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Sample records for array finely tuned

  1. Automated Camera Array Fine Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel; Padgett, Curtis; Ansar, Adnan; Cheng, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Using aerial imagery, the JPL FineCalibration (JPL FineCal) software automatically tunes a set of existing CAHVOR camera models for an array of cameras. The software finds matching features in the overlap region between images from adjacent cameras, and uses these features to refine the camera models. It is not necessary to take special imagery of a known target and no surveying is required. JPL FineCal was developed for use with an aerial, persistent surveillance platform.

  2. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Staub, Florian

    2017-03-01

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ˜ 20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  3. Understanding the Fine Tuning in Our Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    2008-01-01

    It is often stated that the physical properties of our universe are "fine tuned"--that is, they must be almost exactly as they are to make the development of intelligent life possible. The implications of this statement, called the "anthropic principle," have been widely discussed in a philosophical context, but the scientific basis for the…

  4. Fine-tuning in DBI inflationary mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xingang

    2008-12-15

    We show a model-independent fine-tuning issue in the DBI inflationary mechanism. DBI inflation requires a warp factor h small enough to sufficiently slow down the inflation. On the other hand, the Einstein equation in extra dimensions under the inflationary background deforms the warp space on the IR side. Generically these two locations coincide with each other, spoiling the DBI inflation. The origin and tuning of this 'h problem' is closely related, through the AdS/CFT duality, to those of the well-known '{eta} problem' in the slow-roll inflationary mechanism.

  5. Resistive Fine Tuning of Resonant Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Simple fixed-inductance/fixed-capacitance tank circuit modified for fine adjustment of resonant frequency by addition of small inductance with potentiometer across it. Additional winding built into full winding as integral part or added externally. Technique provides quick way of tuning reactance out of power-transformer circuit to maximize power transfer or to adjust frequency of oscillator. Applications include rotary transformers, servo amplifiers, and analog computer modules.

  6. Pre - big bang inflation requires fine tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Michael S.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1997-10-01

    The pre-big-bang cosmology inspired by superstring theories has been suggested as an alternative to slow-roll inflation. We analyze, in both the Jordan and Einstein frames, the effect of spatial curvature on this scenario and show that too much curvature --- of either sign --- reduces the duration of the inflationary era to such an extent that the flatness and horizon problems are not solved. Hence, a fine-tuning of initial conditions is required to obtain enough inflation to solve the cosmological problems.

  7. Fine tuning of cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Ca 2+ oscillations, a widespread mode of cell signaling, were reported in non-excitable cells for the first time more than 25 years ago. Their fundamental mechanism, based on the periodic Ca 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm, has been well characterized. However, how the kinetics of cytosolic Ca 2+ changes are related to the extent of a physiological response remains poorly understood. Here, we review data suggesting that the downstream targets of Ca 2+ are controlled not only by the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations but also by the detailed characteristics of the oscillations, such as their duration, shape, or baseline level. Involvement of non-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ stores, mainly mitochondria and the extracellular medium, participates in this fine tuning of Ca 2+ oscillations. The main characteristics of the Ca 2+ exchange fluxes with these compartments are also reviewed. PMID:27630768

  8. Nonsingular multidimensional cosmologies without fine tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronnikov, Kirill A.; Fabris, Julio C.

    2002-09-01

    Exact cosmological solutions for effective actions in D dimensions inspired by the tree-level superstring action are studied. For a certain range of free parameters existing in the model, nonsingular bouncing solutions are found. Among them, of particular interest can be open hyperbolic models, in which, without any fine tuning, the internal scale factor and the dilaton field (connected with string coupling in string theories) tend to constant values at late times. A cosmological singularity is avoided due to nonminimal dilaton-gravity coupling and, for D>11, due to pure imaginary nature of the dilaton, which conforms to currently discussed unification models. The existence of such and similar solutions supports the opinion that the Universe had never undergone a stage driven by full-scale quantum gravity.

  9. Approaching {lambda} without fine-tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, Sabino; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca

    2004-09-15

    We address the fine-tuning problem of dark energy cosmologies which arises when the dark energy density needs to initially lie in a narrow range in order for its present value to be consistent with observations. As recently noticed, this problem becomes particularly severe in canonical quintessence scenarios, when trying to reproduce the behavior of a cosmological constant, i.e., when the dark energy equation of state w{sub Q} approaches -1: these models may be reconciled with a large basin of attraction only by requiring a rapid evolution of w{sub Q} at low redshifts, which is in conflict with the most recent estimates from type Ia Supernovae discovered by Hubble space telescope. Next, we focus on scalar-tensor theories of gravity, discussing the implications of a coupling between the quintessence scalar field and the Ricci scalar ('extended quintessence'). We show that, even if the equation of state today is very close to -1, by virtue of the scalar-tensor coupling the quintessence trajectories still possess the attractive feature which allows to reach the present level of cosmic acceleration starting by a set of initial conditions which covers tens of orders of magnitude; this effect, entirely of gravitational origin, represents a new important consequence of the possible coupling between dark energy and gravity. We illustrate this effect in typical extended quintessence scenarios.

  10. Fine tuning of activity for nanoscale catalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, D.; van derVliet, D.; Lucas, C.; Karapetrov, G.; Markovic, N.; Stamenkovic, V.; Materials Science Division

    2008-01-01

    similar levels of catalytic enhancement have been established for corresponding nanoscale materials. In addition to electronic properties we have found how catalytic activity could be affected by the arrangement of surface defects on nanoscale surfaces. Ability to control surface and near surface catalyst properties enables fine tuning of catalytic activity and stability of nanoscale surfaces.

  11. Fine-Tuning Your Ensemble's Jazz Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Antonio J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes instructional strategies for directors of jazz groups, including guidelines for developing of skills necessary for good performance. Includes effective methods for positive changes in ensemble style. Addresses jazz group problems such as beat, tempo, staying in tune, wind power, and solo/ensemble lines. Discusses percussionists, bassists,…

  12. The Doctoral Comprehensive Examination: Fine-Tuning the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri Olisky

    1997-01-01

    Uses Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to fine-tune the process of designing, preparing for, evaluating, and providing feedback about the doctoral comprehensive examination. Examines the purpose and objectives of comprehensive examinations, curriculum design, preparation for the exam, test item development, evaluation criteria, and…

  13. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life has received a great deal of attention in recent years, both in the philosophical and scientific literature. The claim is that in the space of possible physical laws, parameters and initial conditions, the set that permits the evolution of intelligent life is very small. I present here a review of the scientific literature, outlining cases of fine-tuning in the classic works of Carter, Carr and Rees, and Barrow and Tipler, as well as more recent work. To sharpen the discussion, the role of the antagonist will be played by Victor Stenger's recent book The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. Stenger claims that all known fine-tuning cases can be explained without the need for a multiverse. Many of Stenger's claims will be found to be highly problematic. We will touch on such issues as the logical necessity of the laws of nature; objectivity, invariance and symmetry; theoretical physics and possible universes; entropy in cosmology; cosmic inflation and initial conditions; galaxy formation; the cosmological constant; stars and their formation; the properties of elementary particles and their effect on chemistry and the macroscopic world; the origin of mass; grand unified theories; and the dimensionality of space and time. I also provide an assessment of the multiverse, noting the significant challenges that it must face. I do not attempt to defend any conclusion based on the fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life. This paper can be viewed as a critique of Stenger's book, or read independently.

  14. Why Cosmic Fine-Tuning Needs to BE Explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Neil Alan

    Discoveries in modern physics and Big Bang cosmology indicate that if either the initial conditions of the universe or the physical laws governing its development had differed even slightly, life could never have developed. It is for this reason that the universe is said to be ``fine-tuned'' for life. I argue that cosmic fine-tuning, which some want to dismiss as the way things just happen to be, in fact needs to be explained. In Chapter One I provide an overview of the evidence that the universe is fine-tuned for life. In Chapter Two I present a set of sufficient conditions for a fact's needing to be explained. The conditions are that the fact is improbable and that a ``tidy'' explanation of it is available. A tidy explanation of a fact is considerably less improbable than that fact and makes the obtaining of that fact considerably less improbable. Chapters Three, Four, and Five are devoted to showing that cosmic Chapter Three I argue that the universe's being finely tuned for life can meaningfully be considered improbable. In Chapter Four I claim that there is at least one tidy explanation of cosmic fine-tuning: that the universe was created by some sort of extramundane designer. In Chapters Four and Five I respond to three objections. The first is that the design hypothesis is ad hoc. The second is that we have no reason to believe a supernatural designer would prefer life-permitting cosmoi to other possible cosmoi and that our tendency to believe otherwise is the result of anthropocentrism. The third is that the design hypothesis never buys us an explanatory advantage.

  15. Cosmologically Safe QCD Axion without Fine-Tuning.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masaki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2016-02-05

    Although QCD axion models are widely studied as solutions to the strong CP problem, they generically confront severe fine-tuning problems to guarantee the anomalous Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. In this Letter, we propose a simple QCD axion model without any fine-tunings. We introduce an extra dimension and a pair of extra quarks living on two branes separately, which is also charged under a bulk Abelian gauge symmetry. We assume a monopole condensation on our brane at an intermediate scale, which implies that the extra quarks develop chiral symmetry breaking and the PQ symmetry is broken. In contrast to Kim's original model, our model explains the origin of the PQ symmetry thanks to the extra dimension and avoids the cosmological domain wall problem because of chiral symmetry breaking in Abelian gauge theory.

  16. Cosmologically Safe QCD Axion without Fine-Tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2016-02-01

    Although QCD axion models are widely studied as solutions to the strong C P problem, they generically confront severe fine-tuning problems to guarantee the anomalous Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. In this Letter, we propose a simple QCD axion model without any fine-tunings. We introduce an extra dimension and a pair of extra quarks living on two branes separately, which is also charged under a bulk Abelian gauge symmetry. We assume a monopole condensation on our brane at an intermediate scale, which implies that the extra quarks develop chiral symmetry breaking and the PQ symmetry is broken. In contrast to Kim's original model, our model explains the origin of the PQ symmetry thanks to the extra dimension and avoids the cosmological domain wall problem because of chiral symmetry breaking in Abelian gauge theory.

  17. Stop search with acceptable fine-tuning in Susy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçi, Ali; Ün, Cem Salih; Kirca, Zerrin

    2017-02-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the forefront candidates for the models beyond the Standard Model (SM) in resolving the gauge hierarchy problem by proposing new supersymmetric partners for the SM fields. In SUSY, stop, the supersymmetric partner of top quark, is of a special importance, since it cancels the largest quadratic contributions to the Higgs boson mass from top quark loop. Despite heavy stop mass requirement from the Higgs boson searches and fine-tuning demands, it is still possible to find stops of mass about a few hundred GeV, even as light as top quark. In this study, we search for light stop solutions within the SUSY Grand Unified Theory (GUT) models in light of acceptable fine-tuning and current experimental constraints. Afterwards, we analyze the possible signals through which the implications can be tested at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments.

  18. Modern Cosmology and Anthropic Fine-Tuning: Three approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Robin

    The anthropic fine-tuning of the cosmos refers to the claim that the laws of nature, the constants of physics, and the initial conditions of the universe must be set to an enormous degree of precision for embodied conscious agents to exist. Three major responses have been offered to this fine-tuning: the multiverse explanation; theism; and the claim that it is just a brute fact that requires no further explanation. In this chapter, I will consider each explanation in turn, and provide some novel arguments for the superiority of a theistic or related explanation. In the last section, I will show how whether or not one adopts a theistic or related explanation can significantly influence what features of the universe one considers in need of further scientific explanation, and the type of scientific explanation that one should find satisfactory. In particular, I will argue that in some cases atheism, not theism, serves as a science stopper in discouraging a search for deeper scientific explanations of phenomena.

  19. Coarse-fine adaptive tuned vibration absorber with high frequency resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; You, Jiaxin; Gao, Zhe

    2016-11-01

    The speed fluctuation of satellite-rotary-mechanisms causes vibration of slightly different frequencies. The critical requirements of satellites need a vibration control device with high frequency resolution to suppress the vibration. This paper presents a coarse-fine adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA) with high frequency resolution. The coarse-fine ATVA which simultaneously satisfies the requirements of high resolution and relatively wide effective bandwidth is capable of tracking the variable exciting frequency adaptively to suppress the vibration of the primary system. The coarse-fine ATVA is divided into a coarse tuning segment and a fine tuning segment. The coarse tuning segment is used to tune the required natural frequency in a relatively wide effective bandwidth and the fine tuning segment can achieve precise tune in a tiny-scale bandwidth. The mathematical model of the coarse tuning and the fine tuning is proposed to design the parameters of the coarse-fine ATVA. The experimental test results indicate the coarse tuning bandwidth of the coarse-fine ATVA is 8.7 Hz to 29 Hz and the minimum resolution of the fine tuning is 0.05 Hz. Moreover, a significant vibration attenuation of 15dB is verified in the effective bandwidth.

  20. Phased waveguide array with fixed tuning elements

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.; Bernabei, S.; Hooke, W.M.; Paoloni, F.J.

    1980-04-01

    The waveguide grill excites both penetrating lower hybrid waves and surface plasma waves. Quarter wavelength tuning elements attached to the sides of a twin waveguide are shown to reduce the surface wave component by a factor of approx. 3..

  1. Myosin phosphatase Fine-tunes Zebrafish Motoneuron Position during Axonogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During embryogenesis the spinal cord shifts position along the anterior-posterior axis relative to adjacent tissues. How motor neurons whose cell bodies are located in the spinal cord while their axons reside in adjacent tissues compensate for such tissue shift is not well understood. Using live cell imaging in zebrafish, we show that as motor axons exit from the spinal cord and extend through extracellular matrix produced by adjacent notochord cells, these cells shift several cell diameters caudally. Despite this pronounced shift, individual motoneuron cell bodies stay aligned with their extending axons. We find that this alignment requires myosin phosphatase activity within motoneurons, and that mutations in the myosin phosphatase subunit mypt1 increase myosin phosphorylation causing a displacement between motoneuron cell bodies and their axons. Thus, we demonstrate that spinal motoneurons fine-tune their position during axonogenesis and we identify the myosin II regulatory network as a key regulator. PMID:27855159

  2. Relaxion cosmology and the price of fine-tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti; Spethmann, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The relaxion scenario presents an intriguing extension of the standard model in which the particle introduced to solve to the strong C P problem, the axion, also achieves the dynamical relaxation of the Higgs boson mass term. In this work we complete this framework by proposing a scenario of inflationary cosmology that is consistent with all the observational constraints: the relaxion hybrid inflation with an asymmetric waterfall. In our scheme, the vacuum energy of the inflaton drives inflation in a natural way while the relaxion slow rolls. The constraints on the present inflationary observables are then matched through a subsequent inflationary epoch driven by the inflaton. We quantify the amount of fine-tuning of the proposed inflation scenario, concluding that the inflaton sector severely decreases the naturalness of the theory.

  3. Fine-tuning tomato agronomic properties by computational genome redesign.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Javier; Fernández Del Carmen, Asun; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Rambla, Jose Luis; Pons, Clara; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites.

  4. Fine-Tuning Tomato Agronomic Properties by Computational Genome Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Javier; Fernández del Carmen, Asun; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Rambla, Jose Luis; Pons, Clara; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F.; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites. PMID:22685389

  5. Fine-tuning challenges for the matter bounce scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Aaron M.

    2017-01-01

    A bouncing universe with a long period of contraction during which the average density is pressureless (the same equation of state as matter) as cosmologically observable scales exit the Hubble horizon has been proposed as an explanation for producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. A well-known problem with this scenario is that, unless suppressed, the energy density associated with anisotropy grows to dominate that of the pressureless matter, so the matter-like phase is unstable. Previous models introduced an ekpyrotic phase after the matter-like phase to prevent the anisotropy from generating chaotic mixmaster behavior. In this work, though, we point out that, unless the anisotropy is suppressed first, the matter-like phase will never start and that suppressing the anisotropy requires extraordinary, exponential fine-tuning.

  6. Fine tuning points of generating function construction for linear recursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolcu, Bahar; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-01

    Recursions are quite important mathematical tools since many systems are mathematically modelled to ultimately take us to these equations because of their rather easy algebraic natures. They fit computer programming needs quite well in many circumstances to produce solutions. However, it is generally desired to find the asymptotic behaviour of the general term in the relevant sequence for convergence and therefore practicality issues. One of the general tendencies to find the general term asymptotic behaviour, when its ordering number grows unboundedly, is the integral representation over a generating function which does not depend on individual sequence elements. This is tried to be done almost for all types of recursions, even though the linear cases gain more importance than the others because they can be more effectively investigated by using many linear algebraic tools. Despite this may seem somehow to be rather trivial, there are a lot of theoretical fine tuning issues in the construction of true integral representations over true intervals on real axis or paths in complex domains. This work is devoted to focus on this issue starting from scratch for better understanding of the matter. The example cases are chosen to best illuminate the situations to get information for future generalization even though the work can be considered at somehow introductory level.

  7. Fine-tuning of macrophage activation using synthetic rocaglate derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Bidisha; Chatterjee, Sujoy; Devine, William G.; Kobzik, Lester; Beeler, Aaron B.; Porco, John A.; Kramnik, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistant bacteria represent a significant global threat. Given the dearth of new antibiotics, host-directed therapies (HDTs) are especially desirable. As IFN-gamma (IFNγ) plays a central role in host resistance to intracellular bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we searched for small molecules to augment the IFNγ response in macrophages. Using an interferon-inducible nuclear protein Ipr1 as a biomarker of macrophage activation, we performed a high-throughput screen and identified molecules that synergized with low concentration of IFNγ. Several active compounds belonged to the flavagline (rocaglate) family. In primary macrophages a subset of rocaglates 1) synergized with low concentrations of IFNγ in stimulating expression of a subset of IFN-inducible genes, including a key regulator of the IFNγ network, Irf1; 2) suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and type I IFN and 3) induced autophagy. These compounds may represent a basis for macrophage-directed therapies that fine-tune macrophage effector functions to combat intracellular pathogens and reduce inflammatory tissue damage. These therapies would be especially relevant to fighting drug-resistant pathogens, where improving host immunity may prove to be the ultimate resource. PMID:27086720

  8. ''Fine tuning'' programmable pacemakers using the MUGA study

    SciTech Connect

    Videen, J.S.; Huang, S.K.; Bazgan, I.D.; Mechling, E.; Patton, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    Programmable pacemakers (PPM) can be programmed to sense, stimulate, or inhibit atrial (A) and/or ventricular (V) electrical activity, and include variable A-V delays and other options. Selecting the optimum combination of settings for an individual patient can be a formidable task in the absence of noninvasive, objective, quantifiable measures of cardiac function. The authors attempt to determine whether the MUGA study could be adapted to such a task. MUGA studies were performed on 13 patients (pts) with PPM who had varying degrees of A-V block, during various settings of the PPM's. Studies were carried out 5-10 min. after pacing mode and A-V delay were changed, with the pt resting and supine. All 5 MUGA studies were carried out after a single injection of Tc-99m labeled autologous red blood cells. The results show that the VDD mode brings about a higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and cardiac output (CO) than the DVI mode, and that either of these dual-chamber pacing modes produces a higher LVEF and CO than single-chamber pacing (VVI). Furthermore, a longer A-V delay was shown to improve LVEF and CO in patients with initially low LVEF. The MUGA study is simple, noninvasive, objective, and quantifiable, and can easily be repeated several times following a single injection. It can be used to ''fine tune'' programmable pacemakers for optimum hemodynamic performance.

  9. Pentagone internalises glypicans to fine-tune multiple signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Mark; Vuilleumier, Robin; Springhorn, Alexander; Gawlik, Jennifer; Pyrowolakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Tight regulation of signalling activity is crucial for proper tissue patterning and growth. Here we investigate the function of Pentagone (Pent), a secreted protein that acts in a regulatory feedback during establishment and maintenance of BMP/Dpp morphogen signalling during Drosophila wing development. We show that Pent internalises the Dpp co-receptors, the glypicans Dally and Dally-like protein (Dlp), and propose that this internalisation is important in the establishment of a long range Dpp gradient. Pent-induced endocytosis and degradation of glypicans requires dynamin- and Rab5, but not clathrin or active BMP signalling. Thus, Pent modifies the ability of cells to trap and transduce BMP by fine-tuning the levels of the BMP reception system at the plasma membrane. In addition, and in accordance with the role of glypicans in multiple signalling pathways, we establish a requirement of Pent for Wg signalling. Our data propose a novel mechanism by which morphogen signalling is regulated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13301.001 PMID:27269283

  10. SUSY models under siege: LHC constraints and electroweak fine-tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Mickelson, Dan; Padeffke-Kirkland, Maren

    2014-06-01

    Recent null results from LHC8 supersymmetry (SUSY) searches along with the discovery of a standard model (SM)-like Higgs boson with mass mh≃125.5 GeV indicates sparticle masses in the TeV range, causing tension with conventional measures of electroweak fine-tuning. We propose a simple fine-tuning rule which should be followed under any credible evaluation of fine-tuning. We believe that overestimates of electroweak fine-tuning by conventional measures all arise from violations of this rule. We show that to gain accord with the fine-tuning rule, then both the Higgs mass and the traditional ΔBG fine-tuning measures reduce to the model-independent electroweak fine-tuning measure ΔEW. This occurs by combining dependent contributions to mZ or mh into independent units. Then, using ΔEW, we evaluate EW fine-tuning for a variety of SUSY models including mSUGRA, NUHM1, NUHM2, mGMSB, mAMSB, hyper-charged AMSB, gaugino AMSB and nine cases of mixed moduli-anomaly (mirage) mediated SUSY breaking models while respecting LHC Higgs mass and B-decay constraints (we do not impose LHC8 sparticle mass constraints due to the possibility of compressed spectra within many of these models). We find mSUGRA, mGMSB and the AMSB models all to be highly fine-tuned. The NUHM1 model is moderately fine-tuned while NUHM2 which allows for radiatively driven naturalness (RNS) allows for fine-tuning at a meager 10% level in the case where m(Higgsinos)˜100-200 GeV and the TeV-scale top squarks are well mixed. Models with RNS may or may not be detectable at LHC14. A √s ˜500 GeV e+e- collider will be required to make a definitive search for the requisite light Higgsinos.

  11. Reducing the fine-tuning of gauge-mediated SUSY breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, J. Alberto; Moreno, Jesús M.; Robles, Sandra; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    Despite their appealing features, models with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) typically present a high degree of fine-tuning, due to the initial absence of the top trilinear scalar couplings, A_t=0. In this paper, we carefully evaluate such a tuning, showing that is worse than per mil in the minimal model. Then, we examine some existing proposals to generate A_t≠ 0 term in this context. We find that, although the stops can be made lighter, usually the tuning does not improve (it may be even worse), with some exceptions, which involve the generation of A_t at one loop or tree level. We examine both possibilities and propose a conceptually simplified version of the latter; which is arguably the optimum GMSB setup (with minimal matter content), concerning the fine-tuning issue. The resulting fine-tuning is better than one per mil, still severe but similar to other minimal supersymmetric standard model constructions. We also explore the so-called "little A_t^2/m^2 problem", i.e. the fact that a large A_t-term is normally accompanied by a similar or larger sfermion mass, which typically implies an increase in the fine-tuning. Finally, we find the version of GMSB for which this ratio is optimized, which, nevertheless, does not minimize the fine-tuning.

  12. Tuning the Spring Constant of Cantilever-free Probe Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Brown, Keith A.; Boya, Radha; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2013-03-01

    The versatility of atomic force microscope (AFM) based techniques such as scanning probe lithography is due in part to the utilization of a cantilever that can be fabricated to match a desired application. In contrast, cantilever-free scanning probe lithography utilizes a low cost array of probes on a compliant backing layer that allows for high throughput nanofabrication but lacks the tailorability afforded by the cantilever in traditional AFM. Here, we present a method to measure and tune the spring constant of probes in a cantilever-free array by adjusting the mechanical properties of the underlying elastomeric layer. Using this technique, we are able to fabricate large-area silicon probe arrays with spring constants that can be tuned in the range from 7 to 150 N/m. This technique offers an advantage in that the spring constant depends linearly on the geometry of the probe, which is in contrast to traditional cantilever-based lithography where the spring constant varies as the cube of the beam width and thickness. To illustrate the benefit of utilizing a probe array with a lower spring constant, we pattern a block copolymer on a delicate 50 nm thick silicon nitride window.

  13. Fine-tuned Bee-Flower Coevolutionary State Hidden within Multiple Pollination Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Akira; Dohzono, Ikumi; Nakaji, Masayoshi; Roff, Derek A.; Miller III, Donald G.; Osato, Sara; Yajima, Takuya; Niitsu, Shûhei; Utsugi, Nozomu; Sugawara, Takashi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between flowers and pollinators are generally considered cases of mutualism since both agents gain benefits. Fine-tuned adaptations are usually found in the form of strict one-to-one coevolution between species. Many insect pollinators are, however, considered generalists, visiting numerous kinds of flowers, and many flower species (angiosperms) are also considered generalists, visited by many insect pollinators. We here describe a fine-tuned coevolutionary state of a flower-visiting bee that collects both nectar and pollen from an early spring flower visited by multiple pollinators. Detailed morphology of the bee proboscis is shown to be finely adjusted to the floral morphology and nectar production of the flower. Behavioral observations also confirm the precision of this mutualism. Our results suggest that a fine-tuned one-to-one coevolutionary state between a flower species and a pollinator species might be common, but frequently overlooked, in multiple flower-pollinator interactions. PMID:24496444

  14. Fine-tuning in GGM and the 126 GeV Higgs particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we reanalyze the issue of fine-tuning in supersymmetric models which feature Generalized Gauge Mediation (GGM) in the light of recent measurement of the mass of the light Higgs particle and taking into account available data on the value of the muon magnetic moment {g_{μ }}-2 . We consider GGM models with 3, 5 and 6 input parameters and reduce the fine-tuning by assuming simple relations between them at the high scale. We are able to find solutions which give the correct value of the light Higgs mass and are less fine-tuned than models with standard gauge mediation (and with gravity mediation), however one never finds fine-tung measure lower than about 102 if one neglects the data on {g_{μ }}-2 and and about four times more if one takes the constraint given by {g_{μ }}-2 into account. In general the current {g_{μ }}-2 data push the models towards the high fine-tuning region. It is interesting to note, that once one removes the contributions to the finetuning induced by μ and B μ , then in the case with neglected {g_{μ }}-2 constraint one can easily find realistic vacua with fine-tuning of order 1 or lower, while the fine-tung remains always large when the {g_{μ }}-2 constraint is enforced. One should note, that in the last case even a small shift of the light Higgs mass towards smaller values both reduces fine-tuning and helps to improve agreement of a model with {g_{μ }}-2 data.

  15. Localized electrical fine tuning of passive microwave and radio frequency devices

    DOEpatents

    Findikoglu, Alp T.

    2001-04-10

    A method and apparatus for the localized electrical fine tuning of passive multiple element microwave or RF devices in which a nonlinear dielectric material is deposited onto predetermined areas of a substrate containing the device. An appropriate electrically conductive material is deposited over predetermined areas of the nonlinear dielectric and the signal line of the device for providing electrical contact with the nonlinear dielectric. Individual, adjustable bias voltages are applied to the electrically conductive material allowing localized electrical fine tuning of the devices. The method of the present invention can be applied to manufactured devices, or can be incorporated into the design of the devices so that it is applied at the time the devices are manufactured. The invention can be configured to provide localized fine tuning for devices including but not limited to coplanar waveguides, slotline devices, stripline devices, and microstrip devices.

  16. A low-phase-noise ring oscillator with coarse and fine tuning in a standard CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijun, Gao; Lingling, Sun; Xiaofei, Kuang; Liheng, Lou

    2012-07-01

    A low-phase-noise wideband ring oscillator with coarse and fine tuning techniques implemented in a standard 65 nm CMOS process is presented. Direct frequency modulation in the ring oscillator is analyzed and a switched capacitor array is introduced to produce the lower VCO gain required to suppress this effect. A two-dimensional high-density stacked MOM-capacitor was adopted as the switched capacitor to make the proposed ring VCO compatible with standard CMOS processes. The designed ring VCO exhibits an output frequency from 480 to 1100 MHz, resulting in a tuning range of 78%, and the measured phase noise is -120 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz at 495 MHz output. The VCO core consumes 3.84 mW under a 1.2 V supply voltage and the corresponding FOM is -169 dBc/Hz.

  17. Fine-Tuning Language Policy in Hong Kong Education: Stakeholders' Perceptions, Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jim Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the impact of the fine-tuning medium of instruction (MOI) policy in Hong Kong in the early stages of its implementation. It explores the key stakeholders' perspectives on a school-based policy via a case study, which gathered multiple sources of qualitative data (i.e. focus groups/interviews, open-ended questionnaires,…

  18. Fine-tuning criteria for inflation and the search for primordial gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Simeon; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard

    2008-10-15

    We revisit arguments that simple models of inflation with a small red tilt in the scalar power spectrum generically yield an observable tensor spectrum. We show that criteria for fine-tuning based upon the algebraic simplicity of the potential depend strongly upon the explicit assumptions they incorporate, particularly regarding the end of inflation. In addition, some models with algebraically simple potentials require carefully tuned initial field configurations, and not all types of fine-tuning are identifiable via the algebraic simplicity of the potential. Conversely, in the absence of a strong prior on the mechanism that ends inflation, we demonstrate the existence of potentials with vanishingly small tensor amplitudes which are natural in terms of both their algebraic form and initial conditions. We thus argue that proposed experiments (CMBPol or BBO) which make highly sensitive measurements of the tensor amplitude cannot definitively rule out the inflationary paradigm.

  19. Emission wavelength tuning of fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance

    PubMed Central

    Moritake, Y.; Kanamori, Y.; Hane, K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated fine emission wavelength tuning of quantum dot (QD) fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance. An asymmetric-double-bar (ADB), which was composed of only two bars with slightly different bar lengths, was used to obtain Fano resonance in the optical region. By changing the short bar length of ADB structures with high dimensional accuracy in the order of 10 nm, resonant wavelengths of Fano resonance were controlled from 1296 to 1416 nm. Fluorescence of QDs embedded in a polymer layer on ADB metamaterials were modified due to coupling to Fano resonance and fine tuning from 1350 to 1376 nm was observed. Wavelength tuning of modified fluorescence was reproduced by analysis using absorption peaks of Fano resonance. Tuning range of modified fluorescence became narrow, which was interpreted by a simple Gaussian model and resulted from comparable FWHM in QD fluorescence and Fano resonant peaks. The results will help the design and fabrication of metamaterial devices with fluorophores such as light sources and biomarkers. PMID:27622503

  20. An Undecanuclear Ferrimagnetic Cu9Dy2 Single Molecule Magnet Achieved through Ligand Fine-Tuning.

    PubMed

    Kühne, Irina A; Kostakis, George E; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2016-05-02

    We describe the concept of increasing the nuclearity of a previously reported high-spin Cu5Gd2 core using a "fine-tuning" ligand approach. Thus, two Cu9Ln2 coordination clusters, with Ln = Dy (1) and Gd (2), were synthesized with the Gd compound having a ground spin state of (17)/2 and the Dy analogue showing single-molecule-magnet behavior in zero field.

  1. Post-fabrication fine-tuning of photonic crystal quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartner, S.; Kalchmair, S.; Andrews, A. M.; Klang, P.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.

    2009-06-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) devices require high fabrication accuracy for on demand positioning of resonances. We describe post-fabrication fine-tuning of a PC quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) by sidewall-deposition of silicon nitride. The PC resonance was shifted over a bandwidth of 43 cm-1. From photoresponse measurements we calculated a tuning coefficient of ∂ν/∂dSiN=-0.06 cm-1/nm. The QWIP responsivity did not suffer from nitride absorption while the PC resonance increased by a factor of 1.6. This shows that post-fabrication tuning by dielectric deposition with, e.g., silicon nitride is a feasible method to achieve precise implementations of PC devices.

  2. Fine-tuning of magnetic and microfluidic viscous forces for specific magnetic bead-based immunocomplex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, M.; Tekin, H. C.; Lehnert, T.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the working principle of a novel type of microfluidic sandwich immunoassay, as used for the detection of biomarkers. The heterogeneous assay is based on the specific interactions between an array of functionalized superparamagnetic beads and a flow of secondary superparamagnetic beads that carry the antigens and are simultaneously used as detection labels. We identify the main forces governing the immunoassay performance and develop a combined finite element method/analytical model to predict and control these forces. The clue for the improved assay specificity is in the fine-tuning of inter-bead magnetic dipolar and microfluidic viscous forces, which allows strongly reducing non-specific interactions, while enhancing the specific formation of immunocomplexes. We exploit our theoretical model to explain the enhanced sensitivity of magnetic bead-based immunoassay experiments performed in microfluidic chips.

  3. Controlling the fine-tuning problem with singlet scalar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indrani; Kundu, Anirban

    2013-03-01

    Assuming that no other conventional new physics is found immediately at the LHC, we investigate how just the consistent solution of the scalar mass hierarchy problem points towards the minimal necessary field content. We show that to ameliorate the fine-tuning problem, one needs to introduce more scalar degrees of freedom. The simplest solution is one or more real singlets (with the possibility of combining two of them in a complex singlet), which may act as viable cold dark matter candidates, because the constraints on the scalar potential disfavor any mixing between the new scalar(s) with the SM doublet. Furthermore, the fine-tuning problem of the new scalars necessitates the introduction of vectorlike fermions. Thus, singlet scalar(s) and vector fermions are minimal enhancements over the Standard Model to alleviate the fine-tuning problem. We also show that the model predicts Landau poles for all the scalar couplings, whose positions depend only on the number of such singlets. Thus, introduction of some new physics at that scale becomes inevitable. We also discuss how the model confronts the LHC constraints and the latest XENON100 data.

  4. How conventional measures overestimate electroweak fine-tuning in supersymmetric theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Mickelson, Dan

    2013-11-01

    The lack of evidence for superparticles at the CERN LHC, along with the rather high value of the Higgs boson mass, has sharpened the perception that what remains of supersymmetric model parameter space suffers a high degree of electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT). We compare three different measures of fine-tuning in supersymmetric models. First, ΔHS measures a subset of terms containing large log contributions to mZ (and mh) that are inevitable in models defined at scales much higher than the electroweak scale. Second, the traditional ΔBG measures fractional variation in mZ against fractional variation of model parameters and allows for correlations among high scale parameters which are not included in ΔHS. Third, the model-independent ΔEW measures how naturally a model can generate the measured value of mZ=91.2GeV (or mh) in terms of weak scale parameters alone. We hypothesize an overarching ultimate theory (UTH) wherein the high scale soft terms are all correlated. The UTH might be contained within the more general effective supersymmetry theories which are popular in the literature. In the case of ΔHS, EWFT can be grossly overestimated by neglecting additional nonindependent terms which lead to large cancellations. In the case of ΔBG, EWFT can be overestimated by applying the measure to the effective theories instead of to the UTH. The measure ΔEW allows for the possibility of parameter correlations which should be present in the UTH and, since it is model independent, provides the same value of EWFT for the effective theories as should occur for the UTH. We find that the well-known minimal supergravity model/constrained minimal supersymmetric model is fine-tuned under all three measures so that it is unlikely to contain the UTH. The nonuniversal Higgs model NUHM2 appears fine-tuned with ΔHS,BG≳103. But since ΔEW can be as small as 7 (corresponding to 14% fine-tuning), it may contain the UTH for parameter ranges which allow for low true EWFT.

  5. Maskless lithography using point array technique for fine patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ohta, Eiji; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tachikawa, Masahiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Nishimoto, Nirou

    2015-07-01

    We made a steady progress in designing a maskless exposure system using the point array technique. An epoch-making high-resolution maskless lithography system with resolution of less than 1 micron half-pitch has been developed. Exposure results indicated that patterns were resolved up to 0.8 microns half-pitch. Smooth edges of the photoresist for various directions were also confirmed. It is distinctive characteristics of the point array technique. Another merit is coexistence of high resolution and high throughput. 4 inches wafers used in this evaluation were exposed within 30 minutes. Therefore, we consider that tact time of manufacturing a photomask can be shortened drastically. Finally we have challenged to apply an annular stop to our new projection optics system in order to achieve further improvement of optical performance. However, we confirmed that a sidelobe of optical spots, which became stronger by using the annular stop, exerted an undesirable influence upon imaging for fine patterns. Consequently, it became clear that suppressing the sidelobe as well as narrowing the mainlobe of optical spots is important for microlithography using the point array technique.

  6. Fine-tuning with brane-localized flux in 6D supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2016-02-01

    There are claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem could be solved in a braneworld model with two large (micron-sized) supersymmetric extra dimensions. The mechanism relies on two basic ingredients: first, the cosmological constant only curves the compact bulk geometry into a rugby shape while the 4D curvature stays flat. Second, a brane-localized flux term is introduced in order to circumvent Weinberg's fine-tuning argument, which otherwise enters here through a backdoor via the flux quantization condition. In this paper, we show that the latter mechanism does not work in the way it was designed: the only localized flux coupling that guarantees a flat on-brane geometry is one which preserves the scale invariance of the bulk theory. Consequently, Weinberg's argument applies, making a fine-tuning necessary again. The only remaining window of opportunity lies within scale invariance breaking brane couplings, for which the tuning could be avoided. Whether the corresponding 4D curvature could be kept under control and in agreement with the observed value will be answered in our companion paper [1].

  7. Fine-Tuning the Properties of Doped Multifunctional Materials by Controlled Reduction of Dopants.

    PubMed

    Barroux, Hugo; Jiang, Tengfei; Paul, Camille; Massuyeau, Florian; Génois, Romain; Gordon, Elijah E; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Jobic, Stéphane; Gautier, Romain

    2017-03-02

    The physical properties of doped multifunctional compounds are commonly tuned by controlling the amount of dopants, but this control is limited because all the properties are influenced simultaneously by this single parameter. Here, we present a strategy that enables the fine-tuning of a specific combination of properties by controlling the reduction of dopants. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by optimizing the near-IR photoluminescence of strontium titanate SrTiO3 :Ni for potential applications in biomedicine for a range of absorbance in the visible/near-IR region. We discussed how material properties, such as luminescence, conductivity, or photocatalytic properties can be designed by carefully controlling the ratio of dopants in different oxidation states.

  8. Fine-tuning and vacuum stability in the Wilsonian effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Tomasz; Lalak, Zygmunt

    2015-10-01

    We have computed the Wilsonian effective action in a simple model with a spontaneously broken chiral parity. The Wilsonian running of relevant parameters makes it possible to discuss in a consistent manner the issues of fine-tuning and the stability of the scalar potential. This has been compared with the standard picture based on a Gell-Mann-Low running. Since the Wilsonian running automatically includes integration of heavy degrees of freedom, the running differs markedly from the Gell-Mann-Low version. Similar behavior can be observed: the scalar mass-squared parameter and the quartic coupling can change sign from a positive to a negative one, due to the running which causes a spontaneous symmetry breaking or an instability in the renormalizable part of the potential for a given range of scales. However, care must be taken when drawing conclusions, because of the truncation of higher-dimension operators. Taking the scalar field's amplitude near the cutoff Λ may cancel the suppression due to the scale, and only the suppression due to small couplings partially justifies the truncation in this region. Also, when taking the cutoff higher, to include larger amplitudes of the fields, the higher-order irrelevant operators, whose coefficients grow with the scale, may affect the conclusion about the stability. The Gell-Mann-Low running allows one to resume relatively easily a class of operators corresponding to large logarithms to the form of the renormalization group equation improved effective potential which is valid over a huge range of scales. In the Wilsonian approach this would correspond to following the running of a large number of irrelevant operators, which is technically problematic. As for the issue of the fine-tuning, since in the Wilsonian approach power-law terms are not subtracted, one can clearly observe the quadratic sensitivity of a fine-tuning measure to the change of the cutoff scale. The Wilsonian version of the radiative symmetry

  9. An Ensemble of Fine-Tuned Convolutional Neural Networks for Medical Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashnil; Kim, Jinman; Lyndon, David; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2017-01-01

    The availability of medical imaging data from clinical archives, research literature, and clinical manuals, coupled with recent advances in computer vision offer the opportunity for image-based diagnosis, teaching, and biomedical research. However, the content and semantics of an image can vary depending on its modality and as such the identification of image modality is an important preliminary step. The key challenge for automatically classifying the modality of a medical image is due to the visual characteristics of different modalities: some are visually distinct while others may have only subtle differences. This challenge is compounded by variations in the appearance of images based on the diseases depicted and a lack of sufficient training data for some modalities. In this paper, we introduce a new method for classifying medical images that uses an ensemble of different convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. CNNs are a state-of-the-art image classification technique that learns the optimal image features for a given classification task. We hypothesise that different CNN architectures learn different levels of semantic image representation and thus an ensemble of CNNs will enable higher quality features to be extracted. Our method develops a new feature extractor by fine-tuning CNNs that have been initialized on a large dataset of natural images. The fine-tuning process leverages the generic image features from natural images that are fundamental for all images and optimizes them for the variety of medical imaging modalities. These features are used to train numerous multiclass classifiers whose posterior probabilities are fused to predict the modalities of unseen images. Our experiments on the ImageCLEF 2016 medical image public dataset (30 modalities; 6776 training images, and 4166 test images) show that our ensemble of fine-tuned CNNs achieves a higher accuracy than established CNNs. Our ensemble also achieves a higher accuracy than methods in

  10. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Interacting Proteins: Fine-Tuning Receptor Functions in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Francesconi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors mediate slow excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and are critical to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, a cellular substrate of learning and memory. Dysregulated receptor signaling is implicated in neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from neurodevelopmental to neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling functions can be modulated by interacting proteins that mediate receptor trafficking, expression and coupling efficiency to signaling effectors. These interactions afford cell- or pathway-specific modulation to fine-tune receptor function, thus representing a potential target for pharmacological interventions in pathological conditions. PMID:27296642

  11. Adiponectin fine-tuning of liver regeneration dynamics revealed through cellular network modeling.

    PubMed

    Correnti, Jason M; Cook, Daniel; Aksamitiene, Edita; Swarup, Aditi; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Hoek, Jan B

    2014-11-10

    Following partial hepatectomy, the liver initiates a regenerative program involving hepatocyte priming and replication driven by coordinated cytokine and growth factor actions. We investigated the mechanisms underlying Adiponectin's (Adn) regulation of liver regeneration through modulation of these mediators. Adn-/- mice showed delayed onset of hepatocyte replication, but accelerated cell cycle progression relative to wild-type mice, suggesting Adn has multiple effects fine-tuning the kinetics of liver regeneration. We developed a computational model describing the molecular and physiological kinetics of liver regeneration in Adn-/- mice. We employed this computational model to evaluate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Our analysis predicted that Adn is required for an efficient early cytokine response to partial hepatectomy, but is inhibitory to later growth factor actions. Consistent with this prediction, Adn knockout reduced hepatocyte responses to IL-6 during the priming phase, but enhanced growth factor levels through peak hepatocyte replication. By contrast, supraphysiological concentrations of Adn resulting from rosiglitazone treatment suppressed regeneration by reducing growth factor levels during S phase, consistent with computational predictions. Together, these results revealed that Adn fine-tunes the progression of liver regeneration through dynamically modulating molecular mediator networks and cellular interactions within the liver. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Adiponectin fine-tuning of liver regeneration dynamics revealed through cellular network modelling.

    PubMed

    Correnti, Jason M; Cook, Daniel; Aksamitiene, Edita; Swarup, Aditi; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Hoek, Jan B

    2015-01-15

    Following partial hepatectomy, the liver initiates a regenerative programme involving hepatocyte priming and replication driven by the coordinated actions of cytokine and growth factors. We investigated the mechanisms underlying adiponectin's (Adn) regulation of liver regeneration through modulation of these mediators. Adn(-/-) mice showed delayed onset of hepatocyte replication, but accelerated cell cycle progression relative to wild-type mice, suggesting Adn has multiple effects fine-tuning the kinetics of liver regeneration. We developed a computational model describing the molecular and physiological kinetics of liver regeneration in Adn(-/-) mice. We employed this computational model to evaluate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Our analysis predicted that Adn is required for an efficient early cytokine response to partial hepatectomy, but is inhibitory to later growth factor actions. Consistent with this prediction, Adn knockout reduced hepatocyte responses to interleukin-6 during the priming phase, but enhanced growth factor levels through peak hepatocyte replication. By contrast, supraphysiological concentrations of Adn resulting from rosiglitazone treatment suppressed regeneration by reducing growth factor levels during S phase, consistent with computational predictions. Together, these results revealed that Adn fine-tunes the progression of liver regeneration through dynamically modulating molecular mediator networks and cellular interactions within the liver.

  13. Anthropic Reasoning about Fine-Tuning, and Neoclassical Cosmology: Providence, Omnipresence, and Observation Selection Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropic reasoning about observation selection effects upon the appearance of cosmic providential fine-tuning (fine-tuning that provides for life) is often motivated by a desire to avoid theological implications (implications favoring the idea of a divine cosmic provider) without appealing to sheer lucky-for-us-cosmic-jackpot happenstance and coincidence. Cosmic coincidence can be rendered less incredible by appealing to a multiverse context. Cosmic providence can be rendered non-theological by appealing to an agent-less providential purpose, or by appealing to less-than-omnipresent/local providers, such as alien intelligences creating life- providing baby universes. Instead of choosing either cosmic coincidence or cosmic providence, as though they were mutually exclusive; it is better to accept both. Neoclassical thought accepts coincidence and providence, plus many local providers and one omnipresent provider. Moreover, fundamental observation selection theory should distinguish the many local observers of some events from the one omnipresent observer of all events. Accepting both coincidence and providence avoids classical theology (providence without coincidence) and classical atheism (coincidence without providence), but not neoclassical theology (providence with coincidence). Cosmology cannot avoid the idea of an all-inclusive omnipresent providential dice-throwing living-creative whole of reality, an idea essential to neoclassical theology, and to neoclassical cosmology.

  14. Nonparametric Fine Tuning of Mixtures: Application to Non-Life Insurance Claims Distribution Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardet, Laure; Patilea, Valentin

    When pricing a specific insurance premium, actuary needs to evaluate the claims cost distribution for the warranty. Traditional actuarial methods use parametric specifications to model claims distribution, like lognormal, Weibull and Pareto laws. Mixtures of such distributions allow to improve the flexibility of the parametric approach and seem to be quite well-adapted to capture the skewness, the long tails as well as the unobserved heterogeneity among the claims. In this paper, instead of looking for a finely tuned mixture with many components, we choose a parsimonious mixture modeling, typically a two or three-component mixture. Next, we use the mixture cumulative distribution function (CDF) to transform data into the unit interval where we apply a beta-kernel smoothing procedure. A bandwidth rule adapted to our methodology is proposed. Finally, the beta-kernel density estimate is back-transformed to recover an estimate of the original claims density. The beta-kernel smoothing provides an automatic fine-tuning of the parsimonious mixture and thus avoids inference in more complex mixture models with many parameters. We investigate the empirical performance of the new method in the estimation of the quantiles with simulated nonnegative data and the quantiles of the individual claims distribution in a non-life insurance application.

  15. Bandgap tuning of silicon nanowire arrays for application to all-silicon tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Yano, Mitsugu; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Yamada, Akira

    2017-04-01

    To reduce the diameter of silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for bandgap tuning, a diameter reduction (DR) process incorporating H3PO4 oxidation and HF etching was conducted for SiNW arrays with a diameter of 30 nm and a length of 15 µm. After the DR process, the diameter of SiNW arrays around the tip was successfully reduced to below 10 nm. From the cathode luminescence measurement, the bandgap around the tip of SiNW arrays was estimated to be 1.2 eV, suggesting that bandgap widening occurred owing to the quantum size effect.

  16. A voltage-dependent chloride channel fine-tunes photosynthesis in plants

    PubMed Central

    Herdean, Andrei; Teardo, Enrico; Nilsson, Anders K.; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Johansson, Oskar N.; Ünnep, Renáta; Nagy, Gergely; Zsiros, Ottó; Dana, Somnath; Solymosi, Katalin; Garab, Győző; Szabó, Ildikó; Spetea, Cornelia; Lundin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    In natural habitats, plants frequently experience rapid changes in the intensity of sunlight. To cope with these changes and maximize growth, plants adjust photosynthetic light utilization in electron transport and photoprotective mechanisms. This involves a proton motive force (PMF) across the thylakoid membrane, postulated to be affected by unknown anion (Cl−) channels. Here we report that a bestrophin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana functions as a voltage-dependent Cl− channel in electrophysiological experiments. AtVCCN1 localizes to the thylakoid membrane, and fine-tunes PMF by anion influx into the lumen during illumination, adjusting electron transport and the photoprotective mechanisms. The activity of AtVCCN1 accelerates the activation of photoprotective mechanisms on sudden shifts to high light. Our results reveal that AtVCCN1, a member of a conserved anion channel family, acts as an early component in the rapid adjustment of photosynthesis in variable light environments. PMID:27216227

  17. viral silencing suppressors: Tools forged to fine-tune host-pathogen coexistence.

    PubMed

    Csorba, Tibor; Kontra, Levente; Burgyán, József

    2015-05-01

    RNA silencing is a homology-dependent gene inactivation mechanism that regulates a wide range of biological processes including antiviral defense. To deal with host antiviral responses viruses evolved mechanisms to avoid or counteract this, most notably through expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Besides working as silencing suppressors, these proteins may also fulfill other functions during infection. In many cases the interplay between the suppressor function and other "unrelated" functions remains elusive. We will present host factors implicated in antiviral pathways and summarize the current status of knowledge about the diverse viral suppressors' strategies acting at various steps of antiviral silencing in plants. Besides, we will consider the multi-functionality of these versatile proteins and related biochemical processes in which they may be involved in fine-tuning the plant-virus interaction. Finally, we will present the current applications and discuss perspectives of the use of these proteins in molecular biology and biotechnology.

  18. How SUMOylation Fine-Tunes the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kate E.; Huang, Tony T.

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare human genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects, bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition, primarily due to a deficiency in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). ICL repair through the FA DNA repair pathway is a complicated multi-step process, involving at least 19 FANC proteins and coordination of multiple DNA repair activities, including homologous recombination, nucleotide excision repair and translesion synthesis (TLS). SUMOylation is a critical regulator of several DNA repair pathways, however, the role of this modification in controlling the FA pathway is poorly understood. Here, we summarize recent advances in the fine-tuning of the FA pathway by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) and other SUMO-related interactions, and discuss the implications of these findings in the design of novel therapeutics for alleviating FA-associated condition, including cancer. PMID:27148358

  19. Fine-tuning by strigolactones of root response to low phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2016-03-01

    Strigolactones are plant hormones that regulate the development of different plant parts. In the shoot, they regulate axillary bud outgrowth and in the root, root architecture and root-hair length and density. Strigolactones are also involved with communication in the rhizosphere, including enhancement of hyphal branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we present the role and activity of strigolactones under conditions of phosphate deprivation. Under these conditions, their levels of biosynthesis and exudation increase, leading to changes in shoot and root development. At least for the latter, these changes are likely to be associated with alterations in auxin transport and sensitivity. On the other hand, strigolactones may positively affect plant-mycorrhiza interactions and thereby promote phosphate acquisition by the plant. Strigolactones may be a way for plants to fine-tune their growth pattern under phosphate deprivation.

  20. Zipf's Law and Criticality in Multivariate Data without Fine-Tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David J.; Nemenman, Ilya; Mehta, Pankaj

    2014-08-01

    The joint probability distribution of states of many degrees of freedom in biological systems, such as firing patterns in neural networks or antibody sequence compositions, often follows Zipf's law, where a power law is observed on a rank-frequency plot. This behavior has been shown to imply that these systems reside near a unique critical point where the extensive parts of the entropy and energy are exactly equal. Here, we show analytically, and via numerical simulations, that Zipf-like probability distributions arise naturally if there is a fluctuating unobserved variable (or variables) that affects the system, such as a common input stimulus that causes individual neurons to fire at time-varying rates. In statistics and machine learning, these are called latent-variable or mixture models. We show that Zipf's law arises generically for large systems, without fine-tuning parameters to a point. Our work gives insight into the ubiquity of Zipf's law in a wide range of systems.

  1. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-07-07

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land.

  2. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-01-01

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land. PMID:27383663

  3. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-07-01

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land.

  4. Lorentz invariance and quantum gravity: an additional fine-tuning problem?

    PubMed

    Collins, John; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel; Urrutia, Luis; Vucetich, Héctor

    2004-11-05

    Trying to combine standard quantum field theories with gravity leads to a breakdown of the usual structure of space time at around the Planck length, 1.6x10(-35) m, with possible violations of Lorentz invariance. Calculations of preferred-frame effects in quantum gravity have further motivated high precision searches for Lorentz violation. Here, we explain that combining known elementary particle interactions with a Planck-scale preferred frame gives rise to Lorentz violation at the percent level, some 20 orders of magnitude higher than earlier estimates, unless the bare parameters of the theory are unnaturally strongly fine tuned. Therefore an important task is not just the improvement of the precision of searches for violations of Lorentz invariance, but also the search for theoretical mechanisms for automatically preserving Lorentz invariance.

  5. Spectral Fine Tuning of Cyanine Dyes: Electron Donor-Acceptor Substituted Analogues of Thiazole Orange†

    PubMed Central

    Rastede, Elizabeth E.; Tanha, Matteus; Yaron, David; Watkins, Simon C.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Armitage, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of electron donor and acceptor groups at strategic locations on a fluorogenic cyanine dye allows fine-tuning of the absorption and emission spectra while preserving the ability of the dye to bind to biomolecular hosts such as double-stranded DNA and a single-chain antibody fragment originally selected for binding to the parent unsubstituted dye, thiazole orange (TO). The observed spectral shifts are consistent with calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and reflect electron density localization on the quinoline half of TO in the LUMO. A dye bearing donating methoxy and withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups on the benzothiazole and quinoline rings, respectively, shifts the absorption spectrum to sufficiently longer wavelengths to allow excitation at green wavelengths as opposed to the parent dye, which is optimally excited in the blue. PMID:26171668

  6. Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster: epigenetic fine-tuning of chromosome-wide transcription.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2012-01-18

    Dosage compensation is an epigenetic mechanism that normalizes gene expression from unequal copy numbers of sex chromosomes. Different organisms have evolved alternative molecular solutions to this task. In Drosophila melanogaster, transcription of the single male X chromosome is upregulated by twofold in a process orchestrated by the dosage compensation complex. Despite this conceptual simplicity, dosage compensation involves multiple coordinated steps to recognize and activate the entire X chromosome. We are only beginning to understand the intriguing interplay between multiple levels of local and long-range chromatin regulation required for the fine-tuned transcriptional activation of a heterogeneous gene population. This Review highlights the known facts and open questions of dosage compensation in D. melanogaster.

  7. Synthetic Core Promoters as Universal Parts for Fine-Tuning Expression in Different Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering experiments frequently require the fine-tuning of gene expression to balance and optimize protein levels of regulators or metabolic enzymes. A key concept of synthetic biology is the development of modular parts that can be used in different contexts. Here, we have applied a computational multifactor design approach to generate de novo synthetic core promoters and 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) for yeast cells. In contrast to upstream cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), core promoters are typically not subject to specific regulation, making them ideal engineering targets for gene expression fine-tuning. 112 synthetic core promoter sequences were designed on the basis of the sequence/function relationship of natural core promoters, nucleosome occupancy and the presence of short motifs. The synthetic core promoters were fused to the Pichia pastoris AOX1 CRM, and the resulting activity spanned more than a 200-fold range (0.3% to 70.6% of the wild type AOX1 level). The top-ten synthetic core promoters with highest activity were fused to six additional CRMs (three in P. pastoris and three in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Inducible CRM constructs showed significantly higher activity than constitutive CRMs, reaching up to 176% of natural core promoters. Comparing the activity of the same synthetic core promoters fused to different CRMs revealed high correlations only for CRMs within the same organism. These data suggest that modularity is maintained to some extent but only within the same organism. Due to the conserved role of eukaryotic core promoters, this rational design concept may be transferred to other organisms as a generic engineering tool. PMID:27973777

  8. Improved transgene expression fine-tuning in mammalian cells using a novel transcription-translation network.

    PubMed

    Malphettes, Laetitia; Fussenegger, Martin

    2006-08-05

    Following the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) and related phenomena, novel regulatory processes, attributable to small non-protein-coding RNAs, continue to emerge. Capitalizing on the ability of artificial short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to trigger degradation of specific target transcripts, and thereby silence desired gene expression, we designed and characterized a generic transcription-translation network in which it is possible to fine-tune heterologous protein production by coordinated transcription and translation interventions using macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics. Integration of siRNA-specific target sequences (TAGs) into the 5' or 3' untranslated regions (5'UTR, 3'UTR) of a desired constitutive transcription unit rendered transgene-encoded protein (erythropoietin, EPO; human placental alkaline phosphatase, SEAP; human vascular endothelial growth factor 121, VEGF(121)) production in mammalian cells responsive to siRNA levels that can be fine-tuned by macrolide-adjustable RNA polymerase II- or III-dependent promoters. Coupling of such macrolide-responsive siRNA-triggered translation control with tetracycline-responsive transcription of tagged transgene mRNAs created an antibiotic-adjustable two-input transcription-translation network characterized by elimination of detectable leaky expression with no reduction in maximum protein production levels. This transcription-translation network revealed transgene mRNA depletion to be dependent on siRNA and mRNA levels and that translation control was able to eliminate basal expression inherent to current transcription control modalities. Coupled transcription-translation circuitries have the potential to lead the way towards composite artificial regulatory networks, to enable complex therapeutic interventions in future biopharmaceutical manufacturing, gene therapy and tissue engineering initiatives.

