophysical environments involve vinyl substituted PAHs as intermediate products. Vibrational spectroscopic study of vinyl-PAHs is reported in the present work. The vinyl group is substituted at similar positions in eight different PAHs. The obtained optimized structures show that vinyl substitution at 2 position in acenes gives planar geometry, while all other vinyl-PAHs are non-planar. Infrared spectra is simulated for neutrals as well as for cations. The results are compared with the spectra of corresponding plain PAHs and analyzed for possible match with astrophysical observations. New features, due to vinyl group in the composite spectra, identified at 6.64, 6.92, 7.27, 8.77 and 10.35 μm fall close to some sub features of the observed emission spectra. The paper provides data that may be used in the emission models particularly along proto planetary nebulae type cool objects. PMID:26117194

  10. DUSTY WINDS: EXTRAPLANAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FEATURES OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N. E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations have shown the presence of dust and molecular material in galactic winds, but relatively little is known about the distribution of these outflow components. To shed some light on this issue, we have used IRAC images from the Spitzer Space Telescope archive to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a sample of 16 local galaxies with known winds. Our focus on nearby sources (median distance 8.6 Mpc) has revealed detailed PAH structure in the winds and allowed us to measure extraplanar PAH emission. We have identified extraplanar PAH features on scales of {approx}0.8-6.0 kpc. We find a nearly linear correlation between the amount of extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation activity in the disk. Our results also indicate a correlation between the height of extraplanar PAH emission and star formation rate surface density, which supports the idea of a surface density threshold on the energy or momentum injection rate for producing detectable extraplanar wind material.

  11. Carbonyl atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeyer, Genevieve; Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    To convert gaseous carbonyls to oximes during sampling, an XAD-4 resin denuder system pre-coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and followed by analysis with methane positive chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure carbonyls in ambient air samples in Riverside, CA. In conjunction with similar analyses of environmental chamber OH radical-initiated reactions of o- and p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1,4-butanediol, we identified benzaldehyde, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde and acetophenone and the dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal, biacetyl, ethylglyoxal, 1,4-butenedial, 3-hexene-2,5-dione, 3-oxo-butanal, 1,4-butanedial and malonaldehyde in the ambient air samples. As discussed, these carbonyls and dicarbonyls can be formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere, and we conclude that in situ atmospheric formation is a major source of these carbonyls in our Riverside, CA, ambient air samples.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oils on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Menichini, E; Bocca, A; Merli, F; Ianni, D; Monfredini, F

    1991-01-01

    The six olive oils and seven virgin olive oils which are most consumed in Italy were analysed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim was to evaluate whether a carcinogenic hazard for the general population can derive from the dietary intake of this food, which is consumed particularly highly in the Mediterranean area. The analytical method involved extraction by liquid-liquid partition, filtration on silica gel, clean-up by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel, and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The 3- and 4-ring PAHs which are most abundant in the environment were found in all samples, at individual levels up to ca. 40 micrograms/kg (for phenanthrene); no important difference was observed between olive oils and virgin olive oils. PAHs which are most suspected of being carcinogenic for humans were not detected (limit of detection, ca. 3 micrograms/kg). The average yearly intake of the detected PAHs through this food was estimated at ca. 0.56 mg per capita. PMID:1778272

  13. Fullerenes, fulleranes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Allende meteorite.

    PubMed

    Becker, L; Bunch, T E

    1997-07-01

    In this paper, we confirm our earlier observations of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Allende meteorite (Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). Fullerene C60 was also detected in two separate C-rich (approximately 0.5-1.0%) dark inclusions (Heymann et al., 1987) that were hand picked from the Allende sample. The amounts of C60 detected were approximately 5 and approximately 10 ppb, respectively, which is considerably less than what was detected in the Allende 15/21 sample (approximately 100 ppb; Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). This suggests that fullerenes are heterogeneously distributed in the meteorite. In addition, we present evidence for fulleranes, (C60Hx), detected in separate samples by laser desorption (reflectron) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (LDMS). The LDMS spectra for the Allende extracts were remarkably similar to the spectra generated for the synthetic fullerane mixtures. Several fullerane products were synthesized using a Rh catalyst (Becker et al., 1993a) and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed ppm levels) that included benzofluoranthene and corannulene, a cup-shaped molecule that has been proposed as a precursor molecule to the formation of fullerenes in the gas phase (Pope et al., 1993).

  14. Fullerenes, fulleranes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Bunch, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we confirm our earlier observations of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Allende meteorite (Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). Fullerene C60 was also detected in two separate C-rich (approximately 0.5-1.0%) dark inclusions (Heymann et al., 1987) that were hand picked from the Allende sample. The amounts of C60 detected were approximately 5 and approximately 10 ppb, respectively, which is considerably less than what was detected in the Allende 15/21 sample (approximately 100 ppb; Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). This suggests that fullerenes are heterogeneously distributed in the meteorite. In addition, we present evidence for fulleranes, (C60Hx), detected in separate samples by laser desorption (reflectron) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (LDMS). The LDMS spectra for the Allende extracts were remarkably similar to the spectra generated for the synthetic fullerane mixtures. Several fullerane products were synthesized using a Rh catalyst (Becker et al., 1993a) and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed ppm levels) that included benzofluoranthene and corannulene, a cup-shaped molecule that has been proposed as a precursor molecule to the formation of fullerenes in the gas phase (Pope et al., 1993).

  15. Photoinduced toxicity of sediment-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Duxbury, C.L.; Marwood, C.A.; Huang, X.D.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be both mutagenic and toxic. Light, in particular UV irradiation, increases their toxicity. Since aquatic plants cannot avoid PAHs or light, they are at risk. However, the major loadings of PAHs are in sediment. In this study the authors examined the assimilation of both intact and photomodified labelled PAHs bound to a surrogate, sediment (sand) by the higher aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. G-3. They found that simulated solar radiation significantly promoted the release of PAHs from sand and their assimilation by Lemna, although assimilation from the solid phase was slower than for chemicals placed directly into the aqueous medium. Toxicity of PAHs bound to sand was then measured by exposing plants to the sand-chemical composite for 8 d. Plants were exposed to both visible and SSR light conditions during this period, and toxicity was measured as inhibition of growth, inhibition of photosynthesis (chlorophyll fluorescence induction) and chlorosis. All three endpoints indicated that PAHs bound to a sediment phase can express phototoxicity and that the effects are most strongly promoted by the UV region of the solar spectrum. The authors have now extended this work to probe the effects of UV-B and PAHs on chloroplast development, with the finding that both stresses inhibit development of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: A review.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of PAHs removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as PAHs possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove PAHs from aqueous solution and to immobilise PAHs in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. PAHs removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove PAHs using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove PAHs. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove PAHs especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015. PMID:26820781

  17. Anharmonicity and infrared bands of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrignani, Annemieke; Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-08-01

    We present a systematic laboratory study of the CH stretching region in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules of different shapes and sizes to investigate anharmonic behaviour and address the reliability of the never-validated but universally accepted scaling factors employed in astronomical PAH models. At the same time, new anharmonic theoretical quantum chemistry studies have been performed with the software program Spectro using our experimental data as benchmark. We performed mass and conformational-resolved, high-resolution spectroscopy of cold (~10K) linear and compact PAH molecules starting with naphthalene (C10H8) in the 3-µm CH stretching region. Surprisingly, the measured infrared spectra show many more strong modes than expected. Measurements of the deuterated counterparts demonstrate that these bands are the result of Fermi Resonances. First comparisons with harmonic and anharmonic DFT calculations using Gaussian 09 show that both approximations are not able to reproduce in detail the observed molecular reality. The improved anharmonic calculations performed with Spectro now include the effects of Fermi resonances and have been applied to PAHs for the first time. The analysis of the experimental data is greatly aided by these new theoretical quantum chemistry studies. Preliminary assignments are presented, aided by comparison between the observed rotational contour and the symmetry of candidate bands.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Burstyn, I.; Kromhout, H.; Partanen, T.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Ahrens, W.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ferro, G.; Heikkila, P.; Hooiveld, M.; Johansen, C.; Randem, B.G.; Boffetta, P.

    2005-11-01

    Several toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have produced evidence that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, a clear exposure-response relation has not been demonstrated. We studied a relation between exposure to PAH and mortality from IHD (418 cases) in a cohort of 12,367 male asphalt workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, The Netherlands and Norway. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene were assessed quantitatively using measurement-driven exposure models. Exposure to coal tar was assessed in a semiquantitative manner on the basis of information supplied by company representatives. We carried out sensitivity analyses to assess potential confounding by tobacco smoking. Both cumulative and average exposure indices for benzo(a)pyrene were positively associated with mortality from IHD. The highest relative risk for fatal IHD was observed for average benzo(a)pyrene exposures of 273 ng/m{sup 3} or higher, for which the relative risk was 1.64(95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.38). Similar results were obtained for coal tar exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even in a realistic scenario of confounding by smoking, we would observe approximately 20% to 40% excess risk in IHD in the highest PAH-exposure categories. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that occupational PAH exposure causes fatal IHD and demonstrate a consistent exposure-response relation for this association.

  19. Cyclodextrin-modified solvent extraction for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Blyshak, L.A.; Rossi, T.M.; Patonay, G.; Warner, I.M.

    1988-10-01

    The extraction efficiencies of several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between isopropyl ether/water and between isopropyl ether:1-butanol (1:4)/water are measured in the presence of an aqueous ..gamma..-cyclodextrin (CDx) modifier at room temperature. The distribution of certain PAHs into the aqueous phase is increased by the presence of 10/sup -2/ M ..gamma..-CDx. For compounds such as perylene and coronene, which show the most marked effects, the extraction efficiencies into the aqueous phase from pure isopropyl ether are 95.1% and 93.7%, respectively, when the CDx modifier is used. In the mixed solvent system with 1-butanol, these values are 63.4% and 98.1%, respectively. In both systems, the increased distribution into water is based in part on the size relationship between the PAH and the CDx cavity. In the case of relatively small molecules like anthracene, little or no extraction is observed in the presence of the CDx modifier. This type of extraction system may be useful for selective extraction of large PAHs from mixtures. Extraction results for a variety of PAHs are presented and discussed.

  20. Bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relevance to toxicity and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelly L; Banks, Leah D; Mantey, Jane A; Huderson, Ashley C; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bioaccessibility is a growing area of research in the field of risk assessment. As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, they are the toxicants of focus to establish cancer risks in humans. Orally ingested PAHs also cause toxicity and even affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of some therapeutic agents. Toward this end, bioaccessibility is being used as a tool to assess the risk of PAHs via dietary exposures. Areas covered This review covers some in vitro bioaccessibility models for PAHs that have been used for the past one-and-a-half decade. This review also considers the factors that influence bioaccessibility and debates the merits and limitations of using a bioaccessibility concept for estimating risk from ingestion of PAH-contaminated soil and food. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of bioaccessibility for PAH-induced toxicity and cancers in the context of risk assessment. Expert opinion So far, much of the focus on PAH bioaccessibility is centered on soil as a preferential matrix. However, ingestion of PAHs through diet far exceeds the amount accidentally ingested through soil. Therefore, bioaccessibility could be exploited as a tool to assess the relative risk of various dietary ingredients tainted with PAHs. While bioaccessibility is a promising approach for assessing PAH risk arising from various types of contaminated soils, none of the models proposed appears to be valid. Bioaccessibility values, derived from in vitro studies, still require validation from in vivo studies. PMID:23898780

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rhizosphere soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.; Arunachalam, M.

    1995-12-31

    Increased contaminant biodegradation in soil in the presence of plants has been demonstrated for several classes of organic compounds. Although enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed previously in the rhizosphere of several plant species, the mechanism of this effect has not been assessed. A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the importance of cometabolism and the presence of common rhizosphere organic acids on the loss of PAHs (pyrene and phenanthrene) from soil. The role of cometabolism in the mineralization of pyrene was tested by observing the impact of adding phenanthrene to soil containing {sup 14}C-pyrene and observing the effects on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} generation. Adding phenanthrene apparently induced cometabolism of pyrene, particularly in the presence of organic acids. In a subsequent experiment, mineralization of pyrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was significantly greater in soil from the rhizospheres of warm-season grasses, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.), compared to soil from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), which did not differ from sterilized control soil. A highly branched, fine root system appears to be more effective in enhancing biodegradation than taproots, and the presence of organic acids increases rates of PAH mineralization.

  2. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Zhang, Yanxu; Simonich, Staci

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Niño/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds.

  4. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the diffuse interstellar bands: a survey.

    PubMed

    Salama, F; Galazutdinov, G A; Krelowski, J; Allamandola, L J; Musaev, F A

    1999-11-20

    We discuss the proposal relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in interstellar clouds. Laboratory spectra of several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices, are compared with the spectra of five reddened early-type stars selected from an extensive set of astronomical spectra. From this comparison, it is concluded that PAH ions are good candidates to explain some of the DIBS. Unambiguous assignments are difficult, however, because of the shift in wavelengths and the band broadening induced in the laboratory spectra by the solid matrix. This situation is illustrated by a comparison with the gas-phase spectra made available recently for two PAH ions. Definitive band assignments and, ultimately, the test of the proposal that PAH ions carry some of the DIBs must await the availability of a larger set of gas-phase measurements in the laboratory. The present assessment offers a guideline for future laboratory experiments by allowing the preselection of promising PAH molecules to be studied in jet expansions.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions and the diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Neutral naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10), and pyrene (C16H10) absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible. C10H8(+) has 12 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 5000 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBS at 6520, 6151, and 5965 A, other moderately strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in a Ne matrix, a position which falls very close to the strongest DIB, that at 4430 A. If C16H10(+), or a closely related pyrene-like ion is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. We also report an intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto Massachusetts Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Golomb, D.; Ryan, D.; Underhill, J.

    1997-12-31

    Wet and dry atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured at biweekly intervals from 15 September 1992 to 16 September 1993 at two sites on Massachusetts Bay, Nahant, near Boston, and Truro, near the tip of Cape Cod. Wet and dry deposition was measured using a conventional wet/dry collector, except that the dry bucket contained a layer of water in order to simulate the uptake of dry deposition onto a water surface. The PAHs were extracted from the aqueous solution/suspension by methylene chloride and analyzed by GC-ECD and GC-MS. Dry and wet depositions of PAHs were significantly greater at Nahant than at Truro, due to the proximity of emission sources in the metropolitan Boston area. Highest deposition of PAHs was observed in the winter season. At Nahant, the total deposition (wet + dry) of PAHs amounted to 970 {mu}g m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}, at Truro 350 {mu}g m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were not found above the detection limit of the analytical procedure.

