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Sample records for arrabidaea chica humb

  1. Determination of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the leaves and tea of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bompl.) Verl.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Igor Rafael dos Santos; Soares, Alcinete de Oliveira; Araújo, Lídia Medina; Castro da Costa, Paulo Roberto; Roland, Ivete de Araújo; Borrás, Maria Rosa Lozano

    2009-12-01

    Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bompl.) Verl. is an herb popularly used in the treatment of anemia in the Brazilian Amazon region, and little is known about its mineral content. Therefore, the elemental contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined in the dried leaves and tea obtained by decoction and infusion of the three varieties of the medicinal plant using flame atomic absorption spectrometry after acid wet digestion of the samples. In general, the levels of the minerals are in good agreement with other studies involving medicinal plants, and the variety AC2 had the highest concentrations of all elements both in dried leaves and tea. Iron was found to be the most abundant in dried leaves (38.4-115.5 μg g(-1)), whereas manganese had the highest extraction efficiencies both in decoction (56.1-62.7%) and infusion (45.6-63.6%). Additionally, the decoction was more efficient in the extraction of almost all elements. The consumption of the decoction of variety AC2 may contribute to a small proportion to the daily requirements of Mn.

  2. Liver protective activity of a hydroethanolic extract of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. and Bonpl.) B. Verl. (pariri)

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Medeiros, Benedito Junior; dos Santos Costa, Kelém; Alves Ribeiro, Jeane Francisca; Carrera Silva, José Otavio; Ramos Barbosa, Wagner Luiz; Tavares Carvalho, José Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Folk medicine uses preparations of Arrabidaea chica (pariri) leaves to treat various liver pathologies. We evaluated the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of these leaves (CHEE) on an in vivo model of liver intoxication. Materials and Methods: Different groups of rats were treated orally for 7 days with CHEE at doses of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg or silymarin at 35 mg/kg. The control group received only 0.5 ml of distilled water. After 7 days of treatment, both the groups received CCl4, and activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and bilirubin level were assessed. The ability of CHEE to suppress hepatic injury triggered by CCl4 was evaluated based on suppression (%) of activities of GOT, GPT and bilirubin levels. Results: The chromatograms of the CHEE obtained at 330 and 400 nm show features of two main classes of secondary metabolites: quinones and flavonoids. The administration of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg of CHEE resulted in the reduction of GPT levels by 85.34%, 88.59% and 93.72%, respectively. The suppression of GOT levels was 56.86%, 65.27% and 68.95%, respectively, and that of plasma bilirubin was 83.81%, 83.12% and 84.14%, respectively. These results demonstrate the protective character of CHEE and its ability to maintain the functional integrity of hepatic cells. Conclusions: The results obtained are possibly due to the presence of quinones and flavonoids in A. chica CHEE, both detected using high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21772750

  3. Liver protective activity of a hydroethanolic extract of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. and Bonpl.) B. Verl. (pariri).

    PubMed

    Lima de Medeiros, Benedito Junior; Dos Santos Costa, Kelém; Alves Ribeiro, Jeane Francisca; Carrera Silva, José Otavio; Ramos Barbosa, Wagner Luiz; Tavares Carvalho, José Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Folk medicine uses preparations of Arrabidaea chica (pariri) leaves to treat various liver pathologies. We evaluated the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of these leaves (CHEE) on an in vivo model of liver intoxication. Different groups of rats were treated orally for 7 days with CHEE at doses of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg or silymarin at 35 mg/kg. The control group received only 0.5 ml of distilled water. After 7 days of treatment, both the groups received CCl(4), and activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and bilirubin level were assessed. The ability of CHEE to suppress hepatic injury triggered by CCl(4) was evaluated based on suppression (%) of activities of GOT, GPT and bilirubin levels. The chromatograms of the CHEE obtained at 330 and 400 nm show features of two main classes of secondary metabolites: quinones and flavonoids. The administration of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg of CHEE resulted in the reduction of GPT levels by 85.34%, 88.59% and 93.72%, respectively. The suppression of GOT levels was 56.86%, 65.27% and 68.95%, respectively, and that of plasma bilirubin was 83.81%, 83.12% and 84.14%, respectively. These results demonstrate the protective character of CHEE and its ability to maintain the functional integrity of hepatic cells. The results obtained are possibly due to the presence of quinones and flavonoids in A. chica CHEE, both detected using high performance liquid chromatography.

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity and antimicrobial activity of hydroethanolic extract of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verl.

    PubMed

    Mafioleti, Luciano; da Silva Junior, Iberê Ferreira; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Flach, Adriana; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2013-11-25

    Arrabidaea chica (Bignoniaceae) is a vine native to the Amazon Rainforest, popularly known as "crajiru" and whose infusion and decoction of the leaves are used to treat diseases such as gastric ulcers, inflammations, infections, anemia, herpes, jaundice among others. It is also used as a natural dye. This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, antimicrobial activity including analysis of chemical constitution of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of Arrabidaea chica (HEAc). Acute and subchronic toxicity of HEAc was evaluated in mice and rats, respectively, and by Alamar blue (cytotoxicity assay) using CHO-K1 cells. Antimicrobial activity of HEAc was tested by broth microdilution method using a panel of bacteria and yeast of clinical interest. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of HEAc was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [ESI(+)-MS]. Secondary metabolites were quantified by colorimetric methods. When administered in vivo at doses up to 3000 mg/kg v.o., HEAc did not cause any signs and symptoms of acute toxicity in mice and no cytotoxicity in CHO-K1 cells. Administration for 30 days caused leukocytosis (200 mg/kg) and reversible reductions in non-dose dependent of body weight, total weight gain and feed intake in rats given 200mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of HEAc, but were not accompanied by behavioral and clinical changes (laboratory and histopathological) that may have demonstrated evidences of subchronic toxicity HEAc demonstrated a pronounced activity against Helicobacter pylori (MIC=12.5 μg/mL) and moderate activity against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC=100 μg/mL) in broth microdilution. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of HEAc by colorimetric methods revealed that mainly the presence of phenolic compounds (16.6%), especially flavones and flavonols (4.02%). [ESI(+)-MS] fingerprint analyses of HEAc revealed the presence of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and kaempferol. Our data provide evidence that HEAc is safe and can be

  5. 3-Desoxyanthocyanidins from Arrabidaea chica.

    PubMed

    Zorn, B; García-Piñeres, A J; Castro, V; Murillo, R; Mora, G; Merfort, I

    2001-04-01

    The new 3-desoxyanthocyanidins 6,7,3'-trihydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy-flavylium and 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxy-flavylium and the known 6,7-dihydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy-flavylium (Carajurin) were isolated by bioguided fractionation from the leaves of Arrabidaea chica, with transcription factor NF-kappaB as target. The structure of Carajurone was revised to be 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-flavylium. Additionally, the flavone acacetin was found. All structures were mainly established on the basis of MS- and NMR data (1H, 1H-1H COSY and partly 13C, GHMQCR and GHSQCR). Carajurin, which failed to give a positive result in the DPPH TLC assay completely inhibited NF-kappaB, but not NF-AT at a 500 microM concentration.

  6. A set of microsatellite markers for Arrabidaea chica (Bignoniaceae), a medicinal liana from the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Glyn M; Ramelo, Pamela R; Ogasawara, Daniela C; Montanari, Ilio; Zucchi, Maria I; M Cavallari, Marcelo; Foglio, Mary A

    2010-07-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed, optimized, and characterized for Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) Verl. (Bignoniaceae), a Neotropical liana extensively used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to develop molecular tools to investigate the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations and germplasm collections of this species. • Eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a multibanded pattern, suggesting that the species is polyploid. The total number of bands per locus ranged from 9 to 17, revealing high levels of polymorphism. • The high level of polymorphism detected with these markers indicates their utility in devising conservation strategies and rational exploitation of A. chica.

  7. New 3-deoxyanthocyanidins from leaves of Arrabidaea chica.

    PubMed

    Devia, Beatriz; Llabres, Gabriel; Wouters, Jan; Dupont, Leon; Escribano-Bailon, Maria Teresa; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Angenot, Luc; Tits, Monique

    2002-01-01

    Two new 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium and 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium, and the pigment carajurin, which has been previously identified, were isolated from dried leaves of Arrabidaea chica, a creeper native to the American tropics. The structures of the components were elucidated by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-MS, including X-ray crystallographic analysis for carajurin.

  8. Chitosan–tripolyphosphate nanoparticles as Arrabidaea chica standardized extract carrier: synthesis, characterization, biocompatibility, and antiulcerogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    Servat-Medina, Leila; González-Gómez, Alvaro; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Sousa, Ilza Maria Oliveira; de Cássia Almeida Queiroz, Nubia; Zago, Patricia Maria Wiziack; Jorge, Michelle Pedrosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Román, Julio San; Foglio, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Natural products using plants have received considerable attention because of their potential to treat various diseases. Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verlot is a native tropical American vine with healing properties employed in folk medicine for wound healing, inflammation, and gastrointestinal colic. Applying nanotechnology to plant extracts has revealed an advantageous strategy for herbal drugs considering the numerous features that nanostructured systems offer, including solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacological activity enhancement. The present study reports the preparation and characterization of chitosan–sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) charged with A. chica standardized extract (AcE). Particle size and zeta potential were measured using a Zetasizer Nano ZS. The NP morphological characteristics were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Our studies indicated that the chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate mass ratio of 5 and volume ratio of 10 were found to be the best condition to achieve the lowest NP sizes, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 150±13 nm and a zeta potential of +45±2 mV. Particle size decreased with AcE addition (60±10.2 nm), suggesting an interaction between the extract’s composition and polymers. The NP biocompatibility was evaluated using human skin fibroblasts. AcE-NP demonstrated capability of maintaining cell viability at the lowest concentrations tested, stimulating cell proliferation at higher concentrations. Antiulcerogenic activity of AcE-NP was also evaluated with an acute gastric ulcer experimental model induced by ethanol and indomethacin. NPs loaded with A. chica extract reduced the ulcerative lesion index using lower doses compared with the free extract, suggesting that extract encapsulation in chitosan NPs allowed for a dose reduction for a gastroprotective effect. The AcE encapsulation offers an approach for further application of the A. chica extract that could be considered a

  9. Chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles as Arrabidaea chica standardized extract carrier: synthesis, characterization, biocompatibility, and antiulcerogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Servat-Medina, Leila; González-Gómez, Alvaro; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Sousa, Ilza Maria Oliveira; Queiroz, Nubia de Cássia Almeida; Zago, Patricia Maria Wiziack; Jorge, Michelle Pedrosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; San Román, Julio; Foglio, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Natural products using plants have received considerable attention because of their potential to treat various diseases. Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verlot is a native tropical American vine with healing properties employed in folk medicine for wound healing, inflammation, and gastrointestinal colic. Applying nanotechnology to plant extracts has revealed an advantageous strategy for herbal drugs considering the numerous features that nanostructured systems offer, including solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacological activity enhancement. The present study reports the preparation and characterization of chitosan-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) charged with A. chica standardized extract (AcE). Particle size and zeta potential were measured using a Zetasizer Nano ZS. The NP morphological characteristics were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Our studies indicated that the chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate mass ratio of 5 and volume ratio of 10 were found to be the best condition to achieve the lowest NP sizes, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 150±13 nm and a zeta potential of +45±2 mV. Particle size decreased with AcE addition (60±10.2 nm), suggesting an interaction between the extract's composition and polymers. The NP biocompatibility was evaluated using human skin fibroblasts. AcE-NP demonstrated capability of maintaining cell viability at the lowest concentrations tested, stimulating cell proliferation at higher concentrations. Antiulcerogenic activity of AcE-NP was also evaluated with an acute gastric ulcer experimental model induced by ethanol and indomethacin. NPs loaded with A. chica extract reduced the ulcerative lesion index using lower doses compared with the free extract, suggesting that extract encapsulation in chitosan NPs allowed for a dose reduction for a gastroprotective effect. The AcE encapsulation offers an approach for further application of the A. chica extract that could be considered a potential

  10. Evaluation of wound healing properties of Arrabidaea chica Verlot extract.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; Madjarof, Cristiana; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca; Fernandes, Alik Teixeira; Ferreira Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre; de Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2008-08-13

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot. (Bignoniaceae), popularly known as Crajiru, has been traditionally used as wound healing agent. Investigate in vitro and in vivo healing properties of Arrabidaea chica leaves extract (AC). AC was evaluated in vitro in fibroblast growth stimulation (0.25-250 microg/mL) and collagen production stimulation (250 microg/mL) assays. Allantoin (0.25-250 microg/mL) and vitamin C (25 microg/mL) were used as controls respectively. DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteau assays were used for antioxidant evaluation, using trolox (0.25-250 microg/mL) as reference antioxidant. To study wound healing properties in rats, AC (100mg/mL, 200 microL/wound/day) was topically administered during 10 days and wound area was evaluated every day. Allantoin (100mg/mL, 200 microL/wound/day) was used as standard drug. After treatment, wound sites were removed for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination. AC stimulated fibroblast growth in a concentration dependent way (EC50=30 microg/mL), increased in vitro collagen production and demonstrated moderate antioxidant capacity. In vivo, AC reduced wound size in 96%, whereas saline group showed only 36% wound healing. AC efficiency seems to involve fibroblast growing stimulus and collagen synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, beyond moderate scavenging activity, corroborating Crajiru folk use.

  11. Leishmanicidal, cytotoxicity and wound healing potential of Arrabidaea chica Verlot.

    PubMed

    Cortez de Sá, Joicy; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Mondêgo-Oliveira, Renata; Oliveira, Iara Dos Santos da Silva; Lamarck, Lyah; Magalhães, Isadora de Fátima Braga; Ataídes-Lima, Aarão Filipe; Ferreira, Higor da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia

    2016-01-04

    Leishmaniasis includes a wide complex of diseases that affect humans and other mammals, and can range from a mild cutaneous form to a severe visceral type. The safety of the standard treatment using pentavalent antimony is a concern due to its toxic effects. The search for alternative, effective and less toxic treatments has led to the testing of natural products. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, leishmanicidal and healing potential of Arrabidaea chica. The crude ethanolic extract, as well as the chloroform, methanol and ethyl acetate fractions of A. chica were prepared and phytochemical analysis was performed. Cytotoxic evaluation was carried out through MTT colorimetric assay, and the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was determined. After that, the effect of the extract and fractions against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes, at intervals of 24, 48 and 72 h, was analyzed, and 50% inhibitory concentration was determined. The healing effect of the plant was also tested in surgical lesions in Swiss mice skin. Phytochemical screening showed that the crude extracts contained flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanidins and chalcones. The leishmanicidal potential of A. chica produced satisfactory results in concentrations of between 60 and 155.9 μg/mL. Cytotoxic assay revealed a 50% reduction in viable cells at a concentration of 189.9 μg/mL. The healing results indicated that the treated group exhibited more pronounced signs of lesion resolution in the early period, but this pattern did not persist throughout the treatment. The results of the present study demonstrate that A. chica has cytotoxic and leishmanicidal potential but its healing effect must be better studied.

  12. Arrabidaea chica extract improves gait recovery and changes collagen content during healing of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Simões, G F; Esquisatto, M A M; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E; Oliveira, A L R; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2013-07-01

    Tendon lesions are still a serious clinical problem. The leaves of the Bignoniaceae Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verlot. (syn. Bignonia chica (Bonpl.)) have been used in traditional medicine and described in the literature for its healing properties. However, no study has shown the effects of A. chica during tendon healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the healing properties of the A. chica leaves extract on tendons after partial transection. A partial transection in the tension region of the Achilles tendon of rats was performed with subsequent posterior topical application of A. chica extract (2.13g/mL in 0.85% saline solution) at the site of the injury. The animals (n=154) were separated into 7 groups: N - rats with tendons without transection; S7, S14 and S21 - rats with tendons treated with topical applications of saline for 7 days and sacrificed on the 7th, 14th and 21st days after surgery, respectively; A7, A14 and A21 - rats with tendons treated with topical applications of the plant extract. The transected regions of the tendons were analyzed through biochemical, morphological and functional analyses. To evaluate the type and concentration of collagen, Western blotting for collagen types I and III was performed, and the hydroxyproline concentration was determined. The participation of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 during tendon remodelling was investigated through zymography. Gait recovery was analyzed using the catwalk system. The organization of the extracellular matrix and morphometry were detected in sections stained with haematoxylin-eosin. The application of A. chica extract in the region of tendon injury led to an increase in the amount of hydroxyproline (mg/g tissue) on the 7th (91.5±18.9) and 21st (95.8±11.9) days after the tendon lesion relative to the control groups treated with saline (S7: 75.2±7.2; and S21: 71.9±7.9). There were decreases in collagen types I and III (as determined by densitometry) in the groups

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities of Arrabidaea chica crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Michel, Ana Flávia Ribeiro Machado; Melo, Marília Martins; Campos, Paula Peixoto; Oliveira, Maira Souza; Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio Silva; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; Ferraz, Vanny Perpétua; Cota, Betânia Barros; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria

    2015-05-13

    Arrabidaea chica (Bignoniacea) has been used in popular medicine in Brazil to treat inflammation, skin diseases and leukemia. This work aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antitumoral activities of the A. chica aqueous (AE) and ethanol (EE) extracts. The murine sponge model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities of AE and EE. Accumulation of neutrophil and macrophage in the implants were determined by assaying myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities and the neovascularization evaluated by the amount of hemoglobin present in the implant using the Drabkin method. The antitumoral activity was evaluated using the MTT colorimetric method against Jurkat, HL60 and MCF-7 cells. Semi-purified fractions F1-F4 from the EE extract were obtained by a liquid-liquid solvent extraction method and their in vitro anti-proliferative effects were also investigated. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of A. chica decreased neutrophil accumulation and hemoglobin content in the sponge implants without altering the level of cytokines (IL-2, IL- 4, IL-5, IFN-γ, TNF-α and VEGF) and the albumin/globulin ratio in the serum of treated animals. There was no sign of toxicity (clinical, laboratory or histopathology). The ethanol extract presented antiproliferative activity (IC50 21.5-36.3 µg/mL) against HL60 and Jurkat cell lineages and proapoptotic activity at 50 µg/mL in HL60 cells. The fraction F1 also demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity (IC50 38.5 µg/mL) and proapoptotic activity against HL60 cells in a dose dependent manner. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chica attenuate the inflammatory and angiogenic components of the subcutaneous fibrovascular tissue induced by the synthetic matrix in mice. In addition, the ethanol extract from Arrabidaea chica and its fraction F1 presented in vitro antiproliferative activity and could be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  14. Ultraviolet (UVB and UVA) photoprotector activity and percutaneous penetration of extracts obtained from Arrabidaea chica.

