Warren, Bruce A.
Arnold B. Arons died of a heart attack at his home in Seattle on February 28, 2001, aged 84. He was a long-time member of the American Geophysical Union (1950; Ocean Sciences) and of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), of which he was president in 1961. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Arnold Arons was a teacher of physics. He taught it to the freshmen at Amherst College from 1952 to 1968, and then, at the University of Washington, he taught prospective teachers of physics how to teach it. He stressed meaning in physical concepts: how it is derived from shared experience, is founded on operational definitions, and is deepened and broadened with growing sophistication, individual and historical. He derided glib chatter about complex ideas (“Gibberish!”), or mere manipulation of symbols and formulas, and insisted—fiercely—that students know what they were talking about. His presence in the lecture hall at Amherst was sometimes terrifying; that technique might not be readily accepted in present, more tender times, but it was effective in shaking high school hotshots loose from some of their delusions. Despite perceived indignities, they usually gave him a standing ovation at the end of the spring semester.
Baginskas, Armuntas; Svirskis, Gytis; Miliauskas, Rimvydas
Aron Gutman started his scientific research when he was a student of the Department of Physics and Mathematics, Vilnius University. At that time, he developed the theory of nonhomogenous vector relations between magnetic moments of electrons in an atom and applied it for explanation of energy spectrum of real atoms. Since 1960, he worked in Kaunas Medical Institute, and his main field of scientific interests was theoretical biophysics and electrophysiology of living tissues and cells. The earlier biophysical works of A. Gutman dealt with problems of the bioelectrical fields that underlie electroencephalogram, electrocorticogram, and electrocardiogram. The most important achievement was a theory of individual potential or postsynaptic field potential of synapses from individual axon (EEG quantum) and its role in shaping of electroencephalogram. In the later works (from 1971), he looked into properties and function of the individual nerve cells. He had created and developed the theory of nonlinear (bistable) dendrites and analyzed functional implications of such dendrites. In the last works, A. Gutman tried to relate the functioning of the nervous system at the cellular and system levels. He made efforts to find connection between the properties of individual neurones and principles (laws) of functioning of the nervous system. He had managed to relate dendritic bistability of neurones and Gelfand-Tsetlin principle of the functioning of the central nervous system (also known as the principle of minimal afferentiation). He explained some regularities in motor control by the dendritic bistability of motoneurones.
Cadell, Susan; Marshall, Sheila
The aim of this study was to explore individuals' self-construals after the loss of a partner from HIV/AIDS for whom they were a caregiver. Seven gay or transsexual bereaved caregivers were interviewed after the death of their partners. The data revealed patterns suggestive of A. Aron and E. N. Aron's (1986) "inclusion of others in the self" (IOS)…
Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela
Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…
FLAMES JOANNE FENDELL L. E. HARRIS KENNETH ARON DECEMBER 1983 U.S. ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND.DEVELOPMENT CENTER URGE CAUBER WEAPON SYSTEMS...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORfaJ Joanne Fendell L. E. Harris Kenneth Aron 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT...normalized population difference between the Personal communication between W. C. Erraler, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ and J. Fendell
After a few months of physics videos, amateur science sites and educational games, the website we are highlighting in this month's column is a straightforward blog. Just A Theory was started in 2008 by freelance science journalist Jacob Aron while he was studying for a Master's degree in science communication at Imperial College London. The blog's title, Aron explains, reflects a popular misconception that scientific theories are "dreamed up by mad scientists in laboratories somewhere" rather than well-crafted explanations based on observations and experiments. To combat this impression, the site aims to highlight good and bad science coverage in the mainstream media, and to provide original commentary on current scientific events.
Harris, and J. Fendell , "N2 and CO Vibratioi A.RS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CH -N 0 Flames," Technical Report ARLCD-TR- 83033, ARRADCOM...Dover, NJ, August 1981. I. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. 11. A. C. Eckbreth, Applied Physics Letters, vol...Conference, 1980, p 668. d K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. e Observed frequency iii this work differs by more
Glass, Gene V., Ed.
This document consists of the 21 articles published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996. The articles are: (1) "The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems" (Sherman Dorn); (2) "Review of Stephen Arons's 'Short Route to Chaos'" (Charles L. Glenn); (3)…
Cahn, Steven M., Ed.
In essays on a variety of disciplines, seven college teachers discuss the art of inspiring enthusiasm in college students. The topics are: history (Russell H. Bostert); English (Edward B. Partridge); mathematics (Robert H. Gurland); science (Arnold B. Arons); social science (Rita W. Cooley); foreign language and literature (John G. Weiger); and…
Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)
... July 2012; J. Aron & Company; Iberdrola Renewables, LLC AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of... found on the FE web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/...
states, spin forbidden, radiative transition, electronic structure, molecular geometry, rare gas fluorides, NF 5 . nitrogen pentafluoride, high oxidation ...state, rhombic structure, tetratomics, Si 2 C2, disilicon dicarbide, zintl, photoexcitation, metastable metals, atomic metals, metal dimers, matrix...Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation) "Experimental Studies of the Properties of Trihydrogen and Tetrahydrogen" Aron
temperature level above 2500 K. This is the required temperature to reduce NO emission by combustion proc- esses. References: 1. K. Aron. L.E. Harris . Chem...lAyout of the optical system; (a) transmitting and (b) tweiving optics. ¶ n,7i Laser Doppler poter volume Sizng beam Figure 2. Tested pointer volume
B1259-63 with the nebular gas of the Be star mass out ow. As in the case of the Crab nebula (Kennel & Coroniti 1984, Gallant & Arons 1994), shock...Be star out ow. The radiative environment near the shock radius within the PSR B1259-63 system is quite di erent from that of the Crab nebula , and the
students ranged such future luminaries as Jean - Paul Sartre on the left and Raymond Aron on the right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic...our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy’s hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the
Socratic dialogue-inducing (SDI) labs are based on Arnold Arons' half-century of ethnographic research, listening carefully to students' responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking, and culminating in his landmark "Teaching Introductory Physics." They utilize "interactive engagement" methods and are designed,…
Kuwabara, Megumi; Son, Ji Y.; Smith, Linda B.
