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Sample records for arrest defective-1 controls

  1. Drosophila variable nurse cells encodes Arrest defective 1 (ARD1), the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetyltransferase complex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Mijares, Michelle; Gall, Megan D.; Turan, Tolga; Javier, Anna; Bornemann, Douglas J; Manage, Kevin; Warrior, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the Drosophila variable nurse cells (vnc) gene result in female sterility and oogenesis defects, including egg chambers with too many or too few nurse cells. We show that vnc corresponds to Arrest Defective1 (Ard1) and encodes the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major N-terminal acetyl-transferase complex. While N-terminal acetylation is one of the most prevalent covalent protein modifications in eukaryotes, analysis of its role in development has been challenging since mutants that compromise NatA activity have not been described in any multicellular animal. Our data show that reduced ARD1 levels result in pleiotropic oogenesis defects including abnormal cyst encapsulation, desynchronized cystocyte division, disrupted nurse cell chromosome dispersion and abnormal chorion patterning, consistent with the wide range of predicted NatA substrates. Further we find that loss of Ard1 affects cell survival/proliferation and is lethal for the animal, providing the first demonstration that this modification is essential in higher eukaryotes. PMID:20882681

  2. Up-regulation of human arrest-defective 1 protein is correlated with metastatic phenotype and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Gong, Jun-Li; Yu, M; Yang, H; Lai, J H; Ma, M X; Wu, H; Li, L; Tan, D Y

    2011-01-01

    Human arrest defective 1 protein (ARD1), as a N-terminal acetyltransferase, has been reported to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis, but the results are somewhat controversial. To explore the clinical and pathological significance of ARD1 in breast tumorigenesis, we analyzed ARD1 status in multiple types of breast disease. The expression of ARD1 protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 356 cases including 82 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), 159 fibroadenomas, 66 hyperplasia of mammary glands, 19 inflammatory breast disease, 30 breast cysts, and in 29 postoperative treatment patients. We assessed the relationship of ARD1 protein with clinical and pathological characteristics using χ2 test. ARD1 protein was observed at 61.0% (50/82), 54.7% (87/159), 37.9% (25/66), 36.8% (7/19) in IDC, fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, and inflammation, respectively, and less than 30.0% for breast cyst. Thus, high ARD1 expression correlated with breast cancer (relative risk = 1.32, P < 0.005). Moreover, the level of ARD1 protein in carcinoma patients was distinctly related to lymph node metastasis and ER status, with 94.0% (47/50) as copmpared to 6.0% (3/50) in metastatic and non-metastatic (P < 0.001), and 84.0% (42/50) and 16.0% (8/50) for ER + and ER - (P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, the level of ARD1 appeared to have potential for evaluation of prognosis in breast cancer patients after postoperative therapy. These results suggest that ARD1 expression may be as a potential target for exploring the mechanism of breast cancer metastasic to lymph nodes and hormone-responsive regulation.

  3. The analysis on nonlinear control of the aircraft arresting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinchun; Du, Tianrong

    2005-12-01

    The aircraft arresting system is a complicated nonlinear system. This paper analyzes the mechanical-hydraulic structure of aircraft arresting system composed of electro hydraulic valve and establishes the dynamic equation of the aircraft arresting system. Based on the state-feedback linearization of nonlinear system, a PD-based controller is synthesized. Simulation studies indicate, while arresting the different type aircraft, the proposed controller has fast response, good tracking performance and strong robustness. By tuning the parameters of the PD controller, a satisfactory control performance can be guaranteed.

  4. To Grow or Not to Grow: Nutritional Control of Development During Caenorhabditis elegans L1 Arrest

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans arrest development by forming dauer larvae in response to multiple unfavorable environmental conditions. C. elegans larvae can also reversibly arrest development earlier, during the first larval stage (L1), in response to starvation. “L1 arrest” (also known as “L1 diapause”) occurs without morphological modification but is accompanied by increased stress resistance. Caloric restriction and periodic fasting can extend adult lifespan, and developmental models are critical to understanding how the animal is buffered from fluctuations in nutrient availability, impacting lifespan. L1 arrest provides an opportunity to study nutritional control of development. Given its relevance to aging, diabetes, obesity and cancer, interest in L1 arrest is increasing, and signaling pathways and gene regulatory mechanisms controlling arrest and recovery have been characterized. Insulin-like signaling is a critical regulator, and it is modified by and acts through microRNAs. DAF-18/PTEN, AMP-activated kinase and fatty acid biosynthesis are also involved. The nervous system, epidermis, and intestine contribute systemically to regulation of arrest, but cell-autonomous signaling likely contributes to regulation in the germline. A relatively small number of genes affecting starvation survival during L1 arrest are known, and many of them also affect adult lifespan, reflecting a common genetic basis ripe for exploration. mRNA expression is well characterized during arrest, recovery, and normal L1 development, providing a metazoan model for nutritional control of gene expression. In particular, post-recruitment regulation of RNA polymerase II is under nutritional control, potentially contributing to a rapid and coordinated response to feeding. The phenomenology of L1 arrest will be reviewed, as well as regulation of developmental arrest and starvation survival by various signaling pathways and gene regulatory

  5. Randomized controlled trial of internal and external targeted temperature management methods in post- cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Look, Xinqi; Li, Huihua; Ng, Mingwei; Lim, Eric Tien Siang; Pothiawala, Sohil; Tan, Kenneth Boon Kiat; Sewa, Duu Wen; Shahidah, Nur; Pek, Pin Pin; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2017-07-05

    Targeted temperature management post-cardiac arrest is currently implemented using various methods, broadly categorized as internal and external. This study aimed to evaluate survival-to-hospital discharge and neurological outcomes (Glasgow-Pittsburgh Score) of post-cardiac arrest patients undergoing internal cooling verses external cooling. A randomized controlled trial of post-resuscitation cardiac arrest patients was conducted from October 2008-September 2014. Patients were randomized to either internal or external cooling methods. Historical controls were selected matched by age and gender. Analysis using SPSS version 21.0 presented descriptive statistics and frequencies while univariate logistic regression was done using R 3.1.3. 23 patients were randomized to internal cooling and 22 patients to external cooling and 42 matched controls were selected. No significant difference was seen between internal and external cooling in terms of survival, neurological outcomes and complications. However in the internal cooling arm, there was lower risk of developing overcooling (p=0.01) and rebound hyperthermia (p=0.02). Compared to normothermia, internal cooling had higher survival (OR=3.36, 95% CI=(1.130, 10.412), and lower risk of developing cardiac arrhythmias (OR=0.18, 95% CI=(0.04, 0.63)). Subgroup analysis showed those with cardiac cause of arrest (OR=4.29, 95% CI=(1.26, 15.80)) and sustained ROSC (OR=5.50, 95% CI=(1.64, 20.39)) had better survival with internal cooling compared to normothermia. Cooling curves showed tighter temperature control for internal compared to external cooling. Internal cooling showed tighter temperature control compared to external cooling. Internal cooling can potentially provide better survival-to-hospital discharge outcomes and reduce cardiac arrhythmia complications in carefully selected patients as compared to normothermia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Google Glass for Residents Dealing With Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Arrest: A Randomized, Controlled, Simulation-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Drummond, David; Arnaud, Cécile; Guedj, Romain; Duguet, Alexandre; de Suremain, Nathalie; Petit, Arnaud

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether real-time video communication between the first responder and a remote intensivist via Google Glass improves the management of a simulated in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest before the arrival of the ICU team. Randomized controlled study. Children's hospital at a tertiary care academic medical center. Forty-two first-year pediatric residents. Pediatric residents were evaluated during two consecutive simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary arrests with a high-fidelity manikin. During the second evaluation, the residents in the Google Glass group were allowed to seek help from a remote intensivist at any time by activating real-time video communication. The residents in the control group were asked to provide usual care. The main outcome measures were the proportion of time for which the manikin received no ventilation (no-blow fraction) or no compression (no-flow fraction). In the first evaluation, overall no-blow and no-flow fractions were 74% and 95%, respectively. During the second evaluation, no-blow and no-flow fractions were similar between the two groups. Insufflations were more effective (p = 0.04), and the technique (p = 0.02) and rate (p < 0.001) of chest compression were more appropriate in the Google Glass group than in the control group. Real-time video communication between the first responder and a remote intensivist through Google Glass did not decrease no-blow and no-flow fractions during the first 5 minutes of a simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest but improved the quality of the insufflations and chest compressions provided.

  7. Controlling size and patchiness of soft nanoparticles via kinetically arrested co-assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jose; Herrera-Alonso, Margarita

    2013-03-01

    Engineering patchy particles from block copolymers provides an effective route for the preparation of nanoparticles with surface heterogeneity and unique properties. In the current work, co-assembly of block copolymers amphiphiles with distinct macromolecular architectures under kinetically arrested conditions was used to control the size and patchiness of polymeric nanoparticles. The block copolymer mixture is composed of linear and linear-dendritic polymeric amphiphiles, the later of which provides pre-assembled ``patches'' with well-controlled dimensions and chemical functionality. Parameters including but not limited to the molecular diffusity of the amphiphiles and the kinetics of self-assembly were found to play an important role on the control of the particle size and formation of the patches. The patchy particles are stable for several months and its stability against protein/blood plasma solutions can be tuned. We will also discuss the use of these constructs to probe nanoparticle-cell interactions.

  8. Decreased Coronary Microvascular Reactivity after Cardioplegic Arrest in Patients with Poorly Controlled Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Chu, Louis M.; Nikola, Dobrilovic N; Liu, Yuhong; Singh, Arun K.; Sellke, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion (CP/Rep) on coronary arteriolar responses to endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators and associated signaling pathways in poorly controlled diabetic, well controlled diabetic and case-matched non-diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and Results Coronary arterioles from harvested right-atrial tissues were dissected pre- and post-CP/Rep from poorly controlled diabetic (n = 10, hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] = 9.3 ± 0.3), well controlled diabetic (n = 10, HbA1c = 6.2 ± 0.2) and non-diabetic patients (n = 10, HbA1c = 5.1 ± 0.1) undergoing CABG surgery. The baseline microvascular response to ADP, substance P and SNP of arterioles from poorly controlled diabetic patients were decreased as compared to the respective response from non-diabetic or well controlled diabetic patients (P < 0.05). The vasodilatory responses to ADP, and substance P after CP/Rep were significantly decreased in all three groups compared to pre-CP/Rep responses (P < 0.05). However, these decreases were more pronounced in the poorly controlled diabetic group (P < 0.05). The expression of protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), PKC-β, and protein oxidation in atrial tissues was significantly increased in the poorly controlled diabetic group as compared with those of non-diabetes or controlled diabetes. Conclusion Poorly controlled is associated with endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular dysfunction of coronary arterioles. Additionally, poorly controlled diabetes worsens the recovery of coronary arteriolar function after CP/Rep. These alterations are associated with the increased expression/activation of PKC-α and PKC-β, and enhanced oxidative stress. PMID:22828147

  9. A comparison between intravascular and traditional cooling for inducing and maintaining temperature control in patients following cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Jérémy; Hentzien, Maxime; Dramé, Moustapha; Roussel, Vincent; Just, Bernard; Jolly, Damien; Mateu, Philippe

    2016-11-29

    Therapeutic temperature control has been widely used during the last decade to improve clinical outcomes. We conducted this retrospective observational study to compare traditional cooling with endovascular cooling in post-cardiac arrest comatose survivors and to compare results with current guidelines.

  10. p53 controls CDC7 levels to reinforce G1 cell cycle arrest upon genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tudzarova, Slavica; Dey, Ayona; Stoeber, Kai; Okorokov, Andrei L.; Williams, Gareth H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA replication initiation is a key event in the cell cycle, which is dependent on 2 kinases - CDK2 and CDC7. Here we report a novel mechanism in which p53 induces G1 checkpoint and cell cycle arrest by downregulating CDC7 kinase in response to genotoxic stress. We demonstrate that p53 controls CDC7 stability post-transcriptionally via miR-192/215 and post-translationally via Fbxw7β E3 ubiquitin ligase. The p53-dependent pathway of CDC7 downregulation is interlinked with the p53-p21-CDK2 pathway, as p21-mediated inhibition of CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of CDC7 on Thr376 is required for GSK3ß-phosphorylation and Fbxw7ß-dependent degradation of CDC7. Notably, sustained oncogenic high levels of active CDC7 exert a negative feedback onto p53, leading to unrestrained S-phase progression and accumulation of DNA damage. Thus, p53-dependent control of CDC7 levels is essential for blocking G1/S cell-cycle transition upon genotoxic stress, thereby safeguarding the genome from instability and thus representing a novel general stress response. PMID:27611229

  11. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detonation arresters, flame... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a) Each detonation arrester required by this part must: (1) Be capable of arresting a detonation from either side of...

  12. Social control correlates of arrest behavior among homeless youth in five U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Maccio, Elaine M; Xie, Bin; Pollio, David

    2011-01-01

    This study identified homelessness, substance use, employment, and mental health correlates of homeless youths' arrest activity in 5 cities. Two hundred thirty-eight street youth from Los Angeles, Austin, Denver, New Orleans, and St. Louis were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results reveal that being arrested for criminal activity is associated with length of homelessness, history of juvenile detention and incarceration, receiving income from theft, substance abuse, and mental illness. Arrests are also associated with interactions between lack of formal employment income and receiving income from theft and between drug and alcohol abuse/ dependency. Understanding the health and situational factors associated with homeless youths' delinquent activity has implications for providing more comprehensive health, mental health, and substance abuse services.

  13. Cardiac arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... or low levels can cause cardiac arrest. Severe physical stress. Anything that causes a severe stress on your body can lead to cardiac arrest. This can include trauma, electrical shock, or major blood loss. Recreational drugs. Using certain drugs, such as cocaine ...

  14. What controls lateral dike propagation and arrest along rift zones? Insights from analogue and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, Stefano; Acocella, Valerio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Corbi, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Recent diking events at Dabbahu (Afar, 2005-2010) and Bardarbunga (Iceland, 2014) showed lateral propagation for tens of kilometres and arrest before topographic reliefs. Here we use analogue and numerical models to investigate a) why dikes propagated laterally for so long; and b) why they arrested in front of reliefs. In the analogue models we used dyed water and pig-skin gelatin as magma and crustal analogues, respectively. We shaped the gelatin surface to reproduce the topography of the Dabbahu and Bardarbunga intrusions. Analog models show that the lateral propagation of dikes occurs only below a gentle slope (< 3°) associated with stiffness contrasts between two gelatin layers. Conversely, density contrasts between the upper and lower layer play a negligible role in our experiments. Finite Elements models mimicking the analog models reveal that the low relief area, where dikes arrest, is characterized by vertical least compressive stress. Stiffness contrasts and topographic variations may thus explain the propagation and arrest of dikes recently observed along divergent plate boundaries respectively. These results should be considered in forecasting lateral dike propagation and assessing volcanic hazard along rift zones.

  15. Novel approach for independent control of brain hypothermia and systemic normothermia: cerebral selective deep hypothermia for refractory cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chou, Heng-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chih; Hwang, Joey-Jen; Gilbert, John R; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2017-01-01

    A 38-year-old man was found unconscious, alone in the driver's seat of his car. The emergency medical team identified his condition as pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation was attempted but failed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was started in the emergency room 52 min after the estimated arrest following the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) protocol in our center. The initial prognosis under the standard protocol was <25% chance of survival. A novel adjunctive to our ECPR protocol, cerebral selective deep (<30°C) hypothermia (CSDH), was applied. CSDH adds a second independent femoral access extracorporeal circuit, perfusing cold blood into the patient's common carotid artery. The ECMO and CSDH circuits demonstrated independent control of cerebral and core temperatures. Nasal temperature was lowered to below 30°C for 12 hours while core was maintained at normothermia. The patient was discharged without significant neurological deficit 32 days after the initial arrest. PMID:28108436

  16. Novel approach for independent control of brain hypothermia and systemic normothermia: cerebral selective deep hypothermia for refractory cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chou, Heng-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chih; Hwang, Joey-Jen; Gilbert, John R; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2017-01-25

    A 38-year-old man was found unconscious, alone in the driver's seat of his car. The emergency medical team identified his condition as pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation was attempted but failed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was started in the emergency room 52 min after the estimated arrest following the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) protocol in our center. The initial prognosis under the standard protocol was <25% chance of survival. A novel adjunctive to our ECPR protocol, cerebral selective deep (<30°C) hypothermia (CSDH), was applied. CSDH adds a second independent femoral access extracorporeal circuit, perfusing cold blood into the patient's common carotid artery. The ECMO and CSDH circuits demonstrated independent control of cerebral and core temperatures. Nasal temperature was lowered to below 30°C for 12 hours while core was maintained at normothermia. The patient was discharged without significant neurological deficit 32 days after the initial arrest.

  17. Nutritional control of mRNA isoform expression during developmental arrest and recovery in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Colin S; Antoshechkin, Igor; Kurhanewicz, Nicole; Belsky, Jason A; Baugh, L Ryan

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient availability profoundly influences gene expression. Many animal genes encode multiple transcript isoforms, yet the effect of nutrient availability on transcript isoform expression has not been studied in genome-wide fashion. When Caenorhabditis elegans larvae hatch without food, they arrest development in the first larval stage (L1 arrest). Starved larvae can survive L1 arrest for weeks, but growth and post-embryonic development are rapidly initiated in response to feeding. We used RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptome during L1 arrest and over time after feeding. Twenty-seven percent of detectable protein-coding genes were differentially expressed during recovery from L1 arrest, with the majority of changes initiating within the first hour, demonstrating widespread, acute effects of nutrient availability on gene expression. We used two independent approaches to track expression of individual exons and mRNA isoforms, and we connected changes in expression to functional consequences by mining a variety of databases. These two approaches identified an overlapping set of genes with alternative isoform expression, and they converged on common functional patterns. Genes affecting mRNA splicing and translation are regulated by alternative isoform expression, revealing post-transcriptional consequences of nutrient availability on gene regulation. We also found that phosphorylation sites are often alternatively expressed, revealing a common mode by which alternative isoform expression modifies protein function and signal transduction. Our results detail rich changes in C. elegans gene expression as larvae initiate growth and post-embryonic development, and they provide an excellent resource for ongoing investigation of transcriptional regulation and developmental physiology.

  18. Bcl-xL controls a switch between cell death modes during mitotic arrest

    PubMed Central

    Bah, N; Maillet, L; Ryan, J; Dubreil, S; Gautier, F; Letai, A; Juin, P; Barillé-Nion, S

    2014-01-01

    Antimitotic agents such as microtubule inhibitors (paclitaxel) are widely used in cancer therapy while new agents blocking mitosis onset are currently in development. All these agents impose a prolonged mitotic arrest in cancer cells that relies on sustained activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and may lead to subsequent cell death by incompletely understood molecular events. We have investigated the role played by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in the fate of mitotically arrested mammary tumor cells treated with paclitaxel, or depleted in Cdc20, the activator of the anaphase promoting complex. Under these conditions, a weak and delayed mitotic cell death occurs that is caspase- and Bax/Bak-independent. Moreover, BH3 profiling assays indicate that viable cells during mitotic arrest are primed to die by apoptosis and that Bcl-xL is required to maintain mitochondrial integrity. Consistently, Bcl-xL depletion, or treatment with its inhibitor ABT-737 (but not with the specific Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-199), during mitotic arrest converts cell response to antimitotics to efficient caspase and Bax-dependent apoptosis. Apoptotic priming under conditions of mitotic arrest relies, at least in part, on the phosphorylation on serine 62 of Bcl-xL, which modulates its interaction with Bax and its sensitivity to ABT-737. The phospho-mimetic S62D-Bcl-xL mutant is indeed less efficient than the corresponding phospho-deficient S62A-Bcl-xL mutant in sequestrating Bax and in protecting cancer cells from mitotic cell death or yeast cells from Bax-induced growth inhibition. Our results provide a rationale for combining Bcl-xL targeting to antimitotic agents to improve clinical efficacy of antimitotic strategy in cancer therapy. PMID:24922075

  19. Endovascular Versus External Targeted Temperature Management for Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Deye, Nicolas; Cariou, Alain; Girardie, Patrick; Pichon, Nicolas; Megarbane, Bruno; Midez, Philippe; Tonnelier, Jean-Marie; Boulain, Thierry; Outin, Hervé; Delahaye, Arnaud; Cravoisy, Aurélie; Mercat, Alain; Blanc, Pascal; Santré, Charles; Quintard, Hervé; Brivet, François; Charpentier, Julien; Garrigue, Delphine; Francois, Bruno; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Vincent, François; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Mira, Jean-Paul; Carli, Pierre; Vicaut, Eric; Baud, Frédéric J

    2015-07-21

    Targeted temperature management is recommended after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Whether advanced internal cooling is superior to basic external cooling remains unknown. The aim of this multicenter, controlled trial was to evaluate the benefit of endovascular versus basic surface cooling. Inclusion criteria were the following: age of 18 to 79 years, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest related to a presumed cardiac cause, time to return of spontaneous circulation <60 minutes, delay between return of spontaneous circulation and inclusion <240 minutes, and unconscious patient after return of spontaneous circulation and before the start of cooling. Exclusion criteria were terminal disease, pregnancy, known coagulopathy, uncontrolled bleeding, temperature on admission <30°C, in-hospital cardiac arrest, immediate need for extracorporeal life support or hemodialysis. Patients were randomized between 2 cooling strategies: endovascular femoral devices (Icy catheter, Coolgard, Zoll, formerly Alsius; n=203) or basic external cooling using fans, a homemade tent, and ice packs (n=197). The primary end point, that is, favorable outcome evaluated by survival without major neurological damage (Cerebral Performance Categories 1-2) at day 28, was not significantly different between groups (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-2.16; P=0.107). Improvement in favorable outcome at day 90 in favor of the endovascular group did not reach significance (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-2.35; P=0.07). Time to target temperature (33°C) was significantly shorter and target hypothermia was more strictly maintained in the endovascular than in the surface group (P<0.001). Minor side effects directly related to the cooling method were observed more frequently in the endovascular group (P=0.009). Despite better hypothermia induction and maintenance, endovascular cooling was not significantly superior to basic external cooling in terms of favorable outcome. URL: http

  20. The transcriptional network that controls growth arrest and differentiation in a human myeloid leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Harukazu; Forrest, Alistair R R; van Nimwegen, Erik; Daub, Carsten O; Balwierz, Piotr J; Irvine, Katharine M; Lassmann, Timo; Ravasi, Timothy; Hasegawa, Yuki; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Katayama, Shintaro; Schroder, Kate; Carninci, Piero; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Akalin, Altuna; Ando, Yoshinari; Arner, Erik; Asada, Maki; Asahara, Hiroshi; Bailey, Timothy; Bajic, Vladimir B; Bauer, Denis; Beckhouse, Anthony G; Bertin, Nicolas; Björkegren, Johan; Brombacher, Frank; Bulger, Erika; Chalk, Alistair M; Chiba, Joe; Cloonan, Nicole; Dawe, Adam; Dostie, Josee; Engström, Pär G; Essack, Magbubah; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Fink, J Lynn; Fredman, David; Fujimori, Ko; Furuno, Masaaki; Gojobori, Takashi; Gough, Julian; Grimmond, Sean M; Gustafsson, Mika; Hashimoto, Megumi; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Hatakeyama, Mariko; Heinzel, Susanne; Hide, Winston; Hofmann, Oliver; Hörnquist, Michael; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ikeo, Kazuho; Imamoto, Naoko; Inoue, Satoshi; Inoue, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ryoko; Iwayanagi, Takao; Jacobsen, Anders; Kaur, Mandeep; Kawaji, Hideya; Kerr, Markus C; Kimura, Ryuichiro; Kimura, Syuhei; Kimura, Yasumasa; Kitano, Hiroaki; Koga, Hisashi; Kojima, Toshio; Kondo, Shinji; Konno, Takeshi; Krogh, Anders; Kruger, Adele; Kumar, Ajit; Lenhard, Boris; Lennartsson, Andreas; Lindow, Morten; Lizio, Marina; Macpherson, Cameron; Maeda, Norihiro; Maher, Christopher A; Maqungo, Monique; Mar, Jessica; Matigian, Nicholas A; Matsuda, Hideo; Mattick, John S; Meier, Stuart; Miyamoto, Sei; Miyamoto-Sato, Etsuko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakano, Mika; Nygaard, Sanne; Okayama, Toshitsugu; Okazaki, Yasushi; Okuda-Yabukami, Haruka; Orlando, Valerio; Otomo, Jun; Pachkov, Mikhail; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Plessy, Charles; Quackenbush, John; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Rehli, Michael; Saito, Rintaro; Sandelin, Albin; Schmeier, Sebastian; Schönbach, Christian; Schwartz, Ariel S; Semple, Colin A; Sera, Miho; Severin, Jessica; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Simons, Cas; St Laurent, George; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sweet, Matthew J; Taft, Ryan J; Takeda, Shizu; Takenaka, Yoichi; Tan, Kai; Taylor, Martin S; Teasdale, Rohan D; Tegnér, Jesper; Teichmann, Sarah; Valen, Eivind; Wahlestedt, Claes; Waki, Kazunori; Waterhouse, Andrew; Wells, Christine A; Winther, Ole; Wu, Linda; Yamaguchi, Kazumi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Jun; Zavolan, Mihaela; Hume, David A; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Imamura, Kengo; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kaiho, Ai; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kawazu, Chika; Kitazume, Yayoi; Kojima, Miki; Miura, Hisashi; Murakami, Kayoko; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Ogawa, Chihiro; Sano, Takuma; Simon, Christophe; Tagami, Michihira; Takahashi, Yukari; Kawai, Jun; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2009-05-01

    Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites, we identified the key transcription regulators, their time-dependent activities and target genes. Systematic siRNA knockdown of 52 transcription factors confirmed the roles of individual factors in the regulatory network. Our results indicate that cellular states are constrained by complex networks involving both positive and negative regulatory interactions among substantial numbers of transcription factors and that no single transcription factor is both necessary and sufficient to drive the differentiation process.

  1. Novel approach for independent control of brain hypothermia and systemic normothermia: cerebral selective deep hypothermia for refractory cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chou, Heng-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chih; Hwang, Joey-Jen; Gilbert, John R; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2017-01-20

    A 38-year-old man was found unconscious, alone in the driver's seat of his car. The emergency medical team identified his condition as pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation was attempted but failed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was started in the emergency room 52 min after the estimated arrest following the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) protocol in our center. The initial prognosis under the standard protocol was <25% chance of survival. A novel adjunctive to our ECPR protocol, cerebral selective deep (<30°C) hypothermia (CSDH), was applied. CSDH adds a second independent femoral access extracorporeal circuit, perfusing cold blood into the patient's common carotid artery. The ECMO and CSDH circuits demonstrated independent control of cerebral and core temperatures. Nasal temperature was lowered to below 30°C for 12 hours while core was maintained at normothermia. The patient was discharged without significant neurological deficit 32 days after the initial arrest. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest (ALASCA) and the effectiveness of an early intervention service: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Moulaert, Véronique RMP; Verbunt, Jeanine A; van Heugten, Caroline M; Bakx, Wilbert GM; Gorgels, Anton PM; Bekkers, Sebastiaan CAM; de Krom, Marc CFTM; Wade, Derick T

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrest survivors may experience hypoxic brain injury that results in cognitive impairments which frequently remain unrecognised. This may lead to limitations in daily activities and participation in society, a decreased quality of life for the patient, and a high strain for the caregiver. Publications about interventions directed at improving quality of life after survival of a cardiac arrest are scarce. Therefore, evidence about effective rehabilitation programmes for cardiac arrest survivors is urgently needed. This paper presents the design of the ALASCA (Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest) trial, a randomised, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a new early intervention service for survivors of a cardiac arrest and their caregivers. Methods/design The study population comprises all people who survive two weeks after a cardiac arrest and are admitted to one of the participating hospitals in the Southern part of the Netherlands. In a two-group randomised, controlled clinical trial, half of the participants will receive an early intervention service. The early intervention service consists of several consultations with a specialised nurse for the patient and their caregiver during the first three months after the cardiac arrest. The intervention is directed at screening for cognitive problems, provision of informational, emotional and practical support, and stimulating self-management. If necessary, referral to specialised care can take place. Persons in the control group will receive the care as usual. The primary outcome measures are the extent of participation in society and quality of life of the patient one year after a cardiac arrest. Secondary outcome measures are the level of cognitive, emotional and cardiovascular impairment and daily functioning of the patient, as well as the strain for and quality of life of the caregiver. Participants and their caregivers will be followed for twelve months after the

  3. Sensory Cortical Control of a Visually Induced Arrest Behavior via Corticotectal Projections

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Feixue; Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Zhang, Li I.; Tao, Huizhong W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Innate defense behaviors (IDBs) evoked by threatening sensory stimuli are essential for animal survival. Although subcortical circuits are implicated in IDBs, it remains largely unclear whether sensory cortex modulates IDBs and what are the underlying neural pathways. Here, we show that optogenetic silencing of corticotectal projections from layer 5 (L5) of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to the superior colliculus (SC) significantly reduces a SC-dependent innate behavior, i.e. temporary suspension of locomotion upon a sudden flash of light as short as milliseconds. Surprisingly, optogenetic activation of SC-projecting neurons in V1 or their axon terminals in SC sufficiently elicits the behavior, in contrast to other major L5 corticofugal projections. Thus, via the same corticofugal projection, visual cortex not only modulates the light-induced arrest behavior, but also can directly drive the behavior. Our results suggest that sensory cortex may play a previously unrecognized role in the top-down initiation of sensory-motor behaviors. PMID:25913860

  4. Faulting arrested by control of ground-water withdrawal in Houston, Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.; Gabrysch, R.K.; Verbeek, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    More than 86 historically active faults with an aggregate length of 150 miles have been identified within and adjacent to the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. Although scarps of these faults grow gradually and without causing damaging earthquakes, historical fault offset has cost millions of dollars in damage to houses and other buildings, utilities, and highways that were built on or across the faults. The historical fault activity results from renewed movement along preexisting faults and appears to be caused principally by withdrawal of ground water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses in the Houston area. Approximately one-half of the area's water supply is obtained from local ground water. Monitoring by the US Geological Survey of heights of fault scarps indicates that many of the scarps have recently stopped increasing in height. The area where faulting has ceased coincides with the area where ground-water pumping was cut back in the mid-1970s to slow the damage caused by land subsidence along Galveston Bay and the Houston Ship Channel. Thus, it appears that efforts to halt land subsidence in the coastal area have provided the additional benefit of arresting damaging surface faulting. -from Authors

  5. Sensory Cortical Control of a Visually Induced Arrest Behavior via Corticotectal Projections.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feixue; Xiong, Xiaorui R; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Zhang, Li I; Tao, Huizhong W

    2015-05-06

    Innate defense behaviors (IDBs) evoked by threatening sensory stimuli are essential for animal survival. Although subcortical circuits are implicated in IDBs, it remains largely unclear whether sensory cortex modulates IDBs and what the underlying neural pathways are. Here, we show that optogenetic silencing of corticotectal projections from layer 5 (L5) of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to the superior colliculus (SC) significantly reduces an SC-dependent innate behavior (i.e., temporary suspension of locomotion upon a sudden flash of light as short as milliseconds). Surprisingly, optogenetic activation of SC-projecting neurons in V1 or their axon terminals in SC sufficiently elicits the behavior, in contrast to other major L5 corticofugal projections. Thus, via the same corticofugal projection, visual cortex not only modulates the light-induced arrest behavior, but also can directly drive the behavior. Our results suggest that sensory cortex may play a previously unrecognized role in the top-down initiation of sensory-motor behaviors.

