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Sample records for arons inara logina

  1. Arnold B. Arons (1916-2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Bruce A.

    Arnold B. Arons died of a heart attack at his home in Seattle on February 28, 2001, aged 84. He was a long-time member of the American Geophysical Union (1950; Ocean Sciences) and of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), of which he was president in 1961. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Arnold Arons was a teacher of physics. He taught it to the freshmen at Amherst College from 1952 to 1968, and then, at the University of Washington, he taught prospective teachers of physics how to teach it. He stressed meaning in physical concepts: how it is derived from shared experience, is founded on operational definitions, and is deepened and broadened with growing sophistication, individual and historical. He derided glib chatter about complex ideas (“Gibberish!”), or mere manipulation of symbols and formulas, and insisted—fiercely—that students know what they were talking about. His presence in the lecture hall at Amherst was sometimes terrifying; that technique might not be readily accepted in present, more tender times, but it was effective in shaking high school hotshots loose from some of their delusions. Despite perceived indignities, they usually gave him a standing ovation at the end of the spring semester.

  2. Review of Stephen Arons's "Short Route to Chaos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    "Short Route to Chaos" criticizes the Goals 2000 program, related educational reforms, and the agenda of the Religious Right from the viewpoint of the secular Left. Arons supports school choice, school and teacher independence from government regulation of instructional content, publicly funded schools, and equity in funding. (SLD)

  3. The scientific heritage of Professor Aron Gutman (Commemorating the 10th anniversary of Aron Gutman's death).

    PubMed

    Baginskas, Armuntas; Svirskis, Gytis; Miliauskas, Rimvydas

    2009-01-01

    Aron Gutman started his scientific research when he was a student of the Department of Physics and Mathematics, Vilnius University. At that time, he developed the theory of nonhomogenous vector relations between magnetic moments of electrons in an atom and applied it for explanation of energy spectrum of real atoms. Since 1960, he worked in Kaunas Medical Institute, and his main field of scientific interests was theoretical biophysics and electrophysiology of living tissues and cells. The earlier biophysical works of A. Gutman dealt with problems of the bioelectrical fields that underlie electroencephalogram, electrocorticogram, and electrocardiogram. The most important achievement was a theory of individual potential or postsynaptic field potential of synapses from individual axon (EEG quantum) and its role in shaping of electroencephalogram. In the later works (from 1971), he looked into properties and function of the individual nerve cells. He had created and developed the theory of nonlinear (bistable) dendrites and analyzed functional implications of such dendrites. In the last works, A. Gutman tried to relate the functioning of the nervous system at the cellular and system levels. He made efforts to find connection between the properties of individual neurones and principles (laws) of functioning of the nervous system. He had managed to relate dendritic bistability of neurones and Gelfand-Tsetlin principle of the functioning of the central nervous system (also known as the principle of minimal afferentiation). He explained some regularities in motor control by the dendritic bistability of motoneurones. PMID:19834311

  4. The scientific heritage of Professor Aron Gutman (Commemorating the 10th anniversary of Aron Gutman's death).

    PubMed

    Baginskas, Armuntas; Svirskis, Gytis; Miliauskas, Rimvydas

    2009-01-01

    Aron Gutman started his scientific research when he was a student of the Department of Physics and Mathematics, Vilnius University. At that time, he developed the theory of nonhomogenous vector relations between magnetic moments of electrons in an atom and applied it for explanation of energy spectrum of real atoms. Since 1960, he worked in Kaunas Medical Institute, and his main field of scientific interests was theoretical biophysics and electrophysiology of living tissues and cells. The earlier biophysical works of A. Gutman dealt with problems of the bioelectrical fields that underlie electroencephalogram, electrocorticogram, and electrocardiogram. The most important achievement was a theory of individual potential or postsynaptic field potential of synapses from individual axon (EEG quantum) and its role in shaping of electroencephalogram. In the later works (from 1971), he looked into properties and function of the individual nerve cells. He had created and developed the theory of nonlinear (bistable) dendrites and analyzed functional implications of such dendrites. In the last works, A. Gutman tried to relate the functioning of the nervous system at the cellular and system levels. He made efforts to find connection between the properties of individual neurones and principles (laws) of functioning of the nervous system. He had managed to relate dendritic bistability of neurones and Gelfand-Tsetlin principle of the functioning of the central nervous system (also known as the principle of minimal afferentiation). He explained some regularities in motor control by the dendritic bistability of motoneurones.

  5. My Conversion to the Arons-Advocated Method of Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    Indiana University college teacher discusses undergraduate science education and effective teaching in introductory courses. The method recommended by educator Arnold Arons trades passive lecture for hands-on learning and Socratic dialogue. Indiana University began a successful research program which brought Arons' method to large-enrollment…

  6. A view of EPR non-locality problems based on Aron's stochastic foundation of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Jens

    1990-12-01

    It is argued that the problem of causal anomalies that still may exist in Vigier's explanation of superluminal EPR type correlations may be removed in the framework of Aron's stochastic foundation of relativity.

  7. Critical Thinking, Them, and Us: A Response to Arnold B. Arons's "'Critical Thinking' and the Baccalaureate Curriculum."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garver, Eugene

    1986-01-01

    Arons's article on the role of critical thinking in the liberal arts curriculum is criticized for its assumptions about the high level of intellectual development of faculty and its condescension toward students. It is suggested that Arons's proposals for faculty development in critical thinking be extended to include both teaching and scholarly…

  8. Automaticity of unconscious response inhibition: comment on Chiu and Aron (2014).

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhicheng; Murray, Scott O

    2015-02-01

    A recent study (Chiu & Aron, 2014) suggested that unconscious response inhibition is maintained when subliminal stimuli are mixed with supraliminal stimuli that are associated with response inhibition (mixed session), but it is abolished when they are presented alone (single session). However, awareness of the subliminal stimuli is likely to differ in the 2 sessions because of priming of awareness--awareness for subliminal stimuli is elevated (e.g., no longer subliminal) when mixed with supraliminal stimuli (Lin & Murray, 2014a). Here, in a novel design, we measured the awareness level in both sessions and found that the session-dependent effect was due to an awareness difference: The effect disappeared when awareness was comparable and emerged only when awareness was different. Arguments based on the lack of correlation between awareness and unconscious effects are refuted because typical correlation analysis underestimates the true correlation because of range restriction and it speaks only about individual differences that cannot explain within-subject effects (e.g., stimulus context here). Our findings also point to an attention-based mechanism underlying priming of awareness: Supraliminal trials are less attention-demanding, allowing for more attentional resources for subliminal trials in the mixed than single sessions. We discuss 2 implications. First, unconscious effects depend on top-down task sets and bottom-up stimulus strength. Second, to properly demonstrate unconscious processing, we stress the importance of having equivalent trial sequences between the main and awareness tests, promote a conjunction method that can strengthen inference, and discuss establishing a limit for equivalence between observed and chance performance.

  9. 76 FR 10578 - Combined Notice of Filings # 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... p.m. Eastern Time on Thursday, March 10, 2011 Docket Numbers: ER11-2587-001. Applicants: J. Aron & Company. Description: J. Aron & Company submits tariff filing per 35: J. Aron & Company Substitute...

  10. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    .... Lion Companies state that they have a supply and off-take agreement with J. Aron & Company (J. Aron), which is used as an alternative to conventional financing. Under this agreement J. Aron takes title to... waiver, Lion Companies assert that the agreement with J. Aron is not a traditional...

  11. 76 FR 27035 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    .... Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on Monday, May 23, 2011. Docket Numbers: LA11-1-000. Applicants: J. Aron & Company, Power Receivable Finance, LLC. Description: Land Acquisition Report of J. Aron & Company...

  12. The (Re)Construction of Self after the Death of a Partner to HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadell, Susan; Marshall, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore individuals' self-construals after the loss of a partner from HIV/AIDS for whom they were a caregiver. Seven gay or transsexual bereaved caregivers were interviewed after the death of their partners. The data revealed patterns suggestive of A. Aron and E. N. Aron's (1986) "inclusion of others in the self" (IOS)…

  13. Disability and the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…

  14. Inclusion of Community in Self Scale: A Single-Item Pictorial Measure of Community Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashek, Debra; Cannaday, Lisa W.; Tangney, June P.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a single-item pictorial measure of community connectedness, building on the theoretical and methodological traditions of the self-expansion model (Aron & Aron, 1986). The Inclusion of Community in the Self (ICS) Scale demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity in a sample of 190…

  15. Remarks on a result about hypercyclic non-convolution operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Gustavo; Hallack, André Arbex

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we correct a proof by Aron and Markose in [R. Aron, D. Markose, On universal functions, J. Korean Math. Soc. 41 (2004) 65-76] for the hypercyclicity of the operator given by , in the case b[not equal to]0.