A growing number of studies suggests cultural differences in the attention and evaluation of information in adults (Hedden, Ketay, Aron, Markus, & Gabrieli, 2008; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Masuda & Nisbett, 2001). One cultural comparison, between Westerners, such as Americans, and Easterners, such as the Japanese, suggests that…
for these equilibrium temperatures comes from some experimental data. Stufflebeam and Eckbreth have used CARS to measure tempe\\atures as high as...Aron and L.R. Harris. "CARS Probe of RDK Decomposition," Chem. Phys. Lett.. Vol. 103(5), p. 413. 1984. 23. J.H. Stufflebeam and A.C...UT 84302 United Technologies ATTN: A.C. Eckbreth J. Stufflebeam East Hartford, CT 06108 United Technologies Corp. Chemical Systems Division
Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Laboratory Techniques for Evaluating Effectiveness of Sealing Voids in Rubble-Mound Breakwaters and Jetties with Grouts and Concretes
chemical sealants, and the Marshall stability test for the asphaltic concrete; and (g) placing specimens in the prototy, -_.vAronment, exposing the...test si- ens were placed at Treat Island , MA; Duck, NC; and Miami, FL. It was determined that sealing of rubble-mound coastal structures requires that...modulus of elasticity for the cementitious and chemical sealants, and the Marshall stability test for the asphaltic concrete. £. Placing specimens in the
poter by Olson et al.2 to treat charge exchange. Their formula is tial curves will be of the form shown in Fig 5 The nolia Hf (R ’ *a,) exp...Scott, Eastern Sectional Meeting of the Combustion Institute, Providence, Rhode Island, November 1983. 8. K. Aron and L. E. Harris , Chem. Phys. Lett...105, 413 (1984); L. E. Harris , "CARS Spectroscopy of the Reaction Zone of Methane-Nitrous Oxide and RDX Propellant Flames," Armament Research and
1 Nuclear . Biological, Cheical and Radiological Warfare .. .... ........ ......... 19 Crganizetion and dmuinistration...American students of military history. A 14 Aron, Iaymond. On War (1959). DS 843 Concentrates on nuclear armaments and attempts at disarmament. Is... nuclear war A 91 avoidable? Atkinson, C. T. Mrlborough and the Rise of the British Army (1921). DA 462 The life and tines of one of England’s greatest
Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Weng, Xuchu
Early-stage romantic love has been studied previously in the United States and United Kingdom (Aron et al. : J Neurophysiol 94:327–337; Bartels and Zeki : Neuroreport 11:3829–3834; Ortigue et al. : J Cogn Neurosci 19:1218–1230), revealing activation in the reward and motivation systems of the brain. In this study, we asked what systems are activated for early-stage romantic love in Easterners, specifically Chinese participants? Are these activations affected by individual differences within a cultural context of Traditionality and Modernity? Also, are these brain activations correlated with later satisfaction in the relationship? In Beijing, we used the same procedure used by Aron et al. (Aron et al. : J Neurophysiol 94:327–337). The stimuli for 18 Chinese participants were a picture of the face of their beloved, the face of a familiar acquaintance, and a countback task. We found significant activations specific to the beloved in the reward and motivation systems, particularly, the ventral tegmental area and the caudate. The mid-orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum were also activated, whereas amygdala, medial orbitofrontal, and medial accumbens activity were decreased relative to the familiar acquaintance. Self-reported Traditionality and Modernity scores were each positively correlated with activity in the nucleus accumbens, although in different regions and sides of the brain. Activity in the subgenual area and the superior frontal gyrus was associated with higher relationship happiness at 18-month follow-up. Our results show that midbrain dopamine-rich reward/motivation systems were activated by early-stage romantic love in Chinese participants, as found by other studies. Neural activity was associated with Traditionality and Modernity attitudes as well as with later relationship happiness for Chinese participants.
by Dr. Aron Pinker and Ms. Doris Cook, from ANSER Corp., and especially Maj. " Dough " Hill, who wrote the chapters on combat operations and created...34 Dough " Hill and described earlier in Chapter 1, "Note on Sources." One problem that arises in examining the operations of the several air forces that...4 4 1 8-Feb-91 26 26-Fcb-91 0 6 6 24-Feb-91 I 28-Feb-91 0 1 1 28-Feb-91 9 Total 59 197 256 Total 582 Soure : ompoiteSories ataase Source: Composite
Fuhs, A. E.
J. M. Richardson, A. B. Arons, and R. R. Halverson developed a calculation procedure for determining the hydrodynamic properties of sea water at the front of a shock wave. The procedure has been programmed for the HP41CV, which is a hand-held programmable calculator. The program, which uses 374 lines of code, reproduces the values for a shock wave as tabulated by Richardson, et al. The advantage of the HP41CV program is that properties can be calculated without use of tables.
Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela
Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what
Niels Ryberg Finsen who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1903 for introducing phototherapy for lupus vulgaris. He was only the third laureate in medicine, after Emil von Behring (1901) and Ronald Ross (1902), and the first for outstanding achievements in the field of dermatology. Several thousand lupus vulgaris patients from different European countries were treated in the Medical Light Institute in Copenhagen, founded by Finsen, from 1896 until his death in 1904. Until the tuberculostatic drugs were introduced in the middle of the 20th century, the "Finsen Exposure" was the only effective therapy of lupus vulgaris. The carbon arc lamp initially used by Finsen was later modified and then eventually replaced by the mercury quartz lamp developed by Arons. Today Finsen is rightly recognized as the founder of the modern dermatological phototherapy.
hold at peak served as attachment points for ballast (figure 17). Type 2 ceramic hemi- pressures e tsphere and on the other etesting arrangement was...C2f CS2 ARON, C.RCUmF’ERENC.t 2 ’ AGE -OC2f 1 -xr. Z S--2 2 -A- 2: 2D-C-r..’ fS. - 22t’C2’E 2S222 4.y SAC~Z5X EOA&L, SPACE:D 2-~ BLX k 2’ 9 CR~C...ROSETTE 37 73 -1821 74 1876 -22523 23777 GAGE ROSETTE 38 75 -1224 76 1771 -12240 2242 G2 AGE ROSETTE 29 77 -1711 78 2185 -18760 -. 0o 2 BABE ROSETTE
Yoshimi, Jeff; Vinson, David W
Aron Gurwitsch's theory of the structure and dynamics of consciousness has much to offer contemporary theorizing about consciousness and its basis in the embodied brain. On Gurwitsch's account, as we develop it, the field of consciousness has a variable sized focus or "theme" of attention surrounded by a structured periphery of inattentional contents. As the field evolves, its contents change their status, sometimes smoothly, sometimes abruptly. Inner thoughts, a sense of one's body, and the physical environment are dominant field contents. These ideas can be linked with (and help unify) contemporary theories about the neural correlates of consciousness, inattention, the small world structure of the brain, meta-stable dynamics, embodied cognition, and predictive coding in the brain.
Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.
The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.
Yu, Yuanhong; Wang, Hongzhou
This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: This work is a 'double submission' by the two authors Y. Yu and H. Wang. The Kyungpook article (Kyungpook Math. J., 46 (2006) 273-284) was received on 29 November 2004, and the Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications received its copy on 5 February 2005. The Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications version was accepted in April 2005 and Kyungpook accepted their copy in August 2005. Finally, I express my gratitude to the editor of the Kyungpook Mathematical Journal, and also to Dr. Devrim Cakmak (Ankara Turkey), ho first alerted us to this problem. Richard M. Aron, Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications
Manning, R. A.; Willmore, A. P.
We report on observations of the radio pulsar PSR 0950 + 08 obtained using the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter and Wide Field Camera on board ROSAT. The background-corrected count rate is determined to be 0.0069 +/- 0.0012 count/s in the 0.08-2.4 keV energy range. The derived spectrum could be fitted to both blackbody and power-law models modified by interstellar absorption. The best-fitting surface temperature of 2.6 x 10 exp 6 K and the age of PSR 0950 + 08 imply that some form of heating process is occurring if the emission is thermal. The small implied size of the emission region points towards some form of polar-cap heating, although of the models available only the 'slot-gap' model proposed by Arons can perhaps account for the observed luminosity. The most likely explanation for the emission is that PSR 0950 + 08 is surrounded by a synchrotron nebula, which is unresolved and has a spectral index of about 1. For either model the X-ray luminosity (0.08-2.4 keV) is about 10 exp 29 erg/s.
Fisher, Brian; Tas, Kenan
This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief and Author. Reason: Following publication of this paper, it was brought to our attention that a virtually identical paper had been published earlier: B. Fisher and K. Tas. On the composition of the distributions x-r+ and x[mu]+, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 36 (2005) 11-22. Furthermore, the following similar paper has also appeared: B. Fisher and K. Tas. On the composition of the distributions x-1 ln x and xr+. Integral Transforms and Special Functions 16 (2005) 533-543. When the JMAA paper was being submitted, the JMAA Editors were unaware that an almost identical version was under consideration elsewhere, and indeed, in the submission procedures, authors are asked to declare explicitly that this is not the case. Had this notification been given accordingly, the paper would not have been accepted. The Editors deplore the practice of simultaneous multiple submission of papers to different journals, and offer their sincere and unreserved apologies to readers of the journal for not having spotted this. Professors Steven G. Krantz, Richard M. Aron, Goong Chen; Editors-in-Chief
Sohn, Joanne J; Gruber, Theresa M; Zahorsky-Reeves, Joanne L; Lawson, Greg W
Short-chain cyanoacrylates (SCCA), such as ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (KrazyGlue, Aron Alpha, Columbus, OH) are commonly used as commercial fast-acting glues. Although once used in clinical medicine as skin adhesives, these products caused tissue toxicity and thus their use in live tissue was discontinued. SCCA were replaced by longer-chain versions (LCCA), such as butyl-cyanoacrylate (Vetbond, 3M, St Paul, Minnesota), which were found to be less toxic than the short-chain formulations. Some researchers prefer to use SCCA due to the belief that they create a stronger bond than do the longer-chain counterparts. In survival surgeries, we compared the bone thickness, bone necrosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and bone regeneration in the calvaria of control (naïve), surgery-only, SCCA-treated, and LCCA-treated mice (n = 20 per group). At 1 and 14 d after surgery, all mice except those treated with SCCA showed statistically similar bone measurements to those of the naive control group. The SCCA group had significantly less bone regeneration than did all other groups. These results suggest that the application of SCCA causes bone damage resulting in the loss of bone regeneration. This finding may assist investigators in choosing a tissue glue for their studies and may support the IACUC in advocating the use of pharmaceutical-grade tissue glues.
Sohn, Joanne J; Gruber, Theresa M; Zahorsky-Reeves, Joanne L; Lawson, Greg W
Short-chain cyanoacrylates (SCCA), such as ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (KrazyGlue, Aron Alpha, Columbus, OH) are commonly used as commercial fast-acting glues. Although once used in clinical medicine as skin adhesives, these products caused tissue toxicity and thus their use in live tissue was discontinued. SCCA were replaced by longer-chain versions (LCCA), such as butyl-cyanoacrylate (Vetbond, 3M, St Paul, Minnesota), which were found to be less toxic than the short-chain formulations. Some researchers prefer to use SCCA due to the belief that they create a stronger bond than do the longer-chain counterparts. In survival surgeries, we compared the bone thickness, bone necrosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and bone regeneration in the calvaria of control (naïve), surgery-only, SCCA-treated, and LCCA-treated mice (n = 20 per group). At 1 and 14 d after surgery, all mice except those treated with SCCA showed statistically similar bone measurements to those of the naive control group. The SCCA group had significantly less bone regeneration than did all other groups. These results suggest that the application of SCCA causes bone damage resulting in the loss of bone regeneration. This finding may assist investigators in choosing a tissue glue for their studies and may support the IACUC in advocating the use of pharmaceutical-grade tissue glues. PMID:27025812
Daniel, Reka; Pollmann, Stefan
The dopaminergic system is known to play a central role in reward-based learning (Schultz, 2006), yet it was also observed to be involved when only cognitive feedback is given (Aron et al., 2004). Within the domain of information-integration category learning, in which information from several stimulus dimensions has to be integrated predecisionally (Ashby and Maddox, 2005), the importance of contingent feedback is well established (Maddox et al., 2003). We examined the common neural correlates of reward anticipation and prediction error in this task. Sixteen subjects performed two parallel information-integration tasks within a single event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging session but received a monetary reward only for one of them. Similar functional areas including basal ganglia structures were activated in both task versions. In contrast, a single structure, the nucleus accumbens, showed higher activation during monetary reward anticipation compared with the anticipation of cognitive feedback in information-integration learning. Additionally, this activation was predicted by measures of intrinsic motivation in the cognitive feedback task and by measures of extrinsic motivation in the rewarded task. Our results indicate that, although all other structures implicated in category learning are not significantly affected by altering the type of reward, the nucleus accumbens responds to the positive incentive properties of an expected reward depending on the specific type of the reward.
