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  1. Arnold B. Arons (1916-2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Bruce A.

    Arnold B. Arons died of a heart attack at his home in Seattle on February 28, 2001, aged 84. He was a long-time member of the American Geophysical Union (1950; Ocean Sciences) and of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), of which he was president in 1961. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Arnold Arons was a teacher of physics. He taught it to the freshmen at Amherst College from 1952 to 1968, and then, at the University of Washington, he taught prospective teachers of physics how to teach it. He stressed meaning in physical concepts: how it is derived from shared experience, is founded on operational definitions, and is deepened and broadened with growing sophistication, individual and historical. He derided glib chatter about complex ideas (“Gibberish!”), or mere manipulation of symbols and formulas, and insisted—fiercely—that students know what they were talking about. His presence in the lecture hall at Amherst was sometimes terrifying; that technique might not be readily accepted in present, more tender times, but it was effective in shaking high school hotshots loose from some of their delusions. Despite perceived indignities, they usually gave him a standing ovation at the end of the spring semester.

  2. The scientific heritage of Professor Aron Gutman (Commemorating the 10th anniversary of Aron Gutman's death).

    PubMed

    Baginskas, Armuntas; Svirskis, Gytis; Miliauskas, Rimvydas

    2009-01-01

    Aron Gutman started his scientific research when he was a student of the Department of Physics and Mathematics, Vilnius University. At that time, he developed the theory of nonhomogenous vector relations between magnetic moments of electrons in an atom and applied it for explanation of energy spectrum of real atoms. Since 1960, he worked in Kaunas Medical Institute, and his main field of scientific interests was theoretical biophysics and electrophysiology of living tissues and cells. The earlier biophysical works of A. Gutman dealt with problems of the bioelectrical fields that underlie electroencephalogram, electrocorticogram, and electrocardiogram. The most important achievement was a theory of individual potential or postsynaptic field potential of synapses from individual axon (EEG quantum) and its role in shaping of electroencephalogram. In the later works (from 1971), he looked into properties and function of the individual nerve cells. He had created and developed the theory of nonlinear (bistable) dendrites and analyzed functional implications of such dendrites. In the last works, A. Gutman tried to relate the functioning of the nervous system at the cellular and system levels. He made efforts to find connection between the properties of individual neurones and principles (laws) of functioning of the nervous system. He had managed to relate dendritic bistability of neurones and Gelfand-Tsetlin principle of the functioning of the central nervous system (also known as the principle of minimal afferentiation). He explained some regularities in motor control by the dendritic bistability of motoneurones.

  3. ADST Operations Manual. AIRNET Digital Message Communications Console

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-12

    underscore cursor is positioned in front of the Logina Name Entr (3) Type in the name ’dmcc’. (4) Depress the RETURN key to move the cursor to the...Password entry. S(5) Depress the Return key again, since there is no password for this account I (6) After a few seconds, the screen will go blank and the... excercise ) (2) the Group List - a list of your CEOI or call sign plus the go sy belong1 to and (3) the Location List - is a list of locations such as way

  4. The (Re)Construction of Self after the Death of a Partner to HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadell, Susan; Marshall, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore individuals' self-construals after the loss of a partner from HIV/AIDS for whom they were a caregiver. Seven gay or transsexual bereaved caregivers were interviewed after the death of their partners. The data revealed patterns suggestive of A. Aron and E. N. Aron's (1986) "inclusion of others in the self" (IOS)…

  5. The (Re)Construction of Self after the Death of a Partner to HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadell, Susan; Marshall, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore individuals' self-construals after the loss of a partner from HIV/AIDS for whom they were a caregiver. Seven gay or transsexual bereaved caregivers were interviewed after the death of their partners. The data revealed patterns suggestive of A. Aron and E. N. Aron's (1986) "inclusion of others in the self" (IOS)…

  6. Disability and the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…

  7. Urologic Oncologic SurveyRobotic level III inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy: Initial series. Gill IS, Metcalfe C, Abreu A, Duddalwar V, Chopra S, Cunningham M, Thangathurai D, Ukimura O, Satkunasivam R, Hung A, Papalia R, Aron M, Desai M, Gallucci M. J Urol. 2015 Oct;194(4):929-938. [Epub 2015 Apr 6]. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.03.119.

    PubMed

    Meng, Max

    2017-05-01

    Level III inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy for renal cancer is one of the most challenging open urologic surgeries. We present the initial series of completely intracorporeal robotic level III inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy. Nine patients underwent robotic level III inferior vena cava thrombectomy and 7 patients underwent level II thrombectomy. The entire operation (high intrahepatic inferior vena cava control, caval exclusion, tumor thrombectomy, inferior vena cava repair, radical nephrectomy, and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy) was performed exclusively robotically. To minimize the chances of intraoperative inferior vena cava thrombus embolization, an "inferior vena cava-first, kidney-last" robotic technique was developed. Data were accrued prospectively. All 16 robotic procedures were successful, without open conversion or mortality. For level III cases (9), median primary kidney (right 6, left 3) cancer size was 8.5cm (range: 5.3-10.8) and inferior vena cava thrombus length was 5.7cm (range: 4-7). Median operative time was 4.9 hours (range: 4.5-6.3), estimated blood loss was 375ml (range: 200-7,000), and hospital stay was 4.5 days. All surgical margins were negative. There were no intraoperative complications and 1 postoperative complication (Clavien 3b). At a median 7 months of follow-up (range: 1-18) all patients are alive. Compared to level II thrombi the level III cohort trended toward greater inferior vena cava thrombus length (3.3 vs 5.7cm), operative time (4.5 vs 4.9h) and blood loss (290 vs 375ml). With appropriate patient selection, surgical planning and robotic experience, completely intracorporeal robotic level III inferior vena cava thrombectomy is feasible and can be performed efficiently. Larger experience, longer follow-up and comparison with open surgery are needed to confirm these initial outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Issues Forum: National Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "On the Common Core of Learning" (Kennedy); "Constitutional Implications of National Curriculum Standards" (Arons); "Arguments against National Performance Standards" (Fulk, Mantzicopoulos, Hirth); and "The Painful Lessons of Introducing the National Curriculum in England" (Foster). (SK)

  9. Advocacy for Parents Key to IDEA Case: Nonlawyer Has Long Fought to Join Due-Process Hearings and to Be Paid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    For years, Marilyn Arons, 67, has taught parents how to use the main federal special education law to get the most appropriate education for their children. And now, the role of experts such as Ms. Arons is at the center of a U.S. Supreme Court case that will be heard next week. The case, which began in 1997, involves New York state's Arlington…

  10. Theoretical Calculations of H(2) CARS Spectra for Propellant Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    FLAMES JOANNE FENDELL L. E. HARRIS KENNETH ARON DECEMBER 1983 U.S. ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND.DEVELOPMENT CENTER URGE CAUBER WEAPON SYSTEMS...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORfaJ Joanne Fendell L. E. Harris Kenneth Aron 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT...normalized population difference between the Personal communication between W. C. Erraler, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ and J. Fendell

  11. Web life: Just A Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    After a few months of physics videos, amateur science sites and educational games, the website we are highlighting in this month's column is a straightforward blog. Just A Theory was started in 2008 by freelance science journalist Jacob Aron while he was studying for a Master's degree in science communication at Imperial College London. The blog's title, Aron explains, reflects a popular misconception that scientific theories are "dreamed up by mad scientists in laboratories somewhere" rather than well-crafted explanations based on observations and experiments. To combat this impression, the site aims to highlight good and bad science coverage in the mainstream media, and to provide original commentary on current scientific events.

  12. CARS Studies of Nitramine Lova Propellant Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Harris, and J. Fendell , "N2 and CO Vibratioi A.RS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CH -N 0 Flames," Technical Report ARLCD-TR- 83033, ARRADCOM...Dover, NJ, August 1981. I. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. 11. A. C. Eckbreth, Applied Physics Letters, vol...Conference, 1980, p 668. d K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. e Observed frequency iii this work differs by more

  13. Evidence for Shock Acceleration in the Binary Pulsar System PSR B1259-63

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    B1259-63 with the nebular gas of the Be star mass out ow. As in the case of the Crab nebula (Kennel & Coroniti 1984, Gallant & Arons 1994), shock...Be star out ow. The radiative environment near the shock radius within the PSR B1259-63 system is quite di erent from that of the Crab nebula , and the

  14. 77 FR 55201 - Notice of Orders Granting Applications to Import and Export Natural Gas and Vacating Prior...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... July 2012; J. Aron & Company; Iberdrola Renewables, LLC AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of... found on the FE web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/ gasregulation/authorizations...