  6. New proposal of silver diamine fluoride use in arresting approximal caries: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mattos-Silveira, Juliana; Floriano, Isabela; Ferreira, Fernanda R; Viganó, Maria E F; Frizzo, M A; Reyes, Alessandra; Novaes, Tatiane F; Moriyama, Caroline M; Raggio, Daniela P; Imparato, José C P; Mendes, Fausto M; Braga, Mariana M

    2014-11-19

    Approximal surfaces are a challenge to caries lesions control. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a simple,low-cost and promisor intervention for arresting caries lesions, but it has never been tested on approximal surfaces. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy and cost-efficacy of SDF in arresting initial lesions compared to resin infiltration and exclusively flossing (control group). Our second aim is to assess discomfort and satisfaction regarding interventions. This is a randomized clinical trial, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Children/adolescents presenting at least one approximal initial caries lesion in primary molars/permanent premolars and molars will be included. Surfaces with advanced dentine lesions identified by radiography and participants who refuse to participate or present negative behaviors will be excluded. A minimum sample size of 504 surfaces will be required for each subgroup. Individuals will be randomly allocated in three groups of interventions: SDF, resin infiltration, and control group. Depending on the allocation, the patients will receive the active treatment and respective placebo therapies. All patients will be oriented to daily flossing the included surfaces. Our primary outcome will be caries progression by clinical and radiographic examinations. Appointments will be timed and costs of materials will be considered to calculate cost-efficacy. Patient discomfort will be assessed after interventions. Parent and patient satisfaction with the treatment will be collected after treatment and in the last follow-up visit. Individuals will be assessed at 1 and 3 months after treatment to evaluate dental biofilm and at 6, 12, and 24 months to assess caries progression by visual examination and/or radiography. Multilevel analyses will be used to verify if the type of treatment influenced on the tested outcomes. Costs will be compared and analyses of cost-efficacy will be performed. Poisson analysis will test the association between

  7. Topical Silver Diamine Fluoride for Dental Caries Arrest in Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Microbiological Analysis of Caries Associated Microbes and Resistance Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Horst, Jeremy A; Ludwig, Sharity; Rothen, Marilynn; Chaffee, Benjamin W; Lyalina, Svetlana; Pollard, Katherine S; DeRisi, Joseph L; Mancl, Lloyd

    2017-08-30

    The Stopping Cavities Trial investigated effectiveness and safety of 38% silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries lesions. The study was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled superiority trial with 2 parallel groups. The sites were Oregon preschools. Sixty-six preschool children with ≥1 lesion were enrolled. Silver diamine fluoride (38%) or placebo (blue-tinted water), applied topically to the lesion. The primary endpoint was caries arrest (lesion inactivity, Nyvad criteria) 14-21days post intervention. Dental plaque was collected from all children, and microbial composition was assessed by RNA sequencing from 2 lesions and 1 unaffected surface before treatment and at follow-up for 3 children from each group. Average proportion of arrested caries lesions in the silver diamine fluoride group was higher (0.72; 95% CI; 0.55, 0.84) than in the placebo group (0.05; 95% CI; 0.00, 0.16). Confirmatory analysis using generalized estimating equation log-linear regression, based on the number of arrested lesions and accounting for the number of treated surfaces and length of follow-up, indicates the risk of arrested caries was significantly higher in the treatment group (relative risk, 17.3; 95% CI: 4.3 to 69.4). No harms were observed. RNA sequencing analysis identified no consistent changes in relative abundance of caries-associated microbes, nor emergence of antibiotic or metal resistance gene expression. Topical 38% silver diamine fluoride is effective and safe in arresting cavities in preschool children. The treatment is applicable to primary care practice and may reduce the burden of untreated tooth decay in the population. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. An La-related protein controls cell cycle arrest by nuclear retrograde transport of tRNAs during diapause formation in Artemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dian-Fu; Lin, Cheng; Wang, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Li; Dai, Li; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Zhou, Rong; Li, Ran; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Fan; Clegg, James S; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2016-03-03

    In eukaryotes, tRNA trafficking between the nucleus and cytoplasm is a complex process connected with cell cycle regulation. Such trafficking is therefore of fundamental importance in cell biology, and disruption of this process has grave consequences for cell viability and survival. To cope with harsh habitats, Artemia has evolved a special reproductive mode to release encysted embryos in which cell division can be maintained in a dormancy state for a long period. Using Artemia as a peculiar model of the cell cycle, an La-related protein from Artemia, named Ar-Larp, was found to bind to tRNA and accumulate in the nucleus, leading to cell cycle arrest and controlling the onset of diapause formation in Artemia. Furthermore, exogenous gene expression of Ar-Larp could induce cell cycle arrest in cancer cells and suppress tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, similar to the results obtained in diapause embryos of Artemia. Our study of tRNA trafficking indicated that Ar-Larp controls cell cycle arrest by binding to tRNAs and influencing their retrograde movement from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, which is connected to pathways involved in cell cycle checkpoints. These findings in Artemia offer new insights into the mechanism underlying cell cycle arrest regulation, as well as providing a potentially novel approach to study tRNA retrograde movement from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.

  9. About Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cardiac Arrest Updated:Mar 10,2017 What is cardiac arrest? Cardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have diagnosed heart ...

  10. Defective in Mitotic Arrest 1 (Dma1) Ubiquitin Ligase Controls G1 Cyclin Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Sara; Bru, Samuel; Ricco, Natalia; Ramírez, Sara; Casals, Núria; Jiménez, Javier; Isasa, Marta; Crosas, Bernat; Clotet, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle is controlled by diverse cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that might be associated to numerous cyclin isoforms. Given such complexity, regulation of cyclin degradation should be crucial for coordinating progression through the cell cycle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SCF is the only E3 ligase known to date to be involved in G1 cyclin degradation. Here, we report the design of a genetic screening that uncovered Dma1 as another E3 ligase that targets G1 cyclins in yeast. We show that the cyclin Pcl1 is ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo by Dma1, and accordingly, is stabilized in dma1 mutants. We demonstrate that Pcl1 must be phosphorylated by its own CDK to efficiently interact with Dma1 and undergo degradation. A nonphosphorylatable version of Pcl1 accumulates throughout the cell cycle, demonstrating the physiological relevance of the proposed mechanism. Finally, we present evidence that the levels of Pcl1 and Cln2 are independently controlled in response to nutrient availability. This new previously unknown mechanism for G1 cyclin degradation that we report here could help elucidate the specific roles of the redundant CDK-cyclin complexes in G1. PMID:23264631

  11. Glycolytic controls in estivation and anoxia: a comparison of metabolic arrest in land and marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S P; Storey, K B

    1997-12-01

    Facultative metabolic rate depression is the common adaptive strategy underlying various animal mechanisms for surviving harsh environmental conditions. This strategy is common among molluscs, enabling animals to survive over days or even months in the absence of oxygen or under extremely dry conditions. The large reductions in metabolic rate during estivation and anoxia can translate into considerable energy savings when dormant animals are compared to active animals. A complex metabolic coordination is required during the transition into the dormant state to maintain cellular homeostasis and involves both energy-consuming and energy-producing pathways. With regard to energy-producing pathways, several different mechanisms have been identified that participate in controlling flux. One such mechanism, enzyme phosphorylation, can have a wide-ranging effect. For example, phosphorylated enzymes exhibit altered substrate, activator, and inhibitor affinities. This effect may be magnified by changes in the concentrations of allosteric effectors, such as fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, that occur during hypometabolic states. Changes in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate are related to changes in enzyme phosphorylation through changes in the relative activity of phosphofructokinase-2. Alterations in glycolytic enzyme binding can also be brought about through changes in enzyme phosphorylation. The present review focuses on identifying hypometabolism-related changes in enzyme phosphorylation as well as characterizing the mechanisms involved in mediating these phosphorylation events.

  12. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arresters, and flame screens. 154.822 Section 154.822 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a) Each... Commandant (G-MSO). (c) Each flame screen required by this part must be either a single screen of corrosion...

  13. Targeted therapeutic mild hypercapnia after cardiac arrest: A phase II multi-centre randomised controlled trial (the CCC trial).

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Glenn M; Schneider, Antoine G; Suzuki, Satoshi; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Tanaka, Aiko; Mårtensson, Johan; Warrillow, Stephen; McGuinness, Shay; Parke, Rachael; Gilder, Eileen; Mccarthy, Lianne; Galt, Pauline; Taori, Gopal; Eliott, Suzanne; Lamac, Tammy; Bailey, Michael; Harley, Nerina; Barge, Deborah; Hodgson, Carol L; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina; Pébay, Alice; Conquest, Alison; Archer, John S; Bernard, Stephen; Stub, Dion; Hart, Graeme K; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-07-01

    In intensive care observational studies, hypercapnia after cardiac arrest (CA) is independently associated with improved neurological outcome. However, the safety and feasibility of delivering targeted therapeutic mild hypercapnia (TTMH) for such patients is untested. In a phase II safety and feasibility multi-centre, randomised controlled trial, we allocated ICU patients after CA to 24h of targeted normocapnia (TN) (PaCO2 35-45mmHg) or TTMH (PaCO2 50-55mmHg). The primary outcome was serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100b protein concentrations over the first 72h assessed in the first 50 patients surviving to day three. Secondary end-points included global measure of function assessment at six months and mortality for all patients. We enrolled 86 patients. Their median age was 61 years (58, 64 years) and 66 (79%) were male. Of these, 50 patients (58%) survived to day three for full biomarker assessment. NSE concentrations increased in the TTMH group (p=0.02) and TN group (p=0.005) over time, with the increase being significantly more pronounced in the TN group (p(interaction)=0.04). S100b concentrations decreased over time in the TTMH group (p<0.001) but not in the TN group (p=0.68). However, the S100b change over time did not differ between the groups (p(interaction)=0.23). At six months, 23 (59%) TTMH patients had good functional recovery compared with 18 (46%) TN patients. Hospital mortality occurred in 11 (26%) TTMH patients and 15 (37%) TN patients (p=0.31). In CA patients admitted to the ICU, TTMH was feasible, appeared safe and attenuated the release of NSE compared with TN. These findings justify further investigation of this novel treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. A controlled trial of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for ethnically diverse parents of infants at high risk for cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Dracup, K; Moser, D K; Doering, L V; Guzy, P M; Juarbe, T

    2000-09-01

    Parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit are routinely taught cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as part of the preparation for transition to home. A variety of methods are used to teach CPR knowledge and skills. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychosocial consequences of three different methods of CPR training for parents of infants at high risk for cardiopulmonary arrest. In this prospective, multisite clinical trial, 335 parents and other caretakers of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit were followed for 1 yr. Participants were 69% female, 49% Latino/Latina, with a mean age of 30 +/- 8 yrs. Subjects initially were randomized to one of four CPR training protocols: a video-only class, an instructor-taught class, an instructor-taught class combined with a social support intervention, and a control group. The social support intervention involved a group discussion after CPR training with regular telephone follow-up over the next 6 months by a nurse. Data on psychosocial adjustment to illness, anxiety, and depression were collected at baseline, 2 wks, and 3 and 6 months. There were significant differences among the groups over time in anxiety (p = .007) and psychosocial adjustment to illness (p = .001). Parents in the CPR-video protocol had significantly less early anxiety and better postdischarge psychosocial adjustment compared with parents in the social support intervention at 2 wks after hospital discharge. Patterns of change over time, however, supported the efficacy of the CPR-social support intervention or the CPR-instructor protocols when compared with the CPR-video protocol. The results confirm that parents have difficulty adjusting after an infant's discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit and support the positive psychosocial effects of helping parents prepare for a home emergency by teaching CPR. The additional staff resources required to provide parents with social support along with

  15. Mild therapeutic hypothermia shortens intensive care unit stay of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest compared to historical controls

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Christian; Steffen, Ingo; Schefold, Joerg C; Krueger, Anne; Oppert, Michael; Jörres, Achim; Hasper, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Persistent coma is a common finding after cardiac arrest and has profound ethical and economic implications. Evidence suggests that therapeutic hypothermia improves neurological outcome in these patients. In this analysis, we investigate whether therapeutic hypothermia influences the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and ventilator time in patients surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods A prospective observational study with historical controls was conducted at our medical ICU. Fifty-two consecutive patients (median age 62.6 years, 43 males, 34 ventricular fibrillation) submitted to therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were included. They were compared with a historical cohort (n = 74, median age 63.8 years, 53 males, 43 ventricular fibrillation) treated in the era prior to hypothermia treatment. All patients received the same standard of care. Neurological outcome was assessed using the Pittsburgh cerebral performance category (CPC) score. Univariate analyses and multiple regression models were used. Results In survivors, therapeutic hypothermia and baseline disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II] score) were both found to significantly influence ICU stay and ventilator time (all P < 0.01). ICU stay was shorter in survivors receiving therapeutic hypothermia (median 14 days [interquartile range (IQR) 8 to 26] versus 21 days [IQR 15 to 30] in the control group; P = 0.017). ICU length of stay and time on ventilator were prolonged in patients with CPC 3 or 4 compared with patients with CPC 1 or 2 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.034, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed improved probability for 1-year survival in the hypothermia group compared with the controls (log-rank test P = 0.013). Conclusion Therapeutic hypothermia was found to significantly shorten ICU stay and time of mechanical ventilation in survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Moreover, profound

  16. Zerumbone, a Sesquiterpene, Controls Proliferation and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Laryngeal Carcinoma Cell Line Hep-2.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Srimathi Devi; Arul, Santhosh; Dayalan, Haripriya

    2016-07-01

    Zerumbone (ZER), a sesquiterpene found in Zingiber zerumbet Smith, has been shown to possess antiproliferative, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity against various types of human carcinoma. The molecular mechanism by which ZER mediates its activity against many cancer types is revealed by many studies. Upregulation of proapoptotic molecules and suppression of antiapoptotic gene expression are few of the mechanisms by which ZER mediates its effect. The present study is focused on investigating the effect of ZER on proliferation of laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2). MTT assay results showed that ZER (0.01-100 μM) induced death of Hep-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner; significant suppression of proliferation of Hep-2 cells was seen with a IC50 value of 15 µM. ZER at a concentration of 15 and 30 μM for 48 h showed early signs of apoptosis as evidenced by confocal microscopy imaging. Flow cytometry studies showed that ZER induced cell cycle arrest. ZER arrested Hep-2 proliferation at S and G2/M phases of cell cycle. In conclusion, these results indicate that ZER has antiproliferative effect and arrests cell cycle in Hep-2 cells in vitro. This could be a potential anticancer drug against laryngeal carcinoma.

  17. Effects of humeral intraosseous versus intravenous epinephrine on pharmacokinetics and return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine cardiac arrest model: A randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Don; Garcia-Blanco, Jose; Burgert, James; Fulton, Lawrence; Kadilak, Patrick; Perry, Katherine; Burke, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and epinephrine administration are pillars of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for epinephrine administration when intravenous (IV) access is unobtainable. Previous studies indicate the pharmacokinetics of epinephrine administration via IO and IV routes differ, but it is not known if the difference influences return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) and IV epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest on pharmacokinetics, ROSC, and odds of survival. Swine (N = 21) were randomized into 3 groups: humeral IO (HIO), peripheral IV (IV) and CPR/defibrillation control. Cardiac arrest was induced under general anesthesia. The swine remained in arrest for 2 min without intervention. Chest compressions were initiated and continued for 2 min. Epinephrine was administered and serial blood samples collected for pharmacokinetic analysis over 4 min. Defibrillation and epinephrine administration proceeded according to ACLS guidelines continuing for 20 min or until ROSC. Seven HIO swine, 4 IV swine, and no control swine had ROSC. There were no significant differences in ROSC, maximum concentration; except at 30 s, and time-to-concentration-maximum between the HIO and IV groups. Significant differences existed between the experimental groups and the control. The HIO delivers a higher concentration of epinephrine than the IV route at 30 s which may be a survival advantage. Clinicians may consider using the IO route to administer epinephrine during CA when there is no preexisting IV access or when IV access is unobtainable. PMID:26468375

  18. Effects of humeral intraosseous versus intravenous epinephrine on pharmacokinetics and return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine cardiac arrest model: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Don; Garcia-Blanco, Jose; Burgert, James; Fulton, Lawrence; Kadilak, Patrick; Perry, Katherine; Burke, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and epinephrine administration are pillars of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for epinephrine administration when intravenous (IV) access is unobtainable. Previous studies indicate the pharmacokinetics of epinephrine administration via IO and IV routes differ, but it is not known if the difference influences return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) and IV epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest on pharmacokinetics, ROSC, and odds of survival. Swine (N = 21) were randomized into 3 groups: humeral IO (HIO), peripheral IV (IV) and CPR/defibrillation control. Cardiac arrest was induced under general anesthesia. The swine remained in arrest for 2 min without intervention. Chest compressions were initiated and continued for 2 min. Epinephrine was administered and serial blood samples collected for pharmacokinetic analysis over 4 min. Defibrillation and epinephrine administration proceeded according to ACLS guidelines continuing for 20 min or until ROSC. Seven HIO swine, 4 IV swine, and no control swine had ROSC. There were no significant differences in ROSC, maximum concentration; except at 30 s, and time-to-concentration-maximum between the HIO and IV groups. Significant differences existed between the experimental groups and the control. The HIO delivers a higher concentration of epinephrine than the IV route at 30 s which may be a survival advantage. Clinicians may consider using the IO route to administer epinephrine during CA when there is no preexisting IV access or when IV access is unobtainable.

  19. Corticosteroid therapy in refractory shock following cardiac arrest: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial.

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Chase, Maureen; Sherwin, Robert; Smithline, Howard; Carney, Erin; Ngo, Long; Patel, Parth V; Liu, Xiaowen; Cutlip, Donald; Zimetbaum, Peter; Cocchi, Michael N

    2016-04-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the provision of corticosteroids improves time to shock reversal and outcomes in patients with post-cardiac arrest shock. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of post-cardiac arrest patients in shock, defined as vasopressor support for a minimum of 1 hour. Patients were randomized to intravenous hydrocortisone 100 mg or placebo every 8 hours for 7 days or until shock reversal. The primary endpoint was time to shock reversal. Fifty patients were included with 25 in each group. There was no difference in time to shock reversal between groups (hazard ratio: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.40-1.75], p = 0.63). We found no difference in secondary outcomes including shock reversal (52% vs. 60%, p = 0.57), good neurological outcome (24% vs. 32%, p = 0.53) or survival to discharge (28% vs. 36%, p = 0.54) between the hydrocortisone and placebo groups. Of the patients with a baseline cortisol < 15 ug/dL, 100% (6/6) in the hydrocortisone group achieved shock reversal compared to 33% (1/3) in the placebo group (p = 0.08). All patients in the placebo group died (100%; 3/3) whereas 50% (3/6) died in the hydrocortisone group (p = 0.43). In a population of cardiac arrest patients with vasopressor-dependent shock, treatment with hydrocortisone did not improve time to shock reversal, rate of shock reversal, or clinical outcomes when compared to placebo. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00676585, registration date: May 9, 2008.

  20. TEAD4-YAP interaction regulates tumoral growth by controlling cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shin; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Nakashima, Dai; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-04-29

    TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4), which has critical functions in the process of embryonic development, is expressed in various cancers. However, the important role of TEAD4 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remain unclear. Here we investigated the TEAD4 expression level and the functional mechanism in OSCC using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, TEAD4 knockdown model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, cell-cycle analysis, and the interaction between TEAD4 and Yes-associated protein (YAP) which was reported to be a transcription coactivator of cellular proliferation. In the current study, we found that TEAD4 expression increased significantly in vitro and in vivo and correlated with tumoral size in OSCC patients. TEAD4 knockdown OSCC cells showed decreased cellular proliferation resulting from cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase by down-regulation of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and up-regulation of CDK inhibitors. We also found that the TEAD4-YAP complex in the nuclei may be related closely to transcriptions of G1 arrest-related genes. Taken together, we concluded that TEAD4 might play an important role in tumoral growth and have potential to be a therapeutic target in OSCCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A case-control study of non-monitored ECG metrics preceding in-hospital bradyasystolic cardiac arrest: implication for predictive monitor alarms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Do, Duc; Bai, Yong; Boyle, Noel G

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether additional electrocardiographic (ECG) metrics not available on current patient monitors could predict bradyasystolic cardiac arrest in hospitalized adult patients. A retrospective case-control design was used to study eight ECG metrics from 22 adult bradyasystolic patients and their 45 control patients. The eight ECG metrics included heart rate, QRS width, interval from P-wave peak to QRS onset (PRp), heart rate-corrected interval from QRS onset to T-wave peak (QTpc), amplitude of QRS peak (rAmp), amplitude of P-wave (pAmp), amplitude of T-wave (tAmp), and absolute difference in the ECG amplitudes at QRS onset and offset divided by rAmp, that is, relative J-point amplitude (relJAmp). We derived the maximal true-positive rate (TPR) of detecting cardiac arrest at a globally minimal false-positive rate (FPR) for each metric and for the absolute slope values resulted from a linear fitting of the time series of these metrics. We also recorded the first time crossing the detection threshold to the time of arrest as lead time. Conditions of relJAmp >20% and PRp >196.6 ms, respectively, achieved a TPR of 22.7% and 27.3% with zero FPRs. The lead prediction time of these two conditions was 5.7 ± 6.8 hours and 8.0 ± 7.2 hours, respectively. Performance of triggers based on the absolute slope values depended on the window length used for linear fitting. rAmp slope of a 2-hour window, PRp slope of a 30-minute window, and relJAmp slope of a 2-hour window achieved the best TPR of 27.3% (FPR = 2.3%, lead time = 6.5 ± 5.7 hours), 14.3% (FPR=0.0%, lead time = 10.9 ± 10.9), and 18.2% (FPR = 2.3%, lead time = 8.8 ± 9.8), respectively. McNemar test showed that only relJAmp >20.0% is significantly different from the baseline trigger of HR >149.3 bpm (p=0.046). In addition, metrics-based and slope-based triggers were complementary as an "OR" combination of two single-metric triggers raised the TPR up to 45.4% with zero FPR. It is feasible to compute

  2. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest following trauma].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Kanz, K-G

    2016-11-01

    For decades, survival rates of cardiac arrest following trauma were reported between 0 and 2 %. Since 2005, survival rates have increased with a wide range up to 39 % and good neurological recovery in every second person injured for unknown reasons. Especially in children, high survival rates with good neurologic outcomes are published. Resuscitation following traumatic cardiac arrest differs significantly from nontraumatic causes. Paramount is treatment of reversible causes, which include massive bleeding, hypoxia, tension pneumothorax, and pericardial tamponade. Treatment of reversible causes should be simultaneous. Chest compression is inferior following traumatic cardiac arrest and should never delay treatment of reversible causes of the traumatic cardiac arrest. In massive bleeding, bleeding control has priority. Damage control resuscitation with permissive hypotension, aggressive coagulation therapy, and damage control surgery represent the pillars of initial treatment. Cardiac arrest due to hypoxia should be resolved by airway management and ventilation. Tension pneumothorax should be decompressed by finger thoracostomy, pericardial tamponade by resuscitative thoracotomy. In addition, resuscitative thoracotomy allows direct and indirect bleeding control. Untreated impact brain apnea may rapidly lead to cardiac arrest and requires quick opening of the airway and effective oxygenation. Established algorithms for treatment of cardiac arrest following trauma enable a safe, structured, and effective management.

  3. Alcohol, drug and other prior crimes and risk of arrest in handgun purchasers: protocol for a controlled observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J; Kass, Philip H; Stewart, Susan L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Alcohol abuse is common in the USA and is a well-established risk factor for violence. Other drug use and criminal activity are risk factors as well and frequently occur together with alcohol abuse. Firearm ownership is also common; there are >50 million firearm owners in the USA. This study assesses the relationships between alcohol and drug abuse and future violence among firearm owners, which no prior research has done. Design and study population This records-based retrospective cohort study will involve all persons who legally purchased handguns in California in 2001—approximately 116 000 individuals—with follow-up through the end of 2013. Methods The principal exposures include prior convictions for alcohol-related and drug-related offenses. The primary outcome measure is an arrest following handgun purchase for a violent Crime Index offense: homicide, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Subjects will be considered at risk for outcome events for only as long as their residence in California can be established independently of outcome events. Covariates include individual characteristics (eg, age, sex, criminal history, firearm purchase history) and community characteristics (eg, demographics, socioeconomic measures, firearm ownership and alcohol outlet density). We will employ survival analytic methods, expressing effects as HRs. Discussion The results of this large-scale study are likely to be generalisable and to have important implications for violence prevention policies and programmes. PMID:26498316

  4. Progesterone and nifedipine for maintenance tocolysis after arrested preterm labor: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming-Xia; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Bai, Bing; Sun, Ju-Xiang; Qi, Hong-Bo

    2016-06-01

    No treatment is recommended for routine maintenance tocolysis after an arrested preterm birth. Our present study aimed to evaluate the effect of progesterone and nifedipine as maintenance tocolysis therapy after an arrested preterm birth. For relevant studies, we systematically searched the literature in databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Nine trials were included in our review. Nifedipine and progesterone were used for maintenance tocolysis. Compared to placebo treatment or no treatment, maintenance tocolysis with progesterone could significantly prolong the delivery gestational weeks [standard mean difference (SMD) 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21, 2.07; p < 0.00001], reduce the proportion of patients with delivery before 37 weeks (risk ratio 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47, 0.83; p = 0.001), and increase the birth weight (SMD 317.71; 95% CI, 174.89, 460.53; p < 0.0001). However, no such benefits were observed after maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine. Both nifedipine and progesterone had no significant influences on the following outcomes: neonatal intensive care unit stay, proportion of neonatal intensive care unit admission, neonatal mortality, and incidence of respiratory distress syndrome. Our results with maintenance tocolysis with progesterone may be useful for patients who had an episode of threatened preterm labor successfully treated with acute tocolytic therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Cardiac arrest: resuscitation and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B

    2015-06-05

    The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and

  6. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Steven A; Rycus, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30–60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management. PMID:28074817

  7. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Steven A; Rycus, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30-60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management.

  8. Fast Track intervention effects on youth arrests and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youth arrests and self-reported delinquent behavior through age 19. High-risk youth randomly assigned to receive a long-term, comprehensive preventive intervention from 1st grade through 10th grade at four sites were compared to high-risk control youth. Findings indicated that random assignment to Fast Track reduced court-recorded juvenile arrest activity based on a severity weighted sum of juvenile arrests. Supplementary analyses revealed an intervention effect on the reduction in the number of court-recorded moderate-severity juvenile arrests, relative to control children. In addition, among youth with higher initial behavioral risk, the intervention reduced the number of high-severity adult arrests relative to the control youth. Survival analyses examining the onset of arrests and delinquent behavior revealed a similar pattern of findings. Intervention decreased the probability of any juvenile arrest among intervention youth not previously arrested. In addition, intervention decreased the probability of a self-reported high-severity offense among youth with no previous self-reported high-severity offense. Intervention effects were also evident on the onset of high-severity court-recorded adult arrests among participants, but these effects varied by site. The current findings suggest that comprehensive preventive intervention can prevent juvenile arrest rates, although the presence and nature of intervention effects differs by outcome. PMID:20577576

  9. Simulation-based education improves quality of care during cardiac arrest team responses at an academic teaching hospital: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Diane B; Didwania, Aashish; Feinglass, Joe; Fudala, Monica J; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; McGaghie, William C

    2008-01-01

    Simulation technology is widely used in medical education. Linking educational outcomes achieved in a controlled environment to patient care improvement is a constant challenge. This was a retrospective case-control study of cardiac arrest team responses from January to June 2004 at a university-affiliated internal medicine residency program. Medical records of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) events were reviewed to assess adherence to ACLS response quality indicators based on American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. All residents received traditional ACLS education. Second-year residents (simulator-trained group) also attended an educational program featuring the deliberate practice of ACLS scenarios using a human patient simulator. Third-year residents (traditionally trained group) were not trained on the simulator. During the study period, both simulator-trained and traditionally trained residents responded to ACLS events. We evaluated the effects of simulation training on the quality of the ACLS care provided. Simulator-trained residents showed significantly higher adherence to AHA standards (mean correct responses, 68%; SD, 20%) vs traditionally trained residents (mean correct responses, 44%; SD, 20%; p = 0.001). The odds ratio for an adherent ACLS response was 7.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 28.6) for simulator-trained residents compared to traditionally trained residents after controlling for patient age, ventilator, and telemetry status. A simulation-based educational program significantly improved the quality of care provided by residents during actual ACLS events. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that simulation can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of procedural training.