Fisher, Helen; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L
Scientists have described myriad traits in mammalian and avian species that evolved to attract mates. But the brain mechanisms by which conspecifics become attracted to these traits is largely unknown. Yet mammals and birds express mate preferences and make mate choices, and data suggest that this "attraction system" is associated with the dopaminergic reward system. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic love we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studied 17 people who were intensely "in love" (Aron et al.  J Neurophysiol 94:327-337). Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the right ventral tegmental area and right caudate nucleus, dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward pathways contribute to the "general arousal" component of romantic love; romantic love is primarily a motivation system, rather than an emotion; this drive is distinct from the sex drive; romantic love changes across time; and romantic love shares biobehavioral similarities with mammalian attraction. We propose that this attraction mechanism evolved to enable individuals to focus their mating energy on specific others, thereby conserving energy and facilitating mate choice-a primary aspect of reproduction. Last, the corticostriate system, with its potential for combining diverse cortical information with reward signals, is an excellent anatomical substrate for the complex factors contributing to romantic love and mate choice.
Vázquez-Benítez, G; Pérez-Campos, A; Masgrau, N Alberti; Pérez-Barrios, A
The discovery of a tumor as a primary schwannoma in the thyroid gland is rare (Andrion et al. in Virchows Arch 413:367-372, 1988). It represents less than 1 % of mesenchymal neoplasms of this gland. Therefore, few cases of this type are described in medical literature (Aron et al. in Cytopathology 16:206-209, 2005; Cashman et al. in Medscape J Med 10(8):201, 2008; Coleman et al. in AJR Am J Roentgenol 140:383-7, 1983). In this article, we introduce the clinical case of a 27-year-old female patient, who presented a nodular mass located in the neck region. This mass was not associated with other symptoms and during the imagistic investigation it appeared to be a thyroglossal duct cyst. A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed which revealed benign mesenchymal cells. After a pathology study of the piece resected through a thyroidectomy, it was confirmed that the tumor had neural characteristics, the final diagnosis being a primary schwannoma. The importance of a cytology study is emphasized, since in this case, it made it possible to accurately diagnose a mesenchymal tumor, despite their low frequency. It constitutes a highly useful tool for diagnosing non-epithelial neoplasia of the thyroid gland.
Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A
Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth
Rose, Michael J.; Aron, Stephen A.; Janicki, Bernard W.
Rose, Michael J., Jr. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Washington, D.C.), Stephen A. Aron, and Bernard W. Janicki. Effect of various nonionic surfactants on growth of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1863–1868. 1966.—Escherichia coli cultivated in media containing 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0% concentrations of surface-active polyoxyethylene derivatives of formaldehyde polymers of octyl phenol (Triton WR-1339; Macrocyclon) or of sorbitan mono-fatty acid esters (Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80) exhibited significantly retarded growth only at the highest concentration. To determine the mechanism of bacteriostasis, certain derivatives and compounds related to the surfactants were investigated. Experiments with compounds related to the Triton-type agents demonstrated that incorporation of monomeric substances (Triton X-205, X-305, Igepal CA-730, or Dowfax 9N20) into the medium at a concentration of 4.0% did not inhibit the growth of E. coli. It was concluded that the formaldehyde polymer was essential for growth inhibition by the polyoxyethylene derivatives of octyl phenol. The inhibitory activity of the Tween compounds, in contrast, appeared to result from the unesterified fatty acids which contaminate the commercial preparations. Polyol (60), the sorbitan polyoxyethylene derivative of Tween 60 and the basic structural unit of all the Tween-type compounds, and a Tween 80 preparation which was purified by extraction of the unesterified oleic acid, were not inhibitory. Moreover, the amount of free oleic acid present as a contaminant of Tween 80 was found to be sufficient to cause significant growth inhibition. These results and the observation that E. coli does not appear to hydrolyze the esterified fatty acid of Tween 80 led to the conclusion that growth inhibition obtained with various Tween compounds probaby is a function of their respective fatty acid contaminants. PMID:5327909
King, Ivan R.; Stanford, S. Adam
On a pair of 30-min HST FOC images taken at 1400 Angstroms (F140W), we have identified the optical counterpart of the X-ray burster in the globular cluster NGC 6624; this object completely dominates these UV images. Its flux agrees with the UV flux seen by Rich et al. \\ (1993,ApJ,406,489) with the large aperture of IUE. In the blue (F430W) the object is at B =~ 18.6, while in the V band (F480LP) we can find no trace of it. The 1400-B color is consistent with a Rayleigh--Jeans spectrum. (For an interpretation of this radiation as X-ray energy reprocessed by the accretion disk around the LMXB and by the binary companion, see a separate paper by Arons and King at this meeting.) The X-ray source is now found to be only 0.3 arcsec from the cluster center, increasing the likelihood that the bizarre dot P of the binary is influenced by gravitational acceleration. The counterpart of the LMXB is surrounded by several brighter red giants, one only 80 mas away, so that it cannot be observed from the ground. Our new astrometry corrects the previously published positions of the cluster center and places the counterpart within 2 sigma of the X-ray position. The optical counterpart is very close to the radio position of Johnston and Kulkarni (1992,ApJL,393,L17), but that position is now recognized to refer to a coincidentally neighboring pulsar rather than to the LMXB. Further analysis of the UV light will be pursued with HST's High Speed Photometer.