  8. Some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, R. K.; Kumar, Pardeep; Ram, R. S.; Zaidi, Zahid H.

    1999-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted spectroscopists, astrophysicts and environmentalist because of their importance in our day to day life. It is well known that epoxides are produced during the metabolism of PAHs and have the requisite chemical reactivity to qualify them for the role as an ultimate carcinogenic form of PAHs. Several carcinogenic PAHs such as 3.4-benzopyrene, 1.2,3.4-dibenzopyrene, 3.4,9.10- dibenzopyrene etc. are found to be present in tobacco smoke and among air pollutants. Although PAH molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy but no systematic attempt has been made to study non-radiative transitions. In our laboratory, we have studied many PAH molecules by a non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity, known as Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy. PA spectroscopy is an analytical and research tool to get information about non-radiative transitions and singlet-triplet electronic transitions, where the conventional spectroscopic technique fails. The study of electronic transitions of some carcinogenic molecules are reported using PA and optical absorption spectra in boric acid glass in the region 250 - 400 nm. The electronic transitions of these molecules observed experimentally, have been interpreted using the optimized geometries and CNDO/S-CI method. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results. Assignments of observed electronic transitions are made on the basis of singlet-triplet electronic transitions. Vibrations attached to these electronic transitions are attributed to the ground state vibrational modes.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Transformations in an Urban Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsaraj, K.; Wornat, M. J.; Chen, J.; Ehrenhauser, F.

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generated from incomplete combustion of fuels, coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic activities. These are ubiquitous in all environments, especially the atmosphere. PAHs generally are found in the gaseous form and associated with the particles in the atmosphere. They are also found in the atmospheric water present in the form of fog, mist, rain, snow and ice. Particles (aerosols) in the atmosphere invariably contain a thin film of water which tends to have a high affinity for the adsorption of gaseous PAHs. Molecular dynamic simulations clearly show that the air-water interface is a preferable surface for adsorption of large molecular weight PAHs and atmospheric oxidants (e.g., O3, OH, 1O2, NO3). Thus, photochemical transformation of adsorbed PAHs in fog droplets is a possibility in the atmosphere. This could lead to the formation of water-soluble oxy-PAHs which are potential precursors for secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Field work in Baton Rouge and Houston combined with laboratory work in thin film reactors have shown that this hypothesis is substantially correct. Field data on fog and aerosols (pre- and post-fog) will be enumerated. Laboratory work and their implications will be summarized. The thin film surface environment resulted in enhanced reaction kinetics compared to bulk phase kinetics. The influence of surface reactions on the product compositions is evaluated by performing experiments with different film thicknesses.

  10. Chemical Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Monika; Tran, T.; Chiar, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2012-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise about 10% of the carbon in the interstellar medium. There is evidence of modification of PAHs in protoplanetary disks. What happens to these molecules as they are incorporated into protoplanetary disks? We address this question by investigating the chemical kinetics of PAHs in the disk environment. Kress et al. (2010) investigated the chemical behavior of PAHs at temperatures from 1000 to 2000 K at a pressure of 1e-6 bar, and proposed the concept of the 'soot line', analogous to the 'snow line' in the solar nebula. Inside of the soot line, PAHs are irreversibly destroyed via thermally-driven reactions. We will extend this study to more realistic disk conditions and timescales. In a related project (see poster by Tran, Chiar, et al.), we are investigating the differences in the PAH physical characteristics in quiescent dense clouds versus the environment around embedded protostars. Together, these studies will help us understand (1) the fate of interstellar PAHs in planet-forming disks and (2) the relationship between interstellar and solar system PAHs. We also will investigate the soot line in disks around sub-solar mass stars (e.g. M dwarfs). This work has been supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory (PI: V. Meadows) and the NASA/EPOESS program (PI: C. Phillips).

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Ionization Energy Lowering in Water Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    In studying various interstellar and solar system ice analogs, we have recently found that upon vacuum ultraviolet photolysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frozen in water ice at low temperatures are easily ionized and indefinitely stabilized as trapped ions (Gudipati; Gudipati & Allamandola). Here we report the first experimental study that shows that PAH ionization energy is significantly lowered in PAH/H2O ices, in agreement with recent theoretical work (Woon & Park). The ionization energy (IE) of the PAH studied here, quaterrylene (C40H20, IE = 6.11 eV), is lowered by up to 2.11 eV in water ice. PAH ionization energy reduction in low-temperature water ice substantially expands the astronomical regions in which trapped ions and electrons may be important. This reduction in ionization energy should also hold for other types of trapped species in waterrich interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system ices. Subject headings: ISM: clouds - methods: laboratory - molecular processes - radiation mechanisms: nonthermal -ultraviolet: ISM - ultraviolet: solar system

  12. Molecular Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: The Case of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincent, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The role of molecular spectroscopy in astrophysics and astrochemistry is discussed in the context of the study of large, complex, carbon-bearing molecules, namely, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or PAHs. These molecular species are now thought to be widespread in the interstellar medium in their neutral and ionized forms. Identifying the carriers responsible for unidentified interstellar spectral bands will allow to derive important information on cosmic elemental abundances as well as information on the physical conditions (density, temperature) reigning in specific interstellar environments. These, in turn, are key elements for a correct understanding of the energetic mechanisms that govern the origin and the evolution of the interstellar medium. A multidisciplinary approach - combining astronomical observations with laboratory simulations and theoretical modeling - is required to address these complex issues. Laboratory spectra of several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices or seeded in a supersonic jet expansion, are discussed here and compared to the astronomical spectra of reddened, early type, stars. The electronic spectroscopy of PAHs in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared domains is reviewed and an assessment of the potential contribution of PAHs to the interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet and in the visible is discussed.

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous, ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thought to be responsible for a very common family of interstellar infrared emission bands. Here the near- and mid-infrared spectra of the cations of the five most thermodynamically favored PAHs up to coronene: phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo-(ghi)perylene, and coronene, are presented to test this hypothesis. For those molecules that have been studied previously (pyrene, pyrene-d(sub 10), and coronene), band positions and relative intensities are in agreement. In all of these cases we report additional features. Absolute integrated absorbance values are given for the phenanthrene, perdeuteriophenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(ghi]perylene, and coronene cations. With the exception of coronene, the cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically 2-5 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations, the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands that are an order of magnitude stronger than those of the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands that are 5-20 times weaker than those of the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found in most other PAH cations studied to date. The astronomical implications of these PAH cation spectra are also discussed.

  14. Aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Regulated emissions of biodiesel blends are reasonably well documented in several works, non-regulated emissions, on the contrary, lack research. In this work, mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs, respectively) emission tests were performed with a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5) and 20% (B20%). The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the biodiesel addition on the emission profile of MAHs and PAHs. The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1500 rpm. The PAHs were sampled with Teflon filters and XAD-2 cartridges and were identified by gaseous chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and quantified by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The MAHs were sampled with active charcoal cartridges and analyzed by GC/FID. Both MAHs and PAHs filters and cartridges were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath. Ten PAHs and eight MAHs were identified and the average reduction of MAHs was 4.2% (B5), 8.2% (B5), and 21.1% (B20). The average reduction for PAHs was 2.7% (B2), 6.3% (B5), and 17.2% (B20). However, some PAHs and MAHs emissions increased because of/due to the biodiesel blends like phenanthrene, ethyl benzene, and trimethyl benzenes.

  15. Aromatized arborane/fernane hydrocarbons as biomarkers for cordaites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auras, Stefan; Wilde, Volker; Scheffler, Kay; Hoernes, Stephan; Kerp, Hans; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2006-12-01

    Previous palaeobotanical and palynological studies on coals from Euramerican Pennsylvanian (≡ Late Carboniferous) coal basins indicate a major change in coal-swamp floras, especially at the Westphalian Stephanian (≈Kasimovian Gzhelian, according to Geological Time Scale 2004) boundary. A flora dominated by arborescent lycophytes was replaced by a vegetation dominated by marattialean tree ferns in various Euramerican coal basins. Earlier combined palynological and organic geochemical studies on Westphalian/Stephanian coals and shales from the Saar-Nahe Basin (Germany) revealed that the distribution of aromatized arborane/fernane hydrocarbons in solvent extracts reflects the increasing importance of seed plants, especially cordaites (extinct group of gymnosperms), conifers and pteridosperms. However, the biological source of the precursor molecules could not be specified. To clarify if the arborane/fernane derivatives MATH, MAPH, DAPH 1, and DAPH 2 in Westphalian/Stephanian coals can be assigned to one of the three potential source plant groups, we analyzed coals, sediments and fossil plant remains from different Euramerican locations with respect to their biomarker composition and stable carbon isotopic composition. Thereby, stable carbon isotopic ratios showed only insignificant variations between Westphalian and Stephanian samples and proved to be an unsuitable tool to describe floral changes during the Westphalian/Stephanian of the Saar-Nahe Basin. In contrast, we were able to show for the first time that MATH, MAPH, DAPH 1 and DAPH 2 are prominent constituents only in extracts of cordaitean macrofossils and can therefore be regarded as biomarkers for this group of gymnosperms.

  16. Outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Guangdong, southern China.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chang; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Gang; Fu, Jiamo; Simonich, Staci

    2007-12-15

    The atmospheric outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Guangdong, China, a region of high PAH emission, was modeled using a potential receptor influence function (PRIF) probabilistic model which was based on a spatially resolved PAH inventory and air mass forward-trajectory calculations. Photochemical degradation and deposition (dry and wet) of PAHs during atmospheric transport were taken into consideration. On average, 48% of the PAHs (by mass) remained in the atmosphere for a transport period of 5 days, staying within the boundary of the source region. The medium molecular weight PAHs (four rings) were predicted to travel longer distances in the atmosphere than the low (three rings) or high molecular weight PAHs (five rings) because they are less photodegradable than the lower molecular weight, gas-phase PAHs and less likelyto undergo wet and dry depositions than the higher molecular weight, particulate phase PAHs. Under the strong influence of the East Asian monsoons in winter, the predominant outflow pattern of PAHs from Guangdong was to the South China Sea and Southeast Asian countries. In summer, PAHs were transported primarily to northern mainland China. Under particular weather conditions in winter, the PAH-containing air masses were lifted by cold fronts or convection and transported toward the Pacific Ocean by westerly winds. In addition to the distinct seasonality in PAH dispersion and outflow, interannual long-term variation in the outflow is likely influenced by El Niño and southern oscillation.

  17. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of −13.6% (95% confidence interval, −17.2% to −9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [μg/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 μg/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

  18. Chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine and estuarine sediments from Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Bi-Xian; Fu, Jia-Mo; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Kang, Yue-Hui; Lin, Zheng; Zhang, Gan; Min, Yu-Shuan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2002-01-01

    Spatial distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbons [chlorinated pesticides (CPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured in riverine and estuarine sediment samples from Pearl River Delta, China, collected in 1997. Concentrations of CPs of the riverine sediment samples range from 12 to 158 ng/g, dry weight, while those of PCBs range from 11 to 486 ng/g. The CPs concentrations of the estuarine sediment samples are in the range 6-1658 ng/g, while concentrations of PCBs are in the range 10-339 ng/g. Total PAH concentration ranges from 1168 to 21,329 ng/g in the riverine sediment samples, whereas the PAH concentration ranges from 323 to 14,812 ng/g in the sediment samples of the Estuary. Sediment samples of the Zhujiang River and Macao harbor around the Estuary show the highest concentrations of CPs, PCBs, and PAHs. Possible factors affecting the distribution patterns are also discussed based on the usage history of the chemicals, hydrologic condition, and land erosion due to urbanization processes. The composition of PAHs is investigated and used to assess petrogenic, combustion and naturally derived PAHs of the sediment samples of the Pearl River Delta. In addition, the concentrations of a number of organic compounds of the Pearl River Delta samples indicate that sediments of the Zhujiang river and Macao harbor are most likely to pose biological impairment.

  19. Separation of {sup 32}P-postlabeled DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.C.; Gallagher, J.E.; Lewtas, J.; George, M.

    1994-07-01

    The {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay, thin-layer chromatography, and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to separate DNA adducts formed from 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NO{sub 2}-PAHs). The PAHs included benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, 6-methylchrysene, 5-methylchrysene, and benz[a]anthracene. The NO{sub 2}-PAHs included 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluoranthene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, and 1,8-dinitropyrene. Separation of seven of the major PAH-DNA adducts was achieved by an initial PAH HPLC gradient system. The major NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts were not all separated from each other using the initial PAH HPLC gradient but were clearly separated from the PAH-DNA adducts. A second NO{sub 2}-PAH HPLC gradient system was developed to separate NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts following one-dimensional TLC and HPLC analysis. HPLC profiles of NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts were compared using both adduct enhancement versions of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay to evaluate the use of this technique on HPLC to screen for the presence of NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts. To demonstrate the application of these separation methods to a complex mixture of DNA adducts, the chromatographic mobilities of the {sup 32}P-postlabeled DNA adduct standards (PAHs and NO{sub 2}-PAHs) were compared with those produced by a complex mixture of polycyclic organic matter (POM) extracted from diesel emission particles. The diesel-derived adducts did not elute with the identical retention time of any of the PAH or NO{sub 2}-PAH standards used in this study. HPLC analyses of the NO{sub 2}-PAH-derived adducts (butanol extracted) revealed the presence of multiple DNA adducts.

  20. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Atmospheric photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: OH budgets during SAPHIR chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehr, S.; Bohn, B.; Dorn, H.-P.; Fuchs, H.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Li, X.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2014-03-01

    Current photochemical models developed to simulate the atmospheric degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons tend to underestimate OH radical concentrations. In order to analyse OH budgets, we performed experiments with benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. Experiments were conducted under low-NO conditions (typically 0.1-0.2 ppb) and high-NO conditions (typically 7-8 ppb), and starting concentrations of 6-250 ppb of aromatics, dependent on OH rate constants. For the OH budget analysis a steady-state approach was applied where OH production and destruction rates (POH and DOH) have to be equal. The POH were determined from measurements of HO2, NO, HONO, and O3 concentrations, considering OH formation by photolysis and recycling from HO2. The DOH were calculated from measurements of the OH concentrations and total OH reactivities. The OH budgets were determined from DOH / POH ratios. The accuracy and reproducibility of the approach were assessed in several experiments using CO as a reference compound where an average ratio DOH / POH = 1.13 ± 0.19 was obtained. In experiments with aromatics, these ratios ranged within 1.1-1.6 under low-NO conditions and 0.9-1.2 under high-NO conditions. The results indicate that OH budgets during photo-oxidation experiments with aromatics are balanced within experimental accuracies. Inclusion of a further, recently proposed OH production via HO2 + RO2 reactions led to improvements under low-NO conditions but the differences were small and insignificant within the experimental errors.