  9. Synthetic Core Promoters as Universal Parts for Fine-Tuning Expression in Different Yeast Species.

    PubMed

    Portela, Rui M C; Vogl, Thomas; Kniely, Claudia; Fischer, Jasmin E; Oliveira, Rui; Glieder, Anton

    2017-03-17

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering experiments frequently require the fine-tuning of gene expression to balance and optimize protein levels of regulators or metabolic enzymes. A key concept of synthetic biology is the development of modular parts that can be used in different contexts. Here, we have applied a computational multifactor design approach to generate de novo synthetic core promoters and 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) for yeast cells. In contrast to upstream cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), core promoters are typically not subject to specific regulation, making them ideal engineering targets for gene expression fine-tuning. 112 synthetic core promoter sequences were designed on the basis of the sequence/function relationship of natural core promoters, nucleosome occupancy and the presence of short motifs. The synthetic core promoters were fused to the Pichia pastoris AOX1 CRM, and the resulting activity spanned more than a 200-fold range (0.3% to 70.6% of the wild type AOX1 level). The top-ten synthetic core promoters with highest activity were fused to six additional CRMs (three in P. pastoris and three in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Inducible CRM constructs showed significantly higher activity than constitutive CRMs, reaching up to 176% of natural core promoters. Comparing the activity of the same synthetic core promoters fused to different CRMs revealed high correlations only for CRMs within the same organism. These data suggest that modularity is maintained to some extent but only within the same organism. Due to the conserved role of eukaryotic core promoters, this rational design concept may be transferred to other organisms as a generic engineering tool.

  10. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results. PMID:28114354

  11. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, M M; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Wan Mahadi, Wan Nor Liza

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results.

  12. Finely tuning MOFs towards high-performance post-combustion CO2 capture materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Bai, Junfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Pan, Yi; You, Xiaozeng

    2016-01-11

    CO2 capture science and technology, particularly for the post-combustion CO2 capture, has become one of very important research fields, due to great concern of global warming. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with a unique feature of structural fine-tunability, unlike the traditional porous solid materials, can provide many and powerful platforms to explore high-performance adsorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture. Until now, several strategies for finely tuning MOF structures have been developed, in which either the larger quadrupole moment and polarizability of CO2 are considered: metal ion change (I), functional groups attachment (II) and functional group insertion (III), vary the electronic nature of the pore surface; or targeting the smaller kinetic diameter of CO2 over N2 is focused on: framework interpenetration (IV), ligand shortening (V) and coordination site shifting (VI) contract the pore size of frameworks to improve their CO2 capture properties. In this review, from the viewpoint of synthetic materials scientists/chemists, we would like to introduce and summarize these strategies based upon recent work published by other groups and ourselves.

  13. Firsthand in situ observation of active fine laser tuning by combining a temperature gradient and a CLC wedge cell structure.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Yun; Cha, Jihun

    2015-08-10

    In situ direct observation of the lasing process in a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) laser array using a CMOS camera was used to investigate discontinuous laser tuning in a parallel CLC cell. In accordance with the discontinuous pitch change by thermal energy transfer, at the same time the laser wavelength undergoes an immediate and discontinuous shift. And we found out the reason why the CLC phase has domain textures. And this work develops a simple active tunable laser array by forming a spatial temperature gradient along a wedge CLC cell. With this new strategy, only just about 7 nm laser tuning range at room temperature is extremely widened over the 105 nm wavelength range with about 0.2 nm tuning resolution. Furthermore, there is no aging effect because the employed CLC array has only one chiral molecular concentration. This strategy could be used in a practical CLC laser device application.

  14. Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy in Hong Kong: Acquisition of Language and Content-Based Subject Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Lau, Connie M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a dramatic decline in English standards over the past decade, the Hong Kong Government introduced the "Fine-tuning Medium of Instruction (MOI) policy" in 2010 to address the grievances arising from different sectors in the community. Integrating content and language has become popular in second/foreign language teaching in recent…

  15. Automated tuning of an eight-channel cardiac transceive array at 7 tesla using piezoelectric actuators

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Graeme A; Rodgers, Christopher T; Hess, Aaron T; Snyder, Carl J; Vaughan, J Thomas; Robson, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ultra-high field (UHF) MR scanning in the body requires novel coil designs due to B1 field inhomogeneities. In the transverse electromagnetic field (TEM) design, maximum B1 transmit power can only be achieved if each individual transmit element is tuned and matched for different coil loads, which requires a considerable amount of valuable scanner time. Methods An integrated system for autotuning a multichannel parallel transmit (pTx) cardiac TEM array was devised, using piezoelectric actuators, power monitoring equipment and control software. The reproducibility and performance of the system were tested and the power responses of the coil elements were profiled. An automated optimization method was devised and evaluated. Results The time required to tune an eight-element pTx cardiac RF array was reduced from a mean of 30 min to less than 10 min with the use of this system. Conclusion Piezoelectric actuators are an attractive means of tuning RF coil arrays to yield more efficient B1 transmission into the subject. An automated mechanism for tuning these elements provides a practical solution for cardiac imaging at UHF, bringing this technology closer to clinical use. Magn Reson Med 73:2390–2397, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. PMID:24986525

  16. Graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas.

    PubMed

    Tatoli, Teresa; Conteduca, Donato; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario N

    2016-06-01

    The design of an integrated graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line on silicon nitride for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas is reported. A high value of the optical delay time (τg=920  ps) together with a compact footprint (4.15  mm2) and optical loss <27  dB make this device particularly suitable for highly efficient steering in active phased-array antennas. The delay line includes two graphene-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches and two vertically stacked microring resonators between which a graphene capacitor is placed. The tuning range is obtained by varying the value of the voltage applied to the graphene electrodes, which controls the optical path of the light propagation and therefore the delay time. The graphene provides a faster reconfigurable time and low values of energy dissipation. Such significant advantages, together with a negligible beam-squint effect, allow us to overcome the limitations of conventional RF beamformers. A highly efficient fine-tunable optical delay line for the beamsteering of 20 radiating elements up to ±20° in the azimuth direction of a tile in a phased-array antenna of an X-band synthetic aperture radar has been designed.

  17. Fine-tuning the ubiquitin code at DNA double-strand breaks: deubiquitinating enzymes at work

    PubMed Central

    Citterio, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification broadly implicated in cellular functions. Signaling processes mediated by ubiquitin (ub) are crucial for the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most dangerous types of DNA lesions. In particular, the DSB response critically relies on active ubiquitination by the RNF8 and RNF168 ub ligases at the chromatin, which is essential for proper DSB signaling and repair. How this pathway is fine-tuned and what the functional consequences are of its deregulation for genome integrity and tissue homeostasis are subject of intense investigation. One important regulatory mechanism is by reversal of substrate ubiquitination through the activity of specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), as supported by the implication of a growing number of DUBs in DNA damage response processes. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of how ub-mediated signaling at DSBs is controlled by DUBs, with main focus on DUBs targeting histone H2A and on their recent implication in stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:26442100

  18. Community-integrated omics links dominance of a microbial generalist to fine-tuned resource usage

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Emilie E. L.; Pinel, Nicolás; Laczny, Cédric C.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Lebrun, Laura A.; Roume, Hugo; Lin, Jake; May, Patrick; Hicks, Nathan D.; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Wampach, Linda; Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.; Gillece, John D.; Guignard, Cédric; Schupp, James M.; Vlassis, Nikos; Baliga, Nitin S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Keim, Paul S.; Wilmes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities are complex and dynamic systems that are primarily structured according to their members’ ecological niches. To investigate how niche breadth (generalist versus specialist lifestyle strategies) relates to ecological success, we develop and apply an integrative workflow for the multi-omic analysis of oleaginous mixed microbial communities from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Time- and space-resolved coupled metabolomic and taxonomic analyses demonstrate that the community-wide lipid accumulation phenotype is associated with the dominance of the generalist bacterium Candidatus Microthrix spp. By integrating population-level genomic reconstructions (reflecting fundamental niches) with transcriptomic and proteomic data (realised niches), we identify finely tuned gene expression governing resource usage by Candidatus Microthrix parvicella over time. Moreover, our results indicate that the fluctuating environmental conditions constrain the accumulation of genetic variation in Candidatus Microthrix parvicella likely due to fitness trade-offs. Based on our observations, niche breadth has to be considered as an important factor for understanding the evolutionary processes governing (microbial) population sizes and structures in situ. PMID:25424998

  19. Tuning Piezo ion channels to detect molecular-scale movements relevant for fine touch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Kate; Herget, Regina; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Ngo, Ha-Duong; Lewin, Gary R.

    2014-03-01

    In sensory neurons, mechanotransduction is sensitive, fast and requires mechanosensitive ion channels. Here we develop a new method to directly monitor mechanotransduction at defined regions of the cell-substrate interface. We show that molecular-scale (~13 nm) displacements are sufficient to gate mechanosensitive currents in mouse touch receptors. Using neurons from knockout mice, we show that displacement thresholds increase by one order of magnitude in the absence of stomatin-like protein 3 (STOML3). Piezo1 is the founding member of a class of mammalian stretch-activated ion channels, and we show that STOML3, but not other stomatin-domain proteins, brings the activation threshold for Piezo1 and Piezo2 currents down to ~10 nm. Structure-function experiments localize the Piezo modulatory activity of STOML3 to the stomatin domain, and higher-order scaffolds are a prerequisite for function. STOML3 is the first potent modulator of Piezo channels that tunes the sensitivity of mechanically gated channels to detect molecular-scale stimuli relevant for fine touch.

  20. Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenfei; Alyamani, Mohammad; Li, Jianneng; Rogacki, Kevin; Abazeed, Mohamed; Upadhyay, Sunil K; Balk, Steven P; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Auchus, Richard J; Sharifi, Nima

    2016-05-26

    Abiraterone blocks androgen synthesis and prolongs survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is otherwise driven by intratumoral androgen synthesis. Abiraterone is metabolized in patients to Δ(4)-abiraterone (D4A), which has even greater anti-tumour activity and is structurally similar to endogenous steroidal 5α-reductase substrates, such as testosterone. Here, we show that D4A is converted to at least three 5α-reduced and three 5β-reduced metabolites in human serum. The initial 5α-reduced metabolite, 3-keto-5α-abiraterone, is present at higher concentrations than D4A in patients with prostate cancer taking abiraterone, and is an androgen receptor agonist, which promotes prostate cancer progression. In a clinical trial of abiraterone alone, followed by abiraterone plus dutasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor), 3-keto-5α-abiraterone and downstream metabolites were depleted by the addition of dutasteride, while D4A concentrations rose, showing that dutasteride effectively blocks production of a tumour-promoting metabolite and permits D4A accumulation. Furthermore, dutasteride did not deplete the three 5β-reduced metabolites, which were also clinically detectable, demonstrating the specific biochemical effects of pharmacological 5α-reductase inhibition on abiraterone metabolism. Our findings suggest a previously unappreciated and biochemically specific method of clinically fine-tuning abiraterone metabolism to optimize therapy.

  1. Statistical-Mechanical Analysis of Pre-training and Fine Tuning in Deep Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical-mechanical analysis of deep learning. We elucidate some of the essential components of deep learning — pre-training by unsupervised learning and fine tuning by supervised learning. We formulate the extraction of features from the training data as a margin criterion in a high-dimensional feature-vector space. The self-organized classifier is then supplied with small amounts of labelled data, as in deep learning. Although we employ a simple single-layer perceptron model, rather than directly analyzing a multi-layer neural network, we find a nontrivial phase transition that is dependent on the number of unlabelled data in the generalization error of the resultant classifier. In this sense, we evaluate the efficacy of the unsupervised learning component of deep learning. The analysis is performed by the replica method, which is a sophisticated tool in statistical mechanics. We validate our result in the manner of deep learning, using a simple iterative algorithm to learn the weight vector on the basis of belief propagation.

  2. Metalloprotease OMA1 Fine-tunes Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Function and Respiratory Supercomplex Stability

    PubMed Central

    Bohovych, Iryna; Fernandez, Mario R.; Rahn, Jennifer J.; Stackley, Krista D.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Anandhan, Annadurai; Franco, Rodrigo; Claypool, Steven M.; Lewis, Robert E.; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in key cellular functions including energy production, metabolic homeostasis, and apoptosis. Normal mitochondrial function is preserved by several interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism – intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) – is represented by conserved proteases distributed across mitochondrial compartments. Many aspects and physiological roles of IMQC components remain unclear. Here, we show that the IMQC protease Oma1 is required for the stability of the respiratory supercomplexes and thus balanced and tunable bioenergetic function. Loss of Oma1 activity leads to a specific destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes and consequently to unbalanced respiration and progressive respiratory decline in yeast. Similarly, experiments in cultured Oma1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts link together impeded supercomplex stability and inability to maintain proper respiration under conditions that require maximal bioenergetic output. Finally, transient knockdown of OMA1 in zebrafish leads to impeded bioenergetics and morphological defects of the heart and eyes. Together, our biochemical and genetic studies in yeast, zebrafish and mammalian cells identify a novel and conserved physiological role for Oma1 protease in fine-tuning of respiratory function. We suggest that this unexpected physiological role is important for cellular bioenergetic plasticity and may contribute to Oma1-associated disease phenotypes in humans. PMID:26365306

  3. Finely tuned response of native prey to an invasive predator in a freshwater system.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, Paul E; Pangle, Kevin L; Reed, Emily M; Peacor, Scott D

    2013-07-01

    Lack of shared evolutionary history reduces the expectation that native prey will detect and respond to invasive predators. Four mechanisms may explain the adaptive response that is nevertheless seen in various systems: prey may perceive the invasive predator through cue similarity with preexisting predators, cues of conspecifics eaten by the invasive predator, a learned response based on experience with the invasive predator (e.g., cue association), and cues from the invasive predator that are specific to it. We performed laboratory experiments in which zooplankton (Daphnia mendotae) responded adaptively to the zooplanktivore Bythotrephes longimanus (migrating downward), showed no response to taxonomically similar predatory cladocerans, and responded adaptively to more taxonomically distant native fish (migrating downward) and native shrimp (migrating upward). Conspecific cues associated with Bythotrephes predation actually reduced the response of D. mendotae to Bythotrephes. Combined with previous experiments that rule out learning, our experiments rule out the first three mechanisms above, demonstrating that D. mendotae respond to cues specific to and produced directly by Bythotrephes. This finely tuned response may be retained from an ancestral species that coevolved with Bythotrephes in its native range, or may have rapidly evolved due to strong selection by the invasive predator.

  4. Fungal Endophytes as a Metabolic Fine-Tuning Regulator for Wine Grape

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-Yu; Yang, Wei-Xi; Zhang, Han-Bo; Huang, Li-Hua; Ren, An-Yun; Shan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TPh), trans-resveratrol (Res) and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp.) and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp.) conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape. PMID:27656886

  5. Fine-tuned Remote Laser Welding of Aluminum to Copper with Local Beam Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, Florian; Jarwitz, Michael; Stritt, Peter; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas

    Local beam oscillation in remote laser welding of aluminum to copper was investigated. Sheets of 1 mm thickness were welded in overlap configuration with aluminum as top material. The laser beam was scanned in a sinusoidal mode perpendicular to the direction of feed and the influence of the oscillation parameters frequency and amplitude on the weld geometry was investigated. Scanning frequencies up to 1 kHz and oscillation amplitudes in the range from 0.25 mm to 1 mm were examined. Throughout the experiments the laser power and the feed rate were kept constant. A decrease of welding depth with amplitude and frequency is found. The scanning amplitude had a strong influence and allowed coarse setting of the welding depth into the lower material, while the frequency allowed fine tuning in the order of 10% of the obtained depth. The oscillation parameters were found to act differently on the aluminum sheet compared to copper sheet regarding the amount of fused material. It is possible to influence the geometry of the fused zones separately for both sheets. Therefore the average composition in the weld can be set with high precision via the oscillation parameters. A setting of the generated intermetallics in the weld zone is possible without adjustment of laser power and feed rate.

  6. Drosophila SETDB1 and caspase cooperatively fine-tune cell fate determination of sensory organ precursor.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Natsuki; Obata, Fumiaki; Zhang, Liu; Miura, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Drosophila produce a constant number of mechanosensory bristles called macrochaetae (MC), which develop from sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells within a proneural cluster (PNC). However, what ensures the precise determination of SOP cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted RNAi screening in PNC for genes involved in epigenetic regulation. We identified a H3K9 histone methyltransferase, SETDB1/eggless, as a regulator of SOP development. Knockdown of SETDB1 in PNC led to additional SOPs. We further tested the relationship between SETDB1 and non-apoptotic function of caspase on SOP development. Reinforcing caspase activation by heterozygous Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1) mutation rescued ectopic SOP development caused by SETDB1 knockdown. Knockdown of SETDB1, however, had little effect on caspase activity. Simultaneous loss of SETDB1 and caspase activity resulted in further increase in MC, indicating that the two components work cooperatively. Our study suggests the fine-tuning mechanisms for SOP development by epigenetic methyltransferase and non-apoptotic caspase function.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects against Atherosclerosis via Fine-Tuning the Multiorgan Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Leigang; Lin, Zhuofeng

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Besides its antiobese and antidiabetic activity, FGF21 also possesses the protective effects against atherosclerosis. Circulating levels of FGF21 are elevated in patients with atherosclerosis, macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, possibly due to a compensatory upregulation. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, formation of atherosclerotic plaques is exacerbated by genetic depletion of FGF21, but is attenuated upon replenishment with recombinant FGF21. However, the blood vessel is not the direct target of FGF21, and the antiatherosclerotic activity of FGF21 is attributed to its actions in adipose tissues and liver. In adipocytes, FGF21 promotes secretion of adiponectin, which in turn acts directly on blood vessels to reduce endothelial dysfunction, inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and block conversion of macrophages to foam cells. Furthermore, FGF21 suppresses cholesterol biosynthesis and attenuates hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in hepatocytes. The effects of FGF21 on elevation of adiponectin and reduction of hypercholesterolemia are also observed in a phase-1b clinical trial in patients with obesity and diabetes. Therefore, FGF21 exerts its protection against atherosclerosis by fine-tuning the interorgan crosstalk between liver, brain, adipose tissue, and blood vessels. PMID:26912152

  8. Fine-tuned PEGylation of chitosan to maintain optimal siRNA-nanoplex bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Guţoaia, Andra; Schuster, Liane; Margutti, Simona; Laufer, Stefan; Schlosshauer, Burkhard; Krastev, Rumen; Stoll, Dieter; Hartmann, Hanna

    2016-06-05

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a widely used modification for drug delivery systems. It reduces undesired interaction with biological components, aggregation of complexes and serves as a hydrophilic linker of ligands for targeted drug delivery. However, PEGylation can also lead to undesired changes in physicochemical characteristics of chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes and hamper gene silencing. To address this conflicting issue, PEG-chitosan copolymers were synthesized with stepwise increasing degrees of PEG substitution (1.5% to 8.0%). Subsequently formed PEG-chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes were characterized physicochemically and biologically. The results showed that small ratios of chitosan PEGylation did not affect nanoplex stability and density. However, higher PEGylation ratios reduced nanoplex size and charge, as well as cell uptake and final siRNA knockdown efficiency. Therefore, we recommend fine-tuning of PEGylation ratios to generate PEG-chitosan/siRNA delivery systems with maximum bioactivity. The degree of PEGylation for chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes should be kept low in order to maintain optimal nanoplex efficiency.

  9. Fine tuning of social integration by two myrmecophiles of the ponerine army ant, Leptogenys distinguenda.

    PubMed

    Witte, Volker; Foitzik, Susanne; Hashim, Rosli; Maschwitz, Ulrich; Schulz, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Myrmecophiles are animals that live in close association with ants and that frequently develop elaborate mechanisms to infiltrate their well-defended host societies. We compare the social integration strategies of two myrmecophilic species, the spider, Gamasomorpha maschwitzi, and the newly described silverfish, Malayatelura ponerophila gen. n. sp. n., into colonies of the ponerine army ant, Leptogenys distinguenda (Emery) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Both symbionts use chemical mimicry through adoption of host cuticular hydrocarbons. Exchange experiments between L. distinguenda and an undetermined Leptogenys species demonstrate that reduced aggression toward alien ants and increased social acceptance occurred with individuals of higher chemical similarity in their cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. We found striking differences in chemical and behavioral strategies between the two myrmecophiles. Spider cuticular hydrocarbon profiles were chemically less similar to the host than silverfish profiles were. Nevertheless, spiders received significantly fewer attacks from host ants and survived longer in laboratory colonies, whereas silverfish were treated with high aggression and were killed more frequently. When discovered and confronted by the host, silverfish tended to escape and were chased aggressively, whereas spiders remained in contact with the confronting host ant until aggression ceased. Thus, spiders relied less on chemical mimicry but were nevertheless accepted more frequently by the host on the basis of behavioral mechanisms. These findings give insights into the fine tuning of social integration mechanisms and show the significance of qualitative differences among strategies.

  10. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Gibberellin Signaling Fine-Tunes Arabidopsis Iron-Deficiency Responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Regnault, Thomas; Sakvarelidze-Achard, Lali; Carrera, Esther; Lopez Diaz, Isabel; Cayrel, Anne; Dubeaux, Guillaume; Vert, Grégory; Achard, Patrick

    2016-04-18

    Iron is an essential element for most living organisms. Plants acquire iron from the rhizosphere and have evolved different biochemical and developmental responses to adapt to a low-iron environment. In Arabidopsis, FIT encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates the expression of iron-uptake genes in root epidermis upon iron deficiency. Here, we report that the gibberellin (GA)-signaling DELLA repressors contribute substantially in the adaptive responses to iron-deficient conditions. When iron availability decreases, DELLAs accumulate in the root meristem, thereby restraining root growth, while being progressively excluded from epidermal cells in the root differentiation zone. Such DELLA exclusion from the site of iron acquisition relieves FIT from DELLA-dependent inhibition and therefore promotes iron uptake. Consistent with this mechanism, expression of a non-GA-degradable DELLA mutant protein in root epidermis interferes with iron acquisition. Hence, spatial distribution of DELLAs in roots is essential to fine-tune the adaptive responses to iron availability.

  11. Fine-tuning the metallic core-shell nanostructures for plasmonic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Mingyao; Zhou, Lin; Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Weidong; Wang, Yang; Xu, Jun; Deng, Zhengtao; Yu, Tao; Lu, Zhenda; Zhu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely applied in various types of solar cells for improving light absorption and therefore energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate that Au@SiO2 core-shell nanorods with finely tuned aspect ratios are highly beneficial for the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell, with the simultaneous enhancement of solar absorption and external quantum efficiency across a broad range of wavelength, which can contribute to the increased cross-sectional scattering and spectrally absorbing energy density. Therefore, a 16.1% improvement (from 12.4% to 14.4%) of the maximal external quantum efficiency can be achieved by such structures, accompanied with a 13.5% improvement (from 20.0 to 22.7 mA/cm2) of the maximal short-circuit current density and little improvement of the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. Our findings also provide a general guideline to design solar cell structures with thinner absorber layers and improve the absorption in other poorly light-absorbing devices like lead free perovskite solar cells as well.

  12. Maternal expression of communicative intentions and pragmatic fine tuning in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Magda

    2010-12-01

    This study focuses on pragmatic characteristics of infant-directed speech and pragmatic fine tuning during the first 18 months of life. The subjects of the study were a mother-child dyad involved in a longitudinal/observational study in a familial context. Audiovisual recordings were transcribed according to the conventions of the Child Language Data Exchange System (MacWhinney, 2000; MacWhinney & Snow, 1990). The Ninio and Wheeler's (1988) system for coding communicative intentions was adapted. The results of this research show that most of the communicative exchanges identified at 14, 20 and 32 months by Snow, Pan, Imbens-Bailey, and Herman (1996) appear in mother-child interaction from the beginning, while other communicative interchanges appear later. With respect to speech acts, the results highlight, from an early age, the general tendencies discussed by Snow et al. and some novelties. Interestingly, changes in some pragmatic measures were identified around 8 months of age, and the appearance of new communicative interchanges also took place around this age. These changes are interpreted as maternal adjustments to the child's communicative competence.

  13. Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenfei; Alyamani, Mohammad; Li, Jianneng; Rogacki, Kevin; Abazeed, Mohamed; Upadhyay, Sunil K.; Balk, Steven P.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Auchus, Richard J.; Sharifi, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Abiraterone blocks androgen synthesis and prolongs survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is otherwise driven by intratumoral androgen synthesis1,2. Abiraterone is metabolized in patients to D4A, which has even greater anti-tumor activity and structural similarities to endogenous steroidal 5α-reductase substrates, such as testosterone3. Here, we show that D4A is converted to at least 3 5α-reduced and 3 5β-reduced metabolites. The initial 5α-reduced metabolite, 3-keto-5α-abi, is more abundant than D4A in patients with prostate cancer taking abiraterone, and is an androgen receptor (AR) agonist, which promotes prostate cancer progression. In a clinical trial of abiraterone alone, followed by abiraterone plus dutasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor), 3-keto-5α-abi and downstream metabolites are depleted, while D4A concentrations rise, effectively blocking production of a tumor-promoting metabolite and permitting D4A accumulation. Furthermore, dutasteride does not deplete three 5β-reduced metabolites, which were also clinically detectable, demonstrating the specific biochemical effects of pharmacologic 5α-reductase inhibition on abiraterone metabolism. Our findings suggest a previously unappreciated and biochemically specific method of clinically fine-tuning abiraterone metabolism to optimize therapy. PMID:27225130

  14. Development of monotonic neuronal tuning in the monkey inferotemporal cortex through long-term learning of fine shape discrimination.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wataru; Tanaka, Keiji

    2011-02-01

    Visual expertise in discriminating fine differences among a group of similar objects can be obtained through extensive long-term training. Here we investigated the neural bases of this superior capability. The inferotemporal cortex, located at the final stage along the ventral visual pathway, was a candidate site in monkeys because cells there respond to various complex features of objects. To identify the changes that underlie the development of visual expertise in fine discrimination, we created a set of parametrically designed object stimuli and compared the stimulus selectivity of inferotemporal cells between two different training histories. One group of recordings was conducted after the monkeys had been extensively trained for fine discrimination (fine-discrimination period) and the other after the monkeys had been exposed only for coarse discrimination (coarse-discrimination period). We found that the tuning of responses recorded in the fine-discrimination period was more monotonic in the stimulus parameter space. The stimuli located at the extreme in the parameter space evoked the maximum responses in a larger proportion of cells and the direction of response decrease in the parameter space was more consistent. Moreover, the stimulus arrangement reconstructed from the responses recorded during the fine-discrimination period was more similar to the original stimulus arrangement. These results suggest that visual expertise could be based on the development, in the inferotemporal cortex, of neuronal selectivity monotonically tuned over the parameter space of the object images.

  15. Automated SQUID tuning procedure for kilo-pixel arrays of TES bolometers on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E. S.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Dünner, R.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Irwin, K. D.; Kaul, M.; Klein, J.; Knotek, S.; Lau, J. M.; Limon, M.; Marriage, T. A.; Niemack, M. D.; Page, L.; Reintsema, C. D.; Staggs, S. T.; Swetz, D. S.; Switzer, E. R.; Thornton, R. J.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope observes the Cosmic Microwave Background with arcminute resolution from the Atacama desert in Chile. For the first observing season one array of 32 x 32 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers was installed in the primary ACT receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC). In the next season, three independent arrays working at 145, 220 and 280 GHz will be installed in MBAC. The three bolometer arrays are each coupled to a time-domain multiplexer developed at the National Institute of Standard and Technology, Boulder, which comprises three stages of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The arrays and multiplexers are read-out and controlled by the Multi Channel Electronics (MCE) developed at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. A number of experiments plan to use the MCE as read-out electronics and thus the procedure for tuning the three stage SQUID system is of general interest. Here we describe the automated array tuning procedures and algorithms we have developed. During array tuning, the SQUIDs are biased near their critical currents. SQUID feedback currents and lock points are selected to maximize linearity, dynamic range, and gain of the SQUID response curves. Our automatic array characterization optimizes the tuning of all three stages of SQUIDs by selecting over 1100 parameters per array during the first observing season and over 2100 parameters during the second observing season. We discuss the timing, performance, and reliability of this array tuning procedure as well as planned and recently implemented improvements.

  16. Fine-tuning of whispering gallery modes in on-chip silica microdisk resonators within a full spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henze, Rico; Pyrlik, Christoph; Thies, Andreas; Ward, Jonathan M.; Wicht, Andreas; Benson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We investigate an efficient method for fine-tuning whispering gallery mode resonances in disk-type silica microresonators to reach an arbitrary frequency within the free spectral range of the system. This method is based on a post-production hydrofluoric acid etching process to precisely resize the radius of such microresonators. We show the effectiveness of this approach by tuning their resonance frequency within 10 GHz of specific hydrogen cyanide reference lines (P16, P18). This technique allows for simple and exact matching of narrow-linewidth lasers or spectroscopic lines with the high-Q resonances of on-chip silica microresonators.

  17. Photoassisted photoluminescence fine-tuning of gold nanodots through free radical-mediated ligand-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Cherng, Rochelle; Harroun, Scott G.; Yuan, Zhiqin; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we have developed a simple photoassisted ligand assembly to fine-tune the photoluminescence (PL) of (11-mercaptoundecyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanodots (11-MUTAB-Au NDs). The 11-MUTAB-Au NDs (size: ca. 1.8 nm), obtained from the reaction of gold nanoparticles (ca. 3 nm) and 11-MUTAB, exhibited weak, near-infrared (NIR) PL at 700 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of 0.37% upon excitation at 365 nm. The PL QY of the Au NDs increased to 11.43% after reaction with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) for 30 min under ultraviolet (UV) light, which was accompanied by a PL wavelength shift to the green region (~520 nm). UV-light irradiation accelerates 11-MUA assembly on the 11-MUTABAu NDs (11-MUA/11-MUTAB-Au NDs) through a radical-mediated reaction. Furthermore, the PL wavelength of the 11-MUA/11-MUTAB-Au NDs can be switched to 640 nm via cysteamine under UV-light irradiation. We propose that the PL of the Au NDs with NIR and visible emissions was originally from the surface thiol-Au complexes and the Au core, respectively. These dramatically different optical properties of the Au NDs were due to variation in the surface ligands, as well as the densities and surface oxidant states of the surface Au atoms/ions. These effects can be controlled by assembling surface thiol ligands and accelerated by UV irradiation.In this study, we have developed a simple photoassisted ligand assembly to fine-tune the photoluminescence (PL) of (11-mercaptoundecyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanodots (11-MUTAB-Au NDs). The 11-MUTAB-Au NDs (size: ca. 1.8 nm), obtained from the reaction of gold nanoparticles (ca. 3 nm) and 11-MUTAB, exhibited weak, near-infrared (NIR) PL at 700 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of 0.37% upon excitation at 365 nm. The PL QY of the Au NDs increased to 11.43% after reaction with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) for 30 min under ultraviolet (UV) light, which was accompanied by a PL wavelength shift to the green region

  18. Lysine succinylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyase (ICL) fine-tunes the microbial resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingliang; Xie, Longxiang; Yang, Zhaozhen; Zhou, Jiahai; Xie, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Lysine succinylation (Ksucc) is a newly identified protein posttranslational modification (PTM), which may play an important role in cellular physiology. However, the role of lysine succinylation in antibiotic resistance remains elusive. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is crucial for broad-spectrum antibiotics tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously found that MtbICL (Rv0467) has at least three succinylated lysine residues, namely K189, K322, and K334.To explore the effect of succinylation on the activity of MtbICL, mutants' mimicry of the lysine succinylation were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. ICL-K189E mutant strain is more sensitive than the wild-type to rifampicin and streptomycin, but not isoniazid. For the in vitro activity of the purified isocitrate lyase, only K189E mutant showed significantly decreased activity. Crystal structure analysis showed that Lys189 Glu dramatically increased the pKa of Glu188 and decreased the pKa of Lys190, whereas had negligible effect on other residues within 5 Å as well as disruption of the electrostatic interaction between Lys189 and Glu182, which might prevent the closure of the active site loop and cause severe reduction of the enzyme activity. Considering the genetic, biochemical, and crystallographical evidences together, the succinylation of specific ICL residue can fine-tune the bacterial resistance to selected antibiotics. The decreased enzymatic activity resulting from the succinylation-changed electrostatic interaction might underlie this phenotype. This study provided the first insight into the link between lysine succinylation and antibiotic resistance.

  19. Causes and consequences of repeatability, flexibility and individual fine-tuning of migratory timing in pike.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Borger, Tobias; Larsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms undertake migrations between foraging and breeding habitats and while it is assumed that reproductive timing affects fitness, little is known about the degree of individual consistency, and about the causes and consequences of individual variation in migratory timing in organisms other than birds. Here, we report on a 6-year mark-recapture study, including 2048 individuals, of breeding migration in anadromous pike (Esox lucius), an iteroparous top-predatory fish that displays homing behaviour. By repeated sampling across years at a breeding site, we first quantify individual variation both within and between breeding events and then investigate phenotypic correlates and fitness consequences of arrival timing to the breeding site. Our data demonstrate that males arrive before females, that large males arrive later than small males, that the timing of breeding migration varies among years and that individuals are consistent in their timing across years relative to other individuals in the population. Furthermore, data on return rates indicate that arrival time is under stabilizing viability selection, and that individuals who are more flexible in their timing of arrival during the first reproductive years survive longer compared with less flexible individuals. Finally, longitudinal data demonstrate that individuals consistently fine-tune their arrival timing across years, showing that the timing of arrival to breeding sites is influenced by experience. These findings represent rare evidence of how between- and within-individual variations in migratory timing across breeding events are correlated with phenotypic and fitness traits in an ecologically important keystone species. Our results emphasize the importance of considering variation in migratory timing both between and within individuals in studies investigating the fitness consequences of migratory behaviour and have implications for future management.

  20. Cell-Specific Fine-Tuning of Neuronal Excitability by Differential Expression of Modulator Protein Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, James; Sheldon, Amanda; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Fei, Hong; Koh, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    SLOB (SLOWPOKE-binding protein) modulates the Drosophila SLOWPOKE calcium-activated potassium channel. We have shown previously that SLOB deletion or RNAi knockdown decreases excitability of neurosecretory pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons in the adult Drosophila brain. In contrast, we found that SLOB deletion/knockdown enhances neurotransmitter release from motor neurons at the fly larval neuromuscular junction, suggesting an increase in excitability. Because two prominent SLOB isoforms, SLOB57 and SLOB71, modulate SLOWPOKE channels in opposite directions in vitro, we investigated whether divergent expression patterns of these two isoforms might underlie the differential modulation of excitability in PI and motor neurons. By performing detailed in vitro and in vivo analysis, we found strikingly different modes of regulatory control by the slob57 and slob71 promoters. The slob71, but not slob57, promoter contains binding sites for the Hunchback and Mirror transcriptional repressors. Furthermore, several core promoter elements that are absent in the slob57 promoter coordinately drive robust expression of a luciferase vector by the slob71 promoter in vitro. In addition, we visualized the expression patterns of the slob57 and slob71 promoters in vivo and found clear spatiotemporal differences in promoter activity. SLOB57 is expressed prominently in adult PI neurons, whereas larval motor neurons exclusively express SLOB71. In contrast, at the larval neuromuscular junction, SLOB57 expression appears to be restricted mainly to a subset of glial cells. Our results illustrate how the use of alternative transcriptional start sites within an ion channel modulator locus coupled with functionally relevant alternative splicing can be used to fine-tune neuronal excitability in a cell-specific manner. PMID:24133277

  1. Leaf color is fine-tuned on the solar spectra to avoid strand direct solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi; Akitsu, Tomoko; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida

    2016-07-01

    The spectral distributions of light absorption rates by intact leaves are notably different from the incident solar radiation spectra, for reasons that remain elusive. Incident global radiation comprises two main components; direct radiation from the direction of the sun, and diffuse radiation, which is sunlight scattered by molecules, aerosols and clouds. Both irradiance and photon flux density spectra differ between direct and diffuse radiation in their magnitude and profile. However, most research has assumed that the spectra of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) can be averaged, without considering the radiation classes. We used paired spectroradiometers to sample direct and diffuse solar radiation, and obtained relationships between the PAR spectra and the absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments and organs. As monomers in solvent, the spectral absorbance of Chl a decreased with the increased spectral irradiance (W m(-2) nm(-1)) of global PAR at noon (R(2) = 0.76), and was suitable to avoid strong spectral irradiance (λmax = 480 nm) rather than absorb photon flux density (μmol m(-2) s(-1) nm(-1)) efficiently. The spectral absorption of photosystems and the intact thallus and leaves decreased linearly with the increased spectral irradiance of direct PAR at noon (I dir-max), where the wavelength was within the 450-650 nm range (R(2) = 0.81). The higher-order structure of photosystems systematically avoided the strong spectral irradiance of I dir-max. However, when whole leaves were considered, leaf anatomical structure and light scattering in leaf tissues made the leaves grey bodies for PAR and enabled high PAR use efficiency. Terrestrial green plants are fine-tuned to spectral dynamics of incident solar radiation and PAR absorption is increased in various structural hierarchies.

  2. A role for TRIANGULAR HULL1 in fine-tuning spikelet morphogenesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Dai-Suke; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Nagashima, Haruka; Toriba, Taiyo; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2014-01-01

    The lemma and palea, which enclose the pistil, stamens, and lodicules, are the most conspicuous organs in the rice spikelet. We isolated a mutant line (ng6569) in which the lemma and palea were narrower than those of the wild type, and found that the mutant had a defect in TRIANGULAR HULL1 (TH1), which encodes a nuclear protein with an ALOG domain. Detailed morphological analysis indicated that the th1 mutation caused a reduction in the size of tubercles, which are convex structures on the surface of the lemma and palea. This reduction was more pronounced in the apical region of the lemma than in the basal region, resulting in the formation of a beak-like spikelet. By contrast, the number of tubercle rows and their spatial distribution on the lemma were not affected in the th1 mutant. Thus, the TH1 gene seems to be involved in fine-tuning the morphogenesis of the lemma and palea. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that TH1 was highly expressed in the primordia of the lemma and palea, but only weakly expressed in the primordia of the sterile lemma and rudimentary glume. We then examined the effect of th1 mutation on the lemma-like structure formed in the long sterile lemma/glume1 (g1) and extra glume1 (eg1) mutants. The result showed that the th1 mutation strongly affected the morphology of the extra lemma of eg1, but had no significant effect on the transformed lemma of g1.

  3. Finely tuned regulation of the aromatic amine degradation pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ji; Spiro, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    FeaR is an AraC family regulator that activates transcription of the tynA and feaB genes in Escherichia coli. TynA is a periplasmic topaquinone- and copper-containing amine oxidase, and FeaB is a cytosolic NAD-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase. Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine are oxidized by TynA to the corresponding aldehydes, releasing one equivalent of H2O2 and NH3. The aldehydes can be oxidized to carboxylic acids by FeaB, and (in the case of phenylacetate) can be further degraded to enter central metabolism. Thus, phenylethylamine can be used as a carbon and nitrogen source, while tyramine and dopamine can be used only as sources of nitrogen. Using genetic, biochemical and computational approaches, we show that the FeaR binding site is a TGNCA-N8-AAA motif that occurs in 2 copies in the tynA and feaB promoters. We show that the coactivator for FeaR is the product rather than the substrate of the TynA reaction. The feaR gene is upregulated by carbon or nitrogen limitation, which we propose reflects regulation of feaR by the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and the nitrogen assimilation control protein (NAC), respectively. In carbon-limited cells grown in the presence of a TynA substrate, tynA and feaB are induced, whereas in nitrogen-limited cells, only the tynA promoter is induced. We propose that tynA and feaB expression is finely tuned to provide the FeaB activity that is required for carbon source utilization and the TynA activity required for nitrogen and carbon source utilization.

  4. Quasi-Yukawa unification and fine-tuning in U(1) extended SSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiçyılmaz, Yaşar; Ceylan, Meltem; Altaş, Aslı; Solmaz, Levent; Ün, Cem Salih

    2016-11-01

    We consider the low scale implications in the U(1 ) ' extended minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (UMSSM). We restrict the parameter space such that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is always the lightest neutralino. In addition, we impose quasi-Yukawa unification (QYU) at the grand unification scale (MGUT). QYU strictly requires the ratios among the Yukawa couplings as yt/yb˜1.2 , yτ/yb˜1.4 , and yt/yτ˜0.8 . We find that the need for fine-tuning over the fundamental parameter space of QYU is in the acceptable range (ΔEW≤1 03), even if the universal boundary conditions are imposed at MGUT, in contrast to CMSSM and nonuniversal Higgs masses. The UMSSM with universal boundary conditions yields heavy stops (mt ˜≳2.5 TeV ), gluinos (mg ˜≳2 TeV ), and squarks from the first two families (mq ˜≳4 TeV ). Similarly, the stau mass is bounded from below at about 1.5 TeV. Despite this heavy spectrum, we find ΔEW≳300 , which is much lower than that needed for the minimal supersymmetric models. In addition, the UMSSM yields a relatively small μ term, and the LSP neutralino is mostly formed by the Higgsinos of mass ≳700 GeV . We also obtain bino-like dark matter of mass about 400 GeV. The wino is usually found to be heavier than Higgsinos and binos, but there is a small region where μ ˜M1˜M2˜1 TeV . We also identify a chargino-neutralino coannihilation channel and A -resonance solutions which reduce the relic abundance of LSP neutralinos down to the ranges compatible with the current WMAP and Planck measurements.

  5. Cdc5-Dependent Asymmetric Localization of Bfa1 Fine-Tunes Timely Mitotic Exit

    PubMed Central

    Bahk, Young Yil; Song, Kiwon

    2012-01-01

    In budding yeast, the major regulator of the mitotic exit network (MEN) is Tem1, a GTPase, which is inhibited by the GTPase-activating protein (GAP), Bfa1/Bub2. Asymmetric Bfa1 localization to the bud-directed spindle pole body (SPB) during metaphase also controls mitotic exit, but the molecular mechanism and function of this localization are not well understood, particularly in unperturbed cells. We identified four novel Cdc5 target residues within the Bfa1 C-terminus: 452S, 453S, 454S, and 559S. A Bfa1 mutant in which all of these residues had been changed to alanine (Bfa14A) persisted on both SPBs at anaphase and was hypo-phosphorylated, despite retaining its GAP activity for Tem1. A Bfa1 phospho-mimetic mutant in which all of these residues were switched to aspartate (Bfa14D) always localized asymmetrically to the SPB. These observations demonstrate that asymmetric localization of Bfa1 is tightly linked to its Cdc5-dependent phosphorylation, but not to its GAP activity. Consistent with this, in kinase-defective cdc5-2 cells Bfa1 was not phosphorylated and localized to both SPBs, whereas Bfa14D was asymmetrically localized. BFA14A cells progressed through anaphase normally but displayed delayed mitotic exit in unperturbed cell cycles, while BFA14D cells underwent mitotic exit with the same kinetics as wild-type cells. We suggest that Cdc5 induces the asymmetric distribution of Bfa1 to the bud-directed SPB independently of Bfa1 GAP activity at anaphase and that Bfa1 asymmetry fine-tunes the timing of MEN activation in unperturbed cell cycles. PMID:22253605

  6. Selective loss of fine tuning of Gq/11 signaling by RGS2 protein exacerbates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Anger, Thomas; Su, Jialin; Hao, Jianming; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Ming; Gach, Agnieszka; Cui, Lei; Liao, Ronglih; Mende, Ulrike

    2006-03-03

    Alterations in cardiac G protein-mediated signaling, most prominently G(q/11) signaling, are centrally involved in hypertrophy and heart failure development. Several RGS proteins that can act as negative regulators of G protein signaling are expressed in the heart, but their functional roles are still poorly understood. RGS expression changes have been described in hypertrophic and failing hearts. In this study, we report a marked decrease in RGS2 (but not other major cardiac RGS proteins (RGS3-RGS5)) that occurs prior to hypertrophy development in different models with enhanced G(q/11) signaling (transgenic expression of activated Galpha(q)(*) and pressure overload due to aortic constriction). To assess functional consequences of selective down-regulation of endogenous RGS2, we identified targeting sequences for effective RGS2 RNA interference and used lipid-based transfection to achieve uptake of fluorescently labeled RGS2 small interfering RNA in >90% of neonatal and adult ventricular myocytes. Endogenous RGS2 expression was dose-dependently suppressed (up to 90%) with no major change in RGS3-RGS5. RGS2 knockdown increased phenylephrine- and endothelin-1-induced phospholipase Cbeta stimulation in both cell types and exacerbated the hypertrophic effect (increase in cell size and radiolabeled protein) in neonatal myocytes, with no major change in G(q/11)-mediated ERK1/2, p38, or JNK activation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that endogenous RGS2 exerts functionally important inhibitory restraint on G(q/11)-mediated phospholipase Cbeta activation and hypertrophy in ventricular myocytes. Our findings point toward a potential pathophysiological role of loss of fine tuning due to selective RGS2 down-regulation in G(q/11)-mediated remodeling. Furthermore, this study shows the feasibility of effective RNA interference in cardiomyocytes using lipid-based small interfering RNA transfection.

  7. Fine-tuning of NADH oxidase decreases byproduct accumulation in respiration deficient xylose metabolic Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficiently utilizing all available carbon from lignocellulosic feedstock presents a major barrier to the production of economically feasible biofuel. Previously, to enable xylose utilization, we introduced a cofactor-dependent xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway, or a cofactor-independent xylose isomerase (XI) pathway, into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting strains metabolized xylose with high efficiency. However, in both pathway recombinant strains, the cofactor imbalance caused accumulation of the byproducts glycerol and/or xylitol and reduced the ethanol production efficiency. Results In this study, we introduced NADH oxidase from Lactococcus lactis into both XI and XR-XDH pathway recombinant strains. To reduce byproduct accumulation while maintaining xylose metabolism, we optimized the expression level of NADH oxidase by comparing its expression under the control of different promoters and plasmids. In recombinant XI strains, NADH oxidase was expressed at different levels, regulated by the GPD2 promoter or TEF1 promoter in the 2 μ plasmid. The expression under the control of GPD2 promoter decreased glycerol production by 84% and increased the ethanol yield and specific growth rate by 8% and 12%, respectively. In contrast, in the recombinant XR-XDH strains, such expression level was not efficient enough to decrease the byproduct accumulation. Therefore, higher NADH oxidase expression levels were tested. In the strain expressing NADH oxidase under the control of the TEF1 promoter in the centromeric plasmids, xylitol and glycerol production were reduced by 60% and 83%, respectively, without significantly affecting xylose consumption. Conclusions By fine-tuning NADH oxidase expression, we decreased the glycerol or/and xylitol production in both recombinant XI and XR-XDH xylose-metabolizing yeast strains. The optimal NADH oxidase expression levels depend on metabolic pathways. Similar cofactor engineering strategies

  8. A versatile apparatus for the fine-tuned synthesis of cluster-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A. Kruk, R.; Hahn, H.

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, a custom-designed experimental setup for the fine-tuned synthesis of various cluster–based materials is presented. Providing custom-designed deposition stages and special sample holders it offers a high degree of control over the sample characteristics such as the cluster size, cluster amounts, and sample homogeneity in combination with high sample purity. The system is capable of producing thin films of pure clusters and various cluster-matrix combinations with cluster sizes ranging from single atoms up to aggregates of several thousand atoms. Two custom-designed deposition stages are available, one utilizes the full cluster beam, yielding micrograms of pure clusters within a few hours and the second one uses mass-separated clusters (mass-resolution between 2% and 10%), yielding nanograms of pure clusters in the same timescale. Furthermore, at the second deposition stage, a variety of matrix materials can be co-deposited at a controlled sample temperature between 153 K and 673 K. In order to prove the capabilities of the apparatus, a series of experiments with Fe clusters embedded in Ag matrices with different volume fractions of clusters were carried out. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements revealed that the amount of deposited clusters as well as the sample homogeneity can be controlled with an outstanding accuracy of 10%. Additional measurements of the magnetic properties indicated the presence of separated clusters for volume fractions of clusters around 2 volume percent (vol. %), while above this concentration (10 vol. %) a partial aggregation of the clusters was observed. It was also shown that the resulting thin films are nearly oxygen free, which ascertains that oxygen sensitive materials can be safely handled in this newly developed apparatus.

  9. Measured and calculated acoustic attenuation rates of tuned resonator arrays for two surface impedance distribution models with flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Abrahamson, A. Louis; Jones, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was performed to validate two analytical models for predicting low frequency attenuation of duct liner configurations built from an array of seven resonators that could be individually tuned via adjustable cavity depths. These analytical models had previously been developed for high frequency aero-engine inlet duct liner design. In the low frequency application, the liner surface impedance distribution is unavoidably spatially varying by virtue of available fabrication techniques. The characteristic length of this spatial variation may be a significant fraction of the acoustic wavelength. Comparison of measured and predicted attenuation rates and transmission losses for both modal decomposition and finite element propagation models were in good to excellent agreement for a test frequency range that included the first and second cavity resonance frequencies. This was true for either of two surface impedance distribution modeling procedures used to simplify the impedance boundary conditions. In the presence of mean flow, measurements revealed a fine scale structure of acoustic hot spots in the attenuation and phase profiles. These details were accurately predicted by the finite element model. Since no impedance changes due to mean flow were assumed, it is concluded that this fine scale structure was due to convective effects of the mean flow interacting with the surface impedance nonuniformities.

  10. Coarse and fine N1 tuning for print in younger and older Chinese children: Orthography, phonology, or semantics driven?

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuhong; Lo, Jason Chor Ming; McBride, Catherine; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary Miu Yee; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Wong, Simpson Wai Lap; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Visual expertise in distinguishing words from objects and word-like stimuli is a fundamental skill that is important for children to become proficient readers. This expertise can be indexed by the N1 component of ERPs at the neural level. However, the nature of N1 tuning for print is controversial in terms of onset of the latency, lateralization and the neural mechanism of the N1. This study aimed to investigate whether two groups of Chinese children could discriminate characters/character-like stimuli from visual controls (i.e., coarse N1 tuning) and distinguish characters from character-like stimuli (i.e., fine N1 tuning). We also explored the cognitive-linguistic correlates of N1 tuning. Seventeen children in the younger group (M=7.7 years) and 13 in the older group (M=9.4 years) were all required to finish a character decision task with character, pseudocharacter, noncharacter, and stroke combination conditions using ERP testing. Both the pseudocharacters and noncharacters were unpronounceable, and the main difference between the two conditions was in orthographic presentation (i.e., radical position). Children were also administered measures of reading fluency, reading accuracy, RAN, phonological skill and vocabulary knowledge. ERP results showed that a significantly larger N1 was observed in the characters, pseudocharacters, and noncharacters as compared to the stroke combinations in both groups. The N1 for characters and pseudocharacters was also significantly larger than that for noncharacters in both groups. Both coarse and fine N1s were larger for younger children than for older children, and the N1 was bilateral in younger children, but left lateralized in older children. Correlational analyses showed that the coarse N1 tuning of real characters versus visual controls was moderately correlated with reading fluency and accuracy but not RAN, phonology, or vocabulary. Taken together, our study suggests that both coarse and fine N1 tuning occurs in both

  11. Decoding techniques for fine-fine geometry multi-anode microchannel arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasle, David B.

    1988-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) is a photon-counting detector which decodes the position of an event through coincidence discrimination. The decoding algorithm which associates a given event with the appropriate pixel is determined by the geometry of the array. The decoding process can be divided into two tasks: anode encoding and pixel decoding. Techniques for performing both tasks are described and contrasted in light of application requirements. Decode times of 75 nanoseconds have been achieved, and considerably faster decoders are possible given new architectures and technologies.

  12. Coupling and tuning of modal frequencies in direct current biased microelectromechanical systems arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kambali, Prashant N.; Swain, Gyanadutta; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Buks, Eyal; Gottlieb, Oded

    2015-08-10

    Understanding the coupling of different modal frequencies and their tuning mechanisms has become essential to design multi-frequency MEMS devices. In this work, we fabricate a MEMS beam with fixed boundaries separated from two side electrodes and a bottom electrode. Subsequently, we perform experiments to obtain the frequency variation of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical modes of the microbeam with respect to both DC bias and laser heating. We show that the frequencies of the two modes coincide at a certain DC bias, which in turn can also be varied due to temperature. Subsequently, we develop a theoretical model to predict the variation of the two modes and their coupling due to a variable gap between the microbeam and electrodes, initial tension, and fringing field coefficients. Finally, we discuss the influence of frequency tuning parameters in arrays of 3, 33, and 40 microbeams, respectively. It is also found that the frequency bandwidth of a microbeam array can be increased to as high as 25 kHz for a 40 microbeam array with a DC bias of 80 V.

  13. Nanostructured Arrays Formed by Finely Focused Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.D.; Datsos, P.G.; Feldman, L.C.; Heinig, K.-H.; Meldrum, A.; Strobel, M.; Thomas, K.A.; Warmack, R.J.; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    Amorphous, polycrystalline, and single crystal nanometer dimension particles can be formed in a variety of substrates by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Such composite colloidal materials exhibit unique optical properties that could be useful in optical devices, switches, and waveguides. However colloids formed by blanket implantation are not uniform in size due to the nonuniform density of the implant, resulting in diminution of the size dependent optical properties. The object of the present work is to form more uniform size particles arranged in a 2-dimensional lattice by using a finely focused ion beam to implant identical ion doses only into nanometer size regions located at each point of a rectangular lattice. Initial work is being done with a 30 keV Ga beam implanted into Si. Results of particle formation as a function of implant conditions as analyzed by Rutherford backscattering, x-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy will be presented and discussed.

  14. Polarization-tuned Dynamic Color Filters Incorporating a Dielectric-loaded Aluminum Nanowire Array

    PubMed Central

    Raj Shrestha, Vivek; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured spectral filters enabling dynamic color-tuning are saliently attractive for implementing ultra-compact color displays and imaging devices. Realization of polarization-induced dynamic color-tuning via one-dimensional periodic nanostructures is highly challenging due to the absence of plasmonic resonances for transverse-electric polarization. Here we demonstrate highly efficient dynamic subtractive color filters incorporating a dielectric-loaded aluminum nanowire array, providing a continuum of customized color according to the incident polarization. Dynamic color filtering was realized relying on selective suppression in transmission spectra via plasmonic resonance at a metal-dielectric interface and guided-mode resonance for a metal-clad dielectric waveguide, each occurring at their characteristic wavelengths for transverse-magnetic and electric polarizations, respectively. A broad palette of colors, including cyan, magenta, and yellow, has been attained with high transmission beyond 80%, by tailoring the period of the nanowire array and the incident polarization. Thanks to low cost, high durability, and mass producibility of the aluminum adopted for the proposed devices, they are anticipated to be diversely applied to color displays, holographic imaging, information encoding, and anti-counterfeiting. PMID:26211625

  15. Investigation of double-mode operation and fast fine tuning properties of a grating-coupled external cavity diode laser configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakli, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Double-mode operation and fast piezo fine tuning properties of a gain chip on a thermoelectric cooler in an external cavity are investigated. A widely course double-mode tuning range of 120 nm for the spectral range between 1470 and 1590 nm is achieved by rotating the diffraction gratings forming a double Littrow-type configuration. A fast piezo fine tuning range over 7cm-1 (1.5 nm, 210 GHz) in a single-mode operation is obtained by scanning the external cavity length with scan rates up to 0.5 kHz.

  16. Discrete tuning concept for fiber-integrated lasers based on tailored FBG arrays and a theta cavity layout.

    PubMed

    Tiess, Tobias; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Jäger, Matthias

    2017-03-15

    We demonstrate a novel tuning concept for pulsed fiber-integrated lasers with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array as a discrete and tailored spectral filter, as well as a modified laser design. Based on a theta cavity layout, the structural delay lines originating from the FBG array are balanced, enabling a constant repetition rate and stable pulse properties over the full tuning range. The emission wavelength is electrically tuned with respect to the filter properties based on an adapted temporal gating scheme using an acousto-optic modulator. This concept has been investigated with an Yb-doped fiber laser, demonstrating excellent emission properties with high signal contrast (>35  dB) and narrow linewidth (<150  pm) over a tuning range of 25 nm.