Freeman, Scott M.; Alvernaz, Dominic; Tonnesen, Alexandra; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.
Reward-predicting stimuli can induce maladaptive behavior by provoking action tendencies that conflict with long-term goals. Earlier, we showed that when human participants were permitted to respond for a reward in the presence of a task-irrelevant, reward-predicting stimulus (i.e. goCS+ trials), the CS+ provoked an action tendency to respond compared to when a non-rewarding CS− stimulus was present (i.e. goCS− trials). However, when participants were not permitted to respond, response suppression was recruited to mitigate the action tendency that was triggered by the motivating CS+ stimulus (i.e. on nogoCS+ trials) (Freeman, Razhas, & Aron, 2014). Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated response suppression over a motivationally-triggered action tendency would reduce subsequent CS+ provocation. We compared groups of participants who had different proportions of nogoCS+ trials, and we measured CS+ provocation on go trials via reaction time. Our results showed that CS+ provocation on go trials was reduced monotonically as the proportion of nogoCS+ trials increased. Further analysis showed that these group differences were best explained by reduced provocation on goCS+ trials that followed nogoCS+ (compared to nogoCS−) trials. Follow-up experiments using a neurophysiological index of motor activity replicated these effects and also suggested that, following nogoCS+ trials, a response suppression mechanism was in place to help prevent subsequent CS+ provocation. Thus, our results show that performing response suppression in the face of a motivating stimulus not only controls responding at that time, but also prevents provocation in the near future. PMID:25592370
Rose, M J; Aron, S A; Janicki, B W
Rose, Michael J., Jr. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Washington, D.C.), Stephen A. Aron, and Bernard W. Janicki. Effect of various nonionic surfactants on growth of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1863-1868. 1966.-Escherichia coli cultivated in media containing 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0% concentrations of surface-active polyoxyethylene derivatives of formaldehyde polymers of octyl phenol (Triton WR-1339; Macrocyclon) or of sorbitan mono-fatty acid esters (Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80) exhibited significantly retarded growth only at the highest concentration. To determine the mechanism of bacteriostasis, certain derivatives and compounds related to the surfactants were investigated. Experiments with compounds related to the Triton-type agents demonstrated that incorporation of monomeric substances (Triton X-205, X-305, Igepal CA-730, or Dowfax 9N20) into the medium at a concentration of 4.0% did not inhibit the growth of E. coli. It was concluded that the formaldehyde polymer was essential for growth inhibition by the polyoxyethylene derivatives of octyl phenol. The inhibitory activity of the Tween compounds, in contrast, appeared to result from the unesterified fatty acids which contaminate the commercial preparations. Polyol (60), the sorbitan polyoxyethylene derivative of Tween 60 and the basic structural unit of all the Tween-type compounds, and a Tween 80 preparation which was purified by extraction of the unesterified oleic acid, were not inhibitory. Moreover, the amount of free oleic acid present as a contaminant of Tween 80 was found to be sufficient to cause significant growth inhibition. These results and the observation that E. coli does not appear to hydrolyze the esterified fatty acid of Tween 80 led to the conclusion that growth inhibition obtained with various Tween compounds probaby is a function of their respective fatty acid contaminants.
Pietka, Magdalena; Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Szczepanek, Kinga; Szybinski, Piotr; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Kłęk, Stanisław
Introducción: La nutrición parenteral domiciliaria (NPD) moderna requiere la elaboración de preparados a medida. Las peticiones de los médicos en cuanto a la composición de estos preparados muchas veces difieren de los principios farmacéuticos, lo que suscita la necesidad de elaboración de preparados ex-tempore o unas pruebas de estabilidad que garanticen la almacenamiento a largo plazo. Estas estrategias no resultan rentables. El objetivo del estudio consistió en utilizar la cooperación entre médicos y farmacéuticos para asegurar tanto la rentabilidad, como la elaboración a medida de los preparados NPD. Métodos: La primera parte del estudio consistió en el análisis pormenorizado de las prescripciones para los 47 pacientes con una NPD más exigente (27 mujeres y 20 hombres, edad media 53,1 años) tratados en un centro NPD para crear el menor número posible de preparados de larga duración. La segunda parte del estudio consistió en pruebas de estabilidad y modificaciones. Resultados: El análisis demostró que eran necesarias más de 137 variaciones para cubrir todas las exigencias de macro y micronutrientes. Su costo como soluciones ex-tempore resultó extremadamente elevado (más de 110.000 EUROS/mes) debido a la logística, e igualmente alto en caso de requerirse una prueba de estabilidad (68.500 EUROS). Así, la prescripción fue preparada de novo por el equipo de médicos y farmacéuticos y se diseñaron cuatro modelos básicos. Las dificultades principales fueron el agua y los electrolitos, en particular magnesio y calcio. Las pruebas de estabilidad fracasaron en uno de los preparados debido a la alta concentración de electrolitos. Esto fue corregido, y la nueva fórmula supero la prueba. A partir de ahí se emplearon cinco modelos básicos para la creación de nuevas bolsas. El costo de esta actividad supuso 3.700 EUROS (p.
Cardozo Tomas, Agustina; Ghietto, Lucia Maria; Insfran, Constanza; Wasinger, Nicolas; Marchesi, Ariana; Adamo, Maria Pilar
Antecedentes. El Bocavirus humano (HBoV) es un parvovirus descripto por primera vez en 2005, asociado a cuadros leves y graves de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA), una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en la población infantil en todo el mundo. Al presente se han identificado 4 genotipos, nombradas HBoV1 a 4, de los cuales el primero es el que se asocia a IRA con predominancia. Objetivo. Obtener el genoma completo de HBoV respiratorio aislado localmente. Métodos. Se diseñaron primers para fragmentos superpuestos del genoma completo de HBoV, empleando las herramientas informáticas ClustalW y NCBI Primer-Blast. Los fragmentos se amplificaron por PCR convencional y se secuenciaron mediante tecnología capilar BigDye Terminator. La edición de las secuencias y análisis filogenético se realizó con el programa MEGA v6. Resultados. Se obtuvo la secuencia genómica completa de HBoV1 cepa 307AR09, aislada de secreción respiratoria de paciente pediátrico con bronquiolitis. La misma fue depositada en la base de datos GenBank con número de acceso KJ634207. El análisis filogenético con secuencias genómicas completas de los 4 genotipos obtenidas en distintas regiones del mundo muestra similitud cercana al 100% con la secuencia original descubierta en Suecia (DQ000495), así como el agrupamiento de los 4 genotipos en 2 clusters de alta homología interna: HBoV1-HBoV3 y HBoV2-HBoV4. Conclusiones. Se aportan datos locales para futuros desarrollos tecnológicos destinados tanto a la investigación como al diseño de métodos diagnósticos para la práctica médica. Por otra parte, los resultados sustentan la propuesta de redistribución taxonómica de los 4 genotipos en 2 especies.