  2. Atmospheric photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: OH budgets during SAPHIR chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehr, S.; Bohn, B.; Dorn, H.-P.; Fuchs, H.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Li, X.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2014-07-01

    Current photochemical models developed to simulate the atmospheric degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons tend to underestimate OH radical concentrations. In order to analyse OH budgets, we performed experiments with benzene, toluene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. Experiments were conducted under low-NO conditions (typically 0.1-0.2 ppb) and high-NO conditions (typically 7-8 ppb), and starting concentrations of 6-250 ppb of aromatics, dependent on OH rate constants. For the OH budget analysis a steady-state approach was applied in which OH production and destruction rates (POH and DOH) have to be equal. The POH were determined from measurements of HO2, NO, HONO, and O3 concentrations, considering OH formation by photolysis and recycling from HO2. The DOH were calculated from measurements of the OH concentrations and total OH reactivities. The OH budgets were determined from DOH/POH ratios. The accuracy and reproducibility of the approach were assessed in several experiments using CO as a reference compound where an average ratio DOH/POH = 1.13 ± 0.19 was obtained. In experiments with aromatics, these ratios ranged within 1.1-1.6 under low-NO conditions and 0.9-1.2 under high-NO conditions. The results indicate that OH budgets during photo-oxidation experiments with aromatics are balanced within experimental accuracies. Inclusion of a further, recently proposed OH production via HO2 + RO2 reactions led to improvements under low-NO conditions but the differences were small and insignificant within the experimental errors.

  3. Insight into unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy oil via two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Na; Wan, Shan; Wang, Huitong; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhu, Guangyou; Liu, Jingfu; Cai, Di; Yang, Yunxu

    2015-06-12

    relative content also increased. The varying regularity of relative content of substituted compounds may be used to reflect the degree of degradation of heavy oil. Moreover, biomarkers for the aromatic hydrocarbons of heavily biodegraded crude oil are mainly aromatic steranes, aromatic secohopanes, aromatic pentacyclotriterpanes, and benzohopanes. According to resultant data, aromatic secohopanes could be used as a specific marker because of their relatively high concentration. This aromatic compound analysis of a series of biodegraded crude oil is useful for future research on the quantitative characterization of the degree of biodegradation of heavy oil, unconventional oil maturity evaluation, oil source correlation, depositional environment, and any other geochemical problems.

  4. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  5. Putting corannulene in its place. Reactivity studies comparing corannulene with other aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    George, Stephen R D; Frith, Thomas D H; Thomas, Donald S; Harper, Jason B

    2015-09-14

    A series of aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated so as to compare the reactivity of corannulene with planar aromatic hydrocarbons. Corannulene was found to be more reactive than benzene, naphthalene and triphenylene to Friedel-Crafts acylation whilst electrophilic aromatic bromination was also used to confirm that triphenylene was less reactive than corannulene and that pyrene, perylene and acenaphthene were more so. The stabilisation of a neighbouring carbocation by the various aromatic systems was investigated through consideration of the rates of methanolysis of a series of benzylic alcohols. The reactivity series was found to parallel that observed for the electrophilic aromatic substitutions and both series are supported by computational studies. As such, a reactivity scale was devised that showed that corannulene was less reactive than would be expected for an aromatic planar species of similar pi electron count. PMID:26220565

  6. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  7. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  8. Toxicity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from European high mountain lakes.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Roberto; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar

    2010-05-01

    Sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalent factors have been used for assessment of the toxicity of sedimentary long-range atmospherically transported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the organisms living in high mountain European lakes. This method has provided indices that are consistent with experimental studies evaluating in situ sedimentary estrogenic activity or physiological response to AhR binding in fish from the same lakes. All examined lakes in north, central, west, northeast and southeast European mountains have shown sedimentary PAH concentrations that are above thresholds of no effect but only those situated in the southeast lakes district exhibited concentrations above the indices of probable effects. These mountains, Tatras, are also those having PAH concentrations of highest activity for AhR binding. Chrysene+triphenylene, dibenz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene are the main compounds responsible for the observed toxic effects.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  10. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water by flotation enrichment and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bo-Xing, X; Yu-Zhi, F

    1988-11-01

    A method of concentration and determination of several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water by flotation enrichment and HPLC is described. Triton X-100 was used as the foaming agent to extract the PAHs from water by passage of nitrogen. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with coupled fluorescence detection was applied to separate and determine these PAHs. Various factors which may affect the recovery of PAHs from water, including pH, temperature and the concentration of Triton X-100 added, are discussed. This simplified method of concentrating PAHs from water has been applied to determine PAHs in water from Lake Erie. The method has practical value for the determination of PAHs in large volumes of water.

  11. Influence of ozone and meteorological parameters on levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehnec, Gordana; Jakovljević, Ivana; Šišović, Anica; Bešlić, Ivan; Vađić, Vladimira

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the PM10 particle fraction were measured together with ozone and meteorological parameters at an urban site (Zagreb, Croatia) over a one-year period. Data were subjected to regression analysis in order to determine the relationship between the measured pollutants and selected meteorological variables. All of the PAHs showed seasonal variations with high concentrations in winter and autumn and very low concentrations during summer and spring. All of the ten PAHs concentrations also correlated well with each other. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the concentrations of PAHs and ozone concentrations and concentrations of PAHs and temperature, as well as a positive correlation between concentrations of PAHs and PM10 mass concentration and relative humidity. Multiple regression analysis showed that concentrations of PM10 and ozone, temperature, relative humidity and pressure accounted for 43-70% of PAHs variability. Concentrations of PM10 and temperature were significant variables for all of the measured PAH's concentrations in all seasons. Ozone concentrations were significant for only some of the PAHs, particularly 6-ring PAHs.

  12. Quantitative determination of hydroxy polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Woudneh, Million B; Benskin, Jonathan P; Grace, Richard; Hamilton, M Coreen; Magee, Brian H; Hoeger, Glenn C; Forsberg, Norman D; Cosgrove, John R

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method was developed for quantitative analysis of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Four hydroxy metabolites of known and suspected carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), and chrysene (CRY)) were selected as suitable biomarkers of PAH exposure and associated risks to human health. The analytical method included enzymatic deconjugation, liquid - liquid extraction, followed by derivatization with methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and instrumental analysis. Photo-induced oxidation of target analytes - which has plagued previously published methods - was controlled by a combination of minimizing exposure to light, employing an antioxidant (2-mercaptoethanol) and utilizing a nitrogen atmosphere. Stability investigations also indicated that conjugated forms of the analytes are more stable than the non-conjugated forms. Accuracy and precision of the method were 77.4-101% (<4.9% RSD) in synthetic urine and 92.3-117% (<15% RSD) in human urine, respectively. Method detection limits, determined using eight replicates of low-level spiked human urine, ranged from 13 to 24pg/mL. The method was successfully applied for analysis of a pooled human urine sample and 78 mouse urine samples collected from mice fed with PAH-contaminated diets. In mouse urine, greater than 94% of each analyte was present in its conjugated form. PMID:27266337

  13. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range(degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor (g O3/g VOC) 21...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 21 280-290...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 21 280-290...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range(degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor (g O3/g VOC) 21...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range(degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor (g O3/g VOC) 21...

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of the basic physical chemical properties of the components of brine produced in the US DOE geopressured wells is necessary to provide the fundamental data necessary for understanding the mechanisms by which constituents of petroleum migrate and are partitioned into different phases in various geologic strata. The cryocondensate materials, which we sample, are present in the geopressured brines of all the wells observed to date. These materials are a complex mixture of aromatic compounds ranging in complexity from benzene to highly substituted anthracenes. While data is available for room temperature and for solutions of pure water, there is little earlier information on these compounds in solutions of higher salinity and at elevated temperatures. Our work extended the basic solubility data for benzene and toluene (two of the major aromatic constituents of the geopressured brine) to higher sodium chloride concentrations. The techniques we have developed during the course of this work allows us to make solubility measurements with precision and to make major contributions to the basic literature. It is important to realize that reliable data on these fundamental quantities comes only with great attention to detail and an insistence on consistency and reproducibility. To determine the solubility of one compound at one set of conditions requires the manual injection of a minimum of 45 samples into a gas chromatograph and an analysis of each chromatogram. 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons characterisation of Coimbra and Oporto PM2.5 urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. C.; Mirante, F.; Gonçalves, C.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C.; Evtyugina, M.; Kowacz, M.; Pio, C.; Rocha, C.; Vasconcelos, T.

    2009-04-01

    The concentration of organic pollutants in urban areas is mostly due to incomplete combustion from vehicles, industries and domestic heating. Some of these compounds, principally the aliphatic (ALIPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) promote harmful effects in human health. The determination of the ALIPH and PAHs concentration levels and their possible emission sources are useful for air quality management and source apportionment studies. In order to estimate and compare the ambient concentrations and establish the main sources of these compounds, the fine fraction of the atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected simultaneously in Oporto and Coimbra during summer and winter seasons using a high volume sampler. The organic compounds were extracted from the particulate matter, under reflux with dichloromethane and the total organic extract (TOE) was fractionated by flash chromatography using five different eluents with increasing polarity. The hydrocarbon fractions were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Here we present and discuss the qualitative and quantitative composition of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in PM2.5 samples from both cities. The homologous series of C14 to C34 n-alkanes, isoprenoid hydrocarbons (pristane and phytane), PAHs and some petroleum markers have been identified and quantified. With the purpose of identifying the possible sources, various molecular diagnostic ratios were calculated. The global carbon preference index (CPI) closer to the unity, the large concentration of the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and the presence of PAHs indicate that motor vehicle exhaust was the main emission source of the aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of Oporto and Coimbra aerosol, especially in the first city. Also, the remarkable presence of petroleum biomarkers such, as hopanes, confirms the previous results. Concentration ratios between PAHs were calculated and used to assign emission

  20. Microbial in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer monitored by carbon isotope fractionation.

    PubMed

    Richnow, Hans H; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2003-08-01

    We present an approach for characterizing in situ microbial degradation using the 13C/12C isotope fractionation of contaminants as an indicator of biodegradation. The 13C/12C isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in anoxic laboratory soil percolation columns with toluene or o-xylene as the sole carbon and electron source, and sulfate as electron acceptor. After approximately 2 months' of incubation, the soil microbial community degraded 32 mg toluene l(-1) and 44 mg o-xylene l(-1) to less than 0.05 mg l(-1), generating a stable concentration gradient in the column. The 13C/12C isotope ratio in the residual non-degraded fraction of toluene and o-xylene increased significantly, corresponding to isotope fractionation factors (alphaC) of 1.0015 and 1.0011, respectively. When the extent of biodegradation in the soil column was calculated based on the measured isotope ratios (R(t)) and an isotope fractionation factor (alphaC=1.0017) obtained from a sulfate-reducing batch culture the theoretical residual substrate concentrations (C(t)) matched the measured toluene concentrations in the column. This indicated that a calculation of biodegradation based on isotope fractionation could work in systems like soil columns. In a field study, a polluted, anoxic aquifer was analyzed for BTEX and PAH contaminants. These compounds were found to exhibit a significant concentration gradient along an 800-m groundwater flow path downstream of the source of contamination. A distinct increase in the carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) was observed for the residual non-degraded toluene (7.2 per thousand ), o-xylene (8.1 per thousand ) and naphthalene fractions (1.2 per thousand ). Based on the isotope values and the laboratory-derived isotope fractionation factors for toluene and o-xylene, the extent to which the residual substrate fraction in the monitoring wells had been degraded by microorganisms was calculated. The results revealed significant biodegradation along the

  1. Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influence spicule formation in the early development of sea urchins (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Ogiso, Shouzo; Yachiguchi, Koji; Kawabe, Kimi; Makino, Fumiya; Toriba, Akira; Kiyomoto, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Hong, Chun-Sang; Srivastav, Ajai K; Oshima, Yuji; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), which are metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), act on calcified tissue and suppress osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales of teleost fish. The compounds may possibly influence other calcified tissues. Thus, the present study noted the calcified spicules in sea urchins and examined the effect of both PAHs and OHPAHs on spicule formation during the embryogenesis of sea urchins. After fertilization, benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and 4-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (4-OHBaA) were added to seawater at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M and kept at 18 °C. The influence of the compound was given at the time of the pluteus larva. At this stage, the length of the spicule was significantly suppressed by 4-OHBaA (10(-8) and 10(-7) M). BaA (10(-7) M) decreased the length of the spicule significantly, while the length did not change with BaA (10(-8) M). The expression of mRNAs (spicule matrix protein and transcription factors) in the 4-OHBaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos was more strongly inhibited than were those in the BaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate that OHPAHs suppress spicule formation in sea urchins.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments—I. Compounds having anthropogenic origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Schaffner, Christian; Giger, Walter

    1980-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment cores from Lake Lucerne, Lake Zürich, and Greifensee, Switzerland, and Lake Washington, northwest U.S.A., have been isolated, identified and quantified by glass capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Surface sediment layers are greatly enriched in PAH—up to 40 times—compared to deeper layers. In addition, concentration increases in upper sediments generally correspond to increasing industrialization and urbanization in the catchment basins of the lakes. Few PAH could be detected in pre-industrial revolution sediments, indicating that background levels for most PAH in aquatic sediments are extremely low. These results are consistent with an anthropogenic source for most of the aromatic hydrocarbons present in the modern sediments. A comparison of PAH distributions in the sediments and in possible source materials shows that urban runoff of street dust may be the most important PAH input to these lacustrine sediments. There is evidence that a significant contribution to the PAH content of street dust comes from material associated with asphalt.

  3. Biomarker sensitivity for polynuclear and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in fish species from Galveston Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.; McDonald, S.; Steinberg, M.; Beatty, K.; Safe, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Galveston Bay estuary exhibits a contamination gradient for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, which is useful for comparing biomarker response sensitivity in fish taken from different bay locations. Two fish species, hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), were collected from four stations where sediment total PAHs ranged from 68 to > 1,000 ng/g. Hardhead catfish showed no consistent CYP1A mediated responses (hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD), CYP1A mRNA levels, or CYP1A immunoreactive protein) in the field collected fish or in fish dosed with up to 15 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Significant differences were seen in field collected hardhead catfish in biliary concentrations of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and BaP metabolites. Conversely, in croakers taken from the same four Galveston Bay locations, there were significant elevations IN EROD and glutathione-S-transferase activities, CYP1A immunoreactive protein, and biliary PAH metabolites at the contaminated stations. These studies suggest that croaker is a good monitoring species especially with respect to induction of CYP1A mediated responses by PAHs. Biliary PAH metabolites and PAH-DNA adducts were sensitive to PAH contamination in both species.