  17. Fine-tuning of xylose metabolism in genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae by scattered integration of xylose assimilation genes.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Qi; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xiong, Liang; Liu, Hai-Jun; Xu, You-Hai; Hu, Shi-Yang; Ma, Zhong-Yi; Zhu, Qing-Wei; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2013-10-18

    Manipulation of multiple genes is a common experience in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology studies. Chromosome integration of multiple genes in one single position is always performed, however, there is so far no study on the integration of multiple genes separately in various positions (here in after referred to as "scattered integration") and its effect on fine-tuning of cellular metabolism. In this study, scattered integration of the xylose assimilation genes PsXR, PsXDH and ScXK was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and transcription analysis of these genes as well as their enzyme activities were compared with those observed when the genes were integrated into one single site (defined as "tandem integration" here). Not only notable differences in transcription levels and enzyme activities were observed when the genes were integrated by the two strategies, but also change of the cofactor preference of PsXR gene was validated. Xylose fermentation was further studied with the strains developed with these strategies, and elevated xylose utilization rate was obtained in the scattered integration strain. These results proved that by positioning multiple genes on different chromosomes, fine-tuning of cellular metabolism could be achieved in recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  18. Expression analysis of aquaporins from desert truffle mycorrhizal symbiosis reveals a fine-tuned regulation under drought.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Bárzana, Gloria; Nicolás, Emilio; Carra, Andrea; Schubert, Andrea; Morte, Asunción

    2013-09-01

    We have performed the isolation, functional characterization, and expression analysis of aquaporins in roots and leaves of Helianthemum almeriense, in order to evaluate their roles in tolerance to water deficit. Five cDNAs, named HaPIP1;1, HaPIP1;2, HaPIP2;1, HaPIP2;2, and HaTIP1;1, were isolated from H. almeriense. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced proteins confirmed that they belong to the water channel proteins family. The HaPIP1;1, HaPIP2;1, and HaTIP1;1 genes encode functional water channel proteins, as indicated by expression assays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, showing divergent roles in the transport of water, CO2, and NH3. The expression patterns of the genes isolated from H. almeriense and of a previously described gene from Terfezia claveryi (TcAQP1) were analyzed in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants cultivated under well-watered or drought-stress conditions. Some of the studied aquaporins were subjected to fine-tuned expression only under drought-stress conditions. A beneficial effect on plant physiological parameters was observed in mycorrhizal plants with respect to nonmycorrhizal ones. Moreover, stress induced a change in the mycorrhizal type formed, which was more intracellular under drought stress. The combination of a high intracellular colonization, together with the fine-tuned expression of aquaporins could result in a morphophysiological adaptation of this symbiosis to drought conditions.

  19. The lesson of causal discovery algorithms for quantum correlations: causal explanations of Bell-inequality violations require fine-tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Christopher J.; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2015-03-01

    An active area of research in the fields of machine learning and statistics is the development of causal discovery algorithms, the purpose of which is to infer the causal relations that hold among a set of variables from the correlations that these exhibit . We apply some of these algorithms to the correlations that arise for entangled quantum systems. We show that they cannot distinguish correlations that satisfy Bell inequalities from correlations that violate Bell inequalities, and consequently that they cannot do justice to the challenges of explaining certain quantum correlations causally. Nonetheless, by adapting the conceptual tools of causal inference, we can show that any attempt to provide a causal explanation of nonsignalling correlations that violate a Bell inequality must contradict a core principle of these algorithms, namely, that an observed statistical independence between variables should not be explained by fine-tuning of the causal parameters. In particular, we demonstrate the need for such fine-tuning for most of the causal mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie Bell correlations, including superluminal causal influences, superdeterminism (that is, a denial of freedom of choice of settings), and retrocausal influences which do not introduce causal cycles.

  20. The WD40 Domain Protein MSI1 Functions in a Histone Deacetylase Complex to Fine-Tune Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bergquist, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    MSI1 belongs to a family of histone binding WD40-repeat proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana contains five genes encoding MSI1-like proteins, but their functions in diverse chromatin-associated complexes are poorly understood. Here, we show that MSI1 is part of a histone deacetylase complex. We copurified HISTONE DEACETYLASE19 (HDA19) with MSI1 and transcriptional regulatory SIN3-like proteins and provide evidence that MSI1 and HDA19 associate into the same complex in vivo. These data suggest that MSI1, HDA19, and HISTONE DEACETYLATION COMPLEX1 protein form a core complex that can integrate various SIN3-like proteins. We found that reduction of MSI1 or HDA19 causes upregulation of abscisic acid (ABA) receptor genes and hypersensitivity of ABA-responsive genes. The MSI1-HDA19 complex fine-tunes ABA signaling by binding to the chromatin of ABA receptor genes and by maintaining low levels of acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9, thereby affecting the expression levels of ABA receptor genes. Reduced MSI1 or HDA19 levels led to increased tolerance to salt stress corresponding to the increased ABA sensitivity of gene expression. Together, our results reveal the presence of an MSI1-HDA19 complex that fine-tunes ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:26704384

  1. The WD40 Domain Protein MSI1 Functions in a Histone Deacetylase Complex to Fine-Tune Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Saher; Derkacheva, Maria; Ramström, Margareta; Kralemann, Lejon; Bergquist, Jonas; Hennig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    MSI1 belongs to a family of histone binding WD40-repeat proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana contains five genes encoding MSI1-like proteins, but their functions in diverse chromatin-associated complexes are poorly understood. Here, we show that MSI1 is part of a histone deacetylase complex. We copurified HISTONE DEACETYLASE19 (HDA19) with MSI1 and transcriptional regulatory SIN3-like proteins and provide evidence that MSI1 and HDA19 associate into the same complex in vivo. These data suggest that MSI1, HDA19, and HISTONE DEACETYLATION COMPLEX1 protein form a core complex that can integrate various SIN3-like proteins. We found that reduction of MSI1 or HDA19 causes upregulation of abscisic acid (ABA) receptor genes and hypersensitivity of ABA-responsive genes. The MSI1-HDA19 complex fine-tunes ABA signaling by binding to the chromatin of ABA receptor genes and by maintaining low levels of acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9, thereby affecting the expression levels of ABA receptor genes. Reduced MSI1 or HDA19 levels led to increased tolerance to salt stress corresponding to the increased ABA sensitivity of gene expression. Together, our results reveal the presence of an MSI1-HDA19 complex that fine-tunes ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

  2. Using membrane composition to fine-tune the pKa of an optical liposome pH sensor.

    PubMed

    Clear, Kasey J; Virga, Katelyn; Gray, Lawrence; Smith, Bradley D

    2016-04-14

    Liposomes containing membrane-anchored pH-sensitive optical probes are valuable sensors for monitoring pH in various biomedical samples. The dynamic range of the sensor is maximized when the probe pKa is close to the expected sample pH. While some biomedical samples are close to neutral pH there are several circumstances where the pH is 1 or 2 units lower. Thus, there is a need to fine-tune the probe pKa in a predictable way. This investigation examined two lipid-conjugated optical probes, each with appended deep-red cyanine dyes containing indoline nitrogen atoms that are protonated in acid. The presence of anionic phospholipids in the liposomes stabilized the protonated probes and increased the probe pKa values by < 1 unit. The results show that rational modification of the membrane composition is a general non-covalent way to fine-tune the pKa of an optical liposome sensor for optimal pH sensing performance.

  3. Observation of anticrossings in the exciton state of single quantum dots via electrical tuning of the fine-structure splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, M. A.; Bennett, A. J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Ward, M. B.; Patel, R. B.; Boyer de la Giroday, A.; Sköld, N.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2011-03-01

    Single quantum dots have many potential applications across the field of quantum computation, ranging from the generation of single photons or entangled photon pairs to the storage and manipulation of qubits. Single InAs quantum dots are optically active and thus can be used as an interface between photonic flying qubits and spin-based stationary qubits. Incorporating single InAs quantum dots into semiconductor devices allows the stationary qubits to be manipulated, making this system a promising candidate for quantum computation. It is well known that the exciton state of quantum dots is split into two polarisation dependent states; the energy difference between the states is the fine-structure splitting, (s). A vertical electric field has been used to tune |s| over a large range of ~ 100μeV, such that a dot which has |s| over 50μeV at zero field has been tuned to emit polarisation entangled photon pairs[1]. We observe coherent coupling between the two polarisation eigenstates. This coupling results in an anticrossing as the two states are tuned close to each other, and a rotation of the eigenstates through 90° as |s| is swept through its minimum value.

  4. Fine tuning of optical transition energy of twisted bilayer graphene via interlayer distance modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Corro, Elena; Peña-Alvarez, Miriam; Sato, Kentaro; Morales-Garcia, Angel; Bousa, Milan; Mračko, Michal; Kolman, Radek; Pacakova, Barbara; Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbac, Martin; Frank, Otakar

    2017-02-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) represents a family of unique materials with optoelectronic properties tuned by the rotation angle between the two layers. The presented work shows an additional way of tweaking the electronic structure of tBLG by modifying the interlayer distance, for example by a small uniaxial out-of-plane compression. We have focused on the optical transition energy, which shows a clear dependence on the interlayer distance, both experimentally and theoretically.

  5. In situ fine tuning of bendable soft x-ray mirrors using a lateral shearing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merthe, Daniel J.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; MacDougall, James; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Anderson, Erik; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; Padmore, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Broadly applicable, in situ at-wavelength metrology methods for x-ray optics are currently under development at the Advanced Light Source. We demonstrate the use of quantitative wavefront feedback from a lateral shearing interferometer for the suppression of aberrations. With the high sensitivity provided by the interferometer we were able to optimally tune the bending couples of a single elliptical mirror (NA=2.7 mrad) in order to focus a beam of soft x-rays (1.24 keV) to a nearly diffraction-limited beam waist size of 156(±10) nm.

  6. Perspective: Extremely fine tuning of doping enabled by combinatorial molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Božović, I.

    2015-06-01

    Chemical doping provides an effective method to control the electric properties of complex oxides. However, the state-of-art accuracy in controlling doping is limited to about 1%. This hampers elucidation of the precise doping dependences of physical properties and phenomena of interest, such as quantum phase transitions. Using the combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy, we improve the accuracy in tuning the doping level by two orders of magnitude. We illustrate this novel method by two examples: a systematic investigation of the doping dependence of interface superconductivity, and a study of the competing ground states in the vicinity of the insulator-to-superconductor transition.

  7. Knowledge based functions for routine use at a German university hospital setting: the issue of fine tuning.

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, T.; Prokosch, H. U.; Hussak, G.; Dudeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present the introduction of knowledge based functions into clinical routine at Giessen University Hospital. For this purpose a therapy planning module at the medical intensive care unit has been extensively redesigned in order to support the structured documentation of drug prescriptions. After introduction of this new HIS component in January 1996 research has been initiated to establish a basic drug therapy knowledge base. The main components of a knowledge based system have been fully incorporated into the hospital information system WING and are in routine use since December 1996. During a pre-production phase warnings of reminder functions were logged and reviewed by an interdisciplinary team in order to adapt the system to the actual clinical environment. The paper describes experiences during this fine tuning and adaptation process which was necessary to bring a small set of knowledge modules into clinical routine. PMID:9357589

  8. Fine-tuning of process conditions to improve product uniformity of polystyrene particles used for wind tunnel velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asit K.

    1990-01-01

    Monodisperse polymer particles (having uniform diameter) were used for the last two decades in physical, biological, and chemical sciences. In NASA Langley Research Center monodisperse polystyrene particles are used in wind tunnel laser velocimeters. These polystyrene (PS) particles in latex form were formulated at the Engineering Laboratory of FENGD using emulsion-free emulsion polymerization. Monodisperse PS latices particles having different particle diameters were formulated and useful experimental data involving effects of process conditions on particle size were accumulated. However, similar process conditions and chemical recipes for polymerization of styrene monomer have often yielded monodisperse particles having varying diameters. The purpose was to improve the PS latex product uniformity by fine-tuning the process parameters based on the knowledge of suspension and emulsion polymerization.

  9. Single Heteroatom Fine-Tuning of the Emissive Properties in Organoboron Complexes with 7-(Azaheteroaryl)indole Systems.

    PubMed

    Más-Montoya, Miriam; Usea, Laura; Espinosa Ferao, Arturo; Montenegro, María F; Ramírez de Arellano, Carmen; Tárraga, Alberto; Rodríguez-López, José N; Curiel, David

    2016-04-15

    The application of organoboron compounds as light-absorbing or light-emitting species in areas as relevant as organic electronics or biomedicine has motivated the search for new materials which contribute to the progress of those applications. This article reports the synthesis of four-coordinate boron complexes based on the unexplored 7-(azaheteroaryl)indole ligands. An easy synthetic approach has enabled the fine-tuning of the electronic structure of the organoboron species by modifying a heteroaromatic component in the conjugated system. Furthermore, a comprehensive characterization by X-ray diffraction, absorption and emission spectroscopy, both in solution and in the solid state, cyclic voltammetry, and computational methods has evidenced the utility of this simple strategy. Large Stokes shifts have been achieved in solid thin-films which show a range of emitted light from blue to orange. The synthesized compounds have been used as biocompatible fluorophores in cell bioimaging.

  10. Functional Role of PPARs in Ruminants: Potential Targets for Fine-Tuning Metabolism during Growth and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuowen; Khan, Muhammad J.; Loor, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization and biological roles of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes are well known in monogastrics, but not in ruminants. However, a wealth of information has accumulated in little more than a decade on ruminant PPARs including isotype tissue distribution, response to synthetic and natural agonists, gene targets, and factors affecting their expression. Functional characterization demonstrated that, as in monogastrics, the PPAR isotypes control expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, anti-inflammatory response, development, and growth. Contrary to mouse, however, the PPARγ gene network appears to controls milk fat synthesis in lactating ruminants. As in monogastrics, PPAR isotypes in ruminants are activated by long-chain fatty acids, therefore, making them ideal candidates for fine-tuning metabolism in this species via nutrients. In this regard, using information accumulated in ruminants and monogastrics, we propose a model of PPAR isotype-driven biological functions encompassing key tissues during the peripartal period in dairy cattle. PMID:23737762

  11. MicroRNA inhibition fine-tunes and provides robustness to the restriction point switch of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario, Ricardo C. H.; Damasco, Joseph Ray Clarence G.; Aguda, Baltazar D.

    2016-01-01

    The restriction point marks a switch in G1 from growth factor-dependent to growth factor-independent progression of the cell cycle. The proper regulation of this switch is important for normal cell processes; aberrations could result in a number of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, stroke and myocardial infarction. To further understand the regulation of the restriction point, we extended a mathematical model of the Rb-E2F pathway to include members of the microRNA cluster miR-17-92. Our mathematical analysis shows that microRNAs play an essential role in fine-tuning and providing robustness to the switch. We also demonstrate how microRNA regulation can steer cells in or out of cancer states. PMID:27610602

  12. Fine-tuning the onset of myogenesis by homeobox proteins that interact with the Myf5 limb enhancer.

    PubMed

    Daubas, Philippe; Duval, Nathalie; Bajard, Lola; Langa Vives, Francina; Robert, Benoît; Mankoo, Baljinder S; Buckingham, Margaret

    2015-11-04

    Skeletal myogenesis in vertebrates is initiated at different sites of skeletal muscle formation during development, by activation of specific control elements of the myogenic regulatory genes. In the mouse embryo, Myf5 is the first myogenic determination gene to be expressed and its spatiotemporal regulation requires multiple enhancer sequences, extending over 120 kb upstream of the Mrf4-Myf5 locus. An enhancer, located at -57/-58 kb from Myf5, is responsible for its activation in myogenic cells derived from the hypaxial domain of the somite, that will form limb muscles. Pax3 and Six1/4 transcription factors are essential activators of this enhancer, acting on a 145-bp core element. Myogenic progenitor cells that will form the future muscle masses of the limbs express the factors necessary for Myf5 activation when they delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome and migrate into the forelimb bud, however they do not activate Myf5 and the myogenic programme until they have populated the prospective muscle masses. We show that Msx1 and Meox2 homeodomain-containing transcription factors bind in vitro and in vivo to specific sites in the 145-bp element, and are implicated in fine-tuning activation of Myf5 in the forelimb. Msx1, when bound between Pax and Six sites, prevents the binding of these key activators, thus inhibiting transcription of Myf5 and consequent premature myogenic differentiation. Meox2 is required for Myf5 activation at the onset of myogenesis via direct binding to other homeodomain sites in this sequence. Thus, these homeodomain factors, acting in addition to Pax3 and Six1/4, fine-tune the entry of progenitor cells into myogenesis at early stages of forelimb development.

  13. Fine frequency tuning in sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave single-frequency coherent light at 252 nm with dual-wavelength enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Fine frequency tuning of the deep-ultraviolet single-mode coherent light at 252 nm was conducted through the PID feedback system automatically by changing the temperature of a beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal in a doubly resonant external cavity for the sum-frequency mixing of 373 and 780 nm light. The temperature-dependent frequency tuning rate is 19.3 MHzK(-1), which is sufficiently fine to realize the laser cooling of neutral silicon atoms because the natural width of the laser cooling transition is 28.8 MHz.

  14. Fine tuning a well-oiled machine: Influence of NK1.1 and NKG2D on NKT cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sunil K.; Lang, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Natural Killer T cells (NKT) represent a group of CD1d-restricted T-lineage cells that that provide a functional interface between innate and adaptive immune responses in infectious disease, cancer, allergy and autoimmunity. There have been remarkable advances in understanding the molecular events that underpin NKT development in the thymus and in the complex array of functions in the periphery. Most functional studies have focused on activation of T cell antigen receptors expressed by NKT cells and their responses to CD1d presentation of glycolipid and related antigens. Receiving less attention has been several molecules that are hallmarks of Natural Killer (NK) cells, but nonetheless expressed by NKT cells. These include several activating and inhibitory receptors that may fine-tune NKT development and survival, as well as activation via antigen receptors. Herein, we review the possible roles of the NK1.1 and NKG2D receptors in regulating development and function of NKT cells in health and disease. We suggest that pharmacological alteration of NKT activity should consider the potential complexities commensurate with NK1.1 and NKG2D expression. PMID:23800654

  15. Fine-Tuning of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Cell Adhesion During Drosophila Development by the Unconventional Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Myoblast City and Sponge

    PubMed Central

    Biersmith, Bridget; Wang, Zong-Heng; Geisbrecht, Erika R.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Dock proteins function as unconventional guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Upon binding to engulfment and cell motility (ELMO) proteins, Dock–ELMO complexes activate the Rho family of small GTPases to mediate a diverse array of biological processes, including cell motility, apoptotic cell clearance, and axon guidance. Overlapping expression patterns and functional redundancy among the 11 vertebrate Dock family members, which are subdivided into four families (Dock A, B, C, and D), complicate genetic analysis. In both vertebrate and invertebrate systems, the actin dynamics regulator, Rac, is the target GTPase of the Dock-A subfamily. However, it remains unclear whether Rac or Rap1 are the in vivo downstream GTPases of the Dock-B subfamily. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent genetic model organism for understanding Dock protein function as its genome encodes one ortholog per subfamily: Myoblast city (Mbc; Dock A) and Sponge (Spg; Dock B). Here we show that the roles of Spg and Mbc are not redundant in the Drosophila somatic muscle or the dorsal vessel. Moreover, we confirm the in vivo role of Mbc upstream of Rac and provide evidence that Spg functions in concert with Rap1, possibly to regulate aspects of cell adhesion. Together these data show that Mbc and Spg can have different downstream GTPase targets. Our findings predict that the ability to regulate downstream GTPases is dependent on cellular context and allows for the fine-tuning of actin cytoskeletal or cell adhesion events in biological processes that undergo cell morphogenesis. PMID:25908317

  16. Fine-Tuning of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Cell Adhesion During Drosophila Development by the Unconventional Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Myoblast City and Sponge.

    PubMed

    Biersmith, Bridget; Wang, Zong-Heng; Geisbrecht, Erika R

    2015-06-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Dock proteins function as unconventional guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Upon binding to engulfment and cell motility (ELMO) proteins, Dock-ELMO complexes activate the Rho family of small GTPases to mediate a diverse array of biological processes, including cell motility, apoptotic cell clearance, and axon guidance. Overlapping expression patterns and functional redundancy among the 11 vertebrate Dock family members, which are subdivided into four families (Dock A, B, C, and D), complicate genetic analysis. In both vertebrate and invertebrate systems, the actin dynamics regulator, Rac, is the target GTPase of the Dock-A subfamily. However, it remains unclear whether Rac or Rap1 are the in vivo downstream GTPases of the Dock-B subfamily. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent genetic model organism for understanding Dock protein function as its genome encodes one ortholog per subfamily: Myoblast city (Mbc; Dock A) and Sponge (Spg; Dock B). Here we show that the roles of Spg and Mbc are not redundant in the Drosophila somatic muscle or the dorsal vessel. Moreover, we confirm the in vivo role of Mbc upstream of Rac and provide evidence that Spg functions in concert with Rap1, possibly to regulate aspects of cell adhesion. Together these data show that Mbc and Spg can have different downstream GTPase targets. Our findings predict that the ability to regulate downstream GTPases is dependent on cellular context and allows for the fine-tuning of actin cytoskeletal or cell adhesion events in biological processes that undergo cell morphogenesis.

  17. Enhanced processing in arrays of optimally tuned nonlinear biomimetic sensors: A coupling-mediated Ringelmann effect and its dynamical mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Alexander P.; Bulsara, Adi R.; Stocks, Nigel G.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by recent results on self-tunability in the outer hair cells of the mammalian cochlea, we describe an array of magnetic sensors where each individual sensor can self-tune to an optimal operating regime. The self-tuning gives the array its "biomimetic" features. We show that the overall performance of the array can, as expected, be improved by increasing the number of sensors but, however, coupling between sensors reduces the overall performance even though the individual sensors in the system could see an improvement. We quantify the similarity of this phenomenon to the Ringelmann effect that was formulated 103 years ago to account for productivity losses in human and animal groups. We propose a global feedback scheme that can be used to greatly mitigate the performance degradation that would, normally, stem from the Ringelmann effect.

  18. Self-assembly based plasmonic arrays tuned by atomic layer deposition for extreme visible light absorption.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Carl; Zeltzer, Gabriel; Ruiz, Ricardo; Thomann, Isabell; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Brongersma, Mark L; Bent, Stacey F

    2013-07-10

    Achieving complete absorption of visible light with a minimal amount of material is highly desirable for many applications, including solar energy conversion to fuel and electricity, where benefits in conversion efficiency and economy can be obtained. On a fundamental level, it is of great interest to explore whether the ultimate limits in light absorption per unit volume can be achieved by capitalizing on the advances in metamaterial science and nanosynthesis. Here, we combine block copolymer lithography and atomic layer deposition to tune the effective optical properties of a plasmonic array at the atomic scale. Critical coupling to the resulting nanocomposite layer is accomplished through guidance by a simple analytical model and measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thereby, a maximized absorption of light exceeding 99% is accomplished, of which up to about 93% occurs in a volume-equivalent thickness of gold of only 1.6 nm. This corresponds to a record effective absorption coefficient of 1.7 × 10(7) cm(-1) in the visible region, far exceeding those of solid metals, graphene, dye monolayers, and thin film solar cell materials. It is more than a factor of 2 higher than that previously obtained using a critically coupled dye J-aggregate, with a peak width exceeding the latter by 1 order of magnitude. These results thereby substantially push the limits for light harvesting in ultrathin, nanoengineered systems.

  19. Over 11% Efficiency in Tandem Polymer Solar Cells Featured by a Low-Band-Gap Polymer with Fine-Tuned Properties.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Jianqi; Qin, Yunpeng; Li, Wanning; Yu, Runnan; Wei, Zhixiang; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-07-01

    Highly efficient polymer solar cells with tandem structure are fabricated by using two excellent photovoltaic polymers and a highly transparent intermediate recombination layer. Power conversion efficiencies over 11% can be realized featured by a low-band-gap polymer with fine-tuned properties.

  20. Fine-tuning transmission electron microscopy methods to evaluate the cellular architecture of Ulvacean seaweeds (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Farias, D R; Simioni, C; Poltronieri, E; Bouzon, Z L; Macleod, C K

    2017-02-20

    Chemical fixation is a critical step in the analysis of the ultrastructure of seaweeds because the wrong approach can compromise the ability to distinguish fine-scale cellular composition. Fixation agents, fixation time and type of tissue are important factors to consider for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and not every protocol is suitable for all cell types. We evaluated a range of fixation agents, post-fixation time and dehydration solutions to determine a TEM protocol for seaweeds in the Family Ulvaceae. We assessed Ulva lactuca using 5 protocols. The level of preservation obtained differed markedly between fixation methods The best result was obtained by fixing the sample with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, 0.05M sodium cacodylate buffer and 2% paraformaldehyde overnight, and 8h post-fixation in 1% in osmium tetroxide 1%. This approach and fixation time ensured that the membranes, especially the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, remained intact. Ethanol is recommended for dehydration as the use of acetone for dehydration resulted in the collapse of cellular membranes. This new protocol will ensure the ultrastructure of Ulvacean seaweeds can be clearly ascertained in the future.

  1. Tomato Yield Heterosis Is Triggered by a Dosage Sensitivity of the Florigen Pathway That Fine-Tunes Shoot Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ke; Liberatore, Katie L.; Park, Soon Ju; Alvarez, John P.; Lippman, Zachary B.

    2013-01-01

    The superiority of hybrids has long been exploited in agriculture, and although many models explaining “heterosis” have been put forth, direct empirical support is limited. Particularly elusive have been cases of heterozygosity for single gene mutations causing heterosis under a genetic model known as overdominance. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), plants carrying mutations in SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) encoding the flowering hormone florigen are severely delayed in flowering, become extremely large, and produce few flowers and fruits, but when heterozygous, yields are dramatically increased. Curiously, this overdominance is evident only in the background of “determinate” plants, in which the continuous production of side shoots and inflorescences gradually halts due to a defect in the flowering repressor SELF PRUNING (SP). How sp facilitates sft overdominance is unclear, but is thought to relate to the opposing functions these genes have on flowering time and shoot architecture. We show that sft mutant heterozygosity (sft/+) causes weak semi-dominant delays in flowering of both primary and side shoots. Using transcriptome sequencing of shoot meristems, we demonstrate that this delay begins before seedling meristems become reproductive, followed by delays in subsequent side shoot meristems that, in turn, postpone the arrest of shoot and inflorescence production. Reducing SFT levels in sp plants by artificial microRNAs recapitulates the dose-dependent modification of shoot and inflorescence production of sft/+ heterozygotes, confirming that fine-tuning levels of functional SFT transcripts provides a foundation for higher yields. Finally, we show that although flowering delays by florigen mutant heterozygosity are conserved in Arabidopsis, increased yield is not, likely because cyclical flowering is absent. We suggest sft heterozygosity triggers a yield improvement by optimizing plant architecture via its dosage response in the florigen pathway. Exploiting

  2. Scaling behavior of the magnetic-field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition in two-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.D.; Delsing, P.; Haviland, D.B.; Harada, Y.; Claeson, T.

    1995-06-01

    We have studied the superconductor-insulator (SI) phase transition for two-dimensional (2D) arrays of small Josephson junctions in a weak magnetic field. The data were analyzed within the context of the theory of the magnetic-field-tuned SI transition in 2D superconductors. We show resistance scaling curves over several orders of magnitude for the 2D arrays. The critical exponent {ital z}{sub {ital B}} is determined to be 1.05, in good agreement with the theory. Moreover, the transverse (Hall) resistance at the critical field is found to be very small in comparison to the longitudinal resistance.

  3. Fine-tuning of Notch signaling sets the boundary of the organ of Corti and establishes sensory cell fates

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Martin L; Brown, Rogers M; Jen, Hsin-I; Semerci, Fatih; Depreux, Frederic; Edlund, Renée K; Zhang, Hongyuan; Norton, Christine R; Gridley, Thomas; Cole, Susan E; Doetzlhofer, Angelika; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Segil, Neil; Groves, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The signals that induce the organ of Corti and define its boundaries in the cochlea are poorly understood. We show that two Notch modifiers, Lfng and Mfng, are transiently expressed precisely at the neural boundary of the organ of Corti. Cre-Lox fate mapping shows this region gives rise to inner hair cells and their associated inner phalangeal cells. Mutation of Lfng and Mfng disrupts this boundary, producing unexpected duplications of inner hair cells and inner phalangeal cells. This phenotype is mimicked by other mouse mutants or pharmacological treatments that lower but not abolish Notch signaling. However, strong disruption of Notch signaling causes a very different result, generating many ectopic hair cells at the expense of inner phalangeal cells. Our results show that Notch signaling is finely calibrated in the cochlea to produce precisely tuned levels of signaling that first set the boundary of the organ of Corti and later regulate hair cell development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19921.001 PMID:27966429

  4. Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Garza, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Romine, Margaret F.; Loffler, F. E.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-03-30

    EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is not well understood. The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down regulated at least 2-fold and the EtrA7-1 mutant grew poorly with fumarate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and confers physiological advantages to strain MR-1 under certain growth conditions. In conjunction with other regulators, EtrA fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1.

  5. Comparative phosphoproteome profiling reveals a function of the STN8 kinase in fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow (CEF)

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Sonja; Finazzi, Giovanni; Endler, Anne; Willig, Adrian; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Gerrits, Bertran; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Rochaix, Jean-David; Baginsky, Sacha

    2011-01-01

    Important aspects of photosynthetic electron transport efficiency in chloroplasts are controlled by protein phosphorylation. Two thylakoid-associated kinases, STN7 and STN8, have distinct roles in short- and long-term photosynthetic acclimation to changes in light quality and quantity. Although some substrates of STN7 and STN8 are known, the complexity of this regulatory kinase system implies that currently unknown substrates connect photosynthetic performance with the regulation of metabolic and regulatory functions. We performed an unbiased phosphoproteome-wide screen with Arabidopsis WT and stn8 mutant plants to identify unique STN8 targets. The phosphorylation status of STN7 was not affected in stn8, indicating that kinases other than STN8 phosphorylate STN7 under standard growth conditions. Among several putative STN8 substrates, PGRL1-A is of particular importance because of its possible role in the modulation of cyclic electron transfer. The STN8 phosphorylation site on PGRL1-A is absent in both monocotyledonous plants and algae. In dicots, spectroscopic measurements with Arabidopsis WT, stn7, stn8, and stn7/stn8 double-mutant plants indicate a STN8-mediated slowing down of the transition from cyclic to linear electron flow at the onset of illumination. This finding suggests a possible link between protein phosphorylation by STN8 and fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow during this critical step of photosynthesis, when the carbon assimilation is not commensurate to the electron flow capacity of the chloroplast. PMID:21768351

  6. Activation of oxygen-mediating pathway using copper ions: fine-tuning of growth kinetics in gold nanorod overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqi; Zhang, Hui; Wen, Tao; Yan, Jiao; Hou, Shuai; Shi, Xiaowei; Hu, Zhijian; Ji, Yinglu; Wu, Xiaochun

    2014-10-21

    Growth kinetics plays an important role in the shape control of nanocrystals (NCs). Herein, we presented a unique way to fine-tune the growth kinetics via oxidative etching activated by copper ions. For the overgrowth of gold nanorods (Au NRs), competitive adsorption of dissolved oxygen on rod surface was found to slow down the overgrowth rate. Copper ions were able to remove the adsorbed oxygen species from the Au surface via oxidative etching, thus exposing more reaction sites for Au deposition. In this way, copper ions facilitated the overgrowth process. Furthermore, Cu(2+) rather than Cu(+) acted as the catalyst for the oxidative etching. Comparative study with Ag(+) indicated that Cu(2+) cannot regulate NC shapes via an underpotential deposition mechanism. In contrast, Ag(+) led to the formation of Au tetrahexahedra (THH) and a slight decrease of the growth rate at similar growth conditions. Combining the distinct roles of the two ions enabled elongated THH to be produced. Copper ions activating the O2 pathway suggested that dissolved oxygen has a strong affinity for the Au surface. Moreover, the results of NC-sensitized singlet oxygen ((1)O2) indicated that the absorbed oxygen species on the surface of Au NCs bounded with low-index facets mainly existed in the form of molecular O2.

  7. The role of post-translational modifications in fine-tuning BLM helicase function during DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Stefanie; Bernstein, Kara Anne

    2014-01-01

    RecQ-like helicases are a highly conserved family of proteins which are critical for preserving genome integrity. Genome instability is considered a hallmark of cancer and mutations within three of the five human RECQ genes cause hereditary syndromes that are associated with cancer predisposition. The human RecQ-like helicase BLM has a central role in DNA damage signaling, repair, replication, and telomere maintenance. BLM and its budding yeast orthologue Sgs1 unwind double-stranded DNA intermediates. Intriguingly, BLM functions in both a pro- and anti-recombinogenic manner upon replicative damage, acting on similar substrates. Thus, BLM activity must be intricately controlled to prevent illegitimate recombination events that could have detrimental effects on genome integrity. In recent years it has become evident that post-translational modifications (PTMs) of BLM allow a fine-tuning of its function. To date, BLM phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation have been identified, in turn regulating its subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and protein stability. In this review, we will discuss the cellular context of when and how these different modifications of BLM occur. We will reflect on the current model of how PTMs control BLM function during DNA damage repair and compare this to what is known about post-translational regulation of the budding yeast orthologue Sgs1. Finally, we will provide an outlook towards future research, in particular to dissect the cross-talk between the individual PTMs on BLM. PMID:25150915

  8. Disulfide-activated protein kinase G Iα regulates cardiac diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank–Starling response

    PubMed Central

    Scotcher, Jenna; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Kistamas, Kornel; Hadgraft, Natasha; Martin, Eva D.; Worthington, Jenny; Rudyk, Olena; Rodriguez Cutillas, Pedro; Cuello, Friederike; Shattock, Michael J.; Marber, Michael S.; Conte, Maria R.; Greenstein, Adam; Greensmith, David J.; Venetucci, Luigi; Timms, John F.; Eaton, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The Frank–Starling mechanism allows the amount of blood entering the heart from the veins to be precisely matched with the amount pumped out to the arterial circulation. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, the myocardium is stretched and oxidants are produced. Here we show that protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) is oxidant-activated during stretch and this form of the kinase selectively phosphorylates cardiac phospholamban Ser16—a site important for diastolic relaxation. We find that hearts of Cys42Ser PKGIα knock-in (KI) mice, which are resistant to PKGIα oxidation, have diastolic dysfunction and a diminished ability to couple ventricular filling with cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis. Intracellular calcium dynamics of ventricular myocytes isolated from KI hearts are altered in a manner consistent with impaired relaxation and contractile function. We conclude that oxidation of PKGIα during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank–Starling response. PMID:27782102

  9. Large-Scale Phenomics Identifies Primary and Fine-Tuning Roles for CRKs in Responses Related to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rayapuram, Channabasavangowda; Idänheimo, Niina; Hunter, Kerri; Kimura, Sachie; Merilo, Ebe; Vaattovaara, Aleksia; Oracz, Krystyna; Kaufholdt, David; Pallon, Andres; Anggoro, Damar Tri; Glów, Dawid; Lowe, Jennifer; Zhou, Ji; Mohammadi, Omid; Puukko, Tuomas; Albert, Andreas; Lang, Hans; Ernst, Dieter; Kollist, Hannes; Brosché, Mikael; Durner, Jörg; Borst, Jan Willem; Collinge, David B.; Karpiński, Stanisław; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Robatzek, Silke; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) are transmembrane proteins characterized by the presence of two domains of unknown function 26 (DUF26) in their ectodomain. The CRKs form one of the largest groups of receptor-like protein kinases in plants, but their biological functions have so far remained largely uncharacterized. We conducted a large-scale phenotyping approach of a nearly complete crk T-DNA insertion line collection showing that CRKs control important aspects of plant development and stress adaptation in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli in a non-redundant fashion. In particular, the analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related stress responses, such as regulation of the stomatal aperture, suggests that CRKs participate in ROS/redox signalling and sensing. CRKs play general and fine-tuning roles in the regulation of stomatal closure induced by microbial and abiotic cues. Despite their great number and high similarity, large-scale phenotyping identified specific functions in diverse processes for many CRKs and indicated that CRK2 and CRK5 play predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively. As a whole, the CRKs contribute to specificity in ROS signalling. Individual CRKs control distinct responses in an antagonistic fashion suggesting future potential for using CRKs in genetic approaches to improve plant performance and stress tolerance. PMID:26197346

  10. Disulfide-activated protein kinase G Iα regulates cardiac diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

    PubMed

    Scotcher, Jenna; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Kistamas, Kornel; Hadgraft, Natasha; Martin, Eva D; Worthington, Jenny; Rudyk, Olena; Rodriguez Cutillas, Pedro; Cuello, Friederike; Shattock, Michael J; Marber, Michael S; Conte, Maria R; Greenstein, Adam; Greensmith, David J; Venetucci, Luigi; Timms, John F; Eaton, Philip

    2016-10-26

    The Frank-Starling mechanism allows the amount of blood entering the heart from the veins to be precisely matched with the amount pumped out to the arterial circulation. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, the myocardium is stretched and oxidants are produced. Here we show that protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) is oxidant-activated during stretch and this form of the kinase selectively phosphorylates cardiac phospholamban Ser16-a site important for diastolic relaxation. We find that hearts of Cys42Ser PKGIα knock-in (KI) mice, which are resistant to PKGIα oxidation, have diastolic dysfunction and a diminished ability to couple ventricular filling with cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis. Intracellular calcium dynamics of ventricular myocytes isolated from KI hearts are altered in a manner consistent with impaired relaxation and contractile function. We conclude that oxidation of PKGIα during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

  11. Control of Wnt5b secretion by Wntless modulates chondrogenic cell proliferation through fine-tuning fgf3 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo-Tsung; Wen, Shih-Hsien; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L; Huang, Chang-Jen; Kuan, Yung-Shu

    2015-06-15

    Wnts and Fgfs regulate various tissues development in vertebrates. However, how regional Wnt or Fgf activities are established and how they interact in any given developmental event is elusive. Here, we investigated the Wnt-mediated craniofacial cartilage development in zebrafish and found that fgf3 expression in the pharyngeal pouches is differentially reduced along the anteroposterior axis in wnt5b mutants and wntless (wls) morphants, but its expression is normal in wnt9a and wnt11 morphants. Introducing fgf3 mRNAs rescued the cartilage defects in Wnt5b- and Wls-deficient larvae. In wls morphants, endogenous Wls expression is not detectable but maternally deposited Wls is present in eggs, which might account for the lack of axis defects in wls morphants. Secretion of endogenous Wnt5b but not Wnt11 was affected in the pharyngeal tissue of Wls morphants, indicating that Wls is not involved in every Wnt secretion event. Furthermore, cell proliferation but not apoptosis in the developing jaw was affected in Wnt5b- and Wls-deficient embryos. Therefore, Wnt5b requires Wls for its secretion and regulates the proliferation of chondrogenic cells through fine-tuning the expression of fgf3 during jaw cartilage development.

  12. A family of enantiopure Fe(III)4 single molecule magnets: fine tuning of energy barrier by remote substituent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Cui, Chang; Qian, Kang; Yin, Ji; Wang, Bing-Wu; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2014-08-21

    A new family of enantiopure star-shaped Fe(III)4 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with the general formula [Fe4(L(K))6] (H2L = (R or S)-2-((2-hydroxy-1-phenylethylimino methyl)phenol); K = H (), Cl (), Br (), I (), and t-Bu ()), were structurally and magnetically characterized. Complex was reported in our previous paper (Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 8049-8051). Detailed magnetic measurements and a systematic magneto-structural correlation study revealed that the SMM properties of this series of compounds can be finely tuned by the remote substituent of the ligands. Although the change in the coordination environment of the central Fe(3+) ions is very small, the properties of SMM behavior are changed considerably. All five complexes display frequency dependence of the ac susceptibility. However, the χ peaks of complexes and cannot be observed down to 0.5 K. The fitted anisotropy energy barriers (Ueff) of complexes , , and were 5.9, 7.1, and 11.0 K, respectively. Moreover, the hysteresis loops of these three complexes can be also observed around 0.5 K. Magneto-structural correlation analyses revealed that the coordination symmetry of the central Fe(3+) ion and the intermolecular interaction are two key factors affecting the SMM properties. Deviation to a trigonal prism coordination environment and the existence of intermolecular interactions between neighboring clusters may both reduce the anisotropy energy barriers.

  13. Transcriptional control of flavonoid biosynthesis: fine-tuning of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary polyphenolic metabolites and fulfil many vital biological functions, offering a valuable metabolic and genetic model for studying transcriptional control of gene expression. Arabidopsis thaliana mainly accumulates 3 types of flavonoids, including flavonols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins (PAs). Flavonoid biosynthesis involves a multitude of well-characterized enzymatic and regulatory proteins. Three R2R3-MYB proteins (MYB11, MYB12, and MYB111) control flavonol biosynthesis via activating the early biosynthetic steps, whereas the production of anthocyanins and PAs requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. Additional regulators of flavonoid biosynthesis have recently come to light, which interact with R2R3-MYBs or bHLHs to organize or disrupt the formation of the MBW complex, leading to enhanced or compromised flavonoid production. This mini-review gives an overview of how these novel players modulate flavonoid metabolism and thus plant developmental processes and further proposes a fine-tuning mechanism to complete the complex regulatory network controlling flavonoid biosynthesis.

  14. A Negative Feedback Loop between PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs and HECATE Proteins Fine-Tunes Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling; Bu, Qingyun; Shen, Hui; Dang, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), a small group of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, repress photomorphogenesis both in the dark and light. Light signals perceived by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors induce rapid degradation of PIFs to promote photomorphogenesis. Here, we show that HECATE (HEC) proteins, another small group of HLH proteins, antagonistically regulate PIFs to promote photomorphogenesis. HEC1 and HEC2 heterodimerize with PIF family members. PIF1, HEC1, and HEC2 genes are spatially and temporally coexpressed, and HEC2 is localized in the nucleus. hec1, hec2, and hec3 single mutants and the hec1 hec2 double mutant showed hyposensitivity to light-induced seed germination and accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoids, hallmark processes oppositely regulated by PIF1. HEC2 inhibits PIF1 target gene expression by directly heterodimerizing with PIF1 and preventing DNA binding and transcriptional activation activity of PIF1. Conversely, PIFs directly activate the expression of HEC1 and HEC2 in the dark, and light reduces the expression of these HECs possibly by degrading PIFs. HEC2 is partially degraded in the dark through the ubiquitin/26S-proteasome pathway and is stabilized by light. HEC2 overexpression also reduces the light-induced degradation of PIF1. Taken together, these data suggest that PIFs and HECs constitute a negative feedback loop to fine-tune photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27073231

  15. The TORC1 effector kinase Npr1 fine tunes the inherent activity of the Mep2 ammonium transport protein.

    PubMed

    Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Llinares, Elisa; Van Vooren, Pascale; Marini, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The TORC1 complex controls cell growth upon integrating nutritional signals including amino-acid availability. TORC1 notably adapts the plasma membrane protein content by regulating arrestin-mediated endocytosis of amino-acid transporters. Here we demonstrate that TORC1 further fine tunes the inherent activity of the ammonium transport protein, Mep2, a yeast homologue of mammalian Rhesus factors, independently of arrestin-mediated endocytosis. The TORC1 effector kinase Npr1 and the upstream TORC1 regulator Npr2 control Mep2 transport activity by phospho-silencing a carboxy-terminal autoinhibitory domain. Under poor nitrogen supply, Npr1 enables Mep2 S457 phosphorylation and thus ammonium transport activity. Supplementation of the preferred nitrogen source glutamine leads to Mep2 inactivation and instant S457 dephosphorylation via plasma membrane Psr1 and Psr2 redundant phosphatases. This study underscores that TORC1 also adjusts nutrient permeability to regulate cell growth in a fast and flexible response to environmental perturbation, establishing a hierarchy in the transporters to be degraded, inactivated or maintained active at the plasma membrane.

  16. Fine-tuning of DDES and IDDES formulations to the k-ω shear stress transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritskevich, M. S.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Menter, F. R.

    2013-06-01

    Modifications are proposed of two recently developed hybrid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) strategies, Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES), and DDES with Improved wall-modeling capability (IDDES). The modifications are aimed at fine-tuning of these approaches to the k-ω SST (shear stress transport) background RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) model. The first one includes recalibrated empirical constants in the shielding function of the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) based DDES which are shown to be suboptimal (not providing a needed level of elimination of the Model Stress Depletion (MSD)) for the SST-based DDES model. For the SST-IDDES variant, in addition to that, a simplification of the original SA-based formulation is proposed, which does not cause any visible degradation of the model performance. Both modifications are extensively tested on a range of attached and separated flows (developed channel, backward-facing step, periodic hills, wall-mounted hump, and hydrofoil with trailing edge separation).

  17. miR-17-92 fine-tunes MYC expression and function to ensure optimal B cell lymphoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovich, Marija; Bremang, Michael; Spadotto, Valeria; Musiani, Daniele; Vitale, Elena; Varano, Gabriele; Zambelli, Federico; Mancuso, Francesco M.; Cairns, David A.; Pavesi, Giulio; Casola, Stefano; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    The synergism between c-MYC and miR-17-19b, a truncated version of the miR-17-92 cluster, is well-documented during tumor initiation. However, little is known about miR-17-19b function in established cancers. Here we investigate the role of miR-17-19b in c-MYC-driven lymphomas by integrating SILAC-based quantitative proteomics, transcriptomics and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) analysis upon miR-17-19b overexpression. We identify over one hundred miR-17-19b targets, of which 40% are co-regulated by c-MYC. Downregulation of a new miR-17/20 target, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chek2), increases the recruitment of HuR to c-MYC transcripts, resulting in the inhibition of c-MYC translation and thus interfering with in vivo tumor growth. Hence, in established lymphomas, miR-17-19b fine-tunes c-MYC activity through a tight control of its function and expression, ultimately ensuring cancer cell homeostasis. Our data highlight the plasticity of miRNA function, reflecting changes in the mRNA landscape and 3′ UTR shortening at different stages of tumorigenesis. PMID:26555894

  18. 5-Azacytidine-induced Protein 2 (AZI2) Regulates Bone Mass by Fine-tuning Osteoclast Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kenta; Fukasaka, Masahiro; Uematsu, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Kondo, Takeshi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Martino, Mikaël M.; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    5-Azacytidine-induced protein 2 (AZI2) is a TNF receptor (TNFR)-associated factor family member-associated NF-κB activator-binding kinase 1-binding protein that regulates the production of IFNs. A previous in vitro study showed that AZI2 is involved in dendritic cell differentiation. However, the roles of AZI2 in immunity and its pleiotropic functions are unknown in vivo. Here we report that AZI2 knock-out mice exhibit normal dendritic cell differentiation in vivo. However, we found that adult AZI2 knock-out mice have severe osteoporosis due to increased osteoclast longevity. We revealed that the higher longevity of AZI2-deficient osteoclasts is due to an augmented activation of proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src), which is a critical player in osteoclast survival. We found that AZI2 inhibits c-Src activity by regulating the activation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone involved in c-Src dephosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AZI2 indirectly inhibits c-Src by interacting with the Hsp90 co-chaperone Cdc37. Strikingly, administration of a c-Src inhibitor markedly prevented bone loss in AZI2 knock-out mice. Together, these findings indicate that AZI2 regulates bone mass by fine-tuning osteoclast survival. PMID:25691576

  19. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Avdic, Vanja; Zhang, Pamela; Lanouette, Sylvain; Voronova, Anastassia; Skerjanc, Ilona; Couture, Jean-Francois

    2011-08-24

    The SET1 family of methyltransferases carries out the bulk of histone H3 Lys-4 methylation in vivo. One of the common features of this family is the regulation of their methyltransferase activity by a tripartite complex composed of WDR5, RbBP5, and Ash2L. To selectively probe the role of the SET1 family of methyltransferases, we have developed a library of histone H3 peptide mimetics and report herein the characterization of an N{alpha} acetylated form of histone H3 peptide (N{alpha}H3). Binding and inhibition studies reveal that the addition of an acetyl moiety to the N terminus of histone H3 significantly enhances its binding to WDR5 and prevents the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by the WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L complex. The crystal structure of N{alpha}H3 in complex with WDR5 reveals that a high-affinity hydrophobic pocket accommodates the binding of the acetyl moiety. These results provide the structural basis to control WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L-MLL1 activity and a tool to manipulate stem cell differentiation programs.-Avdic, V., Zhang, P., Lanouette, S., Voronova, A., Skerjanc, I., Couture, J.-F. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic.

  20. Fine tuning of Rac1 and RhoA alters cuspal shapes by remolding the cellular geometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liwen; Tang, Qinghuang; Nakamura, Takashi; Suh, Jun-Gyo; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The anatomic and functional combinations of cusps and lophs (ridges) define the tooth shape of rodent molars, which distinguishes species. The species-specific cusp patterns result from the spatiotemporal induction of enamel knots (EKs), which require precisely controlled cellular behavior to control the epithelial invagination. Despite the well-defined roles of EK in cusp patterning, the determinants of the ultimate cuspal shapes and involvement of epithelial cellular geometry are unknown. Using two typical tooth patterns, the lophodont in gerbils and the bunodont in mice, we showed that the cuspal shape is determined by the dental epithelium at the cap stage, whereas the cellular geometry in the inner dental epithelium (IDE) is correlated with the cuspal shape. Intriguingly, fine tuning Rac1 and RhoA interconvert cuspal shapes between two species by remolding the cellular geometry. Either inhibition of Rac1 or ectopic expression of RhoA could region-distinctively change the columnar shape of IDE cells in gerbils to drive invagination to produce cusps. Conversely, RhoA reduction in mice inhibited invagination and developed lophs. Furthermore, we found that Rac1 and RhoA modulate the choices of cuspal shape by coordinating adhesion junctions, actin distribution, and fibronectin localization to drive IDE invagination. PMID:27892530

  1. Tuning the self-assembly of surfactants by the confinement of carbon nanotube arrays: a cornucopia of lamellar phase variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Pan; Ma, Yunyun; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Caili; Yan, Youguo; Liu, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Tuning the self-assembly of building blocks to obtain a kaleidoscope of nanostructures is very important and challenging for the preparation of advanced nanomaterials. Amphiphiles confined within carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays can self-assemble into complex structures that maintain the ``bilayer'' characteristic of a lamellar phase, we call them ``lamellar phase variants (LPVs)''. In this work, we carried out coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) studies to uncover novel LPVs. By varying the pattern of a CNT array, we obtained the ``bilayer tube (BT) series'', which contains circular, hexagonal, octagonal, and elliptical nanotubes. Furthermore, by introducing dislocation to CNT arrays, we obtained the ``bilayer scroll (BS) series'' that contains polymorphic nano-scrolls. These nanostructures are very novel and intriguing. To gain insights into the formation of LPVs, we studied the morphology evolution, which was demonstrated to be an unfamiliar ``successive self-assembly process''. These unusual self-assembling nanostructures and the formation process could provide clues for further studies on tuning the self-assembly of building blocks. The strategies developed in this work to obtain novel nanostructures are expected to facilitate the design and fabrication of nano-devices.Tuning the self-assembly of building blocks to obtain a kaleidoscope of nanostructures is very important and challenging for the preparation of advanced nanomaterials. Amphiphiles confined within carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays can self-assemble into complex structures that maintain the ``bilayer'' characteristic of a lamellar phase, we call them ``lamellar phase variants (LPVs)''. In this work, we carried out coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) studies to uncover novel LPVs. By varying the pattern of a CNT array, we obtained the ``bilayer tube (BT) series'', which contains circular, hexagonal, octagonal, and elliptical nanotubes. Furthermore, by introducing dislocation to CNT arrays, we obtained

  2. Fine-tuning terminal solvent ligands to rationally enhance the energy barrier in dinuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Chen; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2016-12-20

    In search of simple approaches to rationally enhance the energy barriers in polynuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets, a new system containing two structurally closely related dinuclear dysprosium complexes, namely [Dy2(L)2(DBM)2(DMF)2] (1) and [Dy2(L)2(DBM)2(DMA)2]·2DMA (2) (HDBM = dibenzoylmethane, H2L = 2-hydroxy-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide), is introduced and the structure-dependent magnetic properties are investigated. The two complexes display only slight variations in the coordination geometries of the Dy(iii) ion but display remarkably different magnetic behaviors. By replacing the DMF (dimethylformamide) ligand in complex 1 with DMA (dimethylacetamide) in 2 while retaining the same coordination atoms, we were able to create a 3-fold enhancement in the energy barrier, from 24 K for complex 1 to 77 K for complex 2. Complete-active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations revealed that the charge distribution surrounding the Dy(iii) centers in 1 and 2 is the key factor in determining the relaxation properties of the SMMs. The introduction of an electron-donating CH3 group in DMA to replace the hydrogen in DMF resulted in a larger average charge along the magnetic axes of complex 2 compared to complex 1, which resulted in a stronger easy-axis ligand field, thus increasing the energy difference between the ground and the first excited states of complex 2. This work presents a simple method to rationally enhance the energy barrier in polynuclear lanthanide SMMs through fine-tuning of the electrostatic potential of the atoms along the magnetic axis.

  3. Fine-Tuning Motile Cilia and Flagella: Evolution of the Dynein Motor Proteins from Plants to Humans at High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The flagellum is a key innovation linked to eukaryogenesis. It provides motility by regulated cycles of bending and bend propagation, which are thought to be controlled by a complex arrangement of seven distinct dyneins in repeated patterns of outer- (OAD) and inner-arm dynein (IAD) complexes. Electron tomography showed high similarity of this axonemal repeat pattern across ciliates, algae, and animals, but the diversity of dynein sequences across the eukaryotes has not yet comprehensively been resolved and correlated with structural data. To shed light on the evolution of the axoneme I performed an exhaustive analysis of dyneins using the available sequenced genome data. Evidence from motor domain phylogeny allowed expanding the current set of nine dynein subtypes by eight additional isoforms with, however, restricted taxonomic distributions. I confirmed the presence of the nine dyneins in all eukaryotic super-groups indicating their origin predating the last eukaryotic common ancestor. The comparison of the N-terminal tail domains revealed a most likely axonemal dynein origin of the new classes, a group of chimeric dyneins in plants/algae and Stramenopiles, and the unique domain architecture and origin of the outermost OADs present in green algae and ciliates but not animals. The correlation of sequence and structural data suggests the single-headed class-8 and class-9 dyneins to localize to the distal end of the axonemal repeat and the class-7 dyneins filling the region up to the proximal heterodimeric IAD. Tracing dynein gene duplications across the eukaryotes indicated ongoing diversification and fine-tuning of flagellar functions in extant taxa and species. PMID:27880711

  4. Fine-tuning of Hh signaling by the RNA-binding protein Quaking to control muscle development.

    PubMed

    Lobbardi, Riadh; Lambert, Guillaume; Zhao, Jue; Geisler, Robert; Kim, Hyejeong R; Rosa, Frederic M

    2011-05-01

    The development of the different muscles within the somite is a complex process that involves the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. To specify the proper number of muscle cells and organize them spatially and temporally, the Hh signaling pathway needs to be precisely regulated at different levels, but only a few factors external to the pathway have been described. Here, we report for the first time the role of the STAR family RNA-binding protein Quaking A (QkA) in somite muscle development. We show in zebrafish that the loss of QkA function affects fast muscle fiber maturation as well as Hh-induced muscle derivative specification and/or morphogenesis. Mosaic analysis reveals that fast fiber maturation depends on the activity of QkA in the environment of fast fiber progenitors. We further show that Hh signaling requires QkA activity for muscle development. By an in silico approach, we screened the 3'UTRs of known Hh signaling component mRNAs for the Quaking response element and found the transcription factor Gli2a, a known regulator of muscle fate development. Using destabilized GFP as a reporter, we show that the gli2a mRNA 3'UTR is a functional QkA target. Consistent with this notion, the loss of QkA function rescued slow muscle fibers in yot mutant embryos, which express a dominant-negative Gli2a isoform. Thus, our results reveal a new mechanism to ensure muscle cell fate diversity by fine-tuning of the Hh signaling pathway via RNA-binding proteins.

  5. The S1 Helix Critically Regulates the Finely-tuned Gating of Kv11.1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Ng, Chai Ann; David, Erikka; Shishmarev, Dmitry; Kuchel, Philip W; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Perry, Matthew D

    2017-03-09

    Congenital mutations in the cardiac Kv11.1 channel can cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), a heart rhythm disorder associated with sudden cardiac death. Mutations act either by reducing protein expression at the membrane, and/or by perturbing the intricate gating properties of Kv11.1 channels. A number of clinical LQTS2-associated mutations have been reported in the first transmembrane segment (S1) of Kv11.1 channels but the role of this region of the channel is largely unexplored. In part this is due to problems defining the extent of the S1 helix, as a consequence of its low sequence homology with other Kv family members. Here we used NMR spectroscopy and electrophysiological characterization to show that the S1 of Kv11.1 channels extends seven helical turns, from Pro405 to Phe431, and is flanked by unstructured loops. Functional analysis suggests that pre-S1 loop residues His402 and Tyr403 play an important role in regulating the kinetics and voltage dependence of channel activation and deactivation. Multiple residues within the S1 helix also play an important role in fine-tuning the voltage dependence of activation, regulating slow deactivation, and modulating C-type inactivation of Kv11.1 channels. Analyses of LQTS2-associated mutations in the pre-S1 loop or S1 helix of Kv11.1 channels demonstrate perturbations to both protein expression and most gating transitions. Thus S1 region mutations would reduce both the action potential repolarizing current passed by Kv11.1 channels in cardiac myocytes, as well as the current passed in response to premature depolarizations that normally helps protect against the formation of ectopic beats.