Robert, K.; Matabos, M.; Sarrazin, J.; Sarradin, P.; Lee, R. W.; Juniper, K.
Hydrothermal vent environments are among the most dynamic benthic habitats in the ocean. The relative roles of physical and biological factors in shaping vent community structure remain unclear. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required for high-resolution, time-series study of the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. The NEPTUNE Canada cabled instrument array at the Endeavour hydrothermal vents provides a unique laboratory for researchers to conduct long-term, integrated studies of hydrothermal vent ecosystem dynamics in relation to environmental variability. Beginning in September-October 2010, NEPTUNE Canada (NC) will be deploying a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Two camera and sensor systems will be used to study ecosystem dynamics in relation to hydrothermal discharge. These studies will make use of new experimental protocols for time-series observations that we have been developing since 2008 at other observatory sites connected to the VENUS and NC networks. These protocols include sampling design, camera calibration (i.e. structure, position, light, settings) and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al.). The camera systems to be deployed in the Main Endeavour vent field include a Sidus high definition video camera (2010) and the TEMPO-mini system (2011), designed by IFREMER (France). Real-time data from three sensors (O2, dissolved Fe, temperature) integrated with the TEMPO-mini system will enhance interpretation of imagery. For the first year of observations, a suite of internally recording temperature probes will be strategically placed in the field of view of the Sidus camera. These installations aim at monitoring variations in vent community structure and dynamics (species composition and abundances, interactions within and among species) in response to changes in environmental conditions at different
Matabos, M.; NC Endeavour Science Team
Mid-ocean ridges are dynamic systems where the complex linkages between geological, biological, chemical, and physical processes are not yet well understood. Indeed, the poor accessibility to the marine environment has greatly limited our understanding of deep-sea ecosystems. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required to conduct long-term and high-resolution time-series observations of the seafloor. Investigations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal ecosystem require interdisciplinary studies to better understand the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. NEPTUNE Canada (NC) regional observatory is located in the Northeast Pacific, off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada), and spans ecological environments from the beach to the abyss. In September-October 2010, NC will be instrumenting its 5th node, including deployment of a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments in two vent fields on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These include a digital camera, an imaging sonar for vent plumes and flow characteristics (i.e. COVIS), temperature resistivity probes, a water sampler and seismometers. In 2011, the TEMPO-mini, a new custom-designed camera and sensor package created by IFREMER for real-time monitoring of hydrothermal faunal assemblages and their ecosystems (Sarrazin et al. 2007), and a microbial incubator, will added to the network in the Main Endeavour and Mothra vent fields. This multidisciplinary approach will involve a scientific community from different institutions and countries. Significant experience aids in this installation. For example, video systems connected to VENUS and NC have led to the development of new experimental protocols for time-series observations using seafloor cameras, including sampling design, camera calibration and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al. and Robert et al.). Similarly, autonomous deployment of many of the planned instruments
San Mauro Martín, Ismael
Introducción: La alergia alimentaria afecta a gran parte de la población y sus cifras siguen aumentando. Aunque, se esta avanzando en el conocimiento de la patología, los alérgicos encuentran grandes dificultades para llevar una vida normal, especialmente en lo relativo a su alimentación. Hasta ahora el colectivo no contaba con herramientas prácticas que les ayudasen en la elaboración diaria de una dieta equilibrada, como existen para la población en general, en forma de pirámides y guías alimentarias. Con este trabajo se ha cubierto esta necesidad para dos de las alergias más prevalentes en los primeros años de vida. Objetivos: Recopilar información sobre la alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca (APLV) y huevo, para diseñar una pirámide alimenticia para estos pacientes, basada en los consensos, recomendaciones y guías científicas. Resultados: Tras comprobar la inexistencia de un trabajo similar, se diseñaron pirámides alimenticias para alérgicos a huevo y APLV, adaptadas a cada uno de ellos, así como una pirámide conjunta a ambas alergias. Además se incluyeron recomendaciones basicas para la alimentación saludable en general y, en particular, con interés especial para el colectivo (higiene alimentaria, aditivos alimentarios, productos de cosmética, medicamentos, etc). Conclusiones: Debido a la importancia que la nutrición adquiere en la infancia y las dificultades subyacentes a este colectivo, poder planificar adecuadamente la alimentación es muy importante pues puede prevenir accidentes y carencias nutricionales a largo plazo. Por ello, facilitar herramientas gráficas y prácticas para este fin, es de gran importancia comunitaria y medico-científico, y es el resultado de este trabajo.
Majewski, Jedrzej; Pham, Dat; Meltzner, Aron; Switzer, Adam; Horton, Benjamin; Heng, Shu Yun; Warrick, David
Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls Jędrzej M. Majewski 1, Dat T. Pham1, Aron J. Meltzner 1, Adam D. Switzer 1, Benjamin P. Horton2, Shu Yun Heng1, David Warrick3, 1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 2 Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA 3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Coral microatolls can be used to study relative sea-level change at multidecadal timescales associated with vertical land movements, climate induced sea-level rise and other oceanographic phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the assumption that the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls track sea level over the course of their lifetimes. In this study we compare microatoll records covering from as early as 1883 through 2013, from two sites in Indonesia, with long records (>20 years) from proximal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, and other sea-level reconstructions. We compared the HLS time series derived from open-ocean and moated (or ponded) microatolls on tectonically stable Belitung Island and a potentially tectonically active setting in Mapur Island, with sea-level reconstructions for 1950-2011. The sea-level reconstructions are based on ground and satellite measurements, combining a tide model with the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model. Our results confirm that open-ocean microatolls do track low water levels at multi decadal time scales and can be used as a proxy for relative sea level (RSL) over time. However, microatolls that are even partially moated are unsuitable and do not track RSL; rather, their growth patterns likely reflect changes in the elevation of the sill of the local pond, as reported by earlier authors. Our ongoing efforts will include an attempt to recognize similarities in moated
Kim, C.; Park, C.