  16. Expanding the Self through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Salena M.; Wright, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    This article applies Aron and Aron's (1986) self-expansion model to the service-learning context. The self-expansion model proposes a motivational framework for understanding why individuals are motivated to engage in service-learning opportunities that allow for meaningful social interaction. Using a survey design, this study confirms hypotheses…

  17. Issues Forum: National Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "On the Common Core of Learning" (Kennedy); "Constitutional Implications of National Curriculum Standards" (Arons); "Arguments against National Performance Standards" (Fulk, Mantzicopoulos, Hirth); and "The Painful Lessons of Introducing the National Curriculum in England" (Foster). (SK)

  18. 77 FR 55201 - Notice of Orders Granting Applications to Import and Export Natural Gas and Vacating Prior...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... July 2012; J. Aron & Company; Iberdrola Renewables, LLC AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of... Order No. Date issued FE Docket No. Authorization holder Description of action 3126 07/19/12 12-64-NG...

  19. Advocacy for Parents Key to IDEA Case: Nonlawyer Has Long Fought to Join Due-Process Hearings and to Be Paid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    For years, Marilyn Arons, 67, has taught parents how to use the main federal special education law to get the most appropriate education for their children. And now, the role of experts such as Ms. Arons is at the center of a U.S. Supreme Court case that will be heard next week. The case, which began in 1997, involves New York state's Arlington…

  20. Web life: Just A Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    After a few months of physics videos, amateur science sites and educational games, the website we are highlighting in this month's column is a straightforward blog. Just A Theory was started in 2008 by freelance science journalist Jacob Aron while he was studying for a Master's degree in science communication at Imperial College London. The blog's title, Aron explains, reflects a popular misconception that scientific theories are "dreamed up by mad scientists in laboratories somewhere" rather than well-crafted explanations based on observations and experiments. To combat this impression, the site aims to highlight good and bad science coverage in the mainstream media, and to provide original commentary on current scientific events.

  1. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the 21 articles published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996. The articles are: (1) "The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems" (Sherman Dorn); (2) "Review of Stephen Arons's 'Short Route to Chaos'" (Charles L. Glenn); (3) "Planting Land Mines in Common Ground: A…

  2. Fiscal Justice and Judicial Sovereignty: Plotting the Logic of a Slippery Slope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1984-01-01

    This article takes a philosophical look at judicial concepts of fiscal equality as they apply to education. Ideas discussed include (1) the concept of basic education and how equal education applies; (2) differences in requirements of equality; and (3) educational outcomes used to judge equality. Comments by Stephen Arons are included. (DF)

  3. Scholars Who Teach: The Art of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Steven M., Ed.

    In essays on a variety of disciplines, seven college teachers discuss the art of inspiring enthusiasm in college students. The topics are: history (Russell H. Bostert); English (Edward B. Partridge); mathematics (Robert H. Gurland); science (Arnold B. Arons); social science (Rita W. Cooley); foreign language and literature (John G. Weiger); and…

  4. Attention to Context: U.S. and Japanese Children's Emotional Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Son, Ji Y.; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggests cultural differences in the attention and evaluation of information in adults (Hedden, Ketay, Aron, Markus, & Gabrieli, 2008; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Masuda & Nisbett, 2001). One cultural comparison, between Westerners, such as Americans, and Easterners, such as the Japanese, suggests that Westerners typically…

  5. Comment on ``Theoretical Description of Carrier Mediated Magnetism in Cobalt Doped ZnO''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanvito, Stefano; Pemmaraju, Chaitanya Das

    2009-04-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Aron Walsh, Juarez L. F. Da Silva, and Su-Huai Wei, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 100, 256401 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.256401. The authors of the Letter offer a Reply.

  6. Helping Students Come to Grips with the Meaning of Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    2004-01-01

    Many years ago, Arons pointed out the incomprehension science students exhibit of the basic mathematical operations multiplication and division and the need to address the problem in physics classes to assure student understanding of the physical world. McDermott et al.'s Physics by Inquiry program does address this need directly and in detail (by…

  7. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  8. 76 FR 53162 - Acceptance of Public Submissions Regarding the Study of Stable Value Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ...''; Mixed Swaps; Security-Based Swap Agreement Recordkeeping, File No. S7-16-11, 76 FR 29818 (May 23, 2011..., 2011); Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions, Department of Labor, 75 FR... David E. Aron, Counsel, Office of the General Counsel, (202) 418-6621, daron@cftc.gov ,...

  9. Definitions, Experiments, and the Laws of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Milton A.

    1970-01-01

    Using the Newtonian relationship F equal MA, the author discusses three interpretations of the equation: (1) the engineering approach, (2) the Machian "field approach, and (3) the Newtonian approach as used by Arons. Contends that there are three types of definitions: conceptual, behavioral, and operational. Author illustrates these definition…

  10. Futures of Education for Exceptional Students: Emerging Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Maynard C., Ed.

    The book presents excerpts from a conference on future trends in special education. The first section includes seven papers: "Mainstreaming: Dilemmas, Opposition, Opportunities" (S. Sarason); "Pirandello in the Classroom: On the Possibility of Equal Educational Opportunity in American Culture" (R. McDermott and J. Aron); "Special Education and the…

  11. Comment on "Maslow's Other Child"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Turner, Charles

    1977-01-01

    Disputes Adrianne Aron's "unlovely coupling of Maslow with Bay Area Hippies" (AA 526 463). Argues that self-actualization is a "synergistic formulation combining the satisfaction of self and others, and hence the fulfillment of self through socially significant action". (Editor/RK)

  12. 76 FR 32880 - Further Definition of “Swap,” “Security-Based Swap,” and “Security-Based Swap Agreement”; Mixed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...., Washington, DC 20549-7010. Correction In the Federal Register of May 23, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-11008, on page... read as noted above. In the Federal Register of May 23, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-11008, on page 29888, the... , or David E. Aron, Counsel, at 202-418-6621, daron@cftc.gov , Office of General Counsel,...

  13. Information Systems: Current Developments and Future Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    On May 20, 1970, a one-day seminar was held for Congressional members and staff. The papers given at this seminar and included in the proceedings are: (1) "Understanding Information Systems" by J. D. Aron, (2) "Computer Applications in Political Science" by Kenneth Janda, (3) "Who's the Master of Your Information System?" by Marvin Kornbluh, (4)…

  14. Reply to Comment on ``CARS probe of RDX decomposition''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, L. E.

    1984-08-01

    CARS spectra from an RDX composite flame which has been purported in the preceding Comment to be transitions in CO 2 may be tentatively assigned to CO 2 and/or HCN. Temperature estimated from these spectra is consistent with the contention of Aron and Harris that CARS spectra from near the solid surface originate from the reaction zone of the RDX composite flame.

  15. 77 FR 60113 - Acceptance of Public Submissions Regarding the Study of Stable Value Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... of Stable Value, 76 FR 53162 (Aug. 25, 2011). \\6\\ Id. Given the regulatory developments since the... FR 48208 (Aug. 13, 2012). \\8\\ Question 4 in the request for comment related to the applicability and... the Chief Economist, (202) 418-5911, skane@cftc.gov ; or David E. Aron, Counsel, Office of the...

  16. Helping Students to Think Like Scientists in Socratic Dialogue-Inducing Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Socratic dialogue-inducing (SDI) labs are based on Arnold Arons' half-century of ethnographic research, listening carefully to students' responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking, and culminating in his landmark "Teaching Introductory Physics." They utilize "interactive engagement" methods and are designed,…

  17. St. Mary's Hospital, rescued climber meet reporters as HIPAA rules begin.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2003-01-01

    St. Mary's Hospital, Grand Junction, Colo., is a regional hospital whose PR team is accustomed to media exposure. Just as tehy were instituting the patient privacy rules of HIPAA, a true-life reality drama landed on their doorstep. Aron Ralston, a 27-year old experienced mountain climber, became the hospital's highest profile patient and attracted worldwide media coverage after courageously rescuing himself from a near-disaster.

  18. Extension of vector-valued integral polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carando, Daniel; Lassalle, Silvia

    2005-07-01

    We study the extendibility of integral vector-valued polynomials on Banach spaces. We prove that an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on E extends to an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on any space F containing E, with the same integral norm. This is not the case for Grothendieck-integral polynomials: they do not always extend to X-valued Grothendieck-integral polynomials. However, they are extendible to X-valued polynomials. The Aron-Berner extension of an integral polynomial is also studied. A canonical integral representation is given for domains not containing l1.