  10. Effectiveness of feedback with a smartwatch for high-quality chest compressions during adult cardiac arrest: A randomized controlled simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeongtak; Chee, Youngjoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Shin, Hyungoo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for using smartwatches with a built-in accelerometer as feedback devices for high-quality chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported the effects of this feedback on chest compressions in action. A randomized, parallel controlled study of 40 senior medical students was conducted to examine the effect of chest compression feedback via a smartwatch during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of manikins. A feedback application was developed for the smartwatch, in which visual feedback was provided for chest compression depth and rate. Vibrations from smartwatch were used to indicate the chest compression rate. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups, and they performed chest compressions on manikins for 2 min continuously with or without feedback, respectively. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth (≥5 cm and ≤6 cm) was assessed as the primary outcome, and the chest compression depth, chest compression rate, and the proportion of complete chest decompression (≤1 cm of residual leaning) were recorded as secondary outcomes. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (64.6±7.8% versus 43.1±28.3%; p = 0.02). The mean compression depth and rate and the proportion of complete chest decompressions did not differ significantly between the two groups (all p>0.05). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related feedback via a smartwatch could provide assistance with respect to the ideal range of chest compression depth, and this can easily be applied to patients with out-of-hospital arrest by rescuers who wear smartwatches. PMID:28369055

  11. Effectiveness of feedback with a smartwatch for high-quality chest compressions during adult cardiac arrest: A randomized controlled simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chiwon; Lee, Juncheol; Oh, Jaehoon; Song, Yeongtak; Chee, Youngjoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Shin, Hyungoo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for using smartwatches with a built-in accelerometer as feedback devices for high-quality chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported the effects of this feedback on chest compressions in action. A randomized, parallel controlled study of 40 senior medical students was conducted to examine the effect of chest compression feedback via a smartwatch during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of manikins. A feedback application was developed for the smartwatch, in which visual feedback was provided for chest compression depth and rate. Vibrations from smartwatch were used to indicate the chest compression rate. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups, and they performed chest compressions on manikins for 2 min continuously with or without feedback, respectively. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth (≥5 cm and ≤6 cm) was assessed as the primary outcome, and the chest compression depth, chest compression rate, and the proportion of complete chest decompression (≤1 cm of residual leaning) were recorded as secondary outcomes. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (64.6±7.8% versus 43.1±28.3%; p = 0.02). The mean compression depth and rate and the proportion of complete chest decompressions did not differ significantly between the two groups (all p>0.05). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related feedback via a smartwatch could provide assistance with respect to the ideal range of chest compression depth, and this can easily be applied to patients with out-of-hospital arrest by rescuers who wear smartwatches.

  12. Microfluidic platform with spatiotemporally controlled micro-environment for studying long-term C. elegans developmental arrests.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Weipeng; Lu, Hang; McGrath, Patrick T

    2017-05-16

    Animals' long-term survival is dependent on their ability to sense, filter and respond to their environment at multiple timescales. For example, during development, animals integrate environmental information, which can then modulate adult behavior and developmental trajectory. The neural and molecular mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. C. elegans is a powerful model organism to study such mechanisms; however, conventional plate-based culturing techniques are limited in their ability to consistently control and modulate an animal's environmental conditions. To address this need, we developed a microfluidics-based experimental platform capable of long-term culture of populations of developing C. elegans covering the L1 larval stage to adulthood, while achieving spatial consistency and temporal control of their environment. To prevent bacterial accumulation and maintain optimal flow characteristics and nutrient consistency over the operational period of over one hundred and fifty hours, several features of the microfluidic system and the peripheral equipment were optimized. By manipulating food and pheromone exposure over several days, we were able to demonstrate environmental-dependent changes to growth rate and entry to dauer, an alternative developmental state. We envision this system to be useful in studying the mechanisms underlying long timescale changes to behavior and development in response to environmental changes.

  13. Adjunctive rifampicin to reduce early mortality from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and serious infection, with an associated mortality of ~25%. Once in the blood, S. aureus can disseminate to infect almost any organ, but bones, joints and heart valves are most frequently affected. Despite the infection’s severity, the evidence guiding optimal antibiotic therapy is weak: fewer than 1,500 patients have been included in 16 randomised controlled trials investigating S. aureus bacteraemia treatment. It is uncertain which antibiotics are most effective, their route of administration and duration, and whether antibiotic combinations are better than single agents. We hypothesise that adjunctive rifampicin, given in combination with a standard first-line antibiotic, will enhance killing of S. aureus early in the treatment course, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. Our aim is to determine whether adjunctive rifampicin reduces all-cause mortality within 14 days and bacteriological failure or death within 12 weeks from randomisation. Methods We will perform a parallel group, randomised (1:1), blinded, placebo-controlled trial in NHS hospitals across the UK. Adults (≥18 years) with S. aureus (meticillin-susceptible or resistant) grown from at least one blood culture who have received ≤96 h of active antibiotic therapy for the current infection and do not have contraindications to the use of rifampicin will be eligible for inclusion. Participants will be randomised to adjunctive rifampicin (600-900mg/day; orally or intravenously) or placebo for the first 14 days of therapy in combination with standard single-agent antibiotic therapy. The co-primary outcome measures will be all-cause mortality up to 14 days from randomisation and bacteriological failure/death (all-cause) up to 12 weeks from randomisation. 940 patients will be recruited, providing >80% power to detect 45% and 30% reductions in the two co

  14. 41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE ACCUMULATOR, AIR FLASK, CONTROL VALVE, WITH CONTROL RAM, SHEAVES AND WIRES UNDERNEATH ENGINE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. Cardiac arrest and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Tabitha A; Sanson, Tracy G

    2009-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy is rare occurring in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. When it does occur, it is important for a clinician to be familiar with the features peculiar to the pregnant state. Knowledge of the anatomic and physiologic changes of pregnancy is helpful in the treatment and diagnosis. Although the main focus should be on the mother, it should not be forgotten that there is another potential life at stake. Resuscitation of the mother is performed in the same manner as in any other patient, except for a few minor adjustments because of the changes of pregnancy. The specialties of obstetrics and neonatology should be involved early in the process to ensure appropriate treatment of both mother and the newborn. This article will explore the changes that occur in pregnancy and their impact on treatment. The common causes of maternal cardiac arrest will be discussed briefly. PMID:19561954

  16. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    PubMed

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  17. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha Ky; Wong, May Cm; Lo, Edward Cm

    2015-09-25

    The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at half-yearly intervals over a 30-month period. This study is a randomised, double-blinded, non-inferiority clinical trial. The hypothesis tested is that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 followed by 5 % NaF is at least not appreciably worse than a 38 % SDF in arresting ECC. Approximately 3100 kindergarten children aged 3-4 years will be screened and at least 1070 children with caries will be recruited. This sample size is sufficient for an appropriate statistical analysis (power at 90 % (β = 0.10) with a 2-sided type-I error of α = 0.05), allowing for an overall 20 % drop-out rate. The children will be randomly allocated into 2 groups to treat their caries over a 30-month period: Group A - biannual adjunctive application of a 25 % AgNO3 solution and a 5 % NaF varnish, and Group B - biannual adjunctive application of a 38 % SDF solution followed by a placebo varnish. Clinical examinations will be conducted at 6-month intervals. Primary outcome measured is the number of active caries surfaces which are arrested. Information on confounding factors such as oral hygiene habits will be collected through a parental questionnaire. We expect that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 solution and 5 % NaF varnish and of 38 % SDF solution can both effectively arrest ECC. Lower concentrations of silver and fluoride are contained in 25 % AgNO3 and 5 % NaF, respectively, than in 38 % SDF; therefore, AgNO3/NaF are more favourable for use in young children. Because its use for caries management is

  18. 43 CFR 4770.4 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arrest. 4770.4 Section 4770.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND...

  19. 43 CFR 4770.4 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS... Management may authorize an employee who witnesses a violation of the Act or these regulations to arrest...

  20. Cognitive impairment after sudden cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jaszke-Psonka, Magdalena; Piegza, Magdalena; Pudlo, Robert; Piegza, Jacek; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Hese, Robert T.; Gorczyca, Piotr W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the incidence and severity of the impairment of selected cognitive functions in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in comparison to patients after myocardial infarction without SCA and healthy subjects and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic and clinical parameters and the duration of cardiac arrest on the presence and severity of the described disorders. Material and methods The study group comprised 30 cardiac arrest survivors, the reference group comprised 31 survivors of myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest, and the control group comprised 30 healthy subjects. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Digit Span test from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Lauretta Bender’s Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) were used to assess the presence of cognitive impairment. An original questionnaire developed by the author was used for overall mental state assessment. Results The Bender test demonstrated a significant difference in the presence and severity of visual-motor skills between the study group and the control group, while BVRT and MMSE revealed increased incidence of cognitive impairment in the study group. The Bender and BVRT (D/D)/SS (version D, method D, scaled score) scales indicated cognitive impairment in 53.3% of these patients, while the BVRT (C/A)/SS test indicated cognitive impairment in 40%. For the reference group, the values were 32.3% and 12.9%, respectively. No correlation was found between the severity of cognitive impairment and the duration of cardiac arrest. Conclusions Impairment of visual-motor skills, short-term visual memory, concentration, and visual-motor coordination occurs much more frequently and is more severe in individuals after SCA than in healthy individuals. Impairment of memory trace storage and recall after delay occurs more frequently in patients after SCA than in patients after myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest and in healthy

  1. The TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 S-acyl transferase regulates plant cell growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Kemp, Alison C; Grierson, Claire S

    2005-09-01

    TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 (TIP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana affects cell growth throughout the plant and has a particularly strong effect on root hair growth. We have identified TIP1 by map-based cloning and complementation of the mutant phenotype. TIP1 encodes an ankyrin repeat protein with a DHHC Cys-rich domain that is expressed in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems, and floral tissue. Two homologues of TIP1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human (Homo sapiens) have been shown to have S-acyl transferase (also known as palmitoyl transferase) activity. S-acylation is a reversible hydrophobic protein modification that offers swift, flexible control of protein hydrophobicity and affects protein association with membranes, signal transduction, and vesicle trafficking within cells. We show that TIP1 binds the acyl group palmitate, that it can rescue the morphological, temperature sensitivity, and yeast casein kinase2 localization defects of the yeast S-acyl transferase mutant akr1Delta, and that inhibition of acylation in wild-type Arabidopsis roots reproduces the Tip1- mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that S-acylation is essential for normal plant cell growth and identify a plant S-acyl transferase, an essential research tool if we are to understand how this important, reversible lipid modification operates in plant cells.

  2. The influence of patient and wound variables on healing of venous leg ulcers in a randomized controlled trial of growth-arrested allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lantis, John C; Marston, William A; Farber, Alik; Kirsner, Robert S; Zhang, Yuxin; Lee, Tommy D; Cargill, D Innes; Slade, Herbert B

    2013-08-01

    To examine patient and wound variables presumed to influence healing outcomes in the context of therapeutic trials for chronic venous leg ulcers. This double-blind, vehicle-controlled study was conducted with randomized assignment to one of four cell therapy dose groups (n = 46, 43, 44, 45) or vehicle control (n = 50). A 2-week run-in period was used to exclude rapid healers and those with infection or uncontrolled edema. This was a multicenter (ambulatory, private, hospital-based and university-based practices, and wound care centers in North America) study. Adults ≥ 18 years old with chronic venous insufficiency associated with an uninfected venous leg ulcer (2-12 cm(2) area, 6-104 weeks' duration) were included in the study. Excluded were pregnant or lactating women, wounds with exposed muscle, tendon or bone, patients unable to tolerate compression bandages, or patients who had exclusionary medical conditions or exposure to certain products. Exclusion during run-in included patients with infection, uncontrolled severe edema or with healing rates ≥ 0.349 cm/2 wk. Screen fail rate was 37% (134/362), and the withdrawal rate was~10% (23 of 228). Growth-arrested neonatal dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were delivered via pump spray in a fibrin sealant-based matrix, plus a foam dressing and four-layer compression bandaging. Treatment continued for 12 weeks or until healed, whichever occurred first. Patient demographic and wound-related variables were evaluated for influence on complete wound healing in all patients, as well as the subsets of treated and control patients. Wound duration (P = .004) and the presence of specific quantities of certain bacterial species (P < .001) affected healing in the vehicle group, while healing in the cell-treated groups was influenced by wound duration (P = .012), wound area (P = .026), wound location (P = .011), and specific quantities of certain bacterial species (P = .002). Age, sex, race, diabetes, HbA1C, peripheral

  3. Registry of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Cardiac Arrest; Long QT Syndrome; Brugada Syndrome; Catecholaminergi Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia; Idiopathic VentricularFibrillation; Early Repolarization Syndrome; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy

  4. Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management 33°C versus 36°C: Results from a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dragancea, Irina; Horn, Janneke; Kuiper, Michael; Friberg, Hans; Ullén, Susann; Wetterslev, Jørn; Cranshaw, Jules; Hassager, Christian; Nielsen, Niklas; Cronberg, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The reliability of some methods of neurological prognostication after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has been questioned since the introduction of induced hypothermia. The aim of this study was to determine whether different treatment temperatures after resuscitation affected the prognostic accuracy of clinical neurological findings and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in comatose patients. We calculated sensitivity and false positive rate for Glasgow Coma Scale motor score (GCS M), pupillary and corneal reflexes and SSEP to predict poor neurological outcome using prospective data from the Target Temperature Management after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Trial which randomised 939 comatose survivors to treatment at either 33 °C or 36 °C. Poor outcome was defined as severe disability, vegetative state or death (Cerebral Performance Category scale 3-5) at six months. 313 patients (33%) were prognostically assessed; 168 in the 33 °C, and 145 in the 36 °C group. A GCS M ≤ 2 had a false positive rate of 19.1% to predict poor outcome due to nine false predictions. Bilaterally absent pupillary reflexes had a false positive rate of 2.1% and absent corneal reflexes had a false positive rate of 2.2% due to one false prediction in each group. The false positive rate for bilaterally absent SSEP N20-peaks was 2.6%. Bilaterally absent pupillary and corneal reflexes and absent SSEP N20-peaks were reliable markers of a poor prognosis after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but low GCS M score was not. The reliability of the tests was not altered by the treatment temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ECPR for Refractory Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-22

    Cardiac Arrest; Heart Arrest; Sudden Cardiac Arrest; Cardiopulmonary Arrest; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; CPR; Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

  6. [Thrombolysis in cardiac arrest].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Bailén, M; Rucabado Aguilar, L; Morante Valle, A; Castillo Rivera, A

    2006-03-01

    Both acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary thromboembolism are responsible for a great number of cardiac arrests. Both present high rates of mortality. Thrombolysis has proved to be an effective treatment for acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary thromboembolism with shock. It would be worth considering whether thrombolysis could be effective and safe during or after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Unfortunately, too few clinical studies presenting sufficient scientific data exist in order to respond adequately to this question. However, most studies they show that thrombolysis applied during and after CPR is a therapeutic option that is not associated with greater risk of serious hemorrhaging and could possibly have beneficial effects. On the other hand, experimental data exists which show that thrombolytics can attenuate neurological damage produced after CPR. Nevertheless, clinical trials would be necessary in order to adequately establish the effectiveness and safety of thrombolysis in patients who require CPR.

  7. Distal ulnar growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O A; Buchanan, J R; Harrison, C S

    1984-03-01

    Four cases of arrest of distal ulnar physeal growth occurring in children ages 7 to 13 years had follow-up for 2 to 10 years. Each patient developed bowing of the radial diaphysis, ulnar translation of the distal radial epiphysis, and increased ulnar angulation of the distal radiocarpal joint surface. Growth discrepancies were documented in both the ulna (range 2.2 to 3.9 cm) and to a lesser extent the radius (range 0.2 to 1.6 cm) when compared to the opposite forearm in each patient. The progression of deformity appeared to be greatest during adolescence. Radial deviation and pronation were limited to varying degrees in each case. No patient had significant pain or functional impairment, but the cosmetic appearance was always displeasing. Indications for surgical treatment include increasing ulnar angulation of the distal radial articular surface, progressive loss of motion, and displeasing cosmetic appearance.

  8. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ziganshin, Bulat A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cerebral protection remains the principle concern during aortic arch surgery. Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is entrenched as the primary neuroprotection mechanism since the 70s, as it slows injury-inducing pathways by limiting cerebral metabolism. However, increases in HCA duration has been associated with poorer neurological outcomes, necessitating the adjunctive use of antegrade (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). ACP has superseded RCP as the preferred perfusion strategy as it most closely mimic physiological perfusion, although there exists uncertainty regarding several technical details, such as unilateral versus bilateral perfusion, flow rate and temperature, perfusion site, undue trauma to head vessels, and risks of embolization. Nevertheless, we believe that the convenience, simplicity and effectiveness of straight DHCA justifies its use in the majority of elective and emergency cases. The following perspective offers a historical and clinical comparison of the DHCA with other techniques of cerebral protection. PMID:23977599

  9. Does the use of the Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System affect cardiac arrest detection?

    PubMed

    Heward, A; Damiani, M; Hartley-Sharpe, C

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is the most widely recognised prehospital event that early intervention can directly affect. Chance of survival from this event decreases every minute that passes without treatment. To deliver a rapid ambulance response to these patients the early detection of cardiac arrest by control room staff is crucial. To achieve this, the London Ambulance Service (LAS) uses the Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System. What impact has AMPDS had on identifying patients in cardiac arrest? Does compliance with AMPDS protocol influence the identification of patients in cardiac arrest? A two stage study was undertaken. The first, compared cases coded as "cardiac arrest" and found by the responding ambulance to be in cardiac arrest before the implementation of AMPDS. This was compared with cases triaged as "cardiac arrest" and found to be in cardiac arrest across three years after AMPDS implementation. The second stage compared AMPDS compliance, over a 32 month period against the percentage of cardiac arrest calls that were found to be cardiac arrest upon the ambulance arrival. The correlation coefficient was calculated and analysed for statistical significance. AMPDS resulted in a 200% rise in the number of patients accurately identified as suffering from cardiac arrest. A relation was identified between identification and AMPDS compliance (r(2) = 0.65, p = 0.001). The implementation of AMPDS increased accurate identification of patients in cardiac arrest. Additionally, the relation between factors identified suggests compliance with protocol is an important factor in the accurate recognition of patient conditions.

  10. Acquired Upper Extremity Growth Arrest.

    PubMed

    Gauger, Erich M; Casnovsky, Lauren L; Gauger, Erica J; Bohn, Deborah C; Van Heest, Ann E

    2017-01-01

    This study reviewed the clinical history and management of acquired growth arrest in the upper extremity in pediatric patients. The records of all patients presenting from 1996 to 2012 with radiographically proven acquired growth arrest were reviewed. Records were examined to determine the etiology and site of growth arrest, management, and complications. Patients with tumors or hereditary etiology were excluded. A total of 44 patients (24 boys and 20 girls) with 51 physeal arrests who presented at a mean age of 10.6 years (range, 0.8-18.2 years) were included in the study. The distal radius was the most common site (n=24), followed by the distal humerus (n=8), metacarpal (n=6), distal ulna (n=5), proximal humerus (n=4), radial head (n=3), and olecranon (n=1). Growth arrest was secondary to trauma (n=22), infection (n=11), idiopathy (n=6), inflammation (n=2), compartment syndrome (n=2), and avascular necrosis (n=1). Twenty-six patients (59%) underwent surgical intervention to address deformity caused by the physeal arrest. Operative procedures included ipsilateral unaffected bone epiphysiodesis (n=21), shortening osteotomy (n=10), lengthening osteotomy (n=8), excision of physeal bar or bone fragment (n=2), angular correction osteotomy (n=1), and creation of single bone forearm (n=1). Four complications occurred; 3 of these required additional procedures. Acquired upper extremity growth arrest usually is caused by trauma or infection, and the most frequent site is the distal radius. Growth disturbances due to premature arrest can be treated effectively with epiphysiodesis or osteotomy. In this series, the specific site of anatomic growth arrest was the primary factor in determining treatment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e95-e103.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Gnb isoforms control a signaling pathway comprising Rac1, Plcβ2, and Plcβ3 leading to LFA-1 activation and neutrophil arrest in vivo.

    PubMed

    Block, Helena; Stadtmann, Anika; Riad, Daniel; Rossaint, Jan; Sohlbach, Charlotte; Germena, Giulia; Wu, Dianqing; Simon, Scott I; Ley, Klaus; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-01-21

    Chemokines are required for leukocyte recruitment and appropriate host defense and act through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which induce downstream signaling leading to integrin activation. Although the α and β subunits of the GPCRs are the first intracellular molecules that transduce signals after ligand binding and are therefore indispensable for downstream signaling, relatively little is known about their contribution to lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) activation and leukocyte recruitment. We used knockout mice and short hairpin RNA to knock down guanine nucleotide binding protein (GNB) isoforms (GNB1, GNB2, GNB4, and GNB5) in HL60 cells and primary murine hematopoietic cells. Neutrophil function was assessed by using intravital microscopy, flow chamber assays, and chemotaxis and biochemistry studies. We unexpectedly discovered that all expressed GNB isoforms are required for LFA-1 activation. Their downregulation led to a significant impairment of LFA-1 activation, which was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that GPCR activation leads to Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-dependent activation of both phospholipase C β2 (Plcβ2) and Plcβ3. They act nonredundantly to produce inositol triphosphate-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) flux and LFA-1 activation that support chemokine-induced arrest in vivo. In a complex inflammatory disease model, Plcβ2-, Plcβ3-, or Rac1-deficient mice were protected from lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Taken together, we demonstrated that all Gnb isoforms are required for chemokine-induced downstream signaling, and Rac1, Plcβ2, and Plcβ3 are critically involved in integrin activation and leukocyte arrest. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. [Arrest of maturation in spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; Bellocci, M; Martini, M; Bruno, B; Moscardelli, S; Fabbrini, A; Properzi, G

    1982-07-30

    The ultrastructural aspects of the germinal epithelium of 10 infertile men affected by maturative arrest of spermatogenesis were studied. We noted an increased number of malformed germinal cells. Marginal nuclear vescicles were present in spermatogonia of patients affected by spermatogonial arrest. The few spermatid present in the germinal epithelium of the patients affected by a spermatidic arrest presented changes of the nuclear condensation, the acrosome, and the tail. The Sertoli cells presented an immature aspect of the nucleus and changes of the "mantle". A possible correlation between the Sertoli cells changes and the altered spermatogenesis was proposed.

  13. Arrest of Cytoplasmic Streaming Induces Algal Proliferation in Green Paramecia

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Yohji; Kosaka, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells. PMID:18159235

  14. Relationship between Intrauterine Bacterial Infection and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shao-Fei; Liu, Xin-Yan; Cheng, Yun-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yi; Ou, Jie; Wang, Wei; Li, Feng-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early embryonic developmental arrest is the most commonly understudied adverse outcome of pregnancy. The relevance of intrauterine infection to spontaneous embryonic death is rarely studied and remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine bacterial infection and early embryonic developmental arrest. Methods: Embryonic chorion tissue and uterine swabs for bacterial detection were obtained from 33 patients who underwent artificial abortion (control group) and from 45 patients who displayed early embryonic developmental arrest (trial group). Results: Intrauterine bacterial infection was discovered in both groups. The infection rate was 24.44% (11/45) in the early embryonic developmental arrest group and 9.09% (3/33) in the artificial abortion group. Classification analysis revealed that the highest detection rate for Micrococcus luteus in the early embryonic developmental arrest group was 13.33% (6/45), and none was detected in the artificial abortion group. M. luteus infection was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05 as shown by Fisher's exact test). In addition, no correlation was found between intrauterine bacterial infection and history of early embryonic developmental arrest. Conclusions: M. luteus infection is related to early embryonic developmental arrest and might be one of its causative factors. PMID:27270541

  15. Associates of cardiopulmonary arrest in the perihemodialytic period.

    PubMed

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Li, Nien-Chen; Lin, Shu-Fang; Brunelli, Steven M; Hymes, Jeffrey; Lacson, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes). This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases) and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped) were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath) and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose.

  16. Associates of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Perihemodialytic Period

    PubMed Central

    Flythe, Jennifer E.; Li, Nien-Chen; Brunelli, Steven M.; Lacson, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes). This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases) and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped) were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath) and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose. PMID:25530881

  17. Statistical correlations of crime with arrests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuelling, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Regression analysis shows that the overall crime rate correlates with the overall arrest rate. Violent crime only weakly correlates with the violent arrest rate, but strongly correlates with the property arrest rate. Contrary to common impressions, increasing arrest rates do not significantly increase loading on incarceration facilities.

  18. Juvenile Arrests, 1998. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data in the United States. In 1998, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.6 million arrests of persons under age 18. Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics indicate that juveniles account for 18% of all arrests, and 17% of all violent crime arrests in…

  19. Dichloroacetate induces cell cycle arrest in human glioblastoma cells persistently infected with measles virus: a way for controlling viral persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Megumi; Watari, Eiji; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    We have previously established a human glioblastoma cell line persistently infected with mutant measles virus (MV), and found increased functions of mitochondria in MV persistently infected cells compared with uninfected or acutely infected cells. Moreover, impairment of mitochondria functions induced a breakdown of persistent infection, which suggested that mitochondria might play an important role in the maintenance of persistent infection and loss or functional alterations of mitochondria might be a candidate for possible intervention in persistent infection. In this study we examined the effect of dichloroacetate (DCA), which is known to increase pyruvate oxidation, on mitochondrial functions in MV persistently infected cells. DCA caused mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle arrest in MV persistently infected cells; consequently, the expression level of MV proteins were decreased in a DCA dependent manner. Here, we present a new therapeutic approach for persistent infection targeting mitochondrial respiration. Advantage to targeting mitochondrial respiration is that the impairment of mitochondrial functions by DCA is found in MV persistently infected cells not in uninfected cells, which may offer a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with few adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure–Biological Function Relationship Extended to Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2-Like Protein Mad2 Native and Mutants-New Opportunity for Genetic Disorder Control

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina; Mernea, Maria; Mihailescu, Dan; Putz, Mihai V.; Buiu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53–0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82–0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN. PMID:25411801

  1. Xenopus laevis zygote arrest 2 (zar2) encodes a zinc finger RNA-binding protein that binds to the translational control sequence in the maternal Wee1 mRNA and regulates translation.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Amanda; Yamamoto, Tomomi M; Cook, Jonathan M; Silva, Kevin D; Kotter, Cassandra V; Carter, Gwendolyn S; Holt, Justin W; Lavender, Heather F; MacNicol, Angus M; Ying Wang, Yi; Wilczynska, Anna

    2012-09-15

    Zygote arrest (Zar) proteins are crucial for early embryonic development, but their molecular mechanism of action is unknown. The Translational Control Sequence (TCS) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the maternal mRNA, Wee1, mediates translational repression in immature Xenopus oocytes and translational activation in mature oocytes, but the protein that binds to the TCS and mediates translational control is not known. Here we show that Xenopus laevis Zar2 (encoded by zar2) binds to the TCS in maternal Wee1 mRNA and represses translation in immature oocytes. Using yeast 3 hybrid assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, Zar2 was shown to bind specifically to the TCS in the Wee1 3'UTR. RNA binding required the presence of Zn(2+) and conserved cysteines in the C-terminal domain, suggesting that Zar2 contains a zinc finger. Consistent with regulating maternal mRNAs, Zar2 was present throughout oogenesis, and endogenous Zar2 co-immunoprecipitated endogenous Wee1 mRNA from immature oocytes, demonstrating the physiological significance of the protein-RNA interaction. Interestingly, Zar2 levels decreased during oocyte maturation. Dual luciferase reporter tethered assays showed that Zar2 repressed translation in immature oocytes. Translational repression was relieved during oocyte maturation and this coincided with degradation of Zar2 during maturation. This is the first report of a molecular function of zygote arrest proteins. These data show that Zar2 contains a zinc finger and is a trans-acting factor for the TCS in maternal mRNAs in immature Xenopus oocytes.

  2. Characterization of mitochondrial injury after cardiac arrest (COMICA).

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W; Rittenberger, Jon C; Abella, Benjamin S; Gaieski, David F; Ornato, Joseph P; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Cocchi, Michael N; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton W

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0h. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0h cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher Ribonuclease P (RNaseP) (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and Beta-2microglobulin (B2M) (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Cytochrome c was increased in post- cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in the post-cardiac arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. THE CHEMOTHERAPY OF CARDIAC ARREST.

    PubMed

    MINUCK, M

    1965-01-02

    Direct-air ventilation, external cardiac compression, and external defibrillation are established techniques for patients who unexpectedly develop cardiac arrest. The proper use of drugs can increase the incidence of successful resuscitation. Intracardiac adrenaline (epinephrine) acts as a powerful stimulant during cardiac standstill and, in addition, converts fine ventricular fibrillation to a coarser type, more responsive to electrical defibrillation. Routine use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate is recommended to combat the severe metabolic acidosis accompanying cardiac arrest. Lidocaine is particularly useful when ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia tends to recur. Analeptics are contraindicated, since they invariably increase oxygen requirements of already hypoxic cerebral tissues. The following acrostic is a useful mnemonic for recalling the details of the management of cardiac arrest in their proper order: A (Airway), B (Breathing), C (Circulation), D (Diagnosis of underlying cause), E (Epinephrine), F (Fibrillation), G (Glucose intravenously), pH (Sodium bicarbonate), I (Intensive care).

  4. Analysis of Crack Arrest Toughness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    vload(m) vp tn(m) Vertical Source Load (kN) on wedge HY80 Finite Element 0.0122 0.0099 3.81x10 -4 144 Steel Calculations Experiment 0.0122 --- 3.74x10-4...curve, are bona fide measures of the fracture arrest capability of tough ductile steels . The second is that the J-values represent the crack driving...fibrous mode of crack extension. (b) A new test method for studying fast fracture and arrest in tough steels . (c) Measurements of fast fracture and crack

  5. DUI Arrests and Academic Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Richardson, Katie

    2008-01-01

    A sobering 2002 study reported that over 2 million college students drove under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in 1999. Among those driving while intoxicated, approximately 1.7% or roughly 34,000 students reported being arrested on DUI charges. Regrettably, a significant proportion of the 1,400 college student deaths and 500,000 injuries are…

  6. Cardiac arrest during dipyridamole imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.S.; McCauley, C.S.

    1988-05-01

    A case of cardiac arrest and subsequent acute myocardial infarction occurring during thallium-201 imaging with oral dipyridamole augmentation is presented. Previous reports emphasizing the safety of this procedure are briefly reviewed and a recommendation for close hemodynamic and arrhythmia monitoring during the study is made. Large doses of oral dipyridamole may be contraindicated in patients with unstable angina.

  7. DUI Arrests and Academic Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Richardson, Katie

    2008-01-01

    A sobering 2002 study reported that over 2 million college students drove under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in 1999. Among those driving while intoxicated, approximately 1.7% or roughly 34,000 students reported being arrested on DUI charges. Regrettably, a significant proportion of the 1,400 college student deaths and 500,000 injuries are…

  8. Gentle arrester for moving bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Wire cable absorbs energy at constant rate with reduced shock and rebounding. Cable typically elongates to 90 percent of its potential, but is surrounded by braided sheath to absorb remaining energy should it break prematurely. Applications of arrester include passenger restraint in air and land vehicles, parachute risers, and ground snatch by aircraft. Possible cable material is type 302 stainless steel.