  6. Catecholamines as immunomodulators: a role for adrenoceptor-mediated mechanisms in fine tuning of T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Leposavić, Gordana; Pilipović, Ivan; Radojević, Katarina; Pesić, Vesna; Perisić, Milica; Kosec, Dusko

    2008-12-15

    In its simplest form, effective T cell-mediated immunity emanates from the expansion of specific T cells activated in response to antigen. In establishing and maintaining the peripheral T-cell pool, the thymus plays a critical role. It does so by providing a microenvironment within which T-cell precursors proliferate, differentiate and undergo selection processes to create a fully functional population of major histocompatibility complex restricted, self-tolerant T cells. The control of the thymic function involves intrathymic, as well as sympathetic nervous and endocrine system signalling. In addition to postganglionic noradrenergic fibres, both thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells, including epithelial cells and macrophages, have been demonstrated to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and suggested to form a local non-neural catecholaminergic cell network. A higher level of noradrenaline has been found in male than in female rat thymi, and a role of gonadal hormones in providing this dimorphism has been demonstrated. In addition, thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells, including those expressing TH, have been found to bear beta- and alpha1-adrenoceptors (ARs) and a role of gonadal hormones in regulation of, at least, beta-AR density and signalling has been suggested. These findings have also entailed conclusion that catecholamines (CAs) influence T-cell development, not only via neurocrine/endocrine, but also via autocrine/paracrine action. Generally, CAs have been shown to exert an inhibitory influence on thymopoiesis. Role of alpha1- and beta-AR-mediated mechanisms in maintaining thymic homeostasis and in fine tuning of both conventional and regulatory T-cell development is discussed in the manuscript.

  7. Fine-Tuning of the Cpx Envelope Stress Response Is Required for Cell Wall Homeostasis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Delhaye, Antoine; Collet, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is an essential compartment that constitutes a protective and permeability barrier between the cell and its environment. The envelope also hosts the cell wall, a mesh-like structure made of peptidoglycan (PG) that determines cell shape and provides osmotic protection. Since the PG must grow and divide in a cell-cycle-synchronized manner, its synthesis and remodeling are tightly regulated. Here, we discovered that PG homeostasis is intimately linked to the levels of activation of the Cpx system, an envelope stress response system traditionally viewed as being involved in protein quality control in the envelope. We first show that Cpx is activated when PG integrity is challenged and that this activation provides protection to cells exposed to antibiotics inhibiting PG synthesis. By rerouting the outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE, a known Cpx activator, to a different envelope subcompartment, we managed to manipulate Cpx activation levels. We found that Cpx overactivation leads to aberrant cellular morphologies, to an increased sensitivity to β-lactams, and to dramatic division and growth defects, consistent with a loss of PG homeostasis. Remarkably, these phenotypes were largely abrogated by the deletion of ldtD, a Cpx-induced gene involved in noncanonical PG cross-linkage, suggesting that this transpeptidase is an important link between PG homeostasis and the Cpx system. Altogether our data show that fine-tuning of an envelope quality control system constitutes an important layer of regulation of the highly organized cell wall structure. PMID:26908573

  8. Fine-tune optical absorption and light emitting behavior of the CdS/PVA hybridized film nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Z. K.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Imam, N. G.

    2017-05-01

    CdS nanoparticles (NPs) nucleated at different temperatures were composited with PVA to control and fine-tune optical absorption and emission of the nano-hybrid composite by varying the sizes of the CdS NPs which in turn depends on the nucleation temperature. The implanting of CdS NPs into PVA matrix was confirmed by XRD hand in hand with absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. UV/VIS absorption spectra confirm the formation of hybridized film CdS/PVA nanocomposite with refractive index in the range of 2-4. UV/VIS measurements were also used in calculating different optical and dielectric parameters such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, and optical conductivity. The optical parameters varied with the incorporation of CdS NPs within PVA matrix; accordingly, the optical constants of the nanocomposite films could be controlled by size of CdS content. Tauc's relation was used to determine the optical band gap and to determine the type of electronic transition. It is found that the direct allowed transition is more probable in CdS/PVA nanocomposite film of direct band gap around 3.8 eV. Blue and green light emissions from CdS/PVA nanocomposite film have been observed. Further, the PL studies indicated the emission peak observed at UV band represents band to band transition, while the blue and green emissions could be assigned to the optical transition of the first excitonic state of the CdS NPs and emission from interstitial sulfur respectively. The blue shift in the PL spectra was parallel to the shift observed in UV/VIS spectra. Because of its excellent fluorescence and highly transparent performance, the composite film of CdS nucleated at 200 °C was found to be suitable for bio-related applications such as bio-labeling, bio-imaging, drug delivery, and LEDs as well as a window layer in solar cell.

  9. Tuning the self-assembly of surfactants by the confinement of carbon nanotube arrays: a cornucopia of lamellar phase variants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Pan; Ma, Yunyun; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Caili; Yan, Youguo; Liu, Bing

    2015-04-14

    Tuning the self-assembly of building blocks to obtain a kaleidoscope of nanostructures is very important and challenging for the preparation of advanced nanomaterials. Amphiphiles confined within carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays can self-assemble into complex structures that maintain the "bilayer" characteristic of a lamellar phase, we call them "lamellar phase variants (LPVs)". In this work, we carried out coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) studies to uncover novel LPVs. By varying the pattern of a CNT array, we obtained the "bilayer tube (BT) series", which contains circular, hexagonal, octagonal, and elliptical nanotubes. Furthermore, by introducing dislocation to CNT arrays, we obtained the "bilayer scroll (BS) series" that contains polymorphic nano-scrolls. These nanostructures are very novel and intriguing. To gain insights into the formation of LPVs, we studied the morphology evolution, which was demonstrated to be an unfamiliar "successive self-assembly process". These unusual self-assembling nanostructures and the formation process could provide clues for further studies on tuning the self-assembly of building blocks. The strategies developed in this work to obtain novel nanostructures are expected to facilitate the design and fabrication of nano-devices.

  10. Metabolic control of respiratory levels in coenzyme Q biosynthesis-deficient Escherichia coli strains leading to fine-tune aerobic lactate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-08-01

    A novel strategy to finely control the electron transfer chain (ETC) activity of Escherichia coli was established. In this study, the fine-tuning of the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway was applied to further controlling ETC function in coenzyme Q8 biosynthesis-deficient E. coli strains, HW108 and HW109, which contain mutations in ubiE and ubiG, respectively. A competing pathway on the intermediate substrates of the Q8 synthesis pathway, catalyzed by diphosphate:4-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase (PGT-1) of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, was introduced into these mutant strains. A nearly theoretical yield of lactate production can be achieved under fully aerobic conditions via an in vivo, genetically fine-tunable means to further control the activity of the ETC of the Q8 biosynthesis-deficient E. coli strains.

  11. Improving putrescine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum by fine-tuning ornithine transcarbamoylase activity using a plasmid addiction system.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jens; Eberhardt, Dorit; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-07-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum shows a great potential for the production of the polyamide monomer putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Previously, we constructed the putrescine-producing strain PUT1 by deletion of argF, the gene for ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), and argR, encoding the L-arginine repressor, combined with heterologous expression of the Escherichia coli gene for L-ornithine decarboxylase SpeC. As a consequence of argF deletion, this strain requires supplementation of L-arginine and shows growth-decoupled putrescine production. To avoid costly supplementation with L-arginine and the strong feedback inhibition of the key enzyme N-acetylglutamate kinase (ArgB) by L-arginine, a plasmid addiction system for low-level argF expression was developed. By fine-tuning argF expression through modifications of the promoter, the translational start codon and/or the ribosome binding site, high productivity and titer could be obtained. OTC activity varied almost thousandfold between 960 and 1 mU mg⁻¹ resulting in putrescine yields on glucose from less than 0.001 up to 0.26 g g⁻¹, the highest yield in bacteria reported to date. The most promising strain, designated PUT21, was characterized comprehensively. PUT21 strain grew with a rate of 0.19 h⁻¹ in mineral salt medium without the need for L-arginine supplementation and produced putrescine with a yield of 0.16 g g⁻¹ glucose at a volumetric productivity of 0.57 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ and a specific productivity of 0.042 g g⁻¹ h⁻¹. The carbon balance suggested that no major unidentified by-product was produced. Compared to the first-generation strain PUT1, the putrescine yield observed with PUT21 was increased by 60%. In fed-batch cultivation with C. glutamicum PUT21, a putrescine titer of 19 g L⁻¹ at a volumetric productivity of 0.55 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ and a yield of 0.16 g g⁻¹ glucose could be achieved. Moreover, while plasmid segregation of the initial strain required antibiotic selection

  12. Listeria monocytogenes 10403S Arginine Repressor ArgR Finely Tunes Arginine Metabolism Regulation under Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changyong; Dong, Zhimei; Han, Xiao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Hang; Jiang, Li; Yang, Yongchun; Ma, Tiantian; Chen, Zhongwei; Yu, Jing; Fang, Weihuan; Song, Houhui

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is able to colonize human and animal intestinal tracts and to subsequently cross the intestinal barrier, causing systemic infection. For successful establishment of infection, L. monocytogenes must survive the low pH environment of the stomach. L. monocytogenes encodes a functional ArgR, a transcriptional regulator belonging to the ArgR/AhrC arginine repressor family. We aimed at clarifying the specific functions of ArgR in arginine metabolism regulation, and more importantly, in acid tolerance of L. monocytogenes. We showed that ArgR in the presence of 10 mM arginine represses transcription and expression of the argGH and argCJBDF operons, indicating that L. monocytogenes ArgR plays the classical role of ArgR/AhrC family proteins in feedback inhibition of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Notably, transcription and expression of arcA (encoding arginine deiminase) and sigB (encoding an alternative sigma factor B) were also markedly repressed by ArgR when bacteria were exposed to pH 5.5 in the absence of arginine. However, addition of arginine enabled ArgR to derepress the transcription and expression of these two genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ArgR binds to the putative ARG boxes in the promoter regions of argC, argG, arcA, and sigB. Reporter gene analysis with gfp under control of the argG promoter demonstrated that ArgR was able to activate the argG promoter. Unexpectedly, deletion of argR significantly increased bacterial survival in BHI medium adjusted to pH 3.5 with lactic acid. We conclude that this phenomenon is due to activation of arcA and sigB. Collectively, our results show that L. monocytogenes ArgR finely tunes arginine metabolism through negative transcriptional regulation of the arginine biosynthetic operons and of the catabolic arcA gene in an arginine-independent manner during lactic acid-induced acid stress. ArgR also appears to activate catabolism as well as sigB transcription by anti

  13. Experimental Profiling of a Non-truncated Focused Gaussian Beam and Fine-tuning of the Quadratic Phase in the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant

    SciTech Connect

    S., Juan Manuel Franco; Cywiak, Moises; Cywiak, David; Mourad, Idir

    2015-06-24

    A homodyne profiler is used for recording the intensity distribution of focused non-truncated Gaussian beams. The spatial distributions are obtained at planes in the vicinity of the back-focal plane of a focusing lens placed at different distances from a He–Ne laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. Comparisons of the experimental data with those obtained from the analytical equations for an ideal focusing lens allow us to propose formulae to fine-tune the quadratic term in the Fresnel Gaussian shape invariant at each interface of the propagated field. Furthermore, we give analytical expressions to calculate adequately the propagation of the field through an optical system.

  14. Detection of Regional Infrasound Signals Using Array Data - Testing, Tuning, and Physical Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Arrowsmith, S.; Che, I. Y.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the impact environmental conditions have on infrasound detection, an automated detector that accounts for both correlated and uncorrelated noise is run on data from a number of infrasonic arrays, all in a regional context. Data from six seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea (BRDAR, CHNAR, KMPAR, KSGAR, TJIAR, and YPDAR), which are cooperatively operated by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Southern Methodist University (SMU), were used. An adaptive F-detector (AFD) (Arrowsmith et al., 2009) is applied that utilizes the F-statistic (Blandford, 1974) with an adaptive procedure that assesses variations in coherent noise in order to reduce false alarms. The adaptive procedure is characterized by the time dependent C-value that is found to depend on the weather conditions and local site effects. Arrays located on islands or near the coast produce noise power densities that are higher, consistent with both higher wind speeds as well as ocean wave contributions that vary seasonally. These results suggest that optimal detection processing requires careful characterization of background noise level and its relationship to enviornmental measures at individual arrays. This study also documents significant seasonal variations in infrasound detections including daily time of occurrence, total number of detections, and phase velocity/azimuth estimates. These time-dependent effects in most part explained by atmospheric models across the Korean peninsula as described by Drob et al. (2003).

  15. Enhancement of magnetic domain topologies in Co/Pt thin films by fine tuning the magnetic field path throughout the hysteresis loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Chesnel, Karine; Hatch, Kelsey; Salter, Philip; Hellwig, Olav

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the influence of magnetic history on the topology of perpendicular magnetic domains in a thin ferromagnetic film made of [Co(8 Å)/Pt(7 Å)]50 multilayers. More specifically, we have followed the morphological changes in the domain pattern when applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the layer, throughout minor and major magnetization loops, and in the resulting remanent state. We carried out this study by using MFM microscopy with an in-situ magnetic field. We find that the morphology of the magnetic domain pattern is greatly influenced by the magnetic history of the material and that some features, such as the degree of bubbliness (i.e., the extent of bubble domain formation) and density of isolated domains can be enhanced by fine tuning the magnetic field path within the major hysteresis loop towards different remanent states. In particular, we see how hysteresis is correlated to irreversible changes in the domain morphology. More interestingly, we find that the magnetic domain morphology at remanence can be changed from an interconnected labyrinthine stripe state to a state of many separated bubble domains by fine tuning the magnitude of the field previously applied to the material. These results agree well with other findings, such as the magnetic reversal behavior and magnetic memory effects in Co/Pt multilayers, and provide opportunities for potential technological applications.

  16. Tuning of Automatic Signal Detection Algorithms for IMS Style Infrasound Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Virginia. The synthetic signals were implanted into conventional array channel data using an implant strategy that allowed the signal to noise ratio ( SNR ...of the signal to be specified in a fashion that accounts for the spectral composition of the background. SNR values ranging from 0.01 to 100 were used...of Signal to Noise Ratio ( SNR ). RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHED In meeting this objective it was determined that the following steps constitute a workable

  17. Tuning the crystallinity of thermoelectric Bi2Te3 nanowire arrays grown by pulsed electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongmin; Farhangfar, Shadyar; Lee, Jaeyoung; Cagnon, Laurent; Scholz, Roland; Gösele, Ulrich; Nielsch, Kornelius

    2008-09-01

    Arrays of thermoelectric bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanowires were grown into porous anodic alumina (PAA) membranes prepared by a two-step anodization. Bi2Te3 nanowire arrays were deposited by galvanostatic, potentiostatic and pulsed electrodeposition from aqueous solution at room temperature. Depending on the electrodeposition method and as a consequence of different growth mechanisms, Bi2Te3 nanowires exhibit different types of crystalline microstructure. Bi2Te3 nanowire arrays, especially those grown by pulsed electrodeposition, have a highly oriented crystalline structure and were grown uniformly as compared to those grown by other electrodeposition techniques used. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are indicative of the existence of a preferred growth orientation. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) confirm the formation of a preferred orientation and highly crystalline structure of the grown nanowires. The nanowires were further analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) indicates that the composition of Bi-Te nanowires can be controlled by the electrodeposition method and the relaxation time in the pulsed electrodeposition approach. The samples fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition were electrically characterized within the temperature range 240 K<=T<=470 K. Below T≈440 K, the nanowire arrays exhibited a semiconducting behavior. Depending on the relaxation time in the pulsed electrodeposition, the semiconductor energy gaps were estimated to be 210-290 meV. At higher temperatures, as a consequence of the enhanced carrier-phonon scattering, the measured electrical resistances increased slightly. The Seebeck coefficient was measured for every Bi2Te3 sample at room temperature by a very simple method. All samples showed a positive value (12-33 µV K-1), indicating a p-type semiconductor behavior.

  18. Detection of regional infrasound signals using array data: Testing, tuning, and physical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Junghyun; Stump, Brian W.; Hayward, Chris; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Che, Il-Young; Drob, Douglas P.

    2016-07-14

    This work quantifies the physical characteristics of infrasound signal and noise, assesses their temporal variations, and determines the degree to which these effects can be predicted by time-varying atmospheric models to estimate array and network performance. An automated detector that accounts for both correlated and uncorrelated noise is applied to infrasound data from three seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea (BRDAR, CHNAR, and KSGAR), cooperatively operated by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Southern Methodist University (SMU). Arrays located on an island and near the coast have higher noise power, consistent with both higher wind speeds and seasonably variable ocean wave contributions. On the basis of the adaptive F-detector quantification of time variable environmental effects, the time-dependent scaling variable is shown to be dependent on both weather conditions and local site effects. Significant seasonal variations in infrasound detections including daily time of occurrence, detection numbers, and phase velocity/azimuth estimates are documented. These time-dependent effects are strongly correlated with atmospheric winds and temperatures and are predicted by available atmospheric specifications. As a result, this suggests that commonly available atmospheric specifications can be used to predict both station and network detection performance, and an appropriate forward model improves location capabilities as a function of time.

  19. Detection of regional infrasound signals using array data: Testing, tuning, and physical interpretation

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Junghyun; Stump, Brian W.; Hayward, Chris; ...

    2016-07-14

    This work quantifies the physical characteristics of infrasound signal and noise, assesses their temporal variations, and determines the degree to which these effects can be predicted by time-varying atmospheric models to estimate array and network performance. An automated detector that accounts for both correlated and uncorrelated noise is applied to infrasound data from three seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea (BRDAR, CHNAR, and KSGAR), cooperatively operated by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Southern Methodist University (SMU). Arrays located on an island and near the coast have higher noise power, consistent with both higher wind speeds and seasonablymore » variable ocean wave contributions. On the basis of the adaptive F-detector quantification of time variable environmental effects, the time-dependent scaling variable is shown to be dependent on both weather conditions and local site effects. Significant seasonal variations in infrasound detections including daily time of occurrence, detection numbers, and phase velocity/azimuth estimates are documented. These time-dependent effects are strongly correlated with atmospheric winds and temperatures and are predicted by available atmospheric specifications. As a result, this suggests that commonly available atmospheric specifications can be used to predict both station and network detection performance, and an appropriate forward model improves location capabilities as a function of time.« less

  20. Detection of regional infrasound signals using array data: Testing, tuning, and physical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Stump, Brian W; Hayward, Chris; Arrowsmith, Stephen J; Che, Il-Young; Drob, Douglas P

    2016-07-01

    This work quantifies the physical characteristics of infrasound signal and noise, assesses their temporal variations, and determines the degree to which these effects can be predicted by time-varying atmospheric models to estimate array and network performance. An automated detector that accounts for both correlated and uncorrelated noise is applied to infrasound data from three seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea (BRDAR, CHNAR, and KSGAR), cooperatively operated by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Southern Methodist University (SMU). Arrays located on an island and near the coast have higher noise power, consistent with both higher wind speeds and seasonably variable ocean wave contributions. On the basis of the adaptive F-detector quantification of time variable environmental effects, the time-dependent scaling variable is shown to be dependent on both weather conditions and local site effects. Significant seasonal variations in infrasound detections including daily time of occurrence, detection numbers, and phase velocity/azimuth estimates are documented. These time-dependent effects are strongly correlated with atmospheric winds and temperatures and are predicted by available atmospheric specifications. This suggests that commonly available atmospheric specifications can be used to predict both station and network detection performance, and an appropriate forward model improves location capabilities as a function of time.

  1. Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Matthew D

    2017-03-22

    The Maxwell-Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

  2. Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Matthew D.

    2017-03-01

    The Maxwell–Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

  3. Tuning of structural, optical, and magnetic properties of ultrathin and thin ZnO nanowire arrays for nano device applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) ultrathin (15 nm) and thin (100 nm) aligned 1-D (0001) and (0001¯) oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated on copper substrates by one-step electrochemical deposition inside the pores of polycarbonate membranes. The aspect ratio dependence of the compressive stress because of the lattice mismatch between NW array/substrate interface and crystallite size variations is investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the polycrystalline ZnO NWs have a wurtzite structure with a = 3.24 Å, c = 5.20 Å, and [002] elongation. HRTEM and SAED pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of ultrathin ZnO NWs and lattice spacing of 0.58 nm. The crystallite size and compressive stress in as-grown 15- and 100-nm wires are 12.8 nm and 0.2248 GPa and 22.8 nm and 0.1359 GPa, which changed to 16.1 nm and 1.0307 GPa and 47.5 nm and 1.1677 GPa after annealing at 873 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), respectively. Micro-Raman spectroscopy showed that the increase in E2 (high) phonon frequency corresponds to much higher compressive stresses in ultrathin NW arrays. The minimum-maximum magnetization magnitude for the as-grown ultrathin and thin NW arrays are approximately 8.45 × 10−3 to 8.10 × 10−3 emu/g and approximately 2.22 × 10−7 to 2.190 × 10−7 emu/g, respectively. The magnetization in 15-nm NW arrays is about 4 orders of magnitude higher than that in the 100 nm arrays but can be reduced greatly by the UHV annealing. The origin of ultrathin and thin NW array ferromagnetism may be the exchange interactions between localized electron spin moments resulting from oxygen vacancies at the surfaces of ZnO NWs. The n-type conductivity of 15-nm NW array is higher by about a factor of 2 compared to that of the 100-nm ZnO NWs, and both can be greatly enhanced by UHV annealing. The ability to tune the stresses and the structural and relative occupancies of ZnO NWs in a wide range by annealing has

  4. Sensitivity Tuning through Additive Heterogeneous Plasmon Coupling between 3D Assembled Plasmonic Nanoparticle and Nanocup Arrays.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sujin; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2016-07-01

    Plasmonic substrates have fixed sensitivity once the geometry of the structure is defined. In order to improve the sensitivity, significant research effort has been focused on designing new plasmonic structures, which involves high fabrication costs; however, a method is reported for improving sensitivity not by redesigning the structure but by simply assembling plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) near the evanescent field of the underlying 3D plasmonic nanostructure. Here, a nanoscale Lycurgus cup array (nanoLCA) is employed as a base colorimetric plasmonic substrate and an assembly template. Compared to the nanoLCA, the NP assembled nanoLCA (NP-nanoLCA) exhibits much higher sensitivity for both bulk refractive index sensing and biotin-streptavidin binding detection. The limit of detection of the NP-nanoLCA is at least ten times smaller when detecting biotin-streptavidin conjugation. The numerical calculations confirm the importance of the additive plasmon coupling between the NPs and the nanoLCA for a denser and stronger electric field in the same 3D volumetric space. Tunable sensitivity is accomplished by controlling the number of NPs in each nanocup, or the number density of the hot spots. This simple yet scalable and cost-effective method of using additive heterogeneous plasmon coupling effects will benefit various chemical, medical, and environmental plasmon-based sensors.

  5. Applying high-resolution sequence stratigraphic tools to the Texas continental margin to fine-tune conventional sequence stratigraphic models and improve reservoir prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.A.; Banfield, L.A.; Eckles, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    A regional sequence stratigraphic study of the Texas continental margin resulted in an improved understanding of Pleistocene-Holocene eustatic sea level fluctuations and their influence on depositional environments associated with several distinct systems: the Colorado/Brazos system, the Texas interfluve region, and the Rio Grande system. The dataset consists of approximately 7500 kilometers of high-resolution seismic profiloes, 200 borehole descriptions, and 12 sediment cores. The study involved analysis of three independent variables to better constrain Pleistocene-Holocene sea level history: coastal onlap derived from high-resolution seismic profiles; oxygen isotope data determined from selected sediment cores; and paleoenvironmental data developed from high-resolution micropaleontologic analyses. Combined lithologic data and seismic facies analysis is used to map the distribution of major depositional systems on the shelf during one complete glacial eustatic cycle. Our study provided anopportunity to fine tune conventional stratigraphic models with regard to the distribution of potential reservoirs relative to regionally mappable stratigraphic surfaces.

  6. Applying high-resolution sequence stratigraphic tools to the Texas continental margin to fine-tune conventional sequence stratigraphic models and improve reservoir prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.A.; Banfield, L.A.; Eckles, B.J. )

    1996-01-01

    A regional sequence stratigraphic study of the Texas continental margin resulted in an improved understanding of Pleistocene-Holocene eustatic sea level fluctuations and their influence on depositional environments associated with several distinct systems: the Colorado/Brazos system, the Texas interfluve region, and the Rio Grande system. The dataset consists of approximately 7500 kilometers of high-resolution seismic profiloes, 200 borehole descriptions, and 12 sediment cores. The study involved analysis of three independent variables to better constrain Pleistocene-Holocene sea level history: coastal onlap derived from high-resolution seismic profiles; oxygen isotope data determined from selected sediment cores; and paleoenvironmental data developed from high-resolution micropaleontologic analyses. Combined lithologic data and seismic facies analysis is used to map the distribution of major depositional systems on the shelf during one complete glacial eustatic cycle. Our study provided anopportunity to fine tune conventional stratigraphic models with regard to the distribution of potential reservoirs relative to regionally mappable stratigraphic surfaces.

  7. SpxA1 and SpxA2 Act Coordinately To Fine-Tune Stress Responses and Virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Port, Gary C.; Cusumano, Zachary T.; Tumminello, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT SpxA is a unique transcriptional regulator highly conserved among members of the phylum Firmicutes that binds RNA polymerase and can act as an antiactivator. Why some Firmicutes members have two highly similar SpxA paralogs is not understood. Here, we show that the SpxA paralogs of the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, SpxA1 and SpxA2, act coordinately to regulate virulence by fine-tuning toxin expression and stress resistance. Construction and analysis of mutants revealed that SpxA1− mutants were defective for growth under aerobic conditions, while SpxA2− mutants had severely attenuated responses to multiple stresses, including thermal and oxidative stresses. SpxA1− mutants had enhanced resistance to the cationic antimicrobial molecule polymyxin B, while SpxA2− mutants were more sensitive. In a murine model of soft tissue infection, a SpxA1− mutant was highly attenuated. In contrast, the highly stress-sensitive SpxA2− mutant was hypervirulent, exhibiting more extensive tissue damage and a greater bacterial burden than the wild-type strain. SpxA1− attenuation was associated with reduced expression of several toxins, including the SpeB cysteine protease. In contrast, SpxA2− hypervirulence correlated with toxin overexpression and could be suppressed to wild-type levels by deletion of speB. These data show that SpxA1 and SpxA2 have opposing roles in virulence and stress resistance, suggesting that they act coordinately to fine-tune toxin expression in response to stress. SpxA2− hypervirulence also shows that stress resistance is not always essential for S. pyogenes pathogenesis in soft tissue. PMID:28351920

  8. Maximizing T2-exchange in Dy3+DOTA-(amide)X chelates: Fine-tuning the water molecule exchange rate for enhanced T2 contrast in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Soesbe, Todd C.; Ratnakar, S. James; Milne, Mark; Zhang, Shanrong; Do, Quyen N.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A. Dean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The water molecule exchange rates in a series of DyDOTA-(amide)X chelates were fine-tuned to maximize the effects of T2-exchange line broadening and improve T2 contrast. Methods Four DyDOTA-(amide)X chelates having a variable number of glycinate side-arms were prepared and characterized as T2-exchange agents. The non-exchanging DyTETA chelate was also used to measure the bulk water T2 reduction due solely to T2*. The total transverse relaxivity (r2tot) at 22, 37, and 52 °C for each chelate was measured in vitro at 9.4 T (400 MHz) by fitting plots of total T2−1 versus concentration. The water molecule exchange rates for each complex were measured by fitting 17O line-width versus temperature data taken at 9.4 T (54.3 MHz). Results The measured transverse relaxivities due to water molecule exchange (r2ex) and bound water lifetimes (τM) were in excellent agreement with Swift-Connick theory, with DyDOTA-(gly)3 giving the largest r2ex = 11.8 s−1 mM−1 at 37 °C. Conclusion By fine-tuning the water molecule exchange rate at 37 °C, the transverse relaxivity has been increased by 2 to 30 times compared to previously studied Dy3+-based chelates. Polymerization or dendrimerization of the optimal chelate could yield a highly sensitive, molecule-sized T2 contrast agent for improved molecular imaging applications. PMID:24390729

  9. Optimizing the Field Emission Properties of ZnO Nanowire Arrays by Precisely Tuning the Population Density and Application in Large-Area Gated Field Emitter Arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Guofu; Zhao, Long; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are prepared for application in large area gated field emitter arrays (FEAs). By oxidizing Al-coated Zn films, the population density of the ZnO nanowires was tuned precisely by varying the thickness of the Al film. The nanowire density decreased linearly as the thickness of the Al film increased. Optimal field emission properties with a turn-on field of 6.21 V μm(-1) and current fluctuations less than 1% are obtained. This can be explained by the minimized screening effect and good electrical conductivity of the back-contact layer. The mechanism responsible for the linear variation in the nanowire density is investigated in detail. Addressable FEAs using the optimal ZnO nanowire cathodes were fabricated and applied in a display device. Good gate-controlled characteristics and the display of video images are realized. The results indicate that ZnO nanowires could be applied in large area FEAs.

  10. Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG:Ce nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dal Sung; Kim, Min Jeong; Song, Hee Jo; Cho, In Sun; Jeong, Sohee; Shin, Hyunjung; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-08-01

    We report fine tuning of emission color of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, YAG:Ce) nanophosphor-based white light-emitting diodes (WLED), by coating CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) onto the surface of the YAG:Ce nanoparticles via surface functionalization of both the QDs and the YAG:Ce. Mixture of bromo-functionalized QDs and amino-functionalized YAG:Ce nanoparticles results in conformal coating of the QDs onto the YAG:Ce nanoparticles (QD@YAG:Ce). By varying the QD to YAG:Ce weight ratios, the luminescence spectra of the QD@YAG:Ce are tuned. A high-quality warm-white-light emission is achieved by appropriate combination of the yellow and red emissions from the QD@YAG:Ce, and the blue emission from InGaN LED chip. However, without surface functionalization, irregular mixtures of YAG:Ce and QDs are formed, which consequently make it hard to control the emission spectra. This study demonstrates a promising way to prepare uniformly QD-coated nanophosphors and an approach to control the emission spectra the nanophosphors.

  11. Self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors based on selectively grown ZnO nanowire arrays with thermal tuning performance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Xin; Kang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue

    2014-05-28

    A self-powered Schottky-type ultraviolet photodetector with Al-Pt interdigitated electrodes has been fabricated based on selectively grown ZnO nanowire arrays. At zero bias, the fabricated photodetector exhibited high sensitivity and excellent selectivity to UV light illumination with a fast response time of 81 ms. By tuning the Schottky barrier height through the thermally induced variation of the interface chemisorbed oxygen, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 3.1 × 10(4) was achieved at 340 K without an external power source, which was 82% higher than that obtained at room temperature. According to the thermionic emission-diffusion theory and the solar cell theory, the changes in the photocurrent of the photodetector at zero bias with various system temperatures were calculated, which agreed well with the experimental data. This work demonstrates a promising approach to modulating the performance of a self-powered photodetector by heating and provides theoretical support for studying the thermal effect on the future photoelectric device.

  12. Design of Far-Red Sensitizing Squaraine Dyes Aiming Towards the Fine Tuning of Dye Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Takuya; Fujikawa, Naotaka; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S; Ma, Tingli; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-04-01

    Model squaraine dyes having sharp and narrow absorptions mainly in the far-red wavelength region has been logically designed, synthesized and used for their application as sensitizer in the dyesensitized solar cells (DSSC). In order to have fine control on energetics, dyes having same mother core and alkyl chain length varying only in molecular symmetry and position of substituent were designed. It has been found that even keeping all other structural factor constant, only positional variation of substituent leads to not only in the variation of energetics by 0.1 eV but affects the photovoltaic characteristics also. Optimum concentration of dye de-aggregating agent was found to be 100 times with respect to the sensitizing dye concentration. Amongst dyes utilized in this work best performance was obtained for unsymmetrical dye SQ-40 giving a photoconversion efficiency of 4.01% under simulated solar irradiation at global AM 1.5.

  13. High Thermoelectric Power Factor of a Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Low Bandgap Polymer via Finely Tuned Doping Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In Hwan; Hong, Cheon Taek; Lee, Un-Hak; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Cho, Song Yun

    2017-03-01

    We studied the thermoelectric properties of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconductor (PDPP3T) via a precisely tuned doping process using Iron (III) chloride. In particular, the doping states of PDPP3T film were linearly controlled depending on the dopant concentration. The outstanding Seebeck coefficient of PDPP3T assisted the excellent power factors (PFs) over 200 μW m‑1K‑2 at the broad range of doping concentration (3–8 mM) and the maximum PF reached up to 276 μW m‑1K‑2, which is much higher than that of poly(3-hexylthiophene), 56 μW m‑1K‑2. The high-mobility of PDPP3T was beneficial to enhance the electrical conductivity and the low level of total dopant volume was important to maintain high Seebeck coefficients. In addition, the low bandgap PDPP3T polymer effiectively shifted its absorption into near infra-red area and became more colorless after doping, which is great advantage to realize transparent electronic devices. Our results give importance guidance to develop thermoelectric semiconducting polymers and we suggest that the use of low bandgap and high-mobility polymers, and the accurate control of the doping levels are key factors for obtaining the high thermoelectric PF.

  14. High Thermoelectric Power Factor of a Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Low Bandgap Polymer via Finely Tuned Doping Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In Hwan; Hong, Cheon Taek; Lee, Un-Hak; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Cho, Song Yun

    2017-01-01

    We studied the thermoelectric properties of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconductor (PDPP3T) via a precisely tuned doping process using Iron (III) chloride. In particular, the doping states of PDPP3T film were linearly controlled depending on the dopant concentration. The outstanding Seebeck coefficient of PDPP3T assisted the excellent power factors (PFs) over 200 μW m−1K−2 at the broad range of doping concentration (3–8 mM) and the maximum PF reached up to 276 μW m−1K−2, which is much higher than that of poly(3-hexylthiophene), 56 μW m−1K−2. The high-mobility of PDPP3T was beneficial to enhance the electrical conductivity and the low level of total dopant volume was important to maintain high Seebeck coefficients. In addition, the low bandgap PDPP3T polymer effiectively shifted its absorption into near infra-red area and became more colorless after doping, which is great advantage to realize transparent electronic devices. Our results give importance guidance to develop thermoelectric semiconducting polymers and we suggest that the use of low bandgap and high-mobility polymers, and the accurate control of the doping levels are key factors for obtaining the high thermoelectric PF. PMID:28317929

  15. Single side strapping: a new approach to fine tuning the anion recognition properties of calix[4]pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Na, Hee-Kyung; Yoon, Dae-Wi; Won, Dong-Hoon; Cho, Won-Seob; Lynch, Vincent M; Shevchuk, Sergey V; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2003-06-18

    Three calix[4]pyrroles bearing m-orcinol-derived diether straps of different lengths on one side of the tetrapyrrolic core have been synthesized and characterized. Structural information for an analogous diester bridged strapped system reported previously (Yoon, D. W.; Hwang, H.; Lee, C. H. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 1757-1759) is also provided as are bromide and chloride anion affinities for all four systems determined by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) in acetonitrile. Although both sets of the strapped calix[4]pyrroles displayed enhanced affinities for chloride and bromide anion, differences were seen among the various receptors that support the conclusion that the anion binding ability of calixpyrrole-type systems can be effectively tuned by modifying the length and nature of the bridging straps. In the specific case of the diether systems, the largest chloride affinity was seen with the shortest strap, whereas the largest affinity for bromide anion was recorded in the case of the longest strap. On the basis of these findings, as well as supporting (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies, it is postulated that not only cavity size per se, but also the ability of the aryl portion of the strap to serve as a CH hydrogen bond donor site are important in regulating the observed anion affinities.

  16. Fine tuning of copper(II)-chlorophyll interactions in organic media. Metalation versus oxidation of the macrocycle.

    PubMed

    Orzeł, Łukasz; Szmyd, Bartłomiej; Rutkowska-Żbik, Dorota; Fiedor, Leszek; van Eldik, Rudi; Stochel, Grażyna

    2015-04-07

    The nature of chlorophyll interactions with copper(II) ions varies considerably in organic solvents, depending on the dominant coordinative form. Besides formation of the metallo tetrapyrrolic complex, Cu(II) ions can cause oxidation of the pigment, reversible or irreversible, which can lead to the destruction of the macrocyclic structure. All these reaction types can be distinguished within a quite narrow range of reaction conditions. The ability to form new metallo derivatives in either metalation or transmetalation reactions is obviously limited by the concentration of the potential oxidant, but can be secured below this level via suitable composition of the reaction system. The decisive factor in the selection of a specific reaction pathway is the presence of a potential ligand that can affect the reactivity of Cu(II) for example by shifting its redox potential. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies were performed in order to determine the predominant species of Cu(II) in methanol, nitromethane and acetonitrile in the presence of chloride and acetate ions, as well as to assign their appropriate oxidizing ability. This allowed us to estimate the boundary conditions for the electron transfer processes in chlorophyll-Cu(II) systems. Chlorophyll and its free base can undergo both types of electron transfer processes, however, they reveal different susceptibilities that make this class of ligands quite versatile markers in tuning the reactivity of metal ions in solutions.

  17. Photochemical fine-tuning of luminescent color of cadmium selenide nanoparticles: fabricating a single-source multicolor luminophore.

    PubMed

    Torimoto, Tsukasa; Murakami, Shin-ya; Sakuraoka, Miwa; Iwasaki, Kentaro; Okazaki, Ken-ichi; Shibayama, Tamaki; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2006-07-13

    Size-selective photoetching was applied to silica-coated cadmium selenide (SiO2/CdSe) nanoparticles to precisely control their photoluminescence properties. The absorption spectra of CdSe was blue-shifted by irradiation of monochromatic light, and finally, the absorption onset agreed with the wavelength of irradiation light, indicating that CdSe particles were photoetched to smaller ones until the irradiated photons were not absorbed by the photoetched particles and that the SiO2 shell layer surrounding the CdSe core prevented coalescence between the photoetched particles. Although as-prepared SiO2/CdSe did not exhibit photoluminescence, the application of size-selective photoetching to SiO2/CdSe resulted in the development of the band gap emission, with the degree being enhanced with progress of the photoetching. The peak wavelength of photoluminescence decreased with a decrease in the wavelength used for the photoetching, so that the luminescence color could be tuned between red and blue. Partial photoetching of SiO2/CdSe nanoparticle films produced intense band gap emission of CdSe at the photoetched area, while the remainder of the SiO2/CdSe films did not exhibit detectable photoluminescence, resulting in the formation of a clear photoluminescence image under UV irradiation. This technique makes it possible to produce a multicolored photoluminescence image by irradiation with monochromatic lights having various wavelengths using a single source material.

  18. Charge Sharing and Charge Loss in a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Fine-Pixel Detector Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, J. A.; Sharma, D. P.; Ramsey, B. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Because of its high atomic number, room temperature operation, low noise, and high spatial resolution a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) multi-pixel detector is ideal for hard x-ray astrophysical observation. As part of on-going research at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) to develop multi-pixel CdZnTe detectors for this purpose, we have measured charge sharing and charge loss for a 4x4 (750micron pitch), lmm thick pixel array and modeled these results using a Monte-Carlo simulation. This model was then used to predict the amount of charge sharing for a much finer pixel array (with a 300micron pitch). Future work will enable us to compare the simulated results for the finer array to measured values.

  19. Conference on Children and Television: Worldwide Fine Tuning for Children, University of Miami, Parts I and II. Transcript of the Panel Discussion on the Television Series "Big Blue Marble"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Les; And Others

    This paper describes the proceedings of a conference on children and television, "Worldwide Fine Tuning for Children," held on 11 February 1977 by the University of Miami Department of Communications. The purpose of the conference was to survey the world of television as experienced by children and to explore how communications experts,…

  20. Perilipin 5 fine-tunes lipid oxidation to metabolic demand and protects against lipotoxicity in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Laurens, Claire; Bourlier, Virginie; Mairal, Aline; Louche, Katie; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Mouisel, Etienne; Montagner, Alexandra; Marette, André; Tremblay, Angelo; Weisnagel, John S.; Guillou, Hervé; Langin, Dominique; Joanisse, Denis R.; Moro, Cedric

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LD) play a central role in lipid homeostasis by controlling transient fatty acid (FA) storage and release from triacylglycerols stores, while preventing high levels of cellular toxic lipids. This crucial function in oxidative tissues is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a LD protein whose mechanistic and causal link with lipotoxicity and insulin resistance has raised controversies. We investigated here the physiological role of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle upon various metabolic challenges. We show that PLIN5 protein is elevated in endurance-trained (ET) subjects and correlates with muscle oxidative capacity and whole-body insulin sensitivity. When overexpressed in human skeletal muscle cells to recapitulate the ET phenotype, PLIN5 diminishes lipolysis and FA oxidation under basal condition, but paradoxically enhances FA oxidation during forskolin- and contraction- mediated lipolysis. Moreover, PLIN5 partly protects muscle cells against lipid-induced lipotoxicity. In addition, we demonstrate that down-regulation of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle inhibits insulin-mediated glucose uptake under normal chow feeding condition, while paradoxically improving insulin sensitivity upon high-fat feeding. These data highlight a key role of PLIN5 in LD function, first by finely adjusting LD FA supply to mitochondrial oxidation, and second acting as a protective factor against lipotoxicity in skeletal muscle. PMID:27922115

  1. Fine mapping of copy number variations on two cattle genome assemblies using high density SNP array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Btau_4.0 and UMD3.1 are two distinct cattle reference genome assemblies. In our previous study using the low density BovineSNP50 array, we reported a copy number variation (CNV) analysis on Btau_4.0 with 521 animals of 21 cattle breeds, yielding 682 CNV regions with a total length of 139.8 megabases...

  2. The fine-tuning of thermosensitive and degradable polymer micelles for enhancing intracellular uptake and drug release in tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jinfeng; Gao, Jie; Li, Bohua; Xia, Yu; Meng, Yanchun; Yu, Yongsheng; Chen, Huaiwen; Dai, Jianxin; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun

    2011-05-01

    Focusing on high temperature and low pH of tumor tissue, we prepared temperature and pH responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide-b-lacitde) (PID(118)-b-PLA(59)) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PID(118)-b-PCL(60)) diblock copolymers with symmetric hydrophobic blocks by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT). The corresponding dual functional polymeric micelles were fabricated by dialysis methods. Their well-defined core-shell structure was characterized by (1)H NMR in D(2)O and further confirmed by TEM. Their structural and physical chemistry properties such as diameters (D), core corona dimension (R(core), R(shell)), distribution (PDI), M(w), aggregation number (N(agg)), second virial coefficient (A(2)), critical micellization concentration (CMC) and z-potential were firstly systemically investigated by dynamic and static laser light scattering. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) was around 40 °C above which the intracellular uptake of adriamycin (ADR) was significantly enhanced. Both flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy showed that the ADR transported by these micelles was about 4 times higher than that by the commercial ADR formulation Taxotere®. In vitro cytotoxicity assay against N-87 cancer cell and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) also confirmed such promoting efficiency. In addition, it was interesting to find that cell surviving bounced back as T = 42 °C due to the inter-micellar aggregation. The well clarified mechanism strongly support that our finely tailored dual functional core-shell micelles are potent in enhancing cellular uptake and drug release.

  3. Direct flow cytometry measurements reveal a fine-tuning of symbiotic cell dynamics according to the host developmental needs in aphid symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Simonet, Pierre; Duport, Gabrielle; Gaget, Karen; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Colella, Stefano; Febvay, Gérard; Charles, Hubert; Viñuelas, José; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Calevro, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Endosymbiotic associations constitute a driving force in the ecological and evolutionary diversification of metazoan organisms. Little is known about whether and how symbiotic cells are coordinated according to host physiology. Here, we use the nutritional symbiosis between the insect pest, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and its obligate symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, as a model system. We have developed a novel approach for unculturable bacteria, based on flow cytometry, and used this method to estimate the absolute numbers of symbionts at key stages of aphid life. The endosymbiont population increases exponentially throughout nymphal development, showing a growing rate which has never been characterized by indirect molecular techniques. Using histology and imaging techniques, we have shown that the endosymbiont-bearing cells (bacteriocytes) increase significantly in number and size during the nymphal development, and clustering in the insect abdomen. Once adulthood is reached and the laying period has begun, the dynamics of symbiont and host cells is reversed: the number of endosymbionts decreases progressively and the bacteriocyte structure degenerates during insect aging. In summary, these results show a coordination of the cellular dynamics between bacteriocytes and primary symbionts and reveal a fine-tuning of aphid symbiotic cells to the nutritional demand imposed by the host physiology throughout development. PMID:26822159

  4. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning BMP signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Carlos; Grisanti, Laura; Zemla, Roland; Rezza, Amelie; Barros, Rita; Sennett, Rachel; Mazloom, Amin Reza; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Chen-Leng; Pevny, Larysa; Nicolis, Silvia; Ma'ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael

    2012-11-13

    How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear. Using Tbx18(Cre) to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting in diminished hair shaft outgrowth. We find that DP niche expression of Sox2 controls the migration speed of differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Transcriptional profiling of Sox2 null DPs reveals increased Bmp6 and decreased BMP inhibitor Sostdc1, a direct Sox2 transcriptional target. Subsequently, we identify upregulated BMP signaling in knockout hair shaft progenitors and demonstrate that Bmp6 inhibits cell migration, an effect that can be attenuated by Sostdc1. A shorter and Sox2-negative hair type lacks Sostdc1 in the DP and shows reduced migration and increased BMP activity of hair shaft progenitors. Collectively, our data identify Sox2 as a key regulator of hair growth that controls progenitor migration by fine-tuning BMP-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial crosstalk.

  5. The Catalytic and Non-catalytic Functions of the Brahma Chromatin-Remodeling Protein Collaborate to Fine-Tune Circadian Transcription in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Rosanna S.; Li, Ying H.; Lei, Anna J.; Edery, Isaac; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in gene expression play a critical role in the progression of circadian clocks, and are under regulation by transcription factor binding, histone modifications, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment and elongation, and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Although previous studies have shown that clock-controlled genes exhibit rhythmic chromatin modifications, less is known about the functions performed by chromatin remodelers in animal clockwork. Here we have identified the Brahma (Brm) complex as a regulator of the Drosophila clock. In Drosophila, CLOCK (CLK) is the master transcriptional activator driving cyclical gene expression by participating in an auto-inhibitory feedback loop that involves stimulating the expression of the main negative regulators, period (per) and timeless (tim). BRM functions catalytically to increase nucleosome density at the promoters of per and tim, creating an overall restrictive chromatin landscape to limit transcriptional output during the active phase of cycling gene expression. In addition, the non-catalytic function of BRM regulates the level and binding of CLK to target promoters and maintains transient RNAPII stalling at the per promoter, likely by recruiting repressive and pausing factors. By disentangling its catalytic versus non-catalytic functions at the promoters of CLK target genes, we uncovered a multi-leveled mechanism in which BRM fine-tunes circadian transcription. PMID:26132408

  6. The CCR4 deadenylase acts with Nanos and Pumilio in the fine-tuning of Mei-P26 expression to promote germline stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Joly, Willy; Chartier, Aymeric; Rojas-Rios, Patricia; Busseau, Isabelle; Simonelig, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Translational regulation plays an essential role in Drosophila ovarian germline stem cell (GSC) biology. GSC self-renewal requires two translational repressors, Nanos (Nos) and Pumilio (Pum), which repress the expression of differentiation factors in the stem cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying this translational repression remain unknown. Here, we show that the CCR4 deadenylase is required for GSC self-renewal and that Nos and Pum act through its recruitment onto specific mRNAs. We identify mei-P26 mRNA as a direct and major target of Nos/Pum/CCR4 translational repression in the GSCs. mei-P26 encodes a protein of the Trim-NHL tumor suppressor family that has conserved functions in stem cell lineages. We show that fine-tuning Mei-P26 expression by CCR4 plays a key role in GSC self-renewal. These results identify the molecular mechanism of Nos/Pum function in GSC self-renewal and reveal the role of CCR4-NOT-mediated deadenylation in regulating the balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation.

  7. 3′-UTR engineering to improve soluble expression and fine-tuning of activity of cascade enzymes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Won; Woo, Ji-Min; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Park, Jin-Byung

    2016-01-01

    3′-Untranslated region (3′UTR) engineering was investigated to improve solubility of heterologous proteins (e.g., Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs)) in Escherichia coli. Insertion of gene fragments containing putative RNase E recognition sites into the 3′UTR of the BVMO genes led to the reduction of mRNA levels in E. coli. Importantly, the amounts of soluble BVMOs were remarkably enhanced resulting in a proportional increase of in vivo catalytic activities. Notably, this increase in biocatalytic activity correlated to the number of putative RNase E endonucleolytic cleavage sites in the 3′UTR. For instance, the biotransformation activity of the BVMO BmoF1 (from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM50106) in E. coli was linear to the number of RNase E cleavage sites in the 3′UTR. In summary, 3′UTR engineering can be used to improve the soluble expression of heterologous enzymes, thereby fine-tuning the enzyme activity in microbial cells. PMID:27406241

  8. Fine-tuning of NFκB by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β directs the fate of glomerular podocytes upon injury

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hui; Ge, Yan; Peng, Ai; Gong, Rujun

    2014-01-01

    NFκB is regulated by a myriad of signaling cascades including glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β and plays a Janus role in podocyte injury. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide or adriamycin elicited podocyte injury and cytoskeletal disruption, associated with NFκB activation and induced expression of NFκB target molecules, including pro-survival Bcl-xL and podocytopathic mediators like MCP-1, cathepsin L and B7-1. Broad range inhibition of NFκB diminished the expression of all NFκB target genes, restored cytoskeleton integrity, but potentiated apoptosis. In contrast, blockade of GSK3β by lithium or TDZD-8, mitigated the expression of podocytopathic mediators, ameliorated podocyte injury, but barely affected Bcl-xL expression or sensitized apoptosis. Mechanistically, GSK3β was sufficient and essential for RelA/p65 phosphorylation specifically at serine 467, which specifies the expression of selective NFκB target molecules, including podocytopathic mediators, but not Bcl-xL. In vivo, lithium or TDZD-8 therapy improved podocyte injury and proteinuria in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide or adriamycin, concomitant with suppression of podocytopathic mediators but retained Bcl-xL in glomerulus. Broad range inhibition of NFκB conferred similar but much weakened antiproteinuric and podoprotective effects accompanied with a blunted glomerular expression of Bcl-xL and marked podocyte apoptosis. Thus, the GSK3β dictated fine-tuning of NFκB may serve as a novel therapeutic target for podocytopathy. PMID:25629551

  9. MicroRNA-29 fine-tunes the expression of key FOXA2-activated lipid metabolism genes and is dysregulated in animal models of insulin resistance and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, C Lisa; Peck, Bailey C E; Fannin, Emily E; Beysen, Carine; Miao, Ji; Landstreet, Stuart R; Ding, Shengli; Turaga, Vandana; Lund, P Kay; Turner, Scott; Biddinger, Sudha B; Vickers, Kasey C; Sethupathy, Praveen

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as biomarkers of metabolic status, etiological factors in complex disease, and promising drug targets. Recent reports suggest that miRNAs are critical regulators of pathways underlying the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate by deep sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR that hepatic levels of Foxa2 mRNA and miR-29 are elevated in a mouse model of diet-induced insulin resistance. We also show that Foxa2 and miR-29 are significantly upregulated in the livers of Zucker diabetic fatty (fa/fa) rats and that the levels of both returned to normal upon treatment with the insulin-sensitizing agent pioglitazone. We present evidence that miR-29 expression in human hepatoma cells is controlled in part by FOXA2, which is known to play a critical role in hepatic energy homeostasis. Moreover, we demonstrate that miR-29 fine-tunes FOXA2-mediated activation of key lipid metabolism genes, including PPARGC1A, HMGCS2, and ABHD5. These results suggest that miR-29 is an important regulatory factor in normal metabolism and may represent a novel therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes and related metabolic syndromes.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes CadC regulates cadmium efflux and fine-tunes lipoprotein localization to escape the host immune response and promote infection.

    PubMed

    Pombinho, Rita; Camejo, Ana; Vieira, Ana; Reis, Olga; Carvalho, Filipe; Almeida, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro, Jorge Campos; Sousa, Sandra; Cabanes, Didier

    2017-03-23

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed Lm-cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that Lm-CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC, but not CadA, is required for Lm infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection. lspB overexpression promotes the release of the LpeA lipoprotein to the extracellular medium, inducing TNF- and IL-6 expression, thus impairing Lm survival in macrophages. We propose that Lm uses CadC to repress lspB expression during infection to avoid LpeA exposure to the host immune system, diminishing inflammatory cytokine expression and promoting intramacrophage survival and virulence. CadC appears as the first metal efflux pump regulator repurposed during infection to fine-tune lipoprotein processing and host responses.

  11. Pore radius fine tuning of a silica matrix (MCM-41) based on the synthesis of alumina nanolayers with different thicknesses by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zemtsova, Elena G. Arbenin, Andrei Yu.; Plotnikov, Alexander F.; Smirnov, Vladimir M.

    2015-03-15

    The authors investigated a new approach to modify the surface of the mesoporous silica matrix MCM-41. This approach is based on manipulating the chemical composition of the porous surface layer and also on fine tuning the pore radius by applying the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The synthesis of alumina nanolayers was performed on the planar and the porous matrix (MCM-41) by the ALD technique using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide and water as precursors. The authors show that one cycle on silicon, using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide and water as precursors, results in a 1–1.2 Å increase in alumina nanolayer thickness. This is comparable to the increase in thickness per cycle for other precursors such as trimethylaluminum and aluminum chloride. The authors show that the synthesis of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolayer on the pore surface of the mesoporous silica matrix MCM-41 by the ALD technique results in a regular change in the porous structure of the samples. The specific porosity (ml/g) of the MCM-41 was 0.95 and that of MCM-41 after 5 ALD cycles was 0.39. The pore diameter (nm) of MCM-41 was 3.3 and that of MCM-41 after 5 ALD cycles was 2.3.

  12. Fine-Tuning of the Coordination Environment To Regulate the Magnetic Behavior in Solvent/Anion-Dependent Dy(III) Compounds: Synthesis, Structure, Magnetism, and Ab Initio Calculations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Zhang, Sheng; Qiao, Chengfang; Chen, Sanping; Yin, Bing; Wang, Wenyuan; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Gao, Shengli

    2016-10-17

    It is crucial to understand and elucidate the self-assembly mechanism in solution systems for the construction of Dy(III)-based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Herein, through fine-tuning of the anion and solvent, we prepared three nine-coordinate mononuclear dysprosium compounds, [Dy(2,3'-pcad)(NO3)2(CH3OH)2] (1), [Dy(2,3'-Hpcad)2(H2O)3]·3Cl·5H2O (2), and [Dy(2,3'-pcad)(NO3)(H2O)4]·NO3·H2O (3) [2,3'-Hpcad = N(3)-(2-pyridoyl)-3-pyridinecarboxamidrazone]. The reactions of formation for 1-3 are in situ thermodynamically monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry. Magnetic data analysis reveals that 2 shows SMM behavior under a zero direct-current (dc) field, whereas 1 and 3 exhibit distinct slow magnetic relaxation processes upon a 1200 Oe dc field. To deeply understand the different magnetic behaviors, the magnetic anisotropy of 1-3 has been systematically studied by ab initio calculations, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Moreover, the semiconductor behaviors of 1-3 have been investigated by experimental measurements of UV-vis spectroscopy.

  13. Preserved fine-tuning of face perception and memory: evidence from the own-race bias in high- and low-performing older adults

    PubMed Central

    Komes, Jessica; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Wiese, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests specific deficits in face perception and memory in older adults, which could reflect a dedifferentiation in the context of a general broadening of cognitive architecture with advanced age. Such dedifferentiation could manifest in a less specialized face processing system. A promising tool to investigate the fine-tuning of face processing in older age is the own-race bias (ORB), a phenomenon reflecting more accurate memory for own-relative to other-race faces, which is related to an expertise-based specialization of early perceptual stages. To investigate whether poor face memory in older age is accompanied by reduced expertise-based specialization of face processing, we assessed event-related brain potential correlates of the ORB in high- vs. low-performing older adults (mean age = 69 years; N = 24 per group). Intriguingly, both older groups demonstrated an equivalent pattern of a behavioral ORB, and a parallel increase in N170 for other-race faces, reflecting less efficient early perceptual processing for this face category. Group differences only emerged independent of face ethnicity: whereas low-performers exhibited a right-lateralized N170, high-performers showed a more bilateral response. This finding may suggest a compensatory mechanism counteracting age-related decline in face perception enabling more efficient encoding into memory in high performers. Overall, our results demonstrate that even a less efficient face processing system in older adults can exhibit preserved expertise-related specialization toward own-race faces. PMID:24772080

  14. Plasma Membrane CRPK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of 14-3-3 Proteins Induces Their Nuclear Import to Fine-Tune CBF Signaling during Cold Response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziyan; Jia, Yuxin; Ding, Yanglin; Shi, Yiting; Li, Zhen; Guo, Yan; Gong, Zhizhong; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-04-06

    In plant cells, changes in fluidity of the plasma membrane may serve as the primary sensor of cold stress; however, the precise mechanism and how the cell transduces and fine-tunes cold signals remain elusive. Here we show that the cold-activated plasma membrane protein cold-responsive protein kinase 1 (CRPK1) phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins. The phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins shuttle from the cytosol to the nucleus, where they interact with and destabilize the key cold-responsive C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) proteins. Consistent with this, the crpk1 and 14-3-3κλ mutants show enhanced freezing tolerance, and transgenic plants overexpressing 14-3-3λ show reduced freezing tolerance. Further study shows that CRPK1 is essential for the nuclear translocation of 14-3-3 proteins and for 14-3-3 function in freezing tolerance. Thus, our study reveals that the CRPK1-14-3-3 module transduces the cold signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to modulate CBF stability, which ensures a faithfully adjusted response to cold stress of plants.