We conducted magnetic survey at Apr., 2011 in the western slope of the caldera of TA25, the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific using IBRV(Ice Breaker Research Vessel) ARAON of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), ROV(Remotely Operated Vehicle) of Oceaneering Co. and three component magnetometer(Fig. 1,Fig. 2). The deep-sea three component magnetic survey lines are the 13 N-S lines(100 m spacing) and the 2 E-W lines(Fig. 2). The depth ranges of the survey area are from about 900 m to 1200 m, below sea level. For the magnetic survey, the magnetometer sensor and the data logger was attached with the upper part and lower part of ROV, respectively(Fig. 2). We wanted to make the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV over 2 m long to reduce the noise effect of ROV. But, for the safe of deployment and recovery of ROV, the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV was 126 cm(Fig. 2). In the magnetic survey, ROV followed the planning tracks at 25~30 m above seafloor using the altimeter and USBL(Ultra Short Base Line) of ROV. IBRV ARAON accompanied ROV on the magnetic survey. The three component magnetometer measure the X(North), Y(East) and Z(Vertical) vector components of a magnetic field. A motion sensor(Oxtans) provided us the data of pitch, roll, yaw for the correction of the magnetic data to the motion of ROV. The data of the magnetometer sensor and the motion sensor were recorded on a notebook through the optical cable of ROV and the network of ARON using magnetometer software. The precision positions of magnetic data were merged by the post-processing of USBL of ROV. Hydrothermal fluids over Curie temperature can quickly alter or replace the iron-rich magnetic minerals, reducing the magnetic remanence of the crustal rocks, in some cases to near 0A/m magnetization. So, the obtained three component magnetic data are fully utilized by finding possible hydrothermal vents of the survey area.
White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.
We revise the physics of primary electron acceleration in the "slot gap" (SG) above the pulsar polar caps (PCs), a regime originally proposed by Arons and Scharlemann (1979) in their electrodynamic model of pulsar PCs. We employ the standard definition of the SG as a pair-free space between the last open field lines and the boundary of the pair plasma column which is expected to develop above the bulk of the PC. The rationale for our revision is that the proper treatment of primary acceleration within the pulsar SGs should take into account the effect of the narrow geometry of the gap on the electrodynamics within the gap and also to include the effect of inertial frame dragging on the particle acceleration. We show that the accelerating electric field within the gap, being significantly boosted by the effect of frame dragging, becomes reduced because of the gap geometry by a factor proportional to the square of the SG width. The combination of the effects of frame dragging and geometrical screening in the gap region naturally gives rise to a regime of extended acceleration, that is not limited to favorably curved field lines as in earlier models, and the possibility of multiple-pair production by curvature photons at very high altitudes, up to several stellar radii. We present our estimates of the characteristic SG thickness across the PC, energetics of primaries accelerated within the gap, high-energy bolometric luminosities emitted from the high altitudes in the gaps, and maximum heating luminosities produced by positrons returning from the elevated pair fronts. The estimated theoretical high-energy luminosities are in good agreement with the corresponding empirical relationships for gamma-ray pulsars. We illustrate the results of our modeling of the pair cascades and gamma-ray emission from the high altitudes in the SG for the Crab pulsar. The combination of the frame-dragging field and high-altitude SG emission enables both acceleration at the smaller
Le Minor, Jean-Marie; Sick, Henri
Some historical and bibliographical elements are given at the occasion of the 350th anniversary of the foundation of the chair of anatomy at Strasbourg. Strasbourg played an important role in the dissemination of the anatomical knowledge in the end of the 15th and the first half of the 16th century. In 1517, the first official human dissection organized in Strasbourg was performed. In 1652, a specific chair of anatomy founded, and the first holder was J. A. Sebiz (1614-1685). In 1670, an anatomical lecture theatre was created. Strasbourg became a French town in 1681 with no modification of the university and of the chair of anatomy. In 1872, after the annexation of Alsace, a new German university was founded ; normal anatomy and pathology were separated and each chair attached to a particular institute. In 1919, when the Faculty of Medicine was reorganized after Alsace was restored to France, specific chairs and institutes were founded for histology and embryology. Among the famous morphologists and scientists who worked in Strasbourg were in anatomy : H. Brunschwig (?-1534), W. H. Ryff (c. 1505-1548), J. Winter von Andernach (1497-1574), T. Lauth (1758-1826), F. D. Reisseissen (1773-1828), J. F. Lobstein (1777-1835), E. A. Lauth (1803-1837), E. Koeberlé (1828-1915), E. Beaunis (1830-1921), H. D. Bouchard (1833-1899), J. G. Joessel (1838-1892), W. Waldeyer (1836-1921), G. Schwalbe (1844-1916), W. Pfitzner (1853-1903), F. Keibel (1861-1929), A. Forster (1878-1957), and P. Bellocq (1888-1962) ; in pathology : F. D. von Rechlinghausen (1833-1910), H. Chiari (1851-1916), J. G. Mönckeberg (1877-1925), P. Masson (1880-1959), and L. Géry (1883-1957) ; in histology : P. Bouin (1870-1962), M. Aron (1892-1974), R. Courrier (1895-1986), and M. Klein (1905-1975) ; in embryology : P. Ancel (1873-1961), P. Vintemberger (1891-1983), J. Benoit (1896-1982), E. Wolff (1904-1996), and J. Clavert (1912-1994).