    PubMed

    Siraichi, Jackeline T G; Pedrochi, Franciana; Natali, Maria R M; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito P Dias; Bento, Antonio C; Baesso, Mauro L; Nakamura, Celso V

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the photoprotection activity and toxicity level of formulations containing the extract and its fractions obtained from leaves of Arrabidaea chica. The ex vivo percutaneous penetration of the extract was evaluated using the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. The formulation presented optical absorption in the ultraviolet region, including UVA and UVB. This formulation was obtained without adding inorganic UV filters, as is frequently used in commercial sunscreens. The results showed a penetration rate similar to those of commercial sunscreens with its presence on the skin surface at least 180 min after the application. This formulation presented no toxic effects evaluated using hematological, biochemical, and histological assays. The results suggest that the formulation from the leaves of A. chica provides substantial protection against UVA + UVB radiation with a possible advantage of being natural and free of inorganic compounds compared with the majority of available commercial sunscreens.

  15. Evaluation of Safety of Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae), a Plant with Healing Properties.

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Tiago Farret; Prado, Lismare da Silva; Santos, Franciele Souza; de Souza, Ana Paula; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb to treat anemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, intestinal colic, hepatitis, and skin infections in the Brazilian Amazon region. Studies have demonstrated the healing properties of extracts obtained from A. chica leaves, which contain anthocyanins and flavonoids. However, few investigations have assessed the safe use of this plant species. In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic effects of a crude aqueous extract, a butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay in TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains and the alkaline comet assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture with and without metabolic activation. The crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste were not mutagenic in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested, and showed negative responses for genotoxicity in CHO cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids such as rutin and luteolin. The lack of mutagenic/genotoxic effects might be due to phytochemical composition with high concentrations of known anti-inflammatory compounds. Thus, the crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves do not appear to pose short-term genotoxic risks.

  16. Arrabidaea chica hexanic extract induces mitochondrion damage and peptidase inhibition on Leishmania spp.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Igor A; Azevedo, Mariana M B; Chaves, Francisco C M; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S; Vermelho, Alane B

    2014-01-01

    Currently available leishmaniasis treatments are limited due to severe side effects. Arrabidaea chica is a medicinal plant used in Brazil against several diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5 fractions obtained from the crude hexanic extract of A. chica against Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Promastigotes were treated with several concentrations of the fractions obtained from A. chica for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effect of the most active fraction (B2) on parasite's ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of B2 fraction on Leishmania peptidases, parasites lysates were treated with the inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of the B2 fraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration of B2 fraction was 37.2 and 18.6 μg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. infantum, respectively. Important ultrastructural alterations as mitochondrial swelling with loss of matrix content and the presence of vesicles inside this organelle were observed in treated parasites. Moreover, B2 fraction was able to completely inhibit the peptidase activity of promastigotes at pH 5.5. The results presented here further support the use of A. chica as an interesting source of antileishmanial agents.

  17. Arrabidaea chica Hexanic Extract Induces Mitochondrion Damage and Peptidase Inhibition on Leishmania spp.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently available leishmaniasis treatments are limited due to severe side effects. Arrabidaea chica is a medicinal plant used in Brazil against several diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5 fractions obtained from the crude hexanic extract of A. chica against Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Promastigotes were treated with several concentrations of the fractions obtained from A. chica for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effect of the most active fraction (B2) on parasite's ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of B2 fraction on Leishmania peptidases, parasites lysates were treated with the inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of the B2 fraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration of B2 fraction was 37.2 and 18.6 μg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. infantum, respectively. Important ultrastructural alterations as mitochondrial swelling with loss of matrix content and the presence of vesicles inside this organelle were observed in treated parasites. Moreover, B2 fraction was able to completely inhibit the peptidase activity of promastigotes at pH 5.5. The results presented here further support the use of A. chica as an interesting source of antileishmanial agents. PMID:24818162

  18. Antioxidant capacity of the leaf extract obtained from Arrabidaea chica cultivated in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siraichi, Jackeline Tiemy Guinoza; Felipe, Daniele Fernanda; Brambilla, Lara Zampar Serra; Gatto, Melissa Junqueira; Terra, Vânia Aparecida; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenco; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica leaf extract has been used by people as an anti-inflammatory and astringent agent as well as a remedy for intestinal colic, diarrhea, leucorrhea, anemia, and leukemia. A. chica is known to be a good producer of phenolics. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated its antioxidant activity. The phenolic composition of A. chica leaves was studied by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC-DAD) and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and isoscutellarein, 6-hydroxyluteolin, hispidulin, scutellarein, luteolin, and apigenin were identified. The extract from leaves of A. chica was tested for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, β-carotene bleaching test, and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) method. The crude extract quenched DPPH free radicals in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 of the extract was 13.51 µg/mL. The β-carotene bleaching test showed that the addition of the A. chica extract in different concentrations (200 and 500 µg/mL) prevented the bleaching of β-carotene at different degrees (51.2% ±3.38% and 94% ±4.61%, respectively). The TRAP test showed dose-dependent correlation between the increasing concentrations of A. chica extract (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 µg/mL) and the TRAP values obtained by trolox (hydro-soluble vitamin E) 0.4738±0.0466, 1.981±0.1603, and 6.877±1.445 µM, respectively. The 2 main flavonoids, scutellarein and apigenin, were separated, and their antioxidant activity was found to be the same as that of the plant extract. These 2 flavonoids were quantified in the plant extract by using a validated HPLC-UV method. The results of these tests showed that the extract of A. chica had a significant antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the presence of the mixture of flavonoids in the plant extract, with the main contribution of scutellarein and apigenin.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity of the Leaf Extract Obtained from Arrabidaea chica Cultivated in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siraichi, Jackeline Tiemy Guinoza; Felipe, Daniele Fernanda; Brambilla, Lara Zampar Serra; Gatto, Melissa Junqueira; Terra, Vânia Aparecida; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenco; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica leaf extract has been used by people as an anti-inflammatory and astringent agent as well as a remedy for intestinal colic, diarrhea, leucorrhea, anemia, and leukemia. A. chica is known to be a good producer of phenolics. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated its antioxidant activity. The phenolic composition of A. chica leaves was studied by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC–DAD) and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS), and isoscutellarein, 6-hydroxyluteolin, hispidulin, scutellarein, luteolin, and apigenin were identified. The extract from leaves of A. chica was tested for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, β-carotene bleaching test, and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) method. The crude extract quenched DPPH free radicals in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 of the extract was 13.51 µg/mL. The β-carotene bleaching test showed that the addition of the A. chica extract in different concentrations (200 and 500 µg/mL) prevented the bleaching of β-carotene at different degrees (51.2% ±3.38% and 94% ±4.61%, respectively). The TRAP test showed dose-dependent correlation between the increasing concentrations of A. chica extract (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 µg/mL) and the TRAP values obtained by trolox (hydro-soluble vitamin E) 0.4738±0.0466, 1.981±0.1603, and 6.877±1.445 µM, respectively. The 2 main flavonoids, scutellarein and apigenin, were separated, and their antioxidant activity was found to be the same as that of the plant extract. These 2 flavonoids were quantified in the plant extract by using a validated HPLC-UV method. The results of these tests showed that the extract of A. chica had a significant antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the presence of the mixture of flavonoids in the plant extract, with the main contribution of scutellarein and apigenin. PMID:24009700

  20. Effect of the Arrabidaea chica extract on collagen fiber organization during healing of partially transected tendon.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Freitas, K M; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E; Dolder, H; Gomes, L; Vidal, B C; Pimentel, E R

    2013-04-19

    After undergoing lesions, tendons have disorganized collagen fibers compared to undamaged tendons. Arrabidaea chica leaves have the aglycones carajurin and carajurone, components of the antocyanins, with a strong pharmacological potential due to their healing properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topical application of A. chica extract during tendon healing. The calcaneal tendon of Wistar rats was partially transected with subsequent treatment with A. chica extract (2.13 g/mL) followed by excision on the 7th, 14th and 21st days. Control rats received only saline treatment. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the presence of a large amount of small segments of collagen fibrils in the transected region of the tendons on the 7th day in both the control and plant-treated groups. Considering the organization of the collagen fibers, higher values of birefringence were observed under polarization microscopy in the tendons of the plant-treated group on the 14th day compared to the control group. A larger quantity of dermatan sulfate was also detected after plant treatment in the same period. However, lesser dermatan and chondroitin sulfate were detected in the plant-treated group than in the control group on the 21st day. No differences were found in the values of birefringence between these groups. Intense metachromasy was observed in both transected groups on the 21st day. In conclusion, the use of A. chica extract improves collagen organization and increases the quantity of dermatan sulfate on the 14th day of the tendon healing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pheophorbide a, a compound isolated from the leaves of Arrabidaea chica, induces photodynamic inactivation of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Nathielle; Gerola, Adriana Passarella; Novello, Cláudio Roberto; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; Hioka, Noboru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2017-06-03

    Approximately 6-7 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Only two therapeutic compounds have been found to be useful against this disease: nifurtimox and benznidazole. These drugs have been effective in the acute phase of the disease but less effective in the chronic phase; they also have many side effects. Thus, the search for new compounds with trypanocidal action is necessary. Natural products can be the source of many important substances for the development of drugs to treat this infection. The present study evaluated the biological activity of an extract and fractions of Arrabidaea chica against T. cruzi and observed morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of parasites exposed to the isolated compound pheophorbide a. The crude hydroethanolic extract of A. chica was prepared. Fractions were obtained by partition and separated by liquid chromatography. We observed a progressive increase in activity against epimastigote, trypomastigote, and amastigote forms of the parasite over the course of the fractionation process. Interestingly, we isolated a compound known as a photosensitizer that is used in photodynamic therapy. This method of treatment involving a photosensitizer, activation light and molecular oxygen is of great importance due to its selectivity. Pheophorbide a had activity against the protozoan in the presence of light and caused morphological and ultrastructural changes, demonstrating its potential in photodynamic therapy. Based on the ability of pheophorbide a to eliminate bloodstream forms of T. cruzi, we suggest its use in blood banks for hemoprophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoneaceae), an Amazon plant with medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Vinícius Carlotto; Longo, Thais Basso; Garcia, Ana Letícia Hilário; Richter, Marc François; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae) is an important folk medicine plant native to the Amazon region and used to treat anemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, intestinal colic, hepatitis, and skin affections. Although studies showed its therapeutic properties, little knowledge regarding genotoxic properties of this plant is available. The aim of this study was to determine the potential mutagenic and genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects of an A. chica chloroformic fraction (Ac-CF) obtained from leaves containing bioactive metabolites. The mutagenic effects were evaluated using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, with TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains, with and without metabolic activation. In vivo mutagenic and genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects were investigated using the micronucleus (MN) test in bone marrow and alkaline comet assay in blood and liver after administration of 100, 500, or 1000 mg/kg Ac-CF in CF-1 mice by gavage (once a day for 3 d). In vitro antioxidant potential was evaluated using DPPH and xanthine/hypoxanthine assays. Ac-CF was not mutagenic in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested and showed negative responses for mutagenicity and genotoxicity in mice. Further, Ac-CF displayed antigenotoxic effects by decreasing the oxidative DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide by greater than 50% in blood and liver. The antioxidant action detected in the in vitro assays demonstrated IC50 of 0.838 mg/ml in the xanthine/hypoxanthine assay and IC50 of 28.17 μg/ml in the DPPH assay. In conclusion, Ac-CF did not induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects and was able to protect DNA against oxidative damage in vivo, suggesting that this fraction may not pose genetic risks, although further toxicology assays are necessary.

  3. When Informationists Get Involved: the CHICA-GIS Project.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Elizabeth C; Odell, Jere D; Ralston, Rick K; Liu, Gilbert C

    2013-01-01

    Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) is a computer decision support system (CDSS) that interfaces with existing electronic medical record systems (EMRS) and delivers "just-in-time" patient-relevant guidelines to physicians during the clinical encounter and accurately captures structured data from all who interact with the system. "Delivering Geospatial Intelligence to Health Care Professionals (CHICA-GIS)" (1R01LM010923-01) expands the medical application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by integrating a geographic information system with CHICA. To provide knowledge management support for CHICA-GIS, three informationists at the Indiana University School of Medicine were awarded a supplement from the National Library Medicine. The informationists will enhance CHICA-GIS by: improving the accuracy and accessibility of information, managing and mapping the knowledge which undergirds the CHICA-GIS decision support tool, supporting community engagement and consumer health information outreach, and facilitating the dissemination of new CHICA-GIS research results and services.

  4. Bolsa Chica Wetland Restoration | Pacific Southwest, Region ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-23

    On October 6, 2004, officials from state and federal agencies and the city of Huntington Beach will join with local environmental groups to break ground for the Bolsa Chica Wetland Restoration Project – at 1,247 acres, the largest wetland restoration in Southern California history.

  5. Studies in regard to the classification and putative toxicity of Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous plant species worldwide including Palicourea marcgravii(Rubiaceae) and Tanaecium bilabiatum (Bignoniaceae) in Brazil cause acute cardiac failure (sudden death) and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Other Bignoniaceae species including Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis...

  6. 78 FR 17094 - Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air... in Boca Chica, Florida, during the 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the air show and air...

  7. Stachyose synthesis in source leaf tissues of the CAM plant Xerosicyos danguyi H. Humb

    SciTech Connect

    Madore, M.A.; Mitchell, D.E.; Boyd, C.M. )

    1988-07-01

    Leaf tissues from Xerosicyos danguyi H. Humb., a succulent member of the Cucurbitaceae, were found to possess both galactinol synthase activity and the capacity for photosynthetic production of stachyose, the phloem transport oligosaccahride common to other nonsucculent cucurbits, the amounts of stachyose isolated from leaf tissues, and the extractable activity of galactinol synthase, were somewhat higher in leaf tissues obtained from plants operating in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) mode (well watered plants) compared to leaf tissues from plants operating in the CAM-idling mode (water-stressed plants). In contrast, in leaf discs, the photosynthetic incorporation of label into stachyose following pulse labeling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was similar for stressed and for nonstressed tissues. Stachyose could be extracted from, and was synthesized photosynthetically by, leaf discs which contained no vascular tissues, indicating that synthesis of stachyose can occur in photosynthetic mesophyll cells of Xerosicyos.

  8. The spindle protein CHICA mediates localization of the chromokinesin Kid to the mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Anna; Nagel, Susanna; Sillje, Herman H W; Nigg, Erich A

    2008-05-20

    Microtubule-based motor proteins provide essential forces for bipolar organization of spindle microtubules and chromosome movement, prerequisites of chromosome segregation during the cell cycle. Here, we describe the functional characterization of a novel spindle protein, termed "CHICA," that was originally identified in a proteomic survey of the human spindle apparatus [1]. We show that CHICA localizes to the mitotic spindle and is both upregulated and phosphorylated during mitosis. CHICA-depleted cells form shorter spindles and fail to organize a proper metaphase plate, highly reminiscent of the phenotype observed upon depletion of the chromokinesin Kid, a key mediator of polar ejection forces [2-6]. We further show that CHICA coimmunoprecipitates with Kid and is required for the spindle localization of Kid without affecting its chromosome association. Moreover, upon depletion of either CHICA or Kid (or both proteins simultaneously), chromosomes collapse onto the poles of monastrol-induced monopolar spindles. We conclude that CHICA represents a novel interaction partner of the chromokinesin Kid that is required for the generation of polar ejection forces and chromosome congression.

  9. Inventory and Evaluation of Cultural Resources, Bolsa Chica Mesa and Huntington Beach Mesa, Orange County, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    especially groves of eucalyptus . Ground visibility was generally fair to good. Most of Bolsa Chica Mesa is covered by agricultural fields, although some oil...This is the essence of site significance evaluations, and ultimately should be the goal of the testing program. Methods Because the nature of sites and

  10. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  11. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  12. Gastroprotective effects of hydroethanolic root extract of Arrabidaea brachypoda: Evidences of cytoprotection and isolation of unusual glycosylated polyphenols.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Claudia Quintino; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Kitano, Bruna Tiemi; Ghilardi, Amanda Franceschini; Luiz Ferreira, Anderson; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Dunder, Ricardo José; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Hamburger, Matthias; Vilegas, Wagner; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2017-03-01

    The hydroethanolic root extract of Arrabidaea brachypoda, from Bignoniaceae family, a Brazilian medicinal plant, demonstrated significant in vivo gastroprotective effects using different in vivo assays. The activity was evaluated in several models of experimental gastric ulcer in rats (absolute ethanol, glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pylorus ligation and acetic acid). Using 300 mg/kg (p.o.) the extract significantly reduced gastric injury in all models. In depth phytochemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of two previously undescribed phenylethanoid glycosides derivatives and seven unusual glycosylated dimeric flavonoids. The structures were elucidated using UV, NMR and HRMS analysis. Absolute configuration of the dimeric flavonoids was performed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy.