  19. Polarization renormalization due to nonlinear optical generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, J. J.

    1984-02-01

    A classical Maxwellian analysis of the reduction of multiphoton excitation associated with the coherent third-harmonic generation of electromagnetic waves propagating in nonlinear media is presented. The approach of Bloembergen and Pershan (1962) is followed, making no use of quantum-mechanical description and considering the total electric polarization (the sum of the medium's linear response and the nonlinear source polarization) at the generated frequency. It is demonstrated that this method successfully explains the experimental results of Aron and Johnson (1977), Miller et al. (1980), Glownia and Sander (1982), and Faisal et al. (1977) by analyzing the relationship of the total and nonlinear polarization components.

  20. Particle image cinematograph velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guangyun; Shen, Gongxin

    1993-01-01

    Particle image cinematograph velocimetry (PICV), a new method based on 2D velocity field with time history measurements for unsteady flows, is presented here. Using mechanical chopping light pulses of the Aron ion laser, which are matched synchronously with moving action of a cinematograph, a series of double or multiple exposure images of particles which are seeded in fluid could be recorded in the films sequentially. The recording films are scanned by an auto-interrogation system, a series of instantaneous 2D-velocity distribution maps with time history are obtained. Some application results for a starting vortex flow around a backward step are presented.

  1. Disability and the education system.

    PubMed

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what

  2. Disability and the education system.

    PubMed

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what

  3. The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

    2012-01-01

    Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task. PMID:23296389

  4. Retracted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuanhong; Wang, Hongzhou

    2005-11-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: This work is a 'double submission' by the two authors Y. Yu and H. Wang. The Kyungpook article (Kyungpook Math. J., 46 (2006) 273-284) was received on 29 November 2004, and the Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications received its copy on 5 February 2005. The Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications version was accepted in April 2005 and Kyungpook accepted their copy in August 2005. Finally, I express my gratitude to the editor of the Kyungpook Mathematical Journal, and also to Dr. Devrim Cakmak (Ankara Turkey), ho first alerted us to this problem. Richard M. Aron, Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications

  5. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    1986-04-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  6. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  7. Extending Gurwitsch's field theory of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Jeff; Vinson, David W

    2015-07-01

    Aron Gurwitsch's theory of the structure and dynamics of consciousness has much to offer contemporary theorizing about consciousness and its basis in the embodied brain. On Gurwitsch's account, as we develop it, the field of consciousness has a variable sized focus or "theme" of attention surrounded by a structured periphery of inattentional contents. As the field evolves, its contents change their status, sometimes smoothly, sometimes abruptly. Inner thoughts, a sense of one's body, and the physical environment are dominant field contents. These ideas can be linked with (and help unify) contemporary theories about the neural correlates of consciousness, inattention, the small world structure of the brain, meta-stable dynamics, embodied cognition, and predictive coding in the brain.

  8. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  9. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  10. Voluntary inhibition of pain avoidance behavior: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Margaret T; Demanet, Jelle; Krebs, Ruth M; Van Dessel, Pieter; Brass, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition has classically been considered to rely upon a neural network centered at the right inferior frontal cortex [rIFC; Aron et al. (8:170-177, 2004; 18:177-185, 2014)]. However, the vast majority of inhibition studies have entailed exogenous stop signals instructing participants to withhold responding. More recent work has begun to examine the neural underpinnings of endogenous inhibition, revealing a distinct cortical basis in the dorsal fronto-median cortex [dFMC; Brass and Haggard (27:9141-9145, 2007); Kühn et al. (30:2834-3843, 2009)]. Yet, contrary to everyday experiences of voluntary behavioral suppression, the paradigms employed to investigate action inhibition have thus far been somewhat artificial, and involve little persuasive motivation to act. Accordingly, the present fMRI study seeks to compare and contrast intentional with instructed inhibition in a novel pain paradigm that recruits 'hot' incentive response systems. Participants received increasing thermal stimulation to their inner wrists, and were required to occasionally withhold their natural impulse to withdraw from the compelling pain sensation at peak temperature, in both instructed and free-choice conditions. Consistent with previous research, we observed inhibition-related activity in the dFMC and the rIFC. However, these regions displayed equivalent activation levels for both inhibition types. These data extend previous research by demonstrating that under ecologically valid conditions with a strong motivation to act, both stopping networks operate in concert to enable suppression of unwanted behavior.

  11. Attention to context: U.S. and Japanese children’s emotional judgments

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji Y.; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest cultural differences in the attention and evaluation of information in adults (Masuda & Nisbett, 2001; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Hedden, Ketay, Aron, Markus, & Gabrieli, 2008). One cultural comparison, between Westerners, such as Americans, and Easterners, such as the Japanese, suggest that Westerners typically focus on a central single object in a scene while Easterners often integrate their judgment of the focal object with surrounding contextual cues. There are few studies of whether such cultural differences are evident in children. This study examined 48 monolingual Japanese-speaking children residing in Japan and 48 monolingual English-speaking children residing in the U.S.A. (40 to 60 month-olds) in a task asking children to complete a picture by adding the proper emotional expression to a face. The key variable was the context and shift in context from the preceding trial for the same pictured individual. Japanese children were much more likely to shift their judgments with changes in context whereas children from the United States treated facial expression in a more trait-like manner, maintaining the same expression for the individual across contexts. PMID:22144873

  12. Flow of bottom water in the Somali Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Warren, Bruce A.; Olson, Donald B.

    1991-06-01

    Repeat CTD surveys by the R.R.S. Charles Darwin in the Somali Basin at the height of subsequent northeast and southwest monsoons show only small differences in the circulation of the bottom water. About 4 × 10 6 m 6 s -1 moves north along the continental rise of Africa below a zero-velocity surface at the potential isotherm 1.2°C in a deep western-boundary current near 3°S. Cross-equatorial sections suggest that this flow turns eastward near the equator. North of the equator a large mass of cold water is found in the interior, east of the Chain Ridge. The presence of this feature reinforces the evidence that the deep western-boundary current observed south of the equator turns east at the equator and feeds the interior circulation in the northern part of the basin from the equator, and not from the boundary. The deep circulation observed in the Somali Basin is roughly consistent with a flat-bottom uniform upwelling Stommel-Arons calculation with realistic basin geometry, source location and uniform upwelling. However, the model results indicate that the boundary current crosses the equator, whereas the observational analysis suggests that it turns eastward there.

  13. RETRACTED: On the composition of the distributions x[lambda]+ and x[mu]+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Brian; Tas, Kenan

    2006-06-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief and Author. Reason: Following publication of this paper, it was brought to our attention that a virtually identical paper had been published earlier: B. Fisher and K. Tas. On the composition of the distributions x-r+ and x[mu]+, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 36 (2005) 11-22. Furthermore, the following similar paper has also appeared: B. Fisher and K. Tas. On the composition of the distributions x-1 ln x and xr+. Integral Transforms and Special Functions 16 (2005) 533-543. When the JMAA paper was being submitted, the JMAA Editors were unaware that an almost identical version was under consideration elsewhere, and indeed, in the submission procedures, authors are asked to declare explicitly that this is not the case. Had this notification been given accordingly, the paper would not have been accepted. The Editors deplore the practice of simultaneous multiple submission of papers to different journals, and offer their sincere and unreserved apologies to readers of the journal for not having spotted this. Professors Steven G. Krantz, Richard M. Aron, Goong Chen; Editors-in-Chief

  14. Uniaxial Stress Dependence of the Fermi Surface of Copper.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruesink, Derk Willem

    Form a comprehensive experimental study of quantum oscillations in magnetostriction and torque, values have been deduced for all non-vanishing tetragonal and angular shear strain derivatives for the five principal extremal cross sections of the Fermi surface of copper, viz., the neck and belly normal to {111}, the dogsbone normal to {110} and the rosette and belly normal to {001}. It is found that the neck is most sensitive to angular shear strain, whereas the bellies are most affected by uniform dilation. For the other orbits the magnitudes of shear and dilation derivatives are comparable. The results are self consistent and agree with experimental tensile stress results of Shoenberg and Watts. Earlier magnetostriction results for the neck obtained by Aron and by Slavin can be brought into agreement with the present data by recalculating the former using the presently accepted value of the neck effective mass. The present experimental values are in reasonable agreement with theoretical values calculated by Lee, except for the tetragonal shear derivative of the {001} belly; the theoretical value is about 50% higher than the experimentally determined derivative.