  15. Fine-Tuning of the Carbon Dioxide Capture Capability of Diamine-Grafted Metal-Organic Framework Adsorbents Through Amine Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyuna; Lee, Woo Ram; Kim, Nam Woo; Jung, Hyun; Lim, Kwang Soo; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Dong Won; Lee, Hanyeong; Hiremath, Vishwanath; Seo, Jeong Gil; Jin, Hailian; Moon, Dohyun; Han, Sang Soo; Hong, Chang Seop

    2017-02-08

    A combined sonication and microwave irradiation procedure provides the most effective functionalization of ethylenediamine (en) and branched primary diamines of 1-methylethylenediamine (men) and 1,1-dimethylethylenediamine (den) onto the open metal sites of Mg2 (dobpdc) (1). The CO2 capacities of the advanced adsorbents 1-en and 1-men under simulated flue gas conditions are 19 wt % and 17.4 wt %, respectively, which are the highest values reported among amine-functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to date. Moreover, 1-den exhibits both a significant working capacity (12.2 wt %) and superb CO2 uptake (11 wt %) at 3 % CO2 . Additionally, this framework showcases the superior recyclability; ultrahigh stability after exposure to O2 , moisture, and SO2 ; and exceptional CO2 adsorption capacity under humid conditions, which are unprecedented among MOFs. We also elucidate that the performance of CO2 adsorption can be controlled by the structure of the diamine ligands grafted such as the number of amine end groups or the presence of side groups, which provides the first systematic and comprehensive demonstration of fine-tuning of CO2 uptake capability using different amines.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes CadC regulates cadmium efflux and fine-tunes lipoprotein localization to escape the host immune response and promote infection.

    PubMed

    Pombinho, Rita; Camejo, Ana; Vieira, Ana; Reis, Olga; Carvalho, Filipe; Almeida, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro, Jorge Campos; Sousa, Sandra; Cabanes, Didier

    2017-03-09

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed Lm-cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that Lm-CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC, but not CadA, is required for Lm infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection. lspB overexpression promotes the release of the LpeA lipoprotein to the extracellular medium, inducing TNF- and IL-6 expression, thus impairing Lm survival in macrophages. We propose that Lm uses CadC to repress lspB expression during infection to avoid LpeA exposure to the host immune system, diminishing inflammatory cytokine expression and promoting intramacrophage survival and virulence. CadC appears as the first metal efflux pump regulator repurposed during infection to fine-tune lipoprotein processing and host responses.

  17. A general and high yielding fragment coupling synthesis of heteroatom-bridged calixarenes and the unprecedented examples of calixarene cavity fine-tuned by bridging heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Xiang; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2004-12-01

    A number of aza- and/or oxo-bridged calix[2]arene[2]triazines have been synthesized through an unusually high yielding and efficient fragment coupling approach starting from cyanuric chloride and resorcinol, 3-aminophenol, m-phenylenediamine, and N,N'-dimethyl-m-phenylenediamine. These novel macrocycles, which belong to the next generation of calixarenes or cyclophanes, form a unique cavity that is resulted from two isolated benzene planes and two bis-heteroatom-conjugated triazine planes in a 1,3-alternate fashion. The nature of the bridging heteroatoms, i.e., combination of the electronic, conjugative, and steric effects of the nitrogen and oxygen atoms, strongly regulates the cavity size, generating a set of fine-tuned cavities in which the distance between two benzene rings at the upper rim ranges from 5.011 to 7.979 A. The multiple intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions among N,N'-dimethylated tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazines and among tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazines lead to the formation of infinite one-dimensional chain structure and two-dimensional zigzag layered structure, respectively, in the solid state. The ease of preparation and further chemical manipulations, and the readily tunable cavity structures render these aza- and/or oxo-bridged calix[2]arene[2]triazines the unique platforms in the study of supramolecular chemistry.

  18. Full phosphorescent white-light organic light-emitting diodes with improved color stability and efficiency by fine tuning primary emission contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Wang E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Du, Xiaogang; Su, Wenming E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Zhang, Dongyu; Lin, Wenjing

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a novel type of white-light organic light emitting diode (OLED) with high color stability was reported, in which the yellow-light emission layer of (4,4{sup ′}-N,N{sup ′}-dicarbazole)biphenyl (CBP) : tris(2-phenylquinoline-C2,N{sup ′})iridium(III) (Ir(2-phq){sub 3}) was sandwiched by double blue-light emission layers of 1,1-bis-[(di-4-tolylamino)pheny1]cyclohexane (TAPC) : bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2{sup ′}]picolinate (FIrpic) and tris[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB):FIrpic. And, it exhibited the maximum current efficiency of 33.1 cd/A, the turn-on voltage at about 3 V and the maximum luminance in excess of 20000 cd/m{sup 2}. More important, it realized very stable white-light emission, and its CIE(x, y) coordinates only shift from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.37) as applied voltage increased from 5 V to 12 V. It is believed that the new scheme in emission layer of white-light OLED can fine tune the contribution of primary emission with applied voltage changed, resulting in high quality white-light OLED.

  19. The fine structure of microseisms: observations from a three-component array in Central France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, N.; Saenger, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    We study the wave type composition and directionality of microseisms in the frequency range 0.1 to 1.1 Hz using data from a temporary three-component seismic array in Central France. The data were acquired in April and November 2010 during four and eight days, respectively. Two seasonal snapshots of the ambient seismic wave field are thus available for a location in the vicinity of several large water bodies (North Sea, Atlantic Sea, and Mediterranean Sea). Fourier-domain beam-forming is applied simultaneously on all components to jointly estimate propagation (back azimuth, phase velocity) and polarization features as a function of frequency. We find that the relative contribution of Rayleigh and Love wave modes strongly varies by frequency as well as back azimuth. Body waves with narrow back azimuth ranges are also observed, in particular around the secondary microseism peak (P waves from the North Sea) and around 0.7 Hz (SV waves with back azimuth NNW). Interestingly, the observed wave field composition and directionality does not differ much between the April and November snapshots, although seismic power is about 10 dB higher in November. Implications of these results for microseism source studies and interferometry are discussed.

  20. Multibeam Phased Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zoya; Romisch, Stefania; Rondineau, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a new architecture for Ka-band multi-beam arrays was developed and demonstrated experimentally. The goal of the investigation was to demonstrate a new architecture that has the potential of reducing the cost as compared to standard expensive phased array technology. The goals of this specific part of the project, as stated in the yearly statement of work in the original proposal are: 1. Investigate bounds on performance of multi-beam lens arrays in terms of beamwidths, volume (size), isolation between beams, number of simultaneous beams, etc. 2. Design a small-scale array to demonstrate the principle. The array will be designed for operation around 3OGHz (Ka-band), with two 10-degree beamwidth beams. 3. Investigate most appropriate way to accomplish fine-tuning of the beam pointing within 5 degrees around the main beam pointing angle.

  1. Fine-Tuning Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    2012-01-01

    As many states and districts rethink teacher supervision and evaluation, the team at the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) Project, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, has analyzed thousands of lesson videotapes and studied the shortcomings of current practices. The tentative conclusion: Teachers should be evaluated on three…

  2. In response to partial plant shading, the lack of phytochrome A does not directly induce leaf senescence but alters the fine-tuning of chlorophyll biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Bastiaan; Gardeström, Per; Keech, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Phytochrome is thought to control the induction of leaf senescence directly, however, the signalling and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, an ecophysiological approach was used to establish a functional connection between phytochrome signalling and the physiological processes underlying the induction of leaf senescence in response to shade. With shade it is important to distinguish between complete and partial shading, during which either the whole or only a part of the plant is shaded, respectively. It is first shown here that, while PHYB is required to maintain chlorophyll content in a completely shaded plant, only PHYA is involved in maintaining the leaf chlorophyll content in response to partial plant shading. Second, it is shown that leaf yellowing associated with strong partial shading in phyA-mutant plants actually correlates to a decreased biosynthesis of chlorophyll rather than to an increase of its degradation. Third, it is shown that the physiological impact of this decreased biosynthesis of chlorophyll in strongly shaded phyA-mutant leaves is accompanied by a decreased capacity to adjust the Light Compensation Point. However, the increased leaf yellowing in phyA-mutant plants is not accompanied by an increase of senescence-specific molecular markers, which argues against a direct role of PHYA in inducing leaf senescence in response to partial shade. In conclusion, it is proposed that PHYA, but not PHYB, is essential for fine-tuning the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in response to partial shading. In turn, this mechanism allows the shaded leaf to adjust its photosynthetic machinery to very low irradiances, thus maintaining a positive carbon balance and repressing the induction of leaf senescence, which can occur under prolonged periods of shade.

  3. MicroRNA-15a fine-tunes the level of Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) in proliferating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Ditte C.; Schneider, Mikael; Eskildsen, Tilde; Teisner, Borge; and others

    2010-06-10

    Delta like 1 homolog (Dlk1) exists in both transmembrane and soluble molecular forms, and is implicated in cellular growth and plays multiple roles in development, tissue regeneration, and cancer. Thus, DLK1 levels are critical for cell function, and abnormal DLK1 expression can be lethal; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We here report that miR-15a modulates DLK1 levels in preadipocytes thus providing a mechanism for DLK1 regulation that further links it to cell cycle arrest and cancer since miR-15a is deregulated in these processes. In preadipocytes, miR-15a increases with cell density, and peaks at the same stage where membrane DLK1{sup M} and soluble DLK1{sup S} are found at maximum levels. Remarkably, miR-15a represses the amount of all Dlk1 variants at the mRNA level but also the level of DLK1{sup M} protein while it increases the amount of DLK1{sup S} supporting a direct repression of DLK1 and a parallel effect on the protease that cleaves off the DLK1 from the membrane. In agreement with previous studies, we found that miR-15a represses cell numbers, but additionally, we report that miR-15a also increases cell size. Conversely, anti-miR-15a treatment decreases cell size while increasing cell numbers, scenarios that were completely rescued by addition of purified DLK1{sup S}. Our data thus imply that miR-15a regulates cell size and proliferation by fine-tuning Dlk1 among others, and further emphasize miR-15a and DLK1 levels to play important roles in growth signaling networks.

  4. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ Channel Properties in Adult Inner Hair Cells Positioned in the Most Sensitive Region of the Gerbil Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L.; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C.; Magistretti, Jacopo; Russo, Giancarlo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca2+ inflow through CaV1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell) and elementary (cell-attached) properties of Ca2+ currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼2 kHz) of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na+ based extracellular solution), we found that the macroscopic Ca2+ current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms) and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (Po: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼−18 mV). The value of Po was significantly larger (0.06) in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca2+ channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms). Both the Po and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca2+ channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds. PMID:25409445

  5. Enhancing signal to noise ratio by fine-tuning tapers of cladded/uncladded buffer rods in ultrasonic time domain reflectometry in smelters.

    PubMed

    Viumdal, Håkon; Mylvaganam, Saba

    2014-03-01

    Buffer rods (BR) as waveguides in ultrasonic time domain reflectometry (TDR) can somewhat extend the range of industrial applications of ultrasonics. Level, temperature and flow measurements involving elevated temperatures, corrosive fluids and generally harsh environments are some of the applications in which conventional ultrasonic transducers cannot be used directly in contact with the media. In such cases, BRs with some design modifications can make ultrasonic TDR measurements possible with limited success. This paper deals with TDR in conjunction with distance measurements in extremely hot fluids, using conventional ultrasonic transducers in combination with BRs. When using BRs in the ultrasonic measurement systems in extreme temperatures, problems associated with size and the material of the buffer, have to be addressed. The resonant frequency of the transducer and the relative size of the transducer with respect to the diameter of BR are also important parameters influencing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the signal processing system used in the ultrasonic TDR. This paper gives an overview of design aspects related to the BRs with special emphasis on tapers and cladding used on BRs. As protective cladding, zirconium oxide-yttrium oxide composite was used, with its proven thermal stability in withstanding temperatures in rocket and jet engines up to 1650 °C. In general a BR should guide the signals through to the medium and from and back to the transducer without excessive attenuation and at the same time not exacerbate the noise in the measurement system. The SNR is the decisive performance indicator to consider in the design of BR based ultrasonic TDR, along with appropriate transducer, with suitable size and operating frequency. This work presents and analyses results from extensive experiments related to fine-tuning both geometry of and signals in cladded/uncladded BRs used in high temperature ultrasonic TDR with focus on overall performance based on

  6. The weak, fine-tuned binding of ubiquitous transcription factors to the Il-2 enhancer contributes to its T cell-restricted activity.

    PubMed Central

    Hentsch, B; Mouzaki, A; Pfeuffer, I; Rungger, D; Serfling, E

    1992-01-01

    The T lymphocyte-specific enhancers of the murine and human Interleukin 2 (Il-2) genes harbour several binding sites for ubiquitous transcription factors. All these sites for the binding of AP-1, NF-kB or Oct-1 are non-canonical sites, i.e. they differ in one or a few base pairs from consensus sequences for the optimal binding of these factors. Although the factors bind weakly to these sites, the latter are functionally important because their mutation to non-binding sites results in a decrease of inducible activity of the Il-2 enhancer. Conversion of three sites to canonical binding sites of Octamer factors, AP-1 and NF-kB results in a drastic increase in enhancer activity and the induction of the Il-2 enhancer in non-T cells, such as B cell lines, murine L cells and human HeLa cells. The introduction of two or three canonical sites into the enhancer leads to a further increase of its activity. Il-2 enhancer induction is also observed in B cells when the concentration of AP-1 and Oct factors increases as a result of cotransfections with FosB and Octamer expression plasmids. When Il-2 enhancer constructs carrying canonical factor binding sites were injected into Xenopus oocytes the strong binding of ubiquitous factors substantially overcomes the silencing effect of negatively acting factors present in resting primary T lymphocytes. These results suggest a fine-tuned interplay between ubiquitous and lymphoid-specific factors binding to and transactivating the Il-2 enhancer and show that the binding affinity of ubiquitous factors to the enhancer contributes to its cell-type specific activity. Moreover, we believe that a dramatic increase of transcriptional activity brought about by single point mutations at strategic important factor binding sites may also have relevance to the activation of nuclear oncogenes. Images PMID:1614851

  7. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel properties in adult inner hair cells positioned in the most sensitive region of the Gerbil Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Magistretti, Jacopo; Russo, Giancarlo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca(2+) inflow through Ca(V)1.3 (L-type) Ca(2+) channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell) and elementary (cell-attached) properties of Ca(2+) currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼ 2 kHz) of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na(+) based extracellular solution), we found that the macroscopic Ca(2+) current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms) and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (Po: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼-18 mV). The value of Po was significantly larger (0.06) in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca(2+) channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms). Both the Po and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca(2+) channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds.

  8. Surface charge fine tuning of reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange type mixed-mode stationary phases for milder elution conditions.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Aleksandra; Horak, Jeannie; Sánchez-Muñoz, Orlando L; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-08-28

    A series of new mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange (RP/WAX) phases have been synthesized by immobilization of N-undecenyl-3-α-aminotropane onto thiol-modified silica gel by thiol-ene click chemistry and subsequent introduction of acidic thiol-endcapping functionalities of different type and surface densities. Click chemistry allowed to adjust a controlled surface concentration of the RP/WAX ligand in such a way that a sufficient quantity of residual thiols remained unmodified which have been capped by thiol click with either 3-butenoic acid or allylsulfonic acid as co-ligands. In another embodiment, performic acid oxidation of N-undecenyl-3-α-aminotropane-derivatized thiol-modified silica gave a RP/WAX phase with high density of sulfonic acid end-capping groups. ζ-Potential determinations confirmed the fine-tuned pI of these mixed-mode stationary phases which was shifted from 9.5 to 8.2, 7.8, and 6.5 with 3-butenoic acid and allylsulfonic acid end-capping as well as performic acid oxidation. For acidic solutes, the co-ionic endcapping leads to strongly reduced retention times and clearly allowed elution of these analytes under lower ionic strength thus milder elution conditions. In spite of the acidic endcapping, the new mixed-mode phases maintained their hydrophobic and anion-exchange selectivity as well as their multimodal nature featuring RP and HILIC elution domains at acetonitrile percentages below and above 50%, respectively. Column classification by principal component analysis of an extended retention map in comparison to a set of polar commercial and in-house synthesized stationary phases confirmed complementarity of the new mixed-mode phases with respect to HILIC, polar RP, amino and commercial mixed-mode phases.

  9. Dynamically tuning emission band of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots assembled on Ag nanorod array: plasmon-enhanced Stark shift.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Niu; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Zhang, Wei; Hao, Zhong-Hua

    2011-11-21

    We demonstrate tuning emission band of CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanorod array by dynamically adjusting exciton-plasmon interaction. Large red-shift is observed in two-photon luminescence (TPL) spectra of the SQDs when the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanorod array is adjusted to close to excitation laser wavelength, and the spectral red-shift of TPL reaches as large as 101 meV by increasing excitation power, which is slightly larger than full width at half-maximum of emission spectrum of the SQDs. The observed LSPR-dependent spectral shifting behaviors are explained by a theoretical model of plasmon-enhanced quantum-confined Stark effect. These observations could find the applications in dynamical information processing in active plasmonic and photonic nanodevices.

  10. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    PubMed

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-03-11

    colonization in tomato roots, indicating that, besides hormonal interactions, a fine-tuning of each hormone level is required for AM development.

  11. Codon optimization of xylA gene for recombinant glucose isomerase production in Pichia pastoris and fed-batch feeding strategies to fine-tune bioreactor performance.

    PubMed

    Ata, Özge; Boy, Erdem; Güneş, Hande; Çalık, Pınar

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this work are the optimization of the codons of xylA gene from Thermus thermophilus to enhance the production of recombinant glucose isomerase (rGI) in P. pastoris and to investigate the effects of feeding strategies on rGI production. Codons of xylA gene from T. thermophilus were optimized, ca. 30 % of the codons were replaced with those with higher frequencies according to the codon usage bias of P. pastoris, codon optimization resulted in a 2.4-fold higher rGI activity. To fine-tune bioreactor performance, fed-batch bioreactor feeding strategies were designed as continuous exponential methanol feeding with pre-calculated feeding rate based on the pre-determined specific growth rate, and fed-batch methanol-stat feeding. Six feeding strategies were designed, as follows: (S1) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- sorbitol feeding; (S2) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding; (S3) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- mannitol feeding; (S4) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding and pulse-mannitol feeding; (S5) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1); and, (S6) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1) and pulse-mannitol feeding. The highest cell and rGI activity was attained as 117 g L(-1) at t = 66 h and 32530 U L(-1) at t = 53 h, in strategy-S5. The use of the co-substrate mannitol does not increase the rGI activity in methanol-stat feeding, where 4.1-fold lower rGI activity was obtained in strategy-S6. The overall cell yield on total substrate was determined at t = 53 h as 0.21 g g(-1) in S5 strategy.

  12. Inadequate fine-tuning of protein synthesis and failure of amino acid homeostasis following inhibition of the ATPase VCP/p97

    PubMed Central

    Parzych, K; Chinn, T M; Chen, Z; Loaiza, S; Porsch, F; Valbuena, G N; Kleijnen, M F; Karadimitris, A; Gentleman, E; Keun, H C; Auner, H W

    2015-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms that control protein degradation may constitute a non-oncogenic cancer cell vulnerability and, therefore, a therapeutic target. Although this proposition is supported by the clinical success of proteasome inhibitors in some malignancies, most cancers are resistant to proteasome inhibition. The ATPase valosin-containing protein (VCP; p97) is an essential regulator of protein degradation in multiple pathways and has emerged as a target for cancer therapy. We found that pharmacological depletion of VCP enzymatic activity with mechanistically different inhibitors robustly induced proteotoxic stress in solid cancer and multiple myeloma cells, including cells that were insensitive, adapted, or clinically resistant to proteasome inhibition. VCP inhibition had an impact on two key regulators of protein synthesis, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and attenuated global protein synthesis. However, a block on protein translation that was itself cytotoxic alleviated stress signaling and reduced cell death triggered by VCP inhibition. Some of the proteotoxic effects of VCP depletion depended on the eIF2α phosphatase, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A (PPP1R15A)/PP1c, but not on mTORC1, although there appeared to be cross-talk between them. Thus, cancer cell death following VCP inhibition was linked to inadequate fine-tuning of protein synthesis and activity of PPP1R15A/PP1c. VCP inhibitors also perturbed intracellular amino acid levels, activated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4), and enhanced cellular dependence on amino acid supplies, consistent with a failure of amino acid homeostasis. Many of the observed effects of VCP inhibition differed from the effects triggered by proteasome inhibition or by protein misfolding. Thus, depletion of VCP enzymatic activity triggers cancer cell death in part through inadequate regulation of protein synthesis and

  13. Modulation of the Substitution Pattern of 5-Aryl-2-Aminoimidazoles Allows Fine-Tuning of Their Antibiofilm Activity Spectrum and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Elien; Hooyberghs, Geert; Robijns, Stijn; Waldrant, Kai; De Weerdt, Ami; Delattin, Nicolas; Liebens, Veerle; Kucharíková, Soňa; Tournu, Hélène; Verstraeten, Natalie; Dovgan, Barbara; Girandon, Lenart; Fröhlich, Mirjam; De Brucker, Katrijn; Michiels, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin; Vanderleyden, Jozef; Van der Eycken, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We previously synthesized several series of compounds, based on the 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole scaffold, that showed activity preventing the formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Here, we further studied the activity spectrum of a number of the most active N1- and 2N-substituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles against a broad panel of biofilms formed by monospecies and mixed species of bacteria and fungi. An N1-substituted compound showed very strong activity against the biofilms formed by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans but was previously shown to be toxic against various eukaryotic cell lines. In contrast, 2N-substituted compounds were nontoxic and active against biofilms formed by Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans but had reduced activity against biofilms formed by Gram-positive bacteria. In an attempt to develop nontoxic compounds with potent activity against biofilms formed by Gram-positive bacteria for application in antibiofilm coatings for medical implants, we synthesized novel compounds with substituents at both the N1 and 2N positions and tested these compounds for antibiofilm activity and toxicity. Interestingly, most of these N1-,2N-disubstituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles showed very strong activity against biofilms formed by Gram-positive bacteria and C. albicans in various setups with biofilms formed by monospecies and mixed species but lost activity against biofilms formed by Gram-negative bacteria. In light of application of these compounds as anti-infective coatings on orthopedic implants, toxicity against two bone cell lines and the functionality of these cells were tested. The N1-,2N-disubstituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles in general did not affect the viability of bone cells and even induced calcium deposition. This indicates that modulating the substitution pattern on positions N1 and 2N of the 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole scaffold allows fine-tuning of both the

  14. Inadequate fine-tuning of protein synthesis and failure of amino acid homeostasis following inhibition of the ATPase VCP/p97.

    PubMed

    Parzych, K; Chinn, T M; Chen, Z; Loaiza, S; Porsch, F; Valbuena, G N; Kleijnen, M F; Karadimitris, A; Gentleman, E; Keun, H C; Auner, H W

    2015-12-31

    The cellular mechanisms that control protein degradation may constitute a non-oncogenic cancer cell vulnerability and, therefore, a therapeutic target. Although this proposition is supported by the clinical success of proteasome inhibitors in some malignancies, most cancers are resistant to proteasome inhibition. The ATPase valosin-containing protein (VCP; p97) is an essential regulator of protein degradation in multiple pathways and has emerged as a target for cancer therapy. We found that pharmacological depletion of VCP enzymatic activity with mechanistically different inhibitors robustly induced proteotoxic stress in solid cancer and multiple myeloma cells, including cells that were insensitive, adapted, or clinically resistant to proteasome inhibition. VCP inhibition had an impact on two key regulators of protein synthesis, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and attenuated global protein synthesis. However, a block on protein translation that was itself cytotoxic alleviated stress signaling and reduced cell death triggered by VCP inhibition. Some of the proteotoxic effects of VCP depletion depended on the eIF2α phosphatase, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A (PPP1R15A)/PP1c, but not on mTORC1, although there appeared to be cross-talk between them. Thus, cancer cell death following VCP inhibition was linked to inadequate fine-tuning of protein synthesis and activity of PPP1R15A/PP1c. VCP inhibitors also perturbed intracellular amino acid levels, activated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4), and enhanced cellular dependence on amino acid supplies, consistent with a failure of amino acid homeostasis. Many of the observed effects of VCP inhibition differed from the effects triggered by proteasome inhibition or by protein misfolding. Thus, depletion of VCP enzymatic activity triggers cancer cell death in part through inadequate regulation of protein synthesis and

  15. Fine-tuning the lipogenic/lipolytic balance to optimize the metabolic requirements of cancer cell growth: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Javier A

    2010-03-01

    Evolving evidence suggest that metabolic requirements for cell proliferation are identical in all normal and cancer cells. HER2 oncogene-overexpressors, a highly aggressive subtype of human cancer cells, constitute one of the best examples of how malignant cells maximize their ability to acquire and metabolize nutrients in a manner conductive to proliferation rather than efficient ATP production. HER2-overexpressors optimize their requirements of rapid cancer cell growth by fine-tuning a double [lipogenic/lipolytic]-edged metabolic sword. On the one edge, HER2 oncogene overexpression triggers redundant signaling cascades to ensure that all the major enzymes involved in de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis will facilitate aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation for energy production (Warburg effect). HER2 also establishes a positive bidirectional relationship with the key lipogenic enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) that rapidly senses and respond to any disturbance in the flux of lipogenic substrates (e.g. NADPH and acetyl-CoA) and lipogenesis end-products (i.e. palmitate). On the other edge, HER2 overexpression arranges detoxifying mechanisms by upregulating PPARgamma, a well established positive regulator role of adipogenesis and lipid storage in cell types with active lipid metabolism. PPARgamma establishes a lipogenesis/lipolysis joining-point that enables HER2-positive cancer cells to avoid endogenous palmitate toxicity while securing palmitate into fat stores to avoid palmitate feedback on FASN functioning. The ability of HER2 to supercharge lipogenesis (by activating regulatory circuits that activate and fuel the lipogenic enzyme FASN) while averting lipotoxicity (by promoting conversion and storage of excess FAs to triglycerides in a PPARgamma-dependent manner) supports the notion that best adapted cancer phenotypes are addicted to oncogenic lipid metabolism for cell proliferation and survival. It is conceptually attractive to assume that we can

  16. Functional Characterization of MODY2 Mutations Highlights the Importance of the Fine-Tuning of Glucokinase and Its Role in Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    García-Herrero, Carmen-María; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Azriel, Sharona; Gutierrez-Nogués, Angel; Aragonés, Angel; Vincent, Olivier; Campos-Barros, Angel; Argente, Jesús; Navas, María-Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) acts as a glucose sensor in the pancreatic beta-cell and regulates insulin secretion. Heterozygous mutations in the human GK-encoding GCK gene that reduce the activity index increase the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion threshold and cause familial, mild fasting hyperglycaemia, also known as Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 2 (MODY2). Here we describe the biochemical characterization of five missense GK mutations: p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, p.His416Arg and p.Ala449Thr. The enzymatic analysis of the corresponding bacterially expressed GST-GK mutant proteins show that all of them impair the kinetic characteristics of the enzyme. In keeping with their position within the protein, mutations p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, and p.His416Arg strongly decrease the activity index of GK, affecting to one or more kinetic parameters. In contrast, the p.Ala449Thr mutation, which is located in the allosteric activator site, does not affect significantly the activity index of GK, but dramatically modifies the main kinetic parameters responsible for the function of this enzyme as a glucose sensor. The reduced Kcat of the mutant (3.21±0.28 s−1 vs 47.86±2.78 s−1) is balanced by an increased glucose affinity (S0.5 = 1.33±0.08 mM vs 7.86±0.09 mM) and loss of cooperativity for this substrate. We further studied the mechanism by which this mutation impaired GK kinetics by measuring the differential effects of several competitive inhibitors and one allosteric activator on the mutant protein. Our results suggest that this mutation alters the equilibrium between the conformational states of glucokinase and highlights the importance of the fine-tuning of GK and its role in glucose sensing. PMID:22291974

  17. The role of Rabi splitting tuning in the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregates and surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai; Toma, Andrea; Wang, Hai-Yu; Bozzola, Angelo; Miele, Ermanno; Haddadpour, Ali; Veronis, Georgios; de Angelis, Francesco; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai; Xu, Huai-Liang; Sun, Hong-Bo; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of Rabi splitting tuning on the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregate/surface plasmon polariton systems. In particular, the Rabi splitting was tuned by modifying the J-aggregate molecule concentration while a polaritonic system was provided by a nanostructure formed by holes array in a golden layer. From the periodic and concentration changes we have identified, through numerical and experimental steady-state analyses, the best geometrical configuration for maximizing Rabi splitting, which was then used for transient absorption measurements. It was found that in transient absorption spectra, under upper band excitation, two bleaching peaks appear when a nanostructured polaritonic pattern is used. Importantly, their reciprocal distance increases upon increase of J-aggregate concentration, a result confirmed by steady-state analysis. In a similar manner it was also found that the lifetime of the upper band is intimately related to the coupling strength. In particular, we argue that with strong coupling strength, i.e. high J-aggregate concentration, a short lifetime of the upper band has to be expected due to the suppression of the bottleneck effect. This result supports the idea that the dynamics of hybrid systems is profoundly dependent on Rabi splitting.

  18. Fine-tuning of age integrating magnetostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, and carbonate cyclicity: Example of lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin (Yunnan, China) covering the past 1 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shouyun; Goddu, Srinivasa Rao; Appel, Erwin; Verosub, Ken

    2007-05-01

    convincing Milankovitch spectrum of whole-core carbonate data. The Fourier spectra of whole-core carbonate and susceptibility time series calibrated by the optimum age model show clear Milankovitch cyclicities (95, 41, 23, and 19 kyr) indicating that a global palaeoclimatic signal is recorded. According to this result the Heqing core spans almost the complete past 1 Myr (5-1001 ka). Detailed depth-to-age conversion is listed. The optimum age model can be used as a fine-tuned time basis for interpreting the existing data set of palaeoclimatic proxies which have been already measured for this sequence.

  19. Magnetic Field-Tuned Superconductor-Insulator Transition in One-Dimensional Arrays of Small Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Watson; Chen, C. D.

    2003-03-01

    We have studied experimentally the magnetic field induced superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition in one-dimensional arrays of small Josephson junctions. It is found that the critical magnetic field that separates the two phases corresponds to the onset of Coulomb blockade of Cooper pairs tunneling in the current-voltage characteristics. The resistance data are analyzed in the context of the superfluid-insulator transition in one dimension. Combining results from Haviland et. al.,2 we construct an experimental phase diagram using Josepshon coupling-to-charging energy ratio(EJ/ECP) and dissipation strength.

  20. Acoustic Beam Forming Array Using Feedback-Controlled Microphones for Tuning and Self-Matching of Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliffe, Eliott (Inventor); Naguib, Ahmed (Inventor); Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A feedback-controlled microphone includes a microphone body and a membrane operatively connected to the body. The membrane is configured to be initially deflected by acoustic pressure such that the initial deflection is characterized by a frequency response. The microphone also includes a sensor configured to detect the frequency response of the initial deflection and generate an output voltage indicative thereof. The microphone additionally includes a compensator in electric communication with the sensor and configured to establish a regulated voltage in response to the output voltage. Furthermore, the microphone includes an actuator in electric communication with the compensator, wherein the actuator is configured to secondarily deflect the membrane in opposition to the initial deflection such that the frequency response is adjusted. An acoustic beam forming microphone array including a plurality of the above feedback-controlled microphones is also disclosed.

  1. Size tuning of Ag-decorated TiO₂ nanotube arrays for improved bactericidal capacity of orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Simchi, A; Bagheri, R

    2014-08-01

    Surface modification of orthopedic implants using titanium dioxide nanotubes and silver nanoparticles (SNs) is a promising approach to prevent bacteria adhesion, biofilm formation, and implant infection. Herein, we utilized a straightforward and all-solution process to prepare silver-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays with surface density of 10(3) to 10(4) per µm(2). With controlling the synthesis conditions, hexagonal closed-packed nanotubes with opening diameter of 30-100 nm that are decorated with SNs with varying sizes (12-40 nm) were prepared. Various analytical techniques were utilized to characterize the size, morphology, distribution, valance state, surface roughness, and composition of the prepared antibacterial films. The bactericidal capacity of the films were studied on Escherichia coli (E. coli) by drop-test method and correlated with the size and percentage of Ag as well as the surface density of TiO2 nanotube arrays. Synergetic effect of TiO2 nanotubes and SNs on the antibacterial activity of the composite films is shown. The bactericidal capacity is found to depend on the size characteristics of the Ag-TiO2 coating. The highest antibacterial activity is obtained for TiO2 nanotubes with opening diameter of about 100 nm and SNs with an average size of 20 nm. MTT assay using osteoblast MG63 cells was performed to examine the cell viability. We suggest that release rate of the silver ions is an important factor controlling the antibacterial activity. Additionally, the size dependency of the bactericidal capacity implies that electrical coupling between silver and TiO2 nanotubes and improved hydrophobicity of the coating might influence the bacterial behavior of the hybrid nanostructures.

  2. Importance of Hydrogen Bonding in Fine Tuning the [2Fe-2S] Cluster Redox Potential of HydC from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Birrell, James A; Laurich, Christoph; Reijerse, Edward J; Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2016-08-09

    Iron-sulfur clusters form one of the largest and most diverse classes of enzyme cofactors in nature. They may serve as structural factors, form electron transfer chains between active sites and external redox partners, or form components of enzyme active sites. Their specific role is a consequence of the cluster type and the surrounding protein environment. The relative effects of these factors are not completely understood, and it is not yet possible to predict the properties of iron-sulfur clusters based on amino acid sequences or rationally tune their properties to generate proteins with new desirable functions. Here, we generate mutations in a [2Fe-2S] cluster protein, the TmHydC subunit of the trimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima, to study the factors that affect its redox potential. Saturation mutagenesis of Val131 was used to tune the redox potential over a 135 mV range and revealed that cluster redox potential and electronic properties correlate with amino acid hydrophobicity and the ability to form hydrogen bonds to the cluster. Proline scanning mutagenesis between pairs of ligating cysteines was used to remove backbone amide hydrogen bonds to the cluster and decrease the redox potential by up to 132 mV, without large structural changes in most cases. However, substitution of Gly83 with proline caused a change of HydC to a [4Fe-4S] cluster protein with a redox potential of -526 mV. Together, these results confirm the importance of hydrogen bonding in tuning cluster redox potentials and demonstrate the versatility of iron-sulfur cluster protein folds at binding different types of clusters.

  3. NHC-Ag/Pd-Catalyzed Reductive Carboxylation of Terminal Alkynes with CO2 and H2 : A Combined Experimental and Computational Study for Fine-Tuned Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dingyi; Zhou, Feng; Lim, Diane S W; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2017-03-09

    Reductive carboxylation of terminal alkynes utilizing CO2 and H2 as reactants is an interesting and challenging transformation. Theoretical calculations indicated it would be kinetically possible to obtain cinnamic acid, the reductive carboxylation product, from phenylacetylene in a CO2 /H2 system with an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-supported Ag/Pd bimetallic catalysts through competitive carboxylation/hydrogenation cascade reactions in one step. These calculations were verified experimentally with a poly-NHC-supported Ag/Pd catalyst. By tuning the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, phenylacetylene was selectively converted to cinnamic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, or phenylpropiolic acid in excellent yields.

  4. Characterization of nonlinear dielectric films for the tuning of microwave cavities for axion searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemi, Chiara; Bowring, Daniel; Sonnenschein, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The axion is a hypothetical particle that can solve the strong CP problem and that may be the primary component of dark matter in the universe. Experiments such as the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) hope to find the axion through its coupling to photons in the presence of a strong magnetic field. This coupling can be detected using a microwave cavity whose fundamental resonance frequency is matched to that of the photons. By tuning the cavity resonance frequency, the corresponding axion mass range can be scanned. For axion searches above 1GHz, future generations of ADMX may use an array of small cavities locked to the same frequency. These cavities will be coarsely tuned using a tuning rod as is done in the current generation of ADMX, but fine tuning of individual resonators will be necessary for multi-cavity arrays. A candidate fine tuning method uses nonlinear dielectric films inside the cavities. DC-biasing the films changes their dielectric constant, affecting the frequencies of the cavity modes. This method makes frequency-matched resonator arrays more practical by saving space and minimizing heat load inside the cryostat. This poster presents RF design and simulation and preliminary measurements on the coplanar waveguide resonators used to test the films.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of fine-grained FeVSb half-Heusler alloys tuned to p-type by substituting vanadium with titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Minmin; Li, Jing-Feng; Kita, Takuji

    2013-02-15

    Fine-grained Ti-doped FeVSb half-Heusler alloys were synthesized by combining mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering and their thermoelectric properties were investigated with an emphasis on the influences of Ti doping and phase purity. It was found that substituting V with Ti can change the electrical transport behavior from n-type to p-type due to one less valence electron of Ti than V, and the sample with nominal composition FeV{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.4}Sb exhibits the largest Seebeck coefficient and the maximum power factor. By optimizing the sintering temperature and applying annealing treatment, the power factor is significantly improved and the thermal conductivity is reduced simultaneously, resulting in a ZT value of 0.43 at 500 Degree-Sign C, which is relatively high as for p-type half-Heusler alloys containing earth-abundant elements. - Graphical abstract: Fine-grained Ti-doped FeVSb alloys were prepared by the MA-SPS method. The maximum ZT value reaches 0.43 at 500 Degree-Sign C, which is relatively high for p-type half-Heusler alloys. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-doped FeVSb half-Heusler alloys were synthesized by combining MA and SPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting V with Ti changes the electrical behavior from n-type to p-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties are improved by optimizing sintering temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties are further improved by applying annealing treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high ZT value of 0.43 is obtained at 500 Degree-Sign C for p-type Ti-doped FeVSb alloys.

  6. Fine tuning of magnetite nanoparticle size distribution using dissymmetric potential pulses in the presence of biocompatible surfactants and the electrochemical characterization of the nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, A; Cruz-Rivera, J J; Elías-Alfaro, C G; Betancourt, I; Ruiz-Silva, H; Antaño-López, R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of varying the surfactant concentration and the anodic pulse potential on the properties and electrochemical behaviors of magnetite nanoparticles were investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized with an electrochemical method based on applying dissymmetric potential pulses, which offers the advantage that can be used to tune the particle size distribution very precisely in the range of 10 to 50 nm. Under the conditions studied, the surfactant concentration directly affects the size distribution, with higher concentrations producing narrower distributions. Linear voltammetry was used to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the synthesized nanoparticles in both the anodic and cathodic regions, which are attributed to the oxidation of Fe(2+) and the reduction of Fe(3+); these species are part of the spinel structure of magnetite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data indicated that the reduction and oxidation reactions of the nanoparticles are not controlled by the mass transport step, but by the charge transfer step. The sample with the highest saturation magnetization was that synthesized in the presence of polyethylene glycol.

  7. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum adjusts nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching capacity in response to dynamic light via fine-tuned Lhcx and xanthophyll cycle pigment synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lepetit, Bernard; Gélin, Gautier; Lepetit, Mariana; Sturm, Sabine; Vugrinec, Sascha; Rogato, Alessandra; Kroth, Peter G; Falciatore, Angela; Lavaud, Johann

    2017-04-01

    Diatoms contain a highly flexible capacity to dissipate excessively absorbed light by nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ) based on the light-induced conversion of diadinoxanthin (Dd) into diatoxanthin (Dt) and the presence of Lhcx proteins. Their NPQ fine regulation on the molecular level upon a shift to dynamic light conditions is unknown. We investigated the regulation of Dd + Dt amount, Lhcx gene and protein synthesis and NPQ capacity in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum after a change from continuous low light to 3 d of sine (SL) or fluctuating (FL) light conditions. Four P. tricornutum strains with different NPQ capacities due to different expression of Lhcx1 were included. All strains responded to dynamic light comparably, independently of initial NPQ capacity. During SL, NPQ capacity was strongly enhanced due to a gradual increase of Lhcx2 and Dd + Dt amount. During FL, cells enhanced their NPQ capacity on the first day due to increased Dd + Dt, Lhcx2 and Lhcx3; already by the second day light acclimation was accomplished. While quenching efficiency of Dt was strongly lowered during SL conditions, it remained high throughout the whole FL exposure. Our results highlight a more balanced and cost-effective photoacclimation strategy of P. tricornutum under FL than under SL conditions.

  8. Linking landscape characteristics to mineral site use by band-tailed pigeons in Western Oregon: Coarse-filter conservation with fine-filter tuning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, C.T.; Schmitz, R.A.; Casazza, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Mineral sites are scarce resources of high ion concentration used heavily by the Pacific Coast subpopulation of band-tailed pigeons. Over 20% of all known mineral sites used by band-tailed pigeons in western Oregon, including all hot springs, have been abandoned. Prior investigations have not analyzed stand or landscape level habitat composition in relation to band-tailed pigeon use of mineral sites. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the influence of habitat types, identified from Gap Analysis Program (GAP) products at two spatial scales, on the odds of mineral site use in Oregon (n = 69 currently used and 20 historically used). Our results indicated that the odds of current use were negatively associated with non-forested terrestrial and private land area around mineral sites. Similarly, the odds of current mineral site use were positively associated with forested and special status (GAP stewardship codes 1 and 2) land area. The most important variable associated with the odds of mineral site use was the amount of non-forested land cover at either spatial scale. Our results demonstrate the utility of meso-scale geographic information designed for regional, coarse-filter approaches to conservation in fine-filter investigation of wildlife-habitat relationships. Adjacent landcover and ownership status explain the pattern of use for known mineral sites in western Oregon. In order for conservation and management activities for band-tailed pigeons to be successful, mineral sites need to be addressed as important and vulnerable resources. Management of band-tailed pigeons should incorporate the potential for forest management activities and land ownership patterns to influence the risk of mineral site abandonment.

  9. Pressure-driven assembly of spherical nanoparticles and formation of 1D nanostructure arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huimeng

    2010-08-01

    External pressure was used to engineer nanoparticle assembly. Reversible manipulation of the unit-cell dimensions of a 3D ordered nanoparticle array under a hydrostatic pressure field enabled the fine-tuning of the interparticle distance. Under a uniaxial pressure field, nanoparticles were forced to contact and coalesce into nanorods or nanowires and ordered ultrahigh-density arrays (see picture; small arrows denote pressure).

  10. Tuning Parameters in Heuristics by Using Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith; Unal, Resit

    2010-01-01

    With the growing complexity of today's large scale problems, it has become more difficult to find optimal solutions by using exact mathematical methods. The need to find near-optimal solutions in an acceptable time frame requires heuristic approaches. In many cases, however, most heuristics have several parameters that need to be "tuned" before they can reach good results. The problem then turns into "finding best parameter setting" for the heuristics to solve the problems efficiently and timely. One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT) approach for parameter tuning neglects the interactions between parameters. Design of Experiments (DOE) tools can be instead employed to tune the parameters more effectively. In this paper, we seek the best parameter setting for a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem in which n jobs must be scheduled on a single machine without preemption, and the objective is to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Benchmark instances for the problem are available in the literature. To fine tune the GA parameters in the most efficient way, we compare multiple DOE models including 2-level (2k ) full factorial design, orthogonal array design, central composite design, D-optimal design and signal-to-noise (SIN) ratios. In each DOE method, a mathematical model is created using regression analysis, and solved to obtain the best parameter setting. After verification runs using the tuned parameter setting, the preliminary results for optimal solutions of multiple instances were found efficiently.

  11. Strigolactones fine-tune the root system.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Depuydt, Stephen; Goormachtig, Sofie; Geelen, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Strigolactones were originally discovered to be involved in parasitic weed germination, in mycorrhizal association and in the control of shoot architecture. Despite their clear role in rhizosphere signaling, comparatively less attention has been given to the belowground function of strigolactones on plant development. However, research has revealed that strigolactones play a key role in the regulation of the root system including adventitious roots, primary root length, lateral roots, root hairs and nodulation. Here, we review the recent progress regarding strigolactone regulation of the root system and the antagonism and interplay with other hormones.

  12. Dark interactions and cosmological fine-tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Quartin, Miguel; Calvao, Mauricio O; Joras, Sergio E; Reis, Ribamar R R; Waga, Ioav E-mail: orca@if.ufrj.br E-mail: ribamar@if.ufrj.br

    2008-05-15

    Cosmological models involving an interaction between dark matter and dark energy have been proposed in order to solve the so-called coincidence problem. Different forms of coupling have been studied, but there have been claims that observational data seem to narrow (some of) them down to something annoyingly close to the {Lambda}CDM (CDM: cold dark matter) model, thus greatly reducing their ability to deal with the problem in the first place. The smallness problem of the initial energy density of dark energy has also been a target of cosmological models in recent years. Making use of a moderately general coupling scheme, this paper aims to unite these different approaches and shed some light on whether this class of models has any true perspective in suppressing the aforementioned issues that plague our current understanding of the universe, in a quantitative and unambiguous way.

  13. Riboregulators: Fine-Tuning Virulence in Shigella.

    PubMed

    Fris, Megan E; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Within the past several years, RNA-mediated regulation (ribo-regulation) has become increasingly recognized for its importance in controlling critical bacterial processes. Regulatory RNA molecules, or riboregulators, are perpetually responsive to changes within the micro-environment of a bacterium. Notably, several characterized riboregulators control virulence in pathogenic bacteria, as is the case for each riboregulator characterized to date in Shigella. The timing of virulence gene expression and the ability of the pathogen to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions is critical to the establishment and progression of infection by Shigella species; ribo-regulators mediate each of these important processes. This mini review will present the current state of knowledge regarding RNA-mediated regulation in Shigella by detailing the characterization and function of each identified riboregulator in these pathogens.

  14. A new direction in dye-sensitized solar cells redox mediator development: in situ fine-tuning of the cobalt(II)/(III) redox potential through Lewis base interactions.

    PubMed

    Kashif, Muhammad K; Axelson, Jordan C; Duffy, Noel W; Forsyth, Craig M; Chang, Christopher J; Long, Jeffrey R; Spiccia, Leone; Bach, Udo

    2012-10-10

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are an attractive renewable energy technology currently under intense investigation. In recent years, one area of major interest has been the exploration of alternatives to the classical iodide/triiodide redox shuttle, with particular attention focused on cobalt complexes with the general formula [Co(L)(n)](2+/3+). We introduce a new approach to designing redox mediators that involves the application of [Co(PY5Me(2))(MeCN)](2+/3+) complexes, where PY5Me(2) is the pentadentate ligand, 2,6-bis(1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethyl)pyridine. It is shown, by X-ray crystallography, that the axial acetonitrile (MeCN) ligand can be replaced by more strongly coordinating Lewis bases (B) to give complexes with the general formula [Co(PY5Me(2))(B)](2+/3+), where B = 4-tert-butylpyridine (tBP) or N-methylbenzimidazole (NMBI). These commonly applied DSC electrolyte components are used for the first time to fine-tune the potential of the redox couple to the requirements of the dye through coordinative interactions with the Co(II/III) centers. Application of electrolytes based on the [Co(PY5Me(2))(NMBI)](2+/3+) complex in combination with a commercially available organic sensitizer has enabled us to attain DSC efficiencies of 8.4% and 9.2% at a simulated light intensity of 100% sun (1000 W m(-2) AM1.5 G) and at 10% sun, respectively, higher than analogous devices applying the [Co(bpy)(3)](2+/3+) redox couple, and an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of almost 1.0 V at 100% sun for devices constructed with the tBP complex.

  15. Improving Electrocatalysts for O2 Reduction by Fine-Tuning the Pt-Support Interaction: Pt Monolayer on the Surfaces of a Pd3Fe(111) Single-Crystal Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei-Ping; Yang, Xiaofang; Vukmirovic, Miomir B.; Koel, Bruce E.; Jiao, Jiao; Peng, Guowen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2009-09-09

    We improved the effectiveness of Pt monolayer electrocatalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) using a novel approach to fine-tuning the Pt monolayer interaction with its support, exemplified by an annealed Pd3Fe(111) single-crystal alloy support having a segregated Pd layer. Low-energy ion scattering and low-energy electron diffraction studies revealed that a segregated Pd layer, with the same structure as Pd (111), is formed on the surface of high-temperature-annealed Pd3Fe(111). This Pd layer is considerably more active than Pd(111); its ORR kinetics is comparable to that of a Pt(111) surface. The enhanced catalytic activity of the segregated Pd layer compared to that of bulk Pd apparently reflects the modification of Pd surface’s electronic properties by underlying Fe. The Pd3Fe(111) suffers a large loss in ORR activity when the subsurface Fe is depleted by potential cycling (i.e., repeated excursions to high potentials in acid solutions). The Pd3Fe(111) surface is an excellent substrate for a Pt monolayer ORR catalyst, as verified by its enhanced ORR kinetics on PTML/Pd/Pd3Fe(111). Our density functional theory studies suggest that the observed enhancement of ORR activity originates mainly from the destabilization of OH binding and the decreased Pt-OH coverage on the Pt/Pd/Pd3Fe(111) surface. The activity of PtML/Pd(111) and Pt(111) is limited by OH removal, whereas the activity of PtML/Pd/Pd3Fe(111) is limited by the O-O bond scission, which places these two surfaces on the two sides of the volcano plot.

  16. Transcriptomics of the interaction between the monopartite phloem-limited geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Solanum lycopersicum highlights a role for plant hormones, autophagy and plant immune system fine tuning during infection.

    PubMed

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed.

  17. Improving Electrocatalysts for O2 Reduction by Fine-Tuning the Pt-Support Interaction: Pt Monolayer on the Surfaces of a Pd3Fe(111) Single-Crystal Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, W.P.; Yang, X.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Koel, B.E.; Jiao, J.; Peng, G.; Mavrikakis, M.; Adzic, R.R.

    2009-09-09

    We improved the effectiveness of Pt monolayer electrocatalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) using a novel approach to fine-tuning the Pt monolayer interaction with its support, exemplified by an annealed Pd{sub 3}Fe(111) single-crystal alloy support having a segregated Pd layer. Low-energy ion scattering and low-energy electron diffraction studies revealed that a segregated Pd layer, with the same structure as Pd (111), is formed on the surface of high-temperature-annealed Pd{sub 3}Fe(111). This Pd layer is considerably more active than Pd(111); its ORR kinetics is comparable to that of a Pt(111) surface. The enhanced catalytic activity of the segregated Pd layer compared to that of bulk Pd apparently reflects the modification of Pd surface's electronic properties by underlying Fe. The Pd{sub 3}Fe(111) suffers a large loss in ORR activity when the subsurface Fe is depleted by potential cycling (i.e., repeated excursions to high potentials in acid solutions). The Pd{sub 3}Fe(111) surface is an excellent substrate for a Pt monolayer ORR catalyst, as verified by its enhanced ORR kinetics on PT{sub ML}/Pd/Pd{sub 3}Fe(111). Our density functional theory studies suggest that the observed enhancement of ORR activity originates mainly from the destabilization of OH binding and the decreased Pt-OH coverage on the Pt/Pd/Pd{sub 3}Fe(111) surface. The activity of Pt{sub ML}/Pd(111) and Pt(111) is limited by OH removal, whereas the activity of Pt{sub ML}/Pd/Pd{sub 3}Fe(111) is limited by the O-O bond scission, which places these two surfaces on the two sides of the volcano plot.

  18. Mechanism of Fine-tuning pH Sensors in Proprotein Convertases: IDENTIFICATION OF A pH-SENSING HISTIDINE PAIR IN THE PROPEPTIDE OF PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 1/3.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Danielle M; Elferich, Johannes; Shinde, Ujwal

    2015-09-18

    The propeptides of proprotein convertases (PCs) regulate activation of cognate protease domains by sensing pH of their organellar compartments as they transit the secretory pathway. Earlier experimental work identified a conserved histidine-encoded pH sensor within the propeptide of the canonical PC, furin. To date, whether protonation of this conserved histidine is solely responsible for PC activation has remained unclear because of the observation that various PC paralogues are activated at different organellar pH values. To ascertain additional determinants of PC activation, we analyzed PC1/3, a paralogue of furin that is activated at a pH of ∼5.4. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell-based methods, we mimicked the protonation status of various histidines within the propeptide of PC1/3 and examined how such alterations can modulate pH-dependent protease activation. Our results indicate that whereas the conserved histidine plays a crucial role in pH sensing and activation of this protease an additional histidine acts as a "gatekeeper" that fine-tunes the sensitivity of the PC1/3 propeptide to facilitate the release inhibition at higher proton concentrations when compared with furin. Coupled with earlier analyses that highlighted the enrichment of the amino acid histidine within propeptides of secreted eukaryotic proteases, our work elucidates how secreted proteases have evolved to exploit the pH of the secretory pathway by altering the spatial juxtaposition of titratable groups to regulate their activity in a spatiotemporal fashion.

  19. TUNE: Compiler-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-18

    This project has developed compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 Jaguar system at Oak Ridge, which has multi-core Opteron nodes with SSE-3 SIMD extensions, and the Cray XE6 Hopper system at NERSC. To achieve this goal, we combined compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation, which have been developed by the PIs over the past several years. We examined DOE Office of Science applications to identify performance bottlenecks and apply our system to computational kernels that operate on dense arrays. Our goal for this performance-tuning technology has been to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, we aim to make our technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  20. Beam tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    A program for configuring the linac, based on previously run configurations for any desired beam was used during the past year. This program uses only a small number of empirical tunes to scale resonator fields to properly accelerate a beam with a different charge-to-mass (q/A) ratio from the original tune configuration. The program worked very well for the PII linac section where we can easily match a new beam`s arrival phase and velocity to the tuned value. It was also fairly successful for the Booster and ATLAS sections of the linac, but not as successful as for the PII linac. Most of the problems are associated with setting the beam arrival time correctly for each major linac section. This problem is being addressed with the development of the capacitive pickup beam phase monitor discussed above. During the next year we expect to improve our ability to quickly configure the linac for new beams and reduce the time required for linac tuning. Already the time required for linac tuning as a percentage of research hours has decreased from 22% in FY 1993 to 15% in the first quarter of FY 1995.

  1. Collapse of the EPR fine structure of a one-dimensional array of weakly interacting binuclear units: A dimensional quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Rafael; Abud, Julián E.; Sartoris, Rosana P.; Santana, Ricardo C.

    2011-09-01

    Binuclear (also called dimeric) compounds with pairs of antiferromagnetically coupled spins ½, S1 and S2 (Hex = -J0 S1.S2, with J0<0 for antiferromagnets), have been around for ˜60 years, providing roots to the field of molecular magnetism. In addition, as reported in recent years, weak interactions between binuclear units in a crystalline network give rise to interesting systems of interacting bosons having an energy gap, which are important in the study of quantum phenomena in many body systems coupled by stochastic distributions of interactions. Binuclear compounds have gained new relevance in the last decade with the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation. In this work, we use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to study the role of weak inter-binuclear exchange couplings J’ (|J’| ≪|J0|) in the spectra, elementary excitations, and spin dynamics of a one-dimensional (1-D) array of antiferromagnetic (AFM) binuclear units in the hybrid (organic-inorganic) CuII compound [Cu(CH3COO)(phen)(H2O)]2·(NO3)2·4H2O. In this material, the acetate (CH3COO)- anion supports the intra-binuclear exchange coupling J0, and the stacking of the (phen) = 1,10-phenanthroline rings of neighbor units supports the inter-binuclear interactions J', giving rise to well-isolated chains. This has advantages over other binuclear compounds studied previously because magnetically equal units are arranged in a 1-D spatial arrangement along the direction of their symmetry axis, simplifying the analysis of the data and allowing a simpler treatment. In addition, single crystals of good quality allow detailed EPR experiments.EPR spectra were collected at ˜33.8 and ˜9.4-9.8 GHz in oriented single crystals at room temperature and in powder samples at temperatures (T) between 10 and 300 K. By varying the energy levels of the binuclear units with the magnetic field orientation, or changing the population of the excited triplet state with temperature and, consequently, the effective

  2. 3D Ta/TaO x /TiO2/Ti synaptic array and linearity tuning of weight update for hardware neural network applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, I.-Ting; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Li-Wen; Chou, Teyuh; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of highly anticipated hardware neural networks (HNNs) hinges largely on the successful development of a low-power, high-density, and reliable analog electronic synaptic array. In this study, we demonstrate a two-layer Ta/TaO x /TiO2/Ti cross-point synaptic array that emulates the high-density three-dimensional network architecture of human brains. Excellent uniformity and reproducibility among intralayer and interlayer cells were realized. Moreover, at least 50 analog synaptic weight states could be precisely controlled with minimal drifting during a cycling endurance test of 5000 training pulses at an operating voltage of 3 V. We also propose a new state-independent bipolar-pulse-training scheme to improve the linearity of weight updates. The improved linearity considerably enhances the fault tolerance of HNNs, thus improving the training accuracy.