  15. 78 FR 41923 - National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity; Notice of Committee Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... University Dr. Jill Derby, Governance Consultant, Association of Governing Boards of Colleges and.... Mellon Foundation Dr. Susan D. Phillips, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, University at Albany, State University of New York Beter-Aron Shimeles (student member), Operations Coordinator, Peer...

  16. 78 FR 295 - National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity: Notice of Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... University, Atlanta, Georgia. Susan D. Phillips, Ph.D., Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, The State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York. Beter-Aron Shimeles, Student Member..., University of California, Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco, California. Federico Zaragoza, Ph.D...

  17. Speed Daemon: Experience-Based Mobile Robot Speed Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    a wheeled mobile robot. Robotica , 20(2): 181–193, 2002. [7] O. Purwin and R. D‘Andrea. Trajectory generation and control for four wheeled...robot on an uneven surface. Robotica , 27(4):481–498, 2009. [9] S. Thrun, M. Montemerlo, H. Dahlkamp, D. Stavens, A. Aron, J. Diebel, P. Fong, J. Gale

  18. Proceedings of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) Conference Held in Rosslyn, Virginia on 12-13 May 1987,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    states, spin forbidden, radiative transition, electronic structure, molecular geometry, rare gas fluorides, NF 5 . nitrogen pentafluoride, high oxidation ...state, rhombic structure, tetratomics, Si 2 C2, disilicon dicarbide, zintl, photoexcitation, metastable metals, atomic metals, metal dimers, matrix...Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation) "Experimental Studies of the Properties of Trihydrogen and Tetrahydrogen" Aron

  19. The International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion (3rd): Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-14

    temperature level above 2500 K. This is the required temperature to reduce NO emission by combustion proc- esses. References: 1. K. Aron. L.E. Harris . Chem...lAyout of the optical system; (a) transmitting and (b) tweiving optics. ¶ n,7i Laser Doppler poter volume Sizng beam Figure 2. Tested pointer volume

  20. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... no obligation, to review, pre-screen, filter, redact, refuse or remove any or all of your submission... , Division of Market Oversight; Ryne Miller, Attorney Advisor, (202) 418-5921, rmiller@cftc.gov , Division of Market Oversight; or David Aron, Counsel, (202) 418-6621, daron@cftc.gov , Office of the General Counsel...

  1. Scholars Who Teach: The Art of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Steven M., Ed.

    In essays on a variety of disciplines, seven college teachers discuss the art of inspiring enthusiasm in college students. The topics are: history (Russell H. Bostert); English (Edward B. Partridge); mathematics (Robert H. Gurland); science (Arnold B. Arons); social science (Rita W. Cooley); foreign language and literature (John G. Weiger); and…

  2. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the 21 articles published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996. The articles are: (1) "The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems" (Sherman Dorn); (2) "Review of Stephen Arons's 'Short Route to Chaos'" (Charles L. Glenn); (3)…

  3. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  4. Information Systems: Current Developments and Future Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    On May 20, 1970, a one-day seminar was held for Congressional members and staff. The papers given at this seminar and included in the proceedings are: (1) "Understanding Information Systems" by J. D. Aron, (2) "Computer Applications in Political Science" by Kenneth Janda, (3) "Who's the Master of Your Information System?" by Marvin Kornbluh, (4)…

  5. Attention to Context: U.S. and Japanese Children's Emotional Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Son, Ji Y.; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggests cultural differences in the attention and evaluation of information in adults (Hedden, Ketay, Aron, Markus, & Gabrieli, 2008; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Masuda & Nisbett, 2001). One cultural comparison, between Westerners, such as Americans, and Easterners, such as the Japanese, suggests that…

  6. Helping Students to Think Like Scientists in Socratic Dialogue-Inducing Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Socratic dialogue-inducing (SDI) labs are based on Arnold Arons' half-century of ethnographic research, listening carefully to students' responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking, and culminating in his landmark "Teaching Introductory Physics." They utilize "interactive engagement" methods and are designed,…

  7. Attention to Context: U.S. and Japanese Children's Emotional Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Son, Ji Y.; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggests cultural differences in the attention and evaluation of information in adults (Hedden, Ketay, Aron, Markus, & Gabrieli, 2008; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Masuda & Nisbett, 2001). One cultural comparison, between Westerners, such as Americans, and Easterners, such as the Japanese, suggests that…

  8. Have We Reached the End of History?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    students ranged such future luminaries as Jean - Paul Sartre on the left and Raymond Aron on the right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic...our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy’s hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the

  9. Spectral Studies of Solid Propellant Combustion 2. Emission and Absorption Results for M-30 and HMX1 Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    for these equilibrium temperatures comes from some experimental data. Stufflebeam and Eckbreth have used CARS to measure tempe\\atures as high as...Aron and L.R. Harris. "CARS Probe of RDK Decomposition," Chem. Phys. Lett.. Vol. 103(5), p. 413. 1984. 23. J.H. Stufflebeam and A.C...UT 84302 United Technologies ATTN: A.C. Eckbreth J. Stufflebeam East Hartford, CT 06108 United Technologies Corp. Chemical Systems Division

  10. Laser Probes of Propellant Combustion Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    poter by Olson et al.2 to treat charge exchange. Their formula is tial curves will be of the form shown in Fig 5 The nolia Hf (R𔃻 ’ *a,) exp...Scott, Eastern Sectional Meeting of the Combustion Institute, Providence, Rhode Island, November 1983. 8. K. Aron and L. E. Harris , Chem. Phys. Lett...105, 413 (1984); L. E. Harris , "CARS Spectroscopy of the Reaction Zone of Methane-Nitrous Oxide and RDX Propellant Flames," Armament Research and

  11. Reward and motivation systems: a brain mapping study of early-stage intense romantic love in Chinese participants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-02-01

    Early-stage romantic love has been studied previously in the United States and United Kingdom (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337; Bartels and Zeki [2000]: Neuroreport 11:3829–3834; Ortigue et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1218–1230), revealing activation in the reward and motivation systems of the brain. In this study, we asked what systems are activated for early-stage romantic love in Easterners, specifically Chinese participants? Are these activations affected by individual differences within a cultural context of Traditionality and Modernity? Also, are these brain activations correlated with later satisfaction in the relationship? In Beijing, we used the same procedure used by Aron et al. (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337). The stimuli for 18 Chinese participants were a picture of the face of their beloved, the face of a familiar acquaintance, and a countback task. We found significant activations specific to the beloved in the reward and motivation systems, particularly, the ventral tegmental area and the caudate. The mid-orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum were also activated, whereas amygdala, medial orbitofrontal, and medial accumbens activity were decreased relative to the familiar acquaintance. Self-reported Traditionality and Modernity scores were each positively correlated with activity in the nucleus accumbens, although in different regions and sides of the brain. Activity in the subgenual area and the superior frontal gyrus was associated with higher relationship happiness at 18-month follow-up. Our results show that midbrain dopamine-rich reward/motivation systems were activated by early-stage romantic love in Chinese participants, as found by other studies. Neural activity was associated with Traditionality and Modernity attitudes as well as with later relationship happiness for Chinese participants.

  12. Computer program for calculating hydrodynamic properties of shock waves in sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhs, A. E.

    1982-02-01

    J. M. Richardson, A. B. Arons, and R. R. Halverson developed a calculation procedure for determining the hydrodynamic properties of sea water at the front of a shock wave. The procedure has been programmed for the HP41CV, which is a hand-held programmable calculator. The program, which uses 374 lines of code, reproduces the values for a shock wave as tabulated by Richardson, et al. The advantage of the HP41CV program is that properties can be calculated without use of tables.

  13. Disability and the education system.

    PubMed

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what

  14. Retracted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuanhong; Wang, Hongzhou

    2005-11-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: This work is a 'double submission' by the two authors Y. Yu and H. Wang. The Kyungpook article (Kyungpook Math. J., 46 (2006) 273-284) was received on 29 November 2004, and the Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications received its copy on 5 February 2005. The Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications version was accepted in April 2005 and Kyungpook accepted their copy in August 2005. Finally, I express my gratitude to the editor of the Kyungpook Mathematical Journal, and also to Dr. Devrim Cakmak (Ankara Turkey), ho first alerted us to this problem. Richard M. Aron, Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications

  15. [In memoriam: Niels Ryberg Finsen].