  15. Assessment of Magnetostatic Interaction Effects on Thellier Paleointensity Determination by Experimental Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Zhao, X.

    2009-05-01

    The ability to control magnetic interactions between grains is of fundamental importance in paleointensity studies. We continued to perform experimental simulations to help understand the effect of magnetostatic interaction on Thellier type paleointensity experiments, using artificial synthesized magnetite grains mixed with both pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multidomain (MD) particles. Magnetite powders were mixed either with an Aron ceramic or were dispersed in matrix of Seto porcelain clay. The effects of interaction between grains can be observed from the magnetic behavior of specimens with different inter-grain distances. The maximum effect of domain's interaction can be estimated by comparing the behavior of specimens with large inter-grain distance (i.e., mostly dispersed-grains) with that of ideal non-interacting SD grains. Our results clearly show that (1) the interaction between grains (rather than domain's interaction) has particular disastrous effects on the Thellier-Coe paleointensity experiment; (2) interaction of large inter- grain distance samples adds an almost negative constant value to the applied external field (i.e., acting as an internal demagnetizing field); (3) interaction in shorter inter-grain distance samples mainly generates the difference in blocking and unblocking temperatures of the sample. Detailed results will be presented and discussed at the meeting.

  16. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili solitons propagation in a plasma system with superthermal and weakly relativistic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hafeez-Ur-Rehman; Mahmood, S.; Shah, Asif; Haque, Q.

    2011-12-15

    Two dimensional (2D) solitons are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistically streaming ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived through the reductive perturbation technique. Analytical solution of the KP equation has been studied numerically and graphically. It is noticed that kappa parameters of electrons and positrons as well as the ions relativistic streaming factor have an emphatic influence on the structural as well as propagation characteristics of two dimensional solitons in the considered plasma system. Our results may be helpful in the understanding of soliton propagation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, specifically the interaction of pulsar relativistic wind with supernova ejecta and the transfer of energy to plasma by intense electric field of laser beams producing highly energetic superthermal and relativistic particles [L. Arons, Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib. 357, 373 (2009); P. Blasi and E. Amato, Astrophys. Space Sci. Proc. 2011, 623; and A. Shah and R. Saeed, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 095006 (2011)].

  17. Romantic love: an fMRI study of a neural mechanism for mate choice.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-12-01

    Scientists have described myriad traits in mammalian and avian species that evolved to attract mates. But the brain mechanisms by which conspecifics become attracted to these traits is largely unknown. Yet mammals and birds express mate preferences and make mate choices, and data suggest that this "attraction system" is associated with the dopaminergic reward system. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic love we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studied 17 people who were intensely "in love" (Aron et al. [2005] J Neurophysiol 94:327-337). Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the right ventral tegmental area and right caudate nucleus, dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward pathways contribute to the "general arousal" component of romantic love; romantic love is primarily a motivation system, rather than an emotion; this drive is distinct from the sex drive; romantic love changes across time; and romantic love shares biobehavioral similarities with mammalian attraction. We propose that this attraction mechanism evolved to enable individuals to focus their mating energy on specific others, thereby conserving energy and facilitating mate choice-a primary aspect of reproduction. Last, the corticostriate system, with its potential for combining diverse cortical information with reward signals, is an excellent anatomical substrate for the complex factors contributing to romantic love and mate choice. PMID:16255001

  18. Hydrophilic property of 316L stainless steel after treatment by atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma using surface-sensitive analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim; Pedrow, Patrick; Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal

    2012-10-01

    Surgical-grade 316L stainless steel (SS 316L) had its surface hydrophilic property enhanced by processing in a corona streamer plasma reactor using O2 gas mixed with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Reactor excitation was 60 Hz ac high-voltage (0-10 kVRMS) applied to a multi-needle-to-grounded screen electrode configuration. The treated surface was characterized with a contact angle tester. Surface free energy (SFE) for the treated stainless steel increased measurably compared to the untreated surface. The Ar-O2 plasma was more effective in enhancing the SFE than Ar-only plasma. Optimum conditions for the plasma treatment system used in this study were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the chemical composition of the treated surfaces confirms the existence of new oxygen-containing functional groups contributing to the change in the hydrophilic nature of the surface. These new functional groups were generated by surface reactions caused by reactive oxidation of substrate species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were generated to investigate morphological and roughness changes on the plasma treated surfaces. The aging effect in air after treatment was also studied.

  19. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should be First

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-10-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels.1-3 This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud4 and Weinstock5 proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in many textbooks without resorting to "intuitional or anthropomorphic contrivances."5 In 1990, Arnold Arons6 wrote that "the Law of Inertia and the concept of force have, historically, been two of the most formidable stumbling blocks for students." One might imagine, therefore, that by 2012 remedial strategies would have resolved these difficulties, but there is little evidence that the problem has been satisfactorily addressed. Diagnostic tools such as the Force Concept Inventory7,8 have cast light on areas of difficulty; remedial strategies have included historical approaches, computer simulations, analogical approaches, and many more.9-12 Nevertheless, papers on the subject are still being published.8,9,11-13 Textbook descriptions of the laws have also contributed to the problem: in general the topic is presented with little discussion and the third law in particular is often given cursory treatment. This paper addresses the introduction of the laws in the classroom, especially the order in which they are customarily presented, and discusses particular issues attached to the third law that constitute major impediments to understanding.14-16 We have devised a six-hour workshop, for middle-school teachers and senior students, that has achieved some success in enhancing understanding of Newton's laws by adopting a different order of presentation of the laws from that traditionally given in physics texts. Our approach is deliberately intuitional and experiential, as we believe the ideas need to be felt or owned by students before introducing them to a more rigorous formalism.

  20. The Optical Counterpart of the NGC 6624 X-Ray Burster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ivan R.; Stanford, S. Adam

    1993-05-01

    On a pair of 30-min HST FOC images taken at 1400 Angstroms (F140W), we have identified the optical counterpart of the X-ray burster in the globular cluster NGC 6624; this object completely dominates these UV images. Its flux agrees with the UV flux seen by Rich et al. \\ (1993,ApJ,406,489) with the large aperture of IUE. In the blue (F430W) the object is at B =~ 18.6, while in the V band (F480LP) we can find no trace of it. The 1400-B color is consistent with a Rayleigh--Jeans spectrum. (For an interpretation of this radiation as X-ray energy reprocessed by the accretion disk around the LMXB and by the binary companion, see a separate paper by Arons and King at this meeting.) The X-ray source is now found to be only 0.3 arcsec from the cluster center, increasing the likelihood that the bizarre dot P of the binary is influenced by gravitational acceleration. The counterpart of the LMXB is surrounded by several brighter red giants, one only 80 mas away, so that it cannot be observed from the ground. Our new astrometry corrects the previously published positions of the cluster center and places the counterpart within 2 sigma of the X-ray position. The optical counterpart is very close to the radio position of Johnston and Kulkarni (1992,ApJL,393,L17), but that position is now recognized to refer to a coincidentally neighboring pulsar rather than to the LMXB. Further analysis of the UV light will be pursued with HST's High Speed Photometer.

  1. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  2. Suppressing a motivationally-triggered action tendency engages a response control mechanism that prevents future provocation

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott M.; Alvernaz, Dominic; Tonnesen, Alexandra; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Reward-predicting stimuli can induce maladaptive behavior by provoking action tendencies that conflict with long-term goals. Earlier, we showed that when human participants were permitted to respond for a reward in the presence of a task-irrelevant, reward-predicting stimulus (i.e. goCS+ trials), the CS+ provoked an action tendency to respond compared to when a non-rewarding CS− stimulus was present (i.e. goCS− trials). However, when participants were not permitted to respond, response suppression was recruited to mitigate the action tendency that was triggered by the motivating CS+ stimulus (i.e. on nogoCS+ trials) (Freeman, Razhas, & Aron, 2014). Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated response suppression over a motivationally-triggered action tendency would reduce subsequent CS+ provocation. We compared groups of participants who had different proportions of nogoCS+ trials, and we measured CS+ provocation on go trials via reaction time. Our results showed that CS+ provocation on go trials was reduced monotonically as the proportion of nogoCS+ trials increased. Further analysis showed that these group differences were best explained by reduced provocation on goCS+ trials that followed nogoCS+ (compared to nogoCS−) trials. Follow-up experiments using a neurophysiological index of motor activity replicated these effects and also suggested that, following nogoCS+ trials, a response suppression mechanism was in place to help prevent subsequent CS+ provocation. Thus, our results show that performing response suppression in the face of a motivating stimulus not only controls responding at that time, but also prevents provocation in the near future. PMID:25592370

  3. Combined hybridization and mitochondrial capture shape complex phylogeographic patterns in hybridogenetic Cataglyphis desert ants.