  9. Gentle arrester for moving bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Wire cable absorbs energy at constant rate with reduced shock and rebounding. Cable typically elongates to 90 percent of its potential, but is surrounded by braided sheath to absorb remaining energy should it break prematurely. Applications of arrester include passenger restraint in air and land vehicles, parachute risers, and ground snatch by aircraft. Possible cable material is type 302 stainless steel.

  10. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  11. Cardiac Arrest: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... dying from a second SCA. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Start Here About Cardiac Arrest (American Heart ... Society) What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest? (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Latest News How Devices in Public Places ...

  12. GAMETOPHYTE DEFECTIVE 1, a putative subunit of RNases P/MRP, is essential for female gametogenesis and male competence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Qi; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Long, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2012-01-01

    RNA biogenesis, including biosynthesis and maturation of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, is a fundamental process that is critical for cell growth, division and differentiation. Previous studies showed that mutations in components involved in RNA biogenesis resulted in abnormalities in gametophyte and leaf development in Arabidopsis. In eukaryotes, RNases P/MRP (RNase mitochondrial RNA processing) are important ribonucleases that are responsible for processing of tRNA, and transcription of small non-coding RNAs. Here we report that Gametophyte Defective 1 (GAF1), a gene encoding a predicted protein subunit of RNases P/MRP, AtRPP30, plays a role in female gametophyte development and male competence. Embryo sacs were arrested at stages ranging from FG1 to FG7 in gaf1 mutant, suggesting that the progression of the gametophytic division during female gametogenesis was impaired in gaf1 mutant. In contrast, pollen development was not affected in gaf1. However, the fitness of the mutant pollen tube was weaker than that of the wild-type, leading to reduced transmission through the male gametes. GAF1 is featured as a typical RPP30 domain protein and interacts physically with AtPOP5, a homologue of RNases P/MRP subunit POP5 of yeast. Together, our data suggest that components of the RNases P/MRP family, such as RPP30, play important roles in gametophyte development and function in plants.

  13. 25 CFR 11.301 - Arrests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrests. 11.301 Section 11.301 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.301 Arrests. (a) Arrest is the taking of a person into police custody in order that...

  14. 10 CFR 1049.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1049.4 Section 1049.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.4 Arrest authority. (a) Under the Act, the authority of...

  15. 10 CFR 1049.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1049.4 Section 1049.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.4 Arrest authority. (a) Under the Act, the authority of...

  16. 14 CFR 1203b.103 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.103 Arrest authority. (a) NASA security... authority. (b) The authority of NASA security force personnel to make a warrantless arrest is subject to the...

  17. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: Sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990–2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important precursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. PMID:23773958

  18. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-10-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990-2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, that a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important pre-cursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dually Diagnosed Patients with Arrests for Violent and Nonviolent Offenses: Two-Year Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Finlay, Andrea; Schultz, Nicole R.; Blonigen, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the history of arrests among dually diagnosed patients entering treatment, compare groups with different histories on use of treatment and mutual-help groups and functioning, at intake to treatment and six-month, one-year, and two-year follow-ups, and examine correlates and predictors of legal functioning at the study endpoint. At treatment intake, 9.2% of patients had no arrest history, 56.3% had been arrested for nonviolent offenses only, and 34.5% had been arrested for violent offenses. At baseline, the violent group had used the most outpatient psychiatric treatment and reported poorer functioning (psychiatric, alcohol, drug, employment, and family/social). Both arrest groups had used more inpatient/residential treatment and had more mutual-help group participation than the no-arrest group. The arrest groups had higher likelihood of substance use disorder treatment or mutual-help group participation at follow-ups. Generally, all groups were comparable on functioning at follow-ups (with baseline functioning controlled). With baseline arrest status controlled, earlier predictors of more severe legal problems at the two-year follow-up were more severe psychological, family/social, and drug problems. Findings suggest that dually diagnosed patients with a history of arrests for violent offenses may achieve comparable treatment outcomes to those of patients with milder criminal histories. PMID:27119040

  20. Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-07

    Neurological Outcome; Cardiac Arrest; Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest; Brain Anoxia Ischemia; Hypoxia, Brain; Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain; Cardiac Arrest With Successful Resuscitation; Cardiac Arrest, Out-Of-Hospital; Brain Injuries

  1. Hydroxylated PBDEs induce developmental arrest in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Usenko, Crystal Y. Hopkins, David C.; Trumble, Stephen J. Bruce, Erica D.

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquitous spread of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has led to concerns regarding the metabolites of these congeners, in particular hydroxylated PBDEs. There are limited studies regarding the biological interactions of these chemicals, yet there is some concern they may be more toxic than their parent compounds. In this study three hydroxylated PBDEs were assessed for toxicity in embryonic zebrafish: 3-OH-BDE 47, 5-OH-BDE 47, and 6-OH-BDE 47. All three congeners induced developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner; however, 6-OH-BDE 47 induced adverse effects at lower concentrations than the other congeners. Furthermore, all three induced cell death; however apoptosis was not observed. In short-term exposures (24–28 hours post fertilization), all hydroxylated PBDEs generated oxidative stress in the region corresponding to the cell death at 5 and 10 ppm. To further investigate the short-term effects that may be responsible for the developmental arrest observed in this study, gene regulation was assessed for embryos exposed to 0.625 ppm 6-OH-BDE 47 from 24 to 28 hpf. Genes involved in stress response, thyroid hormone regulation, and neurodevelopment were significantly upregulated compared to controls; however, genes related to oxidative stress were either unaffected or downregulated. This study suggests that hydroxylated PBDEs disrupt development, and may induce oxidative stress and potentially disrupt the cholinergic system and thyroid hormone homeostasis. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs induce developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. ► Hydroxyl group location influences biological interaction. ► OH-PBDEs induce oxidative stress. ► Thyroid hormone gene regulation was disrupted following exposure. ► To our knowledge, this is the first whole organism study of OH-PBDE toxicity.

  2. [Pathophysiology and management of post-cardiac arrest syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mongardon, N; Bouglé, A; Geri, G; Daviaud, F; Morichau-Beauchant, T; Tissier, R; Dumas, F; Cariou, A

    2013-11-01

    This review aims at providing an update on post-cardiac arrest syndrome, from pathophysiology to treatment. Medline database. All data on pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic management, with focus on the publications of the 5 last years. Care of the patients after cardiac arrest is a medical challenge, in face of "post-cardiac arrest syndrome", which culminates into multi-organ failure. This syndrome mimics sepsis-related dysfunctions, with all clinical and biological manifestations related to the phenomenon of global ischemia-reperfusion. Acute cardiocirculatory dysfunction is usually controlled through pharmacological and mechanical support. Meanwhile, as a majority of cardiac arrest is related to myocardial infarction, early angiographic exploration should then be discussed when there is no obvious extracardiac cause, percutaneous coronary revascularization being associated with improved short and long-term prognosis. Therapeutic hypothermia is the cornerstone of neuroprotective armamentarium, beyond hemodynamic stabilization and metabolic maintenance. If ongoing evaluations should shed light on potential efficiency of new therapeutic drugs, a multidisciplinary approach of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome in expertise centre is essential. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal Protective Hypothermia in Arrested Mammalian Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Villet, Outi M.; Ge, Ming; Sekhar, Laigam N.; Corson, Marshall A.; Tylee, Tracy S.; Fan, Lu-Ping; Yao, Lin; Zhu, Chun; Olson, Aaron K.; Buroker, Norman E.; Xu, Cheng-Su; Anderson, David L.; Soh, Yong-Kian; Wang, Elise; Chen, Shi-Han; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic hypothermia recommendations have been reported, but the information supporting them is sparse, and reveals a need for the data of target therapeutic hypothermia (TTH) from well-controlled experiments. The core temperature ≤35°C is considered as hypothermia, and 29°C is a cooling injury threshold in pig heart in vivo. Thus, an optimal protective hypothermia (OPH) should be in the range 29–35°C. This study was conducted with a pig cardiopulmonary bypass preparation to decrease the core temperature to 29–35°C range at 20 minutes before and 60 minutes during heart arrest. The left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, maximum of the first derivative of LV (dP/dtmax), cardiac power, heart rate, cardiac output, and myocardial velocity (Vmax) were recorded continuously via an LV pressure catheter and an aortic flow probe. At 20 minutes of off-pump during reperfusion after 60 minutes arrest, 17 hypothermic hearts showed that the recovery of Vmax and dP/dtmax established sigmoid curves that consisted of two plateaus: a good recovery plateau at 29–30.5°C, the function recovered to baseline level (BL) (Vmax=118.4%±3.9% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=120.7%±3.1% of BL, n=6); another poor recovery plateau at 34–35°C (Vmax=60.2%±2.8% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=28.0%±5.9% of BL, p<0.05, n=6; ), which are similar to the four normothermia arrest (37°C) hearts (Vmax=55.9%±4.8% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=24.5%±2.1% of BL, n=4). The 32–32.5°C arrest hearts showed moderate recovery (n=5). A point of inflection (around 30.5–31°C) existed at the edge of a good recovery plateau followed by a steep slope. The point presented an OPH that should be the TTH. The results are concordant with data in the mammalian hearts, suggesting that the TTH should be initiated to cool core temperature at 31°C. PMID:25514569

  4. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes.

  5. Prescription Monitoring Program Trends Among Individuals Arrested in Maine for Trafficking Prescription Drugs in 2014.

    PubMed

    McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Macrolide antibiotics allosterically predispose the ribosome for translation arrest

    PubMed Central

    Sothiselvam, Shanmugapriya; Liu, Bo; Han, Wei; Ramu, Haripriya; Klepacki, Dorota; Atkinson, Gemma Catherine; Brauer, Age; Remm, Maido; Tenson, Tanel; Schulten, Klaus; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Translation arrest directed by nascent peptides and small cofactors controls expression of important bacterial and eukaryotic genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, activated by binding of macrolide drugs to the ribosome. Previous studies suggested that specific interactions between the nascent peptide and the antibiotic in the ribosomal exit tunnel play a central role in triggering ribosome stalling. However, here we show that macrolides arrest translation of the truncated ErmDL regulatory peptide when the nascent chain is only three amino acids and therefore is too short to be juxtaposed with the antibiotic. Biochemical probing and molecular dynamics simulations of erythromycin-bound ribosomes showed that the antibiotic in the tunnel allosterically alters the properties of the catalytic center, thereby predisposing the ribosome for halting translation of specific sequences. Our findings offer a new view on the role of small cofactors in the mechanism of translation arrest and reveal an allosteric link between the tunnel and the catalytic center of the ribosome. PMID:24961372

  7. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  8. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  9. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  10. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  11. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  12. Pyruvate enhances neurological recovery following cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti B.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Yang, Shao-Hua; Simpkins, James W.; Mallet, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction impede neurological recovery from cardiac arrest-resuscitation. Pyruvate, a potent antioxidant and energy-yielding fuel, has been shown to protect against oxidant- and ischemia-induced neuronal damage. This study tested whether acute pyruvate treatment during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can prevent neurological dysfunction and cerebral injury following cardiac arrest. Methods Anesthetized, open-chest mongrel dogs underwent 5 min cardiac arrest, 5 min open chest cardiac compression (OCCC), defibrillation and 3 day recovery. Pyruvate (n = 9) or NaCl volume control (n = 8) were administered (0.125 mmol/kg/min iv) throughout OCCC and the first 55 min recovery. Sham dogs (n = 6) underwent surgery and recovery without cardiac arrest-resuscitation. Results Neurological deficit score (NDS), evaluated at 2 day recovery, was sharply increased in NaCl-treated dogs (10.3 ± 3.5) vs. shams (1.2 ± 0.4), but pyruvate treatment mitigated neurological deficit (NDS = 3.3 ± 1.2; P < 0.05 vs. NaCl). Brain samples were taken for histological examination and evaluation of inflammation and cell death at 3 d recovery. Loss of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 subregion was greater in the NaCl controls than in pyruvate treated dogs (11.7 ± 2.3% vs. 4.3 ± 1.2%; P < 0.05). Cardiac arrest increased caspase 3 activity, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and DNA fragmentation in the CA1 subregion; pyruvate prevented caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase activity. Conclusion Intravenous pyruvate therapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation prevents initial oxidative stress and neuronal injury and enhances neurological recovery from cardiac arrest. PMID:17618729

  13. β-Arrestin1/miR-326 Transcription Unit Is Epigenetically Regulated in Neural Stem Cells Where It Controls Stemness and Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Begalli, Federica; Abballe, Luana; Catanzaro, Giuseppina; Vacca, Alessandra; Napolitano, Maddalena; Tafani, Marco; Giangaspero, Felice; Locatelli, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Cell development is regulated by a complex network of mRNA-encoded proteins and microRNAs, all funnelling onto the modulation of self-renewal or differentiation genes. How intragenic microRNAs and their host genes are transcriptionally coregulated and their functional relationships for the control of neural stem cells (NSCs) are poorly understood. We propose here the intragenic miR-326 and its host gene β-arrestin1 as novel players whose epigenetic silencing maintains stemness in normal cerebellar stem cells. Such a regulation is mediated by CpG islands methylation of the common promoter. Epigenetic derepression of β-arrestin1/miR-326 by differentiation signals or demethylating agents leads to suppression of stemness features and cell growth and promotes cell differentiation. β-Arrestin1 inhibits cell proliferation by enhancing the nuclear expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. Therefore, we propose a new mechanism for the control of cerebellar NSCs where a coordinated epigenetic mechanism finely regulates β-arrestin1/miR-326 expression and consequently NSCs stemness and cell growth. PMID:28298929

  14. Arrest and detention in international travellers.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Douglas W; Gushulak, Brian D; Sandhu, James

    2007-07-01

    Systematic published reviews of national arrests of travellers abroad are rare. The pattern of arrest during international travel has implications for travellers and those involved in providing traveller services. There are also consequences for travellers who are arrested and detained abroad. The Consular Affairs Bureau, Foreign Affairs Canada assists Canadian civilians who are abroad. Beginning in 1995 the Consular Management and Operations System was used to track notifications of Canadian arrests abroad. This database was designed for the demographics, destinations, and reported causes of Canadians arrested abroad for 1996-2004. In this period, there were 6514 notifications of arrested Canadians abroad; 1024 (16%) females and 5490 (84%) males with an average age of 33.3 and 36.4 years, respectively. Recorded reasons for arrest were for females: drugs: 420 (41% of females arrested), violence: 75 (7%), other criminal acts: 198 (19%), immigration: 169 (17%), other minor causes: 20 (2%); and for males: drugs: 1554 (28% of males arrested), violence: 581 (11%), other criminal acts: 1468 (27%), immigration: 1056 (20%), other minor causes: 105 (1.9%); or the cause was not recorded for 142 women and 747 men. The USA was the most common host country for arrested Canadians. Alleged drug offences, other criminal activities, and immigration reasons were the most common cited reasons for arrest. Country of arrest reflected the pattern of Canadian international travel for recreation, business, and ancestral linkages. There are a wide-range of potential physical and mental health outcomes to arrest and imprisonment abroad that may be different in foreign jurisdictions due to language, culture, judicial processes and penalties imposed. The prison environment may also pose significant health risks.

  15. Neuroprotection with the P53-Inhibitor Pifithrin-μ After Cardiac Arrest in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Glas, Michael; Frick, Tamara; Springe, Dirk; Putzu, Alessandro; Zuercher, Patrick; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Jakob, Stephan M; Takala, Jukka; Haenggi, Matthias

    2017-05-30

    The small molecule pifithrin-μ reversibility inhibits the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The neuronal effects of pifithrin-μ applied after cardiac arrest are unknown. We hypothesized that pifithrin-μ reduces neuronal damage in the most vulnerable brain region, the hippocampus, after cardiac arrest. In two randomized controlled series we administered pifithrin-μ or control in 109 rats resuscitated after 8 or 10 minutes of cardiac arrest. Neuronal damage was blindly assessed with histology (Fluoro Jade B: FJB, cresyl violet: CV) in the most vulnerable brain region (CA1 segment of hippocampus) and with a series of neurobehavioral tests (Open Field Task, Tape-Removal Test, Morris Water Maze test). Mixed ANOVA was used to combine both series, simple comparisons were done with t-tests or Mann-Whitney U test. Pifithrin-μ reduced the number of degenerating, FJB-positive neurons by 25% (mixed ANOVA p group = 0.014). This was more prominent after 8 minutes cardiac arrest (8 minutes arrest pifithrin-μ 94 ± 47 vs control 128 ± 37; n = 11 each; 10 minutes arrest pifithrin-μ 78 ± 44, n = 15 vs control 101 ± 31, n = 18; p group* arrest length interaction = 0.622). The reduction of ischemic CV-positive neurons in pifithrin-μ animals was not significant (ANOVA p group = 0.063). No significant group differences were found in neurobehavioral testing. Temporarily inhibition of apoptosis with pifithrin-μ after cardiac arrest decreases the number of injured neurons in the CA1 segment of hippocampus in a cardiac arrest rat model, without clinical correlate. Further studies should elucidate the role of this neuroprotective agent in different settings and with longer cardiac arrest.

  16. Drug therapy in cardiac arrest: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Andreas; Djärv, Therese; Engdahl, Johan; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ravn-Fischer, Annika; Ringh, Mattias; Rysz, Susanne; Svensson, Leif; Herlitz, Johan; Lundgren, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature on human studies of drug therapy in cardiac arrest during the last 25 years. In May 2015, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CRD databases. Prospective interventional and observational studies evaluating a specified drug therapy in human cardiac arrest reporting a clinical endpoint [i.e. return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or survival] and published in English 1990 or later were included, whereas animal studies, case series and reports, studies of drug administration, drug pharmacology, non-specified drug therapies, preventive drug therapy, drug administration after ROSC, studies with primarily physiological endpoints, and studies of traumatic cardiac arrest were excluded. The literature search identified a total of 8936 articles. Eighty-eight articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. We identified no human study in which drug therapy, compared with placebo, improved long-term survival. Regarding adrenaline and amiodarone, the drugs currently recommended in cardiac arrest, two prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials, were identified for adrenaline, and one for amiodarone, but they were all underpowered to detect differences in survival to hospital discharge. Of all reviewed studies, only one recent prospective study demonstrated improved neurological outcome with one therapy over another using a combination of vasopressin, steroids, and adrenaline as the intervention compared with standard adrenaline administration. The evidence base for drug therapy in cardiac arrest is scarce. However, many human studies on drug therapy in cardiac arrest have not been powered to identify differences in important clinical outcomes such as survival to hospital discharge and favourable neurological outcome. Efforts are needed to initiate large multicentre prospective randomized clinical trials to evaluate both currently recommended and

  17. Detainees arrested for the first time in French police stations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Renaud; Beaufrère, Aurélie; Chariot, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The psychological impact of incarceration vary from individual to individual and most people first entering prison experience severe stress. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of detainees arrested for the first time and who had medical examination during custody. The study sample included 200 detainees arrested for the first time in 2012 and examined for the second time before May 31, 2013, 200 detainees arrested for the first time in 2012 and who had not a second examination by May 31, 2013, and a control group of 200 individuals who had been arrested before. Collected data related to persons' characteristics, the course of detention, alleged assaults and traumatic injuries. In our sample, victimization was the most frequent motivation for requesting a medical examination and affected 31-46% of patients who requested the examination. The medical examination was less frequently requested by the detainee at the first detention than at subsequent detentions (35% and 31% vs. 51%, P < 0.001). Unremarkable psychic states were found in most cases in all groups. Detainees expressed a good or very good opinion on custody in 40-51% of cases. In 75-89% of cases, detainees were considered to be unconditionally fit for detention. The present findings suggest only minor differences between clinical features of individuals arrested for the first time and their clinical status when they were arrested for the second time. The systematic collection of more detailed description of the detainees' psychic state could be relevant at the time of medical examinations in police cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

    1982-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

  19. Application of lightning arrester on transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, K.

    1990-05-01

    A lightning arrester on transmission lines is expected to reduce lightning incidents; however, the problems of the application guide to be established such as the method of application, the treating capacity for lightning energy, and the coordination to an arc horn remain as they are. The method of application for a lightning arrester on transmission lines and its effect are examined from the viewpoint of the generating incident on transmission lines by lightning and the operating viewpoint of a lightning arrester for a 77kV system. The double circuit setup of an arrester is the best method to reduce the lightning incidents and the single circuit setup can reduce the incident rate by 40 percent preventing the flashover of the circuit on which the arrester is not set up. For installing an arrester on a short section, the flashover point can transfer to the next steel tower where the arrester is not set up, only when lightning strikes the last steel tower. Inflowing current into an arrester from a direct lightning strike is considerably large and the energy at that time becomes large but this energy can be reduced by the operation of the arrester set up on another steel tower.

  20. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  1. MOV surge arresters: improved substation equipment protection

    SciTech Connect

    Niebuhr, W.D.

    1985-07-01

    The introduction of metal-oxide-varistor (MOV) surge arresters has added a new dimension to substation equipment protection. Through the optimal use of these arresters, it is possible to lower surge arrester ratings and thereby improve protective margins, resulting in a possible reduction of the insulation levels (BIL) of substation equipment. This reduction in BIL can lead to a significant reduction in the cost of substation equipment. General methods are delineated for selecting MOV surge arresters for substation protection and the resulting effect on substation equipment insulation levels.

  2. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  3. Investigation following resuscitated cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Roughly two thirds of resuscitated cardiac arrests in children and youth are due to inherited heart diseases. The most commonly implicated are the cardiac ion channelopathies long QT syndrome, CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and Brugada syndrome. Diagnosis is pivotal to further management of the child if he/she survives, and also to other family members who may be at risk. Thorough investigation of the cardiac arrest survivor is essential to either identify or exclude inherited heart disease. If standard cardiac investigation does not reveal a diagnosis, pharmacological provocation tests are needed to unmask electrocardiographic signs of disease, even if, due to severe brain injury, it is planned ultimately to allow a natural death. Examples are the ajmaline/flecainide challenge for Brugada syndrome and epinephrine for CPVT. A supportive, informative and sympathetic approach to the family is essential. An arrhythmia specialist and a cardiac genetic service should be involved early, with storage of DNA and cardiac/genetic investigation of the family. This review proposes a diagnostic algorithm-based approach to the investigation of this increasingly common clinical scenario.

  4. Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2013-01-01

    The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

  5. Novel functions of Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1 (SCD1) in innate immune responses against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Korasick, David A; McMichael, Colleen; Walker, Katie A; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Heese, Antje

    2010-07-23

    Eukaryotes employ complex immune mechanisms for protection against microbial pathogens. Here, we identified SCD1 (Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1), previously implicated in growth and development through its role in cytokinesis and polarized cell expansion (Falbel, T. G., Koch, L. M., Nadeau, J. A., Segui-Simarro, J. M., Sack, F. D., and Bednarek, S. Y. (2003) Development 130, 4011-4024) as a novel component of innate immunity. In Arabidopsis, SCD1 is a unique gene encoding for the only protein containing a complete DENN (Differentially Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic cells) domain. The DENN domain is a largely uncharacterized tripartite protein motif conserved among eukaryotic proteins. We show that conditional scd1-1 plants containing a point mutation in a conserved DENN residue affected a subset of signaling responses to some bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Consistent with increased transcript accumulation of Pathogen-related (PR) genes, scd1-1 plants were more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection implicating SCD1 as a negative regulator of basal resistance against bacteria. scd1-1 plants were different from known mutants exhibiting constitutive expressor of PR (cpr)-like phenotypes, in that growth impairment of scd1-1 plants was genetically independent of constitutive immune response activation. For scd1-1, shift to elevated temperature or introduction of a mutant allele in Salicylic acid Induction-Deficient 2 (SID2) suppressed constitutive defense response activation. sid2-2 also repressed the resistance phenotype of scd1-1. Temperature shift and sid2-2, however, did not rescue conditional growth and sterility defects of scd1-1. These results implicate SCD1 in multiple cellular pathways, possibly by affecting different proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel role for eukaryotic DENN proteins in immunity against bacteria.

  6. Novel Functions of Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1 (SCD1) in Innate Immune Responses against Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Korasick, David A.; McMichael, Colleen; Walker, Katie A.; Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Heese, Antje

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes employ complex immune mechanisms for protection against microbial pathogens. Here, we identified SCD1 (Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1), previously implicated in growth and development through its role in cytokinesis and polarized cell expansion (Falbel, T. G., Koch, L. M., Nadeau, J. A., Segui-Simarro, J. M., Sack, F. D., and Bednarek, S. Y. (2003) Development 130, 4011–4024) as a novel component of innate immunity. In Arabidopsis, SCD1 is a unique gene encoding for the only protein containing a complete DENN (Differentially Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic cells) domain. The DENN domain is a largely uncharacterized tripartite protein motif conserved among eukaryotic proteins. We show that conditional scd1-1 plants containing a point mutation in a conserved DENN residue affected a subset of signaling responses to some bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Consistent with increased transcript accumulation of Pathogen-related (PR) genes, scd1-1 plants were more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection implicating SCD1 as a negative regulator of basal resistance against bacteria. scd1-1 plants were different from known mutants exhibiting constitutive expressor of PR (cpr)-like phenotypes, in that growth impairment of scd1-1 plants was genetically independent of constitutive immune response activation. For scd1-1, shift to elevated temperature or introduction of a mutant allele in Salicylic acid Induction-Deficient 2 (SID2) suppressed constitutive defense response activation. sid2-2 also repressed the resistance phenotype of scd1-1. Temperature shift and sid2-2, however, did not rescue conditional growth and sterility defects of scd1-1. These results implicate SCD1 in multiple cellular pathways, possibly by affecting different proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel role for eukaryotic DENN proteins in immunity against bacteria. PMID:20472560

  7. Compulsive carnival song whistling following cardiac arrest: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compulsivity is the repetitive, irresistible urge to perform a behavior, the experience of loss of voluntary control over this intense urge and the tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but may occasionally occur as stand-alone symptom following brain damage induced by cardiac arrest. In this case report, we describe a patient who developed compulsivity following cardiac arrest. We review diagnostic options, underlying mechanisms and possible treatments. Case presentation A 65-year-old man presented at our clinic with continuous compulsive whistling following cardiac arrest. Neither obsessive-compulsive symptoms, nor other psychiatric complaints were present prior to the hypoxic incident. An EEG showed diffuse hypofunction, mainly in baso-temporal areas. Treatment with clomipramine resulted in a decrease of whistling. Discussion This case report illustrates de novo manifestation of compulsivity following cardiac arrest and subsequent brain damage and gives additional information on diagnostic options, mechanisms and treatment options. Differential diagnosis between stereotypies, punding, or OCD is difficult. Compulsivity following brain damage may benefit from treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This finding enhances our knowledge of treatments in similar cases. PMID:22759699

  8. Compulsive carnival song whistling following cardiac arrest: a case study.

    PubMed

    Polak, A Rosaura; van der Paardt, Jasper W; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; de Koning, Pelle; Olff, Miranda; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-07-03

    Compulsivity is the repetitive, irresistible urge to perform a behavior, the experience of loss of voluntary control over this intense urge and the tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but may occasionally occur as stand-alone symptom following brain damage induced by cardiac arrest. In this case report, we describe a patient who developed compulsivity following cardiac arrest. We review diagnostic options, underlying mechanisms and possible treatments. A 65-year-old man presented at our clinic with continuous compulsive whistling following cardiac arrest. Neither obsessive-compulsive symptoms, nor other psychiatric complaints were present prior to the hypoxic incident. An EEG showed diffuse hypofunction, mainly in baso-temporal areas. Treatment with clomipramine resulted in a decrease of whistling. This case report illustrates de novo manifestation of compulsivity following cardiac arrest and subsequent brain damage and gives additional information on diagnostic options, mechanisms and treatment options. Differential diagnosis between stereotypies, punding, or OCD is difficult. Compulsivity following brain damage may benefit from treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This finding enhances our knowledge of treatments in similar cases.

  9. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  10. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  11. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  12. 36 CFR 222.76 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arrest. 222.76 Section 222.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.76 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  13. 36 CFR 222.76 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arrest. 222.76 Section 222.76 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.76 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  14. 36 CFR 222.36 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arrest. 222.36 Section 222.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.36 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  15. 36 CFR 222.36 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arrest. 222.36 Section 222.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.36 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  16. 36 CFR 222.36 - Arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrest. 222.36 Section 222.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.36 Arrest. Any employee designated by the Chief...

  17. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS... of the Atomic Energy Act: (i) Felonies: (A) Section 222. Violation of Specific Sections—42...

  18. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS... of the Atomic Energy Act: (i) Felonies: (A) Section 222. Violation of Specific Sections—42...

  19. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS... of the Atomic Energy Act: (i) Felonies: (A) Section 222. Violation of Specific Sections—42...

  20. Know Your Rights If You Get Arrested.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This brochure provides a summary, in simple language, of an individual's legal rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act if arrested and offers specific suggestions for the individual faced with arrest. Answers and suggestions are provided for the following questions: "What happens if I am stopped by the police?"; "What…

  1. Juvenile Arrests, 2000. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin examines the national and state juvenile arrest rate in 2000 using data reported annually by local law enforcement agencies nationwide to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program. Results indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1965; juvenile arrests for violence in 2000 were the lowest since 1988; few juveniles…

  2. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  3. Juvenile Arrests 1996. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    In 1996, law enforcement agencies in the United States made an estimated 2.9 million arrests of persons under the age of 18. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) figures, juveniles accounted for 19% of all arrests and 19% of all violent crime in 1996. The substantial growth in juvenile crime that began in the late 1980s peaked in…

  4. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  5. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puranik, Manjunath P; K R, Sowmya

    2015-05-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries.