    PubMed

    Göring, H-D

    2004-08-01

    Niels Ryberg Finsen who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1903 for introducing phototherapy for lupus vulgaris. He was only the third laureate in medicine, after Emil von Behring (1901) and Ronald Ross (1902), and the first for outstanding achievements in the field of dermatology. Several thousand lupus vulgaris patients from different European countries were treated in the Medical Light Institute in Copenhagen, founded by Finsen, from 1896 until his death in 1904. Until the tuberculostatic drugs were introduced in the middle of the 20th century, the "Finsen Exposure" was the only effective therapy of lupus vulgaris. The carbon arc lamp initially used by Finsen was later modified and then eventually replaced by the mercury quartz lamp developed by Arons. Today Finsen is rightly recognized as the founder of the modern dermatological phototherapy.

  16. Extending Gurwitsch's field theory of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Jeff; Vinson, David W

    2015-07-01

    Aron Gurwitsch's theory of the structure and dynamics of consciousness has much to offer contemporary theorizing about consciousness and its basis in the embodied brain. On Gurwitsch's account, as we develop it, the field of consciousness has a variable sized focus or "theme" of attention surrounded by a structured periphery of inattentional contents. As the field evolves, its contents change their status, sometimes smoothly, sometimes abruptly. Inner thoughts, a sense of one's body, and the physical environment are dominant field contents. These ideas can be linked with (and help unify) contemporary theories about the neural correlates of consciousness, inattention, the small world structure of the brain, meta-stable dynamics, embodied cognition, and predictive coding in the brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Helping Students to Think Like Scientists in Socratic Dialogue-Inducing Labsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hake, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Socratic dialogue-inducing (SDI) labs1,2 are based on Arnold Arons' half-century of ethnographic research, listening carefully to students' responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking, and culminating in his landmark Teaching Introductory Physics.3 They utilize "interactive engagement" methods4 and are designed, in part, to help students think like scientists, e.g., to: (1) appreciate the need for operational definitions; (2) use and interpret pictorial, graphical, vectorial, mathematical, and written representations; and (3) consider dimensions, thought experiments, and limiting conditions. After giving some SDI lab examples from those categories, I conclude that the SDI lab attempts to help students think like scientists have been relatively successful.

  18. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  19. Investigation of Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulator/Demodulator Compatability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    20 d,"mO Test Signal) 4 stp Ize Pratio -J-l Li] c4 u FnoR~e mx -,cli - td 32k/ I’.’: (2 .Bm’ et i~ l z s tep g ize Ratio MJismatc(_h Bd FREQUENCY ( HZJ ...1-b/s SZample Rate (-20 dBr,.O Test Signal) 77 Time Gonstant ’.’isrnatch * f7 - Mtche d Q .0025 0 .0 0. 9> 14J liot FREQUENCY ( HZJ Fipure 50 a . CVSD...APPENDIX rl Total t’,ar-onic i tor’i w’. -r -,,,t ,ntl Po’..’r PROGRAM DTHD(I PUT,OUTPUT,TAPES-INPUT.TAPE6-OUTPUT,PLOT) CT_---- -- - TD US. INPUT POER

  20. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  1. Evaluation of Scale-Model Ceramic Pressure Housing for Deep Submergence Service: Fifth Generation Housings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    hold at peak served as attachment points for ballast (figure 17). Type 2 ceramic hemi- pressures e tsphere and on the other etesting arrangement was...C2f CS2 � ARON, C.RCUmF’ERENC.t 2 ’ AGE -OC2f 1 -xr. Z S--2 2 -A- 2: 2D-C-r..’ fS. - 22t’C2’E 2S222 4.y SAC~Z5X EOA&L, SPACE:D 2-~ BLX k 2’ 9 CR~C...ROSETTE 37 73 -1821 74 1876 -22523 23777 𔃼 GAGE ROSETTE 38 75 -1224 76 1771 -12240 2242 G2 AGE ROSETTE 29 77 -1711 78 2185 -18760 -. 0o 2 BABE ROSETTE

  2. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  3. Warren Receives 2004 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Bruce A. Warren received the Ewing Medal at the 2004 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 15 December, in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. Citation. Bruce Warren is a physical oceanographer and scientist emeritus at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, where he has spent his entire career. Few can claim to have personally unearthed so many distinct elements of the World Ocean circulation as Bruce. At the beginning of his career, oceanographers were working out the implications of the still relatively fresh idea that the large-scale circulation tends to concentrate flow at the western boundary of ocean basins in strong western boundary currents like the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio. During his Ph.D. years, Stommel and Arons published their simple but far-reaching dynamical framework for deep circulation in the ocean, and these concepts and extensions were nowhere better tested than in Bruce's field investigations of deep circulation in almost every major ocean basin in the world. Bruce never failed to point out how, for good reason, other explanations were usually less compelling. His application of Occam's Razor to all work, including his own, is fierce and famous.

  4. Using Computer-Generated Animations as an Aid in Teaching Wave Motion and Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jong, Marvin

    2003-12-01

    When students encounter the mathematics of wave motion, they are at a new level of mathematical sophistication, a step up from kinematics formulas and F = ma. We have found that graphing the equations of wave motion and producing animations of various aspects of wave motion on a computer, coupled with live examples of the same phenomena, are helpful in understanding the mathematics of wave motion and connecting it to the real world. Without some real-world examples, the kind of work described here, although quite visual, is not terribly exciting to students jaded by computer games and television. Simultaneously relating the mathematics of wave motion to the computer graphics and to demonstrations of the same or similar phenomena seems to have a more dramatic and long-lasting effect than using either by itself. This article describes the graphics and animations that we generate with a computer algebra system (CAS), namely, Mathematica. Other software can also produce animations.1,2 Although many students have seen functions and graphs that involve trig functions in mathematics classes, they may not have connected them to the topic of wave motion. A CAS or spreadsheet animation utilizes the power of a computer to help make this connection clear. Finally, achieving the same results by asking students to graph functions with paper and pencil is clearly impossible, although some of the pencil and paper activities described by Arnold Arons3 are both realizable and extremely useful.

  5. Circulation in the Ecologically Protected Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, E.; Speer, K. G.; Weijer, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Lau Basin, located in the South Pacific, north of New Zealand and East of Fiji, is a back-arc basin with active hydrothermal vents and volcanoes. In September 2015, the New Zealand Ministry for the Environment announced the new Kermadec Ocean Sanctuary in the southern portion of the basin. The sanctuary, which covers more than 620,000 square kilometers, is the world's largest protected marine environment boasting endangered species from turtles, whales, and seabirds to corals, shellfish, and zooplankton. Though protections are in place for the ecological residents of the basin, little is known about the fluid circulation that permits such ecological diversity. Whitworth et al. (1999), explored the water-masses associated with the deep western boundary current (DWBC) in the Tonga-Kermadec Trench and found the trench to be a passageway for Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) into the South Pacific. In this project, an analysis of Ridge 2000 Program floats and Argo floats show intrusion of water from the trench into the basin, potentially providing another pathway of CDW into the western edge of the South Pacific. Using a simple model developed by Stommel-Arons (1960) and expanded upon by Pedlosky (1989) for abyssal circulation, the bulk of the flow pattern observed from the floats is qualitatively described, including the well-defined DWBC, first observed in this data, along the Lau-Fiji ridge.

  6. ROSAT observations of PSR 0950 + 08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, R. A.; Willmore, A. P.

    1994-02-01

    We report on observations of the radio pulsar PSR 0950 + 08 obtained using the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter and Wide Field Camera on board ROSAT. The background-corrected count rate is determined to be 0.0069 +/- 0.0012 count/s in the 0.08-2.4 keV energy range. The derived spectrum could be fitted to both blackbody and power-law models modified by interstellar absorption. The best-fitting surface temperature of 2.6 x 10 exp 6 K and the age of PSR 0950 + 08 imply that some form of heating process is occurring if the emission is thermal. The small implied size of the emission region points towards some form of polar-cap heating, although of the models available only the 'slot-gap' model proposed by Arons can perhaps account for the observed luminosity. The most likely explanation for the emission is that PSR 0950 + 08 is surrounded by a synchrotron nebula, which is unresolved and has a spectral index of about 1. For either model the X-ray luminosity (0.08-2.4 keV) is about 10 exp 29 erg/s.