    PubMed

    Eyer, P A; Leniaud, L; Tinaut, A; Aron, S

    2016-12-01

    Some species of Cataglyphis desert ants have evolved a hybridogenetic mode of reproduction at the social scale. In hybridogenetic populations, two distinct genetic lineages coexist. Non-reproductive offspring (workers) are hybrids of the two lineages, whereas sexual offspring (males and new queens) are produced by parthenogenesis and belong to the mother queen lineage. How this unusual reproductive system affects phylogeographic patterns and speciation processes remains completely unknown to date. Using one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes, we examined the phylogenetic relationships between three species of Cataglyphis (C. hispanica, C. humeya and C. velox) where complex DNA inheritance through social hybridogenesis may challenge phylogenetic inference. Our results bring two important insights. First, our data confirm a hybridogenetic mode of reproduction across the whole distribution range of the species C. hispanica. In contrast, they do not provide support for hybridogenesis in the populations sampled of C. humeya and C. velox. This suggests that these populations are not hybridogenetic, or that hybridogenesis is too recent to result in reciprocally monophyletic lineages on nuclear genes. Second, due to mitochondrial introgression between lineages (Darras and Aron, 2015), the faster-evolving COI marker is not lineage specific, hence, unsuitable to further investigate the segregation of lineages in the species studied. Different mitochondrial haplotypes occur in each locality sampled, resulting in strongly structured populations. This micro-allopatric structure leads to over-splitting species delimitation on mitochondrial gene, as every locality could potentially be considered a putative species; haploweb analyses of nuclear markers, however, yield species delimitations that are consistent with morphology. Overall, this study highlights how social hybridogenesis varies across species and shapes complex phylogeographic patterns. PMID:27591172

  4. Combined hybridization and mitochondrial capture shape complex phylogeographic patterns in hybridogenetic Cataglyphis desert ants.

    PubMed

    Eyer, P A; Leniaud, L; Tinaut, A; Aron, S

    2016-12-01

    Some species of Cataglyphis desert ants have evolved a hybridogenetic mode of reproduction at the social scale. In hybridogenetic populations, two distinct genetic lineages coexist. Non-reproductive offspring (workers) are hybrids of the two lineages, whereas sexual offspring (males and new queens) are produced by parthenogenesis and belong to the mother queen lineage. How this unusual reproductive system affects phylogeographic patterns and speciation processes remains completely unknown to date. Using one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes, we examined the phylogenetic relationships between three species of Cataglyphis (C. hispanica, C. humeya and C. velox) where complex DNA inheritance through social hybridogenesis may challenge phylogenetic inference. Our results bring two important insights. First, our data confirm a hybridogenetic mode of reproduction across the whole distribution range of the species C. hispanica. In contrast, they do not provide support for hybridogenesis in the populations sampled of C. humeya and C. velox. This suggests that these populations are not hybridogenetic, or that hybridogenesis is too recent to result in reciprocally monophyletic lineages on nuclear genes. Second, due to mitochondrial introgression between lineages (Darras and Aron, 2015), the faster-evolving COI marker is not lineage specific, hence, unsuitable to further investigate the segregation of lineages in the species studied. Different mitochondrial haplotypes occur in each locality sampled, resulting in strongly structured populations. This micro-allopatric structure leads to over-splitting species delimitation on mitochondrial gene, as every locality could potentially be considered a putative species; haploweb analyses of nuclear markers, however, yield species delimitations that are consistent with morphology. Overall, this study highlights how social hybridogenesis varies across species and shapes complex phylogeographic patterns.

  5. Sense-Making as a Methodology to Inform Interdisciplinary Communication of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanello, S.; Dervin, B.; Fortner, R.

    2003-04-01

    Sense-Making was used to investigate interdisciplinary communication of uncertainty between scientists studying global climate change. Traditional research in the human dimensions of global climate confirms that there are differences between non-expert and expert understanding of global climate change (Brunn and O’Lear, 1999; Zehr 2000; Yearley, 2000; Aron, et al. 1994) and that non-expert and expert perceptions of uncertainty are at the center of this problem. The scientist-public discourse in global climate change involves not scientists as a unified coherent group but scientists representing multiple disciplines. Sense-Making was used in this study because of the difference it mandates on the individual when compared to traditional approaches: to view the internal process of individual understanding of climate change without constricting or limiting the individual to the researcher’s understanding or biases about the situation. Through the structured dialogue of the Sense-Making Triangle (situation, gap, verbings, bridge and outcomes), Sense-Making interviews allow for a series of explanations and multiple perspectives. The researcher is therefore able to listen to the way the individual negotiates reality (Dervin and Frenette, 2001) and not the a prior assumptions of the researcher. As the process of Integrated Assessment becomes a more prevalent method of environmental policy and decision-making, the understanding of interdisciplinary communication and research methodologies able to investigate interdisciplinary communication become more important. Sense-Making, while not well used in the arena of the human dimensions of global climate change and the larger community of the human dimensions of natural resources, appears to be a methodology that can help aid and inform interdisciplinary communication of science.

  6. Having a goal to stop action is associated with advance control of specific motor representations.

    PubMed

    Claffey, Michael P; Sheldon, Sarah; Stinear, Cathy M; Verbruggen, Frederick; Aron, Adam R

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the ability to stop oneself from making inappropriate responses. In an earlier study we demonstrated that there are different mechanisms for stopping: global and selective [Aron, A. R., Verbruggen, F. (2008). Stop the presses: Dissociating a selective from a global mechanism for stopping. Psychological Science, 19(11) 1146-1153]. We argued that participants are more likely to use a global mechanism when speed is of the essence, whereas they are more likely to use a selective mechanism when they have foreknowledge of which response tendency they may need to stop. Here we further investigate the relationship between foreknowledge and selective stopping. In Experiment 1 we adapted the earlier design to show that individual differences in recall accuracy for the stopping goal correlate with the selectivity of the stopping. This confirms that encoding and using a foreknowledge memory cue is a key enabler for a selective stopping mechanism. In Experiment 2, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to test the hypothesis that foreknowledge "sets up" a control set whereby control is applied onto the response representation that may need to be stopped in the future. We applied TMS to the left motor cortex and measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right hand while participants performed a similar behavioral paradigm as Experiment 1. In the foreknowledge period, MEPs were significantly reduced for trials where the right hand was the one that might need to be stopped relative to when it was not. This shows that having a goal of what response may need to be stopped in the future consists in applying advance control onto a specific motor representation.

  7. 3D Spontaneous Rupture Models of Large Earthquakes on the Hayward Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barall, M.; Harris, R. A.; Simpson, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    We are constructing 3D spontaneous rupture computer simulations of large earthquakes on the Hayward and central Calaveras faults. The Hayward fault has a geologic history of producing many large earthquakes (Lienkaemper and Williams, 2007), with its most recent large event a M6.8 earthquake in 1868. Future large earthquakes on the Hayward fault are not only possible, but probable (WGCEP, 2008). Our numerical simulation efforts use information about the complex 3D fault geometry of the Hayward and Calaveras faults and information about the geology and physical properties of the rocks that surround the Hayward and Calaveras faults (Graymer et al., 2005). Initial stresses on the fault surface are inferred from geodetic observations (Schmidt et al., 2005), seismological studies (Hardebeck and Aron, 2008), and from rate-and- state simulations of the interseismic interval (Stuart et al., 2008). In addition, friction properties on the fault surface are inferred from laboratory measurements of adjacent rock types (Morrow et al., 2008). We incorporate these details into forward 3D computer simulations of dynamic rupture propagation, using the FaultMod finite-element code (Barall, 2008). The 3D fault geometry is constructed using a mesh-morphing technique, which starts with a vertical planar fault and then distorts the entire mesh to produce the desired fault geometry. We also employ a grid-doubling technique to create a variable-resolution mesh, with the smallest elements located in a thin layer surrounding the fault surface, which provides the higher resolution needed to model the frictional behavior of the fault. Our goals are to constrain estimates of the lateral and depth extent of future large Hayward earthquakes, and to explore how the behavior of large earthquakes may be affected by interseismic stress accumulation and aseismic slip.