  4. Bacterial degradation of high molecular-weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Siddiqi, A.; Kumar, S.; Sikka, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    The ability of Pseudomonas paucimobilis, strain EPA 505 (a soil bacterium capable of utilizing fluoranthene as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth) to metabolize a variety of high molecular-weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated. After 16 hours of incubation with 10 ppm of a PAH, a resting cell suspension (1 mg wet cells/ml) of P. paucimobilis grown on fluoranthene degraded 80.0, 72.9, 31.5, 33.3, 12.5, and 7.8% of pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A), respectively. No degradation of dibenz[a,1]pyrene was detected under these conditions. Studies with [7-{sup 14}C]B[a]P and [5,6,11,12-{sup 14}C]chrysene showed that after 48 hours of incubation, the cells degraded nearly 28 and 42% of {sup 14}C-B[a]P and {sup 14}C-chrysene to {sup 14} C0{sub 2}, respectively, suggesting that the bacterium is able to metabolize B[a]P and chrysene via ring cleavage. No evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected from cultures incubated with [4,5,9,10{sup 14}C]pyrene or [1,2,3,4,4a,4bU-{sup 14}C]dibenz[a,1]pyrene. The degradation of B[a]P with P. paucimobilis significantly reduced the mutagenic activity associated with the hydrocarbon. The addition of 5 ppm of B[a]A, chrysene, fluoranthene, or DB[a,h]A to the incubation medium containing 5 ppm B[a]P had no effect on the degradation of B[a]P by P. paucimobilis. The data suggest that P. paucimobilis, strain EPA 505 may be useful for remediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  5. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  6. Fluorescence quenching of vaporous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Piuzzi, F.; Sambor, E. G.

    2007-04-01

    The fluorescence quenching by oxygen of vapors of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with strongly different oxidation potentials 0.44 eV < E ox < 1.61 eV (anthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 2-aminoanthracene, 9,10-dibromanthracene, pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and carbazole) is studied. From the dependences of the fluorescence decay rates and intensities on the oxygen pressure P O2, the quenching rate constants k S O2 for the excited singlet states S 1 and the fraction f S O2 of the S 1 states quenched by oxygen are estimated. At P O2 = 5 Torr, the k S O2 constants vary from 1.2 × 107 to 3.0 × 105 s-1 Torr-1, while the fraction of the quenched excited singlet states changes from 0.1 (fluoranthene) to 0.7 (chrysene) and 0.8 (pyrene). The dependences of k S O2 on the photophysical and electron-donor characteristics of the fluorescing compounds are analyzed. It is shown that, in the gas phase of anthracene and its derivatives, the magnitudes of k S O2 are limited by the rate constants of gas-kinetic collisions k gk and do not depend on the electron-donor characteristics of fluorophores, while the fraction of quenched states f S O2 changes with the oxidation potential. For compounds with k S O2 < k gk, both the rate constants k S O2 and the fraction of quenched states f S O2 depend on the E ox of sensitizers, which demonstrates an important role played by the charge-transfer interactions in quenching of the S 1 states. The dependence of the rate constants k S O2 on the free energy of electron transfer ΔG et is considered.

  7. Near Infrared Spectra of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Allamandola, L. J.

    The widespread, mid-IR interstellar emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 microns are generally attributed to vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since these features typcially originate from radiation-rich regions, it has been generally thought that UV photons must dominate the interstellar excitation process since PAHs have very strong UV absorption bands. However, observations have shown that lower energy photons can also pump the emission (Aitken and Roche, Uchida and Sellgren), raising questions about the PAH model. Although it has long been known that larger PAHs should absorb at longer wavelengths (e.g. Schutte et. al., Salama et al., Li and Draine) data was not available for the isolated, neutral and ionized PAHs of sizes comparable to those thought responsible for the interstellar emission features. Here the matrix-isolated near-IR (NIR) spectra (from 0.7 to 2.5 microns) are presented for the anions and cations of PAHs ranging in size from C34H16 to C50H22. These molecules are characterized by strong absorption bands in this region, bands that can account for the emission of the interstellar features from UV poor regions. These NIR PAH transitions could also contribute to the extinction curve associated with the diffuse interstellar medium. For example, band overlap, as expected from a mixture of PAHs, can contribute to the continuum. Overlapping broad bands could lead to slight undulations in the continuum reminiscent of the Very Broad Structure (VBS, e.g. Hayes et al.). Furthermore, as previously pointed out, individual PAH bands may contribute to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) spectrum (e.g. Romanini)

  8. Intraperitoneal mesotheliomas induced in mice by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J.M.; Anderson, L.M. ); Kovatch, R.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Female mice of 6 strains (C3H/HeN, BALB/c, C57BL/6N, DBA/2, NIH Swiss, and AKR/N) were given the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) intragastrically in olive oil at a dose of 20 mg/kg, weekly for 12 wk. Half were pretreated 24 h before each MC administration with intraperitoneal {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF, 150 mg/kg in olive oil), a noncarinogenic inducer of certain cytochrome P-450 isozymes. Remaining mice were given olive oil prior to MC in the same fashion, or {beta}-NF in olive oil or olive oil alone without subsequent exposure to MC. All mice were killed when moribund or 13 mo after the start of treatment. Most of the mice, irrespective of treatment, exhibited signs of peritoneal injury, including inflammation, necrosis, granuloma formation, and mineralization. Mice of some of the strains also presented peritoneal mesotheliomas, in addition to a variety of other tumors. {beta}-NF pretreatment reduced the frequency of mesotheliomas: there was only one definite mesothelioma in any of the {beta}-NF-MC groups, in a C3H/He mouse. Most of the measotheliomas were mixed fibro-mesothelial type, sometimes with papillary epithelial excrescences. They typically grew in a botryoid pattern within the peritoneal cavity, coating the abdominal organs and sometimes actively invading these organs and the diaphragm. Some lesions exhibited pleomorphism, prominent giant cells, and frequent mitoses. In addition, several lesions consisting of severe mesothelial hyperplasia associated with tissue necrosis and inflammation were considered as possible early stages of mesothelioma development. It was postulated that peritoneal injury imposed by repeated intraperitoneal injection of oil acted as an enhancing factor for mesothelioma induction by MC.

  9. Cation Far Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Zhang, J.; Han, F.

    2009-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) region is crucial for spectroscopic investigations because of the existence of skeletal modes of moderately sized molecules. However, our knowledge of FIR modes is significantly lacking, largely due to the limited availability of light sources and detectors in this spectral region. The technique "pulsed field ionization zero kinetic energy electron spectroscopy" (PFI-ZEKE) is ideal for studies of FIR spectroscopy. This is because the low internal energy of the cation associated with the skeletal modes is particularly beneficial for the stability of the corresponding Rydberg states. In this work, we report our effort in studies of FIR spectroscopy of cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Using laser desorption, we can vaporize the non-volatile PAH for gas phase spectroscopy. To ensure the particle density and therefore the critical ion density in prolonging the lifetime of Rydberg electrons, we have used a "chamber-in-a-chamber" design and significantly shortened the distance between the desorption region and the detection region. From our studies of catacondensed PAHs, we have observed the emergence of the flexible waving modes with the increasing length of the molecular ribbon. Pericondensed PAHs, on the other hand, have shown significant out of plane IR active transitions. The planarity of the molecular frame is therefore a question of debate. The FIR modes are also interesting for another reason: they are also telltales of the precision of modern computational packages. The combination of experimental and theoretical studies will help with the identification of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This effort therefore directly serves the missions of the Spitzer Space Observatory and more importantly, the missions of the Herschel Space Observatory.

  10. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Gas-phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. D.; Witt, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to produce fluorescence spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the gas-phase for comparison with blue luminescence (BL) emission observed in astrophysical sources Vijh et al. (2004, 2005a,b). The BL occurs roughly from 350 to 450 nm, with a sharp peak near 380 nm. PAHs with three to four rings, e.g. anthracene and pyrene, were found to produce luminescence in the appropriate spectral region, based on existing studies. Relatively few studies of the gas-phase fluorescence of PAHs exist; those that do exist have dealt primarily with the same samples commonly available for purchase such as pyrene and anthracene. In an attempt to understand the chemistry of the nebular environment we also obtained several nitrogen substituted PAHs from our colleagues at NASA Ames. In order to simulate the astrophysical environment we also took spectra by heating the PAHs in a flame. The flame environment counteracts the formation of eximers and permits the spectroscopy of free-flying neutral molecules. Experiments with coal tar demonstrate that fluorescence spectroscopy reveals primarily the presence of the smallest molecules, which are most abundant and which possess the highest fluorescence efficiencies. One gas-phase PAH that seems to fit the BL spectrum most closely is phenanthridine. In view of the results from the spectroscopy of coal tar, a compound containing a mixture of PAHs ranging from small to very large PAH molecules, we can not preclude the presence of larger PAHs in interstellar sources exhibiting BL.

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations. 3; The Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Wittebon, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the infrared spectroscopic properties of only a few isolated ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known, gaseous, ionized PAHs are thought to be responsible for a very common family of infrared interstellar emission bands. In order to provide a data base to test this hypothesis and, if borne out, to use this emission band family as a probe of many different interstellar environments, we are carrying out a thorough study of the infrared spectroscopic properties of neutral and ionized PAHs in argon matrices. Here we present the near and mid-infrared spectra of the cations of the five most thermodynamically favored PAHs up to coronene: phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghilperylene, and coronene. The properties of naphthalene, the first member of the series, are given elsewhere. The spectra of perdeuterated phenanthrene and pyrene are also reported. For those molecules which have been previously studied (pyrene, d(10)-pyrene, and coronene), band positions and relative intensities are in agreement. In all cases we report additional features. Absolute integrated absorbance values are given for the phenanthrene, perdeutero-phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene cations. With the exception of coronene,the cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically 2-5 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands which are an order of magnitude stronger than for the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands which are 5-20 times weaker than in the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found in most other PAH cations studied to date. The astronomical implications of these PAH cation spectra are also discussed.

  12. STRONG POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM z {approx} 2 ULIRGs

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Melbourne, Jason; Dey, Arjun; Brand, Kate; Brodwin, Mark; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Armus, Lee; Teplitz, Harry; Brown, Michael J. I.; Houck, James R.; Weedman, Daniel W.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Huang Jiasheng; Smith, Howard A.; Willner, Steve P.; Gonzalez, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we present low-resolution (64 < {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} < 124), mid-infrared (20-38 {mu}m) spectra of 23 high-redshift ULIRGs detected in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. All of the sources were selected to have (1) f {sub {nu}}(24 {mu}m)>0.5 mJy; (2) R - [24]>14 Vega mag; and (3) a prominent rest frame 1.6 {mu}m stellar photospheric feature redshifted into Spitzer's 3-8 {mu}m IRAC bands. Of these, 20 show emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), usually interpreted as signatures of star formation. The PAH features indicate redshifts in the range 1.5 < z < 3.0, with a mean of (z) = 1.96 and a dispersion of 0.30. Based on local templates, these sources have extremely large infrared luminosities, comparable to that of submillimeter galaxies. Our results confirm previous indications that the rest-frame 1.6 {mu}m stellar bump can be efficiently used to select highly obscured star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2, and that the fraction of starburst-dominated ULIRGs increases to faint 24 {mu}m flux densities. Using local templates, we find that the observed narrow redshift distribution is due to the fact that the 24 {mu}m detectability of PAH-rich sources peaks sharply at z = 1.9. We can analogously use observed spectral energy distributions to explain the broader redshift distribution of Spitzer-detected ULIRGs that are dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Finally, we conclude that z {approx} 2 sources with a detectable 1.6 {mu}m stellar opacity feature lack sufficient AGN emission to veil the 7.7 {mu}m PAH band.

  13. Partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on organobentonites from water.

    PubMed

    Chen, B L; Zhu, L Z

    2001-04-01

    A series of organobentonites synthesized by exchanging organic cation such as dodecyltri-methylammonium (DTMA), benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (BDTDA), cetyltrimethyl-ammonium (CTMA), octodeyltrimethylammonium (OTMA) on bentonite. The optimal condition, properties and mechanisms for the organobentonites to sorb phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene in water were investigated in detail. The partition behavior was determined for four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and acenaphthene, from water to a series of organobentonites. The interlayer spacings and organic carbon contents of organobentonites, removal rate and sorption capacities for organobentonites to treat phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene were correlated to the length of alkyl chains and the amounts of cation surfactant exchanged on the bentonite. Phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene sorption to organobentonites were characterized by linear isotherms, indicating solute partition between water and the organic phase composed of the large alkyl functional groups of quaternary ammonium cations. PAHs distribution coefficients (Kd) between organobentonites and water were proportional to the organic carbon contents of organobentonites. However, the partition coefficients (Koc) were nearly constants for PAHs in the system of organobentonite-water. The Koc of phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene were 2.621 x 10(5), 2.106 x 10(5), 2.247 x 10(4), 5.085 x 10(4), respectively. The means Koc values on the organobentonites are about ten to twenty times larger than the values on the soils/sediments, what is significant prerequisite for organobentonite to apply to remediation of pollution soil and groundwater. The sorption mechanism was also evaluated from octanol-water partition coefficients and aqueous solubility of PAHs. The correlations between 1gKoc and 1gKow, 1gKoc and 1gS for PAHs in the system of

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in Osilinus attratus from the coast of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, E.; Conde, J.E.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic compounds, derived from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, are subjected to physical/chemical/biological processes during their residence time in seawater ecosystems. These processes ultimately take part in the distribution and fate of contaminants in marine environments. In this way, sediment and particulate associated contaminants are available to aquatic plants and animals, which can accumulate petrogenic hydrocarbons from the marine environment in their lipid tissues even if pollutants are present at very low concentrations. This paper examines the content of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in specimens of the marine winkle Osilinus attratus Wood, common and prized as a food. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Petroleum alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction - A comprehensive molecular study of aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Clifford C.; Wang, Frank C.; Qian, Kuangnan; Wu, Chunping; Mennito, Anthony S.; Wei, Zhibin