  13. Isotopic composition of continental and marine waters in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, T.; Durazo, J.; Morales, P.; Cienfuegos, E.

    2007-05-01

    The region interesting to the present hydrologically-oriented study is part of the Costa Chica, between the state line of Guerrero and Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, which includes the warm and subhumid lowlands of the 6136 km2 watershed of the Ometepec river. This perennial, although highly seasonal river, drains the southern flank of Sierra Madre del Sur, an elevated mountain range parallel to the Pacific Ocean shoreline, with peaks up to 3000 m asl, and at 98º 43' W; 16º 30' N, discharges into this ocean around 3 × 109 m3 of pristine water per year. So far, anthropic alterations of the whole environment are not immediately obvious. Its coastal wetlands have become a new international Ramsar Site. Our region of interest is a large scale unperturbed natural laboratory, waiting to be studied. The present study shows a several years ongoing survey of 64 paired measurements, (δ 18O, δ 2H) in permil versus Vienna SMOW, of the oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations of the continental and marine waters of the study region. Rain water was not sampled. The objective is to show and personally discuss the sole "isotopic picture" in a threefold way: i) To test locally the meteoric line, the fractionation coefficients, and the altitude effect, all of them documented for central Mexico through other studies, and, also, to compare the isotope data available for other locations nearby; ii) To display the regularities we found in surface and ground waters, potentially useful studying its catchment isotope hydrology; and iii) To show marine water features that could be indicative of local continental discharges inside the sea, the ones that should be taken into account in future hydrological and ecological balances [in: Zektser IS, RG Dzhamalov, LG Everett (2007). Submarine Groundwater. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 446 pp.

  14. The elusive character of discontinuous deep-water channels: New insights from Lucia Chica channel system, offshore California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, K.L.; Fildani, A.; Paull, C.K.; Graham, S.A.; McHargue, T.R.; Caress, D.W.; McGann, M.

    2011-01-01

    New high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) seafloor images, with 1 m lateral resolution and 0.3 m vertical resolution, reveal unexpected seafloor rugosity and low-relief (<10 m), discontinuous conduits over ~70 km2. Continuous channel thalwegs were interpreted originally from lower-resolution images, but newly acquired AUV data indicate that a single sinuous channel fed a series of discontinuous lower-relief channels. These discontinuous channels were created by at least four avulsion events. Channel relief, defined as the height from the thalweg to the levee crest, controls avulsions and overall stratigraphic architecture of the depositional area. Flowstripped turbidity currents separated into and reactivated multiple channels to create a distributary pattern and developed discontinuous trains of cyclic scours and megaflutes, which may be erosional precursors to continuous channels. The diverse features now imaged in the Lucia Chica channel system (offshore California) are likely common in modern and ancient systems with similar overall morphologies, but have not been previously mapped with lower-resolution detection methods in any of these systems. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  15. Reptile and rodent parasites in raptor pellets in an archaeological context: the case of Epullán Chica (northwestern Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fernández, Fernando Julián; Sardella, Norma Haydeé

    2015-07-01

    Paleoparasitology is the study of parasite remains from archaeological and paleontological sites. Raptor pellets can be used as source for paleoparasitological information in archaeological sites. However, this zooarchaeological material has been scarcely studied. Epullán Chica (ECh) is an archaeological site in northwestern Patagonia. This cave yielded remains from more than 2000 years before present. The aim of this paper was to study the parasite remains found in owl pellets from the archaeological site ECh, and to discuss the paleoparasitological findings in an archaeological context. Twenty two raptor pellets were examined for parasites. The pellets were whole processed by rehydration in a 0.5% water solution of trisodium phosphate, followed by homogenization, filtered and processed by spontaneous sedimentation. Eight out of 22 bird pellets examined were positive for parasites from reptiles and rodents. Representatives of 12 parasite taxa were recorded; nine of this parasitic species were reported for the first time from ancient samples from Patagonia. This is the first time that pellets give evidences of ancient reptile parasites from archaeological contexts. It is noteworthy that Late Holocene hunter-gatherers of the upper Limay River basin, could have been exposed to some of these zoonotic parasites. Future paleoparasitological studies on owl pellets may reflect even more the parasitological diversity of all micromammal and reptile species presents in ancient times.

  16. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species.

    PubMed

    Höfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonçalves, R B

    2010-11-01

    The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract.

  17. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by population of Valley of Juruena Region, Legal Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Leonti, Marco; Arnason, John Thor; Ferrier, Jonathan; Rapinski, Michel; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Pereira, João Filipe Costa Alves; Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Feguri; Lopes, Célia Regina Araújo Soares; da Silva, Dennis Rodrigues; Pacini, Aloir; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2015-09-15

    The use of medicinal plants for treatment, cure and prevention of diseases has been described by many people since time immemorial. Because of this use, commercial and scientific interests have emerged, making it necessary to realize ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants species, which is important for subsequent chemical and pharmacological bioprospections. This study aimed at surveying, identifying, cataloging and documenting the medicinal plants species used in the Valley of Juruena, Northwestern Mato Grosso, Legal Amazon Brazil for the treatment of various human diseases, as well as assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting potential. Informants were interviewed using semi-structured form to capture information on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological data of medicinal plants such as vernacular name, uses, geographic origin, habit, form of preparation and part used. Results were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (Ur) and informant consensus factor (ICF), for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. Three hundred and thirty two (332) plants species belonging to 90 families were reported for medicinal purposes and totaling 3973 use-reports were reported by 365 (92.9%) of the people interviewed. Asteraceae (32.2%), Fabaceae (26.7%) and Lamiaceae (24.4%) families were the most represented, with majority being species native (64.45%) to Brazil. Leaves (64.5%) were the part of the plant most used and infusion (45.7%) was the most utilized form. Gastrointestinal disorders followed by respiratory complaints topped the list of use-reports. The native or naturalized plants with the highest use reports in the order of decreasing absolute frequency per each emic-category are Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapfc (104), Mentha pulegium L. (94), Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verl. (97), Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (71), Baccharis crispa Spreng (57), Phyllanthus niruri L. (48), Gossypium

  18. Genetics of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.: Lecythidaceae) : 2. Mating system.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, D M; Buckley, D P; Prance, G T; Bawa, K S

    1988-12-01

    Here we report the results of a mating system analysis of an Amazonian population of Bertholletia excelsa, a tropical rain forest canopy tree species. Using progeny data from 29 seed parents, two highly polymorphic isozymes were analyzed to derive single locus and multilocus estimates of outcrossing, based on a mixed mating model. The two single locus estimates were very similar, and both were somewhat smaller than the multilocus estimate, indicating the possibility that the populations are genetically structured. The multilocus outcrossing estimate (tm=0.85±0.03) reveals that outcrossing is prevalent, but that a significantly low level of inbreeding may be occurring. The high outcrossing rate indicates that even though dispersion of individuals is very low within populations of this tropical rain forest tree, pollen dispersal mechanisms appear to be adequate to enable crosses with a relatively large number of potential mates.

  19. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Brazil nut tree Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Reis, Alessandra M M; Braga, Aline C; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2009-05-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), one of the most valuable non-timber forest products from the Amazon, based on enrichment protocol. Six to 18 (mean 10.4) alleles per locus were identified and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.663 to 0.923 based on a screen of 40 individuals from one population of B. excelsa. The combined probabilities of genetic identity (8.39 × 10(-17) ) and paternity exclusion (0.999999) indicated that multilocus genotypes are likely to be unique allowing precise analyses of genetic structure, gene flow, and mating system of this economically important species.

  20. Genetics of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.: Lecythidaceae) : 1. Genetic variation in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D P; O'Malley, D M; Apsit, V; Prance, G T; Bawa, K S

    1988-12-01

    We provide an estimate of genetic variation within and between two populations of Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut), a large canopy tree found in the rain forests of South America. Average heterozygosity is 0.190, and 54.3% of the sampled loci are polymorphic. The population structure deviates significantly from Hardy-Weinberg expectations for Fest2 and Pgm2 (F =0.405 and 0.443, respectively) in one population, and highly significantly (F=-0.341) for Gdh in the other population. Although allele frequencies of the two populations differ significantly for Aat2, Est5, Mdh1, and Mdh2B, Nei's coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) indicates that the between-population component (Dst) of genic diversity represents only 3.75% of the size of the within-population component (Hs). The implications of these findings in terms of conservation genetics are that much of the genetic diversity of this species may be preserved within one or a few populations. However, such populations must be very large because it appears that the large amount of genetic variation in Brazil nut populations is maintained by extensive gene flow and bonds of mating over a large area. The genetic architecture of Bertholletia excelsa is similar to that expected for an extensively diploidized paleopolyploid species.

  1. A new kaempferol diglycoside from Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex. Willd.

    PubMed

    Sajeli Begum, A; Sahai, Mahendra; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Asai, K; Schneider, Kathrin; Nicholson, Graeme; Suessmuth, Roderich

    2006-11-01

    A new flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from methanol extract of leaves of Datura suaveolens (Solanaceae), along with six other known compounds, which include kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 3-phenyl lactic acid, 3-(3-indolyl) lactic acid, and its methyl ester, physalindicanol A and physalindicanol B. The structural elucidation of 1 and characterization of the known compounds are based on detailed spectral analysis (ESI-FTICR-MS and 2D-NMR). This is the first report of isolation of these compounds from this plant.

  2. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of hispidulin: A concise report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kanika; Patel, Dinesh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Herbal medicines have been played an important role in the human civilization since very ancient time as a food, cloth, medicine and other aspects. Some of the important drugs in the modern medicine were derived from the natural sources such as aspirin, digitalis, quinine, vincristine, vinblastine etc. Hispidulin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone) is a flavones derivative found in plant such as Grindelia argentina, Arrabidaea chica, Saussurea involucrate, Crossostephium chinense, Artemisia and Salvia species. Hispidulin have antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antineoplastic properties. So far, various analytical methods have been investigated and developed for detection of hispidulin in the plant materials. Productions of hispidulin through different tissue culture techniques have been also investigated. Present review summarized medicinal uses, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects of hispidulin. From the above mentioned aspects, we can conclude that, this review will be helpful to the researcher in the field of natural product for the development of novel molecule for the treatment of different disorders.

  3. Shifts in the Carbon Metabolism of Xerosicyos danguyi H. Humb. (Cucurbitaceae) Brought About by Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Rayder, Lisa; Ting, Irwin P.

    1983-01-01

    Xerosicyos danguyi Humbert (Cucurbitaceae) is a leaf succulent endemic to Madagascar. Under well-watered conditions, the plant exhibited Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) but shifted to a dampened form of CAM, CAM-idling, when subjected to water stress. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a shift in carbon metabolism on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and on NADP-malic enzyme in X. danguyi. Experiments were conducted to determine the diurnal patterns of enzyme activity and pH optima of both enzymes, as well as the approximate molecular mass, kinetic patterns, malate inhibition, and glucose-6-phosphate stimulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The two enzymes extracted from well-watered and water-stressed plants were similar in most parameters investigated; thus, CAM-idling appeared to be only a dampened form of CAM photosynthesis. PMID:16663054

  4. Cloning and functional expression of secreted phospholipases A(2) from Bothrops diporus (Yarará Chica).

    PubMed

    Yunes Quartino, Pablo Javier; Barra, José Luis; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel

    2012-10-19

    Bothrops diporus is a very common viper in Argentina. At present, no complete sequence of secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) from this snake has been reported. We have cloned two sPLA(2) isoenzymes as well as a putative sPLA(2)-like myotoxin from venom gland. The two sPLA(2) were expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal tag of ubiquitin. After in vitro renaturation and cleavage step, using an ubiquitin specific peptidase, the recombinants exhibited sPLA(2) activity when analyzed by means of Langmuir dilauroylphosphatidylcholine monolayers as substrate. Both enzymes have a similar surface pressure-activity profile when compared with non-recombinant purified isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first time that analysis of optimal lateral pressure of substrate monolayers by using the surface barostat technique is performed on recombinant sPLA(2)s.

  5. [Empacho and therapeutic practices in the Costa Chica of Guerrero and Oaxaca].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cortés, Luz María; Hernández-Martínez, Beatriz Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Empacho is one of the main traditional illnesses recognized by the inhabitants of the coast of Oaxaca and Guerrero. This is a qualitative study based on the in depth analysis of the interviews held with fourteen informants: mothers, grand-mothers, physicians and folk healers or therapists specialists among others, from the localities of Charco Redondo, El Azufre and El Ciruelo in Oaxaca; Las Perias, La Fortuna and the municipal head of Copala in Guerrero. Our results show that empacho is a childhood endemic illness that can be differentiated from other gastrointestinal diseases. The care for this illness starts at home, where the mother alone or with the support of other women who are part of her social network, decide what steps to take for its care. Empacho used to be and continues to be a major health problem for social groups mainly from the countryside because it is considered life threatening. Therefore, it should be considered among the main illness that affect especially babies and preschoolers. However, mothers refrain from talking about this disease and its treatment in order not to be scolded by their conventional doctor.

  6. Potential Effects of New Entrance Channel to Bolsa Chica Bay, California, on Unstabilized Adjacent Shorelines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of . such commercial products. r*. ,., Ji ..’.’ d...section of southern California coastline and the nearshore zone extending from Anaheim Bay to Abalone Point (near Laguna Beach) were included in the

  7. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented.

  9. HESCOMP. The Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program. User’s Manual. Revision 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    rogam . PERFORMING ORG. REIPORT HumbeR _____________________________________ D210-10699-2, Revision 2 7. AUTNOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUM119(A) S. J...Developed under Contract No. NAS2-61 07 (Study of the Methodology -for Evaluation of an Interurban and intraurban V/STOL Transportation System) Revised ...ADMINISTRATION Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 D210-10699-2 September 1973 First Revision November 1974 Second Revision October 1979 -’V

  10. Wegener, Alfred Lothar (1880-1930)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German climatologist and geophysicist who suggested the phenomena of continental drift and plate tectonics. His idea was that a super-continent he called Pangaea had broken up, the pieces drifting to their present positions. His evidence was the fit of South America and Africa, and similarities in climate, fossil record and geology across the join. His path had been prepared by ALEXANDER VON HUMB...

  11. Defense Communications Agency Cost and Planning Factors Manual. Change 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-11

    2,377 W. Sweetgrass, MT 1,860 Boca Chica , FL Homestead, FL 105 Cape Canaveral, FL Vandenberg, CA 2,376 I Ft. Detrick, MD Ft. Leavenworth, KS 933 Ft...VA 62 Stockton, CA 2,335 Ft. Meade, MD 60 Arlington, VA 62 Norfolk, VA Boca Chica , FL 912 Cutter, ME 716 Pentagon, VA 148 S"’~, -~ *~" 14 ’ N M

  12. Mississippi River Study of Alternatives for Rehabilitation of Lock and Dam Number 1. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Supporting Data for Appendix C. Structural Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    6 Q t FOR USE ON US, GOVERNMENT WORK ONLY 6c i ~ ~ENGINEERING ••; 7 ,/Z , N- CHICA GO co mp~ t 1112 " 0 ATI • w _ P t 7oha 7’ VP A/yv’vVo’Z7V...8217 PRtojgc TAy INGINtERING ~F~ o ___ COMPANY~ /M/k~I CHICA O A opus /, Tb ICI’A)10A947,1V1 PAT //,so~’’z 11-?7rro at 2.30’ /t ± F-Sb FORt UBE ON U-6

  13. A revision of Bephrata and Isosomodes (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genera Bephrata Cameron and Isosomodes Ashmead are redefined and redescribed. We describe 22 species as new: B. atra, B. bouceki, B. camacho, B. chica, B. christeri, B. citri, B. clava, B. flava, B. leptogaster, B. lorraineae, B. nigracephala, B. noyesi, B. nublada, B. petiolata, B. stichogaster...

  14. What's so special about RB?

    PubMed

    Burd, Christin E; Sharpless, Norman E

    2010-04-13

    RB, p107, and p130 are highly related proteins, each capable of regulating cellular proliferation. However, only RB is frequently mutated in cancer. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Chicas et al. shed new light on this conundrum, defining a "special," nonredundant role for RB in promoting cellular senescence.

  15. What’s So Special about RB?

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Christin E.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    RB, p107, and p130 are highly related proteins, each capable of regulating cellular proliferation. However, only RB is frequently mutated in cancer. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Chicas et al. shed new light on this conundrum, defining a “special,” nonredundant role for RB in promoting cellular senescence. PMID:20385355

  16. Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.

  17. Testing of conductivity/calcium and rubidium/strontium ratios as indicators of the chemical stability of a river: comparison with a biological indicator.

    PubMed

    Nirel, P M V; Lazzarotto, J

    2005-01-01

    It is customary to detect pollution in a water flow by monitoring the increase of sensitive elements concentrations (NH4+, PO4(3-), NO3-...). However, concentrations are dependent on the flow rate and these compounds are not conservative, implying a concentration decrease downstream leading to false negative diagnosis of pollution impact. The use of elemental ratios of conservative compounds should diminish these pitfalls. We then thought of the chi/Ca (conductivity/calcium) and Rb/Sr (rubidium/strontium) ratios as water chemical stability indicators to clearly identify and discriminate point from diffuse pollutions. This hypothesis has been tested on 12 brooks located in the basin of Lake Geneva, during 2 hydrological years. The results were compared to the observed land use of the watershed and a biological indicator: the Pollution Sensitivity Index (PSI). The PSI is calculated from diatom taxonomy and evaluates biological quality with a grade ranging from 0 to 20 (bad to excellent). The main results of the research can be summarized as follows. The pollution signal is observable far downstream of the pollution site. Both chi/Ca and Rb/Sr ratios are water quality indicators expressing the stability of water chemistry. They can both be used to detect diffuse and point pollution impact. These indicators provide complementary information: chi/Ca variations increase in case of point pollution; Rb/Sr variations increase when diffuse pollutions occur. The results obtained with the indicators chi/Ca and Rb/Sr agree with biological indicator and observation of the land use. chi/Ca and Rb/Sr ratios represent important tools to identify and discriminate point source pollution from diffuse pollution.