  8. Free exciton emission and vibrations in pentacene monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Pentacene is a benchmark organic semiconductor material because of its potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Recently we demonstrated that optical and vibrational characterizations of pentacene films can be carried out down to the sub-monolayer limit. These milestones were achieved in highly uniform pentacene films that were grown on a compliant polymeric substrate. Films with thickness ranging from sub- monolayer to tens of monolayers were studied at low temperatures. The intensity of the free exciton (FE) luminescence band increases quadratically with the number of layers N when N is small. This quadratic dependence is explained as arising from the linear dependence of the intensity of absorption and the probability of emission on the number of layers N. Large enhancements of Raman scattering intensities at the FE resonance enable the first observations of low-lying lattice modes in the monolayers. The measured low- lying modes (in the 20 to 100 cm-1 range) display characteristic changes when going from a single monolayer to two layers. The Raman intensities by high frequency intra-molecular vibrations display resonance enhancement double-peaks when incident or scattered photon energies overlap the FE optical emission. The double resonances are about the same strength which suggests that Franck-Condon overlap integrals for the respective vibronic transitions have the same magnitude. The interference between scattering amplitudes in the Raman resonance reveals quantum coherence of the symmetry-split states (Davydov doublet) of the lowest intrinsic singlet exciton. These results demonstrate novel venues for ultra-thin film characterization and studies of fundamental physics in organic semiconductor structures. In collaboration with Nancy G. Tassi (Dupont), Graciela B. Blanchet (Nanoterra, Cambridge, MA), and Aron Pinczuk (Columbia University).

  9. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  10. Evolution and Growth Competition of Salt Fingers in Saline Lake with Slight Wind Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ray-Yeng; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Shugan, Igor

    2010-05-01

    Since the discover of double-diffusive convection by Stommel, Arons & Blanchard (1956), 'evidence has accumulated for the widespread presence of double-diffusion throughout the ocean' and for its 'significant effects on global water-mass structure and the thermohaline convection' (Schmitt, 1998). The salt-fingering form of double-diffusion has particularly attracted interest because of salt-finger convection being now widely recognized as an important mechanism for mixing heat and salt both vertically and laterally in the ocean and saline lake. In oceanographic situations or saline lake where salt fingers may be an important mechanism for the transport of heat and salt in the vertical, velocity shears may also be present. Salt finger convection is analogous to Bénard convection in that the kinetic energy of the motions is obtained from the potential energy stored in the unstable distribution of a stratifying component. On the basis of the thermal analogy it is of interest to discover whether salt fingers are converted into two-dimensional sheets by the wind shear, and how the vertical fluxes of heat and salt are changed by the wind shear. Salt finger convection under the effect of steady wind shear is theoretically examined in this paper. The evolution of developing in the presence of a vertical density gradient disturbance and the horizontal Couette flow is considered near the onset of salt fingers in the saline lake under a moderate rate of wind shear. We use velocity as the basic variable and solve the pressure Poisson equation in terms of the associated Green function. Growth competition between the longitudinal rolls (LR) and the transverse rolls (TR), whose axes are respectively in the direction parallel to and perpendicular to the Couette flow, is investigated by the weakly nonlinear analysis of coupled-mode equations. The results show that the TR mode is characterized in some range of the effective Rayleigh number, and that the stability is dominated by

  11. Nutritional support teams: the cooperation among physicians and pharmacists helps improve cost-effectiveness of home parenteral nutrition (HPN).

    PubMed

    Pietka, Magdalena; Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Szczepanek, Kinga; Szybinski, Piotr; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Kłęk, Stanisław

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: La nutrición parenteral domiciliaria (NPD) moderna requiere la elaboración de preparados a medida. Las peticiones de los médicos en cuanto a la composición de estos preparados muchas veces difieren de los principios farmacéuticos, lo que suscita la necesidad de elaboración de preparados ex-tempore o unas pruebas de estabilidad que garanticen la almacenamiento a largo plazo. Estas estrategias no resultan rentables. El objetivo del estudio consistió en utilizar la cooperación entre médicos y farmacéuticos para asegurar tanto la rentabilidad, como la elaboración a medida de los preparados NPD. Métodos: La primera parte del estudio consistió en el análisis pormenorizado de las prescripciones para los 47 pacientes con una NPD más exigente (27 mujeres y 20 hombres, edad media 53,1 años) tratados en un centro NPD para crear el menor número posible de preparados de larga duración. La segunda parte del estudio consistió en pruebas de estabilidad y modificaciones. Resultados: El análisis demostró que eran necesarias más de 137 variaciones para cubrir todas las exigencias de macro y micronutrientes. Su costo como soluciones ex-tempore resultó extremadamente elevado (más de 110.000 EUROS/mes) debido a la logística, e igualmente alto en caso de requerirse una prueba de estabilidad (68.500 EUROS). Así, la prescripción fue preparada de novo por el equipo de médicos y farmacéuticos y se diseñaron cuatro modelos básicos. Las dificultades principales fueron el agua y los electrolitos, en particular magnesio y calcio. Las pruebas de estabilidad fracasaron en uno de los preparados debido a la alta concentración de electrolitos. Esto fue corregido, y la nueva fórmula supero la prueba. A partir de ahí se emplearon cinco modelos básicos para la creación de nuevas bolsas. El costo de esta actividad supuso 3.700 EUROS (p.

  12. Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Jedrzej; Pham, Dat; Meltzner, Aron; Switzer, Adam; Horton, Benjamin; Heng, Shu Yun; Warrick, David

    2015-04-01

    Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls Jędrzej M. Majewski 1, Dat T. Pham1, Aron J. Meltzner 1, Adam D. Switzer 1, Benjamin P. Horton2, Shu Yun Heng1, David Warrick3, 1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 2 Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA 3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Coral microatolls can be used to study relative sea-level change at multidecadal timescales associated with vertical land movements, climate induced sea-level rise and other oceanographic phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the assumption that the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls track sea level over the course of their lifetimes. In this study we compare microatoll records covering from as early as 1883 through 2013, from two sites in Indonesia, with long records (>20 years) from proximal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, and other sea-level reconstructions. We compared the HLS time series derived from open-ocean and moated (or ponded) microatolls on tectonically stable Belitung Island and a potentially tectonically active setting in Mapur Island, with sea-level reconstructions for 1950-2011. The sea-level reconstructions are based on ground and satellite measurements, combining a tide model with the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model. Our results confirm that open-ocean microatolls do track low water levels at multi decadal time scales and can be used as a proxy for relative sea level (RSL) over time. However, microatolls that are even partially moated are unsuitable and do not track RSL; rather, their growth patterns likely reflect changes in the elevation of the sill of the local pond, as reported by earlier authors. Our ongoing efforts will include an attempt to recognize similarities in moated

  13. Cameras on the NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory: Towards monitoring hydrothermal vent ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, K.; Matabos, M.; Sarrazin, J.; Sarradin, P.; Lee, R. W.; Juniper, K.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent environments are among the most dynamic benthic habitats in the ocean. The relative roles of physical and biological factors in shaping vent community structure remain unclear. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required for high-resolution, time-series study of the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. The NEPTUNE Canada cabled instrument array at the Endeavour hydrothermal vents provides a unique laboratory for researchers to conduct long-term, integrated studies of hydrothermal vent ecosystem dynamics in relation to environmental variability. Beginning in September-October 2010, NEPTUNE Canada (NC) will be deploying a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Two camera and sensor systems will be used to study ecosystem dynamics in relation to hydrothermal discharge. These studies will make use of new experimental protocols for time-series observations that we have been developing since 2008 at other observatory sites connected to the VENUS and NC networks. These protocols include sampling design, camera calibration (i.e. structure, position, light, settings) and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al.). The camera systems to be deployed in the Main Endeavour vent field include a Sidus high definition video camera (2010) and the TEMPO-mini system (2011), designed by IFREMER (France). Real-time data from three sensors (O2, dissolved Fe, temperature) integrated with the TEMPO-mini system will enhance interpretation of imagery. For the first year of observations, a suite of internally recording temperature probes will be strategically placed in the field of view of the Sidus camera. These installations aim at monitoring variations in vent community structure and dynamics (species composition and abundances, interactions within and among species) in response to changes in environmental conditions at different

  14. Deep sea three component magnetic survey using ROV in the hydrothermal vent of the Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    We conducted magnetic survey at Apr., 2011 in the western slope of the caldera of TA25, the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific using IBRV(Ice Breaker Research Vessel) ARAON of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), ROV(Remotely Operated Vehicle) of Oceaneering Co. and three component magnetometer(Fig. 1,Fig. 2). The deep-sea three component magnetic survey lines are the 13 N-S lines(100 m spacing) and the 2 E-W lines(Fig. 2). The depth ranges of the survey area are from about 900 m to 1200 m, below sea level. For the magnetic survey, the magnetometer sensor and the data logger was attached with the upper part and lower part of ROV, respectively(Fig. 2). We wanted to make the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV over 2 m long to reduce the noise effect of ROV. But, for the safe of deployment and recovery of ROV, the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV was 126 cm(Fig. 2). In the magnetic survey, ROV followed the planning tracks at 25~30 m above seafloor using the altimeter and USBL(Ultra Short Base Line) of ROV. IBRV ARAON accompanied ROV on the magnetic survey. The three component magnetometer measure the X(North), Y(East) and Z(Vertical) vector components of a magnetic field. A motion sensor(Oxtans) provided us the data of pitch, roll, yaw for the correction of the magnetic data to the motion of ROV. The data of the magnetometer sensor and the motion sensor were recorded on a notebook through the optical cable of ROV and the network of ARON using magnetometer software. The precision positions of magnetic data were merged by the post-processing of USBL of ROV. Hydrothermal fluids over Curie temperature can quickly alter or replace the iron-rich magnetic minerals, reducing the magnetic remanence of the crustal rocks, in some cases to near 0A/m magnetization. So, the obtained three component magnetic data are fully utilized by finding possible hydrothermal vents of the survey area.