  6. Intra-arrest cooling with delayed reperfusion yields higher survival than earlier normothermic resuscitation in a mouse model of cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Danhong; Abella, Benjamin S.; Beiser, David G.; Alvarado, Jason P.; Wang, Huashan; Hamann, Kimm J.; Vanden Hoek, Terry L.; Becker, Lance B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) represents an important method to attenuate post-resuscitation injury after cardiac arrest. Laboratory investigations have suggested that induction of hypothermia before return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) may confer the greatest benefit. We hypothesized that a short delay in resuscitation to induce hypothermia before ROSC, even at the expense of more prolonged ischemia, may yield both physiological and survival advantages. Methods Cardiac arrest was induced in C57BL/6 mice using intravenous potassium chloride; resuscitation was attempted with CPR and fluid administration. Animals were randomized into three groups (n=15 each): a normothermic control group, in which 8 min of arrest at 37°C was followed by resuscitation; an early intra-arrest hypothermia group, in which 6.5 min of 37°C arrest were followed by 90 sec of cooling, with resuscitation attempted at 30°C (8 min total ischemia); and a delayed intra-arrest hypothermia group, with 90 sec cooling begun after 8 min of 37°C ischemia, so that animals underwent resuscitation at 9.5 min. Results Animals treated with TH demonstrated improved hemodynamic variables and survival compared to normothermic controls. This was the case even when comparing the delayed intra-arrest hypothermia group with prolonged ischemia time against normothermic controls with shorter ischemia time (7 day survival, 4/15 vs 0/15, p<0.001). Conclusions Short resuscitation delays to allow establishment of hypothermia before ROSC appear beneficial to both cardiac function and survival. This finding supports work suggesting that post-resuscitation injury processes begin immediately after ROSC, and that intra-arrest cooling may serve as a useful therapeutic approach to improve survival. PMID:18096292

  7. Crack arrest in thick section steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.

    1983-03-01

    Crack arrest in thick section steel plate is considered in relation to the conditions for crack arrest in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, when this is subjected to thermal stresses resulting from a hypothetical loss of coolant accident. The results of a theoretical analysis, based primarily on recent developments in quasi-static crack propagation theory, provide further support for the view that the arrest toughness KIa is essentially a material property. However, since the theoretical results also suggest that KIa is reduced by neutron irradiation, and because there is, as yet, no conclusive experimental data on the effect of neutron irradiation on KIa, it is proposed that with highly irradiated steel, instead of using a KIa crack arrest criterion, it is better to use a more conservative criterion, based on the concept that arrest occurs within the vessel at a position where the temperature exceeds that temperature above which the cleavage fracture mode is unable to operate.

  8. Physeal arrest of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua M; Little, Kevin; Kozin, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common pediatric fractures. Although most of these fractures heal without complication, some result in partial or complete physeal arrest. The risk of physeal arrest can be reduced by avoiding known risk factors during fracture management, including multiple attempts at fracture reduction. Athletes may place substantial compressive and shear forces across the distal radial physes, making them prone to growth arrest. Timely recognition of physeal arrest can allow for more predictable procedures to be performed, such as distal ulnar epiphysiodesis. In cases of partial arrest, physeal bar excision with interposition grafting can be performed. Once ulnar abutment is present, more invasive procedures may be required, including ulnar shortening osteotomy or radial lengthening.

  9. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-06-19

    Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  10. Cardiac Arrest during Gamete Release in Chum Salmon Regulated by the Parasympathetic Nerve System

    PubMed Central

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39±1.61 s in females and for 5.20±0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release. PMID:19543389

  11. Theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Maldonado, R.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    We present a first-principles theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures based on the multicomponent self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of colloid dynamics [M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 72, 031107 (2005); M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E76, 039902 (2007)]. We illustrate its application with a description of dynamic arrest in two simple model colloidal mixtures: namely, hard-sphere and repulsive Yukawa binary mixtures. Our results include observation of the two patterns of dynamic arrest, one in which both species become simultaneously arrested and the other involving the sequential arrest of the two species. The latter case gives rise to mixed states in which one species is arrested while the other species remains mobile. We also derive the (”bifurcation” or fixed-point”) equations for the nonergodic parameters of the system, which takes the surprisingly simple form of a system of coupled equations for the localization length of the particles of each species. The solution of this system of equations indicates unambiguously which species is arrested (finite localization length) and which species remains ergodic (infinite localization length). As a result, we are able to draw the entire ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of the binary hard-sphere mixture.

  12. Irreversible translation arrest in the reperfused brain

    PubMed Central

    DeGracia, Donald J; Hu, Bingren R

    2012-01-01

    Irreversible translation arrest occurs in reperfused neurons that will die by delayed neuronal death. It is now recognized that suppression of protein synthesis is a general response of eukaryotic cells to exogenous stressors. Indeed, stress-induced translation arrest can be viewed as a component of cell stress responses, and consists of initiation, maintenance, and termination phases that work in concert with stress-induced transcriptional mechanisms. Within this framework, we review translation arrest in reperfused neurons. This framework provides a basis to recognize that phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is the initiator of translation arrest, and a key marker indicating activation of neuronal stress responses. However, eIF2 alpha phosphorylation is reversible. Other phases of stress-induced translation arrest appear to contribute to irreversible translation arrest specifically in ischemic vulnerable neuron populations. We detail two lines of evidence supporting this view. First, ischemia, as a stress stimulus, induces irreversible co-translational protein misfolding and aggregation after 4 to 6 h of reperfusion, trapping protein synthesis machinery into functionally inactive protein aggregates. Second, ischemia and reperfusion leads to modifications of stress granules (SGs) that sequester functionally inactive 48S preinitiation complexes to maintain translation arrest. At later reperfusion durations, these mechanisms may converge such that SGs become sequestered in protein aggregates. These mechanisms result in elimination of functionally active ribosomes and preclude recovery of protein synthesis in selectively vulnerable neurons. Thus, recognizing translation arrest as a component of endogenous cellular stress response pathways will aid in making sense of the complexities of postischemic translation arrest. PMID:16926841

  13. Cardiac Arrest: Obstetric CPR/ACLS.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Benjamin; Lipman, Steven

    2017-01-10

    In contrast with other high-resource countries, maternal mortality has seen an increase in the United States. Caring for pregnant women in cardiac arrest may prove uniquely challenging given the rarity of the event coupled by the physiological changes of pregnancy. Optimization of resuscitative efforts warrants special attention as described in the 2015 American Heart Association's "Scientific Statement on Maternal Cardiac Arrest." Current recommendations address a variety of topics ranging from the basic components of chest compressions and airway management to some of the logistical complexities and operational challenges involved in maternal cardiac arrest.

  14. Innovations in polymer arrester moisture sealing testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.A.; Mackevich, J.P.; Mosso, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    The vast majority of porcelain distribution arrester failures are the result of moisture ingress. Standards lag technology and do not currently address the unique design aspects of polymer arresters. Traditional sealing test methods cannot be run on polymer arresters because of lack of internal air space. A novel design test is proposed which involves sensitive interfacial leakage current measurements as the diagnostic. Samples are thermally cycled in water to produce thermal excursions and aging, while encouraging water ingress, should the sealing system be compromised. The proposed test is a modification of a protocol established for polymer insulators, which has been correlated to field service.

  15. Innovation in polymer arrester moisture sealing testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.A.; Mackevich, J.P.; Mosso, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of porcelain distribution arrester failures are the result of moisture ingress. Standards lag technology and do not currently address the unique design aspects of polymer arresters. Traditional sealing test methods cannot be run on polymer arresters because of lack of internal air space. A novel design test is proposed which involves sensitive interfacial leakage current measurements as the diagnostic. Samples are thermally cycled in water to produce thermal excursions and aging, while encouraging water ingress, should the sealing system be compromised. The proposed test is a modification of a protocol established for polymer insulators, which has been correlated to field service.

  16. Sudden death during arrest and phencyclidine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pestaner, Joseph P; Southall, Pamela E

    2003-06-01

    Deaths of individuals being arrested are important and complex medicolegal cases. Conclusions regarding the cause and manner of death for such cases must take into account multiple factors that may have played a role, as well as anticipate the forensic issues that will arise. In this article, we review the deaths of 2 individuals in which phencyclidine intoxication was a factor that contributed to death during arrest. Most cases of sudden death during arrest have involved cocaine intoxication; because phencyclidine's pharmacologic properties are quite different from those of cocaine, these cases allow for comparisons to those factors that may have greater importance.

  17. History of Juvenile Arrests and Vocational Career Outcomes for At-Risk Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Margit; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2009-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from the Oregon Youth Study (OYS) to examine prospective effects of juvenile arrests, and of early versus late onset of juvenile offending, on two labor market outcomes by age 29/30 years. It was expected that those with more juvenile arrests and those with an early onset of offending would show poorer outcomes on both measures, controlling for propensity factors. Data were available for 203 men from the OYS, including officially recorded arrests and self-reported information on the men's work history across 9 years. Analyses revealed unexpected specificity in prospective effects: Juvenile arrests and mental health problems predicted the number of months unemployed; in contrast, being fired from work was predicted by poor child inhibitory control and adolescent substance use. Onset age of offending did not significantly predict either outcome. Implications of the findings for applied purposes and for developmental taxonomies of crime are discussed. PMID:20448840

  18. Asc1, Hel2, and Slh1 couple translation arrest to nascent chain degradation.

    PubMed

    Sitron, Cole Stone; Park, Joseph Hun; Brandman, Onn

    2017-02-21

    Premature arrest of protein synthesis within the open reading frame elicits a protective response that degrades the incomplete nascent chain. In this response, arrested 80S ribosomes are split into their large and small subunits, allowing assembly of the Ribosome Quality control Complex (RQC), which targets nascent chains for degradation. How the cell recognizes arrested nascent chains among the vast pool of actively translating polypeptides is poorly understood. We systematically examined translation arrest and modification of nascent chains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to characterize the steps that couple arrest to RQC targeting. We focused our analysis on two poorly understood 80S ribosome-binding proteins previously implicated in the response to failed translation, Asc1 and Hel2, as well as a new component of the pathway, Slh1, that we identified here. We found that premature arrest at ribosome stalling sequences still occurred robustly in the absence of Asc1, Hel2, and Slh1. However, these three factors were required for the RQC to modify the nascent chain. We propose that Asc1, Hel2, and Slh1 target arresting ribosomes and that this targeting event is a precondition for the RQC to engage the incomplete nascent chain and facilitate its degradation.

  19. Preventing and arresting coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W C

    1995-09-01

    The good news about coronary atherosclerosis is that it takes an awful lot of plaque before symptoms of myocardial ischemia occur. The bad news is that despite the need for large quantities of plaque for symptoms to occur, nevertheless nearly half of us in the United States eventually have the necessary quantity. Atherosclerosis is infrequently hereditary in origin. Most of us get atherosclerosis because we consume too much fat, cholesterol, and calories. The consequence is an elevated ( > 150 mg/dl) serum total cholesterol level, and the higher the number is above 150, the greater is the quantity of plaque deposited in our arteries. If the serum total cholesterol level can be prevented from rising to more than 150 mg/dl, plaques are not laid down; if elevated levels are lowered to 150 mg/dl, further plaque does not form, and parts of those present may vanish. A fruit-vegetarian-starch diet is necessary as a rule to achieve the 150 mg/dl level in most adults. Lipid-lowering drugs are required in the patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and in most patients with atherosclerotic events. The best news about atherosclerosis is that it can be prevented in those without the hereditary form, and it can be arrested by lowering elevated serum total (and LDL) cholesterol to the 150 mg/dl level.

  20. Improving Survival after Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Bjørshol, Conrad Arnfinn; Søreide, Eldar

    2017-02-01

    Each year, approximately half a million people suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) in Europe: The majority die. Survival after CA varies greatly between regions and countries. The authors give an overview of the important elements necessary to promote improved survival after CA as a function of the chain of survival and formula for survival concepts. The chain of survival incorporates bystanders (who identify warning symptoms, call the emergency dispatch center, initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR]), dispatchers (who identify CA, and instruct and reassure the caller), first responders (who provide high-quality CPR, early defibrillation), paramedics and other prehospital care providers (who continue high-quality CPR, and provide timely defibrillation and advanced life support, transport to CA center), and hospitals (targeted temperature management, percutaneous coronary intervention, delayed prognostication). The formula for survival concept consists of (1) medical science (international guidelines), (2) educational efficiency (e.g., low-dose, high-frequency training for lay people, first responders, and professionals; and (3) local implementation of all factors in the chain of survival and formula for survival. Survival rates after CA can be advanced through the improvement of the different factors in both the chain of survival and the formula for survival. Importantly, the neurologic outcome in the majority of CA survivors has continued to improve.

  1. Crack-Arrest Techniques in Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements. Report 1. Laboratory Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Control Charac-teristics of Various Types of Bar in Reinforced Concrete Beams," Research Report 18, Part 1, Dec 1966, Cement and Concrete Associa- tion...AD/A-002 661 CRACK-ARREST TECHNIQUES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS. REPORT 1. LABORATORY TESTS Frank B. Cox Army Engineer Waterways...ACCESSION NO. 3. FECIPI§NT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT &-PERIOD COVERED CRACK-ARREST TECHNIQUES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE

  2. Use of lung allografts from brain-dead donors after cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Anthony W; Worni, Mathias; Osho, Asishana A; Snyder, Laurie D; Palmer, Scott M; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Davis, R Duane; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2013-08-15

    Patients who progress to brain death after resuscitation from cardiac arrest have been hypothesized to represent an underused source of potential organ donors; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the viability of lung allografts after a period of cardiac arrest in the donor. To analyze postoperative complications and survival after lung transplant from brain-dead donors resuscitated after cardiac arrest. The United Network for Organ Sharing database records donors with cardiac arrest occurring after brain death. Adult recipients of lung allografts from these arrest/resuscitation donors between 2005 and 2011 were compared with nonarrest donors. Propensity score matching was used to reduce the effect of confounding. Postoperative complications and overall survival were assessed using McNemar's test for correlated binary proportions and Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 479 lung transplant recipients from arrest/resuscitation donors were 1:1 propensity matched from a cohort of 9,076 control subjects. Baseline characteristics in the 1:1-matched cohort were balanced. There was no significant difference in perioperative mortality, airway dehiscence, dialysis requirement, postoperative length of stay (P ≥ 0.38 for all), or overall survival (P = 0.52). A subanalysis of the donor arrest group demonstrated similar survival when stratified by resuscitation time quartile (P = 0.38). There is no evidence of inferior outcomes after lung transplant from brain-dead donors who have had a period of cardiac arrest provided that good lung function is preserved and the donor is otherwise deemed acceptable for transplantation. Potential expansion of the donor pool to include cardiac arrest as the cause of brain death requires further study.

  3. Use of Lung Allografts from Brain-Dead Donors after Cardiopulmonary Arrest and Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Worni, Mathias; Osho, Asishana A.; Snyder, Laurie D.; Palmer, Scott M.; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Davis, R. Duane; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Patients who progress to brain death after resuscitation from cardiac arrest have been hypothesized to represent an underused source of potential organ donors; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the viability of lung allografts after a period of cardiac arrest in the donor. Objectives: To analyze postoperative complications and survival after lung transplant from brain-dead donors resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Methods: The United Network for Organ Sharing database records donors with cardiac arrest occurring after brain death. Adult recipients of lung allografts from these arrest/resuscitation donors between 2005 and 2011 were compared with nonarrest donors. Propensity score matching was used to reduce the effect of confounding. Postoperative complications and overall survival were assessed using McNemar’s test for correlated binary proportions and Kaplan–Meier methods. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 479 lung transplant recipients from arrest/resuscitation donors were 1:1 propensity matched from a cohort of 9,076 control subjects. Baseline characteristics in the 1:1-matched cohort were balanced. There was no significant difference in perioperative mortality, airway dehiscence, dialysis requirement, postoperative length of stay (P ≥ 0.38 for all), or overall survival (P = 0.52). A subanalysis of the donor arrest group demonstrated similar survival when stratified by resuscitation time quartile (P = 0.38). Conclusions: There is no evidence of inferior outcomes after lung transplant from brain-dead donors who have had a period of cardiac arrest provided that good lung function is preserved and the donor is otherwise deemed acceptable for transplantation. Potential expansion of the donor pool to include cardiac arrest as the cause of brain death requires further study. PMID:23777361

  4. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  5. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  6. Distribution Surge Arrester Failures due to Winter Lightning and Measurement of Energy Absorption Capability of Arresters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko; Kado, Hiroyuki

    Surge arresters and distribution equipments with zinc-oxide elements are used for lightning protection of overhead power distribution lines in Japan. However, these surge arresters are sometimes damaged by direct lightning strokes, especially in winter. Increasing of surge arrester failures in winter is attributed to a very large electric charge of winter lightning than that of summer lightning. For improvement of surge arresters, we have measured the energy absorption capability of surge arresters using a half cycle of alternating current with a frequency of 50Hz for simulating a winter lightning current. The mean values of arrester failure energy increased in proportion to the volume of zinc-oxide element, however the values of arrester failure energy were quite uneven. We also have observed the aspects of damaged zinc-oxide elements, and have investigated the relationship between the arrester failure energy and the failure types of zinc-oxide elements. From these results, we suggest the improvement of the energy absorption capability of distribution surge arresters, especially for the uniform energy absorption capability.

  7. Predicting Cardiac Arrest on the Wards

    PubMed Central

    Churpek, Matthew M.; Yuen, Trevor C.; Huber, Michael T.; Park, Seo Young; Hall, Jesse B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current rapid response team activation criteria were not statistically derived using ward vital signs, and the best vital sign predictors of cardiac arrest (CA) have not been determined. In addition, it is unknown when vital signs begin to accurately detect this event prior to CA. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 88 patients experiencing CA on the wards of a university hospital between November 2008 and January 2011, matched 1:4 to 352 control subjects residing on the same ward at the same time as the case CA. Vital signs and Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) were compared on admission and during the 48 h preceding CA. Results: Case patients were older (64 ± 16 years vs 58 ± 18 years; P = .002) and more likely to have had a prior ICU admission than control subjects (41% vs 24%; P = .001), but had similar admission MEWS (2.2 ± 1.3 vs 2.0 ± 1.3; P = .28). In the 48 h preceding CA, maximum MEWS was the best predictor (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.77; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82), followed by maximum respiratory rate (AUC 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.78), maximum heart rate (AUC 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61-0.74), maximum pulse pressure index (AUC 0.61; 95% CI, 0.54-0.68), and minimum diastolic BP (AUC 0.60; 95% CI, 0.53-0.67). By 48 h prior to CA, the MEWS was higher in cases (P = .005), with increasing disparity leading up to the event. Conclusions: The MEWS was significantly different between patients experiencing CA and control patients by 48 h prior to the event, but includes poor predictors of CA such as temperature and omits significant predictors such as diastolic BP and pulse pressure index. PMID:22052772

  8. Surface Electrocardiogram Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghani, Samy A.; Rosenthal, Todd M.; Morin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is a major cause of death in industrialized nations, with approximately 50% of these deaths attributable to sudden cardiac arrest. If patients at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest can be identified, their odds of surviving fatal arrhythmias can be significantly improved through prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. This review summarizes the current knowledge pertaining to surface electrocardiogram (ECG) predictors of sudden cardiac arrest. Methods: We conducted a literature review focused on methods of predicting sudden cardiac arrest through noninvasive electrocardiographic testing. Results: Several electrocardiographic-based methods of risk stratification of sudden cardiac arrest have been studied, including QT prolongation, QRS duration, fragmented QRS complexes, early repolarization, Holter monitoring, heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, signal-averaged ECG, T wave alternans, and T-peak to T-end. These ECG findings have shown variable effectiveness as screening tools. Conclusion: At this time, no individual ECG finding has been found to be able to adequately stratify patients with regard to risk for sudden cardiac arrest. However, one or more of these candidate surface ECG parameters may become useful components of future multifactorial risk stratification calculators. PMID:27660578

  9. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  10. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  11. Symptoms of depression and anxiety after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Piegza, Magdalena; Jaszke, Magdalena; Ścisło, Piotr; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Piegza, Jacek; Gorczyca, Piotr Wacław; Hese, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of depression and anxiety symptoms in patients after cardiac arrest (SCA) in relation to patients with a history of myocardial infarction without SCA and in healthy individuals. The analysis of the impact of selected socio-demographic and clinical parameters and duration of SCA on the presence and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in different groups was also performed. The study involved 30 patients after SCA and 31 patients with a history of myocardial infarction without SCA. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects. To assess the mental state, a specially developed questionnaire was used, while the presence and severity of the symptoms were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Statistically, a significantly higher average level of depression and a higher incidence of anxiety was demonstrated in patients after a sudden cardiac arrest (study group) and after myocardial infarction (reference group) compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of anxiety between the study and reference groups. No impact of the duration of cardiac arrest on the incidence of depression and anxiety symptoms in the study group was observed. In the group of people with a history of cardiac arrest, the most common mental disorder is depression. Anxiety and depression are significantly more frequent in patients with a history of SCA than in healthy individuals. There were no differences in the incidence and severity of depression symptoms in patients after SCA compared to patients after myocardial infarction without SCA. The described socio-demographic parameters and clinical characteristics had no impact on the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the investigated groups.

  12. Brain Gray Matter MRI Morphometry for Neuroprognostication After Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Silva, Stein; Peran, Patrice; Kerhuel, Lionel; Malagurski, Briguita; Chauveau, Nicolas; Bataille, Benoit; Lotterie, Jean Albert; Celsis, Pierre; Aubry, Florent; Citerio, Giuseppe; Jean, Betty; Chabanne, Russel; Perlbarg, Vincent; Velly, Lionel; Galanaud, Damien; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Fourcade, Olivier; Laureys, Steven; Puybasset, Louis

    2017-08-01

    We hypothesize that the combined use of MRI cortical thickness measurement and subcortical gray matter volumetry could provide an early and accurate in vivo assessment of the structural impact of cardiac arrest and therefore could be used for long-term neuroprognostication in this setting. Prospective cohort study. Five Intensive Critical Care Units affiliated to the University in Toulouse (France), Paris (France), Clermont-Ferrand (France), Liège (Belgium), and Monza (Italy). High-resolution anatomical T1-weighted images were acquired in 126 anoxic coma patients ("learning" sample) 16 ± 8 days after cardiac arrest and 70 matched controls. An additional sample of 18 anoxic coma patients, recruited in Toulouse, was used to test predictive model generalization ("test" sample). All patients were followed up 1 year after cardiac arrest. None. Cortical thickness was computed on the whole cortical ribbon, and deep gray matter volumetry was performed after automatic segmentation. Brain morphometric data were employed to create multivariate predictive models using learning machine techniques. Patients displayed significantly extensive cortical and subcortical brain volumes atrophy compared with controls. The accuracy of a predictive classifier, encompassing cortical and subcortical components, has a significant discriminative power (learning area under the curve = 0.87; test area under the curve = 0.96). The anatomical regions which volume changes were significantly related to patient's outcome were frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, putamen, pallidum, caudate, hippocampus, and brain stem. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of pathologic disruption of a striatopallidal-thalamo-cortical mesocircuit induced by cardiac arrest and pave the way for the use of combined brain quantitative morphometry in this setting.

  13. Propagation and arrest of dikes under topography: Models applied to the 2014 Bardarbunga (Iceland) rifting event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, S.; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.; Corbi, F.

    2017-07-01

    Dikes along rift zones propagate laterally downslope for tens of kilometers, often becoming arrested before topographic reliefs. We use analogue and numerical models to test the conditions controlling the lateral propagation and arrest of dikes, exploring the presence of a slope in connection with buoyancy and rigidity layering. A gentle downslope assists lateral propagation when combined with an effective barrier to magma ascent, e.g., gelatin stiffness contrasts, while antibuoyancy alone may be insufficient to prevent upward propagation. We also observe that experimental dikes become arrested when reaching a plain before opposite reliefs. Our numerical models show that below the plain the stress field induced by topography hinders further dike propagation. We suggest that lateral dike propagation requires an efficient barrier (rigidity) to upward propagation, assisting antibuoyancy, and a lateral pressure gradient perpendicular to the least compressive stress axis, while dike arrest may be induced by external reliefs.

  14. Explaining lifetime criminal arrests among clients of a psychiatric probation and parole service.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P; Draine, J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, substance abuse problems, and the array of lifetime criminal behavior may explain lifetime arrests among offenders supervised by the psychiatric probation and parole service. Three hundred twenty-five clients with new cases at a psychiatric probation and parole service in a large urban center were screened for major psychiatric disorders. They were also interviewed for socio-demographic characteristics, mental health treatment history, criminal behavior, and arrest history. Hierarchical block multiple regression analysis tested a model explaining lifetime arrests. After controlling for age and other demographic variables, the number of lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations and lifetime occurrences of mania diagnosis significantly explained lifetime arrests. The total model explained about 10 percent of the variance in lifetime arrests after controlling for opportunity variables, which explained 45 percent. The explanatory power of lifetime hospitalizations and mania support the contention that symptoms, rather than diagnosis, may be the most important clinical factor in explaining criminal arrest among persons with mental illness. Implications for psychiatric services include the development of effective jail diversion programs.

  15. THE RACE/ETHNICITY DISPARITY IN MISDEMEANOR MARIJUANA ARRESTS IN NEW YORK CITY*

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2008-01-01

    Research Summary This article examines the growth in marijuana misdemeanor arrests in New York City (NYC) from 1980 to 2003 and its differential impact on blacks and Hispanics. Since 1980, the New York City Police Department (NYPD) expanded its use of arrest and detention for minor offenses under its quality-of-life (QOL) policing initiative. Arrest data indicate that during the 1990s the primary focus of QOL policing became smoking marijuana in public view (MPV). By 2000, MPV had become the most common misdemeanor arrest, accounting for 15% of all NYC adult arrests and rivaling controlled substance arrests as the primary focus of drug abuse control. Of note, most MPV arrestees have been black or Hispanic. Furthermore, black and Hispanic MPV arrestees have been more likely to be detained prior to arraignment, convicted, and sentenced to jail than their white counterparts. Policy Implications In light of the disparities, we recommend that the NYPD consider scaling back on MPV enforcement and reducing the harshness of treatment by routinely issuing Desk Appearance Tickets when the person is not wanted on other charges, so that most MPV arrestees would not be detained. Furthermore, we recommend that legislators should consider making smoking marijuana in public a violation and not a misdemeanor. Lastly, we suggest ways that NYC could monitor the effectiveness of these policy modifications to assure that the city continues to meet its goals for order maintenance. PMID:18841246

  16. Cardiac arrest leadership: in need of resuscitation?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip S; Shall, Emma; Rakhit, Roby

    2016-12-01

    Leadership skills directly correlate with the quality of technical performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and clinical outcomes. Despite an improved focus on non-technical skills in CPR training, the leadership of cardiac arrests is often variable. To assess the perceptions of leadership and team working among members of a cardiac arrest team and to evaluate future training needs. Cross-sectional survey of 102 members of a cardiac arrest team at an Acute Hospital Trust in the UK with 892 inpatient beds. Responses sought from doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to 12 rated statements and 4 dichotomous questions. Of 102 responses, 81 (79%) were from doctors and 21 (21%) from nurses. Among specialist registrars 90% agreed or strongly agreed that there was clear leadership at all arrests compared with between 28% and 49% of nurses and junior doctors respectively. Routine omission of key leadership tasks was reported by as many as 80% of junior doctors and 50% of nurses. Almost half of respondents reported non-adherence with Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines. Among junior members of the team, 36% felt confident to lead an arrest and 75% would welcome further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training. Leadership training is integrated into the ALS (Resus Council, UK) qualification. However, this paper found that in spite of this training; standards of leadership are variable. The findings suggest a pressing need for further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training with a focus on improving key leadership tasks such as role assignment, team briefing and debriefing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Physiology and pathophysiology of respiratory arrest by cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Klimmek, R.

    1993-05-13

    Respiratory arrest, preceded by hyperventilation, is the primary cause of death in acute cyanide poisoning. Hyperventilation followed by apnea is also observed without intoxication. Hyperventilation and apnea in untoxicated subjects and animals are analyzed for the underlying physiological and biochemical changes and compared with those found during cyanide poisoning. The study reveals that the respiratory autoregulation appears to be the same under both conditions. Respiratory arrest is controlled by cerebral PCO2 and can occur without hypoxia or inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. It is postulated that respiratory arrest is a 'desperate act' thrust on the respiratory neurons by a critical exhaustion of their energy store (ATP) due to the rapid firing in the period of hyperventilation. The point of no return may be reached when anoxia and/or partial inhibition of cytochrome oxidase prevent the neurons from replenishing the ATP store. The formation of Fe3+ cyanide complexes. exemplified by the metHb producer DMAP, appears to give the best results with regard to the restoration of spontaneous respiration. The study of respiratory autoregulation may also be helpful in developing and understanding other therapeutic approaches.

  18. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Alcohol Arrests on Campuses Jumped 10% in 1996; Drug Arrests Increased by 5%.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Kit

    1998-01-01

    Campus police and other college officials believe the 16,237 alcohol arrests and 7,060 drug arrests on college campuses in 1996 reflect tougher enforcement, not increased usage among students. This is particularly true in states such as Michigan, where state law concerning underage drinking has changed, and in communities where enforcement is…

  20. A pharmacologic review of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley J; Yunker, Nancy S

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is manifested by arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, pulseless electrical activity, or asystole) resulting in minimal to no forward blood flow to the body's oxygen-dependent tissues. Defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be initiated immediately as they have been shown to increase return of spontaneous circulation and survival to discharge rates. Cardiac arrest in the surgical patient population has devastating consequences. Data specific to the surgical patient found that 1 in 203 surgical patients experienced cardiac arrest requiring CPR within 30 days after surgery. A subgroup analysis found that 1 in 1,020 plastic surgery patients required CPR in this same time frame. Thirty-day mortality in the general surgery patient population was 72%. The American Heart Association updates the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines every 5 years. Their latest publication in 2010 recommended that the resuscitative protocol be transitioned from its basic life support sequence of airway-breathing-chest compressions to chest compressions-airway-breathing. All health care professionals should have an understanding of the clinical presentation and medical management of cardiac arrest. Maintaining biannual basic life support and ACLS certification ensures that health care professionals remain current with American Heart Association guideline recommendations. Guideline-directed management of cardiac arrest should include timely implementation of the ACLS algorithm to maximize patient outcomes.