Cannat, M.; Sarradin, P.; Blandin, J.; Escartin, J.; Colaco, A.; MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali
, pressure probes, tiltmeter, temperature probes in selected smokers, currentmeters and temperature probes in the water column), and colonization devices for time-integrated faunal studies. In this presentation we will outline the latest results of this prototype sub-sea multidisciplinary observatory system. The MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali
to Chandra, it is becoming clear that pulsars are stupendous cosmic power plants." The arcs are thought to be due to shock waves in matter flowing away from the equator of the pulsar. By measuring the position and width of these arcs, the team estimated the intensity of the magnetic field, and the rate at which the pulsar is pumping high-energy particles into the space around it. "The X-ray images give us evidence that the pulsar not only accelerates particles efficiently," said Jonathan Arons of the University of California at Berkeley, "but it gives them energy comparable to the highest energies found in the cosmic rays which continuously bombard the Earth." In addition, the team determined that a bright cloud of X-ray emission about 25 light years from the pulsar is due to multi-million degree gas. This hot cloud was probably produced as material ejected by the supernova collided with cooler gas in interstellar space. Other members of the B1509-58 research team included Michael Pivovaroff (ThermaWave Inc), Nobuyuki Kawai (Tokyo Institute of Technology) and Keisuke Tamura (Nagoya University). Chandra observed B1509-58 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument, which was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov
Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)
It is becoming apparent that insufficient mixing occurs in the pelagic ocean to maintain the large scale thermohaline circulation. Observed mixing rates fall a factor of ten short of classical indices such as Munk's "Abyssal Recipe." The growing suspicion is that most of the mixing in the sea occurs near topography. Exciting recent observations by Polzin et al., among others, fuel this speculation. If topographic mixing is indeed important, it must be acknowledged that its geographic distribution, both laterally and vertically, is presently unknown. The vertical distribution of mixing plays a critical role in the Stommel Arons model of the ocean interior circulation. In recent numerical studies, Samelson demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of flow in the abyssal ocean to the spatial distribution of mixing. We propose to study the topographic mixing problem through an integrated program of modeling and observation. We focus on tidally forced mixing as the global energetics of this process have received (and are receiving) considerable study. Also, the well defined frequency of the forcing and the unique geometry of tidal scattering serve to focus the experiment design. The Hawaiian Ridge is selected as a study site. Strong interaction between the barotropic tide and the Ridge is known to take place. The goals of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are to quantify the rate of tidal energy loss to mixing at the Ridge and to identify the mechanisms by which energy is lost and mixing generated. We are challenged to develop a sufficiently comprehensive picture that results can be generalized from Hawaii to the global ocean. To achieve these goals, investigators from five institutions have designed HOME, a program of historic data analysis, modeling and field observation. The Analysis and Modeling efforts support the design of the field experiments. As the program progresses, a global model of the barotropic (depth independent) tide, and two models of the
Shriver, Jay F.; Hurlburt, Harley E.
World ocean simulations are used to investigate the pathways feeding the Indonesian throughflow as a function of depth, including the role of the global thermohaline ("conveyor belt") circulation. The simulations use a horizontal resolution of 1/2° for each variable and the vertical resolution ranges from 1.5-layer reduced gravity to six layers with realistic bottom topography. They are forced by the Hellerman and Rosenstein  monthly wind stress climatology. Contrary to the classical theory of Stommel and Arons , the Naval Research Laboratory model shows the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region as the main region of abyssal to upper ocean water upwelling which compensates for the deep water formation in the far North Atlantic, a result corroborated by recent observational evidence [Toggweiler and Samuels, 1993]. We examine the contribution of the global conveyor belt circulation to the throughflow by systematically varying the model dynamics (e.g., by disabling the far North Atlantic ports which parameterize deep water formation in that region). The model simulations show a global conveyor belt circulation contribution of 5.7 Sv to the throughflow, a contribution provided mainly by wind-driven upwelling in the Indo-Pacific ACC region. This is due to a cooperative interaction between the thermohaline and wind-driven circulations. The thermohaline circulation makes the throughflow more surface trapped and less subject to topographic blocking in the Indonesian passageways, while the wind-driven circulation provides the Indonesian throughflow pathway for the thermohaline flow upwelled in the ACC region. Mean layer transport fields, cross-layer mass transfer fields, and Lagrangian tracers are used to identify pathways feeding the Pacific to Indian Ocean throughflow via Indonesia. Starting from the ACC, Sverdrup flow shows a circuitous route that is northward in the eastern South Pacific, then westward in the South Equatorial Current (SEC). The SEC
Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron
their help in producing this special section. We hope that it conveys some of the excitement and significance of the field. Semiconducting oxides contents Chemical bonding in copper-based transparent conducting oxides: CuMO2 (M = In, Ga, Sc) K G Godinho, B J Morgan, J P Allen, D O Scanlon and G W Watson Electrical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films with Pt and ITO electrodes: dielectric and rectifying behaviourShunyi Li, Cosmina Ghinea, Thorsten J M Bayer, Markus Motzko, Robert Schafranek and Andreas Klein Orientation dependent ionization potential of In2O3: a natural source for inhomogeneous barrier formation at electrode interfaces in organic electronicsMareike V Hohmann, Péter Ágoston, André Wachau, Thorsten J M Bayer, Joachim Brötz, Karsten Albe and Andreas Klein Cathodoluminescence studies of electron irradiation effects in n-type ZnOCasey Schwarz, Yuqing Lin, Max Shathkin, Elena Flitsiyan and Leonid Chernyak Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputteringM F Cerqueira, M I Vasilevskiy, F Oliveira, A G Rolo, T Viseu, J Ayres de Campos, E Alves and R Correia Structure and electrical properties of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide prepared by microwave plasma synthesisM Sagmeister, M Postl, U Brossmann, E J W List, A Klug, I Letofsky-Papst, D V Szabó and R Würschum Charge compensation in trivalent cation doped bulk rutile TiO2Anna Iwaszuk and Michael Nolan Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of n-type ZnO single crystals grown by different techniquesL Scheffler, Vl Kolkovsky, E V Lavrov and J Weber Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour depositionC David, T Girardeau, F Paumier, D Eyidi, B Lacroix, N Papathanasiou, B P Tinkham, P Guérin and M Marteau Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modellingAron Walsh, Juarez L F Da Silva and Su-Huai Wei Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of