  18. Ethnopharmacological investigation of plants used to treat susto, a folk illness.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais-Spear, Natalie; Awad, Rosalie; Merali, Zul; Maquin, Pedro; Cal, Victor; Arnason, John Thor

    2007-02-12

    Selected plants used to treat susto, a folk illness recognized by various groups of Latin America, were screened for anxiolytic and/or fear suppression activity in behavioral assays. We found that the plant used by most of the healers interviewed (Adiantum tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.; Adiantaceae) suppressed certain components of anxiety and fear. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biological activity of Adiantum tetraphyllum. This finding supports the contention that susto may represent what in the Western culture is defined as fear or anxiety, and hence may share the same psychological, biological or neural underpinnings. In light of the available literature, this represents the first experimental investigation of the biological activity of plants specifically in the perspective of their use in treating a culture-bound syndrome.

  19. Beetle diversity in fragmented thornscrub and isolated trees.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Jurado, E; Flores, J

    2017-03-01

    Due to land use change mainly for induced agriculture, Tamaulipan thornscrubin northeast Mexico has been cleared and transformed into small patches of vegetation as small as isolated trees surrounded by agricultural fields. In this study, we explored how tree isolation or growing inside a fragment of remnant vegetation influence diversity of coleopterans in two plant species (Prosopis laevigata (Humb. &Bonpl.exWilld.) M.C. Johnst. (mesquite) and Ebenopsis ebano (Berl.) Barneby (Texas ebony). We found 72 coleopteran morphospecies; fifteen occurred mainly in remnant fragments and ten mainly in isolated trees. There were more insects under isolated mesquites than under those immersed in remnant fragments, while in Texas ebony the highest beetle density for isolated trees coincided with periods of bean and maize in surrounding agriculture.

  20. Weather, Water Levels and Flows, and Ice Conditions of the St. Marys River System for Extended Season Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    ce .) C) 0~0 0 00 0 LUz 0 - C.) 0 0 C) LU 0I - 00 60< w o LU r- < 0 2 > Z C -UJ lL 0 w < zww 0 cc W 0 auc. < L I Is 0 N...GLOBETROTTERS ENGINEER:ING CORP’O~F*’.’TIDI CHICA ~GO. ILLINOIS PRODJECT NO. B6-175 FREFARATION OF REPORT ON WEt4:THER. WAIrER DI SCHARGE AND I CE COND...8217 SRP 5EE 7~I EZ.70 7. A-40 GLOBETROTTERS ENGINEERING CD’OPO(giTION CHICA ~GO. ILLINOIS PROJECT NO. - F’EEPAR"TI0N OF POTON W :ITHE ,R. WATER DISC

  1. Bolsa Bay, California, Proposed Ocean Entrance System Study. Report 2. Comprehensive Shoreline Response Computer Simulation, Bolsa Bay, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Vicksburg, MS. Gravens, M. B., Scheffner, N. W., and Hubertz, J. M. 1989. "Coastal Proces - ses from Asbury Park to Manasquan, New Jersey...34Applications of a Shoreline Prediction Model," Proceed - ings of Coastal Structures 󈨗, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 632- 645. Kraus, N. C. 1989...1980). 27. The success of the inlet channel at Agua Hedionda indicates that a stable non-navigable entrance at Bolsa Chica could be feasible provided a

  2. Repair of Waterstop Failures: Case Histories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    EOOAL TO M0-01·10 "A SHCUL’’,BT D(UBO.M CMEIICAl COIPAN1. CHICA ;O, ILLINOIS OlL~~AUlllM& ~~NT: SIIILAA 011 EQUAL 10 !UTTl RUIUR SUlAMT.BT IACJUMIUI...to escape through the upstream joint. The second contributing factor was the tren ,endous frictionaJ f·:~rce buildup bet\\·Te<,;1 tl ,, surfaces of

  3. Experience with decision support system and comfort with topic predict clinicians' responses to alerts and reminders.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E; Saha, Chandan; Downs, Stephen M

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians at our institution typically respond to about half of the prompts they are given by the clinic's computer decision support system (CDSS). We sought to examine factors associated with clinician response to CDSS prompts as part of a larger, ongoing quality improvement effort to optimize CDSS use. We examined patient, prompt, and clinician characteristics associated with clinician response to decision support prompts from the Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) system. We asked pediatricians who were nonusers of CHICA to rate decision support topics as "easy" or "not easy" to discuss with patients and their guardians. We analyzed these ratings and data, from July 1, 2009 to January 29, 2013, utilizing a hierarchical regression model, to determine whether factors such as comfort with the prompt topic and the length of the user's experience with CHICA contribute to user response rates. We examined 414 653 prompts from 22 260 patients. The length of time a clinician had been using CHICA was associated with an increase in their prompt response rate. Clinicians were more likely to respond to topics rated as "easy" to discuss. The position of the prompt on the page, clinician gender, and the patient's age, race/ethnicity, and preferred language were also predictive of prompt response rate. This study highlights several factors associated with clinician prompt response rates that could be generalized to other health information technology applications, including the clinician's length of exposure to the CDSS, the prompt's position on the page, and the clinician's comfort with the prompt topic. Incorporating continuous quality improvement efforts when designing and implementing health information technology may ensure that its use is optimized. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Genetic relationship of a Mexican Afromestizo population through the analysis of the 3' haplotype of the beta globin gene in betaA chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Magaña, María Teresa; Perea, F Javier; González, Juan Ramón; Ibarra, Bertha

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed 112 beta(A) chromosomes from the Costa Chica region, with the aim of determining the 3' haplotype (3'Hp) in Afromestizo individuals and its relationship with the reported populations. Thirty polymorphic sites were identified by sequencing and two by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Genetic variability, genetic distances and neutrality tests were performed with the computer program Arlequin 3.0. Three groups were constructed, which we named 3 kb-Hp, 330 bp-Hp and 2.67 kb-Hp with 32, 15 and 17 polymorphic sites respectively. In 3 kb-Hp, 34 different 3' haplotypes (14 of them new) were found; the three most common were 7B1 (17.8%), 7A1 (17.0%) and 1C1 (14.3%). 330 bp-Hp revealed 18 different allelic sequences; the most frequent were the 1 (AT(9)T(5), 22.3%), 2 (AT(8)T(5), 20.5%) and 3 (AT(7)T(7), 20.5%). 2.67 kb-Hp displayed 14 distinct haplotypes, with B1 (30.3%), A1 (28.6%) and C1 (21.4%) having the highest frequencies. The gene diversity of the Costa Chica population was only significantly different to Gambia. In the genetic distances, the p values were not significant for Vanuatu, Sumatra and Central African Republic. The neutrality tests showed that the patterns of diversity in the Costa Chica population deviate significantly from the expectations of the standard neutral model. This is the first work performed in Mexico in which the extended 3'Hp was analyzed in beta(A) chromosomes. The study showed clearly the presence of African and Asian genes in the Costa Chica population.

  5. An Optimization Technical for a Multitime Period Spares Provisioning Problem,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-07

    Rappoport ~ Ser I T.j08 7 %FebiNW8P~ - -- --... ... The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Institute for Management...applications of queueing theory to the spares provisioning problem. In this formulation, the ser - vice time and the time between failures are assumed to...Colvin BoSton Dr Joan Roenblatt ChicaNo Nationsl Science Foundation NwYork Pasadena National Security Agency San Francisco Naval Ship Eng Center Weapon

  6. Bolsa Bay, California, Proposed Ocean Entrance System Study. Report 3. Tidal Circulation and Transport Computer Simulation and Water Quality Assessment. Section 2. Signal Landmark’s Proposed Secondary Alternative ’The Lake Plan’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Preliminary Desilting Basin Design for East Garden Grove-Wintersburg Channel at the Proposed Bolsa Chica Project," Moffatt & Nichol, Engineers, Long Beach...BLS MISCELLANEOUS PAPER CERC-89-17 BOLSA BAY, CALIFORNIA, PROPOSED OCEAN ENTRANCE SYSTEM STUDY Report 3 TIDAL CIRCULATION AND TRANSPORT COMPUTER...SIMULATION AND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT _ -- SECTION 2: SIGNAL LANDMARK’S PROPOSED SECONDARY ALTERNATIVE "THE LAKE PLAN" by Lyndell Z. Hales, Sandra L

  7. Thermodynamic properties of calcium-bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Boysen, DA; Bradwell, DJ; Chung, BC; Jiang, K; Tomaszowska, AA; Wang, KL; Wei, WF; Sadoway, DR

    2012-01-15

    The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Bi alloys were determined by electromotive force (emf) measurements to assess the suitability of Ca-Bi electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications. Emf was measured at ambient pressure as a function of temperature between 723 K and 1173 K using a Ca(s)vertical bar CaF2(s)vertical bar Ca(in Bi) cell for twenty different Ca-Bi alloys spanning the entire range of composition from chi(Ca) = 0 to 1. Reported are the temperature-independent partial molar entropy and enthalpy of calcium for each Ca-Bi alloy. Also given are the measured activities of calcium, the excess partial molar Gibbs energy of bismuth estimated from the Gibbs-Duhem equation, and the integral change in Gibbs energy for each Ca-Bi alloy at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K. Calcium activities at 973 K were found to be nearly constant at a value a(Ca) = 1 x 10(-8) over the composition range chi(Ca) = 0.32-0.56, yielding an emf of similar to 0.77 V. Above chi(Ca) = 0.62 and coincident with Ca5Bi3 formation, the calcium activity approached unity. The Ca-Bi system was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry over the entire range of composition. Based upon these data along with the emf measurements, a revised Ca-Bi binary phase diagram is proposed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioVilla, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Correa-Rodríguez, María; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-07-19

    Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar el nivel nutricional en una población de niños y adolescentes colombianos y determinar la posible relación entre el nivel nutricional y el estado nutricional según el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la circunferencia de cintura (CC).Material y métodos: estudio transversal en 6.383 niños y adolescentes de entre 9 y 17,9 años de edad, de Bogotá, Colombia. Se aplicó de manera autodiligenciada el cuestionario Krece Plus validado en el estudio enKid como indicador del nivel nutricional con las categorías alto (test ≥ 9), medio (test 6-8) y bajo (test ≤ 5). Se tomaron medidas de peso, talla, CC, y se calculó el IMC como marcadores del estado nutricional.Resultados: de la población general, el 57,9% eran chicas (promedio de edad 12,7 ± 2,3 años). En todas las categorías del IMC, más del 50% de chicos y chicas siguen una dieta de muy baja calidad, que empeora progresivamente con el avance en edad. En ambos sexos, se observaron tendencias entre un nivel nutricional muy bajo con el desarrollo de sobrepeso. Asimismo, la obesidad abdominal por CC se relacionó con una puntuación baja en el Krece Plus en ambos sexos.Conclusiones: en escolares de Bogotá, una dieta de muy baja calidad se relacionó con alteraciones del estado nutricional (IMC y CC), especialmente entre chicas y adolescentes. Estos resultados deben alentar el desarrollo de intervenciones orientadas a mejorar los hábitos nutricionales entre los escolares colombianos.

  9. US EPA Region 9 and US Coast Guard Jurisdictional Boundary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This line feature represents the jurisdictional boundary along the California coastline that defines EPA (Inland Zone) and Coast Guard (Coastal Zone) emergency response jurisdictions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency / U.S. Coast Guard (USEPA / USCG) Jurisdictional Boundary runs from the Oregon to the Mexican border adjacent to the coastline. The boundary was developed from text descriptions provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9 Mainland Regional Contingency Plan dated March 17, 1994. The Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve was added to the EPA's jurisdiction in 2011.

  10. Ethnopharmacological information from the botanical correspondence of Berthold Seemann (1825 - 1871)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, A

    2015-09-01

    Historical research may be able to contribute to the exploration of traditional knowledge about medicinal plants and promising attempts have been made investigating Byzantine texts, Early Modern herbals, and writings of Christian missionaries. In this pilot study it should be explored if publications, travel reports, diaries or correspondence of the botanical explorers of the 19th and early 20th centuries may serve a source of ethnopharmacological information as well and may be able to guide modern phytopharmacological research. Writings of Berthold Seemann (1825-1871), a German investigator exploring the botany of Middle America, the Fiji islands and other regions, are investigated as a first example. It could be shown that Seemann's heritage mainly kept at Kew Garden Archives, does contain ethnopharmacological information which in part has already been confirmed by recent study results indicating some reliability of his observations. However, there are also reports about traditional medicinal plants scarcely investigated so far, including Schultesia stenophylla Mart. (syn. S. guainensis (Aubl.) Malme), Trixis inula Crantz, Waltheria glomerata Presl., Gonophlebium attenuatum (Humb. & Bonpl. Es Wil\\d) C. Presl., or Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Juss ex Aubl.) C.F. Baker. It is suggested to further explore their potential as medicinal plants. In general, as Seemann's example has shown, publications and correspondence of botanical explorers of the past seem to be a valuable and hitherto almost neglected source of information to be considered in further historical and ethnopharmacological research.

  11. Evidence for involvement of phytochrome in tumor development on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of nonpathogenic tumorous growths on tomato plants by red and far-red radiation was studied using leaf discs floated on water and irradiated from beneath. It was found that red light (600-700 nanometers) was required for the induction of tumors on tomato (Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl. Plant Introduction LA 1625), while both blue (400-500 nanometers) and green (500-600 nanometers) light had little effect on tumor development. Detailed studies with red light demonstrated that tumor development increased with increasing photon flux and duration, though duration was the more significant factor. It was observed that tumor development could be prevented by the addition of far-red irradiance to red irradiance or by providing far-red irradiance immediately following red irradiance. The effectiveness of red and far-red irradiance in the regulation of tumor development indicates phytochrome involvement in this response. These findings should provide additional insight into the multiplicity of physiological factors regulating the development of nonpathogenic tumorous growths in plants.

  12. Growth rates, reproductive phenology, and pollination ecology of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae), a giant Andean caulescent rosette.

    PubMed

    Fagua, J C; Gonzalez, V H

    2007-01-01

    From March 2001 to December 2002, we studied the reproductive phenology, pollination ecology, and growth rates of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. and Bonpl. (Asteraceae), a giant caulescent rosette from the Páramos of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Espeletia grandiflora was found to be predominantly allogamous and strongly self-incompatible. Bumblebees (Bombus rubicundus and B. funebris) were the major pollinators of E. grandiflora, although moths, hummingbirds, flies, and beetles also visited flowers. Inflorescence development began in March and continued through August to September. Plants flowered for 30 - 96 days with a peak from the beginning of October through November. The percentage of flowering plants strongly differed among size classes and between both years. Seed dispersal occurred as early as September through May of the following year. The average absolute growth rate for juveniles and adults rate was 7.6 cm/year. Given the scarcity of floral visitors at high altitudes due to climatic conditions, we suggest that even small contributions from a wide range of pollinators might be advantageous for pollination of E. grandiflora. Long-term studies on different populations of E. grandiflora are required to determine if the high growth rates are representative, to quantify the variation in the flowering behavior within and among populations, and to establish if nocturnal pollination is a trait that is exclusive to our population of E. grandiflora.

  13. Secondary stem anatomy and uses of four drought-deciduous species of a tropical dry forest in México.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Alejandra Quintanar; Velázquez Núñez, Mariana; Solares Arenas, Fortunato; de la Paz Pérez Olvera, Carmen; Torre-Blanco, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Wood and bark anatomy and histochemistry of Acacia bilimekii Humb. & Bonpl., Acacia cochliacantha Mcbride, Conzatia nultiflora (Rob) Stand. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. are described from stem samples collected in a tropical dry forest (Morelos, Mexico). Enzyme activities were tested in tangential, radial and transverse cuts of fresh material. Histochemistry and stem anatomy were studied on similar cuts previously softened in a solution of water-glicerol-PEG. Our results show that the anatomical patterns of bark and wood, as well as the histochemical patterns and specific gravity, are influenced by water accessibility and climate; these patterns could guarantee mechanical and anti-infection strategies to support extreme conditions. Enzyme cytochemistry reveals biochemical activities probably related to lipid utilization routes for the lignification processes and for synthesis of extractives; these results suggest that the formation and maturation of woody tissue is very active at the beginning of the rainy season. These species are widely used by the local population. Traditional uses include firewood, dead and live fences, fodder, construction, supporting stakes, handcrafts, farming tools, extraction of tanning products, and medicine. There is no relationship between use and abundance. Alternative uses are proposed according to a density index.

  14. Uptake of 2S albumin allergens, Ber e 1 and Ses i 1, across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Rubio, Luis A; Olano, Agustín; Clemente, Alfonso

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated the absorption rates of two purified major allergen 2S albumins, Ber e 1 from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.) and Ses i 1 from white sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers following gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. The transport from apical to basolateral side in cell monolayers was evaluated by RP-HPLC-UV and indirect competitive ELISA methods, being confirmed by western-blotting analysis. Significant amounts (approximately 15-25 nmol micromol(-1) initial amount/h) of intact Ber e 1 and Ses i 1 were found in the basolateral side. The absorption rates of both plant allergens through the cell monolayer were shown to be constant during the whole incubation period (4 h at 37 degrees C), verifying that the permeability of the membrane was not altered by the allergen digests. Our findings revealed that both purified 2S albumin allergens may be able to survive in immunologically reactive forms to the simulated harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract to be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers, so that they would be able to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response.