  3. Tunable elastomer-based virtually imaged phased array.

    PubMed

    Metz, Philipp; Block, Hendrik; Behnke, Christopher; Krantz, Matthias; Gerken, Martina; Adam, Jost

    2013-02-11

    Virtually imaged phased arrays (VIPAs) offer a high potential for wafer-level integration and superior optical properties compared to conventional gratings. We introduce an elastomer-based tunable VIPA enabling fine tuning of the dispersion characteristics. It consists of a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer sandwiched between silver bottom and top coatings, which form the VIPA's high reflective and semi-transparent mirror, respectively. The latter also acts as an electrode for Joule heating, such that the optical PDMS resonator cavity tuning is carried out via a combination of thermal expansion and the thermo-optic effect. Analogous to the free spectral range (FSR), based on a VIPA specific dispersion law, we introduce a new characteristic VIPA performance measure, namely the free angular range (FAR). We report a tuning span of one FAR achieved by a 7.2K temperature increase of a 170μm PDMS VIPA. Both resonance quality and tunability are analyzed in numerical simulations and experiments.

  4. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy of Co-Ni nanowires: comparison between single nanowires and nanowire arrays in hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    PubMed

    Vega, V; Böhnert, T; Martens, S; Waleczek, M; Montero-Moreno, J M; Görlitz, D; Prida, V M; Nielsch, K

    2012-11-23

    Co(x)Ni(1-x) alloy nanowires with varying Co content (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.95), having a diameter of 130 nm and length of around 20 μm, are synthesized by template-assisted electrodeposition into the nanopores of SiO(2) conformal coated hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes. The magneto-structural properties of both single isolated nanowires and hexagonally ordered nanowire arrays of Co-Ni alloys are systematically studied by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively, allowing us to compare different alloy compositions and to distinguish between the magnetostatic and magnetocrystalline contributions to the effective magnetic anisotropy for each system. The excellent tunable soft magnetic properties and magnetic bistability exhibited by low Co content Co-Ni nanowires indicate that they might become the material of choice for the development of nanostructured magnetic systems and devices as an alternative to Fe-Ni alloy based systems, being chemically more robust. Furthermore, Co contents higher than 51 at.% allow us to modify the magnetic behavior of Co-rich nanowires by developing well controlled magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which is desirable for data storage applications.

  5. Array-CGH fine mapping of minor and cryptic HR-CGH detected genomic imbalances in 80 out of 590 patients with abnormal development.

    PubMed

    Lybaek, Helle; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Kresse, Stine H; Høysaeter, Trude; Steen, Vidar M; Houge, Gunnar

    2008-11-01

    During a 6-year period, 590 patients suspected of having a minor or cryptic genomic imbalance as the cause of mental retardation with dysmorphic signs +/- malformations have been investigated with high-resolution comparative genomic hybridisation (HR-CGH) in our diagnostic laboratory. Thirty-six patients had a small chromosomal aberration detected by routine karyotyping, and 554 patients had a normal G-banded karyotype. In the latter group, a genomic imbalance was detected by HR-CGH in 40 patients (7.2%): 29 deletions, 3 duplications, 4 unbalanced translocations, and 4 occult trisomy mosaicisms. When microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) became available, all HR-CGH-positive samples were also investigated by 1 Mb resolution array-CGH for more precise mapping. From the 514 patients with normal HR-CGH findings, a subset of 20 patients with particularly high suspicion of having a chromosomal imbalance was selected for array-CGH. In four of them (20%), an imbalance was detected: three deletions and one duplication. Of note, 73 out of the 80 array-CGH mapped patients had a de novo chromosomal rearrangement (91%). Taken together, this work provides phenotype-genotype information on 80 patients with minor and cryptic chromosomal imbalances.

  6. Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T

    2012-05-30

    Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, regardless of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not only increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array.

  7. Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally-relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, irrespective of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used fMRI and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not always increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but instead may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array. PMID:22649250

  8. An optimal tuning strategy for tidal turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennell, Ross

    2016-11-01

    Tuning wind and tidal turbines is critical to maximizing their power output. Adopting a wind turbine tuning strategy of maximizing the output at any given time is shown to be an extremely poor strategy for large arrays of tidal turbines in channels. This `impatient-tuning strategy' results in far lower power output, much higher structural loads and greater environmental impacts due to flow reduction than an existing `patient-tuning strategy' which maximizes the power output averaged over the tidal cycle. This paper presents a `smart patient tuning strategy', which can increase array output by up to 35% over the existing strategy. This smart strategy forgoes some power generation early in the half tidal cycle in order to allow stronger flows to develop later in the cycle. It extracts enough power from these stronger flows to produce more power from the cycle as a whole than the existing strategy. Surprisingly, the smart strategy can often extract more power without increasing maximum structural loads on the turbines, while also maintaining stronger flows along the channel. This paper also shows that, counterintuitively, for some tuning strategies imposing a cap on turbine power output to limit loads can increase a turbine's average power output.

  9. An optimal tuning strategy for tidal turbines.

    PubMed

    Vennell, Ross

    2016-11-01

    Tuning wind and tidal turbines is critical to maximizing their power output. Adopting a wind turbine tuning strategy of maximizing the output at any given time is shown to be an extremely poor strategy for large arrays of tidal turbines in channels. This 'impatient-tuning strategy' results in far lower power output, much higher structural loads and greater environmental impacts due to flow reduction than an existing 'patient-tuning strategy' which maximizes the power output averaged over the tidal cycle. This paper presents a 'smart patient tuning strategy', which can increase array output by up to 35% over the existing strategy. This smart strategy forgoes some power generation early in the half tidal cycle in order to allow stronger flows to develop later in the cycle. It extracts enough power from these stronger flows to produce more power from the cycle as a whole than the existing strategy. Surprisingly, the smart strategy can often extract more power without increasing maximum structural loads on the turbines, while also maintaining stronger flows along the channel. This paper also shows that, counterintuitively, for some tuning strategies imposing a cap on turbine power output to limit loads can increase a turbine's average power output.

  10. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  11. Fine Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)

  12. Water transport control in carbon nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Based on a recent scaling law of the water mobility under nanoconfined conditions, we envision novel strategies for precise modulation of water diffusion within membranes made of carbon nanotube arrays (CNAs). In a first approach, the water diffusion coefficient D may be tuned by finely controlling the size distribution of the pore size. In the second approach, D can be varied at will by means of externally induced electrostatic fields. Starting from the latter strategy, switchable molecular sieves are proposed, where membranes are properly designed with sieving and permeation features that can be dynamically activated/deactivated. Areas where a precise control of water transport properties is beneficial range from energy and environmental engineering up to nanomedicine. PMID:25313305

  13. Tuning of Pectin Methylesterification

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Fabien; L'Enfant, Mélanie; Domon, Jean-Marc; Rosiau, Emeline; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Surcouf, Ogier; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan; Marcelo, Paulo; Mareck, Alain; Guérineau, François; Kim, Hyung-Rae; Mravec, Jozef; Bonnin, Estelle; Jamet, Elisabeth; Kihara, Daisuke; Lerouge, Patrice; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the demethylesterification of homogalacturonan domains of pectin in plant cell walls and are regulated by endogenous pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). In Arabidopsis dark-grown hypocotyls, one PME (AtPME3) and one PMEI (AtPMEI7) were identified as potential interacting proteins. Using RT-quantitative PCR analysis and gene promoter::GUS fusions, we first showed that AtPME3 and AtPMEI7 genes had overlapping patterns of expression in etiolated hypocotyls. The two proteins were identified in hypocotyl cell wall extracts by proteomics. To investigate the potential interaction between AtPME3 and AtPMEI7, both proteins were expressed in a heterologous system and purified by affinity chromatography. The activity of recombinant AtPME3 was characterized on homogalacturonans (HGs) with distinct degrees/patterns of methylesterification. AtPME3 showed the highest activity at pH 7.5 on HG substrates with a degree of methylesterification between 60 and 80% and a random distribution of methyl esters. On the best HG substrate, AtPME3 generates long non-methylesterified stretches and leaves short highly methylesterified zones, indicating that it acts as a processive enzyme. The recombinant AtPMEI7 and AtPME3 interaction reduces the level of demethylesterification of the HG substrate but does not inhibit the processivity of the enzyme. These data suggest that the AtPME3·AtPMEI7 complex is not covalently linked and could, depending on the pH, be alternately formed and dissociated. Docking analysis indicated that the inhibition of AtPME3 could occur via the interaction of AtPMEI7 with a PME ligand-binding cleft structure. All of these data indicate that AtPME3 and AtPMEI7 could be partners involved in the fine tuning of HG methylesterification during plant development. PMID:26183897

  14. Model-independent particle accelerator tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Larry

    2013-10-21

    We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: 1) It has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, 2) It gives known bounds on parameter update rates, 3) We give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and 4) It has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme for uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multi-particle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of twenty two quadrupole magnets and two RF buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and RF phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.

  15. Thiadiazoloquinoxalines: tuning physical properties through smart synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dallos, Timea; Hamburger, Manuel; Baumgarten, Martin

    2011-04-15

    The synthesis of π-conjugated acceptors based on thiadiazoloquinoxaline (TQ) derivatives is described. Apart from reporting on the functionalization of the TQ core, the influence of the substituents was studied by UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry measurements, and DFT calculations. By changing the donor as well as the π-spacer, a fine-tuning of the photo- and electrochemical properties was achieved.

  16. PERI auto-tuning.

    SciTech Connect

    Chame, J.; Chen, C.; Dongarra, J.; Hall, M.; Hollingsworth, J. K.; Hovland, P.; Moore, S.; Seymour, K.; Shin, J.; Tiwari, A.; Williams, S.; You, H.; Bailey, D. H.

    2008-01-01

    The enormous and growing complexity of today's high-end systems has increased the already significant challenges of obtaining high performance on equally complex scientific applications. Application scientists are faced with a daunting challenge in tuning their codes to exploit performance-enhancing architectural features. The Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) is working toward the goal of automating portions of the performance tuning process. This paper describes PERI's overall strategy for auto-tuning tools and recent progress in both building auto-tuning tools and demonstrating their success on kernels, some taken from large-scale applications.

  17. Carbon nanotube array: a new MIP platform.

    PubMed

    Choong, Chwee-Lin; Bendall, James S; Milne, William I

    2009-11-15

    Here we demonstrate that a free-standing carbon nanotube (CNT) array can be used as a large surface area and high porosity 3D platform for molecular imprinted polymer (MIP), especially for surface imprinting. The thickness of polymer grafted around each CNT can be fine-tuned to imprint different sizes of target molecules, and yet it can be thin enough to expose every imprint site to the target molecules in solution without sacrificing the capacity of binding sites. The performance of this new CNT-MIP architecture was first assessed with a caffeine-imprinted polypyrrole (PPy) coating on two types of CNT arrays: sparse and dense CNTs. Real-time pulsed amperometric detection was used to study the rebinding of the caffeine molecules onto these CNT-MIPPy sensors. The dense CNT-MIPPy sensor presented the highest sensitivity, about 15 times better when compared to the conventional thin film, whereas an improvement of 3.6 times was recorded on the sparse CNT. However, due to the small tube-to-tube spacing in the dense CNT array, electrode fouling was observed during the detection of concentrated caffeine in phosphate buffer solution. A new I-V characterization method using pulsed amperometry was introduced to investigate the electrical characterization of these new devices. The resistance value derived from the I-V plot provides insight into the electrical conductivity of the CNT transducer and also the effective surface area for caffeine imprinting.

  18. Natural tuning: towards a proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Gorbenko, Victor; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2013-09-01

    The cosmological constant problem and the absence of new natural physics at the electroweak scale, if confirmed by the LHC, may either indicate that the nature is fine-tuned or that a refined notion of naturalness is required. We construct a family of toy UV complete quantum theories providing a proof of concept for the second possibility. Low energy physics is described by a tuned effective field theory, which exhibits relevant interactions not protected by any symmetries and separated by an arbitrary large mass gap from the new "gravitational" physics, represented by a set of irrelevant operators. Nevertheless, the only available language to describe dynamics at all energy scales does not require any fine-tuning. The interesting novel feature of this construction is that UV physics is not described by a fixed point, but rather exhibits asymptotic fragility. Observation of additional unprotected scalars at the LHC would be a smoking gun for this scenario. Natural tuning also favors TeV scale unification.

  19. Simultaneous multispectral framing infrared camera using an embedded diffractive optical lenslet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in micro-optical element fabrication using gray scale technology have opened up the opportunity to create simultaneous multi-spectral imaging with fine structure diffractive lenses. This paper will discuss an approach that uses diffractive optical lenses configured in an array (lenslet array) and placed in close proximity to the focal plane array which enables a small compact simultaneous multispectral imaging camera [1]. The lenslet array is designed so that all lenslets have a common focal length with each lenslet tuned for a different wavelength. The number of simultaneous spectral images is determined by the number of individually configured lenslets in the array. The number of spectral images can be increased by a factor of 2 when using it with a dual-band focal plane array (MWIR/LWIR) by exploiting multiple diffraction orders. In addition, modulation of the focal length of the lenslet array with piezoelectric actuation will enable spectral bin fill-in allowing additional spectral coverage while giving up simultaneity. Different lenslet array spectral imaging concept designs are presented in this paper along with a unique concept for prefiltering the radiation focused on the detector. This approach to spectral imaging has applications in the detection of chemical agents in both aerosolized form and as a liquid on a surface. It also can be applied to the detection of weaponized biological agent and IED detection in various forms from manufacturing to deployment and post detection during forensic analysis.

  20. Tuning innate immunity by translation.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Robert; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-12-01

    In multicellular organisms, the epithelia is a contact surface with the surrounding environment and is exposed to a variety of adverse biotic (pathogenic) and abiotic (chemical) factors. Multi-layered pathways that operate on different time scales have evolved to preserve cellular integrity and elicit stress-specific response. Several stress-response programs are activated until a complete elimination of the stress is achieved. The innate immune response, which is triggered by pathogenic invasion, is rather harmful when active over a prolonged time, thus the response follows characteristic oscillatory trajectories. Here, we review different translation programs that function to precisely fine-tune the time at which various components of the innate immune response dwell between active and inactive. We discuss how different pro-inflammatory pathways are co-ordinated to temporally offset single reactions and to achieve an optimal balance between fighting pathogens and being less harmful for healthy cells.

  1. Wavelength tunable, 264 J laser diode array for 10 Hz/1ms Yb:YAG pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Albach, D.; Assémat, F.; Bahbah, S.; Bourdet, G.; Piatti, P.; Pluvinage, M.; Vincent, B.; LeTouzé, G.; Mattern, T.; Biesenbach, J.; Müntz, H.; Noeske, A.; Venohr, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Lucia [1,2] Laser program, under development at the LULI laboratory, aims at delivering a 1030 nm, 100J, 10 Hz, 10 ns pulse train. The two laser heads used in the amplification stage relies on water-cooled mm-thick Yb:YAG disks, each of them pumped by a 34×13 cm2 Laser Diode Array (LDA). For each LDA, the 88 QCW diodes stacks manufactured by DILAS GmbH will be tiled in an 8×11 arrangement. Fine wavelength tuning is performed through bias current adjustment, water temperature control and conductivity adjustment. Wavelength homogeneity experimental verification has been validated.

  2. Nanostructured gold architectures formed through high pressure-driven sintering of spherical nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huimeng; Bai, Feng; Sun, Zaicheng; Haddad, Raid E; Boye, Daniel M; Wang, Zhongwu; Huang, Jian Yu; Fan, Hongyou

    2010-09-22

    We have demonstrated pressure-directed assembly for preparation of a new class of chemically and mechanically stable gold nanostructures through high pressure-driven sintering of nanoparticle assemblies at room temperature. We show that under a hydrostatic pressure field, the unit cell dimension of a 3D ordered nanoparticle array can be reversibly manipulated allowing fine-tuning of the interparticle separation distance. In addition, 3D nanostructured gold architecture can be formed through high pressure-induced nanoparticle sintering. This work opens a new pathway for engineering and fabrication of different metal nanostructured architectures.

  3. Tuning micropillar cavity birefringence by laser induced surface defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bonato, Cristian; Ding Dapeng; Gudat, Jan; Exter, Martin P. van; Thon, Susanna; Kim, Hyochul; Petroff, Pierre M.; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2009-12-21

    We demonstrate a technique to tune the optical properties of micropillar cavities by creating small defects on the sample surface near the cavity region with an intense focused laser beam. Such defects modify strain in the structure, changing the birefringence in a controllable way. We apply the technique to make the fundamental cavity mode polarization-degenerate and to fine tune the overall mode frequencies, as needed for applications in quantum information science.

  4. Fine-Tuning the Wilson-Bappu Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, T.; Wallerstein, G.

    2011-12-01

    We have used the re-reduced Hipparcos parallaxes and extensive new observations from various sources to investigate the details of the Ca II emission line width vs. Mv relation first noted in Wilson & Vainu Bappu (1957). Only stars whose parallaxes exceed their probably error by at least a factor of 5 were used. The full range of Mv now extends from Mv =+14 to -5. Small but well defined deviations from a linear relationship are clearly present. The data have also been separately plotted for each luminosity class from V to Ib. Main sequence stars show significant curvature from Mv = 14 to 8. Stars of class III show a very nice linear curve. The supergiants, almost all of which are of class Ib, show the greatest scatter as originally noted by Wallerstein et al. (1999). For those stars the Wilson-Bappu Effect is not a useful method for deriving Mv. We discus the shape of the dispersion in log W0 at a given Mv and show that it is asymmetric. Individual measurements of logW0 are more likely to be above the mean rather than below it. This is probably due to intermittent activity that enhances the width of the Ca II emission line.

  5. Fine Tuning Cell Migration by a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is an instrumental process involved in organ development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes and also in numerous pathologies. Both basic cell migration and migration towards chemotactic stimulus consist of changes in cell polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell detachment from, invasion through, and reattachment to their neighboring cells, and numerous interactions with the extracellular matrix. The different steps of immune cell, tissue cell, or cancer cell migration are tightly coordinated in time and place by growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, adhesion molecules, and receptors for these ligands. This review describes how a disintegrin and metalloproteinases interfere with several steps of cell migration, either by proteolytic cleavage of such molecules or by functions independent of proteolytic activity. PMID:28260841

  6. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity.

    PubMed

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-18

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.

  7. Fine-Tuning the Craft of Teaching by Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2005-01-01

    Extensive research in cognitive psychology and education shows that discussion facilitates "depth of processing" (Craik & Lockhart, 1972), which in turn promotes thinking, understanding, and retaining information. It is also well recognized that an effectively facilitated discussion is one of the most valuable vehicles for learning. In MBA…

  8. Is Fine-Tuning Possible with Grade-Focused Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Gail; Connolly, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    In our service-learning courses, students work with real people and record and reflect on these experiences, to learn appropriate professional behavior, how to think creatively, and how to respond to changing circumstances. Many of our students are strategic learners, characterized by alertness to assessment and intention to achieve the highest…

  9. Musicians have fine-tuned neural distinction of speech syllables

    PubMed Central

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Tierney, Adam; Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    One of the benefits musicians derive from their training is an increased ability to detect small differences between sounds. Here, we asked whether musicians’ experience discriminating sounds on the basis of small acoustic differences confers advantages in the subcortical differentiation of closely-related speech sounds (e.g., /ba/ and /ga/), distinguishable only by their harmonic spectra (i.e., their second formant trajectories). Although the second formant is particularly important for distinguishing stop consonants, auditory brainstem neurons do not phase-lock to its frequency range (above 1000 Hz). Instead, brainstem nuclei convert this high-frequency content into neural response timing differences. As such, speech tokens with higher formant frequencies elicit earlier brainstem responses than those with lower formant frequencies. By measuring the degree to which subcortical response timing differs to the speech syllables /ba/, /da/, and /ga/ in adult musicians and nonmusicians, we reveal that musicians demonstrate enhanced subcortical discrimination of closely related speech sounds. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical consonant discrimination correlates with speech-in-noise perception. Taken together, these findings show a musician enhancement for the neural processing of speech and reveal a biological mechanism contributing to musicians’ enhanced speech perception. PMID:22634507

  10. Fine-Tuning Development Through Antagonistic Peptides: An Emerging Theme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Suk; De Smet, Ive

    2016-12-01

    Peptide ligand-receptor kinase interactions have emerged as a key component of plant growth and development. Now, highly related small signaling peptides have been shown to act antagonistically on the same receptor kinase, providing new insights into how plants optimize developmental processes using competitive peptides.

  11. ESP Needs Washback and the Fine Tuning of Driving Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiermuth, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Workplace needs are often difficult for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teachers to assess due to a variety of obstacles that can restrict opportunities to analyze the existing needs. Nevertheless, the workers' needs may be recognized by employing techniques aimed at extracting information from the workers themselves. Japanese university…

  12. Fine tuning GPS clock estimation in the MCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsell, Steven T.

    1995-01-01

    With the completion of a 24 operational satellite constellation, GPS is fast approaching the critical milestone, Full Operational Capability (FOC). Although GPS is well capable of providing the timing accuracy and stability figures required by system specifications, the GPS community will continue to strive for further improvements in performance. The GPS Master Control Station (MCS) recently demonstrated that timing improvements are always composite Clock, and hence, Kalman Filter state estimation, providing a small improvement to user accuracy.

  13. Fine-tuned shuttles for bone morphogenetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Kristi A; Serpe, Mihaela

    2013-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potent secreted signaling factors that trigger phosphorylation of Smad transcriptional regulators through receptor complex binding at the cell-surface. Resulting changes in target gene expression impact critical cellular responses during development and tissue homeostasis. BMP activity is tightly regulated in time and space by secreted modulators that control BMP extracellular distribution and availability for receptor binding. Such extracellular regulation is key for BMPs to function as morphogens and/or in the formation of morphogen activity gradients. Here, we review shuttling systems utilized to control the distribution of BMP ligands in tissue of various geometries, developing under different temporal constraints. We discuss the biological advantages for employing specific strategies for BMP shuttling and roles of varied ligand forms.

  14. Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Nauta, Maarten J; Jansen, Jaap T

    2004-05-15

    Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) have been proposed as a practical tool to translate public health targets for food safety into tolerable levels of pathogens in a food product. The FSO concept is subject to intensive debate, and has not been developed in detail. We evaluate the proposed definition of FSOs and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs is illustrated by a model for the public health risk of Shiga-producing Escherichia coli in steak tartare. We conclude that the proposed definition of FSOs needs to be modified to properly account for variability in and uncertainty about the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms and emphasize that both prevalence and concentration of pathogens must be considered. For this purpose, we propose the P-D equivalence curve, a simple graphical tool to separate "tolerable" from "non-tolerable" combinations of prevalence and concentration (dose).

  15. Diffractive digital lensless holographic microscopy with fine spectral tuning.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-06-15

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-diffractive optical setup for digital lensless holographic microscopy with easy wavelength line selection and micrometric resolution. In the proposed system, an ultrashort laser pulse is focused with a diffractive lens (DL) onto a pinhole of diameter close to its central wavelength to achieve a highly spatially coherent illumination cone as well as a spectral line with narrow width. To scan the complete spectrum of the light source the DL is displaced with respect to the pinhole plane. The proposed microscopy setup allows us to spectrally separate contributions from different sections of a sample, which may be attractive for several applications in life sciences.

  16. Fine tuning of graphene properties by modification with aryl halogens.

    PubMed

    Bouša, D; Pumera, M; Sedmidubský, D; Šturala, J; Luxa, J; Mazánek, V; Sofer, Z

    2016-01-21

    Graphene and its derivatives belong to one of the most intensively studied materials. The radical reaction using halogen derivatives of arene-diazonium salts can be used for effective control of graphene's electronic properties. In our work we investigated the influence of halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) as well as their position on the benzene ring towards the electronic and electrochemical properties of modified graphenes. The electronegativity as well as the position of the halogen atoms on the benzene ring has crucial influence on graphene's properties due to the inductive and mesomeric effects. The results of resistivity measurement are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations of electron density within chemically modified graphene sheets. Such simple chemical modifications of graphene can be used for controllable and scalable synthesis of graphene with tunable transport properties.

  17. Fine tuning of graphene properties by modification with aryl halogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouša, D.; Pumera, M.; Sedmidubský, D.; Šturala, J.; Luxa, J.; Mazánek, V.; Sofer, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and its derivatives belong to one of the most intensively studied materials. The radical reaction using halogen derivatives of arene-diazonium salts can be used for effective control of graphene's electronic properties. In our work we investigated the influence of halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) as well as their position on the benzene ring towards the electronic and electrochemical properties of modified graphenes. The electronegativity as well as the position of the halogen atoms on the benzene ring has crucial influence on graphene's properties due to the inductive and mesomeric effects. The results of resistivity measurement are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations of electron density within chemically modified graphene sheets. Such simple chemical modifications of graphene can be used for controllable and scalable synthesis of graphene with tunable transport properties.Graphene and its derivatives belong to one of the most intensively studied materials. The radical reaction using halogen derivatives of arene-diazonium salts can be used for effective control of graphene's electronic properties. In our work we investigated the influence of halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) as well as their position on the benzene ring towards the electronic and electrochemical properties of modified graphenes. The electronegativity as well as the position of the halogen atoms on the benzene ring has crucial influence on graphene's properties due to the inductive and mesomeric effects. The results of resistivity measurement are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations of electron density within chemically modified graphene sheets. Such simple chemical modifications of graphene can be used for controllable and scalable synthesis of graphene with tunable transport properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06295k

  18. Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are essential signalling molecules that co-ordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, as well as co-ordinating several developmental processes. Huge progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the components and mechanisms that govern JA perception and signalling. The bioactive form of the hormone, (+)-7-iso-jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), is perceived by the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins also act as direct repressors of transcriptional activators such as MYC2. In the emerging picture of JA-Ile perception and signalling, COI1 operates as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby derepressing transcription factors such as MYC2, which in turn activate JA-Ile-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. It is noteworthy that MYCs and different spliced variants of the JAZ proteins are involved in a negative regulatory feedback loop, which suggests a model that rapidly turns the transcriptional JA-Ile responses on and off and thereby avoids a detrimental overactivation of the pathway. This chapter highlights the most recent advances in our understanding of JA-Ile signalling, focusing on the latest repertoire of new targets of JAZ proteins to control different sets of JA-Ile-mediated responses, novel mechanisms of negative regulation of JA-Ile signalling, and hormonal cross-talk at the molecular level that ultimately determines plant adaptability and survival.

  19. tRNA concentration fine tunes protein solubility.

    PubMed

    Fedyunin, Ivan; Lehnhardt, Lothar; Böhmer, Nadine; Kaufmann, Paul; Zhang, Gong; Ignatova, Zoya

    2012-09-21

    Clusters of codons pairing to low-abundance tRNAs synchronize the translation with co-translational folding of single domains in multidomain proteins. Although proven with some examples, the impact of the ribosomal speed on the folding and solubility on a global, cell-wide level remains elusive. Here we show that upregulation of three low-abundance tRNAs in Escherichia coli increased the aggregation propensity of several cellular proteins as a result of an accelerated elongation rate. Intriguingly, alterations in the concentration of the natural tRNA pool compromised the solubility of various chaperones consequently rendering the solubility of some chaperone-dependent proteins.

  20. Spanish "fine tuning" of language to describe depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Antonio; Centeno, Carlos; Carvajal, Ana; Tejedor, María Angustias Portela; Urdiroz, Juliana; Martínez, Marina

    2009-08-01

    On screening tools for emotional distress, the terms "depression" and "anxiety" are commonly used for patients with advanced cancer. However, these terms could have negative connotations in Spanish such that cultural and unexpected differences in perception may invalidate or skew the results of the screening if the best terms are not chosen. The goal of this study was to determine the best expression that can be used to explore anxiety and depression in Spanish. A prospective study of 100 Spanish-speaking patients was performed. Spanish patients with cancer completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and six Verbal Numerical Scales (VNS) exploring the level of anxiety using the terms ansioso (anxious), nervioso (nervous), or intranquilo (uneasy/disquiet), and the level of depression using the terms deprimido (depressed), desanimado (discouraged), or triste (sad). The correlation, sensitivity, and specificity for all the VNS and HADS (8 and 11 cutoff points) were analyzed. The correlation (Spearman rho) between HADS and the anxiety VNS was r = 0.557 using "anxious"; r = 0.603 using "nervous"; and r = 0.594 using "uneasy." The correlation for the depression VNS was r = 0.662 using "depression"; r = 0.759 using "discouraged" and r = 0.596 using "sad"; alpha < 0.001 was used in all VNS. A cutoff point of 4 of 10 for any term used to explore anxiety achieved the best levels for sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.70). The term "discouraged" with a cutoff point of 4 of 10 shows a sensitivity of 0.89, a specificity of 0.84, as well as a predictive positive value of 0.77 and a negative value of 0.93. In Spanish, the term desanimado seems to be more suitable in screening for depression. Alternate terms could be used to explore anxiety in Spanish. Exploring depression with simple questions in Spanish achieves greater accuracy than the same approach to exploring anxiety.

  1. Researchers fine-tune production of energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, D.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Renewable energy sources, plant materials that can be processed into liquid fuels, are becoming increasingly important as fossil fuel sources dwindle and environmental impacts of releasing fossilized carbon into the atmosphere become more evident. But which plant species provide the most material and can be grown on land not used to produce food, feed, and fiber Switchgrass exceeds all other herbaceous species we have tested in production of biomass on marginal sites in the Virginia Piedmont reports David J. Parrish, Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA) professor of crop and soil environmental sciences. In a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Virginia Tech, graduate student Steven Nagle, Parrish, professor Dale Wolf, and associate professor W.L. Daniels are comparing the biomass productivity of switchgrass, weeping lovegrass, and tall fescue. Since 1985, the crops - selected for their marginal crop value - have been grown on 12 sites in the Virginia Piedmont. Planting was done using no-till procedures that slice but do not turn the soil, because the sites are subject to erosion. The two warm-season grasses are harvested once a year, the fescue twice. Switchgrass has been the most productive on clay soils, and lovegrass on sandy soil. In a second DOE-sponsored study - this one by graduate student Preston Sullivan, Parish, Wolf, Daniels, and Nagle - the Virginia Tech researchers have begun to investigate planting winter-annual legumes in with switchgrass as a source of nitrogen to reduce cost of production, and as a means to increase biomass. In the fall of 1988, crimson clover, arrowleaf clover, and hairy vetch were planted into the switchgrass stubble. Other plots of switchgrass are being provided with various levels of nitrogen fertilizer to compare those yields with legume-planted plots. Crimson clover had provided the most fall growth, but by mid-May 1989, the hairy vetch had produced a dense webbing of biomass over the new switchgrass.

  2. Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying.

    PubMed

    Alfè, D; Pozzo, M; Miniussi, E; Günther, S; Lacovig, P; Lizzit, S; Larciprete, R; Santos Burgos, B; Menteş, T O; Locatelli, A; Baraldi, A

    2013-01-01

    We show that bimetallic surface alloying provides a viable route for governing the interaction between graphene and metal through the selective choice of the elemental composition of the surface alloy. This concept is illustrated by an experimental and theoretical characterization of the properties of graphene on a model PtRu surface alloy on Ru(0001), with a concentration of Pt atoms in the first layer between 0 and 50%. The progressive increase of the Pt content determines the gradual detachment of graphene from the substrate, which results from the modification of the carbon orbital hybridization promoted by Pt. Alloying is also found to affect the morphology of graphene, which is strongly corrugated on bare Ru, but becomes flat at a Pt coverage of 50%. The method here proposed can be readily extended to several supports, thus opening the way to the conformal growth of graphene on metals and to a full tunability of the graphene-substrate interaction.

  3. A Presynaptic Gain Control Mechanism Fine-Tunes Olfactory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Root, Cory M.; Masuyama, Kaoru; Green, David S.; Enell, Lina E.; Nässel, Dick R.; Lee, Chi-Hon; Wang, Jing W.

    2008-01-01

    Early sensory processing can play a critical role in sensing environmental cues. We have investigated the physiological and behavioral function of gain control at the first synapse of olfactory processing in Drosophila. We report that olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express the GABAB receptor (GABABR) and its expression expands the dynamic range of ORN synaptic transmission that is preserved in projection neuron responses. Strikingly, we find that different ORN channels have unique baseline levels of GABABR expression. ORNs that sense the aversive odorant CO2 do not express GABABRs nor exhibit any presynaptic inhibition. In contrast, pheromone-sensing ORNs express a high level of GABABRs and exhibit strong presynaptic inhibition. Furthermore, a behavioral significance of presynaptic inhibition was revealed by a courtship behavior in which pheromone-dependent mate localization is impaired in flies that lack GABABRs in specific ORNs. Together, these findings indicate that different olfactory receptor channels may employ heterogeneous presynaptic gain control as a mechanism to allow an animal’s innate behavioral responses to match its ecological needs. PMID:18667158

  4. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at various highway facilities. To this end, the traffic management centers identify the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set that enables the maximum improvement of the traffic safety and mobility performance, and broadcast the optimal parameter set wirelessly to individual ADAS-equipped vehicles. After adopting the optimal parameter set, the ADAS-equipped drivers become active agents in the traffic stream that work collectively and consistently to prevent traffic conflicts, lower the intensity of traffic disturbances, and suppress the development of traffic oscillations into heavy traffic jams. Successful implementation of this objective requires the analysis capability of capturing the impact of the ADAS on driving behaviors, and measuring traffic safety and mobility performance under the influence of the ADAS. To address this challenge, this research proposes a synthetic methodology that incorporates the ADAS-affected driving behavior modeling and state-of-the-art microscopic traffic flow modeling into a virtually simulated environment. Building on such an environment, the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set is identified through an optimization programming framework to enable th

  5. Carbohydrate-binding modules: fine-tuning polysaccharide recognition

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The enzymic degradation of insoluble polysaccharides is one of the most important reactions on earth. Despite this, glycoside hydrolases attack such polysaccharides relatively inefficiently as their target glycosidic bonds are often inaccessible to the active site of the appropriate enzymes. In order to overcome these problems, many of the glycoside hydrolases that utilize insoluble substrates are modular, comprising catalytic modules appended to one or more non-catalytic CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules). CBMs promote the association of the enzyme with the substrate. In view of the central role that CBMs play in the enzymic hydrolysis of plant structural and storage polysaccharides, the ligand specificity displayed by these protein modules and the mechanism by which they recognize their target carbohydrates have received considerable attention since their discovery almost 20 years ago. In the last few years, CBM research has harnessed structural, functional and bioinformatic approaches to elucidate the molecular determinants that drive CBM–carbohydrate recognition. The present review summarizes the impact structural biology has had on our understanding of the mechanisms by which CBMs bind to their target ligands. PMID:15214846

  6. Forecasting RVF Outbreaks-FineTuning a Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of Rift Valley Fever, causing severe illness in more than 600 people, resulting in more than 150 deaths, occurred in several locations in Kenya from November 2006 until early March 2007. The symposium (I and II) will review the epidemic and present findings from the multi-faceted invest...

  7. Fine tuning by miRNAs in development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, Peter; Levine, Erel; Levine, Herbert

    2007-03-01

    The unique role played by microRNA in a developing embryo is a topic of much current research interest. One possibility is that microRNA diffuse within a developing tissue, acting as communicators between different cells. Here we pursue this possibility in two different contexts. The first case occurs when the transcription profiles of the microRNA and its target are spatially anticorrelated, as for example is the case in the iab4-Ubx system in fly. Conversely, in the second context the two transcription profiles are correlated in space, as may be the case for the mir10-Hoxb4 system in mouse. In each context we identify a major function for a mobile miRNA. In the first, miRNA serve to induce an all-or-nothing response of the mRNA profile to its morphogen by generating a sharp boundary between domains of high and (ultimately) low target expression. In the second, miRNA amplify polarity in the target expression pattern by removing residual mRNAs. Importantly, our model predicts that these two functions require very different type of diffusion. While our results are highly quantitative, we propose ways of realizing them in experiments, taking into account limitations of standard experimental techniques.

  8. Tuned borehole gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lautzenhiser, T.V.; Nekut, A.G. Jr.

    1986-04-15

    A tuned borehole gravity gradiometer is described for detecting variations in gravity gradient which consists of: a suspended dipole mass system having symmetrically distributed dipole masses and suspension means for suspending the dipole masses such that the gravity gradient to be measured produces an angular displacement about a rotation axis of the dipole mass system from a reference position; and tuning means with the dipole mass system for selectively varying the sensitivity to angular displacements with respect to the rotation axis of the dipole mass system to variations in gravity gradient, wherein the tuning means includes means for selectively varying the metacentric height of the dipole mass system.

  9. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo O.; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Impedance metasurface is composed of electrical small scatters in two dimensional plane, of which the surface impedance can be designed to produce desired reflection phase. Tunable reflection phase can be achieved by incorporating active element into the scatters, but the tuning range of the reflection phase is limited. In this paper, an active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase control is presented to remove the phase tuning deficiency in conventional approach. The unit cell of the metasurface is a multiple resonance structure with two resonance poles and one resonance zero, capable of providing 360° reflection phase variation and active tuning within a finite frequency band. Linear reflection phase tuning can also be obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation are presented and validated by experiment at microwave frequency. The proposed approach can be applied to many cases where fine and full phase tuning is needed, such as beam steering in reflectarray antennas. PMID:24162366

  10. Model-independent particle accelerator tuning

    DOE PAGES

    Scheinker, Alexander; Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Larry

    2013-10-21

    We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: 1) It has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, 2) It gives known bounds on parameter update rates, 3) We give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and 4) It has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme formore » uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multi-particle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of twenty two quadrupole magnets and two RF buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and RF phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.« less

  11. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  12. Three-dimensional cavity nanoantennas with resonant-enhanced surface plasmons as dynamic color-tuning reflectors.

    PubMed

    Fan, J R; Wu, W G; Chen, Z J; Zhu, J; Li, J

    2017-03-09

    As plasmonic antennas for surface-plasmon-assisted control of optical fields at specific frequencies, metallic nanostructures have recently emerged as crucial optical components for fascinating plasmonic color engineering. Particularly, plasmonic resonant nanocavities can concentrate lightwave energy to strongly enhance light-matter interactions, making them ideal candidates as optical elements for fine-tuning color displays. Inspired by the color mixing effect found on butterfly wings, a new type of plasmonic, multiresonant, narrow-band (the minimum is about 45 nm), high-reflectance (the maximum is about 95%), and dynamic color-tuning reflector is developed. This is achieved from periodic patterns of plasmonic resonant nanocavities in free-standing capped-pillar nanostructure arrays. Such cavity-coupling structures exhibit multiple narrow-band selective and continuously tunable reflections via plasmon standing-wave resonances. Consequently, they can produce a variety of dark-field vibrant reflective colors with good quality, strong color signal and fine tonal variation at the optical diffraction limit. This proposed multicolor scheme provides an elegant strategy for realizing personalized and customized applications in ultracompact photonic data storage and steganography, colorimetric sensing, 3D holograms and other plasmon-assisted photonic devices.

  13. Magnetic tuning of electrically resonant metamaterial with inclusion of ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Hongjie; Zhou, Ji

    2008-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a magnetic tuning of electrically resonant metamaterial (EMM) at microwave frequencies by introducing microwave ferrite rods into the periodic array of electrically resonant element. Different from those based on controlling the capacitance of equivalent LC circuit, this tunability arises from a mechanism of magnetically tuning the inductance of resonant element via the active ambient effective permeability. For magnetic fields from 0 to 5000 Oe, resonance frequency of the EMM can be continuously and reversibly tuned in a range of about 800 MHz. The active effective permittivity has also been investigated through the simulated scattering parameters.

  14. Spatially selective optical tuning of quantum dot thin film luminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jixin; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Yang, Tinglu; Wark, Stacey E; Son, Dong Hee; Batteas, James D

    2009-12-30

    Photolithographically generated patterns have been created on immobilized CdSe QD thin films by fine-tuning their optical properties (intensity and emission wavelength) postsynthetically. These optically modified QDs show enhanced selectivity for binding of different ligands, affording the ability to fabricate optically reconfigurable surfaces for display or sensing applications. The patterns may be readily generated with any typical optical lithographic approach.

  15. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  16. Complier-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning (TUNE) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chame, Jacqueline

    2013-06-07

    TUNE was created to develop compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 system at Oak Ridge. TUNE combines compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation. The goal of this performance-tuning technology is to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, TUNE aims to make compiler technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  17. Tuning the Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    "Tuning the blend" is a phrase that educators hear a lot these days. It refers to finding the correct balance of online activities and face-to-face instruction in hybrid--or blended--courses. Finding a mix that meets the needs of both faculty and students requires experimentation, experience, and constant tweaking. And, as with coffee, the same…

  18. Electronically Tuned Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, Mysore

    1987-01-01

    Features include low phase noise and frequency stability. Bias-tuned, low-phase-noise microwave oscillator circuit based on npn bipolar transistor and dielectric resonator. Operating at frequency of about 8.4 GHz, oscillator adjusted to give low phase noise, relatively flat power output versus frequency, and nearly linear frequency versus bias voltage.

  19. Tuning toward Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Marcus; Kalina, Michelle; Chapman, Adina

    2013-01-01

    The Obama administration and the Lumina Foundation have been the principal drivers focusing the nation on increasing the number of high-quality degrees and credentials. Tuning, a faculty-driven process for defining clear student learning outcomes--what a student should know, understand, and be able to do--is one of the ways to support this goal.

  20. New design concepts for ferrite-tuned low-energy-booster cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, G.

    1991-05-01

    The design concepts for ferrite-tuned accelerating cavities discussed in this paper differ from conventional solutions using thick ferrite toroids for frequency tuning. Instead, tuners consisting of an array of ferrite-loaded striplines are investigated. These promise more efficient cooling and higher operational reliability. Layout examples for the SSC-LEB rf system are presented (tuning range 47.5 to 59.8 MHz, repetition frequency 10 Hz). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. RF tuning element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Lubecke, Victor M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for tuning a circuit includes a substrate, a transmission line on the substrate that includes first and second conductors coupled to a circuit to be tuned, and a movable short-circuit for varying the impedance the transmission line presents to the circuit to be tuned. The movable short-circuit includes a dielectric layer disposed atop the transmission line and a distributed shorting element in the form of a conductive member that is configured to be slid along at least a portion of the transmission line atop the dielectric layer. The conductive member is configured to span the first and second conductors of the transmission line and to define at least a first opening that spans the two conductors so that the conductive member includes first and second sections separated by the first opening. The first and second sections of the conductive member combine with the first and second conductors of the transmission line to form first and second low impedance sections of transmission line, and the opening combines with the first and second conductors of the transmission line and the dielectric layer to form a first high impedance section of transmission line intermediate the first and second low impedance sections. Each of the first low impedance section and the first high impedance section have a length along the transmission line of approximately one-quarter wavelength, thus providing a periodic variation of transmission line impedance. That enhances reflection of rf power.

  2. Electronically tuned optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, J. A.; Pasierb, E. F.; Oh, C. S.; Mccaffrey, M. T.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed account is given of efforts to develop a three layer, polychromic filter that can be tuned electronically. The operation of the filter is based on the cooperative alignment of pleochroic dye molecules by nematic liquid crystals activated by electric fields. This orientation produces changes in the optical density of the material and thus changes in the color of light transmitted through the medium. In addition, attempts to improve materials and devices which employ field induced changes of a cholesteric to a nematic liquid crystal are presented.

  3. Grating tuned unstable resonator laser cavity

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Larry C.

    1982-01-01

    An unstable resonator to be used in high power, narrow line CO.sub.2 pump lasers comprises an array of four reflectors in a ring configuration wherein spherical and planar wavefronts are separated from each other along separate optical paths and only the planar wavefronts are impinged on a plane grating for line tuning. The reflector array comprises a concave mirror for reflecting incident spherical waves as plane waves along an output axis to form an output beam. A plane grating on the output axis is oriented to reflect a portion of the output beam off axis onto a planar relay mirror spaced apart from the output axis in proximity to the concave mirror. The relay mirror reflects plane waves from the grating to impinge on a convex expanding mirror spaced apart from the output axis in proximity to the grating. The expanding mirror reflects the incident planar waves as spherical waves to illuminate the concave mirror. Tuning is provided by rotating the plane grating about an axis normal to the output axis.

  4. Magnetic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Trumper, David L.; Kim, Won-jong; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness.

  5. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  6. On the sensing and tuning of progressive structural vibration waves.

    PubMed

    Minikes, Adi; Gabay, Ran; Bucher, Izhak; Feldman, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Progressive flexural waves can be generated only in finite structures by fine tuning the excitation and the boundary conditions. The tuning process eliminates the reflected waves arising from discontinuities and edge effects. This work presents and expands two new methods for the identification and tuning of traveling waves. One is a parametric method based on fitting an ellipse to the complex spatial amplitude distribution. The other is a nonparametric method based on the Hilbert transform providing a space-localized estimate. With these methods, an optimization-based tuning of transverse flexural waves in a one-dimensional structure, a vibrating beam, is developed. Existing methods are designed for a single frequency and are based on either combining two vibration modes or mechanical impedance matching. Such methods are limited to a designated excitation frequency determined by a specific configuration of the system. With the proposed methods, structural progressive waves can be generated for a wide range of frequencies under the same given system configuration and can be tuned in real time to accommodate changes in boundary conditions. An analytical study on the nature of the optimal excitation conditions has been carried out, revealing singular configurations. The experimental verification of the sensing and tuning methods is demonstrated on a dedicated laboratory prototype. The proposed methods are not confined to mechanical waves and present a comprehensive approach applicable for other physical wave phenomena.

  7. Tuning Broadband Microwave Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Alaniz, Gabriel

    2003-09-05

    The PEP-II/DA {Phi} NE/ALS longitudinal feedback systems are complex wide bandwidth systems requiring analog, digital and microwave circuits. The solid-state amplifier is one of the components in the microwave circuit that is required to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities that exist in the PEP-II accelerator. The suppression is achieved by using an antenna as a kicker structure that provides an electric field in order to increase or decrease the energy of particles passing through the structure. The amplifier is made up of sixteen 30 to 35W microstrip GaAs FET modules that are combined to obtain 500W over a bandwidth of 850MHz to 1850MHz. The amplifier malfunctioned causing a reduction in the functionality and power output of the individual GaAs FET modules. The amplifier must be repaired. After repair, the amplifier must be tuned to optimize the gain while maintaining proper power output. The amplifier is tuned using microstrip circuit techniques. A variety of microstrip methods are used to obtain the proper line impedance. The result is a working amplifier that operates efficiently.

  8. Dynamical Tuning of the Initial Condition in Small Field Inflations - Can We Testify the CW Mechanism in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Satoshi

    I explain the cosmological consequence of the particle physics models with the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) type potential. Such particle physics models generally predict the small field inflation (SFI), but the SFI requires a very unnatural fine-tuning of the initial condi- tion. In this talk, I reviewed our proposal1 to solve the fine-tuning problem dynamically by a trapping of the inflaton field due to the preheating before the SFI starts.

  9. ORMOSIL thin films: tuning mechanical properties via a nanochemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Giovanni; Le Bourhis, Eric; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Tranchida, Davide; Pagliaro, Mario

    2006-12-19

    The mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) of organically modified silicate thin films can be finely tuned by varying the degree of alkylation and thus the fraction of six- and four-membered siloxane rings in the organosilica matrix. This opens the way to large tunability of parameters that are of crucial practical importance for films that are finding increasing application in numerous fields ranging from microelectronics to chemical sensing.

  10. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Tuito, Avi

    2016-05-01

    Low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocooler usually comprises electro-dynamically driven compressor and pneumatically driven expander which are side-by-side fixedly mounted upon the common frame and interconnected by the configurable transfer line. Vibration export produced by such a cryocooler comprises of a pair of tonal forces, the frequency of which essentially equals fixed driving frequency. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber, having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. Dynamic analysis shows that the dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a dynamic absorber are capable of simultaneous attenuation of translational and tilting components of cryocooler induced vibration. The authors reveal the preferable design, the method of fine tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  11. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Tuito, A.

    2017-02-01

    Forthcoming low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocoolers may rely on electro-dynamically driven single-piston compressors and pneumatically driven expanders interconnected by the configurable transfer line. For compactness, compressor and expander units may be placed in a side-by-side manner, thus producing tonal vibration export comprising force and moment components. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber (MTDA), having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. The dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a MTDA are simultaneously counterbalancing force and moment vibration export produced by the cryocooler. The authors reveal the design details, the method of fine modal tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  12. Nanoplasmonics tuned "click chemistry".

    PubMed

    Tijunelyte, I; Guenin, E; Lidgi-Guigui, N; Colas, F; Ibrahim, J; Toury, T; Lamy de la Chapelle, M

    2016-04-07

    Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised "click" reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the "click" chemistry.

  13. Tune Variations due to Septum Stray Field F. Pederson &

    SciTech Connect

    Rinolfi, L.

    1986-10-12

    Two types of antiproton instabilities due to trapped ions are harmful in the AA. One is a coherent instability occurring when an ion pocket resonates with a 3-Q mode (hiccups), the other is excitation of 11th and 15th order non-linear resonances due to the non-linear focusing fields from localized ion clouds trapped in uncleared potential well pockets. Accumulation with a good injection yield of antiprotons forces us to locate the tune of the dense core in the general area of the array of 15th order resonances. To avoid harmful blow-up of the dense core the tune is located between the resonances 11Q{sub H} + 4Q{sub V} = 34, 10Q{sub H} + 5Q{sub V} = 34, and 11Q{sub H} = 25, requiring a tune of Q{sub H} = 2.2722 to be maintained with a precision of a few 10{sup -4} (Fig. 4). Different angles of the injection and ejection trajectories require the septum current to be changed from 3860 A during accumulation to 3920 A, during ejection mode. Variations in the septum stray field due to these changes in current cause tune changes in the order of 10{sup -3}. In addition, at a given septum current, a pronounced hysteresis of the stray field causes tune variations of about the same order of magnitude, so also the past history of the septum excitation must be carefully controlled to obtain a reproducible tune.

  14. Nanoplasmonics tuned ``click chemistry''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijunelyte, I.; Guenin, E.; Lidgi-Guigui, N.; Colas, F.; Ibrahim, J.; Toury, T.; Lamy de La Chapelle, M.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry.Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR study on reaction initiation, SERS spectra and temperature calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09018k

  15. Fine-Grained, Local Maps and Coarse, Global Representations Support Human Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    While sensory processes are tuned to particular features, such as an object's specific location, color or orientation, visual working memory (vWM) is assumed to store information using representations, which generalize over a feature dimension. Additionally, current vWM models presume that different features or objects are stored independently. On the other hand, configurational effects, when observed, are supposed to mainly reflect encoding strategies. We show that the location of the target, relative to the display center and boundaries, and overall memory load influenced recall precision, indicating that, like sensory processes, capacity limited vWM resources are spatially tuned. When recalling one of three memory items the target distance from the display center was overestimated, similar to the error when only one item was memorized, but its distance from the memory items' average position was underestimated, showing that not only individual memory items' position, but also the global configuration of the memory array may be stored. Finally, presenting the non-target items at recall, consequently providing landmarks and configurational information, improved precision and accuracy of target recall. Similarly, when the non-target items were translated at recall, relative to their position in the initial display, a parallel displacement of the recalled target was observed. These findings suggest that fine-grained spatial information in vWM is represented in local maps whose resolution varies with distance from landmarks, such as the display center, while coarse representations are used to store the memory array configuration. Both these representations are updated at the time of recall. PMID:25259601

  16. Kokkos Array

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards Daniel Sunderland, Harold Carter

    2012-09-12

    The Kokkos Array library implements shared-memory array data structures and parallel task dispatch interfaces for data-parallel computational kernels that are performance-portable to multicore-CPU and manycore-accelerator (e.g., GPGPU) devices.

  17. Varactor tuned transistor oscillators /Survey/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deriugin, I. A.; Kitaev, Iu. I.; Solodovnikov, N. P.

    1981-03-01

    Major developments in the theory and technology of varactor tuned solid state oscillators are surveyed on the basis of data appearing in periodical and patent literature. Attention is given to problems in general theory, modulation characteristics, transient processes occurring during tuning, stability properties, and circuit fabrication aspects.

  18. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2007-03-13

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  19. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2009-08-11

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  20. Color-tuned channelrhodopsins for multiwavelength optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Prigge, Matthias; Schneider, Franziska; Tsunoda, Satoshi P; Shilyansky, Carrie; Wietek, Jonas; Deisseroth, Karl; Hegemann, Peter

    2012-09-14

    Channelrhodopsin-2 is a light-gated ion channel and a major tool of optogenetics. It is used to control neuronal activity via blue light. Here we describe the construction of color-tuned high efficiency channelrhodopsins (ChRs), based on chimeras of Chlamydomonas channelrhodopsin-1 and Volvox channelrhodopsin-1. These variants show superb expression and plasma membrane integration, resulting in 3-fold larger photocurrents in HEK cells compared with channelrhodopsin-2. Further molecular engineering gave rise to chimeric variants with absorption maxima ranging from 526 to 545 nm, dovetailing well with maxima of channelrhodopsin-2 derivatives ranging from 461 to 492 nm. Additional kinetic fine-tuning led to derivatives in which the lifetimes of the open state range from 19 ms to 5 s. Finally, combining green- with blue-absorbing variants allowed independent activation of two distinct neural cell populations at 560 and 405 nm. This novel panel of channelrhodopsin variants may serve as an important toolkit element for dual-color cell stimulation in neural circuits.

  1. Color-tuned Channelrhodopsins for Multiwavelength Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Matthias; Schneider, Franziska; Tsunoda, Satoshi P.; Shilyansky, Carrie; Wietek, Jonas; Deisseroth, Karl; Hegemann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin-2 is a light-gated ion channel and a major tool of optogenetics. It is used to control neuronal activity via blue light. Here we describe the construction of color-tuned high efficiency channelrhodopsins (ChRs), based on chimeras of Chlamydomonas channelrhodopsin-1 and Volvox channelrhodopsin-1. These variants show superb expression and plasma membrane integration, resulting in 3-fold larger photocurrents in HEK cells compared with channelrhodopsin-2. Further molecular engineering gave rise to chimeric variants with absorption maxima ranging from 526 to 545 nm, dovetailing well with maxima of channelrhodopsin-2 derivatives ranging from 461 to 492 nm. Additional kinetic fine-tuning led to derivatives in which the lifetimes of the open state range from 19 ms to 5 s. Finally, combining green- with blue-absorbing variants allowed independent activation of two distinct neural cell populations at 560 and 405 nm. This novel panel of channelrhodopsin variants may serve as an important toolkit element for dual-color cell stimulation in neural circuits. PMID:22843694

  2. Tuning the engine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the last years post-transcriptional regulation (PTR) of gene expression has been increasingly recognized to be a powerful and general determinant of the quantitative changes in proteomes, and therefore a driving force for cell phenotypes. By means of networks of trans-factors on one hand, and cis-elements found primarily in untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNA on the other hand, mRNA availability to translation and translation rates are tightly controlled and can be rapidly tuned according to the changing state of the cell. A number of dedicated resources and tools, including databases and predictive algorithms, have been proposed as bioinformatics aids for the study of this fundamental layer of gene expression regulation. Their use, however, is rendered difficult by heterogeneity and fragmentation. This review aims to locate these resources in their proper space, classifying them according to their goals, limitations and integration capabilities and, in the end, to provide the user with an initial toolbox for the bioinformatic analysis of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The accompanying website, available at www.ptrguide.org, lists all resources, provides summary and features for each one and will be regularly updated in the future. PMID:22995832

  3. Plasmonic color tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  4. Tuning surface plasmons in graphene ribbons with liquid crystal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Viktor Yu.; Bunning, Timothy J.; Evans, Dean R.

    2016-09-01

    Surface plasmons in graphene possess stronger mode confinement and lower propagation loss. One way to excite the surface plasmons is placing a periodic array of graphene nano-ribbons on top of a dielectric substrate. However once the system is fabricated it is not possible to change its optical properties. Liquid crystals (LC) are a uniaxial medium with an optical axis easily controlled by external stimuli. We suggest tuning the surface plasmons in an array of graphene ribbons by placing a LC slab on top of the ribbons. A voltage applied to the LC layer shifts the graphene ribbons plasmonic notch and changes its depth.

  5. Gaussian Schell-model arrays.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhangrong; Zhao, Daomu; Korotkova, Olga; Mao, Yonghua

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a novel class of planar, quasi-homogeneous Schell-model source for producing far fields with optical lattice average intensity patterns and derive the corresponding beam conditions. The array dimension, lobes intensity profile, and periodicity of the optical lattice can be flexibly tuned by changing the correlation parameters of the source field. It is also found that, with an appropriate choice of the source parameters, the radiant intensity may possess flat-topped intensity patterns.

  6. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  7. Wrinkled single-layer graphenes fabricated by silicon nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zibo; Wu, Yutong; Nan, Jingjie; Tang, Xiaoduo; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2016-11-01

    The degree of crumpling affects the optoelectronic properties of graphene, which are very important for the performance of graphene-based devices and materials. In this article, we report an approach to tune the formation of wrinkles on single-layer graphene (SLG) by silicon nanopillar (SNP) arrays. By using gold nanoparticles as an etching mask, SNP arrays with different heights could be prepared by tuning the duration of etching. The formation of wrinkles on these SNP arrays was studied systematically. We found that thermal treatment could lead to a wrapping behavior of graphene around SNP arrays, which was accompanied by the emergence of many more wrinkles. Controllable wettability, conductivity and transmittance were demonstrated. This ability to tune wrinkles using SNP arrays can be employed to engineer the fabrication of graphene-related devices and other optoelectronic applications.