    2015-03-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) alters petroleum composition as it proceeds towards the complete oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2. The effects of TSR on the molecular and isotopic composition of volatile species are well known; however, the non-volatile higher molecular weight aromatic and polar species have not been well documented. To address this deficiency, a suite of onshore Gulf coast oils and condensates generated from and accumulating in Smackover carbonates was assembled to include samples that experienced varying levels of TSR alteration and in reservoir thermal cracking. The entire molecular composition of aromatic hydrocarbons and NSO species were characterized and semi-quantified using comprehensive GC × GC (FID and CSD) and APPI-FTICR-MS. The concentration of thiadiamondoids is a reliable indicator of the extent of TSR alteration. Once generated by TSR, thiadiamondoids remain thermally stable in all but the most extreme reservoir temperatures (>180 °C). Hydrocarbon concentrations and distributions are influenced by thermal cracking and TSR. With increasing TSR alteration, oils become enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons and the distribution of high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons shifts towards more condensed species with a decrease in the number of alkyl carbons. Organosulfur compounds are created by the TSR process. In addition to the increase in benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes noted in previous studies, TSR generates condensed species containing one or more sulfur atoms that likely are composed of a single or multiple thiophenic cores. We hypothesize that these species are generated from the partial oxidation of PAHs and dealkylation reactions, followed by sulfur incorporation and condensation reactions. The organosulfur species remaining in the TSR altered oils are "proto-solid bitumen" moieties that upon further condensation, oxidation or sulfur incorporation result in highly sulfur enriched solid bitumen, which is

  16. A molecular model for H(2) interactions in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Gerstenmaier, Susana; Giudice, Simona; Cavallo, Luigi; Milano, Giuseppe

    2009-05-28

    A model for molecular hydrogen interacting with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is presented. The model has been derived using ab initio techniques and molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, quadrupole moments of hydrogen, and variation on energy with intermolecular distance of different conformations for the hydrogen-benzene couple were calculated using the Møller-Plesset method. Hydrogen was modelled using a two-centre Lennard-Jones potential plus electrostatic interactions. Lennard-Jones parameters were optimized on the basis of a correct reproduction of experimental data of hydrogen solubility in benzene and cyclohexane, calculated using the test particle insertion method. Different sets of parameters for specific interactions (hydrogen-aliphatic and hydrogen-aromatic systems) were considered avoiding the simple use of Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. Additionally, structural and thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-benzene, hydrogen-cyclohexane and hydrogen in an equimolar mixture of benzene-cyclohexane at different low concentrations of hydrogen were investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Electrostatic charges were taken from ab initio quantum mechanical calculations but after careful analysis of the calculated properties, their irrelevance was evidenced. Moreover, Coulombic interactions make simulations more expensive and, therefore, we do not recommend their inclusion in the modelling of hydrogen-aliphatic and aromatic interactions. PMID:19440622

  17. Parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Bashara, T.J.; Wilson, J.T.; Johns, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous contaminant in urban environments. Although numerous sources of PAHs to urban runoff have been identified, their relative importance remains uncertain. We show that a previously unidentified source of urban PAHs, parking lot sealcoat, may dominate loading of PAHs to urban water bodies in the United States. Particles in runoff from parking lots with coal-tar emulsion sealcoat had mean concentrations of PAHs of 3500 mg/kg, 65 times higher than the mean concentration from unsealed asphalt and cement lots. Diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicating sources are similar for particles from coal-tar emulsion sealed lots and suspended sediment from four urban streams. Contaminant yields projected to the watershed scale for the four associated watersheds indicate that runoff from sealed parking lots could account for the majority of stream PAH loads. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbon pathology in fish following a large spill into the Nemadji River, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    On June 30, 1992, a train accident resulted in a rail car releasing 114,000 L of a complex mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons into the Nemadji River, a tributary of Lake Superior near Superior, Wisconsin (Table 1). Although the majority of the spilled material evaporated, damage to aquatic life was extensive. Several thousand fishes were killed and an inestimable number were exposed to low concentrations (< 5 mg/L) of the chemical concentrate for several weeks (Allen 1993). Fishes that survived the spill were examined within 7 days of exposure to determine the extent of injury when compared to fishes collected from the reference site. The liver, spleen, gill, and head kidney were examined for histopathology. Blood was collected to determine the severity of liver damage reflected by the presence of the serum enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and d - glutamyl transferase).

  19. Characterizing the parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Ke; Yang, Lihua; Lin, Li; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Baowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-09-15

    Parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong. Most of the analytes were detected, and the dominant carbonylic and hydroxylated PAHs in mangrove sediments were 9-fluorenone and 2-hydroxy fluorene, respectively. The concentration of 9-fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone was higher than their parent PAHs. Moreover, the concentration of total organic matter (TOM) related with those of the parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, except for hydroxylated PAHs, which indicated that TOM was not the only factor regulating the distribution of oxygenated PAHs. Nevertheless, the parent PAHs in mangrove sediments was correlated positively with carbonylic PAHs which demostrated not only the similar source but also the fate of these two compound class. However, hydroxylated PAHs had different source by comparing with parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, they were probably originated from biodegradation and accumulated in mangrove sediments. PMID:26111652

  20. Characterizing the parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Ke; Yang, Lihua; Lin, Li; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Baowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-09-15

    Parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong. Most of the analytes were detected, and the dominant carbonylic and hydroxylated PAHs in mangrove sediments were 9-fluorenone and 2-hydroxy fluorene, respectively. The concentration of 9-fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone was higher than their parent PAHs. Moreover, the concentration of total organic matter (TOM) related with those of the parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, except for hydroxylated PAHs, which indicated that TOM was not the only factor regulating the distribution of oxygenated PAHs. Nevertheless, the parent PAHs in mangrove sediments was correlated positively with carbonylic PAHs which demostrated not only the similar source but also the fate of these two compound class. However, hydroxylated PAHs had different source by comparing with parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, they were probably originated from biodegradation and accumulated in mangrove sediments.

  1. Parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara J. Mahler; Peter C. Van Metre; Thomas J. Bashara; Jennifer T. Wilson; David A. Johns

    2005-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous contaminant in urban environments. Although numerous sources of PAHs to urban runoff have been identified, their relative importance remains uncertain. The authors show that a previously unidentified source of urban PAHs, parking lot sealcoat, may dominate loading of PAHs to urban water bodies in the United States. Particles in runoff from parking lots with coal-tar emulsion sealcoat had mean concentrations of PAHs of 3500 mg/kg, 65 times higher than the mean concentration from unsealed asphalt and cement lots. Diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicating sources are similar for particles from coal-tar emulsion sealed lots and suspended sediment from four urban streams. Contaminant yields projected to the watershed scale for the four associated watersheds indicate that runoff from sealed parking lots could account for the majority of stream PAH loads. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses after fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Zecchin; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2015-04-15

    A fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station on February 25th, 2012 led to the burning of material that produced organic pollutants. To evaluate the impact in the surrounding area, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in moss samples collected in the vicinities of the station before and after the incident and compared to findings from previous studies in the same region. PCBs were on the same magnitude as that reported in previous studies, which could be associated to the global dispersion of these compounds and may not be related to the local fire. In contrast, concentrations of HCB and PAHs were higher than those reported in previous studies. No PBDEs were found above the method detection limit. Organic contaminant concentrations in mosses decreased a few months after the fire, which is an important characteristic when considering the use of mosses for monitoring recent exposure.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

  4. Occurrence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban particulate matter PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rosario Sienra, María; Rosazza, Nelson G.

    2006-10-01

    Ambient measurements of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) were carried out during July 2000 and September-October 2000 in Santiago de Chile City. Fifteen samples of 24 h were collected at two sampling sites whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions of the area. These compounds were characterized and quantified by gas chromatography mass selective detection. Atmospheric concentrations of nitro-PAHs are of interest because these compound classes include potent mutagens and carcinogens. The compounds analyzed in the samples included 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene and 3-nitrofluoranthene. The concentration found ranged from below the detection limit in all cases to 1.8 ng m - 3 for 1-nitropyrene, to 1.12 ng m - 3 for 2-nitrofluorene and to 3.9 ng m - 3 for 3-nitrofluoranthene. This study respresents evidence of nitroaromatics in urban air particles from Santiago de Chile.

  5. A model of the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lun, R.; Lee, K.; Marco, L. de; Nalewajko, C.; Mackay, D. |

    1998-02-01

    A comprehensive mass balance model is described that simulates the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Saguenay Fjord in eastern Quebec, Canada. The receiving environment is segmented into five compartments that are connected by upstream and downstream flows. Each segment consists of a layer of surficial sediment and a water column exposed to the atmosphere. The steady state model provides a method by which defined loadings of PAHs from the atmosphere and industrial sources are combined with other input parameters such as advective flow and atmospheric deposition rates to deduce quantities, concentrations, and transport and transformation rates. Results are presented for naphthalene, phenanthrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The overall environmental pathways and simulation results are discussed. The simulated concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in the sediment ranged from 100 to 315 ng/g, which are in good agreement with reported measurements.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Baumard, P.; Budzinski, H.; Garrigues, P.

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast, PAHs originated mainly from incomplete combustion of organic matter (pyrolytic origin), whereas for some sites in Corsica and Sardinia an overimposition of petrogenic PAHs occurred. The mussel PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 390 ng/g. The total and individual PAH bioaccumulation factors were calculated. The correlation between sediment and mussel PAH content was discussed in terms of bioavailability. It was possible to distinguish different absorption routes for the xenobiotics according to their physicochemical properties. Because the mussel distribution of phenanthrene and anthracene seems to be governed by their water solubility, these compounds were probably mainly absorbed as the water-dissolved form, whereas the heavier molecular weight PAHs (more than four aromatic rings), whose sediment and mussel concentrations are correlated with higher correlation coefficients than for phenanthrene and anthracene, were probably mainly absorbed as adsorbed on particles. Furthermore, a possible preferential biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene over benzo[e]pyrene is discussed.

  7. The bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by benthic invertebrates in an intertidal marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Maruya, K.A.; Risebrough, R.W.; Horne, A.J.

    1997-06-01

    Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF; concentration in organism lipid/concentration in sediment on an organic carbon basis) of polyaromatic hydrocarbons varied with season and along an intertidal gradient in a coastal marsh in San Francisco Bay. The BSAFs were lowest during the local rainy season. During the dry season, BSAFs were lowest in the high intertidal zone closest to shore. Significant differences among species groups were also observed; BSAFs were lowest in polychaetes and highest in the Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis), varying over almost three orders of magnitude. The BSAFs decreased with increasing percent fines in the sediments and with PAH concentrations on an organic carbon basis. The authors suggest that a determining variable is the content of highly aromatic soot particles, which increases during periods of surface runoff and which is expected in the dry season to be highest in the high intertidal zone where these finer particles preferentially accumulate. Correlations of BSAFs with the ratio of the logarithm of the activity coefficients in porewaters to those in sediments were generally stronger than with log K{sub ow}, indicating a limitation of octanol as a surrogate for sediment organic carbon or organism lipid. These observations qualify but also strengthen the concept of equilibrium partitioning as the determining factor in bioaccumulation by benthic organisms of nonpolar organic compounds for sediments; the assumption that organic carbon can be considered in generic terms without allowance for aromaticity and probably other factors as well, must, however, be reconsidered.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yang, G P

    2000-05-01

    Sixteen sediment samples, collected from the South China Sea, were analyzed for 11 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of the 11 PAHs studied in the sediments ranged from 24.7 to 275.4 ng/g with a mean of 145.9 ng/g dry sediment. PAH concentrations displayed a consistent distribution trend with the sediment organic carbon content. The linear regression analysis showed that the total concentration of PAHs in the sediment was significantly correlated to the sediment organic carbon content with a correlation coefficient of 0.735 (n=16). Special PAH compound ratios, such as phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene, were calculated to evaluate the relative importance of different origins. The collected data showed that pyrolytic input from anthropogenic combustion processes was predominant at almost all the stations investigated. Only one station, located in the proximity of oil wells, appeared to be contaminated predominantly by petrogenic input. Three anthropogenic PAHs, i.e. pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[e]pyrene, exhibited similar distribution patterns in the studied area, implying that these compounds possess identical sources. However, perylene did not entirely follow the distribution trend of the three PAHs, suggesting that the sediment perylene probably derived from other sources such as in situ biogenic origins. Dibenzothiophene, a sulfur heterocyclic aromatic compound, was also measured in this study.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, trace elements, and monooxygenase activity in birds nesting on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Custer, C M; Dickerson, K; Allen, K; Melancon, M J; Schmidt, L J

    2001-03-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon) eggs and chicks were collected near a refinery site on the North Platte River, Casper. Wyoming, USA and at a reference site 10 km upstream. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in swallow and wren chicks were higher at the refinery site than at the reference site. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediment and chick dietary samples were consistent with these findings. The general lack of methylated PAHs in sediment, diet, and bird carcasses suggested that the PAHs were derived from combustion and not from petroleum. The predominance of odd-numbered aliphatic hydrocarbons and the low ratios (< or =0.25) of pristane:n-C17 and phytane:n-C18 in chick and diet samples also suggested that swallow and wren chicks were not being chronically exposed to petroleum. Mean ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities in tree swallow livers averaged nine times higher at the refinery site than at the reference site and were probably induced by exposure to PAHs. Trace element concentrations in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens were similar or greater at the reference site than at the refinery site. Selenium, strontium, and boron concentrations were elevated in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens at both the refinery and reference sites. PMID:11349865

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, trace elements and monooxygenase activity in birds nesting on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dickerson, K.; Allen, K.; Melancon, M.J.; Schmidt, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon) eggs and chicks were collected near a refinery site on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA and at a reference site 10 km upstream. Total polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in swallow and wren chicks were higher at the refinery site than at the reference site. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediment and chick dietary samples were consistent with these findings. The general lack of methylated PAHs in sediment, diet, and bird carcasses suggested that the PAHs were derived from combustion and not from petroleum. The predominance of odd numbered aliphatic hydrocarbons and the low ratios (≤ 0.25) of pristane: n-C17 and phytane: n-C18 in chick and diet samples also suggested that swallow and wren chicks were not being chronically exposed to petroleum. Mean ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities in tree swallow livers averaged nine times higher at the refinery site than at the reference site and were probably induced by exposure to PAHs. Trace element concentrations in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens were similar or greater at the reference site than at the refinery site. Selenium, strontium, and boron concentrations were elevated in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens at both the refinery and reference sites.