  15. Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan: Hot and weak material hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichiro; Fukushima, Yo

    2014-05-01

    Fukushima, Y., Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, Nature Geoscience, 6, 637-641, 2013. Pritchard, M. E., Jay, J. A., Aron, F., Henderson, S. T., and Lara, L. E., Subsidence at southern Andes volcanoes induced by the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, Nature Geoscience, 6, 632-636, 2013.

  16. Monitoring Endeavour vent field deep-sea ecosystem dynamics through NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matabos, M.; NC Endeavour Science Team

    2010-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are dynamic systems where the complex linkages between geological, biological, chemical, and physical processes are not yet well understood. Indeed, the poor accessibility to the marine environment has greatly limited our understanding of deep-sea ecosystems. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required to conduct long-term and high-resolution time-series observations of the seafloor. Investigations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal ecosystem require interdisciplinary studies to better understand the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. NEPTUNE Canada (NC) regional observatory is located in the Northeast Pacific, off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada), and spans ecological environments from the beach to the abyss. In September-October 2010, NC will be instrumenting its 5th node, including deployment of a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments in two vent fields on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These include a digital camera, an imaging sonar for vent plumes and flow characteristics (i.e. COVIS), temperature resistivity probes, a water sampler and seismometers. In 2011, the TEMPO-mini, a new custom-designed camera and sensor package created by IFREMER for real-time monitoring of hydrothermal faunal assemblages and their ecosystems (Sarrazin et al. 2007), and a microbial incubator, will added to the network in the Main Endeavour and Mothra vent fields. This multidisciplinary approach will involve a scientific community from different institutions and countries. Significant experience aids in this installation. For example, video systems connected to VENUS and NC have led to the development of new experimental protocols for time-series observations using seafloor cameras, including sampling design, camera calibration and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al. and Robert et al.). Similarly, autonomous deployment of many of the planned instruments

  17. [Tool of nutrition education for allergic to egg and cow's milk protein in pediatric age].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: La alergia alimentaria afecta a gran parte de la población y sus cifras siguen aumentando. Aunque, se esta avanzando en el conocimiento de la patología, los alérgicos encuentran grandes dificultades para llevar una vida normal, especialmente en lo relativo a su alimentación. Hasta ahora el colectivo no contaba con herramientas prácticas que les ayudasen en la elaboración diaria de una dieta equilibrada, como existen para la población en general, en forma de pirámides y guías alimentarias. Con este trabajo se ha cubierto esta necesidad para dos de las alergias más prevalentes en los primeros años de vida. Objetivos: Recopilar información sobre la alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca (APLV) y huevo, para diseñar una pirámide alimenticia para estos pacientes, basada en los consensos, recomendaciones y guías científicas. Resultados: Tras comprobar la inexistencia de un trabajo similar, se diseñaron pirámides alimenticias para alérgicos a huevo y APLV, adaptadas a cada uno de ellos, así como una pirámide conjunta a ambas alergias. Además se incluyeron recomendaciones basicas para la alimentación saludable en general y, en particular, con interés especial para el colectivo (higiene alimentaria, aditivos alimentarios, productos de cosmética, medicamentos, etc). Conclusiones: Debido a la importancia que la nutrición adquiere en la infancia y las dificultades subyacentes a este colectivo, poder planificar adecuadamente la alimentación es muy importante pues puede prevenir accidentes y carencias nutricionales a largo plazo. Por ello, facilitar herramientas gráficas y prácticas para este fin, es de gran importancia comunitaria y medico-científico, y es el resultado de este trabajo.

  18. Extended Acceleration in Slot Gaps and Pulsar High-Energy Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    We revise the physics of primary electron acceleration in the "slot gap" (SG) above the pulsar polar caps (PCs), a regime originally proposed by Arons and Scharlemann (1979) in their electrodynamic model of pulsar PCs. We employ the standard definition of the SG as a pair-free space between the last open field lines and the boundary of the pair plasma column which is expected to develop above the bulk of the PC. The rationale for our revision is that the proper treatment of primary acceleration within the pulsar SGs should take into account the effect of the narrow geometry of the gap on the electrodynamics within the gap and also to include the effect of inertial frame dragging on the particle acceleration. We show that the accelerating electric field within the gap, being significantly boosted by the effect of frame dragging, becomes reduced because of the gap geometry by a factor proportional to the square of the SG width. The combination of the effects of frame dragging and geometrical screening in the gap region naturally gives rise to a regime of extended acceleration, that is not limited to favorably curved field lines as in earlier models, and the possibility of multiple-pair production by curvature photons at very high altitudes, up to several stellar radii. We present our estimates of the characteristic SG thickness across the PC, energetics of primaries accelerated within the gap, high-energy bolometric luminosities emitted from the high altitudes in the gaps, and maximum heating luminosities produced by positrons returning from the elevated pair fronts. The estimated theoretical high-energy luminosities are in good agreement with the corresponding empirical relationships for gamma-ray pulsars. We illustrate the results of our modeling of the pair cascades and gamma-ray emission from the high altitudes in the SG for the Crab pulsar. The combination of the frame-dragging field and high-altitude SG emission enables both acceleration at the smaller

  19. [First report of complete genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Human Bocavirus 1 isolated in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Cardozo Tomas, Agustina; Ghietto, Lucia Maria; Insfran, Constanza; Wasinger, Nicolas; Marchesi, Ariana; Adamo, Maria Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. El Bocavirus humano (HBoV) es un parvovirus descripto por primera vez en 2005, asociado a cuadros leves y graves de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA), una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en la población infantil en todo el mundo. Al presente se han identificado 4 genotipos, nombradas HBoV1 a 4, de los cuales el primero es el que se asocia a IRA con predominancia. Objetivo. Obtener el genoma completo de HBoV respiratorio aislado localmente. Métodos. Se diseñaron primers para fragmentos superpuestos del genoma completo de HBoV, empleando las herramientas informáticas ClustalW y NCBI Primer-Blast. Los fragmentos se amplificaron por PCR convencional y se secuenciaron mediante tecnología capilar BigDye Terminator. La edición de las secuencias y análisis filogenético se realizó con el programa MEGA v6. Resultados. Se obtuvo la secuencia genómica completa de HBoV1 cepa 307AR09, aislada de secreción respiratoria de paciente pediátrico con bronquiolitis. La misma fue depositada en la base de datos GenBank con número de acceso KJ634207. El análisis filogenético con secuencias genómicas completas de los 4 genotipos obtenidas en distintas regiones del mundo muestra similitud cercana al 100% con la secuencia original descubierta en Suecia (DQ000495), así como el agrupamiento de los 4 genotipos en 2 clusters de alta homología interna: HBoV1-HBoV3 y HBoV2-HBoV4. Conclusiones. Se aportan datos locales para futuros desarrollos tecnológicos destinados tanto a la investigación como al diseño de métodos diagnósticos para la práctica médica. Por otra parte, los resultados sustentan la propuesta de redistribución taxonómica de los 4 genotipos en 2 especies.