  7. Comparing the neural basis of monetary reward and cognitive feedback during information-integration category learning.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Reka; Pollmann, Stefan

    2010-01-06

    The dopaminergic system is known to play a central role in reward-based learning (Schultz, 2006), yet it was also observed to be involved when only cognitive feedback is given (Aron et al., 2004). Within the domain of information-integration category learning, in which information from several stimulus dimensions has to be integrated predecisionally (Ashby and Maddox, 2005), the importance of contingent feedback is well established (Maddox et al., 2003). We examined the common neural correlates of reward anticipation and prediction error in this task. Sixteen subjects performed two parallel information-integration tasks within a single event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging session but received a monetary reward only for one of them. Similar functional areas including basal ganglia structures were activated in both task versions. In contrast, a single structure, the nucleus accumbens, showed higher activation during monetary reward anticipation compared with the anticipation of cognitive feedback in information-integration learning. Additionally, this activation was predicted by measures of intrinsic motivation in the cognitive feedback task and by measures of extrinsic motivation in the rewarded task. Our results indicate that, although all other structures implicated in category learning are not significantly affected by altering the type of reward, the nucleus accumbens responds to the positive incentive properties of an expected reward depending on the specific type of the reward.

  8. Romantic love: an fMRI study of a neural mechanism for mate choice.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-12-05

    Scientists have described myriad traits in mammalian and avian species that evolved to attract mates. But the brain mechanisms by which conspecifics become attracted to these traits is largely unknown. Yet mammals and birds express mate preferences and make mate choices, and data suggest that this "attraction system" is associated with the dopaminergic reward system. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic love we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studied 17 people who were intensely "in love" (Aron et al. [2005] J Neurophysiol 94:327-337). Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the right ventral tegmental area and right caudate nucleus, dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward pathways contribute to the "general arousal" component of romantic love; romantic love is primarily a motivation system, rather than an emotion; this drive is distinct from the sex drive; romantic love changes across time; and romantic love shares biobehavioral similarities with mammalian attraction. We propose that this attraction mechanism evolved to enable individuals to focus their mating energy on specific others, thereby conserving energy and facilitating mate choice-a primary aspect of reproduction. Last, the corticostriate system, with its potential for combining diverse cortical information with reward signals, is an excellent anatomical substrate for the complex factors contributing to romantic love and mate choice.

  9. Unexpected Tumor: Primary Asymptomatic Schwannoma in Thyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Benítez, G; Pérez-Campos, A; Masgrau, N Alberti; Pérez-Barrios, A

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of a tumor as a primary schwannoma in the thyroid gland is rare (Andrion et al. in Virchows Arch 413:367-372, 1988). It represents less than 1 % of mesenchymal neoplasms of this gland. Therefore, few cases of this type are described in medical literature (Aron et al. in Cytopathology 16:206-209, 2005; Cashman et al. in Medscape J Med 10(8):201, 2008; Coleman et al. in AJR Am J Roentgenol 140:383-7, 1983). In this article, we introduce the clinical case of a 27-year-old female patient, who presented a nodular mass located in the neck region. This mass was not associated with other symptoms and during the imagistic investigation it appeared to be a thyroglossal duct cyst. A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed which revealed benign mesenchymal cells. After a pathology study of the piece resected through a thyroidectomy, it was confirmed that the tumor had neural characteristics, the final diagnosis being a primary schwannoma. The importance of a cytology study is emphasized, since in this case, it made it possible to accurately diagnose a mesenchymal tumor, despite their low frequency. It constitutes a highly useful tool for diagnosing non-epithelial neoplasia of the thyroid gland.

  10. Comparison of 2-Ethyl-Cyanoacrylate and 2-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate for Use on the Calvaria of CD1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Joanne J; Gruber, Theresa M; Zahorsky-Reeves, Joanne L; Lawson, Greg W

    2016-03-01

    Short-chain cyanoacrylates (SCCA), such as ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (KrazyGlue, Aron Alpha, Columbus, OH) are commonly used as commercial fast-acting glues. Although once used in clinical medicine as skin adhesives, these products caused tissue toxicity and thus their use in live tissue was discontinued. SCCA were replaced by longer-chain versions (LCCA), such as butyl-cyanoacrylate (Vetbond, 3M, St Paul, Minnesota), which were found to be less toxic than the short-chain formulations. Some researchers prefer to use SCCA due to the belief that they create a stronger bond than do the longer-chain counterparts. In survival surgeries, we compared the bone thickness, bone necrosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and bone regeneration in the calvaria of control (naïve), surgery-only, SCCA-treated, and LCCA-treated mice (n = 20 per group). At 1 and 14 d after surgery, all mice except those treated with SCCA showed statistically similar bone measurements to those of the naive control group. The SCCA group had significantly less bone regeneration than did all other groups. These results suggest that the application of SCCA causes bone damage resulting in the loss of bone regeneration. This finding may assist investigators in choosing a tissue glue for their studies and may support the IACUC in advocating the use of pharmaceutical-grade tissue glues.

  11. Comparison of 2-Ethyl-Cyanoacrylate and 2-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate for Use on the Calvaria of CD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Joanne J; Gruber, Theresa M; Zahorsky-Reeves, Joanne L; Lawson, Greg W

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain cyanoacrylates (SCCA), such as ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (KrazyGlue, Aron Alpha, Columbus, OH) are commonly used as commercial fast-acting glues. Although once used in clinical medicine as skin adhesives, these products caused tissue toxicity and thus their use in live tissue was discontinued. SCCA were replaced by longer-chain versions (LCCA), such as butyl-cyanoacrylate (Vetbond, 3M, St Paul, Minnesota), which were found to be less toxic than the short-chain formulations. Some researchers prefer to use SCCA due to the belief that they create a stronger bond than do the longer-chain counterparts. In survival surgeries, we compared the bone thickness, bone necrosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and bone regeneration in the calvaria of control (naïve), surgery-only, SCCA-treated, and LCCA-treated mice (n = 20 per group). At 1 and 14 d after surgery, all mice except those treated with SCCA showed statistically similar bone measurements to those of the naive control group. The SCCA group had significantly less bone regeneration than did all other groups. These results suggest that the application of SCCA causes bone damage resulting in the loss of bone regeneration. This finding may assist investigators in choosing a tissue glue for their studies and may support the IACUC in advocating the use of pharmaceutical-grade tissue glues. PMID:27025812

  12. Correcting oceanic O2/Ar-net community production estimates for vertical mixing using N2O observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassar, Nicolas; Nevison, Cynthia D.; Manizza, Manfredi

    2014-12-01

    The O2/Ar approach has become a key method to estimate oceanic net community production (NCP). However, in some seasons and regions of the ocean, strong vertical mixing of O2-depleted deepwater introduces a large error into O2/Ar-derived NCP estimates. In these cases, undersaturated-O2/Ar observations have for all intents and purposes been ignored. We propose to combine underway O2/Ar and N2O observations into a composite tracer that is conservative with respect to the influence of vertical mixing on the surface biological O2 inventory. We test the proposed method with an ocean observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) in which we compare N2O-O2/Ar and O2/Ar-only gas flux estimates of NCP to the model-simulated true NCP in the Southern Ocean. Our proof-of-concept simulations show that the N2O-O2/Ar tracer significantly improves NCP estimates when/where vertical mixing is important.

  13. A virtual remote sensing observation network for continuous, near-real-time monitoring of atmospheric instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toporov, Maria; Löhnert, Ulrich; Potthast, Roland; Cimini, Domenico; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Short-term forecasts of current high-resolution numerical weather prediction models still have large deficits in forecasting the exact temporal and spatial location of severe, locally influenced weather such as summer-time convective storms or cool season lifted stratus or ground fog. Often, the thermodynamic instability - especially in the boundary layer - plays an essential role in the evolution of weather events. While the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere is well measured close to the surface (i.e. 2 m) by in-situ sensors and in the upper troposphere by satellite sounders, the planetary boundary layer remains a largely under-sampled region of the atmosphere where only sporadic information from radiosondes or aircraft observations is available. The major objective of the presented DWD-funded project ARON (Extramural Research Programme) is to overcome this observational gap and to design an optimized network of ground based microwave radiometers (MWR) and compact Differential Absorption Lidars (DIAL) for a continuous, near-real-time monitoring of temperature and humidity in the atmospheric boundary layer in order to monitor thermodynamic (in)stability. Previous studies showed, that microwave profilers are well suited for continuously monitoring the temporal development of atmospheric stability (i.e. Cimini et al., 2015) before the initiation of deep convection, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the vertical resolution of microwave temperature profiles is best in the lowest kilometer above the surface, decreasing rapidly with increasing height. In addition, humidity profile retrievals typically cannot be resolved with more than two degrees of freedom for signal, resulting in a rather poor vertical resolution throughout the troposphere. Typical stability indices used to assess the potential of convection rely on temperature and humidity values not only in the region of the boundary layer but also in the layers above. Therefore, satellite

  14. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  15. Effect of Various Nonionic Surfactants on Growth of Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Michael J.; Aron, Stephen A.; Janicki, Bernard W.