  11. Biodiesel presence in the source zone hinders aromatic hydrocarbons attenuation in a B20-contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Débora Toledo; Lazzarin, Helen Simone Chiaranda; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Fernandes, Marilda; do Rosário, Mário; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2016-10-01

    The behavior of biodiesel blend spills have received limited attention in spite of the increasing and widespread introduction of biodiesel to the transportation fuel matrix. In this work, a controlled field release of biodiesel B20 (100 L of 20:80 v/v soybean biodiesel and diesel) was monitored over 6.2 years to assess the behavior and natural attenuation of constituents of major concern (e.g., BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)) in a sandy aquifer material. Biodiesel was preferentially biodegraded compared to diesel aromatic compounds with a concomitant increase in acetate, methane (near saturation limit (≈ 22 mg L- 1)) and dissolved BTEX and PAH concentrations in the source zone during the first 1.5 to 2.0 years after the release. Benzene and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations remained above regulatory limits in the source zone until the end of the experiment (6.2 years after the release). Compared to a previous adjacent 100-L release of ethanol-amended gasoline, biodiesel/diesel blend release resulted in a shorter BTEX plume, but with higher residual dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations near the source zone. This was attributed to greater persistence of viscous (and less mobile) biodiesel than the highly-soluble and mobile ethanol in the source zone. This persistence of biodiesel/diesel NAPL at the source zone slowed BTEX and PAH biodegradation (by the establishment of an anaerobic zone) but reduced the plume length by reducing mobility. This is the first field study to assess biodiesel/diesel blend (B20) behavior in groundwater and its effects on the biodegradation and plume length of priority groundwater pollutants.

  12. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations.

    PubMed

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino; Lykoudis, Spyros; Kavouras, Ilias G

    2006-09-21

    The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73+/-2.02 mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the different steps of paper manufacture. This was attributed to the type of the operation such as, the release of fibers and particles during paper cutting and the use of reactive chemicals and excessive water under high temperature and pressure during the bleaching and the water rinsing/drying step. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8+/-0.5 to 41.4+/-0.4 ng/m3) and the unresolved mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons (UCM) were measured in all samples while, n-alkanes from n-C20 to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (from 180.6+/-18.9 to 4297.9+/-794.9 ng/m3). The profile of occupational PAHs in bleaching and treatment of contaminated recycled raw paper was comparable to that observed for anthropogenic activities. The values of molecular diagnostic ratios indicated the contribution of oil residues and emissions from worklifts and other equipment used for pulp and paper handling. Total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP) concentrations of particulate PAHs (varied from 323 up to 1104 pg/m3), provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs as compared with exposures to urban air and other indoor settings, posing long-term threat to their health. PMID:16704897

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the clam Tridacna maxima from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Bagg, J.; Bycroft, B.M.

    1984-05-01

    The concentrations of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, fluoranthene, and perylene, were measured in clams, Tridacna maxima, collected from sites on the Great Barrier Reef ranging in latitude from 14/sup 0/31'S to 23/sup 0/33' S. At most locations the concentrations of PAH were not significantly above the limit of detection, e.g., pyrene < 0.07 ..mu..g/kg wet weight, benzo(a)pyrene < 0.01 ..mu..g/kg, and chrysene < 0.07 ..mu..g/kg. These levels of PAH appear to be the lowest reported for clams anywhere in the world, indicating the pristine nature of the Great Barrier Reef at the present time. Concentrations significantly above detection levels were found at only two sites, Lizard Island First Beach (anthracene, 3.2 ..mu..g/kg; pyrene, 1.4 ..mu..g/kg) and Heron Island Harbour (pyrene, 1.2 ..mu..g/kg; benzo(a)pyrene, 0.02 ..mu..g/kg). Both sites are frequently visited by power boats which are the most likely source of hydrocarbon contamination. These low levels of contamination would not have been demonstrated by the measurement of only the most commonly studied PAH, benzo(a)pyrene. Simultaneous determination of several PAH was necessary to show clearly that some localized pollution had occurred.

  14. Assessing the ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nasher, Essam; Heng, Lee Yook; Zakaria, Zuriati; Surif, Salmijah

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g⁻¹ with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g⁻¹, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g⁻¹). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites. PMID:24163633

  15. Assessing the Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nasher, Essam; Heng, Lee Yook; Zakaria, Zuriati; Surif, Salmijah

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g−1 with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g−1, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g−1). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites. PMID:24163633

  16. Alkylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorines in sediment from Lake Shihwa, Korea: Instrumental and bioanalytical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Khim, J.S.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Kannan, K.; Lee, K.T.; Snyder, S.A.; Koh, C.H.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-11-01

    Lake Shihwa is an artificial lake, located on the west coast of Korea, that has experienced environmental deterioration since 1994, when it was formed by construction of a sea dike. This study used instrumental analysis and in vitro bioassays to characterize organic contaminants in sediment collected from 11 stations on Lake Shihwa. Alkylphenol (AP) concentrations in Lake Shihwa sediment ranged from 20.2 to 1,820 ng/g nonylphenol and from 4.69 to 50.5 ng/g octylphenol, on a dry weight basis. Maximum concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were 30.8, 2.26, and 12.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Significant estrogenic activity was associated with fractions containing APs. Mass-balance analysis suggested that reported concentrations of APs account for less than 20% of the estrogenic activity observed. No significant dioxin like activity was associated with fractions containing classic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, such as PCBs, but the mid-polarity fractions containing PAHs and most polar fractions yielded significant dioxin like activity. Overall, most of the in vitro bioassay responses appear to have been caused by unidentified and/or undetectable compounds associated with Lake Shihwa sediment.

  17. Optimization and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhou, Hui; Gan, Jay; Sun, Mingxing; Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-03-01

    The agronomic benefit of biochar has attracted widespread attention to biochar-based fertilizers. However, the inevitable presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar is a matter of concern because of the health and ecological risks of these compounds. The strong adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to biochar complicates their analysis and extraction from biochar-based fertilizers. In this study, we optimized and validated a method for determining the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers. Results showed that accelerated solvent extraction exhibited high extraction efficiency. Based on a Box-Behnken design with a triplicate central point, accelerated solvent extraction was used under the following optimal operational conditions: extraction temperature of 78°C, extraction time of 17 min, and two static cycles. The optimized method was validated by assessing the linearity of analysis, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, and application to real samples. The results showed that the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limits of detection varied between 0.001 (phenanthrene) and 0.021 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene), and the limits of quantification varied between 0.004 (phenanthrene) and 0.069 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene). The relative recoveries of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 70.26-102.99%.

  18. Intermediates in the Formation of Aromatics in Hydrocarbon Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The formation of the first benzene ring is believed to be the rate limiting step in soot formation. Two different mechanisms have been proposed for formation of cyclic C6 species. The first involves the reaction of two acetylenes to give CH2CHCCH (vinyl acetylene), the loss of a H to give CHCHCCH (n-C41-13) or CH2CCCH (iso-C4H3), and addition of another acetylene to n-C4H3, followed by ring closure to give phenyl radical. Miller and Melius argue that only n-C4H3 leads to phenyl radical and since iso-C4H3 is more stable than n-C4H3 this mechanism is unlikely. An alternative mechanism proposed by them is formation of benzene from the dimerization of two CH2CCH (propargyl) radicals (formed by the reaction of singlet methylene with C2H2). We report reaction pathways and accurate energetics (from CASSCF/internally contracted CI calculations) for the reactions of CH(pi-2) and CH2-1 with acetylene, the reaction of vinylidene with acetylene, and the reaction of n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 with acetylene. These calculations identify two new reactive intermediates CHCHCH ( a A"-2 ground state in Cs symmetry; spin coupling is a doublet from three singly occupied orbitals) and CHCCH (B-3 ground state in C2 symmetry) from the reaction of CH with acetylene. These species dimerize with no barrier to form benzene and para-benzyne, respectively. CHCCH is proposed as a reactive intermediate which can add to benzene to give higher polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons or fullerenes. The addition of a C3H2 unit releases two C-C bond energies and thus the resulting addition product contains sufficient energy to break several CH bonds leading to a reduction in the H to C ratio as the cluster size increases. It is found that iso-C4H3 adds to acetylene to initially give a fulvene radical but that this species rearranges to phenyl radical. Thus, the reaction of acetylene with iso-C4H3 does lead to phenyl radical and the cyclization pathway may also contribute to formation of the initial benzene ring.

  19. Radiation and chemical studies of carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiachieh.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are environmental pollutants. 3MC effectively neutralized the lethality of C3H mouse 10T1/2 cells resulting from B(a)P or DMBA. PAH binding to macromolecules increased linearly with exposure, but DNA-adducts saturated with exposure. 3MC or {alpha}NF appreciably reduced the formation of DNA adducts due to B(a)P or DMBA. The reductions in DNA-adduct formation did not result from a reduction in the induction of AHH. By using DNA adducts as chemical dose, and plotting the DMBA survival curve as a function of DMBA-DNA adducts, the curve was an exponential curve. A similar application with B(a)P-DNA adduct showed the survival curve as a shoulder followed by an exponential region. When 10T1/2 cells were treated with X-radiation and a PAH, the nontoxic compounds and B(a)P did not show any significant effect on X-ray survival curve. However, the damage due to DMBA was found to be additive to X-ray damage. The latter property of DMBA was lost when cells were cotreated with 3MC and DMBA presumably because damage to DNA due to DMBA alone was suppressed. Thus, the combined action is complex. DMBA produced damage in 10T1/2 cells that added to radiation damage. Although a nontoxic PAH could neutralize the effect of a toxic PAH, the former were not able to mitigate the lethal effects of radiation. Operationally, the latter results suggested that a nontoxic PAH could cancel out the effect of a toxic one because it inhibited the formation of the DNA damage with which radiation damage could interact rather than because the nontoxic PAH removed the radiation damage with which the PAH could interact. It showed that at least 4 hours were required for DMBA to affect the sublethal radiation damage repair, a period long enough for a large fraction of the latter damage to have been lost.

  20. The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Said, Tarek O; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

    2007-01-01

    Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from 31 sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. All sediment samples were analyzed to determine aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs in the sediments were varied from 88 to 6338 ng g(-1) with an average value of 154 ng g(-1) (dry weight). However, the concentrations of total aliphatic were varied from 1.3 to 69.9 ng g(-1) with an average value of 15.6 ng g(-1) (dry weight). The highest contents of PAHs were found in the Eastern harbor (6338 ng g(-1)), Manzala (5206 ng g(-1)) and El-Jamil East (4895 ng g(-1)) locations. Good correlations observed between a certain numbers of PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average total organic carbon (TOC) percent was varied from 0.91 to 4.54%. Higher concentration of total pyrolytic hydrocarbons ( summation operatorCOMB) than total fossil hydrocarbons ( summation operatorPHE) declared that atmospheric fall-out is the significant source of PAHs to marine sediments of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The selected marked compounds, a principal component analysis (PCA) and special PAHs compound ratios (phenanthrene/anthracene vs fluoranthene/pyrene; summation operatorCOMB/ summation operatorEPA-PAHs) suggest the pyrogenic origins, especially traffic exhausts, are the dominant sources of PAHs in most locations. Interferences of rather petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH contaminations were noticed in the harbors due to petroleum products deliveries and fuel combustion emissions from the ships staying alongside the quays. PMID:17058015

  1. Applications of electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Separations of aromatic amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L.

    1998-03-27

    The research in this thesis explores the separation capabilities of a new technique termed electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The thesis begins with a general introduction section which provides a literature review of this technique as well as a brief background discussion of the two research projects in each of the next two chapters. The two papers which follow investigate the application of EMLC to the separation of a mixture of aromatic amino acids and of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The last section presents general conclusions and summarizes the thesis. References are compiled in the reference section of each chapter. The two papers have been removed for separate processing.

  2. Identification of cytochrome P4501A inducers in complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, D.L.; DeVita, W.M.; Crunkilton, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    An in vitro ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to study the ability of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mixtures of PAHs to induce Ah receptor (AhR) mediated cytochrome P4501A activity in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells. The purpose was to identify the most potent inducers from a set of thirteen separate PAHs and describe interactions occurring in complex mixtures of these PAHs. Where possible, potency was expressed in terms of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TCDD-EQ) by normalizing the PAH results to a TCDD standard curve. The most potent inducers were benzo(k)fluoranthene > benzo(a)pyrene {approx} benzo(b)fluoranthene > chrysene {approx} benzo(a)anthracene. At equal concentrations, these PAHs yielded potencies of 1670, 940, 655, 255, and 185 pg TCDD-EQ/g, respectively. Analysis of various mixtures of the thirteen PAHs suggested that complex interactions may be occurring.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air particles in the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Vera Castellano, A; López Cancio, J; Santana Alemán, P; Santana Rodríguez, J

    2003-07-01

    Concentration levels, seasonal variation and winter/summer ratios of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the TSP of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria city were determined. The study area is under the influence of heavy traffic (80000 vehicles/day). Pyr/BaA, Pyr/Flt, B(ghi)P/I(cd)P and B(b+k)F/B(ghi)P ratios were calculated; the values of these two last suggest a strong influence of diesel fuel burning. Levels of TSP and TSP-bound PAHs were also established. The hazard potential of PAHs in terms of carcinogenicity of BaP is acceptable. Potential risk on the basis of TEFs is also studied. PMID:12705945

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pyrogenic soils of swampy landscapes of the Meshchera lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, A. S.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Gamova, N. S.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in organomineral and organic soils of the Meshchera National Park. It was found that the background oligotrophic peat soils unaffected by fires in central parts of the bogs are characterized by the increased PAH concentrations due to their high sorption capacity. The fires of 2007 and 2010 resulted in the transformation of the plant cover and soil morphology, the formation of new horizons, and the change in the PAHs content and composition. Significant burn-off of organic matter was found in oligotrophic-eutrophic soils and resulted in the decrease of PAHs content after fire. Only partial burn-off of organic horizons and intense formation of PAHs were recorded in the soil with initially great thickness of peat horizons. Pyrogenic accumulation of PAHs was identified in organomineral soils of the marginal parts of bogs and of forest sites.

  5. Responses of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A.C.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is affected by ultraviolet (UV) light and a number of interacting environmental variables. The effect of two photoinduced PAHs, anthracene and fluoranthene, was studied with the midge, C. tentans, and the amphipod H. azteca in water-only and sediment exposures. Reduced growth was observed in the presence of UV light at low (ug/L) concentrations. Mixtures showed approximately additive responses. The amphipod was slightly more sensitive to photoinduced toxicity. Responses were modified by exposure differences due to behavior patterns, which altered UV exposures. Results suggest natural factors such as inorganic and organic particulates, in combination with behavior, have a significant role in determining the ecological relevance of photoinduced PAH toxicity.