  1. Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Athletic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, James M.; Ellis, James M.; Cantwell, John; Courson, Ron; Medlin, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To emphasize the importance of decreasing the response time by a trained target responder to increase the survival rate among athletes experiencing sudden cardiac arrest at an athletic event. Background: Death due to sudden cardiac arrest that is witnessed is preventable in many cases. However, most people who experience this condition die because of a prolonged response time from onset of the fatal arrhythmia to defibrillation by trained treatment providers. If athletic trainers or other members of the athletic care medical team are trained as target responders and equipped with automated electronic defibrillators, they can immediately treat an athlete who experiences a sudden, life-threatening tachyarrhythmia. This prompt response to the life-threatening emergency should result in a higher survival rate. Description: We review the causes of sudden cardiac arrest during athletic events, note some unusual clinical presentations, discuss improved methods of response and new equipment for treatment, and define the athletic trainer's role as a target responder trained to treat people experiencing sudden cardiac arrest at an athletic event. Clinical Advantages: An athletic care team willing to become part of an emergency response team can help improve the survival rate of athletes experiencing sudden cardiac arrest at an athletic event. PMID:12937464

  2. Fetal right ventricular myocardial function is better preserved by fibrillatory arrest during fetal cardiac bypass.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Orlando; Baker, R Scott; Lam, Christopher T; Reed, Casey A; Duffy, Jodie Y; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2010-10-01

    Protection and preservation of fetal myocardial function are important for successful fetal intracardiac repair. Our objective was to determine fetal biventricular cardiac performance after two cardiac-arrest techniques. Three groups of midterm ovine fetuses underwent 90-minute bypass. A control group (no arrest shams, n = 3), and two groups that included 20 minutes of arrest, using fibrillatory (n = 3) or blood cardioplegia (n = 3), were compared. Blood cardioplegia consisted of 4:1 cold blood to crystalloid solution induction every 10 minutes, followed by a warm shot terminal dose before clamp removal. Myocardial function variables from biventricular intracardiac pressure catheters, and 3-axes cardiac sonomicrometry, fetal hemodynamics, and arterial blood gases were continuously recorded. Fetal myocardium was collected for troponin-I analysis at 90 minutes. Statistical analysis was by two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures. Compared with sham, right ventricular myocardial contractility was reduced with plegia but not fibrillation at 90 minutes after arrest: dP/dt max (511 ± 347 vs 1208 ± 239, p < 0.01) and preload-recruitable stroke work (7.2 ± 8.5 vs 32.3 ± 14.6, p < 0.01). Right ventricular end diastolic pressure-volume relationship (ventricular stiffness) worsened by 90 minutes for plegia vs fibrillation (0.84 ± 0.18 vs 0.25 ± 0.16, p < 0.05). There were no differences in left ventricle performance between groups. Fetal heart rate increased in shams by 30 minutes after arrest compared with both arrest groups (p < 0.05). Right ventricular troponin-I degradation increased with plegia, but not fibrillation, compared with sham (p < 0.05). In vivo, fetal right ventricular contractile function deteriorates with a common blood-plegia regimen. Fibrillatory arrest better preserves right ventricular function, the dominant ventricle in fetal life, for short arrest periods. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories. This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public. PMID:18726007

  4. Juvenile Arrest and Collateral Educational Damage in the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, David S.; Sampson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Official sanctioning of students by the criminal justice system is a long-hypothesized source of educational disadvantage, but its explanatory status remains unresolved. Few studies of the educational consequences of a criminal record account for alternative explanations such as low self-control, lack of parental supervision, deviant peers, and neighborhood disadvantage. Moreover, virtually no research on the effect of a criminal record has examined the “black box” of mediating mechanisms or the consequence of arrest for postsecondary educational attainment. Analyzing longitudinal data with multiple and independent assessments of theoretically relevant domains, this paper estimates the direct effect of arrest on later high school dropout and college enrollment for adolescents with otherwise equivalent neighborhood, school, family, peer, and individual characteristics as well as similar frequency of criminal offending. We present evidence that arrest has a substantively large and robust impact on dropping out of high school among Chicago public school students. We also find a significant gap in four-year college enrollment between arrested and otherwise similar youth without a criminal record. We assess intervening mechanisms hypothesized to explain the process by which arrest disrupts the schooling process, and, in turn, produces collateral educational damage. The results imply that institutional responses and disruptions in students’ educational trajectories, rather than social psychological factors, are responsible for the arrest-education link. PMID:25309003

  5. Juvenile Arrest and Collateral Educational Damage in the Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David S; Sampson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Official sanctioning of students by the criminal justice system is a long-hypothesized source of educational disadvantage, but its explanatory status remains unresolved. Few studies of the educational consequences of a criminal record account for alternative explanations such as low self-control, lack of parental supervision, deviant peers, and neighborhood disadvantage. Moreover, virtually no research on the effect of a criminal record has examined the "black box" of mediating mechanisms or the consequence of arrest for postsecondary educational attainment. Analyzing longitudinal data with multiple and independent assessments of theoretically relevant domains, this paper estimates the direct effect of arrest on later high school dropout and college enrollment for adolescents with otherwise equivalent neighborhood, school, family, peer, and individual characteristics as well as similar frequency of criminal offending. We present evidence that arrest has a substantively large and robust impact on dropping out of high school among Chicago public school students. We also find a significant gap in four-year college enrollment between arrested and otherwise similar youth without a criminal record. We assess intervening mechanisms hypothesized to explain the process by which arrest disrupts the schooling process, and, in turn, produces collateral educational damage. The results imply that institutional responses and disruptions in students' educational trajectories, rather than social psychological factors, are responsible for the arrest-education link.

  6. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.

  7. Studies of Shuttle orbiter arrestment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1993-01-01

    Scale model studies of the Shuttle Orbiter Arrestment System (AS) were completed with a 1/27.5-scale model at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of these studies was to determine the proper configuration for a net arrestment system to bring the orbiter to a safe stop with minimal damage in the event of a runway overrun. Tests were conducted for runway on-centerline and off-centerline engagements at simulated speeds up to approximately 100 knots (full scale). The results of these tests defined the interaction of the net and the orbiter, the dynamics of off-centerline engagements, and the maximum number of vertical net straps that may become entangled with the nose gear. In addition to these tests, a test program with a 1/8-scale model was conducted by the arrestment system contractor, and the results are presented in the appendix.

  8. Contact line arrest in solidifying spreading drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruiter, Rielle; Colinet, Pierre; Snoeijer, Jacco; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2016-11-01

    When does a drop, deposited on a cold substrate, stop spreading? Despite the practical relevance of this question, for example in airplane icing and 3D metal printing, the exact mechanism of arrest in solidifying spreading drops has not yet been unraveled. Here, we consider the spreading and arrest of hexadecane drops of constant volume on two smooth wettable substrates; copper with a high thermal conductivity and glass with a low thermal conductivity. We record the spreading radius and contact angle in time for a range of substrate temperatures. We show that our measurements on both copper and glass are well explained by a contact line arrest condition based on crystallization kinetics, which takes into account the effect of kinetic undercooling and the thermal conductivity of the substrate.

  9. Controversies in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul P; Stub, Dion

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac arrest is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and accounts for nearly 500,000 deaths annually in the United States. In patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, survival is less than 15%, with considerable regional variation. Although most deaths occur during the initial resuscitation, an increasing proportion occur in patients hospitalized after initially successful resuscitation. In these patients, the significant subsequent morbidity and mortality is due to "post cardiac arrest syndrome." Until recently, most single interventions have yielded little improvement in rates of survival; however, there is growing recognition that optimal treatment strategies during the postresuscitation phase may improve outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contact line arrest in solidifying spreading drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruiter, Riëlle; Colinet, Pierre; Brunet, Philippe; Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2017-04-01

    When does a drop, deposited on a cold substrate, stop spreading? Despite the practical relevance of this question, for example, in airplane icing and three-dimensional metal printing, the detailed mechanism of arrest in solidifying spreading drops has remained debated. Here we consider the spreading and arrest of hexadecane drops of constant volume on two smooth wettable substrates: copper with a high thermal conductivity and glass with a low thermal conductivity. We record the spreading radius and contact angle in time for a range of substrate temperatures. The experiments are complemented by a detailed analysis of the temperature field near the rapidly moving contact line, by means of similarity solutions of the thermohydrodynamic problem. Our combined experimental and theoretical results provide strong evidence that the spreading of solidifying drops is arrested when the liquid at the contact line reaches a critical temperature, which is determined by the effect of kinetic undercooling.

  11. Genetic Mutation in Korean Patients of Sudden Cardiac Arrest as a Surrogating Marker of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoung Kyun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Park, Seung-Jung; Huh, June; Kim, June Soo

    2013-01-01

    Mutation or common intronic variants in cardiac ion channel genes have been suggested to be associated with sudden cardiac death caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. This study aimed to find mutations in cardiac ion channel genes of Korean sudden cardiac arrest patients with structurally normal heart and to verify association between common genetic variation in cardiac ion channel and sudden cardiac arrest by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans. Study participants were Korean survivors of sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. All coding exons of the SCN5A, KCNQ1, and KCNH2 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Fifteen survivors of sudden cardiac arrest were included. Three male patients had mutations in SCN5A gene and none in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 genes. Intronic variant (rs2283222) in KCNQ1 gene showed significant association with sudden cardiac arrest (OR 4.05). Four male sudden cardiac arrest survivors had intronic variant (rs11720524) in SCN5A gene. None of female survivors of sudden cardiac arrest had SCN5A gene mutations despite similar frequencies of intronic variants between males and females in 55 normal controls. Common intronic variant in KCNQ1 gene is associated with sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans. PMID:23853484

  12. Multicenter cohort study of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Moler, Frank W; Donaldson, Amy E; Meert, Kathleen; Brilli, Richard J; Nadkarni, Vinay; Shaffner, Donald H; Schleien, Charles L; Clark, Robert S B; Dalton, Heidi J; Statler, Kimberly; Tieves, Kelly S; Hackbarth, Richard; Pretzlaff, Robert; van der Jagt, Elise W; Pineda, Jose; Hernan, Lynn; Dean, J Michael

    2011-01-01

    To describe a large cohort of children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with return of circulation and to identify factors in the early postarrest period associated with survival. These objectives were for planning an interventional trial of therapeutic hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 15 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network clinical sites over an 18-month study period. All children from 1 day (24 hrs) to 18 yrs of age with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and a history of at least 1 min of chest compressions with return of circulation for at least 20 mins were eligible. One hundred thirty-eight cases met study entry criteria; the overall mortality was 62% (85 of 138 cases). The event characteristics associated with increased survival were as follows: weekend arrests, cardiopulmonary resuscitation not ongoing at hospital arrival, arrest rhythm not asystole, no atropine or NaHCO3, fewer epinephrine doses, shorter duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and drowning or asphyxial arrest event. For the 0- to 12-hr postarrest return-of-circulation period, absence of any vasopressor or inotropic agent (dopamine, epinephrine) use, higher lowest temperature recorded, greater lowest pH, lower lactate, lower maximum glucose, and normal pupillary responses were all associated with survival. A multivariate logistic model of variables available at the time of arrest, which controlled for gender, age, race, and asystole or ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia anytime during the arrest, found the administration of atropine and epinephrine to be associated with mortality. A second model using additional information available up to 12 hrs after return of circulation found 1) preexisting lung or airway disease; 2) an etiology of arrest drowning or asphyxia; 3) higher pH, and 4) bilateral reactive pupils to be associated with lower mortality. Receiving more than three doses of epinephrine was

  13. Using Time Series Analysis to Predict Cardiac Arrest in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Curtis E; Aoki, Noriaki; Mariscalco, Michele; Turley, James P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To build and test cardiac arrest prediction models in a pediatric intensive care unit, using time series analysis as input, and to measure changes in prediction accuracy attributable to different classes of time series data. Methods A retrospective cohort study of pediatric intensive care patients over a 30 month study period. All subjects identified by code documentation sheets with matches in hospital physiologic and laboratory data repositories and who underwent chest compressions for two minutes were included as arrest cases. Controls were randomly selected from patients that did not experience arrest and who survived to discharge. Modeling data was based on twelve hours of data preceding the arrest (reference time for controls). Measurements and Main Results 103 cases of cardiac arrest and 109 control cases were used to prepare a baseline data set that consisted of 1025 variables in four data classes: multivariate, raw time series, clinical calculations, and time series trend analysis. We trained 20 arrest prediction models using a matrix of five feature sets (combinations of data classes) with four modeling algorithms: linear regression, decision tree, neural network and support vector machine. The reference model (multivariate data with regression algorithm) had an accuracy of 78% and 87% area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The best model (multivariate + trend analysis data with support vector machine algorithm) had an accuracy of 94% and 98% AUROC. Conclusions Cardiac arrest predictions based on a traditional model built with multivariate data and a regression algorithm misclassified cases 3.7 times more frequently than predictions that included time series trend analysis and built with a support vector machine algorithm. Although the final model lacks the specificity necessary for clinical application, we have demonstrated how information from time series data can be used to increase the accuracy of clinical

  14. Maternal Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Certain Birth Defects1,2

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Yang, Wei; Herring, Amy; Abrams, Barbara; Shaw, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity represents a lack of access to enough food to meet basic needs. We hypothesized that food insecurity may increase birth defect risks, because it is an indicator of increased stress or compromised nutrition, which are both implicated in birth defect etiologies. This study used population-based case-control data. Included in the analysis were 1,189 case mothers and 695 control mothers who were interviewed by telephone. We calculated a food insecurity score as the number of affirmative responses to 5 questions from a shortened instrument designed to measure food insecurity. OR for the food insecurity score specified as a linear term indicated that a higher score was associated with increased risk of cleft palate, d-transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, spina bifida, and anencephaly, but not with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, after adjustment for maternal race-ethnicity, education, BMI, intake of folic acid-containing supplements, dietary intake of folate and energy, neighborhood crime, and stressful life events. In addition, several models suggested effect modification by certain factors. For example, for anencephaly, among women with the worst score for neighborhood crime (i.e. 6), the OR associated with a 1-unit change in the food insecurity score was 1.57 (95% CI 1.06, 2.33), whereas among women with a low crime score (i.e. 2), the corresponding OR was 1.16 (95% CI 0.96, 1.38). This study suggests that increased risks of certain birth defects may be included among the negative consequences of food insecurity. PMID:17709447

  15. Coronary angiography after cardiac arrest: Rationale and design of the COACT trial.

    PubMed

    Lemkes, Jorrit S; Janssens, Gladys N; Straaten, Heleen M Oudemans-van; Elbers, Paul W; van der Hoeven, Nina W; Tijssen, Jan G P; Otterspoor, Luuk C; Voskuil, Michiel; van der Heijden, Joris J; Meuwissen, Martijn; Rijpstra, Tom A; Vlachojannis, Georgios J; van der Vleugel, Raoul M; Nieman, Koen; Jewbali, Lucia S D; Bleeker, Gabe B; Baak, Rémon; Beishuizen, Bert; Stoel, Martin G; van der Harst, Pim; Camaro, Cyril; Henriques, José P S; Vink, Maarten A; Gosselink, Marcel T M; Bosker, Hans A; Crijns, Harry J G M; van Royen, Niels

    2016-10-01

    Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after restoration of spontaneous circulation following cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains debated. We hypothesize that immediate CAG and PCI, if indicated, will improve 90-day survival in post-cardiac arrest patients without signs of STEMI. In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial, 552 post-cardiac arrest patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation and without signs of STEMI will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to immediate CAG and PCI (within 2 hours) versus initial deferral with CAG and PCI after neurological recovery. The primary end point of the study is 90-day survival. The secondary end points will include 90-day survival with good cerebral performance or minor/moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of inotropic support, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal replacement therapy, time to targeted temperature control, neurological status at intensive care unit discharge, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and reasons for discontinuation of treatment. The COACT trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study that will evaluate the effect of an immediate invasive coronary strategy in post-cardiac arrest patients without STEMI on 90-day survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence and significance of upper body cyanosis in nontraumatic cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Benjamin D; Eisenberg, Mickey S; Harruff, Richard; Fligner, Corinne L

    2007-01-01

    Upper body cyanosis is a physical finding sometimes noted at the time of cardiac resuscitation. We attempted to determine the incidence and significance of upper body cyanosis in cases of nontraumatic cardiac arrest. This was a retrospective case-control study. We reviewed all nontraumatic cardiac arrests evaluated by King County, Washington emergency medical system (EMS) personnel during 2000-2004 and identified patients with upper body or nipple-line cyanosis. Those patients who were autopsied comprised the cases for our study. Cases were age and sex matched with controls who also had cardiac arrest with an autopsy but no mention of cyanosis. EMS personnel treated 3,526 patients, age 18 and older, for nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. One hundred eight (3.1%) had specific mention of upper chest or nipple-line cyanosis, of whom 38 had autopsy. Among the 38 autopsy cases, 6 were died of hemopericardium compared to none in age-and sex-matched controls. Cardiac arrest with upper chest or nipple-line cyanosis had a higher incidence of hemopericardium or dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm than patients without mention of cyanosis.

  17. Systematic review of quality of life and other patient-centred outcomes after cardiac arrest survival.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Vanessa J; Rodgers, David L; Brett, Stephen J

    2011-03-01

    In cardiac arrest patients (in hospital and pre hospital) does resuscitation produce a good Quality of Life (QoL) for survivors after discharge from the hospital? Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Academic Search Premier, the Central Database of Controlled Trials and the American Heart Association (AHA) Resuscitation Endnote Library were searched using the terms ('Cardiac Arrest' (Mesh) OR 'Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation' (Mesh) OR 'Heart Arrest' (Mesh)) AND ('Outcomes' OR 'Quality of Life' OR 'Depression' OR 'Post-traumatic Stress Disorder' OR 'Anxiety OR 'Cognitive Function' OR 'Participation' OR 'Social Function' OR 'Health Utilities Index' OR 'SF-36' OR 'EQ-5D' as text term. There were 9 inception (prospective) cohort studies (LOE P1), 3 follow up of untreated control groups in randomised control trials (LOE P2), 11 retrospective cohort studies (LOE P3) and 47 case series (LOE P4). 46 of the studies were supportive with respect to the search question, 17 neutral and 7 negative. The majority of studies concluded that QoL after cardiac arrest is good. This review demonstrated a remarkable heterogeneity of methodology amongst studies assessing QoL in cardiac arrest survivors. There is a requirement for consensus development with regard to quality of life and patient centred outcome assessment in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Cardiac arrest in newborn of mother treated with labetalol].

    PubMed

    Sala, X; Monsalve, C; Comas, C; Botet, F; Nalda, M A

    1993-01-01

    The use of beta-adrenergic antagonists for the control of high blood pressure associated to pregnancy is frequent. Their use is related with the appearance of undesirable effects of the fetus. The case of neonatal cardiac arrest attributed, to the administration of labetalol to the mother is presented. The high transplacentary passage, the different pharmacokinetics of the drug in the newborn and the clinical evolution of the patient suggests its involvement. It is concluded that labetalol may cause severe undesirable effects in newborns and fetal heart rate of the mother and neonate should be monitored upon use of this drug.

  19. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Mechanisms linking advanced airway management and cardiac arrest outcomes.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Justin L; Prince, David K; Wang, Henry E

    2015-08-01

    Advanced airway management--such as endotracheal intubation (ETI) or supraglottic airway (SGA) insertion--is one of the most prominent interventions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation. While randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to identify the best advanced airway technique in OHCA, the mechanisms by which airway management may influence OHCA outcomes remain unknown. We provide a conceptual model describing potential mechanisms linking advanced airway management with OHCA outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  2. Association of Ambient Fine Particles With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Robert A.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Freese, John; Kaufman, Brad J.; De Claro, Danilynn; Braun, James; Prezant, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, although the relation between pollutants and sudden death from cardiac arrest has not been established. This study examined associations between out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and fine PM (of aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm, or PM2.5), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide in New York City. The authors analyzed 8,216 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of primary cardiac etiology during the years 2002–2006. Time-series and case-crossover analyses were conducted, controlling for season, day-of-week, same-day, and delayed/apparent temperature. An increased risk of cardiac arrest in time-series (relative risk (RR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.10) and case-crossover (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08) analysis for a PM2.5 increase of 10 μg/m3 in the average of 0- and 1-day lags was found. The association was significant in the warm season (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15) but not the cold season (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.07). Associations of cardiac arrest with other pollutants were weaker. These findings, consistent with studies implicating acute cardiovascular effects of PM, support a link between PM2.5 and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Since few individuals survive an arrest, air pollution control may help prevent future cardiovascular mortality. PMID:20729350

  3. Protective head-cooling during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation: the original animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Eric W.; Jehle, Dietrich; Mineo, Michael; Safar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) does not reliably sustain brain viability during cardiac arrest. Pre-hospital adjuncts to standard CPR are needed in order to improve outcomes. A preliminary dog study demonstrated that surface cooling of the head during arrest and CPR can achieve protective levels of brain hypothermia (30°C) within 10 minutes. We hypothesized that protective head-cooling during cardiac arrest and CPR improves neurological outcomes. Twelve dogs under light ketamine-halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia were arrested by transthoracic fibrillation. The treated group consisted of six dogs whose shaven heads were moistened with saline and packed in ice immediately after confirmation of ventricular fibrillation. Six control dogs remained at room temperature. All 12 dogs were subjected to four minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 20 minutes of standard CPR. Spontaneous circulation was restored with drugs and countershocks. Intensive care was provided for five hours post-arrest and the animals were observed for 24 hours. In both groups, five of the six dogs had spontaneous circulation restored. After three hours, mean neurological deficit was significantly lower in the treated group (P=0.016, with head-cooled dogs averaging 37% and the normothermic dogs 62%). Two of the six head-cooled dogs survived 24 hours with neurological deficits of 9% and 0%, respectively. None of the control group dogs survived 24 hours. We concluded that head-cooling attenuates brain injury during cardiac arrest with prolonged CPR. We review the literature related to the use of hypothermia following cardiac arrest and discuss some promising approaches for the pre-hospital setting. PMID:21577339

  4. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  5. Emergent pediatric thoracotomy following traumatic arrest.

    PubMed

    Easter, Joshua S; Vinton, Deborah T; Haukoos, Jason S

    2012-12-01

    Emergent thoracotomy is a potentially life-saving procedure following traumatic cardiac arrest. The procedure has been studied extensively in adults, but its role in pediatric traumatic cardiac arrest remains unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of survival following emergent resuscitative thoracotomy in children. This was a retrospective cohort study that included consecutive patients<18 years old who underwent emergent thoracotomy following traumatic cardiac arrest over a 15-year period. Factors previously associated with survival following thoracotomy in adults were measured. During the study period, 29 patients underwent emergent thoracotomy. Of these, 3 (10%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2-27%) survived to hospital discharge. All survivors sustained penetrating trauma to the heart and had signs of life on arrival of emergency medical services. Of the 13 patients who sustained blunt trauma, 0 (0%, 95% CI: 0-25%) survived, despite 69% (9/13) demonstrating signs of life on arrival of emergency medical services and 38% (5/13) having temporary return of spontaneous circulation. Emergent thoracotomy is a potentially life-saving procedure for children following traumatic cardiac arrest. It appears most successful in children suffering penetrating trauma to the heart with signs of life on arrival of emergency medical services. Larger studies are needed to determine the factors associated with this survival benefit for emergent thoracotomy in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 32 CFR 935.122 - Arrests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... an arrest, a peace officer may use only the degree of force needed to effect submission, and may... verbal warning. (f) A peace officer may force an entry into any building, vehicle, or aircraft...

  7. 32 CFR 935.122 - Arrests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... an arrest, a peace officer may use only the degree of force needed to effect submission, and may... verbal warning. (f) A peace officer may force an entry into any building, vehicle, or aircraft...

  8. 32 CFR 935.122 - Arrests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... an arrest, a peace officer may use only the degree of force needed to effect submission, and may... verbal warning. (f) A peace officer may force an entry into any building, vehicle, or aircraft...

  9. 32 CFR 935.122 - Arrests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... an arrest, a peace officer may use only the degree of force needed to effect submission, and may... verbal warning. (f) A peace officer may force an entry into any building, vehicle, or aircraft...

  10. 32 CFR 935.122 - Arrests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... an arrest, a peace officer may use only the degree of force needed to effect submission, and may... verbal warning. (f) A peace officer may force an entry into any building, vehicle, or aircraft...

  11. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  12. Arrest History among Men and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Milroy, Michael E.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Klahn, Jennifer A.; Wood, Michele M.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored associations between ever having been arrested and other variables among 490 male drug users. Participants were classified into three groups based on recent sexual history: men who had not had sex (NOSEX), men who had had sex with women (HETERO), and men who had had sex with men (MSM). We found that MSM who had been arrested…

  13. Juvenile Arrests, 1999. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin presents a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data for 1999. Data come from the FBI's annual "Crime in the United States" report, which offers the estimated number of crimes reported to law enforcement agencies. The 1999 murder rate was the lowest since 1966. Of the nearly 1,800 juveniles murdered in…

  14. Drug and Alcohol Arrests Increased in 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Department of Education (DOE) data showed a 1999 increase in drug and alcohol arrests on college campuses. Also, the number of reported sex offenses rose by 6 percent from 1998-99. Some experts question the validity of the year-to-year comparisons and the DOE data. Presents statistics on sex offenses, drug use, and drinking and football. (SM)

  15. Perinatal cardiac arrest. Quality of the survivors.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, H; Neligan, G

    1975-01-01

    Steiner, H., and Neligan, G. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 696. Perinatal cardiac arrest: quality of the survivors. Twenty-two consecutive survivors of perinatal cardiac arrest have been followed to a mean age of 4 1/4 years, using methods of neurological and developmental assessment appropriate to their ages. 4 showed evidence of gross, diffuse brain-damage (2 of these died before the age of 3 years). These were the only 4 survivors of the first month of life who took more than 30 minutes to establish regular, active respiration after their heartbeat had been restored. The arrest in these cases had occurred during or within 15 minutes of delivery, and followed antepartum haemorrhage, breech delivery, or prolapsed cord. The remaining 18 were free of any evidence of brain damage. In the majority of these the arrest had occurred during shoulder dystocia or exchange transfusion, or was unexplained; the heartbeat had been restored within 5 minutes in most cases, and regular, active respiration had been established within 30 minutes thereafter in all cases. PMID:1190819

  16. Arrest History among Men and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Milroy, Michael E.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Klahn, Jennifer A.; Wood, Michele M.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored associations between ever having been arrested and other variables among 490 male drug users. Participants were classified into three groups based on recent sexual history: men who had not had sex (NOSEX), men who had had sex with women (HETERO), and men who had had sex with men (MSM). We found that MSM who had been arrested…

  17. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  18. Gene copy number and cell cycle arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhaswar; Bose, Indrani

    2006-03-01

    The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events which ultimately lead to the division of a single cell into two daughter cells. In the case of DNA damage by radiation or chemicals, the damage checkpoints in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle are activated. This results in an arrest of the cell cycle so that the DNA damage can be repaired. Once this is done, the cell continues with its usual cycle of activity. We study a mathematical model of the DNA damage checkpoint in the G2 phase which arrests the transition from the G2 to the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in activating the pathways leading to cell cycle arrest in mammalian systems. If the DNA damage is severe, the p53 proteins activate other pathways which bring about apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death. Loss of the p53 gene results in the proliferation of cells containing damaged DNA, i.e., in the growth of tumors which may ultimately become cancerous. There is some recent experimental evidence which suggests that the mutation of a single copy of the p53 gene (in the normal cell each gene has two identical copies) is sufficient to trigger the formation of tumors. We study the effect of reducing the gene copy number of the p53 and two other genes on cell cycle arrest and obtain results consistent with experimental observations.

  19. 33 CFR 154.2106 - Detonation arresters installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arrester, line size expansions must be in a straight pipe run and must be no closer than 120 times the pipe's diameter from the detonation arrester unless the manufacturer has test data to show the expansion...

  20. Fewer Heart Failure Patients Dying of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... News on Cardiac Arrest Heart Failure Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cardiac Arrest Heart Failure Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  1. Maternal cardiac arrest: a practical and comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jeejeebhoy, Farida M; Morrison, Laurie J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest during pregnancy is a dedicated chapter in the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care; however, a robust maternal cardiac arrest knowledge translation strategy and emergency response plan is not usually the focus of institutional emergency preparedness programs. Although maternal cardiac arrest is rare, the emergency department is a high-risk area for receiving pregnant women in either prearrest or full cardiac arrest. It is imperative that institutions review and update emergency response plans for a maternal arrest. This review highlights the most recent science, guidelines, and recommended implementation strategies related to a maternal arrest. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the important physiological differences of, and management strategies for, a maternal cardiac arrest, as well as provide institutions with the most up-to-date literature on which they can build emergency preparedness programs for a maternal arrest.