    1966-01-01

    Rose, Michael J., Jr. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Washington, D.C.), Stephen A. Aron, and Bernard W. Janicki. Effect of various nonionic surfactants on growth of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1863–1868. 1966.—Escherichia coli cultivated in media containing 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0% concentrations of surface-active polyoxyethylene derivatives of formaldehyde polymers of octyl phenol (Triton WR-1339; Macrocyclon) or of sorbitan mono-fatty acid esters (Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80) exhibited significantly retarded growth only at the highest concentration. To determine the mechanism of bacteriostasis, certain derivatives and compounds related to the surfactants were investigated. Experiments with compounds related to the Triton-type agents demonstrated that incorporation of monomeric substances (Triton X-205, X-305, Igepal CA-730, or Dowfax 9N20) into the medium at a concentration of 4.0% did not inhibit the growth of E. coli. It was concluded that the formaldehyde polymer was essential for growth inhibition by the polyoxyethylene derivatives of octyl phenol. The inhibitory activity of the Tween compounds, in contrast, appeared to result from the unesterified fatty acids which contaminate the commercial preparations. Polyol (60), the sorbitan polyoxyethylene derivative of Tween 60 and the basic structural unit of all the Tween-type compounds, and a Tween 80 preparation which was purified by extraction of the unesterified oleic acid, were not inhibitory. Moreover, the amount of free oleic acid present as a contaminant of Tween 80 was found to be sufficient to cause significant growth inhibition. These results and the observation that E. coli does not appear to hydrolyze the esterified fatty acid of Tween 80 led to the conclusion that growth inhibition obtained with various Tween compounds probaby is a function of their respective fatty acid contaminants. PMID:5327909

  16. Effect of various nonionic surfactants on growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rose, M J; Aron, S A; Janicki, B W

    1966-05-01

    Rose, Michael J., Jr. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Washington, D.C.), Stephen A. Aron, and Bernard W. Janicki. Effect of various nonionic surfactants on growth of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1863-1868. 1966.-Escherichia coli cultivated in media containing 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0% concentrations of surface-active polyoxyethylene derivatives of formaldehyde polymers of octyl phenol (Triton WR-1339; Macrocyclon) or of sorbitan mono-fatty acid esters (Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80) exhibited significantly retarded growth only at the highest concentration. To determine the mechanism of bacteriostasis, certain derivatives and compounds related to the surfactants were investigated. Experiments with compounds related to the Triton-type agents demonstrated that incorporation of monomeric substances (Triton X-205, X-305, Igepal CA-730, or Dowfax 9N20) into the medium at a concentration of 4.0% did not inhibit the growth of E. coli. It was concluded that the formaldehyde polymer was essential for growth inhibition by the polyoxyethylene derivatives of octyl phenol. The inhibitory activity of the Tween compounds, in contrast, appeared to result from the unesterified fatty acids which contaminate the commercial preparations. Polyol (60), the sorbitan polyoxyethylene derivative of Tween 60 and the basic structural unit of all the Tween-type compounds, and a Tween 80 preparation which was purified by extraction of the unesterified oleic acid, were not inhibitory. Moreover, the amount of free oleic acid present as a contaminant of Tween 80 was found to be sufficient to cause significant growth inhibition. These results and the observation that E. coli does not appear to hydrolyze the esterified fatty acid of Tween 80 led to the conclusion that growth inhibition obtained with various Tween compounds probaby is a function of their respective fatty acid contaminants.

  17. Free exciton emission and vibrations in pentacene monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Pentacene is a benchmark organic semiconductor material because of its potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Recently we demonstrated that optical and vibrational characterizations of pentacene films can be carried out down to the sub-monolayer limit. These milestones were achieved in highly uniform pentacene films that were grown on a compliant polymeric substrate. Films with thickness ranging from sub- monolayer to tens of monolayers were studied at low temperatures. The intensity of the free exciton (FE) luminescence band increases quadratically with the number of layers N when N is small. This quadratic dependence is explained as arising from the linear dependence of the intensity of absorption and the probability of emission on the number of layers N. Large enhancements of Raman scattering intensities at the FE resonance enable the first observations of low-lying lattice modes in the monolayers. The measured low- lying modes (in the 20 to 100 cm-1 range) display characteristic changes when going from a single monolayer to two layers. The Raman intensities by high frequency intra-molecular vibrations display resonance enhancement double-peaks when incident or scattered photon energies overlap the FE optical emission. The double resonances are about the same strength which suggests that Franck-Condon overlap integrals for the respective vibronic transitions have the same magnitude. The interference between scattering amplitudes in the Raman resonance reveals quantum coherence of the symmetry-split states (Davydov doublet) of the lowest intrinsic singlet exciton. These results demonstrate novel venues for ultra-thin film characterization and studies of fundamental physics in organic semiconductor structures. In collaboration with Nancy G. Tassi (Dupont), Graciela B. Blanchet (Nanoterra, Cambridge, MA), and Aron Pinczuk (Columbia University).

  18. The Optical Counterpart of the NGC 6624 X-Ray Burster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ivan R.; Stanford, S. Adam

    1993-05-01

    On a pair of 30-min HST FOC images taken at 1400 Angstroms (F140W), we have identified the optical counterpart of the X-ray burster in the globular cluster NGC 6624; this object completely dominates these UV images. Its flux agrees with the UV flux seen by Rich et al. \\ (1993,ApJ,406,489) with the large aperture of IUE. In the blue (F430W) the object is at B =~ 18.6, while in the V band (F480LP) we can find no trace of it. The 1400-B color is consistent with a Rayleigh--Jeans spectrum. (For an interpretation of this radiation as X-ray energy reprocessed by the accretion disk around the LMXB and by the binary companion, see a separate paper by Arons and King at this meeting.) The X-ray source is now found to be only 0.3 arcsec from the cluster center, increasing the likelihood that the bizarre dot P of the binary is influenced by gravitational acceleration. The counterpart of the LMXB is surrounded by several brighter red giants, one only 80 mas away, so that it cannot be observed from the ground. Our new astrometry corrects the previously published positions of the cluster center and places the counterpart within 2 sigma of the X-ray position. The optical counterpart is very close to the radio position of Johnston and Kulkarni (1992,ApJL,393,L17), but that position is now recognized to refer to a coincidentally neighboring pulsar rather than to the LMXB. Further analysis of the UV light will be pursued with HST's High Speed Photometer.

  19. Suppressing a motivationally-triggered action tendency engages a response control mechanism that prevents future provocation

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott M.; Alvernaz, Dominic; Tonnesen, Alexandra; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Reward-predicting stimuli can induce maladaptive behavior by provoking action tendencies that conflict with long-term goals. Earlier, we showed that when human participants were permitted to respond for a reward in the presence of a task-irrelevant, reward-predicting stimulus (i.e. goCS+ trials), the CS+ provoked an action tendency to respond compared to when a non-rewarding CS− stimulus was present (i.e. goCS− trials). However, when participants were not permitted to respond, response suppression was recruited to mitigate the action tendency that was triggered by the motivating CS+ stimulus (i.e. on nogoCS+ trials) (Freeman, Razhas, & Aron, 2014). Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated response suppression over a motivationally-triggered action tendency would reduce subsequent CS+ provocation. We compared groups of participants who had different proportions of nogoCS+ trials, and we measured CS+ provocation on go trials via reaction time. Our results showed that CS+ provocation on go trials was reduced monotonically as the proportion of nogoCS+ trials increased. Further analysis showed that these group differences were best explained by reduced provocation on goCS+ trials that followed nogoCS+ (compared to nogoCS−) trials. Follow-up experiments using a neurophysiological index of motor activity replicated these effects and also suggested that, following nogoCS+ trials, a response suppression mechanism was in place to help prevent subsequent CS+ provocation. Thus, our results show that performing response suppression in the face of a motivating stimulus not only controls responding at that time, but also prevents provocation in the near future. PMID:25592370

  20. [Tool of nutrition education for allergic to egg and cow's milk protein in pediatric age].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: La alergia alimentaria afecta a gran parte de la población y sus cifras siguen aumentando. Aunque, se esta avanzando en el conocimiento de la patología, los alérgicos encuentran grandes dificultades para llevar una vida normal, especialmente en lo relativo a su alimentación. Hasta ahora el colectivo no contaba con herramientas prácticas que les ayudasen en la elaboración diaria de una dieta equilibrada, como existen para la población en general, en forma de pirámides y guías alimentarias. Con este trabajo se ha cubierto esta necesidad para dos de las alergias más prevalentes en los primeros años de vida. Objetivos: Recopilar información sobre la alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca (APLV) y huevo, para diseñar una pirámide alimenticia para estos pacientes, basada en los consensos, recomendaciones y guías científicas. Resultados: Tras comprobar la inexistencia de un trabajo similar, se diseñaron pirámides alimenticias para alérgicos a huevo y APLV, adaptadas a cada uno de ellos, así como una pirámide conjunta a ambas alergias. Además se incluyeron recomendaciones basicas para la alimentación saludable en general y, en particular, con interés especial para el colectivo (higiene alimentaria, aditivos alimentarios, productos de cosmética, medicamentos, etc). Conclusiones: Debido a la importancia que la nutrición adquiere en la infancia y las dificultades subyacentes a este colectivo, poder planificar adecuadamente la alimentación es muy importante pues puede prevenir accidentes y carencias nutricionales a largo plazo. Por ello, facilitar herramientas gráficas y prácticas para este fin, es de gran importancia comunitaria y medico-científico, y es el resultado de este trabajo.