  8. Full-mesh T- and O-band wavelength router based on arrayed waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nazirul A; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Tomomatsu, Yasunori; Sudo, Makoto; Hajikano, Tadashi; Kubo, Ryogo; Zervas, Georgios; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-11

    We propose an ultra-broadband full-mesh wavelength router supporting the T- and O-bands using 3 stages of cascaded arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). The router architecture is based on a combination of waveband and channel routing by coarse and fine AWGs, respectively. We fabricated several T-band-specific silica-based AWGs and quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers as part of the router, and demonstrated 10 Gbps data transmission for several wavelengths throughout a range of 7.4 THz. The power penalties were below 1 dB. Wavelength routing was also demonstrated, where tuning time within a 9.4-nm-wide waveband was below 400 ms.

  9. Realizing up-conversion fluorescence tuning in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals by femtosecond pulse shaping method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shian; Yao, Yunhua; Shuwu, Xu; Liu, Pei; Ding, Jingxin; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong

    2015-01-01

    The ability to tune color output of nanomaterials is very important for their applications in laser, optoelectronic device, color display and multiplexed biolabeling. Here we first propose a femtosecond pulse shaping technique to realize the up-conversion fluorescence tuning in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals dispersed in the glass. The multiple subpulse formation by a square phase modulation can create different excitation pathways for various up-conversion fluorescence generations. By properly controlling these excitation pathways, the multicolor up-conversion fluorescence can be finely tuned. This color tuning by the femtosecond pulse shaping technique is realized in single material by single-color laser field, which is highly desirable for further applications of the lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. This femtosecond pulse shaping technique opens an opportunity to tune the color output in the lanthanide-doped nanocrystals, which may bring a new revolution in the control of luminescence properties of nanomaterials. PMID:26290391

  10. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sabloff, J A

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  11. Tuning Forks and Monitor Screens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, M. A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Defines the vibrations of a tuning fork against a computer monitor screen as a pattern that can illustrate or explain physical concepts like wave vibrations, wave forms, and phase differences. Presents background information and demonstrates the experiment. (Author/YDS)

  12. Manganite films: Tuning phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailovic, Dragan

    2016-09-01

    Strain engineering can tune a manganite film into an antiferromagnetic insulating state whose extreme photo-susceptibility allows for the ordinary ferromagnetic metal state to then be transiently realized.

  13. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ken D; Stephenson, Clifton J

    2010-12-01

    The sensor array format has proved an effective method of transforming sensors of modest selectivity into highly selective and discriminating sensors. The primary challenge in developing new sensor arrays is collecting together a sufficient number of recognition elements that possess different binding affinities for the analytes of interest. In this regard, the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as the recognition elements in sensor arrays has a number of unique advantages. MIPs can be rapidly and inexpensively prepared with different selectivities and tuned with different selectivity patterns via the choice of templates in the imprinting process. The array format also helps compensate for the low selectivities and high cross-reactivities of MIP sensors. These attractive qualities of MIP sensor arrays have been demonstrated in recent examples, which have established the viability and generality of the approach. In particular, the versatility of the imprinting process enables MIP sensor arrays to be tailored to specific analytes. MIP sensor arrays have also shown surprisingly broad utility, as even analytes that were not used as templates in the imprinting process can be effectively discriminated.

  15. Adaptive Self-Tuning Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, H. A.; Draelos, T.; Young, C. J.; Lawry, B.; Chael, E. P.; Faust, A.; Peterson, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of automatic detections from seismic sensor networks depends on a large number of data processing parameters that interact in complex ways. The largely manual process of identifying effective parameters is painstaking and does not guarantee that the resulting controls are the optimal configuration settings. Yet, achieving superior automatic detection of seismic events is closely related to these parameters. We present an automated sensor tuning (AST) system that learns near-optimal parameter settings for each event type using neuro-dynamic programming (reinforcement learning) trained with historic data. AST learns to test the raw signal against all event-settings and automatically self-tunes to an emerging event in real-time. The overall goal is to reduce the number of missed legitimate event detections and the number of false event detections. Reducing false alarms early in the seismic pipeline processing will have a significant impact on this goal. Applicable both for existing sensor performance boosting and new sensor deployment, this system provides an important new method to automatically tune complex remote sensing systems. Systems tuned in this way will achieve better performance than is currently possible by manual tuning, and with much less time and effort devoted to the tuning process. With ground truth on detections in seismic waveforms from a network of stations, we show that AST increases the probability of detection while decreasing false alarms.

  16. A novel optical tuning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, Nicolae

    2007-02-01

    A novel optical tuning technology based on new non-resonant interferometer (Optune interferometer) is described. This interferometer has a totally reflective layer either parallel with a partially reflective layer or tilted with a small angle, with an adjustable air gap between them. An input fiber optic collimator delivers a free space collimated beam that is incident first on the totally reflective layer at a small incidence angle. This beam bounces many times between the two reflective layers. An output fiber optic collimator collects all the beams going through the partially reflective layer making them to interfere at the entrance aperture of the output fiber. The optical configuration has no resonant frequencies. A broadband signal at the input is available at the output as a comb with even spacing. Any arbitrary wavelength can be selected by adjusting accurately the gap size. Tuning across 90 nm range could require less than 10 μm change of the gap size. Some properties of Optune interferometer are: 240 nm tuning range, no tuning holes, 0.2 ms / 100 nm tuning speed, 1 pm tuning accuracy, 0.15 nm bandwidth, 1 dB insertion loss, 45 dB contrast, 0.2 dB flatness, 0.15 dB polarization dependent loss. Optune interferometer can be used either for filtering or for generating optical wavelengths in a broad range of applications such as optical monitoring of structures (FBG and Brillouin technologies), and in optical communications. U.S. Patent No. 7,002,696 covers Optune interferometer and also optical tuning technology based on it.

  17. Multifunctional potentiometric gas sensor array with an integrated temperature control and temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Bryan M; Wachsman, Eric D

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the subject invention relate to a gas sensor and method for sensing one or more gases. An embodiment incorporates an array of sensing electrodes maintained at similar or different temperatures, such that the sensitivity and species selectivity of the device can be fine tuned between different pairs of sensing electrodes. A specific embodiment pertains to a gas sensor array for monitoring combustion exhausts and/or chemical reaction byproducts. An embodiment of the subject device related to this invention operates at high temperatures and can withstand harsh chemical environments. Embodiments of the device are made on a single substrate. The devices can also be made on individual substrates and monitored individually as if they were part of an array on a single substrate. The device can incorporate sensing electrodes in the same environment, which allows the electrodes to be coplanar and, thus, keep manufacturing costs low. Embodiments of the device can provide improvements to sensitivity, selectivity, and signal interference via surface temperature control.

  18. Biosensing using plasmonic nanohole arrays with small, homogenous and tunable aperture diameters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kunli; Emilsson, Gustav; Dahlin, Andreas B

    2016-06-21

    Plasmonic nanohole arrays are widely used for optical label-free molecular detection. An important factor for many applications is the diameter of the apertures. So far nanohole arrays with controllable diameters below 100 nm have not been demonstrated and it has not been systematically investigated how the diameter influences the optical properties. In this work we fine-tune the diameter in short range ordered nanohole arrays down to 50 nm. The experimental far field spectra show how the wavelength of maximum extinction remains unaffected while the transmission maximum blue shifts with smaller diameters. The near field is visualized by numerical simulations, showing a homogenous enhancement throughout the cylindrical void at the transmission maximum for diameters between 50 and 100 nm. For diameters below 50 nm plasmon excitation is no longer possible experimentally or by simulations. Further, we investigate the refractive index sensing capabilities of the smaller holes. As the diameter was reduced, the sensitivity in terms of resonance shift with bulk liquid refractive index was found to be unaltered. However, for the transmission maximum the sensitivity becomes more strongly localized to the hole interior. By directing molecular binding to the bottom of the holes we demonstrate how smaller holes enhance the sensitivity in terms of signal per molecule. A real-time detection limit well below one protein per nanohole is demonstrated. The smaller plasmonic nanoholes should be suitable for studies of molecules confined in small volumes and as mimics of biological nanopores.

  19. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  20. Tuning a terahertz wire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-12-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique `wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is <<λ. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of ~137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at ~3.8 THz.

  1. Tuning of Muscle Synergies During Walking Along Rectilinear and Curvilinear Trajectories in Humans.

    PubMed

    Chia Bejarano, Noelia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Nardone, Antonio; Schieppati, Marco; Baccinelli, Walter; Monticone, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Ferrante, Simona

    2017-01-31

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology based on muscle synergies to investigate whether rectilinear and curvilinear walking shared the same neuro-motor organization, and how this organization was fine-tuned by the walking condition. Thirteen healthy subjects walked on rectilinear and curvilinear paths. Electromyographic data from thirteen back and lower-limb muscles were acquired, together with kinematic data using inertial sensors. Four macroscopically invariant muscle synergies, extracted through non-negative matrix factorization, proved a shared modular organization across conditions. The fine-tuning of muscle synergies was studied through non-negative matrix reconstruction, applied by fixing muscle weights or activation profiles to those of the rectilinear condition. The activation profiles tended to be recruited for a longer period and with a larger amplitude during curvilinear walking. The muscles of the posterior side of the lower limb were those mainly influenced by the fine-tuning, with the muscles inside the rotation path being more active than the outer muscles. This study shows that rectilinear and curvilinear walking share a unique motor command. However, a fine-tuning in muscle synergies is introduced during curvilinear conditions, adapting the kinematic strategy to the new biomechanical needs.

  2. Tuning the optical properties of dilute nitride site controlled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Juska, G.; Dimastrodonato, V.; Mereni, L. O.; Gocalinska, A.; Pelucchi, E.

    2013-12-04

    We show that deterministic control of the properties of pyramidal site-controlled quantum dots (QD) could be achieved by exposing the QD layer to nitrogen precursor unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMHy). The properties that could be tuned include an expected emission reduction in dilute nitride materials, excitonic pattern (biexciton binding energy) and improved carrier confinement potential symmetry (reduced fine-structure splitting)

  3. Nickel Based Electrospun Materials with Tuned Morphology and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ercolano, Giorgio; Farina, Filippo; Cavaliere, Sara; Jones, Deborah J.; Rozière, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is set to play a crucial role to substitute the less-abundant platinum in clean electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices and catalysis. The controlled design of Ni nanomaterials is essential to fine-tune their properties to match these applications. A systematic study of electrospinning and thermal post-treatment parameters has been performed to synthesize Ni materials and tune their morphology (fibers, ribbons, and sponge-like structures) and composition (metallic Ni, NiO, Ni/C, Ni3N and their combinations). The obtained Ni-based spun materials have been characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The possibility of upscaling and the versatility of electrospinning open the way to large-scale production of Ni nanostructures, as well as bi- and multi-metal systems for widened applications. PMID:28335364

  4. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, José M.

    2015-06-01

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes.

  5. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    SciTech Connect

    Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, José M.

    2015-06-22

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes.

  6. SNP Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Louhelainen, Jari

    2016-01-01

    The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays) focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays. PMID:27792140

  7. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hong; Guo, Junpeng; Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D.

    2015-10-15

    A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  8. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-10-01

    A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  9. Tuning the cosmological constant, broken scale invariance, unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Förste, Stefan; Manz, Paul

    2016-06-10

    We study gravity coupled to a cosmological constant and a scale but not conformally invariant sector. In Minkowski vacuum, scale invariance is spontaneously broken. We consider small fluctuations around the Minkowski vacuum. At the linearised level we find that the trace of metric perturbations receives a positive or negative mass squared contribution. However, only for the Fierz-Pauli combination the theory is free of ghosts. The mass term for the trace of metric perturbations can be cancelled by explicitly breaking scale invariance. This reintroduces fine-tuning. Models based on four form field strength show similarities with explicit scale symmetry breaking due to quantisation conditions.

  10. Enthalpy arrays

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Francisco E.; Kuhn, Peter; De Bruyker, Dirk; Bell, Alan G.; Wolkin, Michal V.; Peeters, Eric; Williamson, James R.; Anderson, Gregory B.; Schmitz, Gregory P.; Recht, Michael I.; Schweizer, Sandra; Scott, Lincoln G.; Ho, Jackson H.; Elrod, Scott A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Lerner, Richard A.; Bruce, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    We report the fabrication of enthalpy arrays and their use to detect molecular interactions, including protein–ligand binding, enzymatic turnover, and mitochondrial respiration. Enthalpy arrays provide a universal assay methodology with no need for specific assay development such as fluorescent labeling or immobilization of reagents, which can adversely affect the interaction. Microscale technology enables the fabrication of 96-detector enthalpy arrays on large substrates. The reduction in scale results in large decreases in both the sample quantity and the measurement time compared with conventional microcalorimetry. We demonstrate the utility of the enthalpy arrays by showing measurements for two protein–ligand binding interactions (RNase A + cytidine 2′-monophosphate and streptavidin + biotin), phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase, and respiration of mitochondria in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol uncoupler. PMID:15210951

  11. PID Tuning Using Extremum Seeking

    SciTech Connect

    Killingsworth, N; Krstic, M

    2005-11-15

    Although proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are widely used in the process industry, their effectiveness is often limited due to poor tuning. Manual tuning of PID controllers, which requires optimization of three parameters, is a time-consuming task. To remedy this difficulty, much effort has been invested in developing systematic tuning methods. Many of these methods rely on knowledge of the plant model or require special experiments to identify a suitable plant model. Reviews of these methods are given in [1] and the survey paper [2]. However, in many situations a plant model is not known, and it is not desirable to open the process loop for system identification. Thus a method for tuning PID parameters within a closed-loop setting is advantageous. In relay feedback tuning [3]-[5], the feedback controller is temporarily replaced by a relay. Relay feedback causes most systems to oscillate, thus determining one point on the Nyquist diagram. Based on the location of this point, PID parameters can be chosen to give the closed-loop system a desired phase and gain margin. An alternative tuning method, which does not require either a modification of the system or a system model, is unfalsified control [6], [7]. This method uses input-output data to determine whether a set of PID parameters meets performance specifications. An adaptive algorithm is used to update the PID controller based on whether or not the controller falsifies a given criterion. The method requires a finite set of candidate PID controllers that must be initially specified [6]. Unfalsified control for an infinite set of PID controllers has been developed in [7]; this approach requires a carefully chosen input signal [8]. Yet another model-free PID tuning method that does not require opening of the loop is iterative feedback tuning (IFT). IFT iteratively optimizes the controller parameters with respect to a cost function derived from the output signal of the closed-loop system, see [9

  12. Array tomography: imaging stained arrays.

    PubMed

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. In this protocol, tissue arrays are imaged using conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Images can be captured manually or, with the appropriate software and hardware, the process can be automated.

  13. Array tomography: production of arrays.

    PubMed

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time consuming and require some practice to perfect. This protocol describes the sectioning of embedded tissues and the mounting of the serial arrays. The procedures require some familiarity with the techniques used for ultramicrotome sectioning for electron microscopy.

  14. Infrared Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, I.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Infrared arrays are small electronic imaging devices subdivided into a grid or `array' of picture elements, or pixels, each of which is made of a material sensitive to photons (ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION) with wavelengths much longer than normal visible light. Typical dimensions of currently available devices are about 27-36 mm square, and formats now range from 2048×2048 pixels for the near-infra...

  15. Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Olsson, Roy H.

    2016-02-23

    Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies are described herein. Examples of tuning described herein including tuning using feedback from the resonator. Variable gain feedback for tuning of acoustic wave resonators is provided in some examples. An example apparatus may include a resonator and a feedback loop. The resonator may be configured to receive a tuning signal and to provide a feedback signal. The feedback signal may be based on the tuning signal. The feedback loop may be configured to receive the feedback signal from the resonator. The feedback loop further may be configured to provide the tuning signal to actively tune a center frequency of the resonator. The tuning signal may be based on the feedback signal.

  16. High-speed spectral tuning CARS microscopy using AOTF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Iwatsuka, Junichi; Niioka, Hirohiko; Araki, Tsutomu

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a high speed spectral tuning CARS microscopy system using a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) in the cavity. Since the wavelength of the laser is tunable with the applied radio frequency to the AOTF, the wavelength is electrically tunable.The pulse duration of the laser is about 10 ps, tunable range is 800 nm to 930 nm, and the tuning speed is ms order. The laser is synchronized with another mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser laser our own method using a balance cross-correlator and phase lock loop technique. The synchronized lasers are used for light source of multi-focus CARS microscopy system using a microlens array scanner, and the hyperspectral imaging of adipocyte cells is demonstrated.

  17. Betatron tune measurement at the Argonne Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchas, A.V.; Brumwell, F.R.; Cho, Y.; Czyz, W.S.; Gunderson, G.R.; Knott, M.J.; Suddeth, D.E.; Volk, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, betatron tune measurements at the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) were made using a spectrum analyzer for betatron frequency analysis and one of the extraction kicker magnets to induce the coherent betatron motion. This method had several severe limitations: poor signal-to-noise ratio, inability to extract the beam after the measurement and dependence on the horizontal kick coupling into the vertical plane for vertical tune measurements. A new system is presently being constructed which will eliminate these problems. The beam will be kicked by independent horizontal and vertical ferrite pinger magnets. The beam positron data will be digitized and then analyzed by an array-processing computer using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The control system will allow for additional improvements.

  18. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    time at elevated temperature for 7475 aluminum alloy 5 2 Optical micrographs of 7075 aluminum alloy after exposure to 5160C (960oF) for times...applied to Al-Zn-Mg-Cu ( 7075 Al) alloy. Subsequent developments by Waldman et al. (refs. 8-11) resulted in the demonstration that 7000 series alloys...a number of aluminum alloys. With such a fine grain structure, high temperature deformation character- istics approaching superplastic behavior

  19. Microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutley, Michael C.; Stevens, Richard F.; Daly, Daniel J.

    1992-04-01

    Microlenses have been with us for a long time as indeed the very word lens reminds us. Many early lenses,including those made by Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in the 17th century were small and resembled lentils. Many languages use the same word for both (French tilentillelt and German "Linse") and the connection is only obscure in English because we use the French word for the vegetable and the German for the optic. Many of the applications for arrays of inicrolenses are also well established. Lippmann's work on integral photography at the turn of the century required lens arrays and stimulated an interest that is very much alive today. At one stage, lens arrays played an important part in high speed photography and various schemes have been put forward to take advantage of the compact imaging properties of combinations of lens arrays. The fact that many of these ingenious schemes have not been developed to their full potential has to a large degree been due to the absence of lens arrays of a suitable quality and cost.

  20. Transition metals in coarse, fine, very fine and ultra-fine particles from an interstate highway transect near Detroit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Lawton, Jonathan A.; Miller, Roger; Spada, Nicholas; Willis, Robert D.; Kimbrough, Sue

    2016-11-01

    As one component of a study investigating the impact of vehicle emissions on near-road air quality, human exposures, and potential health effects, particles were measured from September 21 to October 30, 2010 on both sides of a major roadway (Interstate-96) in Detroit. Traffic moved freely on this 12 lane freeway with a mean velocity of 69 mi/hr. with little braking and acceleration. The UC Davis DELTA Group rotating drum (DRUM) impactors were used to collect particles in 8 size ranges at sites nominally 100 m south, 10 m north, 100 m north, and 300 m north of the highway. Ultra-fine particles were continuously collected at the 10 m north and 100 m north sites. Samples were analyzed every 3 h for mass (soft beta ray transmission), 42 elements (synchrotron-induced x-ray fluorescence) and optical attenuation (350-800 nm spectroscopy). A three day period of steady southerly winds along the array allowed direct measurement of freeway emission rates for coarse (10 > Dp > 1.0 μm), PM2.5, very fine (0.26 > Dp > 0.09 μm), and ultra-fine (Dp < 0.09 μm) particles. The PM2.5 mass concentrations were modeled using literature emission rates during the south to north wind periods, and averaged 1.6 ± 0.5 μg/m3, versus the measured value of 2.0 ± 0.7 μg/m3. Using European freeway emission rates from 2010, and modeling them at the I-96 site, we would predict roughly 3.1 μg/m3 of PM2.5 particles, corrected from the 4.9 PM10 value by their measured road dust contributions. Using California car and truck emission rates of 1973, this value would have been about 16 μg/m3, corrected down from the 19 μg/m3 PM5.0 using measured roadway dust contributions. This would have included 2.7 μg/m3 of lead, versus the 0.0033 μg/m3 measured. Very fine particles were distributed across the array with a relatively weak falloff versus distance. For the ultra-fine particles, emissions of soot and metals seen in vehicular braking studies correlated with traffic at the 10 m site, but only the

  1. Laser tailored nanoparticle arrays to detect molecules at dilute concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, Chiara; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo; Trusso, Sebastiano; de Grazia, Ugo; Ciusani, Emilio; Ossi, Paolo M.

    2017-02-01

    By nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in an ambient gas gold nanoparticles (NPs) were produced that self-assemble on a substrate resulting in increasingly elaborated architectures of growing thickness, from isolated NP arrays up to percolated films. NPs nucleate and grow in the plasma plume propagating through the gas. Process parameters including laser wavelength, laser energy density, target to substrate distance, nature and pressure of the gas affect plasma expansion, thus asymptotic NP size and kinetic energy. NP size, energy and mobility at landing determine film growth and morphology that affect the physico-chemical properties of the film. Keeping fixed the other process parameters, we discuss the sensitive dependence of film surface nanostructure on Ar pressure and on laser pulse number. The initial plume velocity and average ablated mass per pulse allow predicting the asymptotic NP size. The control of growth parameters favors fine-tuning of NP aggregation, relevant to plasmonics to get optimized substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their behavior is discussed for testing conditions of interest for clinical application. Both in aqueous and in biological solutions we obtained good sensitivity and reproducibility of the SERS signals for the anti-Parkinson drug apomorphine, and for the anti-epilepsy drug carbamazepine.

  2. Design, development, characterization and qualification of infrared focal plane area array detectors for space-borne imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ankur; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, characterization and qualification aspects of large format Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) required for panchromatic, multi-, hyper- and ultra-spectral imaging applications from a space-borne imager. Detection of feeble radiant flux from the intended target in narrow spectral bands requires a highly sensitive low noise sensor array with high well capacity. For this the photodiode arrays responsive in desired spectral band are grown using different growth techniques and flip-chip bonded with a suitable Si Read-out ICs (ROICs) for signal conditioning. IR detectors require cryogenic cooling to achieve background limited performance. Although passive radiative cooling is always the preferred choice of cooling in space, it is not suitable for cooling IRFPAs due to high thermal loads. To facilitate characterization of IRFPAs and cool them to desired cryogenic temperature, an Integrated Detector Dewar Cooler Assembly (IDDCA) is essential where the detector array sits over the cold tip of an active cooler and the detector cooler assembly is vacuum sealed in a thermally isolated Dewar. A cold shield above the sensor array inside the Dewar restricts its field-of-view and a cold filter fine tunes its spectral response. In this paper, various constituents of an IRFPA like sensor array materials, growth techniques, ROICs, filters, cold shields, cooling techniques etc., their types and selection criteria for different applications are discussed in detail. Design aspects of IRFPA characterization test bench, challenges involved in radiometric and spectral characterization and space qualification of such IDDCA based IRFPAs are also discussed.

  3. Self-tuning regulators. [adaptive control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astrom, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a research project are discussed for self-tuning regulators for active control. An algorithm for the self-tuning regulator is described as being stochastic, nonlinear, time variable, and not trivial.

  4. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  5. Tuning in the bullfrog ear.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, E R

    1988-01-01

    When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166

  6. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  9. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  11. Wide Tuning Capability for Spacecraft Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James; Mysoor, Narayan; Shah, Biren; Cook, Brian; Smith, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A document presents additional information on the means of implementing a capability for wide tuning of microwave receiver and transmitter frequencies in the development reported in the immediately preceding article, VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders (NPO- 42909). The reference frequency for a PLL-based frequency synthesizer is derived from a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) implemented in digital logic, such that almost any reference frequency can be derived from a fixed crystal reference oscillator with microhertz precision. The frequency of the NCO is adjusted to track the received signal, then used to create another NCO frequency used to synthesize the transmitted signal coherent with, and at a specified frequency ratio to, the received signal. The frequencies can be changed, even during operation, through suitable digital programming. The NCOs and the related tracking loops and coherent turnaround logic are implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The interface between the analog microwave receiver and transmitter circuits and the FPGA includes analog-to-digital and digital-toanalog converters, the sampling rates of which are chosen to minimize spurious signals and otherwise optimize performance. Several mixers and filters are used to properly route various signals.

  12. JEM's 2009 Tune-up

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Scientific journals, like cars, require periodic tune-ups to keep them running smoothly. Effective immediately, several changes to the JEM publication policies will take effect. Our aim is to address policy issues that have arisen over the past several years and, more broadly, to maintain the quality and integrity of the research we publish. The upcoming changes to JEM policies and the impetus behind them are outlined here.

  13. Tuning photonic bands in plasma metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Mayank Kumar; Chaudhari, Sachin

    2016-11-01

    Introducing plasma in the background provides additional degrees of freedom for tuning dispersion curves of photonic crystals. 2D photonic crystals in triangular lattice arrangements offer more global bandgap regions and thus are of more interest for various applications. The dispersion characteristics of a two-dimensional plasma metallic photonic crystal (PMPC) in square as well as triangular lattice arrangements have been analyzed in this paper using the orthogonal finite difference time domain method. The dispersion characteristics of PMPCs for the range of r/a ratios and plasma frequencies for triangular lattice configuration have been analyzed. On introducing plasma in the background, the photonic bands of PMPC are shifted towards higher normalized frequencies. This shift is more for lower bands and increases with plasma frequency. The cut-off frequency was observed for both TE and TM polarizations in PMPC and showed strong dependence on r/a ratio as well as plasma frequency. Photonic bandgaps of PMPC may be tuned by controlling plasma parameters, giving opportunity for utilizing these PMPC structures for various applications such as fine-tuning cavities for enhanced light-matter interaction, plasmonic waveguides, and Gyrotron cavities.

  14. Pacific Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Based on our recent results on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry (e.g., Suetsugu & Shiobara, 2014, Annual Review EPS), together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (both radial and azimuthal), with deployments of ~10-15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) (namely "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey"; Takeo et al., 2013, JGR; Kawakatsu et al., 2013, AGU; Takeo, 2014, Ph.D. Thesis; Takeo et al., 2014, JpGU). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations might be sought.

  15. Eighth-Grade Violinists' Instrument Tuning Ability: A Comparison of Pitch Perception and Tuning Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between eighth-grade violinists' pitch perception and instrument tuning skill. The perceptual task was a researcher-developed computer-based Violin Tuning Perception Test. The instrument tuning task involved tuning two violins, one mistuned flat and the other mistuned sharp. Participants (N…

  16. Washability of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the theoretical beneficiation potential of US coals when pulverized down to 44 microns, (2) to determine the effects of fine grinding on the liberation of ash, pyritic sulfur, and other impurities, and (3) to assess the impact of their removal on oil and gas replacement, environmental regulations, and specification feedstocks for emerging coal utilization technologies. With the emphasis on fine coal cleaning, we have developed a centrifugal float-sink technique for coals crushed down to 44 microns. Employing this technique will provide a complete fine coal gravimetric evaluation of US coals crushed down to 44 microns. Parallel research is being conducted through in-house studies by PETC, and contracts with the University of Alaska, the University of North Dakota, and Commercial Testing and Engineering, Inc. Results thus far have been encouraging for selected Northern Appalachian Region Coals (NAR), which have shown pyritic sulfur, SO/sub 2/ emission, and ash reductions of 94, 60, and 82%, respectively, for the float 1.30 specific gravity product. However, the data evaluated for several samples indicate a possible problem in the yield/ash relationship for the float 1.30 specific gravity products for samples crushed to 75 and 44 microns top size. Thus, testing was begun to try to resolve these anomalies in the data. Test results using surface active agents, a reverse order of float-sink, and sample pre-heat techniques have been promising. These modifications to the standard technique resulted in an increase in weight recovery of float 1.30 specific gravity material and a decrease in ash content for each of the other specific gravity fractions, thus showing an improvement in the yield/ash relationship.

  17. Very fine Twilights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boico, Vladimir

    1992-04-01

    The author is describing a very fine twilight on 3 January 1992 at 17 h25 m LT (The Sunset was at 16h48m LT) of red - terracotta color. The author is relating this twilight with the volcanic erruption of Pinatubo on the Philipines islands from June 1991. The author is describing the following phenomena related with Volcanic erruption: twilights, the greenish of the Moon's surface, a change in the color of Day Sky to white, Haloes around the Sun. The author is pointing out, that the phenomena mentioned could prolonge in time 2 or 3 years.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  19. Position sensitivity of MAMA detectors. [Multi-Anode Microchannel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. S.; Slater, D. S.; Timothy, J. G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1988-01-01

    The results of laboratory and telescopic measurements of the position sensitivity of a visible MAMA detector utilizing a 'coarse-fine' array are presented. The photometric accuracy of this detector was determined under point source illumination. It was found that computed centroid positions are accurate across the entire array to within 0.04 pixels.

  20. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Tuned Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Qiu, Deli; Huang, Peng; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-09-01

    We show that the tolerable excess noise can be elegantly controlled while inserting a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) for continuous-variable key distribution (CVQKD). The LOCM-tuned noise can be stabilized to an optimal value by the reference partner of reconciliation to guarantee the high secret key rate. Simulation results show that there is a considerable improvement of the performance for the LOCM-based CVQKD protocol in terms of the secret rate while making a fine balance between the secret key rate and the transmission distance with the dynamically tuned parameters in suitable ranges.

  1. Fine Channel Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  2. New tuning method for PID controller.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing-Chung

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, a tuning method for proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and the performance assessment formulas for this method are proposed. This tuning method is based on a genetic algorithm based PID controller design method. For deriving the tuning formula, the genetic algorithm based design method is applied to design PID controllers for a variety of processes. The relationship between the controller parameters and the parameters that characterize the process dynamics are determined and the tuning formula is then derived. Using simulation studies, the rules for assessing the performance of a PID controller tuned by the proposed method are also given. This makes it possible to incorporate the capability to determine if the PID controller is well tuned or not into an autotuner. An autotuner based on this new tuning method and the corresponding performance assessment rules is also established. Simulations and real-time experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of these formulas.

  3. Effect of type of noise and loudspeaker array on the performance of omnidirectional and directional microphones.

    PubMed

    Valente, Michael; Mispagel, Karen M; Tchorz, Juergen; Fabry, David

    2006-06-01

    Differences in performance between omnidirectional and directional microphones were evaluated between two loudspeaker conditions (single loudspeaker at 180 degrees; diffuse using eight loudspeakers set 45 degrees apart) and two types of noise (steady-state HINT noise; R-Space restaurant noise). Twenty-five participants were fit bilaterally with Phonak Perseo hearing aids using the manufacturer's recommended procedure. After wearing the hearing aids for one week, the parameters were fine-tuned based on subjective comments. Four weeks later, differences in performance between omnidirectional and directional microphones were assessed using HINT sentences presented at 0 degrees with the two types of background noise held constant at 65 dBA and under the two loudspeaker conditions. Results revealed significant differences in Reception Thresholds for Sentences (RTS in dB) where directional performance was significantly better than omnidirectional. Performance in the 180 degrees condition was significantly better than the diffuse condition, and performance was significantly better using the HINT noise in comparison to the R-Space restaurant noise. In addition, results revealed that within each loudspeaker array, performance was significantly better for the directional microphone. Looking across loudspeaker arrays, however, significant differences were not present in omnidirectional performance, but directional performance was significantly better in the 180 degrees condition when compared to the diffuse condition. These findings are discussed in terms of results reported in the past and counseling patients on the potential advantages of directional microphones as the listening situation and type of noise changes.

  4. Bottom-Up Nanofabrication of Supported Noble Metal Alloy Nanoparticle Arrays for Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Ferry A A; Iandolo, Beniamino; Wagner, Jakob B; Langhammer, Christoph

    2016-02-23

    Mixing different elements at the nanoscale to obtain alloy nanostructures with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties offers appealing opportunities for nanotechnology and nanoscience. However, despite widespread successful application of alloy nanoparticles made by colloidal synthesis in heterogeneous catalysis, nanoalloy systems have been used very rarely in solid-state devices and nanoplasmonics-related applications. One reason is that such applications require integration in arrays on a surface with compelling demands on nanoparticle arrangement, uniformity in surface coverage, and optimization of the surface density. These cannot be fulfilled even using state-of-the-art self-assembly strategies of colloids. As a solution, we present here a generic bottom-up nanolithography-compatible fabrication approach for large-area arrays of alloy nanoparticles on surfaces. To illustrate the concept, we focus on Au-based binary and ternary alloy systems with Ag, Cu, and Pd, due to their high relevance for nanoplasmonics and complete miscibility, and characterize their optical properties. Moreover, as an example for the relevance of the obtained materials for integration in devices, we demonstrate the superior and hysteresis-free plasmonic hydrogen-sensing performance of the AuPd alloy nanoparticle system.

  5. Crystal engineering approach to design colorimetric indicator array to discriminate positional isomers of aromatic organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Darshak R; Fujiki, Yuzo; Fujita, Norifumi; Shinkai, Seiji; Sada, Kazuki

    2009-02-02

    Discriminating by color: A 2D colorimetric indicator array has been designed by a crystal engineering approach (NH-O hydrogen bonding and charge-transfer complexation) involving solid-state co-grinding for the visual discrimination of positional isomers of dihydroxynaphthalene. Factors governing the close packing of pi planes, and hence color of the complex, were determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis, allowing fine tuning by crystal engineering. A 2D colorimetric indicator array to discriminate isomers of dihydroxynaphthalene has been designed by using a crystal engineering concept combined with solid-state co-grinding and charge-transfer complexation. The NH-O supramolecular synthon between the pyridyl N atom of the probe and hydroxy group of the analyte has been observed in all reported single-crystal X-ray structures of resultant CT complexes. Solid-state co-grinding with aromatic solids easily provided the highly concentrated solvent-free conditions required to promote the formation of charge-transfer complexes with brighter color changes. Probe D (N,N'-bis-(4-pyridyl)pyromellitic diimide) showed an excellent ability to discriminate eight isomers of dihydroxynaphthalene with a wide variety of colors of the resultant CT complexes.

  6. Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanowire Arrays on Sulfur Doped Graphene as High Performance Electrocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongyue; Higgins, Drew C.; Hoque, Md Ariful; Lee, DongUn; Hassan, Fathy; Chen, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Graphene supported Pt nanostructures have great potential to be used as catalysts in electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies; however the simultaneous control of Pt morphology and dispersion, along with ideally tailoring the physical properties of the catalyst support properties has proven very challenging. Using sulfur doped graphene (SG) as a support material, the heterogeneous dopant atoms could serve as nucleation sites allowing for the preparation of SG supported Pt nanowire arrays with ultra-thin diameters (2–5 nm) and dense surface coverage. Detailed investigation of the preparation technique reveals that the structure of the resulting composite could be readily controlled by fine tuning the Pt nanowire nucleation and growth reaction kinetics and the Pt-support interactions, whereby a mechanistic platinum nanowire array growth model is proposed. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the composite materials have 2–3 times higher catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst. PMID:23942256

  7. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Lani, Shane W; Wasequr Rashid, M; Hasler, Jennifer; Sabra, Karim G; Levent Degertekin, F

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  8. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, Shane W. E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu Sabra, Karim G.; Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  9. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, David; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) Each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction, and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor arrays. PMID:27102871

  10. Quantum Phase Transition in Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    1997-03-01

    One-dimensional Josephson junction arrays of SQUIDS exhibit a novel superconductor-insulator phase transition. The critical regime can be accessed by tuning the effective Josephson coupling energy using a weak magnetic field applied to the SQUIDS. The role of instantons induced by quantum fluctuations will be discussed. One novel feature of these systems which can be explained in terms of quantum phase slips is that in some regimes, the array resistance decreases with increasing length of the array. We calculate the finite temperature crossover function for the array resistance and compare our theoretical results with the recent experiments by D. Haviland and P. Delsing at Chalmers. This work is supported by DOE grant #DE-FG02-90ER45427 and by NSF DMR-9502555.

  11. Design of diffractive microlens array integration with focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sihai; Yi, Xinjian; Li, Yi; He, Miao; Chen, Sixiang; Kong, Lingbin

    2000-10-01

    The IR spectrum from 3 to 5micrometers has numerous applications in both military and civil industries. High performance at high operating temperature is often important in these applications. Conventional Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) without integration with concentrator such as microlens have poor sensitivity and low signal-to-noise ratio because of their lower fill factor. The binary optics microlens arrays reported in this paper are designed for integration with FPAs. Thus, the FPAs' fill factor, sensitivity, and signal- to-noise ratio can be improved while retaining a given image resolution and optical collection area. In the paper, we discussed the 256(Horizontal)x290(Vertical) microlens arrays designed for a center wavelength of 4micrometers , with 50micrometers (Horizontalx33micrometers (Vertical) quadrate pixel dimension and a speed (F number) of F/1.96. PtSi FPAs were fabricated on the front side of a 400-micrometers -thick Si substrate. The designed diffractive microlens arrays will be etched on the back side of the same wafer in a register fashion and it will be reported in other paper. Considering the diffraction efficiency, 8-phase-level approximation is enough. For the diffraction efficiency of 8-phase-level diffractive microlens reaches 95%. The process only need three mask-level, so we designed and fabricated three masks with the same dimension 4'x4'. Also, a set of fine verniers was designed and fabricated on each mask to allow accurate alignment during the fabrication process. Through a computer simulation, the microlens arrays are nearly diffraction limited, with the diffraction efficiency of 93%, a bit lower than the theoretical value of 95%. Introduction of microlens arrays has the ability to increase the FPAs' fill factor to 100%, while it is only about 21.6% without microlens. To our knowledge, this is the first trial of integration large area microlens arrays with FPAs at home.

  12. Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu; Kats, Mikhail A; Genevet, Patrice; Yu, Nanfang; Song, Yi; Kong, Jing; Capasso, Federico

    2013-03-13

    Plasmonic antennas enable the conversion of light from free space into subwavelength volumes and vice versa, which facilitates the manipulation of light at the nanoscale. Dynamic control of the properties of antennas is desirable for many applications, including biochemical sensors, reconfigurable meta-surfaces and compact optoelectronic devices. The combination of metallic structures and graphene, which has gate-voltage dependent optical properties, is emerging as a possible platform for electrically controlled plasmonic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate in situ control of antennas using graphene as an electrically tunable load in the nanoscale antenna gap. In our experiments, we demonstrate electrical tuning of graphene-loaded antennas over a broad wavelength range of 650 nm (∼140 cm(-1), ∼10% of the resonance frequency) in the mid-infrared (MIR) region. We propose an equivalent circuit model to quantitatively analyze the tuning behavior of graphene-loaded antenna pairs and derive an analytical expression for the tuning range of resonant wavelength. In a separate experiment, we used doubly resonant antenna arrays to achieve MIR optical intensity modulation with maximum modulation depth of more than 30% and bandwidth of 600 nm (∼100 cm(-1), 8% of the resonance frequency). This study shows that combining graphene with metallic nanostructures provides a route to electrically tunable optical and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Injection with ultra-fine cement into fine sand layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Masahito; Goto, Toshiyoshi; Ogino, Takuya; Shimizu, Kazunari

    1994-12-31

    In-situ injection test was carried out in fine sand layer with ordinary portland, colloid and ultra-fine cement. Permeability of the sand layer was 10{sup {minus}3} cm/sec. Suspension grout with ordinary portland and colloid cement was impossible to permeate into the sand. However with ultra fine cement small solidified sand was obtained and with ultra-fine cement-waterglass grout, water cement ratio of 0.8 and waterglass concentration of 75%, solidified sand with expected volume can be obtained.

  14. Granulation of fine powder

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  15. Electrostatic Tuning of Cellular Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, Sara I.; Parkkari, Teija; Hammarström, Sven; Elinder, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Voltage-gated ion channels regulate the electric activity of excitable tissues, such as the heart and brain. Therefore, treatment for conditions of disturbed excitability is often based on drugs that target ion channels. In this study of a voltage-gated K channel, we propose what we believe to be a novel pharmacological mechanism for how to regulate channel activity. Charged lipophilic substances can tune channel opening, and consequently excitability, by an electrostatic interaction with the channel's voltage sensors. The direction of the effect depends on the charge of the substance. This was shown by three compounds sharing an arachidonyl backbone but bearing different charge: arachidonic acid, methyl arachidonate, and arachidonyl amine. Computer simulations of membrane excitability showed that small changes in the voltage dependence of Na and K channels have prominent impact on excitability and the tendency for repetitive firing. For instance, a shift in the voltage dependence of a K channel with −5 or +5 mV corresponds to a threefold increase or decrease in K channel density, respectively. We suggest that electrostatic tuning of ion channel activity constitutes a novel and powerful pharmacological approach with which to affect cellular excitability. PMID:20141752

  16. Tuning magnetofluidic spreading in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Varma, V. B.; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetofluidic spreading (MFS) is a phenomenon in which a uniform magnetic field is used to induce spreading of a ferrofluid core cladded by diamagnetic fluidic streams in a three-stream channel. Applications of MFS include micromixing, cell sorting and novel microfluidic lab-on-a-chip design. However, the relative importance of the parameters which govern MFS is still unclear, leading to non-optimal control of MFS. Hence, in this work, the effect of various key parameters on MFS was experimentally and numerically studied. Our multi-physics model, which combines magnetic and fluidic analysis, showed excellent agreement between theory and experiment. It was found that spreading was mainly due to cross-sectional convection induced by magnetic forces, and can be enhanced by tuning various parameters. Smaller flow rate ratio, higher magnetic field, higher core stream or lower cladding stream dynamic viscosity, and larger magnetic particle size can increase MFS. These results can be used to tune magnetofluidic spreading in microchannels.

  17. Exchange Bias Tuning for Magnetoresistive Sensors by Inclusion of Non-Magnetic Impurities

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Parikshit Pratim; Albisetti, Edoardo; Monticelli, Marco; Bertacco, Riccardo; Petti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The fine control of the exchange coupling strength and blocking temperature ofexchange bias systems is an important requirement for the development of magnetoresistive sensors with two pinned electrodes. In this paper, we successfully tune these parameters in top- and bottom-pinned systems, comprising 5 nm thick Co40Fe40B20 and 6.5 nm thick Ir22Mn78 films. By inserting Ru impurities at different concentrations in the Ir22Mn78 layer, blocking temperatures ranging from 220 °C to 100 °C and exchange bias fields from 200 Oe to 60 Oe are obtained. This method is then applied to the fabrication of sensors based on magnetic tunneling junctions consisting of a pinned synthetic antiferromagnet reference layer and a top-pinned sensing layer. This work paves the way towards the development of new sensors with finely tuned magnetic anisotropies. PMID:27384565

  18. Exchange Bias Tuning for Magnetoresistive Sensors by Inclusion of Non-Magnetic Impurities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parikshit Pratim; Albisetti, Edoardo; Monticelli, Marco; Bertacco, Riccardo; Petti, Daniela

    2016-07-04

    The fine control of the exchange coupling strength and blocking temperature ofexchange bias systems is an important requirement for the development of magnetoresistive sensors with two pinned electrodes. In this paper, we successfully tune these parameters in top- and bottom-pinned systems, comprising 5 nm thick Co40Fe40B20 and 6.5 nm thick Ir22Mn78 films. By inserting Ru impurities at different concentrations in the Ir22Mn78 layer, blocking temperatures ranging from 220 °C to 100 °C and exchange bias fields from 200 Oe to 60 Oe are obtained. This method is then applied to the fabrication of sensors based on magnetic tunneling junctions consisting of a pinned synthetic antiferromagnet reference layer and a top-pinned sensing layer. This work paves the way towards the development of new sensors with finely tuned magnetic anisotropies.

  19. Structural Instability Tuning as a Regulatory Mechanism in Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Balabanidou, Vassilia; Remeta, David P.; Minetti, Conceição A.S.A.; Portaliou, Athina G.; Economou, Anastassios; Kalodimos, Charalampos G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein-protein interactions mediate a vast number of cellular processes. Here we present a regulatory mechanism in protein-protein interactions mediated by finely-tuned structural instability coupled with molecular mimicry. We show that a set of type III secretion (TTS) autoinhibited homodimeric chaperones adopt a molten-globule-like state that transiently exposes the substrate binding site as a means to become rapidly poised for binding to their cognate protein substrates. Packing defects at the homodimeric interface stimulate binding whereas correction of these defects results in less labile chaperones that give rise to non-functional biological systems. The protein substrates use structural mimicry to offset the “weak spots” in the chaperones and to counteract their autoinhibitory conformation. This regulatory mechanism of protein activity is evolutionary conserved among several TSS systems and presents a lucid example of functional advantage conferred upon a biological system by finely-tuned structural instability. PMID:22152477

  20. POET: Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Q; Seymour, K; You, H; Vuduc, R; Quinlan, D

    2007-01-29

    The excessive complexity of both machine architectures and applications have made it difficult for compilers to statically model and predict application behavior. This observation motivates the recent interest in performance tuning using empirical techniques. We present a new embedded scripting language, POET (Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning), for parameterizing complex code transformations so that they can be empirically tuned. The POET language aims to significantly improve the generality, flexibility, and efficiency of existing empirical tuning systems. We have used the language to parameterize and to empirically tune three loop optimizations-interchange, blocking, and unrolling-for two linear algebra kernels. We show experimentally that the time required to tune these optimizations using POET, which does not require any program analysis, is significantly shorter than that when using a full compiler-based source-code optimizer which performs sophisticated program analysis and optimizations.

  1. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  2. A Hardware Platform for Tuning of MEMS Devices Using Closed-Loop Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael I.; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed-loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The platform was developed and tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-Resonator MEMS gyroscope. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A software interface allows the user to configure, calibrate, and tune the bias voltages on the micro-gyro. The interface easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.

  3. Tuning the band gap in hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors using structural templating.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Jeremy L; Martin, James D; Mitzi, David B

    2005-06-27

    Structural distortions within the extensive family of organic/inorganic hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors are correlated with their experimental exciton energies and calculated band gaps. The extent of the in- and out-of-plane angular distortion of the SnI4(2-) perovskite sheets is largely determined by the relative charge density and steric requirements of the organic cations. Variation of the in-plane Sn-I-Sn bond angle was demonstrated to have the greatest impact on the tuning of the band gap, and the equatorial Sn-I bond distances have a significant secondary influence. Extended Hückel tight-binding band calculations are employed to decipher the crystal orbital origins of the structural effects that fine-tune the band structure. The calculations suggest that it may be possible to tune the band gap by as much as 1 eV using the templating influence of the organic cation.

  4. Scalable high-precision tuning of photonic resonators by resonant cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Baker, Christopher; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Photonic lattices of mutually interacting indistinguishable cavities represent a cornerstone of collective phenomena in optics and could become important in advanced sensing or communication devices. The disorder induced by fabrication technologies has so far hindered the development of such resonant cavity architectures, while post-fabrication tuning methods have been limited by complexity and poor scalability. Here we present a new simple and scalable tuning method for ensembles of microphotonic and nanophotonic resonators, which enables their permanent collective spectral alignment. The method introduces an approach of cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching in a fluid, a resonant process triggered by sub-bandgap light that allows for high selectivity and precision. The technique is presented on a gallium arsenide nanophotonic platform and illustrated by finely tuning one, two and up to five resonators. It opens the way to applications requiring large networks of identical resonators and their spectral referencing to external etalons. PMID:28117394

  5. Scalable high-precision tuning of photonic resonators by resonant cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Baker, Christopher; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Photonic lattices of mutually interacting indistinguishable cavities represent a cornerstone of collective phenomena in optics and could become important in advanced sensing or communication devices. The disorder induced by fabrication technologies has so far hindered the development of such resonant cavity architectures, while post-fabrication tuning methods have been limited by complexity and poor scalability. Here we present a new simple and scalable tuning method for ensembles of microphotonic and nanophotonic resonators, which enables their permanent collective spectral alignment. The method introduces an approach of cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching in a fluid, a resonant process triggered by sub-bandgap light that allows for high selectivity and precision. The technique is presented on a gallium arsenide nanophotonic platform and illustrated by finely tuning one, two and up to five resonators. It opens the way to applications requiring large networks of identical resonators and their spectral referencing to external etalons.

  6. Self tuning scalar tensor black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmousis, Christos; Iosifidis, Damianos

    2015-04-01

    Studying a certain sub class of higher order Horndeski (scalar-tensor) theories we discuss a method discovered recently permitting analytic black hole solutions with a non trivial and regular scalar field. One of the solutions found has de Sitter asymptotics and self tunes the bulk cosmological constant. Using the aforementioned method we find and analyse new black hole solutions which can also have de Sitter asymptotics. By looking at small deviations of the integration constant responsible for self tuning we discuss the robustness of the self tuning mechanism. We find that neighboring solutions to the one previously found present also self tuning properties with unaltered effective cosmological constant.

  7. Auto-tuning of cascade control systems.

    PubMed

    Song, Sihai; Cai, Wenjian; Wang, Ya-Gang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a novel auto-tuning method for a cascade control system is proposed. By employing a simple relay feedback test, both inner and outer loop model parameters can be simultaneously identified. Consequently, well-established proportional-integral-derivative (PID) tuning rules can be applied to tune both loops. Compared with existing methods, the new method is simpler and yet more effective. It can be directly integrated into commercially available industrial auto-tuning systems. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  8. Tune measurement methods of the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng-Yang Tan; Xiaolong Zhang; Paul Lebrun

    2003-06-10

    We will discuss several methods for measuring the tunes in the Tevatron. These methods can be separated into three classes: active, passive and hybrid. In the active method, the beam is tickled in order to obtain a frequency response. In the passive method, a Schottky detector which uses a resonant stripline is used to measure the Schottky spectrum of the beam. In the hybrid method, we tickle the beam using kickers, or the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) in order to bring the tune signal above the noise floor of the Schottky detectors. An automatic tune fitting algorithm is also under development which allows us to measure the tune without human intervention.

  9. Investigating a Quadrant Surface Coil Array for NQR Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    UNCLASSIFIED 1  Abstract—this paper is on the design and fabrication of a surface coil array in a quadrant layout for NQR (Nuclear Quadrupole...coupling and SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) at standoff distances perpendicular from each coil. Index Terms— Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance, NQR ...Coil Array, probe, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, tuning, decoupling, RLC, mutual coupling, RLC I. INTRODUCTION N Nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR

  10. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  11. Tuning universality far from equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Markus; Nowak, Boris; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Possible universal dynamics of a many-body system far from thermal equilibrium are explored. A focus is set on meta-stable non-thermal states exhibiting critical properties such as self-similarity and independence of the details of how the respective state has been reached. It is proposed that universal dynamics far from equilibrium can be tuned to exhibit a dynamical transition where these critical properties change qualitatively. This is demonstrated for the case of a superfluid two-component Bose gas exhibiting different types of long-lived but non-thermal critical order. Scaling exponents controlled by the ratio of experimentally tuneable coupling parameters offer themselves as natural smoking guns. The results shed light on the wealth of universal phenomena expected to exist in the far-from-equilibrium realm. PMID:23928853

  12. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  13. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  14. Tuning aspect ratio of hierarchical ZnO nanotetrapod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Youguo; Li, Chuanyong; Zhou, Lixia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Fine-tuning the aspect ratio is crucial for practical application and optimizing various properties of nanostructure. In this work, a mixed metal (Zn) and oxide (ZnO + C) powder was adopted as precursor to obtain initial high reagent vapour pressure and subsequent low reagent vapour pressure, and one kind of hierarchical ZnO nanotetrapod with legs composed of thick primary nanorod and thin secondary nanowire was successfully synthesized. Two growth stages controlled by the reagent supersaturation ratio were proposed to unveil the underlying growth mechanism of this hierarchical structure. Further, a series of comparative experiments were undertaken to validate the growth mode and explore the growth strategy tailoring the aspect ratio. Our results suggest one accessible approach to manipulate the aspect ratio, and the growth mode has some promises for preparing hierarchical nanoblocks with specific geometry demanding.

  15. Self-Tuning of Design Variables for Generalized Predictive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chaung; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2000-01-01

    Three techniques are introduced to determine the order and control weighting for the design of a generalized predictive controller. These techniques are based on the application of fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing to conduct an optimal search on specific performance indexes or objective functions. Fuzzy logic is found to be feasible for real-time and on-line implementation due to its smooth and quick convergence. On the other hand, genetic algorithms and simulated annealing are applicable for initial estimation of the model order and control weighting, and final fine-tuning within a small region of the solution space, Several numerical simulations for a multiple-input and multiple-output system are given to illustrate the techniques developed in this paper.

  16. Two-level tuning of fuzzy PID controllers.

    PubMed

    Mann, G I; Hu, B G; Gosine, R G

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy PID tuning requires two stages of tuning; low level tuning followed by high level tuning. At the higher level, a nonlinear tuning is performed to determine the nonlinear characteristics of the fuzzy output. At the lower level, a linear tuning is performed to determine the linear characteristics of the fuzzy output for achieving overall performance of fuzzy control. First, different fuzzy systems are defined and then simplified for two-point control. Non-linearity tuning diagrams are constructed for fuzzy systems in order to perform high level tuning. The linear tuning parameters are deduced from the conventional PID tuning knowledge. Using the tuning diagrams, high level tuning heuristics are developed. Finally, different applications are demonstrated to show the validity of the proposed tuning method.

  17. Novel tune diagnostics for the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    In the Tevatron collider, protons and antiprotons share the same beam pipe. This poses a challenge in the measurement of tunes for both species simultaneously because of the possibility of signal contamination from the other species. The tune of each bunch is also very different because of beam-beam effects from parasitic crossing points. This means that the tune diagnostics must be able to differentiate between protons and anti-protons, it also has to measure tunes from each bunch. There are three different tune pickups used in the Tevatron: 1.7 GHz Schottky pickups, 21.4 MHz Schottky pickups and baseband pickups. These devices will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  18. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Matthew B.; Collins, Aaron M.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering. PMID:26446559

  19. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Matthew B; Collins, Aaron M; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-10-06

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering.

  20. Diel Vertical Migration in Deep Sea Plankton Is Finely Tuned to Latitudinal and Seasonal Day Length

    PubMed Central

    van Haren, Hans; Compton, Tanya J.

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in marine and freshwater plankton communities. Most commonly, plankton migrate to surface waters at dusk and return to deeper waters at dawn. Up until recently, it was thought that DVM was triggered by a relative change in visible light intensity. However, evidence has shown that DVM also occurs in the deep sea where no direct and background sunlight penetrates. To identify whether such DVM is associated with latitudinal and seasonal day light variation, one and a half years of recorded acoustic data, a measure of zooplankton abundance and movement, were examined. Acoustic Doppler current profilers, moored at eight different sub-tropical latitudes in the North-Atlantic Ocean, measured in the vertical range of 500–1600 m. DVM was observed to follow day length variation with a change in season and latitude at all depths. DVM followed the rhythm of local sunrise and sunset precisely between 500 and 650 m. It continued below 650 m, where the deepest penetrable irradiance level are <10−7 times their near-surface values, but plankton shortened their time at depth by up to about 63% at 1600 m. This suggests light was no longer a cue for DVM. This trend stayed consistent both across latitudes and between the different seasons. It is hypothesized that another mechanism, rather than light, viz. a precise biochemical clock could maintain the solar diurnal and seasonal rhythms in deep sea plankton motions. In accordance with this hypothesis, the deepest plankton were consistently the first to migrate upwards. PMID:23717613

  1. Timing is everything: Fine-tuned molecular machines orchestrate paramyxovirus entry

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Sayantan; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2015-05-15

    The Paramyxoviridae include some of the great and ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of humans and animals. In most paramyxoviruses, two viral membrane glycoproteins, fusion protein (F) and receptor binding protein (HN, H or G) mediate a concerted process of recognition of host cell surface molecules followed by fusion of viral and cellular membranes, resulting in viral nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm. The interactions between the F and HN, H or G viral glycoproteins and host molecules are critical in determining host range, virulence and spread of these viruses. Recently, atomic structures, together with biochemical and biophysical studies, have provided major insights into how these two viral glycoproteins successfully interact with host receptors on cellular membranes and initiate the membrane fusion process to gain entry into cells. These studies highlight the conserved core mechanisms of paramyxovirus entry that provide the fundamental basis for rational anti-viral drug design and vaccine development. - Highlights: • New structural and functional insights into paramyxovirus entry mechanisms. • Current data on paramyxovirus glycoproteins suggest a core conserved entry mechanism. • Diverse mechanisms preventing premature fusion activation exist in these viruses. • Precise spacio-temporal interplay between paramyxovirus glycoproteins initiate entry.

  2. Fine-tuning of prototype chicken galectins: structure of CG-2 and structure-activity correlations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Federico M; Fernández, Israel S; López-Merino, Lara; Lagartera, Laura; Kaltner, Herbert; Menéndez, Margarita; André, Sabine; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans Joachim; Romero, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The comparatively small number of members of the family of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins in chicken predestines this system as an attractive model to study the divergence of these lectins after gene duplication. Expression profiling of the three homodimeric (prototype) chicken galectins (CG-1A, CG-1B and CG-2) has raised evidence of distinct functionalities, explaining the interest in a detailed crystallographic analysis of CG-2. As revealed here, marked differences are found in the ligand-binding site and in the contact pattern within the homodimer interface, underlying a characteristic orientation of the two subunits. Notably, a distinctive trimer of dimers that is unique in all galectin crystal structures reported to date forms the core unit of the crystallographic assembly. Combination with spectroscopic and thermodynamic measurements, and comparisons with CG-1A and CG-1B, identify differential changes in the circular-dichroism spectra in the presence of lactose, reflecting the far-reaching impact of the ligand on hydrodynamic behaviour, and inter-galectin differences in both the entropy and the enthalpy of binding. This structural information is a salient step to complete the analysis of the full set of galectins from this model organism.