  6. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of models for predicting the phototoxicity potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.J.; Ankley, G.T.; Sheedy, B.R.; Kosian, P.A.; Mattson, V.R.; Cox, J.S.; Defoe, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The acute phototoxicities of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were investigated in order to evaluate a predictive structure/activity relationship (SAR) for the phototoxic potential of PAHs and to determine the relationship of phototoxicity to PAH accumulation, light intensity, and exposure duration. Test organisms were exposed to multiple concentrations of anthracene, pyrene, fluorene, and fluoranthene in water for 96 h and then to various intensities of ultraviolet light for 96 h in clean water. In agreement with the SAR model, fluorene was not phototoxic while pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene were. Based upon measured accumulations of PAHs, anthracene and pyrene had similar potencies, and both were 3--4 fold more toxic than fluoranthene. Time-to-death was found to adhere well to a model based on damage accumulating as a function of the product of chemical accumulation and light intensity. Additivity of PAH phototoxicity was evaluated in exposures using mixtures of these chemicals.

  8. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant.

  9. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  10. [Limit values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of children's playgrounds--basic criteria and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Roscher, E; Liebl, B; Schwegler, U; Schmied, R; Kerscher, G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAK) are often found in the soil of former waste disposal sites, industrial areas, etc. It is desirable and useful to determine orientation values to facilitate and unify the evaluation of contaminations under the aspects of present or planned uses of an area, health protection and decision-making on remedial measures. In the present paper we wish to draw attention to, and discuss problems resulting from, particular characteristics of PAK, e.g. the toxicological property "complete carcinogens" or the necessity of taking into account oral, inhalative and dermal exposure of children on a playground. Based on the discussion, orientation values for benzo[a]pyrene and PAK ("normal" pattern) of 0.5 mg/kg soil and 5 mg/kg soil, respectively, are recommended for top soil of vegetation-free playgrounds. In comparison, deductions carried out by other working groups are presented.

  11. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.; Mitra, S.

    1996-12-31

    The average person spends more than 80% of his time indoors, thus analysis of the sources of airborne pollutants in indoor air is an important issue. In this paper, we use factor analysis and multiple regression to identify and apportion the different sources of select indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their derivatives, and nicotine in indoor air, using data gathered in eight homes in Columbus, OH during the winter of 1986/1987. These homes had different indoor PAH sources, namely, environmental tobacco smoke, gas cooking/heating, and electrical cooking stoves. We find that, of all the sources, environmental tobacco smoke appears to have the greatest impact on the total indoor PAH concentrations. In smokers` homes, more than 87% of the total PAH is due to this source. Background sources are the largest contributor to PAHs in nonsmokers` homes. Very little PAH can be attributed to gas or electric appliances in the home. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. [Assessment of exposure to cancerogenic aromatic hydrocarbon during controlled-access highways management activities].

    PubMed

    Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).

  13. [Distribution, formation, carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Khesina, A Ia; Makhover, M S; Khitrovo, I A

    1989-01-01

    Nitro-PAHs (nitro-substituted derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are a class of chemical compounds with high biologic activity. They have been detected in samples of air pollutants, diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, in airplane exhaust emissions, cigarette smoke condensate, emissions of coke ovens, wood-burning fireplaces, coal-fired plants, in food and tea. Concentrations of nitro-PAHs have been compared with those of PAHs present in air pollutant samples and emissions from different sources. Information on the environmental occurrence, formation, and decomposition of nitro-PAHs in the atmosphere is given. Biologic effects (carcinogenic and mutagenic) of pure nitro-PAHs and nitro-PAHs-containing complex mixtures are discussed.

  14. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban environment: Occurrence, toxicity and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nitika; Ayoko, Godwin A; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of toxic pollutants because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic characteristics. People living in urban areas are regularly exposed to PAHs because of abundance of their emission sources. Within this context, this study aimed to: (i) identify and quantify the levels of ambient PAHs in an urban environment; (ii) evaluate their toxicity; and (iii) identify their sources as well as the contribution of specific sources to measured concentrations. Sixteen PAHs were identified and quantified in air samples collected from Brisbane. Principal Component Analysis - Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) was used in order to conduct source apportionment of the measured PAHs. Vehicular emissions, natural gas combustion, petrol emissions and evaporative/unburned fuel were the sources identified; contributing 56%, 21%, 15% and 8% of the total PAHs emissions, respectively, all of which need to be considered for any pollution control measures implemented in urban areas. PMID:26428471

  15. Analysis of carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS): an overview of modern electroanalytical techniques and their applications.

    PubMed

    Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-02-01

    A number of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be toxicants, and induce carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects. Since PAHs are often present in low concentrations and it may be difficult to determine them in complex matrices, it is therefore essential to use powerful analytical tools to separate and identify the analyses in the samples. In this paper, initially, a short description of the principles, instrumentation, and use of common extraction and analytical techniques for PAH pollutants and their metabolites will be made in light of the previously reported works and major reviews. Special attention will be given to the use of modern polarographic and voltammetric techniques on the mercury and different types of solid electrodes, together with their some practical applications. The main drawbacks and limitations of these methods will also be discussed.

  16. Evaluation of occupational exposure to mixed dusts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in silicon carbide plants.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Lesage, J; Perrault, G

    1987-02-01

    Workers in the silicon carbide industry have experienced occupational health diseases, particularly lung disorders such as silicosis. The silicon carbide production process mainly employs petroleum coke, sawdust, pure crystalline silica and graphite. Since crystalline silica is present in the occupational environment, the airborne dust content of various polymorphs of silica, especially quartz, cristobalite and tridymite, was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The analytical method was modified to eliminate graphite, since it overlaps with the main diffraction plane of quartz. Exploratory field surveys were conducted to identify the minerals present in that occupational environment and to evaluate the validity of the analytical method. The surveys provided information on the mineralogical nature of the dust, its respirable content and the concentration of silica polymorphs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons also were measured, and the effect of their adsorption on graphite was evaluated.

  17. Estimation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-11-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to develop a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission inventory for the magnesium (Mg) metallurgy industry in China. PAH emissions in stack gas and fly/bottom ash samples from different smelting units of a typical Mg smelter were measured and compared. Large variations of concentrations, congener patterns, and emission factors of PAHs during the oxidation and reduction stages in the Mg smelter were observed. The measured average emission factor (166,487 μg/t Mg) was significantly higher than those of other industrial sources. Annual emission from Mg metallurgy in 2012 in China was estimated at 116 kg (514 g BaPeq) for PAHs. The results of this study suggest that PAH emission from Mg industries should be considered by local government agencies. These data may be helpful for understanding PAH levels produced by the Mg industry and in developing a PAH inventory.

  18. [Symptoms of atopy in persons exposed to chronic immunosuppression of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, J; Kowalczyk, E; Gałuszka, Z

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of the atopy symptoms was estimated in 126 coke oven workers chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The assessment was based on questionnaire, point skin tests with the allergens of dust, feathers, mould grass as well as on the measurements of total blood serum IgE concentration. The control group was consisted of 75 men, workers of cold rolling mill division where the environmental conditions were much better. It was observed that positive questionnaire data and positive skin tests were significantly less frequent in men exposed to PAHs. The men serum IgE values were not statistically different in both group workers although in coke oven workers the tendency to higher IgE values was observed. It is rather suggested that more useful method might be the measurement of specific serum IgE.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae contribute to the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by plant roots.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzheng; Cheng, Zhaoxia; Ling, Wanting; Huang, Jing

    2010-09-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae-mediated uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the roots of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was investigated using three-compartment systems. Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were chosen, and fluorene and phenanthrene were used as representative PAHs. When roots were grown in un-spiked soils, AM hyphae extended into PAH-spiked soil and clearly absorbed and transported PAHs to roots, resulting in high concentrations of fluorene and phenanthrene in roots. This was further confirmed by the batch equilibration experiment, which revealed that the partition coefficients (K(d)) of tested PAHs by mycorrhizal hyphae were 270-356% greater than those by roots, suggesting the great potential of hyphae to absorb PAHs. Because of fluorene's lower molecular weight and higher water solubility, its translocation by hyphae was greater than that of phenanthrene. These results provide new perspectives on the AM hyphae-mediated uptake by plants of organic contaminants from soil. PMID:20403686

  20. SPE-LC-FD determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon monohydroxy derivatives in cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Diana; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Morais, Simone; Pena, Angelina

    2014-03-26

    A new analytical methodology, based on liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), after extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, and solid-phase extraction (SPE) through Oasis HLB cartridges, was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three monohydroxy derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The optimized analytical method is sensitive, accurate, and precise, with recoveries between 62 and 110% and limits of detection of 227, 9, and 45 ng/g for 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, and 1-hydroxypyrene, respectively. Their levels were estimated in different cephalopod matrices (edible tissues and hemolymph). The methodology was applied to samples of the major cephalopod species consumed worldwide. Of the 18 samples analyzed, 39% were contaminated with 1-hydroxynaphthalene, which was the only PAH metabolite detected. Its concentration ranged from 786 to 1145 ng/g. This highly sensitive and specific method allows the identification and quantitation of PAH metabolites in forthcoming food safety and environmental monitoring programs.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons loads into the Mediterranean Sea: estimate of Sarno River inputs.

    PubMed

    Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria

    2012-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in the Sarno River and its environmental impact on the Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) were estimated. The 16 PAHs identified by the USEPA as priority pollutants and perylene were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Total PAHs concentrations ranged from 23.1 to 2670.4 ng L(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and from 5.3 to 678.6 ng g(-1) in sediment samples. Source analysis revealed that PAHs mainly came from combustion process. Contaminant discharges of PAHs into the sea were calculated in about 8530 gd(-1) showing that this river should account as one of the main contribution sources of PAHs to the Tyrrhenian Sea. PMID:22285406

  2. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout. PMID:1785054

  3. Interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dissolved humic material: binding and dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Jimenez, B.D.

    1985-11-01

    Binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) to dissolved humic material (DHM) was examined by using equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence techniques. There was a direct relationship between the hydrophobicity of the PAH and the affinity for binding to DHM. The binding affinity P/sub a/ for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzanthracene, and anthracene decreased slightly as the concentration of DHM increased. The binding of BaP to DHM was completely reversible and the extent of reversibility was unrelated to the sorption time. The rate of binding of BaP to DHM, measured by the quenching to BaP fluorescence, was very rapid and was completed within 5-10 min. The results suggest that the presence of DHM, or other sorptive components of the dissolved organic pool, may affect binding to sediment or suspended particles and thus alter the fate and transport of organic contaminants in aquatic systems.

  4. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases.

  5. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

  6. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian milk by HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Girelli, A M; Sperati, D; Tarola, A M

    2014-04-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian commercial milk samples is reported. The study was carried out on lactating (cow and goat) and plant (rice, soya, oat) milk. The quantitative determination involved liquid-liquid extraction of PAHs, a pre-concentration and determination by HPLC using a fluorescence detector. The recovery of analytes was in the range of 70-115%. The precision of the method was found to be between 6% and 24%. The detection limit ranged from 0.66 to 33.3 µg l(-1) corresponding to 0.03-1.66 µg kg(-1) milk (wet weight), at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound. By this procedure, the levels of more volatile PAHs (two to three aromatic rings) were confirmed in 34 commercial milk and three plant milk samples, whereas benzo[a]pyrene was found only in five pasteurised milk samples at a mean concentration of 0.17 µg kg(-1) milk. These results provide evidence that PAH levels are influenced by heat treatments and skimming processes of milk production. PMID:24417240

  7. Evaluation of electrochemical processes for the removal of several target aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Alsalka, Yamen; Karabet, François; Hashem, Shahir

    2011-03-01

    Ground and surface water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products is a serious and growing environmental problem throughout the world. Consequently, a study of the use of electrochemical treatment in the clean-up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination by aromatic pollutants to more acceptable levels. In the experiments described, water contamination by refined petroleum products was simulated under laboratory conditions. Electrochemical treatment, using aluminium electrodes, has been optimised by full factorial design and surface response analysis in term of BTEX and PAHs removal and energy consumption. The optimal conditions of pH, current density, electrolysis time, electrolyte type, and electrolyte concentration have then been applied in the treatment of real water samples which were monitored as petroleum contaminated samples. Treatment results have shown that electrochemical methods could achieve the concentration of these pollutants to undetectable levels in particular groundwater and surface water, hence, they can be highly effective in the remediation of water contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons, and the use of these processes is therefore recommended.

  8. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Matamoros, Víctor; Vollertsen, Jess; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of sigmaPAH in the sediments varied between 6 +/- 5 and 2,222 +/- 603 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean +/- standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect different activities in the catchments. In general, the concentrations of PAHS in the sediments decreased from inlet to outlet, especially in the systems with good conditions for sedimentation such as systems with flow perpendicular sand dikes and extensive submerged vegetation. High molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the sediments indicating the pyrogenic origin of the PAHS. There was no correlation between PAH species concentrations in water or sediments and their hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PAH concentrations in water fluctuated in response to intensity and frequency of rain events, whereas concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHS in the effluents below the detection level.

  9. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Matamoros, Víctor; Vollertsen, Jess; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of sigmaPAH in the sediments varied between 6 +/- 5 and 2,222 +/- 603 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean +/- standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect different activities in the catchments. In general, the concentrations of PAHS in the sediments decreased from inlet to outlet, especially in the systems with good conditions for sedimentation such as systems with flow perpendicular sand dikes and extensive submerged vegetation. High molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the sediments indicating the pyrogenic origin of the PAHS. There was no correlation between PAH species concentrations in water or sediments and their hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PAH concentrations in water fluctuated in response to intensity and frequency of rain events, whereas concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHS in the effluents below the detection level. PMID:22097066

  10. Differential immunomodulatory responses to nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons applied by passive dosing.

    PubMed

    Oostingh, Gertie J; Smith, Kilian E C; Tischler, Ulrike; Radauer-Preiml, Isabella; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Studying the effects of hydrophobic chemicals using in vitro cell based methods is hindered by the difficulty in bringing and keeping these chemicals in solution. Their effective concentrations are often lower than their nominal concentrations. Passive dosing is one approach that provides defined and stable dissolved concentrations during in vitro testing, and was applied to control and maintain freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at levels up to their aqueous solubility limit. The immunomodulatory effects of 9 different PAHs at aqueous solubility on human bronchial epithelial cells were determined by analysing the cytokine promoter expression of 4 different inflammatory cytokines using stably transfected recombinant A549 cell lines. Diverse immunomodulatory responses were found with the highest induction observed for the most hydrophobic PAHs chrysene, benzo(a)antracene and benzo(a)pyrene. Cytokine promoter expression was then studied in dose response experiments with acenaphthene, phenanthrene and benzo(a)anthracene. The strongest induction was observed for benzo(a)anthracene. Cell viability analysis was performed and showed that none of the PAHs induced cytotoxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Overall, this study shows that (1) immunomodulatory effects of PAHs can be studied in vitro at controlled freely dissolved concentrations, (2) the most hydrophobic PAHs were the strongest inducers and (3) induction was often higher at lower exposure levels and decreased then with concentration despite the apparent absence of cytotoxicity. PMID:25433334

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the airborne particulate matter at a location 40 km north of Bangkok, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Bætz Reutergårdh, L.; Dung, N. Tr.; Yu, M.-H.; Yao, W.-X.; Co, H. X.