  15. Profile of volatile components of hydrodistilled and extracted leaves of Jacaranda acutifolia and their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Mostafa, Nada M; Eldahshan, Omayma A; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Volatile constituents of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of Jacaranda acutifolia Humb. and Bonpl. (Bignoniaceae) leaves were determined, and their antimicrobial activities were investigated using an agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined and compared with those of standard antibiotics (penicillin, gentamicin and nystatin). The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GLC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). Thirty-four components, comprising almost 93.8% of the total peak area, were identified in the leaf essential oil. The main components were methyl linolenate (26.7%), 1-octen-3-ol (10.8%), methyl phenyl acetate (9.9%), beta-linalool (5.5%) and palmitic acid (4.7%). The n-hexane extract revealed similar oil constituents, but also p-benzoquinone, phenyl acetic acid, resorcinol and homogentisic acid. The oil showed some activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC values of 2.2 and 2.9 mg/mL, respectively, and moderate activity against Candida albicans, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. The n-hexane extract showed moderate activities against all tested microorganisms, with MIC values ranging from 3.5 to 10.2 mg/mL. The antimicrobial activities of the hydrodistilled and extracted leaves make their local traditional uses rational.

  16. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  17. Biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa in a cloud forest of the Bolivian Yungas.

    PubMed

    Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Caceres-Sanchez, Liliana; Saavedra-Ulloa, Daniela; Flores-Prado, Luis; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Pinto, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Treehoppers (Membracidae) exhibit different levels of sociality, from solitary to presocial. Although they are one of the best biological systems to study the evolution of maternal care in insects, information on the biology of species in this group is scarce. This work describes the biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa (Fairmaire) (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a rain cloud forest of Bolivia. This subsocial membracid utilizes two host-plant species, Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild) Bercht. & J.Presl and Solanum ursinum (Rusby) (both Solanaceae), the first one being used during the whole year and the second one almost exclusively during the wet season. The development of A. grossa from egg to adult occurred on the plant where eggs were laid. Maternal care was observed during the complete nymphal development, and involved behavioral traits such as food facilitation and antidepredatory defense. Life cycle was longer on B. suaveolens during the dry season and shorter on S. ursinum during the wet season. Mortality was similar on both host plants during the wet season but was lower on B. suaveolens during the dry season. The presence of a secondary female companion to the egg-guarding female individual and occasional iteropary is also reported. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Biology and Ecology of Alchisme grossa in a Cloud Forest of the Bolivian Yungas

    PubMed Central

    Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Caceres-Sanchez, Liliana; Saavedra-Ulloa, Daniela; Flores-Prado, Luis; Niemeyer, Hermann M.; Pinto, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Treehoppers (Membracidae) exhibit different levels of sociality, from solitary to presocial. Although they are one of the best biological systems to study the evolution of maternal care in insects, information on the biology of species in this group is scarce. This work describes the biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa (Fairmaire) (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a rain cloud forest of Bolivia. This subsocial membracid utilizes two host-plant species, Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild) Bercht. & J.Presl and Solanum ursinum (Rusby) (both Solanaceae), the first one being used during the whole year and the second one almost exclusively during the wet season. The development of A. grossa from egg to adult occurred on the plant where eggs were laid. Maternal care was observed during the complete nymphal development, and involved behavioral traits such as food facilitation and antidepredatory defense. Life cycle was longer on B. suaveolens during the dry season and shorter on S. ursinum during the wet season. Mortality was similar on both host plants during the wet season but was lower on B. suaveolens during the dry season. The presence of a secondary female companion to the egg-guarding female individual and occasional iteropary is also reported. PMID:25368084

  19. Evidence for involvement of phytochrome in tumor development on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of nonpathogenic tumorous growths on tomato plants by red and far-red radiation was studied using leaf discs floated on water and irradiated from beneath. It was found that red light (600-700 nanometers) was required for the induction of tumors on tomato (Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl. Plant Introduction LA 1625), while both blue (400-500 nanometers) and green (500-600 nanometers) light had little effect on tumor development. Detailed studies with red light demonstrated that tumor development increased with increasing photon flux and duration, though duration was the more significant factor. It was observed that tumor development could be prevented by the addition of far-red irradiance to red irradiance or by providing far-red irradiance immediately following red irradiance. The effectiveness of red and far-red irradiance in the regulation of tumor development indicates phytochrome involvement in this response. These findings should provide additional insight into the multiplicity of physiological factors regulating the development of nonpathogenic tumorous growths in plants.

  20. Evidence for involvement of phytochrome in tumor development on plants.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Tibbitts, T W

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of nonpathogenic tumorous growths on tomato plants by red and far-red radiation was studied using leaf discs floated on water and irradiated from beneath. It was found that red light (600-700 nanometers) was required for the induction of tumors on tomato (Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl. Plant Introduction LA 1625), while both blue (400-500 nanometers) and green (500-600 nanometers) light had little effect on tumor development. Detailed studies with red light demonstrated that tumor development increased with increasing photon flux and duration, though duration was the more significant factor. It was observed that tumor development could be prevented by the addition of far-red irradiance to red irradiance or by providing far-red irradiance immediately following red irradiance. The effectiveness of red and far-red irradiance in the regulation of tumor development indicates phytochrome involvement in this response. These findings should provide additional insight into the multiplicity of physiological factors regulating the development of nonpathogenic tumorous growths in plants.

  1. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from heavy metal(loid)-tolerant plants.

    PubMed

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Ramos-Garza, Juan; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Rivera-Orduña, Flor Nohemí; Chen, Wen Feng; Yan, Jun; Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Wang, En Tao

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the interactions among endophytes, plants and heavy metal/arsenic contamination, root endophytic bacteria of Prosopis laevigata (Humb and Bonpl. ex Willd) and Sphaeralcea angustifolia grown in a heavy metal(loid)-contaminated zone in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, were isolated and characterized. Greater abundance and species richness were found in Prosopis than in Sphaeralcea and in the nutrient Pb-Zn-rich hill than in the poor nutrient and As-Cu-rich mine tailing. The 25 species identified among the 60 isolates formed three groups in the correspondence analysis, relating to Prosopis/hill (11 species), Prosopis/mine tailing (4 species) and Sphaeralcea/hill (4 species), with six species ungrouped. Most of the isolates showed high or extremely high resistance to arsenic, such as ≥100 mM for As(V) and ≥20 mM for As(III), in mineral medium. These results demonstrated that the abundance and community composition of root endophytic bacteria were strongly affected by the concentration and type of the heavy metals and metalloids (arsenic), as well as the plant species.

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Loureiro, Nuno; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Mota, Jorge

    2016-07-19

    Introducción y objetivos: examinar la asociación del apoyo de los padres y de los amigos con diferentes intensidades de actividad física durante el tiempo libre de adolescentes españoles de ambos sexos.Métodos: un total 352 adolescentes españoles (51.70% chicos; 12-16 años) cumplimentaron el International Physical Activity Questionnarie for Adolescents y un cuestionario validado sobre apoyo social. Se realizaron análisis de regresión linear ajustados por edad.Resultados: el apoyo social de padres y amigos influyó positivamente sobre los niveles de actividad física vigorosa que los adolescentes españoles realizan durante su tiempo libre (β=.226 y β=.285 en chicos y β=.167 y β=.181 en chicas, para el apoyo de padres y amigos respectivamente) y sobre los de intensidad moderada en el caso de las chicas (β=.195 y β=.200, respectivamente).Conclusiones: el apoyo de padres y amigos contribuye a los niveles de actividad física moderada o vigorosa en adolescentes españoles.

  3. Parallel speciation in Astyanax cave fish (Teleostei) in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Ulrike; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst

    2012-01-01

    We investigated differentiation processes in the Neotropical fish Astyanax that represents a model system for examining adaptation to caves, including regressive evolution. In particular, we analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial data of seven cave and seven surface populations from Mexico to test whether the evolution of the cave fish represents a case of parallel evolution. Our data revealed that Astyanax invaded northern Mexico across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at least three times and that populations of all three invasions adapted to subterranean habitats. Significant differentiation was found between the cave and surface populations. We did not observe gene flow between the strongly eye and pigment reduced old cave populations (Sabinos, Tinaja, Pachon) and the surface fish, even when syntopically occurring like in Yerbaniz cave. Little gene flow, if any, was found between cave populations, which are variable in eye and pigmentation (Micos, Chica, Caballo Moro caves), and surface fish. This suggests that the variability is due to their more recent origin rather than to hybridization. Finally, admixture of the young Chica cave fish population with nuclear markers from older cave fish demonstrates that gene flow between populations that independently colonized caves occurs. Thus, all criteria of parallel speciation are fulfilled. Moreover, the microsatellite data provide evidence that two co-occurring groups with small sunken eyes and externally visible eyes, respectively, differentiated within the partly lightened Caballo Moro karst window cave and might represent an example for incipient sympatric speciation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cercarial dermatitis and lake eutrophication in south-central Chile

    PubMed Central

    VALDOVINOS, C.; BALBOA, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis is caused by exposure to the cercariae of schistosome species which have birds or mammals as their definitive hosts. A public alarm was raised in the summer of 2004 when this parasitic disease was observed for the first time in south-central Chile at Laguna Chica de San Pedro (36° 51″ S, 73° 05″ W). Swimmers at this eutrophic lake were surveyed in order to estimate the amount of cercarial dermatitis in the area; participants were observed during the summers of 2004 and 2005 for clinical signs of cercarial dermatitis and 25 Chilina dombeyana snails were collected monthly from Laguna Chica de San Pedro during one year and then examined for animal schistosome cercariae. We found that 3% of the swimmers had pruritic maculopapular rashes on their legs, arms, necks, or other body parts and that between 9·1% (May 2006) and 52·4% (November 2004) of the snails examined were infected with the bird schistosome cercariae Trichobilharzia sp. PMID:17553177

  5. Documentation Status as a Contextual Determinant of HIV Risk Among Young Transgender Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Palazzolo, Sarah L.; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. Methods: We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Results: Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Conclusions: Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population. PMID:26669583

  6. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    PubMed

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  7. [Kleine-Levin syndrome: differential diagnosis in recurrent encephalitic syndromes in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Duat-Rodriguez, A; Martinez-Albadalejo, I; Perez-Sebastian, I; Cantarin-Extremera, V; Hedrera-Fernandez, A; Garcia-Penas, J J

    2017-04-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Kleine-Levin es una enfermedad rara de causa desconocida que se caracteriza por episodios recurrentes autolimitados de hipersomnia acompañados de alteracion cognitiva y conductual. Entre los episodios, los pacientes tienen un patron de sueño y cognitivo normal. Casos clinicos. Se presentan tres pacientes de 14 años, dos chicos y una chica. Comenzaron tras un desencadenante (vacuna, una infeccion respiratoria por influenza B; en el caso de la chica, coincidian con la menstruacion). En el episodio agudo mostraban tendencia al sueño y en vigilia destacaba bradipsiquia, inquietud motora y gran labilidad emocional, con tendencia al llanto y necesidad de la presencia de los familiares. Presentaron una duracion aproximada de 10-15 dias y periodicidad mensual, y se mostraron asintomaticos entre los episodios. Los tres pacientes fueron valorados por pediatras, diagnosticados y tratados de encefalitis autoinmune. Solo uno cumplia la triada tipica de hipersomnia, hiperfagia e hipersexualidad, pero ninguno de los tres datos se habia recogido en la historia clinica inicial y la familia solo lo referia tras una anamnesis dirigida. Conclusiones. En el sindrome de Kleine-Levin, los sintomas neurologicos durante el cuadro agudo son aun mas frecuentes que los psiquiatricos. La tendencia al sueño y el hecho de que durante la vigilia no esten asintomaticos y se muestren lentos, apaticos, labiles e irascibles, situa en primer lugar la sospecha de sindrome encefalitico. Debemos tener presente esta entidad en encefalitis recurrentes de etiologia no filiada.

  8. Automated Primary Care Screening in Pediatric Waiting Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Implementing US Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Pediatrics preventive service guidelines within the short duration of a visit is difficult because identifying which of a large number of guidelines apply to a particular patient is impractical. Clinical decision support system integrated with electronic medical records offer a good strategy for implementing screening in waiting rooms. Our objective was to determine rates of positive risk screens during typical well-care visits among children and adolescents in a primary care setting. METHODS: Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) is a pediatric clinical decision support system developed by our research group. CHICA encodes clinical guidelines as medical logic modules to generate scanable paper forms: the patient screening form to collect structured data from patient families in the waiting room and the physician worksheet to provide physician assessments at each visit. By using visit as a unit of analysis from CHICA’s database, we have determined positive risk screen rates in our population. RESULTS: From a cohort of 16 963 patients, 408 601 questions were asked in 31 843 visits. Of the questions asked, 362 363 (89%) had a response. Of those, 39 176 (11%) identified positive risk screens in both the younger children and the adolescent age groups. CONCLUSIONS: By automating the process of screening and alerting the physician to those who screened positive, we have significantly decreased the burden of identifying relevant guidelines and screening of patient families in our clinics. PMID:22508925

  9. Documentation Status as a Contextual Determinant of HIV Risk Among Young Transgender Latinas.

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, Sarah L; Yamanis, Thespina J; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population.

  10. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; De Moraes, Augusto Cesar F; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Moreno, Luis A; Gomes Carneiro, André Luiz; dos Reis, Victor Manuel M; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de obesidad y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal y hipertensión arterial en una muestra de adolescentes pertenecientes a una ciudad de baja renta en Brasil y su relación con el nivel socioeconómico, nivel educativo de lo responsable de la familia y tipo de escuela. Métodos: Estudio transversal con una muestra de 1014 adolescentes (54,8% chicas), con edades entre 14-19 años, estudiantes de las escuelas de la ciudad de Imperatriz (Brasil), seleccionadas por un muestreo aleatorio. Las variables dependientes evaluadas son: obesidad general y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal, y tensión arterial alta (sistólica y/o diastólica). Las variables independientes son: nivel socioeconómico de la familia (NSO), el nivel de educación de lo responsable de la familia (NERF) y tipo de escuela. Las variables de confusión son: sexo, edad y nivel de actividad física. La prevalencia fue estimada, y la asociación entre las variables dependientes y las variables independientes se analizaron mediante razón de prevalencia (RP), con intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95%, estimado por la regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La prevalencia de la obesidad general fue de 3,8%, sobrepeso 13,1%, obesidad abdominal 22,7% y la tesión arterial alta 21,3%. Las análisis ajustadas indicaron que las chicas con NSO alto tienen mayor probabilidad de tener sobrepeso (RP=1,71 [IC95%: 1,13 a 2,87]), y chicos de las escuelas privadas tienen más probabilidad de tener obesidad (RP=1,79 [IC95%: 1.04- 3,08]) y obesidad abdominal (RP=1,64 [IC95%: 1,06 a 2,54]). Conclusión: La prevalencia de los FRC es alta en adolescentes de una región de baja renta. Los chicos de las escuelas privadas son más propensos a tener obesi dad y obesidad abdominal, y las chicas con NSO alto son más propensas a tener sobrepeso.

  11. [Analysis of food intake and dietary habits in a population of adolescents in the city of Granada (Spain)].

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Río-Valle, Jacqueline; García-López, Pedro A; García-García, Carmen J

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron realizar un análisis de la ingesta de macronutrientes y micronutrientes en una población de adolescentes. En segundo lugar, verificar una correlación significativa entre el hábito de desayunar a diario en casa y el estado nutricional de dicha población. Muestra y metodología: La población de estudio estaba compuesta por 100 adolescentes de entre 12 y 15 años de edad, pertenecientes a 2 centros educativos públicos de la ciudad de Granada. Estudio descriptivo, transversal y multicéntrico en el que se llevó a cabo una valoración completa del estado nutricional de los alumnos mediante antropometría. Para el análisis de la ingesta alimentaria y hábitos nutricionales se utilizó un registro alimentario de 72 horas, específicamente elaborado y validado por el equipo investigador. Resultados: La ingesta energética fue superior en ambos sexos a la recomendada por la RDA. Se encontró una ingesta proteica media en chicas del 16% respecto del valor calórico total (VCT) y de un 15% del VCT en varones. Se evidenció un consumo medio de grasas de (106,1 gramos) en chicos, frente a los 100,4 gramos en chicas. Éstas ingerían más carbohidratos, destacando una ingesta media de 279,4 gramos/día frente a los 251 gramos/día ingeridos en varones. La ingesta de minerales fue variable en ambos sexos, siendo inferior a las recomendaciones de la RDA en chicas. En los varones resaltó una ingesta de calcio y zinc por encima de dichas recomendaciones. El aporte vitamínico fue variado y equilibrado en ambos sexos, cubriendo los requerimientos para edad y sexo. Respecto de la variable desayuno, se encontró una relación significativa (p < 0,0001) entre el hábito de desayunar en casa, antes de ir al instituto y el estado nutricional de los alumnos. Conclusiones: Un óptimo estado nutricional y de salud implica necesariamente mantener una alimentación equilibrada en sus nutrientes y unos hábitos nutricionales saludables.

  12. Dengue occurrence relations and serology: cross-sectional analysis of results from the Guerrero State, Mexico, baseline for a cluster-randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention.