  3. LAMP5 Fine-Tunes GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Defined Circuits of the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Beurrier, Corinne; Céni, Claire; Andriambao, Naly; Combes, Alexis; Koehl, Muriel; Maurice, Nicolas; Gatti, Evelina; Abrous, Dhoher Nora; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Pierre, Philippe; Cremer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    LAMP5 is member of the LAMP family of membrane proteins. In contrast to the canonical members of this protein family, LAMP1 and LAMP2, which show widespread expression in many tissues, LAMP 5 is brain specific in mice. In C. elegans, the LAMP5 ortholog UNC-46 has been suggested to act a trafficking chaperone, essential for the correct targeting of the nematode vesicular GABA-transporter UNC-47. We show here that in the mouse brain LAMP5 is expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic forebrain neurons in the striato-nigral system and the olfactory bulb. The protein was present at synaptic terminals, overlapping with the mammalian vesicular GABA-transporter VGAT. In LAMP5-deficient mice localization of the transporter was unaffected arguing against a conserved role in VGAT trafficking. Electrophysiological analyses in mutants showed alterations in short term synaptic plasticity suggesting that LAMP5 is involved in controlling the dynamics of evoked GABAergic transmission. At the behavioral level, LAMP5 mutant mice showed decreased anxiety and deficits in olfactory discrimination. Altogether, this work implicates LAMP5 function in GABAergic neurotransmission in defined neuronal subpopulations. PMID:27272053

  4. APE/Ref-1 makes fine-tuning of CD40-induced B cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Gri, Giorgia; Gattei, Valter; Pagano, Michele; Pucillo, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/Redox factor-1, a multifunctional DNA base excision repair and redox regulation enzyme, plays an important role in oxidative signalling, transcription factor regulation, and cell cycle control. Recently, we have demonstrated that following the triggering of CD40 on B cells, APE/Ref-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the activity of B cell-specific transcription factors. In the present paper we investigate whether APE/Ref-1 plays a role in controlling CD40-mediated B cell proliferation too. We demonstrate a concurrent increase in proliferation and decrease in apoptosis of primary mouse B cells activated by CD40 cross-linking and transfected with functional APE/Ref-1 antisense oligonucleotide. Moreover, we provide evidence that a redox-mediated signalling mechanism is involved in this process and we propose that APE/Ref-1, controlling the intracellular redox state, may also affect the cell cycle by inducing nucleus-cytoplasm redistribution of p21. Together, these findings suggest that APE/Ref-1 could act as a negative regulator in an adaptive response to elevated ROS levels following CD40 cross-linking. Considering the important role of ROS and APE/Ref-1 in CD40-mediated B cell proliferation, our data will contribute to understand the mechanisms of tumor escape and suggest APE/Ref-1 as a novel target for tumor therapeutic approaches. PMID:18617267

  5. Fine-Tuning Circadian Rhythms: The Importance of Bmal1 Expression in the Ventral Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Mieda, Michihiro; Hasegawa, Emi; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Although, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus acts as the central clock in mammals, the circadian expression of clock genes has been demonstrated not only in the SCN, but also in peripheral tissues and brain regions outside the SCN. However, the physiological roles of extra-SCN circadian clocks in the brain remain largely elusive. In response, we generated Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice in which Bmal1, an essential clock component, was genetically deleted specifically in the ventral forebrain, including the preoptic area, nucleus of the diagonal band, and most of the hypothalamus except the SCN. In these mice, as expected, PER2::LUC oscillation was drastically attenuated in the explants of mediobasal hypothalamus, whereas it was maintained in those of the SCN. Although, Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice were rhythmic and nocturnal, they showed altered patterns of locomotor activity during the night in a 12:12-h light:dark cycle and during subjective night in constant darkness. Control mice were more active during the first half than the second half of the dark phase or subjective night, whereas Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice showed the opposite pattern of locomotor activity. Temporal patterns of sleep-wakefulness and feeding also changed accordingly. Such results suggest that along with mechanisms in the SCN, local Bmal1–dependent clocks in the ventral forebrain are critical for generating precise temporal patterns of circadian behaviors. PMID:28232786

  6. Structure control for fine tuning fluorescence emission from side-chain azobenzene polymers.

    PubMed

    Smitha, P; Asha, S K

    2007-06-14

    New fluorescent azobenzene dyes and side-chain polymers have been synthesized and characterized and their photophysical properties studied. A series of azobenzene dyes having different fluorophores such as phenol (S1), phenylphenol (S2) and naphthol (S3) incorporated in them were synthesized. S2 had unusually high fluorescence with a quantum yield of phi f = 0.2 recorded in dichloromethane (DCM), whereas S1 and S3 were found to be weakly fluorescent. The azobenzene dyes were converted into methacrylate monomers having short ethyleneoxy spacers and then free radically polymerized. Phenylphenol-based azobenzene polymer (P2) continued to show fluorescence, whereas fluorescence was completely quenched in the case of phenol (P1)- and naphthol (P3)-based polymers. Phenylphenol, though twisted in the ground state is known to have a more planar geometry in the excited state--a factor that enables it to retain its fluorescence behavior even when it is incorporated as part of an azobenzene unit. In contrast, naphthol, which is a better fluorophore compared to phenylphenol, loses much of its emissive behavior upon coupling to the azobenzene unit. The extent of trans to cis photoisomerization in solution was very low (approximately 17%) for P2 after 30 min of continuous irradiation using 365 nm light, in contrast to approximately 40% for P1 under identical conditions. This is attributed to the steric repulsion brought about by the bulky phenylphenol units that restrict rotation. A 2-fold enhancement in fluorescence emission was observed for P2 upon irradiation by UV light at 360 nm, which relaxed to the original intensity in about 7 day's time. The higher emission of the cis azobenzenes is generally attributed to an inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. The emission of P2 showed a concentration dependence which increased initially and then decreased in intensity with the formation of a new red-shifted peak at higher concentration due to aggregation. Irradiation of the fluorescence quenched highly concentrated (1 x 10(-3) M) sample of P2 showed an enhancement in emission from aggregates at 532 nm.

  7. The fine tuning of metabolism, autophagy and differentiation during in vitro myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fortini, P; Ferretti, C; Iorio, E; Cagnin, M; Garribba, L; Pietraforte, D; Falchi, M; Pascucci, B; Baccarini, S; Morani, F; Phadngam, S; De Luca, G; Isidoro, C; Dogliotti, E

    2016-01-01

    Although the mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle homeostasis have been identified, there is a lack of knowledge of the integrated dynamic processes occurring during myogenesis and their regulation. Here, metabolism, autophagy and differentiation were concomitantly analyzed in mouse muscle satellite cell (MSC)-derived myoblasts and their cross-talk addressed by drug and genetic manipulation. We show that increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inactivation-independent basal autophagy characterize the conversion of myoblasts into myotubes. Notably, inhibition of autophagic flux halts cell fusion in the latest stages of differentiation and, conversely, when the fusion step of myocytes is impaired the biogenesis of autophagosomes is also impaired. By using myoblasts derived from p53 null mice, we show that in the absence of p53 glycolysis prevails and mitochondrial biogenesis is strongly impaired. P53 null myoblasts show defective terminal differentiation and attenuated basal autophagy when switched into differentiating culture conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate that basal autophagy contributes to a correct execution of myogenesis and that physiological p53 activity is required for muscle homeostasis by regulating metabolism and by affecting autophagy and differentiation. PMID:27031965

  8. Fine-tuning of substrate architecture and surface chemistry promotes muscle tissue development.

    PubMed

    Guex, A G; Kocher, F M; Fortunato, G; Körner, E; Hegemann, D; Carrel, T P; Tevaearai, H T; Giraud, M N

    2012-04-01

    Tissue engineering has been increasingly brought to the scientific spotlight in response to the tremendous demand for regeneration, restoration or substitution of skeletal or cardiac muscle after traumatic injury, tumour ablation or myocardial infarction. In vitro generation of a highly organized and contractile muscle tissue, however, crucially depends on an appropriate design of the cell culture substrate. The present work evaluated the impact of substrate properties, in particular morphology, chemical surface composition and mechanical properties, on muscle cell fate. To this end, aligned and randomly oriented micron (3.3±0.8 μm) or nano (237±98 nm) scaled fibrous poly(ε-caprolactone) non-wovens were processed by electrospinning. A nanometer-thick oxygen functional hydrocarbon coating was deposited by a radio frequency plasma process. C2C12 muscle cells were grown on pure and as-functionalized substrates and analysed for viability, proliferation, spatial orientation, differentiation and contractility. Cell orientation has been shown to depend strongly on substrate architecture, being most pronounced on micron-scaled parallel-oriented fibres. Oxygen functional hydrocarbons, representing stable, non-immunogenic surface groups, were identified as strong triggers for myotube differentiation. Accordingly, the highest myotube density (28±15% of total substrate area), sarcomeric striation and contractility were found on plasma-coated substrates. The current study highlights the manifold material characteristics to be addressed during the substrate design process and provides insight into processes to improve bio-interfaces.

  9. Sequence variation between 462 human individuals fine-tunes functional sites of RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Oti, Martin; Barann, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Ezquina, Suzana; Friedländer, Marc R.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Esteve-Codina, Anna; Estivill, Xavier; Guigó, Roderic; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Antonarakis, Stylianos; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Palotie, Aarno; François Deleuze, Jean; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lerach, Hans; Gut, Ivo; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Gyllensten, Ulf; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Brunner, Han; Veltman, Joris; Hoen, Peter A.C.T; Jan van Ommen, Gert; Carracedo, Angel; Brazma, Alvis; Flicek, Paul; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Mangion, Jonathan; Bentley, David; Hamosh, Ada; Rosenstiel, Philip; Strom, Tim M; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Guigó, Roderic; Sammeth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the cost-efficiency of sequencing technologies enabled the combined DNA- and RNA-sequencing of human individuals at the population-scale, making genome-wide investigations of the inter-individual genetic impact on gene expression viable. Employing mRNA-sequencing data from the Geuvadis Project and genome sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project we show that the computational analysis of DNA sequences around splice sites and poly-A signals is able to explain several observations in the phenotype data. In contrast to widespread assessments of statistically significant associations between DNA polymorphisms and quantitative traits, we developed a computational tool to pinpoint the molecular mechanisms by which genetic markers drive variation in RNA-processing, cataloguing and classifying alleles that change the affinity of core RNA elements to their recognizing factors. The in silico models we employ further suggest RNA editing can moonlight as a splicing-modulator, albeit less frequently than genomic sequence diversity. Beyond existing annotations, we demonstrate that the ultra-high resolution of RNA-Seq combined from 462 individuals also provides evidence for thousands of bona fide novel elements of RNA processing—alternative splice sites, introns, and cleavage sites—which are often rare and lowly expressed but in other characteristics similar to their annotated counterparts. PMID:27617755

  10. Timing is everything: Fine-tuned molecular machines orchestrate paramyxovirus entry

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Sayantan; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Paramyxoviridae include some of the great and ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of humans and animals. In most paramyxoviruses, two viral membrane glycoproteins, fusion protein (F) and receptor binding protein (HN, H or G) mediate a concerted process of recognition of host cell surface molecules followed by fusion of viral and cellular membranes, resulting in viral nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm. The interactions between the F and HN, H or G viral glycoproteins and host molecules are critical in determining host range, virulence and spread of these viruses. Recently, atomic structures, together with biochemical and biophysical studies, have provided major insights into how these two viral glycoproteins successfully interact with host receptors on cellular membranes and initiate the membrane fusion process to gain entry into cells. These studies highlight the conserved core mechanisms of paramyxovirus entry that provide the fundamental basis for rational anti-viral drug design and vaccine development. PMID:25771804

  11. Drug companies monitor prescriptions and sales to fine-tune their marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Market research companies analyse drug prescriptions and sales in community and hospital pharmacies, thus enabling drug companies to refine their marketing strategies. Some information of interest to drug companies is provided directly by healthcare professionals, sometimes unwittingly, and sometimes in return for small "favours".

  12. Fine-Tuning of Neurogenesis is Essential for the Evolutionary Expansion of the Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Poluch, Sylvie; Juliano, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    We used several animal models to study global and regional cortical surface expansion: The lissencephalic mouse, gyrencephalic normal ferrets, in which the parietal cortex expands more than the temporal cortex, and moderately lissencephalic ferrets, showing a similar degree of temporal and parietal expansion. We found that overall cortical surface expansion is achieved when specific events occur prior to surpragranular layer formation. (1) The subventricular zone (SVZ) shows substantial growth, (2) the inner SVZ contains an increased number of outer radial glia and intermediate progenitor cells expressing Pax6, and (3) the outer SVZ contains a progenitor cell composition similar to the combined VZ and inner SVZ. A greater parietal expansion is also achieved by eliminating the latero-dorsal neurogenic gradient, so that neurogenesis displays a similar developmental degree between parietal and temporal regions. In contrast, mice or lissencephalic ferrets show more advanced neurogenesis in the temporal region. In conclusion, we propose that global and regional cortical surface expansion rely on similar strategies consisting in altering the timing of neurogenic events prior to the surpragranular layer formation, so that more progenitor cells, and ultimately more neurons, are produced. This hypothesis is supported by findings from a ferret model of lissencephaly obtained by transiently blocking neurogenesis during the formation of layer IV. PMID:23968831

  13. Fine-Tuning Summer Research Programs to Promote Underrepresented Students’ Persistence in the STEM Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ghee, Medeva; Keels, Micere; Collins, Deborah; Neal-Spence, Cynthia; Baker, Earnestine

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of undergraduate research experiences in preparing students for graduate study and research careers is well documented, specific examination of program components is needed to assess the impact of these programs on underrepresented (UR) students. The Leadership Alliance, a consortium of leading PhD-granting and minority-serving institutions (MSIs), has leveraged its diverse partnership to place UR students from MSI and non-MSI institutions in competitive research environments through its national Summer Research Early Identification Program. Using longitudinal pre/post data collected from student surveys, we applied social cognitive career theory as a conceptual framework to examine how research engagement, skill development, and mentorship aspects of a summer research program affect students’ commitment to pursue research careers. Self-reported knowledge of research skills, time engaged in research activity, and students’ understanding of and attitudes toward pursuing graduate study were measured in relation to the classification of students’ home undergraduate institution, level of students’ pre-existing research experience, and demographic factors. Our results provide evidence of specific programmatic components that are beneficial for UR students from varying academic and cultural backgrounds. This study describes important aspects of summer research programs that will contribute to students’ ability to persist in science careers. PMID:27496359

  14. Fine-Tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First- to Second-Language Zooming In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German-English homograph primes ("gift" = German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of…

  15. Evolutionary fine-tuning of conformational ensembles in FimH during host-pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kalas, Vasilios; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Hibbing, Michael E.; Dodson, Karen W.; Holehouse, Alex S.; Zhang, Hao; Tolia, Niraj H.; Gross, Michael L.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Janetka, James; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    Positive selection in the two-domain type 1 pilus adhesin FimH enhances Escherichia coli fitness in urinary tract infection (UTI). We report a comprehensive atomic-level view of FimH in two-state conformational ensembles in solution, composed of one low-affinity tense (T) and multiple high-affinity relaxed (R) conformations. Positively selected residues allosterically modulate the equilibrium between these two conformational states, each of which engages mannose through distinct binding orientations. A FimH variant that only adopts the R state is severely attenuated early in a mouse model of uncomplicated UTI but is proficient at colonizing catheterized bladders in vivo or bladder transitional-like epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, the bladder habitat has barrier(s) to R state–mediated colonization possibly conferred by the terminally differentiated bladder epithelium and/or decoy receptors in urine. Together, our studies reveal the conformational landscape in solution, binding mechanisms, and adhesive strength of an allosteric two-domain adhesin that evolved “moderate” affinity to optimize persistence in the bladder during UTI. PMID:28246638

  16. Power Plan: High School Fine-Tunes Instruction to Build Reading Strength and Stamina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The following comment was inspired by an English teacher at Health Sciences High & Middle College in San Diego, California: "There's still a question on the table. How can we get our students to read more and better? They read what they have to, and they're doing OK, but how do we ensure that they are ready for what comes after high…

  17. Reed Warbler Hosts Fine-Tune their Defenses to Track Three Decades of Cuckoo Decline

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host’s egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses. PMID:24299407

  18. Fine tuning of reactive oxygen species homeostasis regulates primed immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Victoria; Luna, Estrella; Ton, Jurriaan; Cerezo, Miguel; García-Agustín, Pilar; Flors, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Selected stimuli can prime the plant immune system for a faster and stronger defense reaction to pathogen attack. Pretreatment of Arabidopsis with the chemical agent β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) augmented H2O2 and callose production after induction with the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) chitosan, or inoculation with the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. However, BABA failed to prime H2O2 and callose production after challenge with the bacterial PAMP Flg22. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (rbohD) or ROS scavenging (pad2, vtc1, and cat2) suggested a regulatory role for ROS homeostasis in priming of chitosan- and P. cucumerina-inducible callose and ROS. Moreover, rbohD and pad2 were both impaired in BABA-induced resistance against P. cucumerina. Gene expression analysis revealed direct induction of NADPH/respiratory burst oxidase protein D (RBOHD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase 1 (GSH1), and vitamin C defective 1 (VTC1) genes after BABA treatment. Conversely, ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) transcription was repressed by BABA after challenge with chitosan or P. cucumerina, probably to provide a more oxidized environment in the cell and facilitate augmented ROS accumulation. Measuring ratios between reduced and oxidized glutathione confirmed that augmented defense expression in primed plants is associated with a more oxidized cellular status. Together, our data indicate that an altered ROS equilibrium is required for augmented defense expression in primed plants.

  19. Glia in the cytokine-mediated onset of depression: fine tuning the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Wendy K.; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Dietrich, Detlef E.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder of multifactorial origin affecting millions of people worldwide. The alarming estimated rates of prevalence and relapse make it a global public health concern. Moreover, the current setback of available antidepressants in the clinical setting is discouraging. Therefore, efforts to eradicate depression should be directed towards understanding the pathomechanisms involved in the hope of finding cost-effective treatment alternatives. The pathophysiology of MDD comprises the breakdown of different pathways, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the glutamatergic system, and monoaminergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition and emotional behavior. Inflammatory cytokines have been postulated to be the possible link and culprit in the disruption of these systems. In addition, evidence from different studies suggests that impairment of glial functions appears to be a major contributor as well. Thus, the intricate role between glia, namely microglia and astrocytes, and the central nervous system’s (CNSs) immune response is briefly discussed, highlighting the kynurenine pathway as a pivotal player. Moreover, evaluations of different treatment strategies targeting the inflammatory response are considered. The immuno-modulatory properties of vitamin D receptor (VDR) suggest that vitamin D is an attractive and plausible candidate in spite of controversial findings. Further research investigating the role of VDR in mood disorders is warranted. PMID:26217190

  20. Fine-tuning patient-derived xenograft models for precision medicine approaches in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Francis, Olivia L; Milford, Terry-Ann M; Beldiman, Cornelia; Payne, Kimberly J

    2016-03-01

    Many leukemias are characterized by well-known mutations that drive oncogenesis. Mice engineered with these mutations provide a foundation for understanding leukemogenesis and identifying therapies. However, data from whole genome studies provide evidence that malignancies are characterized by multiple genetic alterations that vary between patients, as well as inherited genetic variation that can also contribute to oncogenesis. Improved outcomes will require precision medicine approaches-targeted therapies tailored to malignancies in each patient. Preclinical models that reflect the range of mutations and the genetic background present in patient populations are required to develop and test the combinations of therapies that will be used to provide precision medicine therapeutic strategies. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) produced by transplanting leukemia cells from patients into immune deficient mice provide preclinical models where disease mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy can be studied in vivo in context of the genetic variability present in patient tumors. PDX models are possible because many elements in the bone marrow microenvironment show cross-species activity between mice and humans. However, several cytokines likely to impact leukemia cells are species-specific with limited activity on transplanted human leukemia cells. In this review we discuss the importance of PDX models for developing precision medicine approaches to leukemia treatment. We illustrate how PDX models can be optimized to overcome a lack of cross-species cytokine activity by reviewing a recent strategy developed for use with a high-risk form of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) that is characterized by overexpression of CRLF2, a receptor component for the cytokine, TSLP.

  1. Fine-tuned: phonology and semantics affect first-to second-language zooming in.

    PubMed

    Elston-Güttler, Kerrie E; Gunter, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German--English homograph primes (gift=German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of English (L2). Both reaction times and event-related brain potentials were measured on targets reflecting the German meaning of the interlingual homograph. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a pre-experiment English film, then half of the participants (n=16) heard noise and the other half (n=16) heard German pseudowords during the experiment; in Experiment 2, participants (n=16) viewed a pre-experiment German film then heard noise; and in Experiment 3, participants (n=16) viewed the pre-experiment English film then heard real German words. Those who had viewed the English film then heard noise during Experiment 1 showed no L1 influence. Those who saw the English film but heard German pseudowords during Experiment 1, or viewed the German film before and heard noise during Experiment 2, showed L1 influence as indicated by N400 priming of L1-related targets in the first half of the experiment. This suggests that a pre-experiment film in the L1 or the presence of L1 phonology during the experiment slowed down adjustment to the L2 task. In Experiment 3 with real L1 words in the background, N400 priming of L1 meanings was observed throughout the entire experiment for lower-proficiency participants. We discuss our findings in terms of context types that affect L1-to-L2 adjustment.

  2. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase regulates bone mass by fine-tuning osteoclast differentiation and survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Joon; Prasad, Vikram; Hyung, Seok-Won; Lee, Zang Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Bhargava, Aditi; Pearce, David; Lee, Youngkyun; Kim, Hong-Hee

    2012-12-24

    The precise regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics is crucial for proper differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Here we show the involvement of plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) isoforms 1 and 4 in osteoclastogenesis. In immature/undifferentiated cells, PMCAs inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced Ca(2+) oscillations and osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Interestingly, nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) directly stimulated PMCA transcription, whereas the PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) efflux prevented NFATc1 activation, forming a negative regulatory loop. PMCA4 also had an anti-osteoclastogenic effect by reducing NO, which facilitates preosteoclast fusion. In addition to their role in immature cells, increased expression of PMCAs in mature osteoclasts prevented osteoclast apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Mice heterozygous for PMCA1 or null for PMCA4 showed an osteopenic phenotype with more osteoclasts on bone surface. Furthermore, PMCA4 expression levels correlated with peak bone mass in premenopausal women. Thus, our results suggest that PMCAs play important roles for the regulation of bone homeostasis in both mice and humans by modulating Ca(2+) signaling in osteoclasts.

  3. Using Information Gain to Analyze and Fine Tune the Performance of Supply Chain Trading Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, James; Benisch, Michael; Sardinha, Alberto; Sadeh, Norman

    The Supply Chain Trading Agent Competition (TAC SCM) was designed to explore approaches to dynamic supply chain trading. During the course of each year's competition historical data is logged describing more than 800 games played by different agents from around the world. In this paper, we present analysis that is focused on determining which features of agent behavior, such as the average lead time requested for supplies or the average selling price offered on finished products, tend to differentiate agents that win from those that do not. We present a visual inspection of data from 16 games played in one bracket of the 2006 TAC SCM semi-final rounds. Plots of data from these games help isolate behavioral features that distinguish top performing agents in this bracket. We then introduce a metric based on information gain to provide a more complete analysis of the 80 games played in the 2006 TAC SCM quarter-final, semi-final and final rounds. The metric captures the amount of information that is gained about an agent's performance by knowing its value for each of 20 different behavioral features. Using this metric we find that, in the final rounds of the 2006 competition, winning agents distinguished themselves by their procurement decisions, rather than their customer bidding decisions. We also discuss how we used the analysis presented in this paper to improve our entry for the 2007 competition, which was one of the six finalists that year.

  4. An algorithm to detect fire activity using Meteosat: fine tuning and quality assesment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amraoui, M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Ermida, S. L.

    2012-04-01

    Hot spot detection by means of sensors on-board geostationary satellites allows studying wildfire activity at hourly and even sub-hourly intervals, an advantage that cannot be met by polar orbiters. Since 1997, the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis has been running an operational procedure that allows detecting active fires based on information from Meteosat-8/SEVIRI. This is the so-called Fire Detection and Monitoring (FD&M) product and the procedure takes advantage of the temporal resolution of SEVIRI (one image every 15 min), and relies on information from SEVIRI channels (namely 0.6, 0.8, 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm) together with information on illumination angles. The method is based on heritage from contextual algorithms designed for polar, sun-synchronous instruments, namely NOAA/AVHRR and MODIS/TERRAAQUA. A potential fire pixel is compared with the neighboring ones and the decision is made based on relative thresholds as derived from the pixels in the neighborhood. Generally speaking, the observed fire incidence compares well against hot spots extracted from the global daily active fire product developed by the MODIS Fire Team. However, values of probability of detection (POD) tend to be quite low, a result that may be partially expected by the finer resolution of MODIS. The aim of the present study is to make a systematic assessment of the impacts on POD and False Alarm Ratio (FAR) of the several parameters that are set in the algorithms. Such parameters range from the threshold values of brightness temperature in the IR3.9 and 10.8 channels that are used to select potential fire pixels up to the extent of the background grid and thresholds used to statistically characterize the radiometric departures of a potential pixel from the respective background. The impact of different criteria to identify pixels contaminated by clouds, smoke and sun glint is also evaluated. Finally, the advantages that may be brought to the algorithm by adding contextual tests in the time domain are discussed. The study lays the grounds to the development of improved quality flags that will be integrated in the FD&M product in the nearby future.

  5. Fine tuning of the temporal expression of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Rende, Francesca; Bender, Cecilia; Romanelli, Maria G.; D'Agostino, Donna M.; Ciminale, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) are delta retroviruses that share a common overall genetic organization, splicing pattern, and ability to infect and immortalize T-cells in vitro. However, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 exhibit a clearly distinct pathogenic potential in infected patients. To find clues to the possible viral determinants of the biology of these viruses, recent studies investigated the timing of expression and the intracellular compartmentalization of viral transcripts in ex-vivo samples from infected patients. Results of these studies revealed a common overall pattern of expression of HTLV-1 and -2 with a two-phase kinetics of expression and a nuclear accumulation of minus-strand transcripts. Studies in cells transfected with HTLV-1 molecular clones demonstrated the strict Rex-dependency of this “two-phase” kinetics. These studies also highlighted interesting differences in the relative abundance of transcripts encoding the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, and that of the accessory proteins controlling Rex expression and function, thus suggesting a potential basis for the different pathobiology of the two viruses. PMID:24032027

  6. EARLY FLOWERING3 Redundancy Fine-Tunes Photoperiod Sensitivity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rubenach, Andrew J.S.; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K.; Aubert, Gregoire; Burstin, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Three pea (Pisum sativum) loci controlling photoperiod sensitivity, HIGH RESPONSE (HR), DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), and STERILE NODES (SN), have recently been shown to correspond to orthologs of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) circadian clock genes EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), ELF4, and LUX ARRHYTHMO, respectively. A fourth pea locus, PHOTOPERIOD (PPD), also contributes to the photoperiod response in a similar manner to SN and DNE, and recessive ppd mutants on a spring-flowering hr mutant background show early, photoperiod-insensitive flowering. However, the molecular identity of PPD has so far remained elusive. Here, we show that the PPD locus also has a role in maintenance of diurnal and circadian gene expression rhythms and identify PPD as an ELF3 co-ortholog, termed ELF3b. Genetic interactions between pea ELF3 genes suggest that loss of PPD function does not affect flowering time in the presence of functional HR, whereas PPD can compensate only partially for the lack of HR. These results provide an illustration of how gene duplication and divergence can generate potential for the emergence of more subtle variations in phenotype that may be adaptively significant. PMID:28202598

  7. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic Safety and Mobility in Connected Vehicle Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimizat...

  8. Fine-Tuning of Saponification-Triggered Gelation by Strategic Modification of Peripheral Substituents: Gelation Regulators.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Singh, Roop Shikha; Kumar, Amit; Ali, Afsar; Biswas, Arnab; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2016-09-19

    A pioneering approach towards controlling the efficiency of saponification assisted gelation in ethyl ester based Zn(II) -complexes have been described. Using four new ester containing bis-salen Zn(II) complexes (C1-C4) involving different para-azo phenyl substituted ligands it has been clearly shown that gelation efficiency is greatly influenced by the electronic effects of the substituents (-H (C1), -CH3 (C2), -NO2 (C3), and -OCH3 (C4)). Morphological, photophysical, and rheological investigations corroborated the experimental observations well and established that gelation efficiency was enhanced with electron-withdrawing characteristics of substituents (C4

  9. Subtle.Nets.Finder: finely tuned interaction networks in DNA/RNA/protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Kantardjiev, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Graphical Abstract Subtle.Nets.Finder is a workflow of algorithms for identification of subtly interacting groups in DNA/RNA/protein complexes. It is founded on detailed and sophisticated evaluation of the self-consistency in the cooperative network of residue interactions via a combination of advanced calculations (fast multipole method and statistical mechanics) supplemented with graph-theoretical procedures.

  10. Stellar helium burning in other universes: A solution to the triple alpha fine-tuning problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Grohs, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the possible existence of other universes, with different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar models in universes where 8Be is stable. Many previous authors have noted that stars in our universe would have difficulty producing carbon and other heavy elements in the absence of the well-known 12C resonance at 7.6 MeV. This resonance is necessary because 8Be is unstable in our universe, so that carbon must be produced via the triple alpha reaction to achieve the requisite abundance. Although a moderate change in the energy of the resonance (200-300 keV) will indeed affect carbon production, an even smaller change in the binding energy of beryllium (∼100 keV) would allow 8Be to be stable. A stable isotope with A = 8 would obviate the need for the triple alpha process in general, and the 12C resonance in particular, for carbon production. This paper explores the possibility that 8Be can be stable in other universes. Simple nuclear considerations indicate that bound states can be realized, with binding energy ∼ 0.1 - 1 MeV, if the fundamental constants vary by a ∼ few - 10 %. In such cases, 8Be can be synthesized through helium burning, and 12C can be produced later through nuclear burning of beryllium. This paper focuses on stellar models that burn helium into beryllium; once the universe in question has a supply of stable beryllium, carbon production can take place during subsequent evolution in the same star or in later stellar generations. Using both a semi-analytic stellar structure model as well as a state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, we find that viable stellar configurations that produce beryllium exist over a wide range of parameter space. Finally, we demonstrate that carbon can be produced during later evolutionary stages.

  11. Reed warbler hosts fine-tune their defenses to track three decades of cuckoo decline.

    PubMed

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host's egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses.

  12. The mef/elf4 transcription factor fine tunes the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Sashida, Goro; Bae, Narae; Di Giandomenico, Silvana; Asai, Takashi; Gurvich, Nadia; Bazzoli, Elena; Liu, Yan; Huang, Gang; Zhao, Xinyang; Menendez, Silvia; Nimer, Stephen D

    2011-07-15

    The ATM kinase plays a critical role in initiating the DNA damage response that is triggered by genotoxic stresses capable of inducing DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we show that ELF4/MEF, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, contributes to the persistence of γH2AX DNA damage foci and promotes the DNA damage response leading to the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, the absence of ELF4 promotes the faster repair of damaged DNA and more rapid disappearance of γH2AX foci in response to γ-irradiation, leading to a radio-resistant phenotype despite normal ATM phosphorylation. Following γ-irradiation, ATM phosphorylates ELF4, leading to its degradation; a mutant form of ELF4 that cannot be phosphorylated by ATM persists following γ-irradiation, delaying the resolution of γH2AX foci and triggering an excessive DNA damage response. Thus, although ELF4 promotes the phosphorylation of H2AX by ATM, its activity must be dampened by ATM-dependent phosphorylation and degradation to avoid an excessive DNA damage response.

  13. Probiotic Bovamine fine-tunes the ruminal microbiome for enhanced fermentation and immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effect of Bovamine, Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii strain strain NP24, feeding on the microbial composition of the digestive system microbiota of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202 days on time 0). To examine the underly...

  14. Fine-Tuned Transcriptional Regulation of Malate Operons in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mortera, Pablo; Espariz, Martín; Suárez, Cristian; Repizo, Guillermo; Deutscher, Josef; Alarcón, Sergio; Blancato, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, the mae locus is constituted by two putative divergent operons, maePE and maeKR. The first operon encodes a putative H+/malate symporter (MaeP) and a malic enzyme (MaeE) previously shown to be essential for malate utilization in this bacterium. The maeKR operon encodes two putative proteins with significant similarity to two-component systems involved in sensing malate and activating its assimilation in bacteria. Our transcriptional and genetic assays showed that maePE and maeKR are induced in response to malate by the response regulator MaeR. In addition, we observed that both operons were partially repressed in the presence of glucose. Accordingly, the cometabolism of this sugar and malate was detected. The binding of the complex formed by CcpA and its corepressor P-Ser-HPr to a cre site located in the mae region was demonstrated in vitro and explains the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) observed for the maePE operon. However, our results also provide evidence for a CcpA-independent CCR mechanism regulating the expression of both operons. Finally, a biomass increment of 40 or 75% was observed compared to the biomass of cells grown only on glucose or malate, respectively. Cells cometabolizing both carbon sources exhibit a higher rate of glucose consumption and a lower rate of malate utilization. The growth improvement achieved by E. faecalis during glucose-malate cometabolism might explain why this microorganism employs different regulatory systems to tightly control the assimilation of both carbon sources. PMID:22247139

  15. Fine Tuning the Teaching Methods Used for Second Year University Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, L. L.; Thiel, D. V.; Searles, Debra J.

    2012-01-01

    Second year mathematics is a compulsory course for all students enrolled in engineering and mathematics programmes at the university, and it is taken by approximately 120 students each year. The pass rate of the course had been below expectations in the past years. In order to improve the predicament, quizzes which provided a mark incentive were…

  16. 9-fluorenemethanol: an internal electron donor to fine tune olefin polymerization activity.

    PubMed

    Gnanakumar, Edwin S; Rao Chokkapu, Eswara; Kunjir, Shrikant; Ajithkumar, T G; Rajamohanan, P R; Chakraborty, Debashis; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S

    2014-06-28

    A new MgCl2 based molecular adduct has been synthesized with 9-fluorenemethanol (9FM) as a novel internal electron donor (IED), along with ethanol (EtOH) (MgCl2·n9FM·xEtOH). The above molecular adduct has been subjected to a variety of structural, spectroscopic and morphological characterization techniques. The results of the solid state (13)C CPMAS NMR technique suggests the coordination of 9FM to MgCl2. Observation of a low angle diffraction peak at 2θ = 5.7° (d = 15.5 Å) underscores the coordination of 9FM along the z-axis, and ethanol in the molecular adduct. Active Ziegler-Natta catalysts were prepared by two different synthesis methods; the conventional method to obtain a high surface area active catalyst, and other one with 9FM as an integral part of the active catalyst in order to study the influence of 9FM as an IED over the active sites. The active catalysts were also characterized thoroughly with different analytical tools. The XRD results show (003) facets of δ-MgCl2 (α-MgCl2) for the conventional (non-conventional) titanated catalyst. Results of the ethylene polymerization activity study reveals that the conventionally prepared highly porous active catalyst shows 1.7-2.5 times higher activity than the non-conventional prepared catalyst; however, the latter shows a low molecular weight distribution and confirms the role of the Lewis base as an IED.

  17. Fine-tuning of nif and fix gene expression by upstream activator sequences in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Gubler, M

    1989-02-01

    The significance of Bradyrhizobium japonicum upstream activator sequences (UASs) for differential NifA-mediated fix and nif gene expression was investigated by two means: (i) hybrid fixA- and fixB-lacZ fusions were constructed by transposing a nifH-UAS cartridge in front of their promoters; and (ii) B. japonicum mutants were generated carrying specific chromosomal deletions or UAS cartridge insertions within the fixA, fixB or nifH promoter-upstream regions. Expression of fixA was not affected, and expression of fixB decreased only to 42%, when the respective fixA and fixB promoter-upstream DNAs were deleted. This shows that in B. japonicum the NifA-dependent activation of at least the fixA promoter does not require the presence of a closely adjacent UAS. Deletion of the UASs in front of the nifH gene not only reduced the expression of nifH down to 2.5% but, surprisingly, also resulted in a reduction of the fixB mRNA level to less than 20%. This suggests that the nifH-UASs may exert a long-range effect on the expression of the 3-kb-distant fixBCX operon in nif cluster I or B. japonicum. Artificial transposition of the nifH-UASs in front of the fixA and fixB promoters strongly enhanced fixA and fixB expression.

  18. Diel vertical migration in deep sea plankton is finely tuned to latitudinal and seasonal day length.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Hans; Compton, Tanya J

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in marine and freshwater plankton communities. Most commonly, plankton migrate to surface waters at dusk and return to deeper waters at dawn. Up until recently, it was thought that DVM was triggered by a relative change in visible light intensity. However, evidence has shown that DVM also occurs in the deep sea where no direct and background sunlight penetrates. To identify whether such DVM is associated with latitudinal and seasonal day light variation, one and a half years of recorded acoustic data, a measure of zooplankton abundance and movement, were examined. Acoustic Doppler current profilers, moored at eight different sub-tropical latitudes in the North-Atlantic Ocean, measured in the vertical range of 500-1600 m. DVM was observed to follow day length variation with a change in season and latitude at all depths. DVM followed the rhythm of local sunrise and sunset precisely between 500 and 650 m. It continued below 650 m, where the deepest penetrable irradiance level are <10⁻⁷ times their near-surface values, but plankton shortened their time at depth by up to about 63% at 1600 m. This suggests light was no longer a cue for DVM. This trend stayed consistent both across latitudes and between the different seasons. It is hypothesized that another mechanism, rather than light, viz. a precise biochemical clock could maintain the solar diurnal and seasonal rhythms in deep sea plankton motions. In accordance with this hypothesis, the deepest plankton were consistently the first to migrate upwards.

  19. Protein degradation and dynamic tRNA thiolation fine-tune translation at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kshitiz; Pedrioli, Patrick G A

    2015-05-19

    Maintenance of protein quality control has implications in various processes such as neurodegeneration and ageing. To investigate how environmental insults affect this process, we analysed the proteome of yeast continuously exposed to mild heat stress. In agreement with previous transcriptomics studies, amongst the most marked changes, we found up-regulation of cytoprotective factors; a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to fermentation; and down-regulation of translation. Importantly, we also identified a novel, post-translationally controlled, component of the heat shock response. The abundance of Ncs2p and Ncs6p, two members of the URM1 pathway responsible for the thiolation of wobble uridines in cytoplasmic tRNAs tK(UUU), tQ(UUG) and tE(UUC), is down-regulated in a proteasomal dependent fashion. Using random forests we show that this results in differential translation of transcripts with a biased content for the corresponding codons. We propose that the role of this pathway in promoting catabolic and inhibiting anabolic processes, affords cells with additional time and resources needed to attain proper protein folding under periods of stress.

  20. Fine Tuning: An Auditory-Visual Training Program. Book Two: Intermediate-Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsch, Ray

    This book offers a number of exercises to develop students' listening skills. The exercises consist of number or letter grid worksheets which are completed by following a sequence of specific directions requiring careful listening and auditory-visual coordination. A graphic design or message emerges when the worksheets are completed. Preliminary…

  1. Fine Tuning: An Auditory-Visual Training Program. Book One: Primary-Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsch, Ray

    This book offers a number of exercises to develop students' listening skills. The exercises consist of number or letter grid worksheets on which a graphic design or a message emerges when students follow a sequence of specific directions requiring careful listening and auditory-visual coordination. Preliminary information includes an introduction,…

  2. Control of grass inflorescence form by the fine-tuning of meristem phase change.

    PubMed

    Kyozuka, Junko; Tokunaga, Hiroki; Yoshida, Akiko

    2014-02-01

    The grass inflorescence is interesting from the points of view of development and evolution. In the grass family, flowers are produced on small branches called spikelets. The recent isolation of regulators of spikelet meristem (SM) identity has shed new light on development and the evolution of the gene networks involved. The timing of SM specification is mediated by the combinatorial functions of these regulators, and determines the grass inflorescence form. Furthermore, tight links between meristem cell proliferation, maintenance of meristem indeterminacy, and suppression of the spikelet identity are being uncovered.

  3. Fine-Tuning the Accretion Disk Clock in Hercules X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Still, M.; Boyd, P.

    2004-01-01

    RXTE ASM count rates from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 began falling consistently during the late months of 2003. The source is undergoing another state transition similar to the anomalous low state of 1999. This new event has triggered observations from both space and ground-based observatories. In order to aid data interpretation and telescope scheduling, and to facilitate the phase-connection of cycles before and after the state transition, we have re-calculated the precession ephemeris using cycles over the last 3.5 years. We report that the source has displayed a different precession period since the last anomalous event. Additional archival data from CGRO suggests that each low state is accompanied by a change in precession period and that the subsequent period is correlated with accretion flux. Consequently our analysis reveals long-term accretion disk behaviour which is predicted by theoretical models of radiation-driven warping.

  4. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of “conditionally rare taxa,” in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints. PMID:26590285

  5. Fine tuning the teaching methods used for second year university mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, L. L.; Thiel, D. V.; Searles, Debra J.

    2012-01-01

    Second year mathematics is a compulsory course for all students enrolled in engineering and mathematics programmes at the university, and it is taken by approximately 120 students each year. The pass rate of the course had been below expectations in the past years. In order to improve the predicament, quizzes which provided a mark incentive were introduced in 2009 as a pilot study. The pass rate was improved compared to the previous year. Hence, quizzes were added to the course assessment in 2010. This article compares and reports the outcome to the 2009 and 2010 quizzes based on the students' feedback and results at the end of the course. From the data of the surveys, students welcomed the regular quizzes, although the pass rate still did not meet the expectation.

  6. Fine tuning of phase qubit parameters for optimization of fast single-pulse readout

    SciTech Connect

    Revin, Leonid S.; Pankratov, Andrey L.

    2011-04-18

    We analyze a two-level quantum system, describing the phase qubit, during a single-pulse readout process by a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. It has been demonstrated that the readout error has a minimum for certain values of the system's basic parameters. In particular, the optimization of the qubit capacitance and the readout pulse shape leads to significant reduction in the readout error. It is shown that in an ideal case the fidelity can be increased to almost 97% for 2 ns pulse duration and to 96% for 1 ns pulse duration.

  7. Fine tuning the ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surface using ion mixtures.

    PubMed

    Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Fearn, Sarah; Ismail, Nur L; McIntosh, Alastair J S; Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surfaces can be created that are remarkably different from the bulk composition. In this communication we demonstrate, using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), that for ionic liquid mixtures the outer atomic surface shows significantly more atoms from anions with weaker cation-anion interactions (and vice versa).

  8. SRC-2 orchestrates polygenic inputs for fine-tuning glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Tiffany; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Fumin; Zhu, Bokai; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Stashi, Erin; Tackett, Bryan; Thevananther, Sundararajah; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Gonzales, Naomi; Dean, Adam; Mao, Jianqiang; Timchenko, Nikolai; Malovannaya, Anna; Qin, Jun; Coarfa, Cristian; DeMayo, Francesco; Dacso, Clifford C.; Foulds, Charles E.; O’Malley, Bert W.; York, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive efforts to understand the monogenic contributions to perturbed glucose homeostasis, the complexity of genetic events that fractionally contribute to the spectrum of this pathology remain poorly understood. Proper maintenance of glucose homeostasis is the central feature of a constellation of comorbidities that define the metabolic syndrome. The ability of the liver to balance carbohydrate uptake and release during the feeding-to-fasting transition is essential to the regulation of peripheral glucose availability. The liver coordinates the expression of gene programs that control glucose absorption, storage, and secretion. Herein, we demonstrate that Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2 (SRC-2) orchestrates a hierarchy of nutritionally responsive transcriptional complexes to precisely modulate plasma glucose availability. Using DNA pull-down technology coupled with mass spectrometry, we have identified SRC-2 as an indispensable integrator of transcriptional complexes that control the rate-limiting steps of hepatic glucose release and accretion. Collectively, these findings position SRC-2 as a major regulator of polygenic inputs to metabolic gene regulation and perhaps identify a previously unappreciated model that helps to explain the clinical spectrum of glucose dysregulation. PMID:26487680

  9. "Fifty Shades" of Black and Red or How Carboxyl Groups Fine Tune Eumelanin and Pheomelanin Properties.

    PubMed

    Micillo, Raffaella; Panzella, Lucia; Koike, Kenzo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2016-05-17

    Recent advances in the chemistry of melanins have begun to disclose a number of important structure-property-function relationships of crucial relevance to the biological role of human pigments, including skin (photo) protection and UV-susceptibility. Even slight variations in the monomer composition of black eumelanins and red pheomelanins have been shown to determine significant differences in light absorption, antioxidant, paramagnetic and redox behavior, particle morphology, surface properties, metal chelation and resistance to photo-oxidative wear-and-tear. These variations are primarily governed by the extent of decarboxylation at critical branching points of the eumelanin and pheomelanin pathways, namely the rearrangement of dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA), and the rearrangement of 5-S-cysteinyldopa o-quinoneimine to 1,4-benzothiazine (BTZ) and its 3-carboxylic acid (BTZCA). In eumelanins, the DHICA-to-DHI ratio markedly affects the overall antioxidant and paramagnetic properties of the resulting pigments. In particular, a higher content in DHICA decreases visible light absorption and paramagnetic response relative to DHI-based melanins, but markedly enhances antioxidant properties. In pheomelanins, likewise, BTZCA-related units, prevalently formed in the presence of zinc ions, appear to confer pronounced visible and ultraviolet A (UVA) absorption features, accounting for light-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas non-carboxylated benzothiazine intermediates seem to be more effective in inducing ROS production by redox cycling mechanisms in the dark. The possible biological and functional significance of carboxyl retention in the eumelanin and pheomelanin pathways is discussed.

  10. Fine Tuned Modulation of the Motor System by Adjectives Expressing Positive and Negative Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, P. M.; Campione, G. C.; Buccino, G.

    2013-01-01

    Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from two antagonistic muscles, the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) of the hand and the extensor communis digitorum (EC) of the forearm. FDI is involved in grasping actions and EC in releasing. TMS pulses were delivered while participants were reading…

  11. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints.

  12. Human milk oligosaccharides: The role in the fine-tuning of innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kulinich, Anna; Liu, Li

    2016-09-02

    In order to secure the health of newborns over the period of immune immaturity during the first months of life, a mother provides her offspring with passive protection: bioactive molecules transferred through the placenta and breast milk. It is well known that human milk contains immunoglobulins (Ig), immune cells and diverse cytokines, which affect newborn directly or indirectly and contribute to the maturation of the immune system. However, in addition to the above-stated molecules, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), a complex mixture of free indigestible carbohydrates with multiple functions, play exceptional roles in the functioning of the infants' immune system. These biological molecules have been studied over decades, however, interest in HMOs does not seem to have abated. Although biological activities of oligosaccharides from human milk have been explicitly reviewed, information regarding the role of HMOs in inflammation remains rather fragmented. The purpose of this review is to compile existing knowledge about the role of certain species of HMOs, including fucosylated, galactosylated and sialylated oligosaccharides, and their signaling pathways in immunity and inflammation. The advances in applying this information to the treatment of diseases in infants as well as adults were also reviewed here.

  13. Fine-tuning the central nervous system: microglial modelling of cells and synapses

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Anna L.; Menezes, João R. L.; Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Microglia constitute as much as 10–15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies have largely been dedicated to defining the complex immune functions of microglial cells. However, our understanding of the roles of microglia has expanded radically over the past years. It is now clear that microglia are critically involved in shaping neural circuits in both the developing and adult CNS, and in modulating synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Intriguingly, microglial cells appear to use the same sets of tools, including cytokine and chemokine release as well as phagocytosis, whether modulating neural function or mediating the brain's innate immune responses. This review will discuss recent developments that have broadened our views of neuro-glial signalling to include the contribution of microglial cells. PMID:25225087

  14. Fine-tuning the central nervous system: microglial modelling of cells and synapses.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Anna L; Menezes, João R L; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-10-19

    Microglia constitute as much as 10-15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies have largely been dedicated to defining the complex immune functions of microglial cells. However, our understanding of the roles of microglia has expanded radically over the past years. It is now clear that microglia are critically involved in shaping neural circuits in both the developing and adult CNS, and in modulating synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Intriguingly, microglial cells appear to use the same sets of tools, including cytokine and chemokine release as well as phagocytosis, whether modulating neural function or mediating the brain's innate immune responses. This review will discuss recent developments that have broadened our views of neuro-glial signalling to include the contribution of microglial cells.

  15. Fine-tuning of amino sugar homeostasis by EIIANtr in Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Woongjae; Yoon, Hyunjin; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Lee, Chang-Ro; Lee, Hyung Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2016-01-01

    The nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system, PTSNtr, consists of the enzymes INtr, NPr and IIANtr that are encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively. Due to the proximity of ptsO and ptsN to rpoN, the PTSNtr system has been postulated to be closely related with nitrogen metabolism. To define the correlation between PTSNtr and nitrogen metabolism, we performed ligand fishing with EIIANtr as a bait and revealed that D-glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS) directly interacted with EIIANtr. GlmS, which converts D-fructose-6-phosphate (Fru6P) into D-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P), is a key enzyme producing amino sugars through glutamine hydrolysis. Amino sugar is an essential structural building block for bacterial peptidoglycan and LPS. We further verified that EIIANtr inhibited GlmS activity by direct interaction in a phosphorylation-state-dependent manner. EIIANtr was dephosphorylated in response to excessive nitrogen sources and was rapidly degraded by Lon protease upon amino sugar depletion. The regulation of GlmS activity by EIIANtr and the modulation of glmS translation by RapZ suggest that the genes comprising the rpoN operon play a key role in maintaining amino sugar homeostasis in response to nitrogen availability and the amino sugar concentration in the bacterial cytoplasm. PMID:27628932

  16. Ethylene-Regulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase Fine-Tunes Metabolism during Anoxia-Reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Jin; Lin, Chih-Yu; Ting, Chen-Yun; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-11-01

    Ethylene is an essential hormone in plants that is involved in low-oxygen and reoxygenation responses. As a key transcription factor in ethylene signaling, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) activates targets that trigger various responses. However, most of these targets are still poorly characterized. Through analyses of our microarray data and the published Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) EIN3 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data set, we inferred the putative targets of EIN3 during anoxia-reoxygenation. Among them, GDH2, which encodes one subunit of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), was chosen for further studies for its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle replenishment. We demonstrated that both GDH1 and GDH2 are induced during anoxia and reoxygenation and that this induction is mediated via ethylene signaling. In addition, the results of enzymatic assays showed that the level of GDH during anoxia-reoxygenation decreased in the ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 and ein3eil1 Global metabolite analysis indicated that the deamination activity of GDH might regenerate 2-oxoglutarate, which is a cosubstrate that facilitates the breakdown of alanine by alanine aminotransferase when reoxygenation occurs. Moreover, ineffective tricarboxylic acid cycle replenishment, disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, reduced phytosterol biosynthesis, and delayed energy regeneration were found in gdh1gdh2 and ethylene mutants during reoxygenation. Taken together, these data illustrate the essential role of EIN3-regulated GDH activity in metabolic adjustment during anoxia-reoxygenation.

  17. Fine Tuning the IRIS Education and Outreach Program: Choosing an Optimal Balance of Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J. J.; Hubenthal, M.; Aster, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Education and Outreach (E&O) Program is committed to making significant and lasting contributions to science education, science literacy and the general public's understanding of the Earth, using seismology and the unique resources of the IRIS consortium. The E&O program has activities that span all educational levels from public outreach to K-12 and college education. The activities are designed for a wide range of individual interaction time, from minutes for a museum display to an entire summer for an undergraduate research internship. In general, the longer the interaction time, the smaller the audience. The educational goals for a particular audience, as stated in the E&O Program plan, define whether an activity is focused more on breadth of audience or depth of content. An activity's ability to meet the educational goals of the E&O program is the most important criteria in assessing its value. However, to help determine which activities are most worthy of continued support and to help select new activities to engage in, we have begun estimating the cost of providing each hour of interaction time for an activity. The lower the cost for each person-hour of interaction, the more efficient the activity, assuming maximum effectiveness of each activity. Thus the importance of assessment is magnified, as a more effective activity could cost more per person-hour and still be supported if no equally effective but more efficient activity is viable. As an example of how resources are divided between different activities, two activities that have similar budgets but very different goals, content depth and audience sizes are our museum program and our professional development workshops. The museum program, a partnership between IRIS, the US Geological Survey, and several major museums across the nation, reaches large audiences (up to 16 million people per year) via 1 traveling and 4 permanent exhibits. The exhibits include real-time earthquake location maps and continuous seismograms from multiple global seismograph stations, providing wide exposure to seismology, though for a very limited time per individual. One-day professional development workshops provide content knowledge and classroom activities modeled using inquiry-based instructional practices. Approximately 140 teachers and college faculty attended IRIS-led workshops in the past year. The time spent with a limited number of teachers is leveraged through each teacher's interactions with a much larger number of students. When teacher-student interactions for 1-2 years after attending a workshop are included in the estimation of person-hours of interaction time, the museum and workshop programs generate a similar total interaction with the target audiences. Thus by this simple measure, the two programs are roughly equally efficient uses of E&O program resources, even though the target audiences, level of content depth and number of people engaged are very different. Using this measure, it is possible to assess if the relative cost of different activities matches the relative importance of the goals they are addressing.

  18. Multi-trait interactions, not phylogeny, fine-tune leaf size reduction with increasing altitude

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; Reich, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite long-held interest, knowledge on why leaf size varies widely among species is still incomplete. This study was conducted to assess whether abiotic factors, phylogenetic histories and multi-trait interactions act together to shape leaf size. Methods Fifty-seven pairs of altitudinal vicariant species were selected in northern Spain, and leaf area and a number of functionally related leaf, shoot and whole plant traits were measured for each pair. Structural equation modelling helped unravel trait interactions affecting leaf size, and Mantel tests weighed the relative relevance of phylogeny, environment and trait interactions to explain leaf size reduction with altitude. Key Results Leaves of highland vicariants were generally smaller than those of lowlands. However, the extent of leaf size reduction with increasing altitude was widely variable among genera: from approx. 700 cm2 reduction (96 % in Polystichum) to approx. 30 cm2 increase (37 % in Sorbus). This was partially explained by shifts in leaf, shoot and whole plant traits (35–64 % of explained variance, depending on models), with size/number trade-offs more influential than shifts in leaf form and leaf economics. Shifts in traits were more important than phylogenetic distances or site-specific environmental variation in explaining the degree of leaf size reduction with altitude. Conclusions Ecological filters, constraints due to phylogenetic history (albeit modest in the study system), and phenotypic integration contribute jointly to shape single-trait evolution. Here, it was found that phenotypic change was far more important than shared ancestry to explaine leaf size differences of closely related species segregated along altitudes. PMID:21199835

  19. Sequence variation between 462 human individuals fine-tunes functional sites of RNA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Oti, Martin; Barann, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Ezquina, Suzana; Friedländer, Marc R.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Esteve-Codina, Anna; Estivill, Xavier; Guigó, Roderic; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Antonarakis, Stylianos; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Palotie, Aarno; François Deleuze, Jean; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lerach, Hans; Gut, Ivo; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Gyllensten, Ulf; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Brunner, Han; Veltman, Joris; Hoen, Peter A. C. T.; Jan van Ommen, Gert; Carracedo, Angel; Brazma, Alvis; Flicek, Paul; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Mangion, Jonathan; Bentley, David; Hamosh, Ada; Rosenstiel, Philip; Strom, Tim M.; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Guigó, Roderic; Sammeth, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in the cost-efficiency of sequencing technologies enabled the combined DNA- and RNA-sequencing of human individuals at the population-scale, making genome-wide investigations of the inter-individual genetic impact on gene expression viable. Employing mRNA-sequencing data from the Geuvadis Project and genome sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project we show that the computational analysis of DNA sequences around splice sites and poly-A signals is able to explain several observations in the phenotype data. In contrast to widespread assessments of statistically significant associations between DNA polymorphisms and quantitative traits, we developed a computational tool to pinpoint the molecular mechanisms by which genetic markers drive variation in RNA-processing, cataloguing and classifying alleles that change the affinity of core RNA elements to their recognizing factors. The in silico models we employ further suggest RNA editing can moonlight as a splicing-modulator, albeit less frequently than genomic sequence diversity. Beyond existing annotations, we demonstrate that the ultra-high resolution of RNA-Seq combined from 462 individuals also provides evidence for thousands of bona fide novel elements of RNA processing—alternative splice sites, introns, and cleavage sites—which are often rare and lowly expressed but in other characteristics similar to their annotated counterparts.

  20. Method and apparatus for fine tuning an orifice pulse tube refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Wollan, John J.

    2003-12-23

    An orifice pulse tube refrigerator uses flow resistance, compliance, and inertance components connected to a pulse tube for establishing a phase relationship between oscillating pressure and oscillating velocity in the pulse tube. A temperature regulating system heats or cools a working gas in at least one of the flow resistance and inertance components. A temperature control system is connected to the temperature regulating system for controlling the temperature of the working gas in the at least one of the flow resistance and inertance components and maintains a control temperature that is indicative of a desired temporal phase relationship.