  1. [First report of complete genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Human Bocavirus 1 isolated in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Cardozo Tomas, Agustina; Ghietto, Lucia Maria; Insfran, Constanza; Wasinger, Nicolas; Marchesi, Ariana; Adamo, Maria Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. El Bocavirus humano (HBoV) es un parvovirus descripto por primera vez en 2005, asociado a cuadros leves y graves de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA), una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en la población infantil en todo el mundo. Al presente se han identificado 4 genotipos, nombradas HBoV1 a 4, de los cuales el primero es el que se asocia a IRA con predominancia. Objetivo. Obtener el genoma completo de HBoV respiratorio aislado localmente. Métodos. Se diseñaron primers para fragmentos superpuestos del genoma completo de HBoV, empleando las herramientas informáticas ClustalW y NCBI Primer-Blast. Los fragmentos se amplificaron por PCR convencional y se secuenciaron mediante tecnología capilar BigDye Terminator. La edición de las secuencias y análisis filogenético se realizó con el programa MEGA v6. Resultados. Se obtuvo la secuencia genómica completa de HBoV1 cepa 307AR09, aislada de secreción respiratoria de paciente pediátrico con bronquiolitis. La misma fue depositada en la base de datos GenBank con número de acceso KJ634207. El análisis filogenético con secuencias genómicas completas de los 4 genotipos obtenidas en distintas regiones del mundo muestra similitud cercana al 100% con la secuencia original descubierta en Suecia (DQ000495), así como el agrupamiento de los 4 genotipos en 2 clusters de alta homología interna: HBoV1-HBoV3 y HBoV2-HBoV4. Conclusiones. Se aportan datos locales para futuros desarrollos tecnológicos destinados tanto a la investigación como al diseño de métodos diagnósticos para la práctica médica. Por otra parte, los resultados sustentan la propuesta de redistribución taxonómica de los 4 genotipos en 2 especies.

  2. Evolution and Growth Competition of Salt Fingers in Saline Lake with Slight Wind Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ray-Yeng; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Shugan, Igor

    2010-05-01

    Since the discover of double-diffusive convection by Stommel, Arons & Blanchard (1956), 'evidence has accumulated for the widespread presence of double-diffusion throughout the ocean' and for its 'significant effects on global water-mass structure and the thermohaline convection' (Schmitt, 1998). The salt-fingering form of double-diffusion has particularly attracted interest because of salt-finger convection being now widely recognized as an important mechanism for mixing heat and salt both vertically and laterally in the ocean and saline lake. In oceanographic situations or saline lake where salt fingers may be an important mechanism for the transport of heat and salt in the vertical, velocity shears may also be present. Salt finger convection is analogous to Bénard convection in that the kinetic energy of the motions is obtained from the potential energy stored in the unstable distribution of a stratifying component. On the basis of the thermal analogy it is of interest to discover whether salt fingers are converted into two-dimensional sheets by the wind shear, and how the vertical fluxes of heat and salt are changed by the wind shear. Salt finger convection under the effect of steady wind shear is theoretically examined in this paper. The evolution of developing in the presence of a vertical density gradient disturbance and the horizontal Couette flow is considered near the onset of salt fingers in the saline lake under a moderate rate of wind shear. We use velocity as the basic variable and solve the pressure Poisson equation in terms of the associated Green function. Growth competition between the longitudinal rolls (LR) and the transverse rolls (TR), whose axes are respectively in the direction parallel to and perpendicular to the Couette flow, is investigated by the weakly nonlinear analysis of coupled-mode equations. The results show that the TR mode is characterized in some range of the effective Rayleigh number, and that the stability is dominated by

  3. Deep sea three component magnetic survey using ROV in the hydrothermal vent of the Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    We conducted magnetic survey at Apr., 2011 in the western slope of the caldera of TA25, the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific using IBRV(Ice Breaker Research Vessel) ARAON of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), ROV(Remotely Operated Vehicle) of Oceaneering Co. and three component magnetometer(Fig. 1,Fig. 2). The deep-sea three component magnetic survey lines are the 13 N-S lines(100 m spacing) and the 2 E-W lines(Fig. 2). The depth ranges of the survey area are from about 900 m to 1200 m, below sea level. For the magnetic survey, the magnetometer sensor and the data logger was attached with the upper part and lower part of ROV, respectively(Fig. 2). We wanted to make the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV over 2 m long to reduce the noise effect of ROV. But, for the safe of deployment and recovery of ROV, the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV was 126 cm(Fig. 2). In the magnetic survey, ROV followed the planning tracks at 25~30 m above seafloor using the altimeter and USBL(Ultra Short Base Line) of ROV. IBRV ARAON accompanied ROV on the magnetic survey. The three component magnetometer measure the X(North), Y(East) and Z(Vertical) vector components of a magnetic field. A motion sensor(Oxtans) provided us the data of pitch, roll, yaw for the correction of the magnetic data to the motion of ROV. The data of the magnetometer sensor and the motion sensor were recorded on a notebook through the optical cable of ROV and the network of ARON using magnetometer software. The precision positions of magnetic data were merged by the post-processing of USBL of ROV. Hydrothermal fluids over Curie temperature can quickly alter or replace the iron-rich magnetic minerals, reducing the magnetic remanence of the crustal rocks, in some cases to near 0A/m magnetization. So, the obtained three component magnetic data are fully utilized by finding possible hydrothermal vents of the survey area.

  4. Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan: Hot and weak material hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichiro; Fukushima, Yo

    2014-05-01

    Fukushima, Y., Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, Nature Geoscience, 6, 637-641, 2013. Pritchard, M. E., Jay, J. A., Aron, F., Henderson, S. T., and Lara, L. E., Subsidence at southern Andes volcanoes induced by the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, Nature Geoscience, 6, 632-636, 2013.

  5. Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Jedrzej; Pham, Dat; Meltzner, Aron; Switzer, Adam; Horton, Benjamin; Heng, Shu Yun; Warrick, David

    2015-04-01

    Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls Jędrzej M. Majewski 1, Dat T. Pham1, Aron J. Meltzner 1, Adam D. Switzer 1, Benjamin P. Horton2, Shu Yun Heng1, David Warrick3, 1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 2 Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA 3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Coral microatolls can be used to study relative sea-level change at multidecadal timescales associated with vertical land movements, climate induced sea-level rise and other oceanographic phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the assumption that the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls track sea level over the course of their lifetimes. In this study we compare microatoll records covering from as early as 1883 through 2013, from two sites in Indonesia, with long records (>20 years) from proximal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, and other sea-level reconstructions. We compared the HLS time series derived from open-ocean and moated (or ponded) microatolls on tectonically stable Belitung Island and a potentially tectonically active setting in Mapur Island, with sea-level reconstructions for 1950-2011. The sea-level reconstructions are based on ground and satellite measurements, combining a tide model with the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model. Our results confirm that open-ocean microatolls do track low water levels at multi decadal time scales and can be used as a proxy for relative sea level (RSL) over time. However, microatolls that are even partially moated are unsuitable and do not track RSL; rather, their growth patterns likely reflect changes in the elevation of the sill of the local pond, as reported by earlier authors. Our ongoing efforts will include an attempt to recognize similarities in moated

  6. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E.; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J.; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B.; Bowman, Frederick P.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10−9 to 10−7 M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor–small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro. Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo. Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.—Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery

  7. Stimulus-response mappings shape inhibition processes: a combined EEG-fMRI study of contextual stopping.

    PubMed

    Lavallee, Christina F; Herrmann, Christoph S; Weerda, Riklef; Huster, René J

    2014-01-01

    Humans are rarely faced with one simple task, but are typically confronted with complex stimulus constellations and varying stimulus-relevance in a given situation. Through modifying the prototypical stop-signal task and by combined recording and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied the effects of stimulus relevance for the generation of a response or its inhibition. Stimulus response mappings were modified by contextual cues, indicating which of two different stimuli following a go stimulus was relevant for stopping. Overall, response inhibition, that is comparing successful stopping to a stop-signal against go-signal related processes, was associated with increased activity in right inferior and left midfrontal regions, as well as increased EEG delta and theta power; however, stimulus-response conditions in which the most infrequent stop-signal was relevant for inhibition, were associated with decreased activity in regions typically involved in response inhibition, as well as decreased activity in the delta and theta bands as compared to conditions wherein the relevant stop-signal frequency was higher. Behaviorally, this (aforementioned) condition, which demanded inhibition only from the most infrequent stimulus, was also associated with reduced reaction times and lower error rates. This pattern of results does not align with typical stimulus frequency-driven findings and suggests interplay between task relevance and stimulus frequency of the stop-signal. Moreover, with a multimodal EEG-fMRI analysis, we demonstrated significant parameterization for response inhibition with delta, theta and beta time-frequency values, which may be interpreted as reflecting conflict monitoring, evaluative and/or motor processes as suggested by previous work (Huster et al., 2013; Aron, 2011). Further multimodal results suggest a possible neurophysiological and behavioral benefit under conditions whereby the most

  8. Cameras on the NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory: Towards monitoring hydrothermal vent ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, K.; Matabos, M.; Sarrazin, J.; Sarradin, P.; Lee, R. W.; Juniper, K.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent environments are among the most dynamic benthic habitats in the ocean. The relative roles of physical and biological factors in shaping vent community structure remain unclear. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required for high-resolution, time-series study of the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. The NEPTUNE Canada cabled instrument array at the Endeavour hydrothermal vents provides a unique laboratory for researchers to conduct long-term, integrated studies of hydrothermal vent ecosystem dynamics in relation to environmental variability. Beginning in September-October 2010, NEPTUNE Canada (NC) will be deploying a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Two camera and sensor systems will be used to study ecosystem dynamics in relation to hydrothermal discharge. These studies will make use of new experimental protocols for time-series observations that we have been developing since 2008 at other observatory sites connected to the VENUS and NC networks. These protocols include sampling design, camera calibration (i.e. structure, position, light, settings) and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al.). The camera systems to be deployed in the Main Endeavour vent field include a Sidus high definition video camera (2010) and the TEMPO-mini system (2011), designed by IFREMER (France). Real-time data from three sensors (O2, dissolved Fe, temperature) integrated with the TEMPO-mini system will enhance interpretation of imagery. For the first year of observations, a suite of internally recording temperature probes will be strategically placed in the field of view of the Sidus camera. These installations aim at monitoring variations in vent community structure and dynamics (species composition and abundances, interactions within and among species) in response to changes in environmental conditions at different

  9. Extended Acceleration in Slot Gaps and Pulsar High-Energy Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    We revise the physics of primary electron acceleration in the "slot gap" (SG) above the pulsar polar caps (PCs), a regime originally proposed by Arons and Scharlemann (1979) in their electrodynamic model of pulsar PCs. We employ the standard definition of the SG as a pair-free space between the last open field lines and the boundary of the pair plasma column which is expected to develop above the bulk of the PC. The rationale for our revision is that the proper treatment of primary acceleration within the pulsar SGs should take into account the effect of the narrow geometry of the gap on the electrodynamics within the gap and also to include the effect of inertial frame dragging on the particle acceleration. We show that the accelerating electric field within the gap, being significantly boosted by the effect of frame dragging, becomes reduced because of the gap geometry by a factor proportional to the square of the SG width. The combination of the effects of frame dragging and geometrical screening in the gap region naturally gives rise to a regime of extended acceleration, that is not limited to favorably curved field lines as in earlier models, and the possibility of multiple-pair production by curvature photons at very high altitudes, up to several stellar radii. We present our estimates of the characteristic SG thickness across the PC, energetics of primaries accelerated within the gap, high-energy bolometric luminosities emitted from the high altitudes in the gaps, and maximum heating luminosities produced by positrons returning from the elevated pair fronts. The estimated theoretical high-energy luminosities are in good agreement with the corresponding empirical relationships for gamma-ray pulsars. We illustrate the results of our modeling of the pair cascades and gamma-ray emission from the high altitudes in the SG for the Crab pulsar. The combination of the frame-dragging field and high-altitude SG emission enables both acceleration at the smaller

  10. [About the 350th anniversary of the foundation of the chair of anatomy of the faculty of medicine at Strasbourg (1652-2002)].

    PubMed

    Le Minor, Jean-Marie; Sick, Henri

    2003-01-01

    Some historical and bibliographical elements are given at the occasion of the 350th anniversary of the foundation of the chair of anatomy at Strasbourg. Strasbourg played an important role in the dissemination of the anatomical knowledge in the end of the 15th and the first half of the 16th century. In 1517, the first official human dissection organized in Strasbourg was performed. In 1652, a specific chair of anatomy founded, and the first holder was J. A. Sebiz (1614-1685). In 1670, an anatomical lecture theatre was created. Strasbourg became a French town in 1681 with no modification of the university and of the chair of anatomy. In 1872, after the annexation of Alsace, a new German university was founded ; normal anatomy and pathology were separated and each chair attached to a particular institute. In 1919, when the Faculty of Medicine was reorganized after Alsace was restored to France, specific chairs and institutes were founded for histology and embryology. Among the famous morphologists and scientists who worked in Strasbourg were in anatomy : H. Brunschwig (?-1534), W. H. Ryff (c. 1505-1548), J. Winter von Andernach (1497-1574), T. Lauth (1758-1826), F. D. Reisseissen (1773-1828), J. F. Lobstein (1777-1835), E. A. Lauth (1803-1837), E. Koeberlé (1828-1915), E. Beaunis (1830-1921), H. D. Bouchard (1833-1899), J. G. Joessel (1838-1892), W. Waldeyer (1836-1921), G. Schwalbe (1844-1916), W. Pfitzner (1853-1903), F. Keibel (1861-1929), A. Forster (1878-1957), and P. Bellocq (1888-1962) ; in pathology : F. D. von Rechlinghausen (1833-1910), H. Chiari (1851-1916), J. G. Mönckeberg (1877-1925), P. Masson (1880-1959), and L. Géry (1883-1957) ; in histology : P. Bouin (1870-1962), M. Aron (1892-1974), R. Courrier (1895-1986), and M. Klein (1905-1975) ; in embryology : P. Ancel (1873-1961), P. Vintemberger (1891-1983), J. Benoit (1896-1982), E. Wolff (1904-1996), and J. Clavert (1912-1994).

  11. Monitoring Endeavour vent field deep-sea ecosystem dynamics through NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matabos, M.; NC Endeavour Science Team

    2010-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are dynamic systems where the complex linkages between geological, biological, chemical, and physical processes are not yet well understood. Indeed, the poor accessibility to the marine environment has greatly limited our understanding of deep-sea ecosystems. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required to conduct long-term and high-resolution time-series observations of the seafloor. Investigations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal ecosystem require interdisciplinary studies to better understand the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. NEPTUNE Canada (NC) regional observatory is located in the Northeast Pacific, off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada), and spans ecological environments from the beach to the abyss. In September-October 2010, NC will be instrumenting its 5th node, including deployment of a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments in two vent fields on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These include a digital camera, an imaging sonar for vent plumes and flow characteristics (i.e. COVIS), temperature resistivity probes, a water sampler and seismometers. In 2011, the TEMPO-mini, a new custom-designed camera and sensor package created by IFREMER for real-time monitoring of hydrothermal faunal assemblages and their ecosystems (Sarrazin et al. 2007), and a microbial incubator, will added to the network in the Main Endeavour and Mothra vent fields. This multidisciplinary approach will involve a scientific community from different institutions and countries. Significant experience aids in this installation. For example, video systems connected to VENUS and NC have led to the development of new experimental protocols for time-series observations using seafloor cameras, including sampling design, camera calibration and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al. and Robert et al.). Similarly, autonomous deployment of many of the planned instruments

  12. The contribution of the global thermohaline circulation to the Pacific to Indian Ocean Throughflow via Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Jay F.; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    1997-03-01