  2. Home use of automated external defibrillators for sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Bardy, Gust H; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Poole, Jeanne E; Toff, William D; Tonkin, Andrew M; Smith, Warren; Dorian, Paul; Packer, Douglas L; White, Roger D; Longstreth, W T; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Bischoff, Eric; Yallop, Julie J; McNulty, Steven; Ray, Linda Davidson; Clapp-Channing, Nancy E; Rosenberg, Yves; Schron, Eleanor B

    2008-04-24

    The most common location of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest is the home, a situation in which emergency medical services are challenged to provide timely care. Consequently, home use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) might offer an opportunity to improve survival for patients at risk. We randomly assigned 7001 patients with previous anterior-wall myocardial infarction who were not candidates for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to receive one of two responses to sudden cardiac arrest occurring at home: either the control response (calling emergency medical services and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR]) or the use of an AED, followed by calling emergency medical services and performing CPR. The primary outcome was death from any cause. The median age of the patients was 62 years; 17% were women. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Overall, 450 patients died: 228 of 3506 patients (6.5%) in the control group and 222 of 3495 patients (6.4%) in the AED group (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.17; P=0.77). Mortality did not differ significantly in major prespecified subgroups. Only 160 deaths (35.6%) were considered to be from sudden cardiac arrest from tachyarrhythmia. Of these deaths, 117 occurred at home; 58 at-home events were witnessed. AEDs were used in 32 patients. Of these patients, 14 received an appropriate shock, and 4 survived to hospital discharge. There were no documented inappropriate shocks. For survivors of anterior-wall myocardial infarction who were not candidates for implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator, access to a home AED did not significantly improve overall survival, as compared with reliance on conventional resuscitation methods. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00047411 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  3. Early Versus Late Maturation Arrest: Reproductive Outcomes of Testicular Failure

    PubMed Central

    Weedin, John W.; Bennett, Richard C.; Fenig, David M.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is a paucity of data characterizing infertile men with maturation arrest. We hypothesized that men with early stage maturation arrest could be clinically distinguished from men with late maturation arrest and would have worse reproductive outcomes. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and cryptozoospermia who underwent testis mapping and sperm extraction from 2002 to 2009 and for whom histopathological findings were available. Patients had uniform maturation arrest if multiple biopsies revealed maturation arrest at the spermatogonia/spermatocyte (early maturation arrest) or the spermatid (late maturation arrest) stage. Clinical parameters and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were examined. Statistical analysis consisted of univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Uniform maturation arrest was identified in 49 of 219 men (22.3%) undergoing testicular sperm extraction. On multivariate analysis men with maturation arrest had significantly larger testes (p = 0.01), decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (p = 0.05) and more detectable genetic abnormalities (p = 0.01) than men with other histopathological conditions. Men with late maturation arrest had decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (p = 0.02), increased testosterone (p = 0.03) and a higher sperm retrieval rate at testicular sperm extraction (p = 0.01) than men with early maturation arrest. Predictors of successful sperm retrieval were larger testes, cryptozoospermia, late maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis (each p ≤0.05). Pregnancy outcomes for men with maturation arrest were not significantly different from those for men with other histopathological conditions. Conclusions Maturation arrest is a common, diverse histopathological subtype of severe male infertility. Compared to men with late maturation arrest those with early maturation arrest have increased follicle

  4. Overvoltage protection of shunt-capacitor banks using MOV arresters

    SciTech Connect

    McGranaghan, M.F.; Gresham, D.W.; Law, S.W.; Reid, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    This paper evaluates using metal-oxide-varistor (MOV) surge arresters to protect shunt-capacitor banks from overvoltages. Protection requirements and surge arrester duties are analyzed for both lightning transients and switching-surge overvoltages, using both digital and transient network analyzer (TNA) simulations. Simple analytical expressions are developed for evaluating arrester duty as a function of capacitor bank size. Guidelines and limitations for applying arresters at grounded- a

  5. NUCLEAR FUSION DEFECTIVE1 encodes the Arabidopsis RPL21M protein and is required for karyogamy during female gametophyte development and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Portereiko, Michael F; Sandaklie-Nikolova, Linda; Lloyd, Alan; Dever, Chad A; Otsuga, Denichiro; Drews, Gary N

    2006-07-01

    Karyogamy, or nuclear fusion, is essential for sexual reproduction. In angiosperms, karyogamy occurs three times: twice during double fertilization of the egg cell and the central cell and once during female gametophyte development when the two polar nuclei fuse to form the diploid central cell nucleus. The molecular mechanisms controlling karyogamy are poorly understood. We have identified nine female gametophyte mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), nuclear fusion defective1 (nfd1) to nfd9, that are defective in fusion of the polar nuclei. In the nfd1 to nfd6 mutants, failure of fusion of the polar nuclei is the only defect detected during megagametogenesis. nfd1 is also affected in karyogamy during double fertilization. Using transmission electron microscopy, we showed that nfd1 nuclei fail to undergo fusion of the outer nuclear membranes. nfd1 contains a T-DNA insertion in RPL21M that is predicted to encode the mitochondrial 50S ribosomal subunit L21, and a wild-type copy of this gene rescues the mutant phenotype. Consistent with the predicted function of this gene, an NFD1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to mitochondria and the NFD1/RPL21M gene is expressed throughout the plant. The nfd3, nfd4, nfd5, and nfd6 mutants also contain T-DNA insertions in genes predicted to encode proteins that localize to mitochondria, suggesting a role for this organelle in nuclear fusion.

  6. Therapeutic Hypothermia Reduces Oxidative Damage and Alters Antioxidant Defenses after Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Hackenhaar, Fernanda S.; Medeiros, Tássia M.; Heemann, Fernanda M.; Behling, Camile S.; Putti, Jordana S.; Mahl, Camila D.; Verona, Cleber; da Silva, Ana Carolina A.; Guerra, Maria C.; Gonçalves, Carlos A. S.; Oliveira, Vanessa M.; Riveiro, Diego F. M.; Vieira, Silvia R. R.

    2017-01-01

    After cardiac arrest, organ damage consequent to ischemia-reperfusion has been attributed to oxidative stress. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been applied to reduce this damage, and it may reduce oxidative damage as well. This study aimed to compare oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in patients treated with controlled normothermia versus mild therapeutic hypothermia during postcardiac arrest syndrome. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 h mild therapeutic hypothermia (33°C), victims of in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Parameters were assessed at 6, 12, 36, and 72 h after cardiac arrest in the central venous blood samples. Hypothermic and normothermic patients had similar S100B levels, a biomarker of brain injury. Xanthine oxidase activity is similar between hypothermic and normothermic patients; however, it decreases posthypothermia treatment. Xanthine oxidase activity is positively correlated with lactate and S100B and inversely correlated with pH, calcium, and sodium levels. Hypothermia reduces malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, markers of oxidative damage. Concomitantly, hypothermia increases the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase while decreasing the activity of serum paraoxonase-1. These findings suggest that mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces oxidative damage and alters antioxidant defenses in postcardiac arrest patients. PMID:28553435

  7. Gender-Sensitive Substance Abuse Treatment and Arrest Outcomes for Women

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Wendy B.; Tang, Zhiqun; Campbell, Kevin M.; Claus, Ronald E.; Orwin, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study links an empirically-developed quantitative measure of gender-sensitive (GS) substance abuse treatment to arrest outcomes among 5,109 substance abusing women in mixed-gender short-term residential programs in Washington State. Frailty models of survival analysis and 3-level hierarchical linear models were conducted to test the beneficial effects of GS treatment on decreasing criminal justice involvement. Propensity scores were used to control for the pre-existing differences among women due to the quasi-experimental nature of the study. Men's arrest outcomes were used to control for confounding at the program level. Results show that women in more GS treatment programs had a lower risk of drug-related arrests, and women in more GS treatment programs who also completed treatment had a significant reduction in overall arrests from two years before- to two years after treatment, above and beyond the reduction in arrests due to treatment alone. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24209383

  8. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    PubMed

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  9. Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus and Marked Hypernatremia following Cardiorespiratory Arrest.

    PubMed

    Koubar, Sahar H; Younes, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199 mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.

  10. Arrests for Major Crimes: Trends and Patterns for Elderly Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Allen D.

    1989-01-01

    Examined data from the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 1972 through 1981. Findings indicated that the percentage of all arrests that were arrests of the elderly was declining while the elderly population itself was rapidly increasing; and the percentage of elderly arrests for index (major) crimes was increasing…

  11. Arrests for Major Crimes: Trends and Patterns for Elderly Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Allen D.

    1989-01-01

    Examined data from the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 1972 through 1981. Findings indicated that the percentage of all arrests that were arrests of the elderly was declining while the elderly population itself was rapidly increasing; and the percentage of elderly arrests for index (major) crimes was increasing…

  12. Early Lactate Elevations Following Resuscitation From Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Clark, Amy E.; Casper, T. Charles; Berger, John T.; Schleien, Charles L.; Dean, J. Michael; Moler, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the association of lactate levels within the first 12 hours after successful resuscitation from pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest with hospital mortality. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Fifteen children’s hospital associated with the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. Patients Patients between 1 day and 18 years old who had a cardiopulmonary arrest, received chest compressions more than 1 minute, had a return of spontaneous circulation more than 20 minutes, and had lactate measurements within 6 hours of arrest. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Two hundred sixty-four patients had a lactate sampled between 0 and 6 hours (lactate0–6) and were evaluable. Of those, 153 patients had a lactate sampled between 7 and 12 hours (lactate7–12). One hundred thirty-eight patients (52%) died. After controlling for arrest location, total number of epinephrine doses, initial rhythm, and other potential confounders, the odds of death per 1 mmol/L increase in lactate 0–6 was 1.14 (1.08, 1.19) (p < 0.001) and the odds of death per 1 mmol/L increase in lactate7–12 was 1.20 (1.11, 1.30) (p < 0.0001). Area under the curve for in-hospital arrest mortality for lactate0–6 was 0.72 and for lactate7–12 was 0.76. Area under the curve for out-of-hospital arrest mortality for lactate0–6 was 0.8 and for lactate7–12 was 0.75. Conclusions Elevated lactate levels in the first 12 hours after successful resuscitation from pediatric cardiac arrest are associated with increased mortality. Lactate levels alone are not able to predict outcomes accurately enough for definitive prognostication but may approximate mortality observed in this large cohort of children’s hospitals. PMID:23925146

  13. The role of hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients with return of spontaneous circulation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walters, James H; Morley, Peter T; Nolan, Jerry P

    2011-05-01

    To update a comprehensive systematic review of the use of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest that was undertaken initially as part of the 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science. The specific question addressed was: 'in post-cardiac arrest patients with a return of spontaneous circulation, does the induction of mild hypothermia improve morbidity or mortality when compared with usual care?' Pubmed was searched using ("heart arrest" or "cardiopulmonary resuscitation") AND "hypothermia, induced" using 'Clinical Queries' search strategy; EmBASE was searched using (heart arrest) OR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) AND hypothermia; The Cochrane database of systematic reviews; ECC EndNote Library for "hypothermia" in abstract OR title. Excluded were animal studies, reviews and editorials, surveys of implementation, analytical models, reports of single cases, pre-arrest or during arrest cooling and group where the intervention was not hypothermia alone. 77 studies met the criteria for further review. Of these, four were meta-analyses (LOE 1); seven were randomised controlled trials (LOE 1), although six of these were from the same set of patients; nine were non-randomised, concurrent controls (LOE 2); 15 were trials with retrospective controls (LOE 3); 40 had no controls (LOE 4); and one was extrapolated from a non-cardiac arrest group (LOE 5). There is evidence supporting the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve neurological outcome in patients who remain comatose following the return of spontaneous circulation after a cardiac arrest; however, much of the evidence is from low-level, observational studies. Of seven randomised controlled trials, six use data from the same patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drug enforcement administration liability for false arrest of physician.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B

    2009-01-01

    Prescribing opioid analgesic medications brings with it a risk of regulatory oversight. A Florida Physician, Dr. Andrew Nguyen, was arrested in 2000 for allegedly violating controlled substance laws. The allegation was that Dr. Nguyen had not conducted a physical examination of a patient for whom controlled substances were prescribed. The allegation was untrue, and the charges against Dr. Nguyen were dismissed. Dr. Nguyen successfully sued the local law enforcement authorities, but a companion lawsuit against the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) was dismissed. The United States Court of Appeals has now reinstated Dr. Nguyen's lawsuit against the DEA. The reinstatement of the lawsuit corrects a moral hazard that produces imbalanced regulatory perspectives on the enforcement of controlled substance laws.

  15. Inducing Therapeutic Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest Caused by Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Scantling, Dane; Frank, Brian; Pontell, Mathew E; Medinilla, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Only limited clinical scenarios are grounds for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Its use in traumatic cardiac arrests, including those from lightning strikes, is not well studied. Nonshockable cardiac arrest rhythms have only recently been included in resuscitation guidelines. We report a case of full neurological recovery with therapeutic hypothermia after a lightning-induced pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest in an 18-year-old woman. We also review the important pathophysiology of lightning-induced cardiac arrest and neurologic sequelae, elaborate upon the mechanism of therapeutic hypothermia, and add case-based evidence in favor of the use of targeted temperature management in lightning-induced cardiac arrest.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Improves Neurologic Outcomes by Mitochondrial Biogenesis after Global Cerebral Ischemia Induced by Cardiac Arrest in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Yao, Lan; Zhou, Li-li; Liu, Yuan-shan; Chen, Ming-di; Wu, Hai-dong; Chang, Rui-ming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Ming-gen; Fang, Xiang-shao; Yu, Tao; Jiang, Long-yuan; Huang, Zi-tong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to brain injury following global cerebral ischemia after cardiac arrest. Carbon monoxide treatment has shown potent cytoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules on brain mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury following resuscitation after cardiac arrest in rats. A rat model of cardiac arrest was established by asphyxia. The animals were randomly divided into the following 3 groups: cardiac arrest and resuscitation group, cardiac arrest and resuscitation plus carbon monoxide intervention group, and sham control group (no cardiac arrest). After the return of spontaneous circulation, neurologic deficit scores (NDS) and S-100B levels were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 h, but carbon monoxide treatment improved the NDS and S-100B levels at 24 h and the 3-day survival rates of the rats. This treatment also decreased the number of damaged neurons in the hippocampus CA1 area and increased the brain mitochondrial activity. In addition, it increased mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing the expression of biogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, nuclear respiratory factor-2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Thus, this study showed that carbon monoxide treatment alleviated brain injury after cardiac arrest in rats by increased brain mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:27489503

  17. Secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism causing cardiopulmonary arrest and cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kibe, Tetsuya; Sobajima, Takehiro; Yoshimura, Ayumi; Uno, Yuichi; Wada, Naohiro; Ueta, Ikuya

    2014-04-01

    A 4-month-old boy presented with cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival after a brief period of lethargy. Laboratory examination indicated severe hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, and slightly elevated C-reactive protein. Whole body computed tomography identified left-dominant hydronephrosis, hydroureter and cholelithiasis. Despite cardiac arrest >30 min, he was successfully resuscitated and treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Escherichia coli was detected on urine culture. Renal ultrasound showed bilateral hydronephrosis, grade II in the right and grade IV in the left. Retrospective analysis of the blood sample at admission indicated a high level of aldosterone. The patient recovered almost fully with no electrolyte imbalance and normal plasma renin and aldosterone, leading to the diagnosis of secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism associated with bilateral infected hydronephrosis. In this case, cholelithiasis, which may account for chronic dehydration, was a diagnostic clue in the absence of information of pre-existing situations. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Crack propagation and arrest in pressurized containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Delale, F.; Owczarek, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of crack propagation and arrest in a finite volume cylindrical container filled with pressurized gas is considered. It is assumed that the cylinder contains a symmetrically located longitudinal part-through crack with a relatively small net ligament. The net ligament suddenly ruptures initiating the process of fracture propagation and depressurization in the cylinder. Thus the problem is a coupled gas dynamics and solid mechanics problem the exact formulation of which does not seem to be possible. The problem is reduced to a proper initial value problem by introducing a dynamic fracture criterion which relates the crack acceleration to the difference between a load factor and the corresponding strength parameter. The results indicate that generally in gas filled cylinders fracture arrest is not possible unless the material behaves in a ductile manner and the container is relatively long.

  19. Psychopathology in women arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N= 103) completed measures of IPV victimization, perpetration, and psychopathology. Results revealed high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, substance use disorders, borderline personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Violence victimization was significantly associated with symptoms of psychopathology. Logistic regression analyses showed that sexual and psychological abuse by partners were associated with the presence of PTSD, depression, and GAD diagnoses. Results highlight the potential importance of the role of violence victimization in psychopathology. Results suggest that Axis I and Axis II psychopathology should routinely be assessed as part of violence intervention programs for women and that intervention programs could be improved by offering adjunct or integrated mental health treatment.

  20. [Cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 30].

    PubMed

    Porlier, Magali; Porlier, Ludovic; Lefort, Hugues

    The cardiovascular risk of women is specific and polymorphous. Delays in treatment in women are evident and caused by multiple social and anthropological factors as well as changes to lifestyle habits which are becoming similar to those of men. Young women thereby have a higher risk of sudden death than the rest of the female and general population. A nurse who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 30 shares her story. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  2. Respiratory arrest during dipyridamole stress testing.

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, G. S.; al-Mohammad, A.; Jennings, K. P.

    1997-01-01

    There is an increasing usage of radionuclide scanning to assess myocardial perfusion, with dipyridamole, the most commonly used stress agent. Although this is an effective, and usually very safe, means by which to assess myocardial blood supply, there have been several incidents of acute bronchospasm in asthmatic patients. There have, however, been no previous reports of respiratory arrest occurring in patients with emphysema. This case illustrates the dangers of administering intravenous dipyridamole, or even adenosine, to patients with chronic lung disease. PMID:9196707

  3. Nuclear reactor melt arrest and coolability device

    DOEpatents

    Theofanous, Theo G.; Dinh, Nam Truc; Wachowiak, Richard M.

    2016-06-14

    Example embodiments provide a Basemat-Internal Melt Arrest and Coolability device (BiMAC) that offers improved spatial and mechanical characteristics for use in damage prevention and risk mitigation in accident scenarios. Example embodiments may include a BiMAC having an inclination of less than 10-degrees from the basemat floor and/or coolant channels of less than 4 inches in diameter, while maintaining minimum safety margins required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  4. Radiation-induced senescence-like terminal growth arrest in thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Podtcheko, Alexei; Namba, Hiroyuki; Saenko, Vladimir; Ohtsuru, Akira; Starenki, Dmitriy; Meirmanov, Serik; Polona, Iryna; Rogounovitch, Tatiana; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-04-01

    Premature senescence may play an important role as an acute, drug-, or ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible growth arrest program along with interphase apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether IR can induce senescence-like phenotype (SLP) associated with terminal growth arrest in the thyroid cells, and if so, to evaluate impact of terminal growth arrest associated with SLP in intrinsic radiosensitivity of various thyroid carcinomas. The induction of SLP in thyroid cells were identified by: (1) senescence associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) staining method, (2) dual-flow cytometric analysis of cell proliferation and side light scatter using vital staining with PKH-2 fluorescent dye, (3) double labeling for 5-bromodeoxyuridine and SA- beta-Gal, (4) Staining for SA-beta-Gal with consequent antithyroglobulin immunohistochemistry. IR induced SLP associated with terminal growth arrest in four thyroid cancer cells lines and in primary thyrocytes in time- and dose-dependent manner. Analysis of relationship between induction of SLP and radiosensitivity revealed a trend in which more radioresistant cell lines strongly tended to show lower specific SLP yields (r = -0.93, p = 0.068). We find out that SA-beta-Gal staining is detectable in irradiated ARO xenotransplants, but not in control tumors. We, therefore, conclude that induction of SLP with terminal growth arrest contribute to the elimination of clonogenic populations after IR.

  5. Detonation-flame arrester devices for gasoline cargo vapor recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.; Ryason, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    Empirical data on the deflagration-to-detonation run-up distance for flowing mixtures of gasoline and air in 15.2-cm- (6.0-in.-) diameter piping simulating a vapor recovery system are presented. The quenching capability of eight selected flame control devices subjected to repeated stable detonations was evaluated. The successful detonation-flame arresters were: (1) spiral-wound, crimped aluminum ribbon, (2) foamed nickel-chrome metal, (3) vertically packed bed of aluminum Ballast rings, and (4) water-trap or hydraulic back-pressure valve. Installation configurations for two of the more applicable arresters, the spiral-wound, crimped stainless-steel ribbon and the vertically packed bed of aluminum Ballast rings, were further optimized by a series of parametric tests. The final configuration of these two arresters was demonstrated with repeated detonation tests at conditions that simulated vapor recovery system operation. On these tests, the combustible mixture of gasoline and air continued to flow through the piping for periods up to 120 seconds after the initial detonation had been arrested. There was no indication of continuous burning or reignition occurring on either side of the test arresters.

  6. Development of a new type of nonlinear resistance valve block for surge arresters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoly, T.O.; Seitz, M.A.; Guertin, J.P.; Schumacher, P.P.; Potter, M.E.

    1980-12-01

    Present day surge arresters based on silicon carbide material have approached their technological performance limits because of the relatively low degree of nonlinearity in their V-I characteristics. Series gaps were introduced to compensate for this, but the gaps complicate arrester assembly and raise costs, while reducing both protection and reliability. Since 1970, electrical equipment manufacturers have been improving the quality of arresters with material based on zinc oxide. This ceramic material has a very high degree of nonlinearity in its V-I characteristic. The research project conducted here investigated how chemical composition and processing variables affected the electrical and physical characteristics of these metal oxide varistors. Various chemical compositions were studied. Bismuth oxide, antimony oxide, cobalt oxide, manganese oxide, chromium oxide, nickel oxide, and aluminum oxide in a zinc-oxide based varistor were evaluated. The effect of these materials on the varistors' leakage current, discharge voltage, and energy handling capability was evaluated. Mixing procedures and sintering programs were then established for the processing of these varistors. Since the elimination of series gaps would require the metal oxide arrester to be continuously subjected to operating voltage, the work sought to determine the mechanisms and controlling variables affecting a long-term deterioration of these varistors. Based on the electrical modes of conduction, an equivalent circuit model was constructed for the devices. Methods of encapsulating a stack of varistor blocks into an epoxy housing were examined and a potential application for the gapless arrester was demonstrated.

  7. Sulfur dioxide converter and pollution arrester system

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, V.H.

    1983-12-06

    A sulphur dioxide converter and pollution arrester system are disclosed which involves the treatment of smoke and/or contaminated air emanating from a combustion area by passage through a zone achieving turbulence into a water spray contained first treating chamber. The turbulence zone, into which an atomized catalyst is introduced, serves to create a longer path for cooling as well as increased centrifugal motion to the solid particles in the contaminated air and also the formation of sulphur trioxide. In other words, the arrangement is such that pollution arresting action is provided in the form of ''slinging'' resulting from tangential directional movement and, when combining with the water spray in the first treating chamber, the ultimate formation of sulphuric acid. Subsequently, the contaminated air, containing amounts of sulphurous and sulphuric acids, passes through a second treating chamber, where airflow throughout the system is occasioned by action at the outlet end, such as the vacuum created by a flue and not by independent mechanical means. The arrangement serves to a twofold purpose, i.e. to minimize or arrest pollution and to convert sulphur dioxide, a component of high sulphur coal, into commercially valuable sulphuric acid.

  8. Intracellular pH in Gastric and Rectal Tissue Post Cardiac Arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Elaine M.; Steiner, Richard P.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    We directly measured pHi using the pH sensitive dye, neutral red. We defined pHi for rectal and gastric tissue in whole tissue and by layer under control and arrest conditions. Fifteen minutes of arrest was not sufficient time to alter the pHi at the rectal or gastric site. On initial inspection, the stomach may be more sensitive to ischemic changes than the rectum. Understanding the mechanism by which PCO2 generation is used to track clinical changes is vital to the early detection of tissue dysoxia in order to effectively treat and manage critically ill patients.

  9. Romantic Partners’ Influence on Men’s Likelihood of Arrest in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Owen, Lee D.

    2008-01-01

    Female romantic partners’ influence on official crime occurrence for men across a 12-year period in early adulthood was examined within a comprehensive dynamic prediction model including both social learning and social control predictors. We hypothesized that relationship stability, rather than attachment to partner, would be associated with reduced likelihood of crime, whereas women’s antisocial behavior would be a risk factor, along with deviant peer association. Models were tested on a sample of at-risk men [the Oregon Youth Study (OYS)] using zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) modeling predicting to 1) arrest persistence (class and count) and 2) arrest onset class. Findings indicated that women’s antisocial behavior was predictive of both onset and persistence of arrests for men, and deviant peer association was predictive of persistence. Relationship stability was protective against persistence. PMID:19079751

  10. TCP transcription factor, BRANCH ANGLE DEFECTIVE 1 (BAD1), is required for normal tassel branch angle formation in maize

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fang; Reinheimer, Renata; Durantini, Diego; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In grass inflorescences, a structure called the “pulvinus” is found between the inflorescence main stem and lateral branches. The size of the pulvinus affects the angle of the lateral branches that emerge from the main axis and therefore has a large impact on inflorescence architecture. Through EMS mutagenesis we have identified three complementation groups of recessive mutants in maize having defects in pulvinus formation. All mutants showed extremely acute tassel branch angles accompanied by a significant reduction in the size of the pulvinus compared with normal plants. Two of the complementation groups correspond to mutations in the previously identified genes, RAMOSA2 (RA2) and LIGULELESS1 (LG1). Mutants corresponding to a third group were cloned using mapped-based approaches and found to encode a new member of the plant-specific TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR) family of DNA-binding proteins, BRANCH ANGLE DEFECTIVE 1 (BAD1). BAD1 is expressed in the developing pulvinus as well as in other developing tissues, including the tassels and juvenile leaves. Both molecular and genetics studies show that RA2 is upstream of BAD1, whereas LG1 may function in a separate pathway. Our findings demonstrate that BAD1 is a TCP class II gene that functions to promote cell proliferation in a lateral organ, the pulvinus, and influences inflorescence architecture by impacting the angle of lateral branch emergence. PMID:22773815

  11. Interaction between RNA helicase ROOT INITIATION DEFECTIVE 1 and GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1 is involved in female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dong Zi; Zhao, Xue Fang; Liu, Chang Zhen; Ma, Fang Fang; Wang, Fang; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-01-01

    ROOT INITIATION DEFECTIVE 1 (RID1) is an Arabidopsis DEAH/RHA RNA helicase. It functions in hypocotyl de-differentiation, de novo meristem formation, and cell specification of the mature female gametophyte (FG). However, it is unclear how RID1 regulates FG development. In this study, we observed that mutations to RID1 disrupted the developmental synchrony and retarded the progression of FG development. RID1 exhibited RNA helicase activity, with a preference for unwinding double-stranded RNA in the 3′ to 5′ direction. Furthermore, we found that RID1 interacts with GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1 (GFA1), which is an integral protein of the spliceosome component U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particle. Substitution of specific RID1 amino acids (Y266F and T267I) inhibited the interaction with GFA1. In addition, the mutated RID1 could not complement the seed-abortion phenotype of the rid1 mutant. The rid1 and gfa1 mutants exhibited similar abnormalities in pre-mRNA splicing and down-regulated expression of some genes involved in FG development. Our results suggest that an interaction between RID1 and the U5 snRNP complex regulates essential pre-mRNA splicing of the genes required for FG development. This study provides new information regarding the mechanism underlying the FG developmental process. PMID:27683728

  12. Grain setting defect1, Encoding a Remorin Protein, Affects the Grain Setting in Rice through Regulating Plasmodesmatal Conductance1[W

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Jinshan; Liu, Chang; Shen, Junhui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Effective grain filling is one of the key determinants of grain setting in rice (Oryza sativa). Grain setting defect1 (GSD1), which encodes a putative remorin protein, was found to affect grain setting in rice. Investigation of the phenotype of a transfer DNA insertion mutant (gsd1-Dominant) with enhanced GSD1 expression revealed abnormalities including a reduced grain setting rate, accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves, and lower soluble sugar content in the phloem exudates. GSD1 was found to be specifically expressed in the plasma membrane and plasmodesmata (PD) of phloem companion cells. Experimental evidence suggests that the phenotype of the gsd1-Dominant mutant is caused by defects in the grain-filling process as a result of the impaired transport of carbohydrates from the photosynthetic site to the phloem. GSD1 functioned in affecting PD conductance by interacting with rice ACTIN1 in association with the PD callose binding protein1. Together, our results suggest that GSD1 may play a role in regulating photoassimilate translocation through the symplastic pathway to impact grain setting in rice. PMID:25253885

  13. Childhood Victimization and Risk for Alcohol and Drug Arrests. Research Preview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Timothy; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    Using data from a large project on child abuse and neglect as predictors of violent criminal behavior, researchers investigated the connection between childhood maltreatment and later arrest for alcohol and drug-related offenses. After controlling for age, gender, and race, child maltreatment was found to be a significant predictor of delinquency.…

  14. Foucault and Colonial Strategy in Douglas C. Jones' "Arrest Sitting Bull"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    "Arrest Sitting Bull," a novel written by Douglas C. Jones that relates the personal stories of individuals involved in the military and the political domination of the Sioux Indian during the period leading to the Sitting Bull killing is described. The incessant quest to establish and maintain control and the integral roles played by fear and…

  15. Teenagers' High Arrest Rates: Features of Young Age or Youth Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The association of more crime with youthful age is widely accepted in social science. However, a literature search revealed no studies of the age-crime relationship that controlled for young ages' economic disadvantage. This research gap is addressed using the California Criminal Justice Statistics Center's arrest detail and Census poverty…

  16. Teenagers' High Arrest Rates: Features of Young Age or Youth Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The association of more crime with youthful age is widely accepted in social science. However, a literature search revealed no studies of the age-crime relationship that controlled for young ages' economic disadvantage. This research gap is addressed using the California Criminal Justice Statistics Center's arrest detail and Census poverty…

  17. Foucault and Colonial Strategy in Douglas C. Jones' "Arrest Sitting Bull"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    "Arrest Sitting Bull," a novel written by Douglas C. Jones that relates the personal stories of individuals involved in the military and the political domination of the Sioux Indian during the period leading to the Sitting Bull killing is described. The incessant quest to establish and maintain control and the integral roles played by fear and…

  18. Arrest History and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration in a Sample of Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Labrecque, Lindsay; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and prevalent problem throughout the United States. Currently, individuals arrested for domestic violence are often court mandated to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). However, little is known about the arrest histories of these individuals, especially women. The current study examined the arrest histories of men (n = 303) and women (n = 82) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. Results demonstrated that over 30% of the entire sample had been previously arrested for a non-violent offense, and over 25% of the participants had been previously arrested for a violent offense other than domestic violence. Moreover, men were arrested significantly more frequently for violence-related and non-violent offenses than their female counterparts. In addition, men were more likely than women to have consumed binge-levels of alcohol prior to the offense that led to their most recent arrest and court-referral to a BIP. Lastly, arrest history was positively associated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration against an intimate partner for men only, such that more previous arrests were associated with more frequent aggression. These results provide evidence that many men and women arrested for domestic violence have engaged in a number of diverse criminal acts during their lifetimes, suggesting that BIPs may need to address general criminal behavior.

  19. Arrest History and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration in a Sample of Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Labrecque, Lindsay; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Temple, Jeff R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and prevalent problem throughout the United States. Currently, individuals arrested for domestic violence are often court mandated to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). However, little is known about the arrest histories of these individuals, especially women. The current study examined the arrest histories of men (n = 303) and women (n = 82) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. Results demonstrated that over 30% of the entire sample had been previously arrested for a non-violent offense, and over 25% of the participants had been previously arrested for a violent offense other than domestic violence. Moreover, men were arrested significantly more frequently for violence-related and non-violent offenses than their female counterparts. In addition, men were more likely than women to have consumed binge-levels of alcohol prior to the offense that led to their most recent arrest and court-referral to a BIP. Lastly, arrest history was positively associated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration against an intimate partner for men only, such that more previous arrests were associated with more frequent aggression. These results provide evidence that many men and women arrested for domestic violence have engaged in a number of diverse criminal acts during their lifetimes, suggesting that BIPs may need to address general criminal behavior. PMID:25379068

  20. Computation Molecular Kinetics Model of HZE Induced Cell Cycle Arrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ren, Lei

    2004-01-01

    Cell culture models play an important role in understanding the biological effectiveness of space radiation. High energy and charge (HZE) ions produce prolonged cell cycle arrests at the G1/S and G2/M transition points in the cell cycle. A detailed description of these phenomena is needed to integrate knowledge of the expression of DNA damage in surviving cells, including the determination of relative effectiveness factors between different types of radiation that produce differential types of DNA damage and arrest durations. We have developed a hierarchical kinetics model that tracks the distribution of cells in various cell phase compartments (early G1, late G1, S, G2, and M), however with transition rates that are controlled by rate-limiting steps in the kinetics of cyclin-cdk's interactions with their families of transcription factors and inhibitor molecules. The coupling of damaged DNA molecules to the downstream cyclin-cdk inhibitors is achieved through a description of the DNA-PK and ATM signaling pathways. For HZE irradiations we describe preliminary results, which introduce simulation of the stochastic nature of the number of direct particle traversals per cell in the modulation of cyclin-cdk and cell cycle population kinetics. Comparison of the model to data for fibroblast cells irradiated photons or HZE ions are described.