    Total suspended particulate matter in ambient air was sampled by high-volume samplers at four sites at the Asian Institute of Technology campus, west of the Phahonyothin Road, Phathumthani Province, 40 km North of Bangkok, Thailand. The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionisation and/or liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The PAH profile with relatively high concentrations of benzo(ghi)perylene and coronene, decreasing with the distance from the road, suggested a substantial contribution from the traffic. The concentrations in the core of the campus were in the same range as those reported for residential areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan.

  12. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygen-containing derivatives and metabolites in soils.

    PubMed

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively studied, the knowledge of their oxygen-containing derivatives and metabolites (OPAHs) in soils is limited. We modified and tested an existing analytical protocol involving pressurized liquid extraction of soil followed by fractionation of target compounds into PAHs and OPAHs on a silica gel column and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry-based separation and quantification. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl-OPAHs were quantified directly after separation on silica gel columns, and hydroxyl/carboxyl-OPAHs were quantified after silylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Recoveries between 78 and 97% (relative standard deviation [RSD], 5-12%) were obtained for six carbonyl-OPAHs, whereas 1,2-acenaphthenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone showed lower recoveries of 34 and 44% (RSD, 19 and 28%, respectively). Five hydroxyl/carboxyl-OPAHs had recoveries between 36 and 70% (RSD, 13-46%), six others had between 2 and 7% (RSD, 8-25%), and nine were lost in sample preparation. Limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 ng g(-1) for OPAHs and from 0.01 to 0.56 ng g(-1) for PAHs. The protocol was applied to soils from a former gasworks site, Berlin, an urban soil from Mainz, both in Germany, and a forest soil from near Manaus, Brazil. The sums of 34 PAH concentrations were 107,000, 3505, and 21 ng g(-1); those of seven carbonyl-OPAHs were 15,690, 170, and 7 ng g(-1); and those of 11 hydroxyl/carboxyl-OPAHs 518, 36, and 16 ng g(-1) for Berlin, Mainz, and Manaus soils, respectively. Several OPAHs were present at concentrations higher than or equal to their parent PAHs, demonstrating the importance of OPAH measurement for the assessment of PAH-related environmental risks. PMID:20830923

  13. Absorption of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by biomembrane models: effect of the medium lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Francesco; Micieli, Dorotea; Ottimo, Sara; Minniti, Zelica; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Librando, Vito

    2008-10-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between the structure of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their effect on biomembranes, we have investigated the influence of three structurally different nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2-nitrofluorene, 2,7-dinitrofluorene and 3-nitrofluoranthene, on the thermotropic behavior of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles, used as biomembrane models, by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The obtained results indicate that the studied nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affected the thermotropic behavior of multilamellar vesicles to various extents, modifying the pretransition and the main phase transition peaks and shifting them to lower temperatures. The effect of the aqueous and lipophilic medium on the absorption process of these compounds by the biomembrane models has been also investigated revealing that the process is hindered by the aqueous medium but strongly allowed by the lipophilic medium. PMID:18723205

  14. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Simoneit, B. R.; Shock, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  15. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum.

    PubMed

    McCollom, T M; Simoneit, B R; Shock, E L

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  16. Non-linear, cata-Condensed, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Materials: A Generic Approach and Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Haire, Barnaby T; Heard, Kane W J; Little, Mark S; Parry, Adam V S; Raftery, James; Quayle, Peter; Yeates, Stephen G

    2015-01-01

    A generic approach to the regiospecific synthesis of halogenated polycyclic aromatics is made possible by the one- or two-directional benzannulation reactions of readily available (ortho-allylaryl)trichloroacetates (the “BHQ” reaction). Palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reactions of the so-formed haloaromatics enable the synthesis of functionalised polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with surgical precision. Overall, this new methodology enables the facile mining of chemical space in search of new electronic functional materials. PMID:26059760

  17. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bivalves from Sugarland Run and the Potomac River

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, T.R.; Lauren, D.J.; Dimitry, J.A. |

    1995-12-31

    A bioaccumulation study was conducted following a release of Fuel Oil {number_sign}2 into Sugarland Run, a small northern Virginia stream. Caged clams (Corbicula sp.) were placed in 3 downstream locations and 2 upstream reference areas for an exposure period of approximately 28 days. In addition, resident clams from the Potomac River were sampled at the start of the study and at 4 and 8 weeks. Chemical fingerprinting techniques were employed to identify spill-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to differentiate these compounds from background sources of contamination. The greatest concentration of spill-related PAHs (2 and 3-ring compounds) were measured in clams placed immediately downstream of the spill site, and tissue concentrations systematically decreased with distance from the spill site. PAHs that were not related to Fuel Oil {number_sign}2 were found in all clams and accounted for up to 90% of the total body burden at downstream locations. Furthermore, the highest concentrations of 4-, 5-, and 6-ring PAH were found at the upstream reference location, and indicated an important source of PAHs into the environment. Body burdens measured in this study were compared to ambient concentrations reported for bivalves from a variety of environments. Tissue concentrations were also compared to concentrations that have been reported to cause adverse biological effects.

  18. Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Gosan background site in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Choi, S.-D.; Kim, Y. P.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2012-03-01

    The seasonal intensive field measurements of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out at the Gosan international background site from November 2001 to August 2003. The annual average concentrations of gaseous and particulate PAHs are 1.4 ng m-3 and 2.9 ng m-3 (∑14PAH), respectively. Distinct seasonal variations exist with the highest concentration in winter and the lowest concentration in summer. In comparison with other places in Korea and other countries, the most distinguishing features at Gosan are the significantly low concentrations of low-molecular weight gaseous PAHs. In addition, noticeably high particulate PAH concentrations measured at urban and background areas in Korea could represent the regional characteristics of East Asia under the influence of high emission from China. The BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) at Gosan, which are based on the US EPA's toxicity equivalency factors for carcinogenic PAHs, are much higher than those at coastal or background sites in USA and Europe, and even comparable with that at urban sites in Europe. The possibility of more aged PAHs in the atmosphere associated with the long range transport of PAHs during winter period was suggested. It was found that larger fraction of non-exchangeable PAHs had strong influence to the gas/particle partitioning of PAHs at Gosan.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water of the Raba River, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Andrea Szabó; Szabó, János; Vass, István

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration level and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water of the Raba River; the largest Danube tributary in Hungary. A total of 54 water samples were collected in the period of 2008-2011 and analysed for PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The total PAH concentrations (sum of the concentrations of 17 individual PAH compounds) ranged from 41 to 437 ng/L with the mean value of 111 ±  69.4 ng/L. Phenanthrene and naphthalene were the dominant species in the surface water. Using TEF approaches on the mean concentration PAH data, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenz[ah]anthracene contributed the highest carcinogenic exposure equivalent. A selected number of concentration ratios of specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAH contamination. The ratios reflected a pattern of pyrogenic input as a major source of PAHs. The comparison of the total PAH concentrations observed for Raba River with other surface waters of the world confirmed that the Raba River could not be regarded as a contaminated river according to the levels of PAHs. PMID:23647110

  20. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  1. Shakedown operation of group of units for aromatic hydrocarbon production at the Novopolotsk petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Rudkovskii, A.D.; Chesnovitskii, K.G.; Koroleva, M.I.; Sulimov, A.D.; Teteruk, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    This article describes how technical xylene and C/sub 9/ aromatic hydrocarbons are produced in catalytic reformers operated in conjunction with diethylene glycol extraction units. In the operation of the unit, the greatest difficulties were encountered in purification of the p-xylene, owing to frequent mechanical failures of the equipment of the pulsed columns due to hydraulic shock and unstable operation under the process conditions required to obtain a product with a purity above 99%. As a result of the successful shakedown operations of individual aromatic hydrocarbons, the yields of commercial products (ethylbenzene, p-xylene, o-xylene, pseudocumene) have amounted to 76.9% of the technical xylene feed.

  2. A study on the coagulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters to determine their collision efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, Abhijeet; Sander, Markus; Janardhanan, Vinod; Kraft, Markus

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the physical interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their clusters of different sizes in laminar premixed flames. Two models are employed for this study: a detailed PAH growth model, referred to as the kinetic Monte Carlo - aromatic site (KMC-ARS) model [Raj et al., Combust. Flame 156 (2009) 896-913]; and a multivariate PAH population balance model, referred to as the PAH - primary particle (PAH-PP) model. Both the models are solved by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. PAH mass spectra are generated using the PAH-PP model, and compared to the experimentally observed spectra for a laminar premixed ethylene flame. The position of the maxima of PAH dimers in the spectra and their concentrations are found to depend strongly on the collision efficiency of PAH coagulation. The variation in the collision efficiency with various flame and PAH parameters is studied to determine the factors on which it may depend. A correlation for the collision efficiency is proposed by comparing the computed and the observed spectra for an ethylene flame. With this correlation, a good agreement between the computed and the observed spectra for a number of laminar premixed ethylene flames is found. (author)

  3. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    PubMed

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  4. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  5. Pilot study of aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption characteristics of disposable filtering facepiece respirators that contain activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, Tony; Snyder, Jay; Novak, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Disposable filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) used by health care workers are not designed to reduce the inhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Smoke-generating surgical procedures release VOCs and have been associated with the following complaints: foul smell, headaches, nausea, irritated throat and lungs, and asthma. Organic vapor FFRs that contain activated carbon are used by industrial workers to provide odor relief. These respirators remove irritating odors but are not marketed as respirators that provide respiratory protection against a gas or vapor. This study investigated the aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption capabilities of nuisance organic vapor (OV) FFRs. Three OV FFR models were tested to determine the 10% breakthrough time of three aromatic hydrocarbons at ambient room temperature and relative humidity. All respirator models were exposed to each vapor separately in three duplicate tests (n = 27). The respirator was sealed with silicone to an AVON-ISI headform that was placed in a chamber and exposed to VOC-laden air (20 ppm, 37 L/min). Periodically, gas samples were directed to an SRI gas chromatograph (Model 8610C) for analysis. All respirators performed similarly. The average 10% breakthrough values for all tests were at least 64 min, 96 min, and 110 min for benzene, toluene, and xylene, respectively. Respirators were tested with challenge concentrations at nuisance levels (20 ppm) and did not exceed 10% breakthrough values for at least 61 min. While the results of this pilot study hold promise, there is a need for further investigation and validation to determine the effectiveness of nuisance FFRs in mitigating organic vapors such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. PMID:22978813

  6. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P < 0.01). Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  7. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in maternal serum and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Yi, Deqing; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu; Finnell, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose-response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Dagang Oilfield (China): Distribution, Sources, and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Haihua; Rui, Xiaoping; Wu, Shanghua; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Xuliang; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-01-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 27 upper layer (0–25 cm) soil samples collected from the Dagang Oilfield (China) in April 2013 to estimate their distribution, possible sources, and potential risks posed. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) varied between 103.6 µg·kg−1 and 5872 µg·kg−1, with a mean concentration of 919.8 µg·kg−1; increased concentrations were noted along a gradient from arable desert soil (mean 343.5 µg·kg−1), to oil well areas (mean of 627.3 µg·kg−1), to urban and residential zones (mean of 1856 µg·kg−1). Diagnostic ratios showed diverse source of PAHs, including petroleum, liquid fossil fuels, and biomass combustion sources. Combustion sources were most significant for PAHs in arable desert soils and residential zones, while petroleum sources were a significant source of PAHs in oilfield areas. Based ontheir carcinogenity, PAHs were classified as carcinogenic (B) or not classified/non-carcinogenic (NB). The total concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs (∑BPAHs) varied from 13.3 µg·kg−1 to 4397 µg·kg−1 across all samples, with a mean concentration of 594.4 µg·kg−1. The results suggest that oilfield soil is subject to a certain level of ecological environment risk. PMID:26016436

  9. Volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (VAHs) in residential indoor air in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hamidin, Nasrul; Yu, Jimmy; Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Chu, Cordia

    2013-09-01

    Volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (VAHs: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, naphthalene) in residential indoor air in Brisbane, Australia were measured in 32 houses. The total VAHs (TVAHs) levels ranged between 2 and 137μg/m(3) and were lower than the most of the houses in the literature data. The VAHs were believed to originate from heat insulation systems, building material products as well motor vehicles but naphthalene and styrene originated from other sources. Internal garages had concentrations which are higher than the indoor air by 25-50% due to the presence of motor vehicles and may be a major source of indoor VAHs. However indoor concentrations are higher than that in the outdoor ambient air. The age of the house was found to be negatively related to VAHs concentrations in the houses with the half-life of TVAH at approximately 13years. The concentration levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and styrene are well below the guideline values set by agencies from Hong Kong, Japan, Germany and the WHO while the concentration level of naphthalene in one house exceeded the guideline value from Germany.

  10. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose–response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the dagang oilfield (china): distribution, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Haihua; Rui, Xiaoping; Wu, Shanghua; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Xuliang; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-06-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 27 upper layer (0-25 cm) soil samples collected from the Dagang Oilfield (China) in April 2013 to estimate their distribution, possible sources, and potential risks posed. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) varied between 103.6 µg·kg(-1) and 5872 µg·kg(-1), with a mean concentration of 919.8 µg·kg(-1); increased concentrations were noted along a gradient from arable desert soil (mean 343.5 µg·kg(-1)), to oil well areas (mean of 627.3 µg·kg(-1)), to urban and residential zones (mean of 1856 µg·kg(-1)). Diagnostic ratios showed diverse source of PAHs, including petroleum, liquid fossil fuels, and biomass combustion sources. Combustion sources were most significant for PAHs in arable desert soils and residential zones, while petroleum sources were a significant source of PAHs in oilfield areas. Based ontheir carcinogenity, PAHs were classified as carcinogenic (B) or not classified/non-carcinogenic (NB). The total concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs (∑BPAHs) varied from 13.3 µg·kg(-1) to 4397 µg·kg(-1) across all samples, with a mean concentration of 594.4 µg·kg(-1). The results suggest that oilfield soil is subject to a certain level of ecological environment risk. PMID:26016436

  12. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in maternal serum and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Yi, Deqing; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Xilong; T