    World ocean simulations are used to investigate the pathways feeding the Indonesian throughflow as a function of depth, including the role of the global thermohaline ("conveyor belt") circulation. The simulations use a horizontal resolution of 1/2° for each variable and the vertical resolution ranges from 1.5-layer reduced gravity to six layers with realistic bottom topography. They are forced by the Hellerman and Rosenstein [1983] monthly wind stress climatology. Contrary to the classical theory of Stommel and Arons [1960], the Naval Research Laboratory model shows the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region as the main region of abyssal to upper ocean water upwelling which compensates for the deep water formation in the far North Atlantic, a result corroborated by recent observational evidence [Toggweiler and Samuels, 1993]. We examine the contribution of the global conveyor belt circulation to the throughflow by systematically varying the model dynamics (e.g., by disabling the far North Atlantic ports which parameterize deep water formation in that region). The model simulations show a global conveyor belt circulation contribution of 5.7 Sv to the throughflow, a contribution provided mainly by wind-driven upwelling in the Indo-Pacific ACC region. This is due to a cooperative interaction between the thermohaline and wind-driven circulations. The thermohaline circulation makes the throughflow more surface trapped and less subject to topographic blocking in the Indonesian passageways, while the wind-driven circulation provides the Indonesian throughflow pathway for the thermohaline flow upwelled in the ACC region. Mean layer transport fields, cross-layer mass transfer fields, and Lagrangian tracers are used to identify pathways feeding the Pacific to Indian Ocean throughflow via Indonesia. Starting from the ACC, Sverdrup flow shows a circuitous route that is northward in the eastern South Pacific, then westward in the South Equatorial Current (SEC). The SEC

  13. Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment: Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that insufficient mixing occurs in the pelagic ocean to maintain the large scale thermohaline circulation. Observed mixing rates fall a factor of ten short of classical indices such as Munk's "Abyssal Recipe." The growing suspicion is that most of the mixing in the sea occurs near topography. Exciting recent observations by Polzin et al., among others, fuel this speculation. If topographic mixing is indeed important, it must be acknowledged that its geographic distribution, both laterally and vertically, is presently unknown. The vertical distribution of mixing plays a critical role in the Stommel Arons model of the ocean interior circulation. In recent numerical studies, Samelson demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of flow in the abyssal ocean to the spatial distribution of mixing. We propose to study the topographic mixing problem through an integrated program of modeling and observation. We focus on tidally forced mixing as the global energetics of this process have received (and are receiving) considerable study. Also, the well defined frequency of the forcing and the unique geometry of tidal scattering serve to focus the experiment design. The Hawaiian Ridge is selected as a study site. Strong interaction between the barotropic tide and the Ridge is known to take place. The goals of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are to quantify the rate of tidal energy loss to mixing at the Ridge and to identify the mechanisms by which energy is lost and mixing generated. We are challenged to develop a sufficiently comprehensive picture that results can be generalized from Hawaii to the global ocean. To achieve these goals, investigators from five institutions have designed HOME, a program of historic data analysis, modeling and field observation. The Analysis and Modeling efforts support the design of the field experiments. As the program progresses, a global model of the barotropic (depth independent) tide, and two models of the

  14. Chandra Examines a Quadrillion-Volt Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    to Chandra, it is becoming clear that pulsars are stupendous cosmic power plants." The arcs are thought to be due to shock waves in matter flowing away from the equator of the pulsar. By measuring the position and width of these arcs, the team estimated the intensity of the magnetic field, and the rate at which the pulsar is pumping high-energy particles into the space around it. "The X-ray images give us evidence that the pulsar not only accelerates particles efficiently," said Jonathan Arons of the University of California at Berkeley, "but it gives them energy comparable to the highest energies found in the cosmic rays which continuously bombard the Earth." In addition, the team determined that a bright cloud of X-ray emission about 25 light years from the pulsar is due to multi-million degree gas. This hot cloud was probably produced as material ejected by the supernova collided with cooler gas in interstellar space. Other members of the B1509-58 research team included Michael Pivovaroff (ThermaWave Inc), Nobuyuki Kawai (Tokyo Institute of Technology) and Keisuke Tamura (Nagoya University). Chandra observed B1509-58 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument, which was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

  15. MoMar-Demo at Lucky Strike. A near-real time multidisciplinary observatory of hydrothermal processes and ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannat, M.; Sarradin, P.; Blandin, J.; Escartin, J.; Colaco, A.; MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party; Aron, Michael; Aumont, Virginie; Baillard, Christian; Ballu, Valérie; Barreyre, Thibaut; Blandin, Jérôme; Blin, Alexandre; Boulart, Cédric; Cannat, Mathilde; Carval, Thierry; Castillo, Alain; Chavagnac, Valérie; Coail, Jean Yves; Colaço, Ana; Corela, Carlos; Courrier, Christophe; Crawford, Wayne; Cuvelier, Daphné; Daniel, Romuald; Dausse, Denis; Escartin, Javier; Fabrice, Fontaine; Gabsi, Taoufik; Gayet, Nicolas; Guyader, Gérard; Lallier, François; Lecomte, Benoit; Legrand, Julien; Lino, Silva; Miranda, Miguel; Mitard, Emmelyne; Pichavant, Pascal; Pot, Olivier; Reverdin, Gilles; Rommevaux, Céline; Sarradin, Pierre Marie; Sarrazin, Jozée; Tanguy, Virginie; Villinger, Heinrich; Zbinden, Magali

    2011-12-01

    , pressure probes, tiltmeter, temperature probes in selected smokers, currentmeters and temperature probes in the water column), and colonization devices for time-integrated faunal studies. In this presentation we will outline the latest results of this prototype sub-sea multidisciplinary observatory system. The MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

  16. Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment: Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that insufficient mixing occurs in the pelagic ocean to maintain the large scale thermohaline circulation. Observed mixing rates fall a factor of ten short of classical indices such as Munk's "Abyssal Recipe." The growing suspicion is that most of the mixing in the sea occurs near topography. Exciting recent observations by Polzin et al., among others, fuel this speculation. If topographic mixing is indeed important, it must be acknowledged that its geographic distribution, both laterally and vertically, is presently unknown. The vertical distribution of mixing plays a critical role in the Stommel Arons model of the ocean interior circulation. In recent numerical studies, Samelson demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of flow in the abyssal ocean to the spatial distribution of mixing. We propose to study the topographic mixing problem through an integrated program of modeling and observation. We focus on tidally forced mixing as the global energetics of this process have received (and are receiving) considerable study. Also, the well defined frequency of the forcing and the unique geometry of tidal scattering serve to focus the experiment design. The Hawaiian Ridge is selected as a study site. Strong interaction between the barotropic tide and the Ridge is known to take place. The goals of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are to quantify the rate of tidal energy loss to mixing at the Ridge and to identify the mechanisms by which energy is lost and mixing generated. We are challenged to develop a sufficiently comprehensive picture that results can be generalized from Hawaii to the global ocean. To achieve these goals, investigators from five institutions have designed HOME, a program of historic data analysis, modeling and field observation. The Analysis and Modeling efforts support the design of the field experiments. As the program progresses, a global model of the barotropic (depth independent) tide, and two models of the

  17. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    their help in producing this special section. We hope that it conveys some of the excitement and significance of the field. Semiconducting oxides contents Chemical bonding in copper-based transparent conducting oxides: CuMO2 (M = In, Ga, Sc) K G Godinho, B J Morgan, J P Allen, D O Scanlon and G W Watson Electrical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films with Pt and ITO electrodes: dielectric and rectifying behaviourShunyi Li, Cosmina Ghinea, Thorsten J M Bayer, Markus Motzko, Robert Schafranek and Andreas Klein Orientation dependent ionization potential of In2O3: a natural source for inhomogeneous barrier formation at electrode interfaces in organic electronicsMareike V Hohmann, Péter Ágoston, André Wachau, Thorsten J M Bayer, Joachim Brötz, Karsten Albe and Andreas Klein Cathodoluminescence studies of electron irradiation effects in n-type ZnOCasey Schwarz, Yuqing Lin, Max Shathkin, Elena Flitsiyan and Leonid Chernyak Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputteringM F Cerqueira, M I Vasilevskiy, F Oliveira, A G Rolo, T Viseu, J Ayres de Campos, E Alves and R Correia Structure and electrical properties of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide prepared by microwave plasma synthesisM Sagmeister, M Postl, U Brossmann, E J W List, A Klug, I Letofsky-Papst, D V Szabó and R Würschum Charge compensation in trivalent cation doped bulk rutile TiO2Anna Iwaszuk and Michael Nolan Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of n-type ZnO single crystals grown by different techniquesL Scheffler, Vl Kolkovsky, E V Lavrov and J Weber Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour depositionC David, T Girardeau, F Paumier, D Eyidi, B Lacroix, N Papathanasiou, B P Tinkham, P Guérin and M Marteau Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modellingAron Walsh, Juarez L F Da Silva and Su-Huai Wei Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of