  20. Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment: Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that insufficient mixing occurs in the pelagic ocean to maintain the large scale thermohaline circulation. Observed mixing rates fall a factor of ten short of classical indices such as Munk's "Abyssal Recipe." The growing suspicion is that most of the mixing in the sea occurs near topography. Exciting recent observations by Polzin et al., among others, fuel this speculation. If topographic mixing is indeed important, it must be acknowledged that its geographic distribution, both laterally and vertically, is presently unknown. The vertical distribution of mixing plays a critical role in the Stommel Arons model of the ocean interior circulation. In recent numerical studies, Samelson demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of flow in the abyssal ocean to the spatial distribution of mixing. We propose to study the topographic mixing problem through an integrated program of modeling and observation. We focus on tidally forced mixing as the global energetics of this process have received (and are receiving) considerable study. Also, the well defined frequency of the forcing and the unique geometry of tidal scattering serve to focus the experiment design. The Hawaiian Ridge is selected as a study site. Strong interaction between the barotropic tide and the Ridge is known to take place. The goals of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are to quantify the rate of tidal energy loss to mixing at the Ridge and to identify the mechanisms by which energy is lost and mixing generated. We are challenged to develop a sufficiently comprehensive picture that results can be generalized from Hawaii to the global ocean. To achieve these goals, investigators from five institutions have designed HOME, a program of historic data analysis, modeling and field observation. The Analysis and Modeling efforts support the design of the field experiments. As the program progresses, a global model of the barotropic (depth independent) tide, and two models of the

  1. MoMar-Demo at Lucky Strike. A near-real time multidisciplinary observatory of hydrothermal processes and ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannat, M.; Sarradin, P.; Blandin, J.; Escartin, J.; Colaco, A.; MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

    2011-12-01

    , pressure probes, tiltmeter, temperature probes in selected smokers, currentmeters and temperature probes in the water column), and colonization devices for time-integrated faunal studies. In this presentation we will outline the latest results of this prototype sub-sea multidisciplinary observatory system. The MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

  2. Waveform Tomography Applied to the High Resolution HAFB Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Levander, A.; Pratt, G. R.; Zelt, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    We have applied waveform tomography to a vertical seismic profile (VSP) and surface seismic dataset from Hill Air Force Base (HAFB), Utah, acquired in 2000 along with 3D surface reflection and 3D surface tomography experiments. Previously (Gao et al., 2001) we had applied waveform tomography to the same dataset using first arrival waveforms only. In this study, surface waves, which dominate the wave field recorded at the surface are removed using a depth filtering technique. The wave field recorded at the surface is datumed to 3.0m depth first. Since surface waves have shallow penetration, they are removed in the datumed wave field which are then re-datumed back to the surface. We then applied waveform tomography to the ground-roll-free wave field from the surface as well as two recording made in two vertical boreholes. We chose 12 frequency components from 12Hz to 200Hz for the tomographic inversion. Using the waveform tomography image of Gao et al.(2001)as the starting model for the waveform inversion, the misfit function was generally reduced by 25.0%~60.0% for different frequency components. The velocity in the final model varies between 120.6m/s and 1649.0m/s, and is highly laterally heterogeneous. Features down to ~1.5m scale size are resolved. Generally we can identify a thin layer at the surface with velocity ~550m/s and a layer with lower velocity, ~150m/s to ~500m/s, beneath it. The low velocity layer extends down to ~8.5m on average. Below the top of the water table at ~9.0m, the velocity increases with depth rapidly, reaching 1500 m/s at ~14m depth. Geologically, the model is interpreted as a thin layer of desert hardpan overlying a heterogeneous layer of dry unconsolidated gravel, grading into increasingly saturated gravels and clay to 16.0m depth. The waveform tomography velocity model generally agrees with the much coarser model obtained from a 3D travel time tomography (Aron et al., 2002) except for small scale features. Both models have a thin

  3. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    their help in producing this special section. We hope that it conveys some of the excitement and significance of the field. Semiconducting oxides contents Chemical bonding in copper-based transparent conducting oxides: CuMO2 (M = In, Ga, Sc) K G Godinho, B J Morgan, J P Allen, D O Scanlon and G W Watson Electrical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films with Pt and ITO electrodes: dielectric and rectifying behaviourShunyi Li, Cosmina Ghinea, Thorsten J M Bayer, Markus Motzko, Robert Schafranek and Andreas Klein Orientation dependent ionization potential of In2O3: a natural source for inhomogeneous barrier formation at electrode interfaces in organic electronicsMareike V Hohmann, Péter Ágoston, André Wachau, Thorsten J M Bayer, Joachim Brötz, Karsten Albe and Andreas Klein Cathodoluminescence studies of electron irradiation effects in n-type ZnOCasey Schwarz, Yuqing Lin, Max Shathkin, Elena Flitsiyan and Leonid Chernyak Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputteringM F Cerqueira, M I Vasilevskiy, F Oliveira, A G Rolo, T Viseu, J Ayres de Campos, E Alves and R Correia Structure and electrical properties of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide prepared by microwave plasma synthesisM Sagmeister, M Postl, U Brossmann, E J W List, A Klug, I Letofsky-Papst, D V Szabó and R Würschum Charge compensation in trivalent cation doped bulk rutile TiO2Anna Iwaszuk and Michael Nolan Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of n-type ZnO single crystals grown by different techniquesL Scheffler, Vl Kolkovsky, E V Lavrov and J Weber Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour depositionC David, T Girardeau, F Paumier, D Eyidi, B Lacroix, N Papathanasiou, B P Tinkham, P Guérin and M Marteau Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modellingAron Walsh, Juarez L F Da Silva and Su-Huai Wei Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of

  4. On the deep western-boundary current in the Southwest Pacific Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, T., III; Warren, B. A.; Nowlin, W. D., Jr.; Rutz, S. B.; Pillsbury, R. D.; Moore, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    -velocity surface following the demarcation between Circumpolar Deep Water and Pacific Deep Water across the section; only in the horizontally integrated sense was there a correspondence between water masses and the variation of transport with depth. The very large variability in transport is associated with prominent oscillations of periods near 50 days, 20 days, and 10 days, as well as with strong events distributed irregularly across the array that lead to a concentration of spectral energy in a band between 40 and 200 days. The origins of these disturbances are not known. While unexpectedly large changes in the density field near the Tonga-Kermadec Ridge were observed from one cruise to another, the huge fluctuations in transport seemed to be connected more with velocity signals varying only slowly with depth. No measurable changes in water-mass properties were detected by the cruises during the 22 months of deployment, but the salinity was about 0.01 lower at the salinity maximum in the Circumpolar Deep Water than it had been 25 years earlier. The direct, long-term transport measurement suggests that the total upwelling at 2000 m north of 30° S is 13×10 6 m 3 s -1, corresponding to an areally-averaged vertical velocity of 1.0×10 -5 cm s -1. This is substantially smaller than earlier values, and it helps to reduce estimates of the global deep upwelling closer to those of the global deep downwelling. The small value of Pacific Deep Water transport in the boundary-current system, relative to that of Circumpolar Deep Water, implies, within the framework of the Stommel-Arons dynamics, that little of the deep water entering the Pacific from the Antarctic returns southward at mid-depths. If so, then some present-day circulation schemes and budgetary constructions need to be re-assessed.

  5. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    their help in producing this special section. We hope that it conveys some of the excitement and significance of the field. Semiconducting oxides contents Chemical bonding in copper-based transparent conducting oxides: CuMO2 (M = In, Ga, Sc) K G Godinho, B J Morgan, J P Allen, D O Scanlon and G W Watson Electrical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films with Pt and ITO electrodes: dielectric and rectifying behaviourShunyi Li, Cosmina Ghinea, Thorsten J M Bayer, Markus Motzko, Robert Schafranek and Andreas Klein Orientation dependent ionization potential of In2O3: a natural source for inhomogeneous barrier formation at electrode interfaces in organic electronicsMareike V Hohmann, Péter Ágoston, André Wachau, Thorsten J M Bayer, Joachim Brötz, Karsten Albe and Andreas Klein Cathodoluminescence studies of electron irradiation effects in n-type ZnOCasey Schwarz, Yuqing Lin, Max Shathkin, Elena Flitsiyan and Leonid Chernyak Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputteringM F Cerqueira, M I Vasilevskiy, F Oliveira, A G Rolo, T Viseu, J Ayres de Campos, E Alves and R Correia Structure and electrical properties of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide prepared by microwave plasma synthesisM Sagmeister, M Postl, U Brossmann, E J W List, A Klug, I Letofsky-Papst, D V Szabó and R Würschum Charge compensation in trivalent cation doped bulk rutile TiO2Anna Iwaszuk and Michael Nolan Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of n-type ZnO single crystals grown by different techniquesL Scheffler, Vl Kolkovsky, E V Lavrov and J Weber Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour depositionC David, T Girardeau, F Paumier, D Eyidi, B Lacroix, N Papathanasiou, B P Tinkham, P Guérin and M Marteau Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modellingAron Walsh, Juarez L F Da Silva and Su-Huai Wei Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of