    PubMed

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Balanzar-Martínez, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ofelia; Jiménez-Alejo, Abel; Flores-Moreno, Miguel; Gasga-Salinas, David; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Morales-Nava, Pedro Antonio; de Lourdes Soto-Ríos, María; Ledogar, Robert J; Coloma, Joséfina; Harris, Eva; Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    The Mexican arm of the Camino Verde trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention covered three coastal regions of Guerrero state: Acapulco, Costa Grande and Costa Chica. A baseline cross-sectional survey provided data for community mobilisation and for adapting the intervention design to concrete conditions in the intervention areas. Trained field teams constructed community profiles in randomly selected clusters, based on observation and key informant interviews. In each household they carried out an entomological inspection of water containers, collected information on socio-demographic variables and cases of dengue illness among household members in the last year, and gathered paired saliva samples from children aged 3-9 years, which were subjected to ELISA testing to detect recent dengue infection. We examined associations with dengue illness and recent dengue infection in bivariate and then multivariate analysis. In 70/90 clusters, key informants were unable to identify any organized community groups. Some 1.9% (1029/55,723) of the household population reported dengue illness in the past year, with a higher rate in Acapulco region. Among children 3-9 years old, 6.1% (392/6382) had serological evidence of recent dengue infection. In all three regions, household use of anti-mosquito products, household heads working, and households having less than 5 members were associated with self-reported dengue illness. In Acapulco region, people aged less than 25 years, those with a more educated household head and those from urban sites were also more likely to report dengue illness, while in Costa Chica and Costa Grande, females were more likely to report dengue illness. Among children aged 3-9 years, those aged 3-4 years and those living in Acapulco were more likely to have evidence of recent dengue infection. The evidence from the baseline survey provided important support for the design and implementation of the trial intervention. The weakness of

  13. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies

  15. Belize-Guatemala Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-29

    The border between Belize and Guatemala illustrates striking differences in land use practices. In a study of deforestation published in 2016, Chicas and co-authors found that in their study area between 1991 and 2014, on the Guatemalan side of the border forested land declined 32%; in Belize, forested area declined 11%. In part of their study area shown in this image, the difference is more dramatic: near-pristine forest in Belize on the right, and agricultural fields in Guatemala on the left. The image was acquired May 10, 2016, covers an area of 27 by 41 km, and is located at 16.7 degrees north, 89.2 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21826

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the Mexican state of Guerrero: a seroepidemiological (ELISA) survey of 20 communities.

    PubMed

    Andersson, N; Morales, A; Nava, E; Martinez, E; Rodriguez, I; Young, P; Howard, M K; Miles, M A

    1990-10-01

    The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse 4372 blood samples from residents of 978 households in 20 representative communities in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Seventy-five individuals had very high titres of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. Samples with intermediate optical density values, despite overlapping values with several control positives on a single-well test, did not sustain their positivity at high dilutions. 'Intermediate positives' had a different distribution among the 20 communities to samples sustaining reactivity at high dilutions, indicating possible cross-reactivity with another infectious agent. The finding of seropositive children under the age of 10 years in the Costa Chica, Acapulco and the Tierra Caliente regions, with family clustering of putative cases, indicates that recent transmission must be considered. Very few people interviewed in the 20 communities knew the triatomine bug could transmit a disease.

  17. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West. This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03890

  18. Earth observations taken from Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-80 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-23

    STS080-709-094 (19 Nov.-7 Dec. 1996) --- This is a view of the western portion of the Florida Keys. The view shows the city of Key West, bottom mid-right, with Marathon Key, near top middle left, and the edge of the Straits of Florida, the dark water on the right edge. Clouds form over the cooler waters of the strait. The runways at Boca Chica Key Naval Air Station are seen near Key West. The bottom can be seen clearly in the shallow water, the deeper water has depths of over a half a mile. The thin line of the Overseas Highway can be traced east from Key West. Prior to a hurricane in 1935, this route was a railway line.

  19. Relationship of physical activity and sedentarism with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and Mediterranean diet in Spanish teenagers.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2015-04-01

    Introducción y objetivos: Este estudio examinó la asociación de la actividad física y el sedentarismo con el consumo de alcohol y tabaco, y la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en adolescentes de ambos sexos. Métodos: Un total de 1897 adolescentes españoles (12-16 años) participaron en el presente estudio transversal. Las variables fueron medidas mediante cuestionarios previamente validados para estas edades. Resultados: La actividad física estuvo positivamente asociada con el grado de adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en ambos sexos (ß = ,144, P < ,001 para chicos y ß = ,066, P < ,05 en chicas), e inversamente asociada con el tabaquismo en chicos (ß = -,135, P =.

  20. Circadian rhythms in Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus in the lab and in the field.

    PubMed

    Beale, Andrew; Guibal, Christophe; Tamai, T Katherine; Klotz, Linda; Cowen, Sophie; Peyric, Elodie; Reynoso, Víctor H; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Whitmore, David

    2013-01-01

    Biological clocks have evolved as an adaptation to life on a rhythmic planet, synchronising physiological processes to the environmental light-dark cycle. Here we examine circadian clock function in Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus and its surface counterpart. In the lab, adult surface fish show robust circadian rhythms in per1, which are retained in cave populations, but with substantial alterations. These changes may be due to increased levels of light-inducible genes in cavefish, including clock repressor per2. From a molecular standpoint, cavefish appear as if they experience 'constant light' rather than perpetual darkness. Micos River samples show similar per1 oscillations to those in the lab. However, data from Chica Cave shows complete repression of clock function, while expression of several light-responsive genes is raised, including DNA repair genes. We propose that altered expression of light-inducible genes provides a selective advantage to cavefish at the expense of a damped circadian oscillator.

  1. Earth observations taken during STS-41C

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    41C-51-2414 (6-13 April 1984) --- The entire Texas portion of the Gulf Coast and part of Louisiana's shoreline are visible in this frame, photographed on 4"x5" roll film using a large format camera aboard the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger. Coastal bays and other geographic features from the Boca Chica (mouth of Rio Grande), to the mouth of the Mississippi are included in the frame, photographed from approximately 285 nautical miles above Earth. Inland cities that can be easily delineated are San Antonio, Austin, College Station, Del Rio and Lufkin. Easily pinpointed coastal cities include Houston, Galveston and Corpus Christi. The 41-C crew members used this frame as one of the visuals for their post-flight press conference on April 24, 1984.

  2. STRAIGHT-A STUDENTS DISLIKE PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTH OR TRUTH? THE AVENA, AFINOS AND UP&DOWN STUDIES.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Laura; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Ortega, Francisco B; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Casajús, José Antonio; Cabero, María Jesús; Calle, Maria E; Marcos, Ascensión; Veiga, Oscar L; Martinez-Gomez, David

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: conocer si a aquellos adolescentes que no les gusta la educación física obtienen mejores resultados en rendimiento académico y cognitivo que sus compañeros. Métodos: los participantes incluyen 4.226 adolescentes de los estudios AVENA, AFINOS y UP&DOWN. El gusto por la educación física se valoró con una escala Likert de 7 puntos. El rendimiento cognitivo se valoró en el estudio AVENA usando la versión española del SRA Test of Educational Ability. El rendimiento académico se valoró en los estudios AFINOS y UP&DOWN con las notas de Matemáticas, Lengua y la media de Lengua y Matemáticas. Resultados: en el estudio AVENA encontramos diferencias en la habilidad verbal entre las chicas a las que no les gustaba la educación física y sus compañeros (P = 0,033). En el estudio AFINOS los chicos a los que no les gustaba la educación física tenían mejores notas en Lengua que sus compañeros (P = 0,024). En el estudio UP&DOWN las chicas a las que no les gustaba la educación física obtuvieron mejores resultados en Lengua y en la media de Lengua y Matemáticas (P < 0,001).

  3. Comments on Racetrack playa: Rocks moved by wind alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Cabestrero, Ó.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms by which rocks move across the beds of playa lakes leaving tracks continue to be debated (Sanz-Montero and Rodríguez-Aranda, 2013; Norris et al., 2014; Sanz-Montero et al., 2015a,b; Baumgardner and Shaffer, 2015; Jones and Hooke, 2015). In this regard, the article by Jones and Hooke (Aeolian Research 19, 2015) is particularly interesting since it provides a description of these mechanisms by R. Jones who, during a storm event in 1972, was probably the first person to witness movement of rocks. The dominant meteorological conditions described by Jones during the period when the tracks were formed are, significantly, rather similar to those previously described by Clements (1952) at Little Bonnie Claire Playa (Nevada, USA). The storm conditions referred to in the article also coincide with the observations, measurements and deductions made by Sanz-Montero and Rodríguez-Aranda (2013) and Sanz-Montero et al. (2015a,b) at Altillo Chica playa lake, Central Spain. Furthermore, we were able to carry out an on-site analysis of the sedimentary structures at Racetrack playa in June 2015, allowing us to verify the similarity of the features present at both sites. Together with the important role played by gusty winds in the formation of the tracks, all the above mentioned studies point to the presence of a thin veneer of water, just a few millimeters deep, in the area of the playa lake where the rock movements occur. However, Jones and Hooke (2015) disregard the force exerted by moving water and analyze the coefficient of friction assuming that the rocks are moved by wind alone. We offer an alternative explanation for the movement of rocks both at Racetrack and Altillo Chica playa lake which considers not only the wind but also the role played by moving water in conjunction with other parameters which modify the erosion thresholds (rocks acting as obstacles) and reduce friction (benthic microorganisms).

  4. A molecular linkage map of tomato displaying chromosomal locations of resistance gene analogs based on a Lycopersicon esculentum x Lycopersicon hirsutum cross.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L P; Khan, A; Niño-Liu, D; Foolad, M R

    2002-02-01

    A molecular linkage map of tomato was constructed based on a BC1 population (N = 145) of a cross between Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. line NC84173 (maternal and recurrent parent) and Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. accession PI126445. NC84173 is an advanced breeding line that is resistant to several tomato diseases, not including early blight (EB) and late blight (LB). PI126445 is a self-incompatible accession that is resistant to many tomato diseases, including EB and LB. The map included 142 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and 29 resistance gene analogs (RGAs). RGA loci were identified by PCR amplification of genomic DNA from the BC1 population, using ten pairs of degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed based on conserved leucine-rich repeat (LRR), nucleotide binding site (NBS), and serine (threonine) protein kinase (PtoKin) domains of known resistance genes (R genes). The PCR-amplified DNAs were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which allowed separation of heterogeneous products and identification and mapping of individual RGA loci. The map spanned 1469 cM of the 12 tomato chromosomes with an average marker distance of 8.6 cM. The RGA loci were mapped to 9 of the 12 tomato chromosomes. Locations of some RGAs coincided with locations of several known tomato R genes or quantitative resistance loci (QRLs), including Cf-1, Cf-4, Cf-9, Cf-ECP2, rx-1, and Cm1.1 (chromosome 1); Tm-1 (chromosome 2); Asc (chrromosme 3); Pto, Fen, and Prf (chromosome 5); 01-1, Mi, Ty-1, Cm6.1, Cf-2, CF-5, Bw-5, and Bw-1 (chromosome 6); I-1, 1-3, and Ph-1 (chromosome 7); Tm-2a and Fr1 (chromosome 9); and Lv (chromosome 12). These co-localizations indicate that the RGA loci were either linked to or part of the known R genes. Furthermore, similar to that for many R gene families, several RGA loci were found in clusters, suggesting their potential evolutionary relationship with R genes. Comparisons of the present map with

  5. Racial, Ethnic, and Language Disparities in Children's Exposure to Secondhand Smoke.

    PubMed

    Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    Race and ethnicity affect children's risk of secondhand smoke exposure. However, little is known about how race and language preference impact parents' self-reported smoking and stopping smoking rates. We analyzed data for 16,523 children aged 0-11 years from a pediatric computer decision support system (Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation [CHICA]). CHICA asks families in the waiting room about household smokers. We examined associations between race, insurance, language preference, and household smoking and reported stopping smoking rates using logistic regression. Almost a quarter (23%) of the children's families reported a smoker at home. Hispanic children are least likely (odds ratio [OR]: 0.17, confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.24) to have secondhand smoke exposure when compared to African American and white children, as were those with private insurance (OR: 0.52, CI: 0.43-0.64) or no insurance (OR: 0.79, CI: 0.71-0.88) compared to publicly insured. Children from English speaking families were more likely (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.24-1.95) to have secondhand smoke exposure compared to Spanish speaking families. Among smoking families, 30% reported stopping smoking subsequently. Stopping rates were higher in Hispanic (OR: 3.25, CI: 2.06-5.13) and African American (OR: 1.39, CI: 1.01-1.91) families compared to white children's families. Uninsured families were less likely than publicly insured families to report stopping smoking (OR: 0.76, CI: 0.63-0.92). English speaking families were less likely (OR: 0.56, CI: 0.41-0.75) to report stopping smoking compared to Spanish speaking even in a subgroup analyses of Hispanic families (OR: 0.55, CI: 0.39-0.76). In our safety net practices serving children predominantly on public insurance, Spanish speaking families reported the lowest risk of secondhand smoke exposure in children and the highest rate of stopping smoking in the household. Hispanic families may have increasing secondhand exposure and decreasing

  6. [Carotenogenesis of five strains of the algae Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyceae) isolated from Venezuelan hypersaline lagoons].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César; Gómez, Olga; Lemus, Nathalie; Núñez, Paulino; Romero, Lolymar; Vásquez, Aléikar; Rosales, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated discontinuous cultures (Algal medium at 0.5 mM of NaNO3, and 27% NaCI) of five strains of Dunaliella sp. isolated from Venezuelan hypersaline lagoons (Araya, Coche, Peonia, Cumaraguas. and Boca Chica) and one strain from a reference collection (Dunaliella salina, LB1644). Cultures were maintained to 25+/-1 degrees C, with constant aeration, photoperiod 12:12, and two light intensities (195 and 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1)) during 30 days. Cell count was recorded on a daily basis using a Neubaüer camera. Totals of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were measured at the end of the experiment. The largest cellular densities were measured during the smallest light intensities. The strain with the largest cellular density was isolated from Boca Chica (8 xl0(6) and 2.5 xl0(6) cel.ml(-1) a 390 and 195microE.m(-2).s(-1), respectively). The increment of light intensity produced a significant reduction of growth rates in all strains. Totals of carotenoids by volume were as large as 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1). Strains LB 1644, from Coche and Araya were those that produced the largest amount of carotenoids (38.4; 32.8 and 21.0 microg.ml(-1), respectively). Differences total carotenoids by cell between treatments were significant. The largest concentration was 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1). The strains LB 1644 and Coche produced the highest values of carotenes (137.14 and 106.06 pg.cel(-1), respectively). Differences in the relation carotenoid:chlorophyll a between the strains at various light intensities was significant. Strains LB1644 presented the largest value of the relation carotenoids:chlorophyll a (20:1) at 195 microE.m(-2).s(-1). No significant differences were detected in the strain Coche (15:1). All the other strains showed relations lower than one. Our results suggest that the strains of Coche and Araya show potential to be used in the biotechnology of carotenoids production.

  7. Racial, Ethnic, and Language Disparities in Children's Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Race and ethnicity affect children's risk of secondhand smoke exposure. However, little is known about how race and language preference impact parents' self-reported smoking and stopping smoking rates. We analyzed data for 16,523 children aged 0–11 years from a pediatric computer decision support system (Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation [CHICA]). CHICA asks families in the waiting room about household smokers. We examined associations between race, insurance, language preference, and household smoking and reported stopping smoking rates using logistic regression. Almost a quarter (23%) of the children's families reported a smoker at home. Hispanic children are least likely (odds ratio [OR]: 0.17, confidence interval [CI]: 0.12–0.24) to have secondhand smoke exposure when compared to African American and white children, as were those with private insurance (OR: 0.52, CI: 0.43–0.64) or no insurance (OR: 0.79, CI: 0.71–0.88) compared to publicly insured. Children from English speaking families were more likely (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.24–1.95) to have secondhand smoke exposure compared to Spanish speaking families. Among smoking families, 30% reported stopping smoking subsequently. Stopping rates were higher in Hispanic (OR: 3.25, CI: 2.06–5.13) and African American (OR: 1.39, CI: 1.01–1.91) families compared to white children's families. Uninsured families were less likely than publicly insured families to report stopping smoking (OR: 0.76, CI: 0.63–0.92). English speaking families were less likely (OR: 0.56, CI: 0.41–0.75) to report stopping smoking compared to Spanish speaking even in a subgroup analyses of Hispanic families (OR: 0.55, CI: 0.39–0.76). In our safety net practices serving children predominantly on public insurance, Spanish speaking families reported the lowest risk of secondhand smoke exposure in children and the highest rate of stopping smoking in the household. Hispanic families may have increasing secondhand

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of a behavioural HIV-prevention programme for teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Tatiana M; Lopez, Cristina M; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2014-01-01

    National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting the rate of new infections being approximately four times higher compared to White women of comparable age . This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV-prevention programme for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV-prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV- prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV programme as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed.

  9. Domestic violence and social responsibility in contemporary Spanish cinema: a portfolio view of behavioral dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zanzana, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Domestic abuse continues to claim many lives in Spain despite a series of new laws to protect women and to punish abusers. This essay explores the cultural influences of contemporary Spanish cinema on domestic violence. Four films are assessed against a Portfolio Model of social responsibility that uses two basic dimensions: realism and human rights. Realism in each film is determined by the behavioral components of the internationally recognized Duluth Model and the Wheel of Power and Control. The human rights dimension addresses equality, power and agency for women. This study focuses on Icíar Bollaín's "Te doy mis ojos" (2003), Javier Balaguer's "Sólo mía" (2001), Benito Zambrano's "Solas" (1999), and Pedro Almodóvar's "Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del montón" (1980). The results demonstrate significant variations in the measure of social responsibility indicating that contemporary Spanish cinema may play a role in perpetuating gender-based violence.

  10. Development and preliminary evaluation of a behavioural HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L.; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2014-01-01

    National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV with the rate of new infections being approximately 4 times higher compared to White women of comparable age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013). This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV program as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed. PMID:24697607

  11. First paleoparasitological record of acanthocephalan eggs from Northwestern Patagonia (Late Holocene, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fernández, Fernando Julián; Sardella, Norma Haydeé

    2015-06-01

    Eggs representative of an acanthocephalan were found in an ancient fragment of raptor pellet, probably belonged to the barn owl, Tyto alba, from the archeological site named "Epullán Chica cave." This site is a cave located at the southern of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The fragment of pellet was found in a layer with charcoals dated at 1980±80 years B.P. A total of 56 eggs were found. Eggs were brown colored and thick-shelled, and presented four membranes, the outer lightly sculpted. The embryos presented hooks in one extremity. Measurements ranged from 87.5 to 107.5μm long and 50 to 57.5μm wide. Eggs were very well-preserved, and were identified as belonged to Class Archiacanthocephala, Order Oligacanthorhynchida, Family Oligacanthorhynchidae, probably Macracanthorhynchus Travassos, 1917, or an unidentified species. This is the first report of small mammal acanthocephalans from ancient material worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability in almond oil chemical traits from traditional cultivars and native genetic resources from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maestri, Damián; Martínez, Marcela; Bodoira, Romina; Rossi, Yanina; Oviedo, Alejandro; Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Torres, Mariela

    2015-03-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) genetic resources (Marcona, Guara, Non Pareil, IXL, AI, Martinelli C, Emilito INTA, Cáceres Clara Chica, Javier INTA) were studied during two consecutive crop years in order to evaluate variations in kernel oil yield and composition, and oil oxidative parameters. Total oil, oleic acid, α-tocopherol and squalene contents were found to range between 48.0% and 57.5%, 65% and 77.5%, 370 and 675 μg/g oil, and 37.9 and 114.2 μg/g oil, respectively. The genotype was the main variability source for all these chemical traits. The α-tocopherol content seems to be the most important contributor to both the radical scavenging capacity and the oxidative stability of almond oils analysed. Results obtained from the local genotypes namely Martinelli C, Emilito INTA and Javier INTA may be of interest for almond breeding focused to improve kernel oil yield and composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-income mothers as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children: women's coparenting in multiple partner fertility relationships.

    PubMed

    Burton, Linda M; Hardaway, Cecily R

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we investigated low-income mothers' involvement in multiple partner fertility (MPF) relationships and their experiences as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children from previous and concurrent intimate unions. Othermothering, as somewhat distinct from stepmothering, involves culturally-scripted practices of sharing parenting responsibilities with children's biological parents. We framed this investigation using this concept because previous research suggests that many low-income women practice this form of coparenting in their friend and kin networks. What is not apparent in this literature, however, is whether women unilaterally othermother their romantic partners' children from different women. How often and under what circumstances do women in nonmarital MPF intimate unions with men coparent their partners' children from other relationships? We explored this question using a modified grounded theory approach and secondary longitudinal ethnographic data on 256 low-income mostly unmarried mothers from the Three-City Study. Results indicated that 78% of the mothers had been or were involved in MPF unions and while most had othermothered the children of their friends and relatives, 89% indicated that they did not coparent their partners' children from any MPF relationship. Mothers' reasons for not doing so were embedded in: (a) gendered scripts around second families, or "casa chicas"; (b) the tenuous nature of pass-through MPF relationships; and (c) mothers' own desires for their romantic partners to child-swap. Implications of this research for family science and practice are discussed.

  14. [The P300 component as a neurophysiological correlate of behavioural working memory in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Roca, Patricia; Presentación-Herrero, M Jesús; Miranda-Casas, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ortiz-Sánchez, Pedro

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. El deficit en funciones ejecutivas ha sido ampliamente estudiado en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). El interes por sus correlatos neurofisiologicos apunta a una mejora en la identificacion de los sintomas, las caracteristicas y los tratamientos para el trastorno. Objetivo. Analizar, en una muestra de adolescentes con TDAH, la correlacion entre la latencia y amplitud del componente P300 y una medida ecologica de memoria de trabajo. Pacientes y metodos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 24 chicos y 7 chicas de 12 a 18 anos. Se realizo un registro y analisis de potenciales evocados cognitivos P300 en modalidad auditiva en Cz. Ademas, los padres cumplimentaron una escala de comportamiento ejecutivo en el hogar (BRIEF), de la que se extrajo el indice de memoria de trabajo. Resultados. Se hallaron correlaciones significativas entre la amplitud del P300 y el indice de memoria de trabajo del BRIEF-P. Conclusion. Los resultados enfatizan la utilidad del componente P300 para el estudio de sus correlatos ejecutivos, y la necesidad de ampliar con estudios que aporten mayores muestras y mayor complejidad.

  15. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Within Social Networks of MSM Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Tan, Diane; Holloway, Ian W; Gildner, Jennifer; Jauregui, Juan C; Garcia Alvarez, Rafael; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2017-08-28

    To examine how alcohol-related HIV risk behaviors within MSM sex workers' social networks (SN) may be associated with individual risk behaviors, respondent-driven and venue-based sampling were used to collect demographic, behavioral and SN characteristics among MSM sex workers in Santo Domingo and Boca Chica (N = 220). The majority of participants reported problem drinking (71.0%) or alcohol use at their last sexual encounter (71.4%). Self-reported problem drinking was associated with SN characteristics (at least one member who recently got drunk aOR = 7.5, no religious/spiritual adviser aOR = 3.0, non-sexual network density aOR = 0.9), while self-reported alcohol use at last sex was associated with individual (drug use at last sex aOR = 4.4) and SN characteristics (at least one member with previous HIV/STI testing aOR = 4.7). Dominican MSM sex workers reported high alcohol use, which may increase their risk for HIV. A better understanding of SN factors associated with individual risk behaviors can help guide appropriate intervention development.

  16. Warm oceanographic anomalies and fishing pressure drive seabird nesting north

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Horn, Michael H.; Patton, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel studies of nesting colonies in Mexico and the United States show that Elegant Terns (Thalasseus elegans) have expanded from the Gulf of California Midriff Island Region into Southern California, but the expansion fluctuates from year to year. A strong inverse relationship between nesting pairs in three Southern California nesting areas [San Diego saltworks, Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, and Los Angeles Harbor (1991 to 2014)] and Isla Rasa in the Midriff (1980 to 2014) shows that terns migrate northward when confronting warm oceanographic anomalies (>1.0°C), which may decrease fish availability and hamper nesting success. Migration pulses are triggered by sea surface temperature anomalies localized in the Midriff and, secondarily, by reductions in the sardine population as a result of intensive fishing. This behavior is new; before year 2000, the terns stayed in the Midriff even when oceanographic conditions were adverse. Our results show that terns are responding dynamically to rapidly changing oceanographic conditions and fish availability by migrating 600 km northwest in search of more productive waters. PMID:26601193

  17. Competency in infection prevention: a conceptual approach to guide current and future practice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Denise M; Hanchett, Marilyn; Olmsted, Russell N; Farber, Michelle R; Lee, Terri B; Haas, Janet P; Streed, Stephen A

    2012-05-01

    Professional competency has traditionally been divided into 2 essential components: knowledge and skill. More recent definitions have recommended additional components such as communication, values, reasoning, and teamwork. A standard, widely accepted, comprehensive definition remains an elusive goal. For infection preventionists (IPs), the requisite elements of competence are most often embedded in the IP position description, which may or may not reference national standards or guidelines. For this reason, there is widespread variation among these elements and the criteria they include. As the demand for IP expertise continues to rapidly expand, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, made a strategic commitment to develop a conceptual model of IP competency that could be applicable in all practice settings. The model was designed to be used in combination with organizational training and evaluation tools already in place. Ideally, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, model will complement similar competency efforts undertaken in non-US countries and/or international organizations. This conceptual model not only describes successful IP practice as it is today but is also meant to be forward thinking by emphasizing those areas that will be especially critical in the next 3 to 5 years. The paper also references a skill assessment resource developed by Community and Hospital Infection Control Association (CHICA)-Canada and a competency model developed by the Infection Prevention Society (IPS), which offer additional support of infection prevention as a global patient safety mission.

  18. Identification of QTLs for early blight ( Alternaria solani) resistance in tomato using backcross populations of a Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum cross.

    PubMed

    Foolad, R.; Zhang, P.; Khan, A. A.; Niño-Liu, D.; Lin, Y.

    2002-05-01

    Most commercial cultivars of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., are susceptible to early blight (EB), a devastating fungal ( Alternaria solani Sorauer) disease of tomato in the northern and eastern parts of the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. The disease causes plant defoliation, which reduces yield and fruit quality, and contributes to significant crop loss. Sources of resistance have been identified within related wild species of tomato. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for EB resistance in backcross populations of a cross between a susceptible tomato breeding line (NC84173; maternal and recurrent parent) and a resistant Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. accession (PI126445). Sixteen hundred BC(1) plants were grown to maturity in a field in 1998. Plants that were self-incompatible, indeterminant in growth habit, and/or extremely late in maturity, were discarded in order to eliminate confounding effects of these factors on disease evaluation, QTL mapping, and future breeding research. The remaining 145 plants (referred to as the BC(1) population) were genotyped for 141 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and 23 resistance gene analogs (RGAs), and a genetic linkage map was constructed. BC(1) plants were evaluated for disease symptoms throughout the season, and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and the final percent defoliation (disease severity) were determined for each plant. BC(1) plants were self-pollinated and produced BC(1)S(1) seed. The BC(1)S(1) population, consisting of 145 BC(1)S(1) families, was grown and evaluated for disease symptoms in replicated field trials in two subsequent years (1999 and 2000) and AUDPC and/or final percent defoliation were determined for each family in each year. Two QTL mapping approaches, simple interval mapping (SIM) and composite interval mapping (CIM), were used to identify QTLs for EB resistance in the BC(1) and BC(1)S(1

  19. The genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.; García-Robledo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The species of the Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 are revised. We present a key to the known larvae of Cephaloleia (8 species), a key to the 95 species known to occur in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, and a key to the 138 species known to occur in South America. All identification keys were translated to Spanish. Descriptions for the 214 known species of Cephaloleia as well as illustrations for 212 species are presented. The following species are removed from Cephaloleia: C. bipartita Pic, 1926c is transferred to Hybosispa Weise, 1910; C. minasensis Pic, 1931 and C. viridis Pic, 1931 are transferred to Stenispa Baly, 1858. The following species are described as new: C. abdita sp. n. from Brazil; C. amba sp. n. from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; C. angustacollis sp. n. from Ecuador; C. brevis sp. n. from French Guiana; C. calathae sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. chica sp. n. from Peru; C. conforma sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. crenulata sp. n. from Ecuador; C. gemma sp. n. from Bolivia and Brazil; C. horvitzae sp. n. from French Guiana; C. interrupta sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. kressi sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. lenticula sp. n. from Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Suriname; C. nana sp. n. from Ecuador; C. ochra sp. n. from Ecuador; C. stainesi sp. n. from Costa Rica; and C. susanae sp. n. from Brazil and Ecuador. Cephaloleia simoni Pic, 1934 is treated as Incertae sedis. The larvae of C. erichsonii Baly, 1858 and C. puncticollis Baly, 1885 are described and illustrated. PMID:25197208

  20. Prevalence of obesity among secondary school students from 2009 to 2014 in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Tian, Li; Tao, Tao; Li, Tongda; Tang, Tianmiao; Sheng, Ying; Lu, XiaoQian; Tang, Xue; Peng, Baozhen; Lu, Wei; Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-12-17

    Antecedentes: En los últimos años, la obesidad es un importante problema de salud pública en muchos países. Se calcula que el 8% de los niños son obesos.Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de la prevalencia de la obesidad entre los alumnos de secundaria en China, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de la obesidad en general chino, estudiante de la escuela secundaria. Métodos: Publicaciones de 2009 a 2014 en la prevalencia de obesidad entre los estudiantes de la escuela secundaria en China fueron recuperados de PubMed, Online Chinese periódico de bases de datos de texto completo de VIP, CNKI y Wan Fang.Analista del meta fue utilizado analizar el total de las tasas de obesidad para chinos de la escuela secundaria. Resultados: Después de la evaluación de la calidad de los artículos, 33 papeles fueron finalmente incluidos en nuestro estudio, y el total de los tamaños de muestra sobre la obesidad investigación fueron 218317 (107631 macho y 110686 hembra), en la que 27455 (14863 macho y 12590 mujeres) fueron la obesidad.Los resultados mostraron que el analista del meta la prevalencia de la obesidad en estudiantes de secundaria son 8,4% (IC del 95%: 6,2% - 11,3%) y 4,8% (IC del 95%: 3,2% - 7,2%) para chico y chica, respectivamente. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que la escuela y Gobierno related Departamento debería prestar más atención a la obesidad entre los estudiantes de la escuela secundaria en China, y tomar algunas medidas adecuadamente a la curva de la tendencia de crecimiento de la obesidad.

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, María Soledad; Pascual Jimeno, Aitziber; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Polo-López, Rocío; Echeburúa Odriozola, Enrique

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: los problemas relacionados con el peso constituyen un problema importante de salud pública debido a su alta prevalencia y a las adversas consecuencias que tienen para la salud.Objetivo: el objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar si la depresión y la ansiedad tienen un papel mediador en la relación entre la insatisfacción corporal y las conductas de control del peso en chicas adolescentes con sobrepeso.Material y métodos: en el estudio participaron 140 mujeres de 16 a 20 años con sobrepeso. Las participantes tuvieron que cumplimentar la escala de insatisfacción corporal del EDI-2, las escalas de ansiedad y depresión del GHQ-28 y una adaptación de las escalas del EAT survey para evaluar las conductas de control del peso. Para los análisis estadísticos se utilizaron métodos de diferencias de medias, correlaciones y de mediación secuencial.Resultados: las adolescentes con sobrepeso y alta insatisfacción corporal presentaban más sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva, así como mayor cantidad de conductas de control del peso. Los resultados del análisis de mediación secuencial evidencian que el efecto de la insatisfacción corporal en las conductas de control del peso está parcialmente mediado por las variables depresión y ansiedad. Mientras que la sintomatología ansiosa presenta efectos directos e indirectos sobre las conductas de control de peso, la sintomatología depresiva solamente presenta un efecto indirecto.Conclusiones:los resultados del estudio destacan el rol mediador de la sintomatología depresiva y, especialmente, de la ansiedad en el desarrollo de conductas no saludables de control del peso.

  2. 2D Magnetotelluric interpretation of the crust electrical resistivity across the Pampean terrane Río de la Plata suture, in central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favetto, Alicia; Pomposiello, Cristina; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Booker, John

    2008-11-01

    Magnetotelluric data were obtained along a 450 km, almost west-east profile at approximately 31.5° S, which extends from La Rioja to Santa Fé provinces in central Argentina. The profile crosses two main crustal domains that were juxtaposed during the Early-Middle Cambrian Pampean Orogeny: the Pampean terrane to the west and the Río de la Plata craton to the east. The electrical resistivity structure of the crustal domains together with their boundary is presented. Through dimensionality analysis of the data, it was demonstrated that regional-scale electrical structures are mainly two-dimensional with a strike direction oriented parallel to the surface geological strike. The resistivity model shows a subvertical limit approximately along the eastern border of the Sierra Chica de Córdoba. To the east, the shallower structure is the Chaco-Paranense basin extending to a depth of 6 km with resistivities between 1 and 30 Ohm-m, whereas below the basin the ca 2.1-2.3 Ga Río de la Plata craton shows resistivities in a range of 300-10,000 Ohm-m. The Pampean terrane presents a 6 km layer with a resistivity higher than 10,000 Ohm-m whereas below this layer the resistivity values range from 50 to 200 Ohm-m. Based on both the geological information and the magnetotelluric results, the sharp lateral discontinuity observed in the resistivity model to the east of the Sierras de Córdoba is conjectured to represent the boundary between the Río de la Plata craton and the Pampean terrane which may correspond to the Early Cambrian suture.

  3. [The effect of a warm-up protocol on the sit-and-reach test score in adolescent students].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Soler, María Angeles; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: los test lineales son frecuentemente utilizados en las clases de educación física para evaluar la extensibilidad isquiosural del alumnado, sin que haya una estandarización del procedimiento para su realización. Objetivo: analizar la influencia de un protocolo de calentamiento en los resultados obtenidos en el test sit-andreach en estudiantes adolescentes. Metodología: a 47 adolescentes (17 chicos y 30 chicas) se les midió la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach antes, inmediatamente después de finalizar, así como a los 5 y 10 minutos tras finalizar un protocolo de calentamiento compuesto por una parte de carrera continua, actividades de locomoción y movilidad, además de estiramientos estáticos de cuádriceps, isquiosurales, aductores, psoas ilíaco y gemelos, con una duración total de 8 minutos. Entre las mediciones realizadas tras el calentamiento, los participantes permanecieron en bipedestación sin realizar ejercicio y/o estiramiento alguno. Resultados y discusión: tras el calentamiento hubo una mejora significativa en la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach (+ 2,15 cm) (p < 0,001), siendo ligeramente mayor a los 5 y 10 minutos (+ 2,49 cm a los 5 minutos y + 2,61 cm a los 10 minutos) (p < 0,001 respecto al pretest). Conclusiones: la realización de un protocolo de calentamiento previo al test sit-and-reach, compuesto por locomoción, movilidad y estiramientos, incrementa de manera significativa la distancia alcanzada en este test, que permanece aumentada, al menos, hasta 10 minutos después de finalizar el calentamiento.

  4. Geochronology and Stratigraphy of Pluvial Argentinean Lakes: Implications for Quaternary Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, A.

    2009-12-01

    Shoreline deposits of pluvial lake systems can provide direct evidence of the timing and duration of lake high stands. Complemented by careful stratigraphic and geochemical analysis, these records also contain important paleoenvironmental information. Two lake systems were studied as part of a global effort to understand major climatic changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 24-18 ka) and the following deglaciation (18-13 ka). Today, both of the studied regions are arid, and the lake basins contain much smaller lakes than in the past. Laguna Cari-Laufquen is located at 41°S and the modern basin is occupied by two lakes: Cari-Laufquen Grande and Chica. Preserved shorelines and sediments show these two lakes rose and merged multiple times during the Late Quaternary. An extensive radiocarbon geochronology show the lake was the highest during the LGM, with several smaller, more recent lake oscillations in the last thousand years. The second lake system in this study is Laguna Bebedero, located at 33°S in western Argentina. Previous studies show the highest shorelines date to 23-16,000 yrs BP. Our new radiocarbon dates help constrain the timing of the highstands - and show highstands during the deglacial period. Our lake highstand evidence provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct shifts in Atlantic (easterly)- or Pacific (westerly)-driven moisture. Geochemical studies of shell, water chemical analysis, and geospatial analysis also help to constrain hydrologic balance and paleoenvironmental conditions. Comparison of paleohydrologic records in South America. From top: Cariaco Basin - reconstructed sea-surface temperatures from Lea et al., 2003, Bolivian Lakes - Uyuni lake system phases from shoreline data (Placzek et al., 2006), Atacama Wetlands - wet events above local water table (Quade et al., 2008), Laguna Bebedero and Laguna Cari-Laufquen - lake level changes from this study.

  5. Analysis of admixture proportions in seven geographical regions of the state of Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cahua-Pablo, José Ángel; Cruz, Miguel; Tello-Almaguer, Pedro Vidal; Del Alarcón-Romero, Luz Carmen; Parra, Esteban Juan; Villerías-Salinas, Salvador; Valladares-Salgado, Adán; Tello-Flores, Vianet Argelia; Méndez-Palacios, Abigail; Pérez-Macedonio, Claudia Paola; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia

    2017-07-04

    Mexico's current population structure has been defined by admixture between European, Native American, and to some extent African, groups that started in the sixteenth century. The aim of this research was to analyze the relative contributions of these continental population groups to the seven regions of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. A total of 104 ancestry informative markers were analyzed in 480 unrelated women from the seven regions of the state of Guerrero. The individual ancestry proportions were estimated using the software ADMIXMAP v3.2. The relative Native American, European and African ancestral contributions to the whole sample were estimated to be 69%, 27%, and 1.9%, respectively. We observed significant differences in admixture proportions across the regions. The highest average Native American ancestry was found in the Montaña region and the lowest in Costa Grande. Conversely, the highest European contribution was observed in Costa Grande. The highest African contributions were observed in the regions of Costa Chica and Costa Grande. The genetic structure of the population of Guerrero reflects quite well the historical processes that have occurred in this state. Native American population settlements were mainly in the regions of Montaña, Norte, and Centro, where the highest indigenous genetic contribution is observed today. European settlers came from the center of the state to regions with significant agricultural and mining activities. The highest African contributions are observed in coastal regions, in agreement with historical evidence about slave trade routes in the Americas. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Life style and monitoring of the dietary intake of students at the Melilla campus of the University of Granada].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Prado, Silvia; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel A; López-Bueno, Marta; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: los estudiantes universitarios representan un colectivo social en riesgo desde el punto de vista nutricional, ya que a menudo mantienen estilos de vida y hábitos nutricionales inapropiados. Objetivos: analizar el estilo de vida de los alumnos del Campus de la Universidad de Granada en Melilla. Analizar la evolución de los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes del campus durante el curso académico 2013-2014. Material y método: se realizó un estudio longitudinal durante el curso académico 2013-2014 en el cual, a su inicio, se evaluó el estilo de vida y, de forma continuada los hábitos nutricionales de un grupo representativo de 257 estudiantes, 90 chicos (35%) y 167 chicas (65%), todos ellos del campus de la Universidad de Granada en la Ciudad Autónoma de Melilla (norte de África). Resultados: los hábitos nutricionales empeoran a medida que avanza el curso académico, caracterizándose por una reducción significativa (p < 0.001) en la ingesta de carbohidratos, así como por una elevación significativa (p < 0.001) en la ingesta proteica y lipídica, siendo especialmente rica en grasas saturadas y baja en fibra. Conclusiones: la población estudiada posee un estilo de vida eminentemente sedentario. A medida que avanza el curso académico, los hábitos nutricionales de los estudiantes empeoran, alejándose del patrón de alimentación mediterráneo con el consiguiente riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades metabólicas y cardiovasculares. De estos resultados se desprende la necesidad de continuar profundizando a fin de identificar los factores que influyen en sus hábitos nutricionales y establecer las medidas correctoras oportunas.

  7. Computer Decision Support Changes Physician Practice But Not Knowledge Regarding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, A.E.; Saha, C.; Downs, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To examine whether adding an autism module promoting adherence to clinical guidelines to an existing computer decision support system (CDSS) changed physician knowledge and self-reported clinical practice. Methods The CHICA (Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation) system, a CDSS, was enhanced with a module to improve management of autism in 2 of the 4 community pediatric clinics using the system. We examined the knowledge and beliefs of pediatric users using cross-sectional surveys administered at 3 time points (baseline, 12 months and 24 months post-implementation) between November 2010 and January 2013. Surveys measured knowledge, beliefs and self-reported practice patterns related to autism. Results A total of 45, 39, and 42 pediatricians responded at each time point, respectively, a 95-100% response rate. Respondents’ knowledge of autism and perception of role for diagnosis did not vary between control and intervention groups either at baseline or any of the two post-intervention time points. At baseline, there was no difference between these groups in rates in the routine use of parent-rated screening instruments for autism. However, by 12 and 24 months post-implementation there was a significant difference between intervention and control clinics in terms of the intervention clinics consistently screening eligible patients with a validated autism tool. Physicians at all clinics reported ongoing challenges to community resources for further work-up and treatment related to autism. Conclusions A CDSS module to improve primary care management of ASD in pediatric practice led to significant improvements in physician-reported use of validated screening tools to screen for ASDs. However it did not lead to corresponding changes in physician knowledge or attitudes. PMID:26448791

  8. The Search for a Paleotsunami Record in the Coastal Wetlands of Southern California: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeper, R. J.; Rhodes, B. P.; Kirby, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    samples from this layer at LPM yielded C-14 dates of 1795, 1835, and 1895 cal yrs BP (not corrected for the marine reservoir). Future work will involve additional coring at LPM and SBW to delineate the extent of the fossil hash layers, and new work at Bolsa Chica Marsh, south of SBW to help delineate the extent of subsidence and its relation to the Newport-Inglewood fault zone.

  9. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  10. [Influence of body composition and acceptance of physical education classes on self-esteem of children aged 14-16 years from Alicante, Spain].

    PubMed

    Estévez, Manuel; Muros, José Joaquín; Torres, Beatriz; Pradas, Francisco; Zurita, Félix; Cepero, Mar

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: La autoestima parece ser un importante predictor de síntomas depresivos entre los jóvenes, y sobre todo en el género femenino. Algunos autores sugieren que la existencia de sobrepeso y/o obesidad en jóvenes se relaciona con una menor autoestima así como la participación deportiva se ha asociado con unos valores más altos de la misma. Objetivos: Analizar las relaciones existentes entre el índice de masa corporal, sexo, aceptación a las clases de Educación Física y autoestima en una muestra representativa de escolares de 3º y 4º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de la ciudad de Alicante. Métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo sobre una muestra representativa compuesta por 1.150 alumnos escolarizados en la ciudad de Alicante. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, valores de autoestima y de aceptación por las clases de educación física. Resultados: Existe una correlación positiva entre la aceptación a las clases de educación física y el autoestima (r= ,319) y una correlación negativa entre esta y el sexo de los alumnos (r= -,289), siendo el grupo femenino el que muestra unas menores puntuaciones. Existe una correlación negativa entre el autoestima y los valores de índice de masa corporal (r= -,083), y el sexo (r= -,308), siendo el grupo femenino el que muestra unos valores menores de autoestima. Conclusiones: En vista de los resultados se hace necesario planificar actuaciones encaminadas a reforzar y aumentar la autoestima durante la adolescencia, centrándose en los grupos de riesgo formados por los jóvenes con sobrepeso/obesidad y sobre por el grupo de las chicas.

  11. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  12. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  13. [Environmental heterogeneity and its relationship with diversity and abundance of the fish community in a coastal system of Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguirre-León, Arturo; Pérez-Ponce, Hilda Elín; Díaz-Ruiz, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    The coastal lagoons of Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico, include a great variety of biological resources. These resources, especially fish communities, have been barely described and that require more ecological studies. With this aim, this investigation analyzed the spatial and temporal variation of diversity, abundance and assemblages of the fish community and its relationship with physical-chemical parameters of the Chica-Grande coastal system. For this, eight defined sites were monthly sampled for water characteristics and fish community composition (10min hauls of 1 500m2 a shrimp trawl net), between September 2005 and November 2006. The spatial-temporal variation of physical-chemical parameters, allowed the definition of two contrasting environments according to salinity, temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen and depth gradients. A total of 1 947 fishes were collected for a total weight of 57.88kg. From these, 22 species, 20 genera and 14 families were identified; and four species were new records for the system. As it was detected for the physical-chemical conditions, the diversity of the fish community also showed a spatial gradient, with high values (H'=2.37, D=3.35, J'=0.82) in the brackish habitat, and low ones in freshwater environments. Fish abundance did not show such a marked gradient response, however, it was higher in the freshwater habitat. The highest diversity (H'=2.05) and species richness (D=2.99) was recorded during the North winds ("nortes") months (November-February), while density and biomass were higher (0.034 ind./m2, 1.42g/m2) during the rainy months (July-October). The Importance Value Index (IVI) defined six dominant species accounting for 77.8% of the fish abundance and 87.9% of total catch by weight. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that the fish-habitat relationship was explained by 68% of total variance for the two first axes, where salinity, transparency and temperature changes were the most important

  14. Characterization of the interface between gamma and epsilon subunits of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tang, C; Capaldi, R A

    1996-02-09

    The interaction faces of the gamma and epsilon subunits in the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase have been explored by a combination of cross-linking and chemical modification experiments using several mutant epsilon subunits as follows: epsilonS10C, epsilonH38C, epsilonT43C, epsilonS65C, epsilonS108C, and epsilonM138C, along with a mutant of the gamma subunit, gammaT106C. The replacement of Ser-10 by a Cys or Met-138 by a Cys reduced the inhibition of ECF1 by the epsilon subunit, while the mutation S65C increased this inhibitory effect. Modification of the Cys at position 10 with N-ethylmaleimide or fluoroscein maleimide further reduced the binding affinity of, and the maximal inhibition by, the epsilon subunit. Similar chemical modification of the Cys at position 43 of the epsilon subunit (in the mutant epsilonT43C) and a Cys at position 106 of the gamma subunit (gammaT106C) also affected the inhibition of ECF1 by the epsilon subunit. The various epsilon subunit mutants were reacted with TFPAM3, and the site(s) of cross-linking within the ECF1 complex was determined. Previous studies have shown cross-linking from the Cys at positions 10 and 38 with the gamma subunit and from a Cys at position 108 to an alpha subunit (Aggeler, R., Chicas-Cruz, K., Cai, S. X., Keana, J. F. W., and Capaldi, R. A. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 2956-2961; Aggeler, R., Weinreich, F., and Capaldi, R. A. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1230, 62-68). Here, cross-linking was found from a Cys at position 43 to the gamma subunit and from the Cys at position 138 to a beta subunit. The site of cross-linking from Cys-10 of epsilon to the gamma subunit was localized by peptide mapping to a region of the gamma subunit between residues 222 and 242. Cross-linking from a Cys at position 38 and at position 43 was with the C-terminal part of the gamma subunit, between residues 202 and 286. ECF1 treated with trypsin at pH 7.0 still binds purified epsilon subunit, while enzyme treated with the protease at pH 8.0 does

  15. Biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in child populations living near contaminated sites in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Pérez-Vázquez, F J; Rodríguez-Aguilar, M; Medellín-Garibay, S E; Van Brussel, E; Cubillas-Tejeda, A C; Carrizales-Yáñez, L; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a POP biomonitoring programme for children in high-risk areas. We evaluated 247 serum samples from children between the ages of 6 and 12years old from two zones in Mexico: (1) indigenous zones, which included Cuatlamayan (CUA), Tocoy (TOC), and Santa Maria Picula (SAM); and (2) industrial zones, which included Tercera Chica (TC), Industrial San Luis (IND) and Rincon de San Jose (SJR); Mundo Nuevo (MN); and Alpuyeca (ALP). Our results showed that α-endosulfan was similar to CUA, TOC, SAM, TC and MN (178.6-306.9ng/g lipid). β-Endosulfan levels were higher in ALP (901.5ng/g lipid), followed by CUA (139.9ng/g lipid) and TOC, SAM, TC and MN, which had similar levels (55.4-64.5ng/g lipid). For endosulfan sulfate, the ALP community had the highest concentration levels (1096.4ng/g lipid), whereas CUA and TOC (212.3 and 289ng/g lipid, respectively) had concentrations similar to those found in SAM and TC (99.5 and 119.1ng/g lipid, respectively). DDE levels were found in malaria-endemic areas of SAM, CUA and TOC (1782.2, 1358.3 and 57.0ng/g lipid), followed by MN (35.1ng/g lipid). HCB concentration levels were found to be higher in MN and SJR (691.8 and 575.4ng/g lipid, respectively), followed by CUA and TC (363.9 and 269.1ng/g lipid, respectively), with levels similar to those found in TOC and SAM (191.8 and 181.9ng/g lipid, respectively). Finally, PCB 101 concentration levels were found to be the highest in ALP (1032.7ng/g lipid), followed by similar levels of SJR and IND (567.5 and 327.3ng/g lipid, respectively) and TC and MN, with 109.1 and 144.5ng/g lipid, respectively. The evidence provided by this exploratory study indicates that the evaluation of the health risks posed to children living in contaminated areas is a high priority health issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    per square mile, which is close to the average for southwestern Puerto Rico. The estimated maximum peak ground acceleration most likely to occur in the study area, due to shallow depth seismicity with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, is 9 feet per second squared, as obtained by modeling results. The estimated peak ground acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, due to deep seismicity is 7 feet per second squared. In Ponce, the probability of exceedance per year is higher than 0.1 for the peak ground acceleration values less than 1 that result from shallow depth seismicity sources such as the Mona Passage extension zone. The potential for liquefaction due to seismic activity may exist in areas near the coastline that have loosely to poorly consolidated sedimentary deposits and a water table close to or at the land surface. Slope failure susceptibility within the study area, due to rainfall and seismic activity, may be limited to the area that extends westward from Laguna de las Salinas to Pe?uelas. In this area, foothills with slopes exceeding 10 degrees are close to the coastline and are underlain by clayey limestone and marls. In the remaining part of the study area, eastward from Laguna de las Salinas to Salinas, the land is either nearly flat or has a slope of less than 10 degrees; consequently, the susceptibility to landsliding (slope failure) caused by seismic activity and rainfall is considered to be minimal or nonexistent. Based on modeling results from a previous study, the estimated maximum inland extent of tsunami-induced flooding is 2,600 feet in the Laguna de las Salinas and Boca Chica, located in Ponce and Juana Diaz, respectively. Flooding about 3,000 and 2,800 feet from the coastline are estimated for areas near Punta Cabullon and Jobos areas, respectively. According to the modeling results, the estimated maximum runup of the tsunami-induced flooding ranges from 9 to 14 feet for the Boca Chica and Pu

  17. Early Cretaceous continental sedimentation in the Coastal Cordillera (Atajaña Formation), Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, G.; Garcia, M.; Sepulveda, F.; Vasquez, P.

    2013-12-01

    . Locally, unit Kia2 contains andesite lava flows interbedded (Kia2a) exposed in Chiza valley, south of Caleta Chica and southwestern of Atajaña hill. The age of the Atajaña Formation, near to Atajaña hill, obtained from relationship contacts with the Blanco Formation, is Berriasian to Aptian. Besides, two new ages zircon U-Pb of 105.8×1.3 Ma and 107 Ma (best average between four population ages) obtained on the overlying rhyodacitic tuffs (Suca Formation), in the Chiza and Camarones valleys respectively. These data allow place the Atajaña Formation in the Lower Cretaceous (Barresian-Albian). This indicate a northward extension of continental sedimentation until Albian times, as well as a Blanco Formation wedging in the same direction. Southward, the Atajaña Formation can be stratigraphically correlated with Punta Barranco Formation, close to Iquique (20°S), and chrono-stratigraphically with Caleta Coloso Formation, near to Antofagasta (24°S). According to the facies descriptions, the Atajaña Formation corresponds to a succession accumulated in alluvial, fluvial and locally lacustrine continental environment. South to the Atajaña hill, marine incursion is evidenced by the Blanco Formation during Aptian-Albian times. Northward (Chiza valley), continental sedimentation would have continued, in a volcanic environment, until Albian times.

  18. Parent-child conflict and psychological maladjustment: a mediational analysis with reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Tsao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2010-04-01

    mayor inadaptación, sobre todo interiorizada. La muestra consistió de 603 adolescentes taiwaneses (226 chicos y 377 chicas) entre 15 y 19 años de edad (media edad = 16.95; DT = 0.78). Los análisis de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales confirmaron las hipótesis. Sin embargo, los tres efectos directos de los conflictos en la internalización de los problemas, agresión y comportamiento anormal seguían siendo significativos. Además, se identificó un efecto mayor del rol paternal en comparación con el rol maternal en la relación entre conflicto y la creencia filial reciproca atenuada y entre la amenaza percibida y la internalización de los problemas. Se discuten las implicaciones para la comprensión del proceso mediador responsable de todos los efectos indirectos, incluso los subsidiarios, y el mayor impacto del conflicto con los padres que con las madres. Igualmente, se discuten las limitaciones del estudio y las consideraciones para la investigación futura.