  1. Computation Molecular Kinetics Model of HZE Induced Cell Cycle Arrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ren, Lei

    2004-01-01

    Cell culture models play an important role in understanding the biological effectiveness of space radiation. High energy and charge (HZE) ions produce prolonged cell cycle arrests at the G1/S and G2/M transition points in the cell cycle. A detailed description of these phenomena is needed to integrate knowledge of the expression of DNA damage in surviving cells, including the determination of relative effectiveness factors between different types of radiation that produce differential types of DNA damage and arrest durations. We have developed a hierarchical kinetics model that tracks the distribution of cells in various cell phase compartments (early G1, late G1, S, G2, and M), however with transition rates that are controlled by rate-limiting steps in the kinetics of cyclin-cdk's interactions with their families of transcription factors and inhibitor molecules. The coupling of damaged DNA molecules to the downstream cyclin-cdk inhibitors is achieved through a description of the DNA-PK and ATM signaling pathways. For HZE irradiations we describe preliminary results, which introduce simulation of the stochastic nature of the number of direct particle traversals per cell in the modulation of cyclin-cdk and cell cycle population kinetics. Comparison of the model to data for fibroblast cells irradiated photons or HZE ions are described.

  2. Temporal and spatial profile of brain diffusion-weighted MRI after cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Mlynash, M.; Campbell, D.M.; Leproust, E.M.; Fischbein, N.J.; Bammer, R.; Eyngorn, I.; Hsia, A.W.; Moseley, M.; Wijman, C.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of the brain is a promising technique to help predict functional outcome in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. We aimed to evaluate prospectively the temporal-spatial profile of brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in comatose survivors during the first 8 days after cardiac arrest. Methods ADC values were measured by two independent and blinded investigators in predefined brain regions in 18 good and 15 poor outcome patients with 38 brain MRIs, and compared with 14 normal controls. The same brain regions were also assessed qualitatively by two other independent and blinded investigators. Results In poor outcome patients, cortical structures, in particular the occipital and temporal lobes, and the putamen exhibited the most profound ADC reductions, which were noted as early as 1.5 days and reached nadir between 3 to 5 days after the arrest. Conversely, when compared to normal controls, good outcome patients exhibited increased diffusivity, in particular in the hippocampus, temporal and occipital lobes, and corona radiata. By the qualitative MRI readings, one or more cortical gray matter structures were read as moderately-to-severely abnormal in all poor outcome patients imaged beyond 54 hours after the arrest, but not in the three patients imaged earlier. Conclusions Brain DWI changes in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors in the first week after the arrest are region- and time-dependent and differ between good and poor outcome patients. With the increasing use of MRI in this context, it is important to be aware of these relationships. PMID:20595666

  3. Arresting developments: trends in female arrests for domestic violence and proposed explanations.

    PubMed

    Deleon-Granados, William; Wells, William; Binsbacher, Ruddyard

    2006-04-01

    This article represents an effort to generate more systematic and specified discussion on the topic of unintended consequences in the movement to decrease violence against women. In this case, the consequence is increases in female arrests for domestic violence. This article builds on recent discussions by first using a sample of data to examine felony domestic violence arrest rates for men and women. The data support the conclusion that domestic violence arrests of women have increased. Second, the article presents six explanations that are derived from existing literature. Although the authors do not offer empirical tests of these explanations, this presentation can play an important part in better understanding the outcomes of criminal justice policies that are aimed at increasing victim safety.

  4. Modeling cardiac arrest and resuscitation in the domestic pig

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Brandon H; Nguyen, Anh Q; Hollrah, Roger A; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Mallet, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of death and permanent disability worldwide. Although many victims are initially resuscitated, they often succumb to the extensive ischemia-reperfusion injury inflicted on the internal organs, especially the brain. Cardiac arrest initiates a complex cellular injury cascade encompassing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Ca2+ overload, ATP depletion, pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuronal glutamate excitotoxity, which injures and kills cells, compromises function of internal organs and ignites a destructive systemic inflammatory response. The sheer complexity and scope of this cascade challenges the development of experimental models of and effective treatments for cardiac arrest. Many experimental animal preparations have been developed to decipher the mechanisms of damage to vital internal organs following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and to develop treatments to interrupt the lethal injury cascades. Porcine models of cardiac arrest and resuscitation offer several important advantages over other species, and outcomes in this large animal are readily translated to the clinical setting. This review summarizes porcine cardiac arrest-CPR models reported in the literature, describes clinically relevant phenomena observed during cardiac arrest and resuscitation in pigs, and discusses numerous methodological considerations in modeling cardiac arrest/CPR. Collectively, published reports show the domestic pig to be a suitable large animal model of cardiac arrest which is responsive to CPR, defibrillatory countershocks and medications, and yields extensive information to foster advances in clinical treatment of cardiac arrest. PMID:25685718

  5. Arrests of women for driving under the influence.

    PubMed

    Shore, E R; McCoy, M L; Toonen, L A; Kuntz, E J

    1988-01-01

    Police records of arrests of women in Wichita, Kansas for driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol for a 5-year period (1980-1984) were studied. The proportion of arrests of women increased from 10.6 to 14.5% of total arrested. Women in their 20s comprised the largest age group; single women were greatly overrepresented. More than one-half of the arrested women were employed outside the home; a substantial proportion (30.8%) were unemployed at the time of arrest. The average blood alcohol level of those tested was 183 mg/dl. Characteristics of arrestees are discussed in terms of changes in the social roles and expectations of women. Although time of arrest was similar to that of men (i.e., night), arrests of women were more evenly spread across the days of the week. Within the 5-year period, the rate of recidivism for DUI was 7.43%. The implications of arrest and recidivism patterns are discussed. A change in legal and arrest procedures was found to have the same effect on arrests of women as it had on those of men, suggesting that the changes did not produce differential treatment by police.

  6. Factors associated with an increased risk of perioperative cardiac arrest in emergent and elective craniotomy and spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Timothy D; Brovman, Ethan Y; Aglio, Linda S; Urman, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    .8% versus 1.2% in the no cardiac arrest control group. Identification of patient and surgery specific characteristics from ACS-NSQIP data associated with cardiac arrest following craniotomy and spine surgery may lead to initiatives to reduce morbidity and mortality in the neurosurgical patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized clinical trial on arresting dental root caries through silver diammine fluoride applications in community-dwelling elders.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Lo, E C M; Liu, B Y; Wong, M C M; Chu, C H

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) solution application in arresting dental root caries and to assess the color of arrested caries lesions. This study was conducted in elderly centers in Hong Kong. A total of 83 elders with 157 root surfaces with active caries lesion were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Gp1 (placebo control)-annual application of soda water; Gp2-annual application of SDF solution; Gp3-annual application of SDF solution immediately followed by potassium iodide (KI) solution. Color of the arrested root caries lesion was assessed with reference to PANTONE color plates and classified into one of the followings: yellow (7401U); light brown (1245U); dark brown (4635U); and black (Black U). Status of root surfaces was assessed every 6 months by the same independent examiner. After 30 months, 100 (64%) of the included root caries lesions were reviewed. The arrest rates of root caries were 45%, 90%, and 93% in Gp1 (control), Gp2 (SDF) and Gp3 (SDF/KI), respectively (χ(2) test, p<0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed elders in the control group had a lower proportion of the active root caries changed to arrested (p<0.001) and the proportions of root caries being arrested in the SDF and SDF/KI groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). The distributions of arrested caries lesions by color were not significantly different between the SDF and SDF/KI groups (χ(2) test, p>0.05). Application of SDF solution, with or without application of KI afterwards, is effective in arresting root caries among elders in a water fluoridated area. In the long term, blackening of arrested root caries is not reduced by immediate application of KI after the application of SDF. In a water fluoridated area, annual application of SDF solution or SDF/KI solution can arrest dental root caries in elders. In the long term, application of KI does not reduce the blackening of arrested caries lesions caused by SDF. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  8. Mobile-phone dispatch of laypersons for CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Ringh, Mattias; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Hollenberg, Jacob; Jonsson, Martin; Fredman, David; Nordberg, Per; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Hasselqvist-Ax, Ingela; Riva, Gabriel; Svensson, Leif

    2015-06-11

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is associated with increased survival rates among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated whether rates of bystander-initiated CPR could be increased with the use of a mobile-phone positioning system that could instantly locate mobile-phone users and dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR to a patient nearby with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We conducted a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in Stockholm from April 2012 through December 2013. A mobile-phone positioning system that was activated when ambulance, fire, and police services were dispatched was used to locate trained volunteers who were within 500 m of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; volunteers were then dispatched to the patients (the intervention group) or not dispatched to them (the control group). The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR before the arrival of ambulance, fire, and police services. A total of 5989 lay volunteers who were trained in CPR were recruited initially, and overall 9828 were recruited during the study. The mobile-phone positioning system was activated in 667 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: 46% (306 patients) in the intervention group and 54% (361 patients) in the control group. The rate of bystander-initiated CPR was 62% (188 of 305 patients) in the intervention group and 48% (172 of 360 patients) in the control group (absolute difference for intervention vs. control, 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 6 to 21; P<0.001). A mobile-phone positioning system to dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR was associated with significantly increased rates of bystander-initiated CPR among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (Funded by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and Stockholm County; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01789554.).

  9. Unifying theory of adult resting follicle recruitment and fetal oocyte arrest.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman

    2015-10-01

    One of the biggest mysteries of ovarian physiology is what controls the emergence of adult primordial follicles from the resting stage, and their steady depletion over the woman's lifetime. A related mystery is why do early oogonia begin meiosis in the fetus and then suddenly arrest for most of fetal and adult life. If fetal oocyte arrest did not occur after meiotic activation, there would be no oocytes left in the female baby by the time she is born. Similarly, without a steady controlled release in the adult ovary of resting follicles, the adult woman would run out of her eggs prematurely and have an early menopause. Could there be a similarity between what causes fetal oocyte arrest and what causes adult oocyte recruitment? The answer begins with the observation of a sudden massive recruitment of primordial follicles after human ovarian transplantation, and the embryologic discoveries about oocyte activation and the time of differentiation of cortex and medulla. The unifying theory is that ovarian cortical tissue pressure controls both fetal oocyte arrest and adult oocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of antiarrhythmic drugs for adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Pellis, Tommaso; Link, Mark S

    2011-06-01

    In adult cardiac arrest, antiarrhythmic drugs are frequently utilized in acute management and legions of medical providers have memorized the dosage and timing of administration. However, data supporting their use is limited and is the focus of this comprehensive review. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library (including Cochrane database for systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Embase, and AHA EndNote Master Library were systematically searched. Further references were gathered from cross-references from articles and reviews as well as forward search using SCOPUS and Google scholar. The inclusion criteria for this review included human studies of adult cardiac arrest and anti-arrhythmic agents, peer-review. Excluded were review articles, case series and case reports. Of 185 articles found, only 25 studies met the inclusion criteria for further review. Of these, 9 were randomised controlled trials. Nearly all trials solely evaluated Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) and Ventricular Fibrillation (VF), and excluded Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA) and asystole. In VT/VF patients, amiodarone improved survival to hospital admission, but not to hospital discharge when compared to lidocaine in two randomized controlled trials. Amiodarone may be considered for those who have refractory VT/VF, defined as VT/VF not terminated by defibrillation, or VT/VF recurrence in out of hospital cardiac arrest or in-hospital cardiac arrest. There is inadequate evidence to support or refute the use of lidocaine and other antiarrythmic agents in the same settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tie-dyed1 and Sucrose export defective1 act independently to promote carbohydrate export from maize leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Baker, R. Frank; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; DellaPenna, Dean

    2007-01-01

    tie-dyed1 (tdy1) and sucrose export defective1 (sxd1) are recessive maize (Zea mays) mutants with nonclonal chlorotic leaf sectors that hyperaccumulate starch and soluble sugars. In addition, both mutants display similar growth-related defects such as reduced plant height and inflorescence development due to the retention of carbohydrates in leaves. As tdy1 and sxd1 are the only variegated leaf mutants known to accumulate carbohydrates in any plant, we investigated whether Tdy1 and Sxd1 function in the same pathway. Using aniline blue staining for callose and transmission electron microscopy to inspect plasmodesmatal ultrastructure, we determined that tdy1 does not have any physical blockage or alteration along the symplastic transport pathway as found in sxd1 mutants. To test whether the two genes function in the same genetic pathway, we constructed F2 families segregating both mutations. Double mutant plants showed an additive interaction for growth related phenotypes and soluble sugar accumulation, and expressed the leaf variegation pattern of both single mutants indicating that Tdy1 and Sxd1 act in separate genetic pathways. Although sxd1 mutants lack tocopherols, we determined that tdy1 mutants have wild-type tocopherol levels, indicating that Tdy1 does not function in the same biochemical pathway as Sxd1. From these and other data we conclude that Tdy1 and Sxd1 function independently to promote carbon export from leaves. Our genetic and cytological studies implicate Tdy1 functioning in veins, and a model discussing possible functions of TDY1 is presented. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00425-007-0636-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17924136

  12. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs.

    PubMed

    Alten, Jeffrey A; Klugman, Darren; Raymond, Tia T; Cooper, David S; Donohue, Janet E; Zhang, Wenying; Pasquali, Sara K; Gaies, Michael G

    2017-10-01

    In-hospital cardiac arrest occurs in 2.6-6% of children with cardiac disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Much remains unknown about cardiac arrest in pediatric cardiac ICUs; therefore, we aimed to describe cardiac arrest epidemiology in a contemporary multicenter cardiac ICU cohort. Retrospective analysis within the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry. Cardiac ICUs within 23 North American hospitals. All cardiac medical and surgical patients admitted from August 2014 to July 2016. None. There were 15,908 cardiac ICU encounters (6,498 medical, 9,410 surgical). 3.1% had cardiac arrest; rate was 4.8 cardiac arrest per 1,000 cardiac ICU days. Medical encounters had 50% higher rate of cardiac arrest compared with surgical encounters. Observed (unadjusted) cardiac ICU cardiac arrest prevalence varied from 1% to 5.5% among the 23 centers; cardiac arrest per 1,000 cardiac ICU days varied from 1.1 to 10.4. Over half cardiac arrest occur within 48 hours of admission. On multivariable analysis, prematurity, neonatal age, any Society of Thoracic Surgeons preoperative risk factor, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery mortality category 4, 5 had strongest association with surgical encounter cardiac arrest. In medical encounters, independent cardiac arrest risk factors were acute heart failure, prematurity, lactic acidosis greater than 3 mmol/dL, and invasive ventilation 1 hour after admission. Median cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration was 10 minutes, return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 64.5%, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 27.2%. Unadjusted survival was 53.2% in encounters with cardiac arrest versus 98.2% without. Medical encounters had lower survival after cardiac arrest (37.7%) versus surgical encounters (62.5%); Norwood patients had less than half the survival after cardiac arrest (35.6%) compared with all others. Unadjusted survival after

  13. The Impact of Legalizing Syringe Exchange Programs on Arrests Among Injection Drug Users in California

    PubMed Central

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Kral, Alex H.

    2007-01-01

    Legislation passed in 2000 allowed syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in California to operate legally if local jurisdictions declare a local HIV public health emergency. Nonetheless, even in locales where SEPs are legal, the possession of drug paraphernalia, including syringes, remained illegal. The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the legal status of SEPs and individual arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia among injection drug users (IDUs) in California from 2001 to 2003. Using data from three annual cross-sections (2001-03) of IDUs attending 24 SEPs in 16 California counties (N = 1,578), we found that overall, 14% of IDUs in our sample reported arrest or citation for paraphernalia in the 6 months before the interview. Further analysis found that 17% of IDUs attending a legal SEP (defined at the county level) reported arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia compared to 10% of IDUs attending an illegal SEP (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 2.3] for IDUs attending legal SEPs compared to IDUs attending illegal SEPs, after controlling for race/ethnicity, age, homelessness, illegal income, injection of amphetamines, years of injection drug use, frequency of SEP use, and number of needles received at last visit. IDUs attending SEPs with legal status may be more visible to police, and hence, more subject to arrest or citation for paraphernalia. These findings suggest that legislative efforts to decriminalize the operation of SEPs without concurrent decriminalization of syringe possession may result in higher odds of arrest among SEP clients, with potentially deleterious implications for the health and well-being of IDUs. More comprehensive approaches to removing barriers to accessing sterile syringes are needed if our public health goals for reducing new HIV/HCV infections are to be obtained. PMID:17265133

  14. [Identifying children at risk for cardiorespiratory arrest].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Alvarez, A; Martínez Gutiérrez, A; Salvat Germán, F

    2004-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with severe disease does not usually present suddenly or unexpectedly but is often the result of a progressive deterioration of respiratory and/or circulatory function. Before failure of these functions occurs, there is a series of clinical signs that serve as a warning. Health professionals should not only evaluate clinical signs of respiratory and/or circulatory insufficiency but should also be able to identify these warning signs as early as possible, preferably in the compensation phase, given that the possibility that this process can be reversed by therapeutic measures decreases as the process progresses.

  15. Coupling growth arrest and adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ailhaud, G; Dani, C; Amri, E Z; Djian, P; Vannier, C; Doglio, A; Forest, C; Gaillard, D; Négrel, R; Grimaldi, P

    1989-01-01

    The complete differentiation program of preadipose cells can be divided into early and late events. The expression of early markers takes place at growth arrest (G1/S boundary), whereas that of late markers, leading to terminal differentiation, takes place after a limited number of mitoses of early marker-containing cells. Only terminal differentiation requires the presence of growth hormone and triiodothyronine and results in the formation of triacylglycerol-filled, nondividing cells. The events of adipose cell differentiation which take place in vitro allow a better understanding of the development of adipose tissue in vivo. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. PMID:2647477

  16. Post-cardiac arrest brain injury: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-04-15

    Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death that affects more than a million individuals worldwide every year. Despite the recent advancement in the field of cardiac arrest and resuscitation, the management and prognosis of post-cardiac arrest brain injury remain suboptimal. The pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest brain injury involves a complex cascade of molecular events, most of which remain unknown. Considering that a potentially broad therapeutic window for neuroprotective drug therapy is offered in most successfully resuscitated patient after cardiac arrest, the need for further research is imperative. The aim of this article is to present the major pathophysiological disturbances leading to post-cardiac arrest brain injury, as well as to review the available pharmacological therapies.

  17. The psychological and legal aftermath of false arrest and imprisonment.

    PubMed

    Simon, R I

    1993-01-01

    False arrest and imprisonment can be an extraordinarily stressful psychological trauma. This is clearly demonstrated in the evaluation of forensic cases alleging false arrest and imprisonment, a review of the recent forensic psychiatric literature and reported legal cases. A clinical vignette is presented that illustrates the psychological trauma and sequelae associated with false arrest and imprisonment. Psychiatric treatment of these individuals is discussed. A number of these cases are litigated.

  18. Modes of induced cardiac arrest: hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia - Literature review

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseini; Cortez, José Luis Lasso; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The entry of sodium and calcium play a key effect on myocyte subjected to cardiac arrest by hyperkalemia. They cause cell swelling, acidosis, consumption of adenosine triphosphate and trigger programmed cell death. Cardiac arrest caused by hypocalcemia maintains intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels, improves diastolic performance and reduces oxygen consumption, which can be translated into better protection to myocyte injury induced by cardiac arrest. PMID:25372919

  19. Opiate withdrawal complicated by tetany and cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Kugasia, Irfanali R; Shabarek, Nehad

    2014-01-01

    Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  20. Long-term increase in coherence between the basal ganglia and motor cortex after asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation in developing rats

    PubMed Central

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R.; Shoykhet, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The basal ganglia are vulnerable to injury during cardiac arrest. Movement disorders are a common morbidity in survivors. Yet, neuronal motor network changes post-arrest remain poorly understood. METHODS We compared function of the motor network in adult rats that, during postnatal week 3, underwent 9.5 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest (n = 9) or sham intervention (n = 8). Six months after injury, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the primary motor cortex (MCx) and single neuron firing and LFP from the rat entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), which corresponds to the primate globus pallidus pars interna. Data were analyzed for firing rates, power, and coherence between MCx and EPN spike and LFP activity. RESULTS Cardiac arrest survivors display chronic motor deficits. EPN firing rate is lower in cardiac arrest survivors (19.5 ± 2.4 Hz) compared with controls (27.4 ± 2.7 Hz; P < 0.05). Cardiac arrest survivors also demonstrate greater coherence between EPN single neurons and MCx LFP (3—100 Hz; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This increased coherence indicates abnormal synchrony in the neuronal motor network after cardiac arrest. Increased motor network synchrony is thought to be antikinetic in primary movement disorders. Characterization of motor network synchrony after cardiac arrest may help guide management of post-hypoxic movement disorders. PMID:26083760

  1. Incidence and Risk Factors for Postcontrast Acute Kidney Injury in Survivors of Sudden Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Petek, Bradley J; Bravo, Paco E; Kim, Francis; de Boer, Ian H; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Shuman, William P; Gunn, Martin L; Carlbom, David J; Gill, Edward A; Maynard, Charles; Branch, Kelley R

    2016-04-01

    Survivors of sudden cardiac arrest may be exposed to iodinated contrast from invasive coronary angiography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography, although the effects on incident acute kidney injury are unknown. The study objective was to determine whether contrast administration within the first 24 hours was associated with acute kidney injury in survivors of sudden cardiac arrest. This cohort study, derived from a prospective clinical trial, included patients with sudden cardiac arrest who survived for 48 hours, had no history of end-stage renal disease, and had at least 2 serum creatinine measurements during hospitalization. The contrast group included patients with exposure to iodinated contrast within 24 hours of sudden cardiac arrest. Incident acute kidney injury and first-time dialysis were compared between contrast and no contrast groups and then controlled for known acute kidney injury risk factors. Of the 199 survivors of sudden cardiac arrest, 94 received iodinated contrast. Mean baseline serum creatinine level was 1.3 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 1.5 mg/dL) for the contrast group and 1.6 mg/dL (95% CI 1.4 to 1.7 mg/dL) for the no contrast group. Incident acute kidney injury was lower in the contrast group (12.8%) than the no contrast group (17.1%; difference 4.4%; 95% CI -9.2% to 17.5%). Contrast administration was not associated with significant increases in incident acute kidney injury within quartiles of baseline serum creatinine level or after controlling for age, sex, race, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and admission serum creatinine level by regression analysis. Older age was independently associated with acute kidney injury. Despite elevated baseline serum creatinine level in most survivors of sudden cardiac arrest, iodinated contrast administration was not associated with incident acute kidney injury even when other acute kidney injury risk factors were controlled for. Thus, although acute kidney injury is not uncommon

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of sudden cardiac arrest in schools.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Kajino, Kentaro; Nitta, Masahiko; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Hiraide, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the incidence and outcomes of sudden cardiac arrests in schools and the clinically relevant characteristics of individuals who experienced sudden cardiac arrests. We obtained data on sudden cardiac arrests that occurred in schools between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 from the database of the Utstein Osaka Project, a population-based observational study on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Osaka, Japan. The data were analyzed to show the epidemiological features of sudden cardiac arrests in schools in conjunction with prehospital documentation. In total, 44 cases were registered as sudden cardiac arrests in schools during the study period. Of these, 34 cases had nontraumatic cardiac arrests. Twenty-one cases (62%) had pre-existing cardiac diseases and/or collapsed during physical exercise. Twenty-three cases (68%) presented with ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, with cases of survival 1 month after cardiac arrest and those having favourable neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2) being 12 (52%) and 10 (43%), respectively. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrests in students was 0.23 per 100,000 persons per year, ranging from 0.08 in junior high school to 0.64 in high school. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrests in school faculty and staff was 0.51 per 100,000 persons per year, a rate approximately 2 times of that observed in the students. Although sudden cardiac arrests in schools is rare, they majorly occurred in individuals with cardiac diseases and/or during physical exercise and presented as ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia observed initially as cardiac arrhythmia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  4. Intravenous lipid emulsion in the resuscitation of cocaine-induced cardiovascular arrest in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peter R; Hack, Jason B

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a potential antidote for severe overdose of certain lipophilic drugs. Cocaine overdose is often fatal and has no antidote. The use of ILE after cocaine-induced cardiac arrest has been suggested but is not well characterized. The objective of the study is to determine if ILE would reverse cocaine-induced cardiac arrest in a rat model. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats with intra-arterial and intravenous access were sedated with isoflurane and split into 2 cocaine dose groups, then given either ILE or normal saline (NS) intravenously (IV)-group A, 7 animals received cocaine (10 mg/kg IV) with 6 of 7 given ILE (15 mg/kg IV) and 1 of 7 given NS (equal volume); group B, 5 animals received cocaine (5 mg/kg IV) with 3 of 5 given ILE (15 mg/kg IV) and 2 of 5 given NS (equal volume). Closed chest compressions were initiated for asystole and continued for 15 minutes with rhythm checks every minute. All 12 rats experienced cardiac arrest after cocaine bolus. Resuscitation was successful in 1 of 7 rats in group A and 0 of 5 in group B. Intravenous lipid emulsion administration did not affect outcome of cocaine-induced cardiac arrest compared with control in this model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Geography of Violence, Alcohol Outlets, and Drug Arrests in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaowen; A. Braga, Anthony; Goldstick, Jason; Newton, Manya; Rura, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between alcohol outlets, drug markets (approximated by arrests for possession and trafficking), and violence in Boston, Massachusetts, in 2006. We analyzed geographic and environmental versus individual factors related to violence and identified areas high in violent crime. Methods. We used data from the Boston Police Department, US Census, and Massachusetts State Alcohol Beverage Control Commission. Spatial modeling was employed at the block group level, and violent crime, alcohol outlets, and drug markets were mapped. Results. Relative to other block groups, block groups in the highest decile of violent crime (n = 55) were found to be poorer (e.g., lower incomes, higher percentages of vacant homes), and they had greater numbers of alcohol outlets and higher drug arrest rates. Alcohol outlets and drug possession and trafficking arrests were predictive of violent crime. Also, spatial effects resulting from neighboring block groups were related to violent crime. Both alcohol outlet density and type were associated with violent crime in a differentiated and complex way. Conclusions. With drug possession and trafficking arrests as a proxy for drug markets, spatial relationships between alcohol outlets and violence were found in addition to typical sociodemographic predictors. PMID:23409885

  6. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if...

  7. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if...

  8. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if...

  9. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if...

  10. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....125 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if...

  11. 32 CFR 553.9 - Power of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power of arrest. 553.9 Section 553.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.9 Power of arrest. The superintendents of Army national cemeteries...

  12. 32 CFR 553.9 - Power of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of arrest. 553.9 Section 553.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.9 Power of arrest. The superintendents of Army national cemeteries...

  13. 8 CFR 318.1 - Warrant of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warrant of arrest. 318.1 Section 318.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS PENDING REMOVAL PROCEEDINGS § 318.1 Warrant of arrest. For the purposes of section 318 of the Act, a notice to appear issued...

  14. Sex Differences in Urban Arrest Patterns, 1934-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffensmeier, Darrell J.; Cobb, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics show that women have made large gains in arrests for petty property crimes and smaller gains for other offenses. However, alternate sources of data as well as changes in reporting and statistical coverage suggest that female arrest gains are more apparent than real. (Author/GC)

  15. Evolution of the dragonfly head-arresting system

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The arrester or fixation system of the head in adult Odonata is unique among arthropods. This system involves the organs of two body segments: the head and the neck. It consists of a skeleton–muscle apparatus that sets the arrester parts in motion. The parts comprise formations covered with complicated microstructures: fields of microtrichia on the rear surface of the head and post-cervical sclerites of the neck. The arrester immobilizes the head during feeding or when the dragonfly is in tandem flight. Thus, it may serve as an adaptation to save the head from violent mechanical disturbance and to stabilize gaze in a variety of behavioural situations. This study shows the evolutionary trend of the arrester in the order Odonata by using scanning electron microscopy and measurements of arrester structures in 227 species from 26 odonate families. The arrester design occurring in the Epiophlebiidae, Gomphidae, Neopetaliidae, Petaluridae and Chlorogomphinae is suggested to be the basic one. Two convergent pathways of head-arrester evolution among Zygoptera and Anisoptera are proposed. The possible functional significance of the arrester system is discussed.

  16. A remote tester for surge arresters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.H.

    1986-12-01

    Laboratory studies show that the most probable indication that a surge arrester is failing is electromagnetic energy emission. In field trials by eight utilities, a tester designed to detect radiofrequency emissions located defective arresters, but stray emissions in the environment limited its performance.

  17. Colleges Report Increases in Arrests for Drug and Alcohol Violations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1999-01-01

    Arrests for violations of drug/alcohol laws at colleges and universities rose 7.2 and 3.6%, respectively, from 1996 to 1997. Campus police attribute the increases not to increased drug and alcohol use but to more aggressive enforcement. However, some health researchers feel usage has risen. Campus weapons violations and forcible rape arrests have…

  18. Nitrite therapy is neuroprotective and safe in cardiac arrest survivors.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Cameron; Alekseyenko, Aleksey; Dave, Kunjan R; Raval, Ami P; Do, Rose; Kim, Francis; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2012-05-15

    Cardiac arrest results in significant mortality after initial resuscitation due in most cases to ischemia-reperfusion induced brain injury and to a lesser degree myocardial dysfunction. Nitrite has previously been shown to protect against reperfusion injury in animal models of focal cerebral and heart ischemia. Nitrite therapy after murine cardiac arrest improved 22 h survival through improvements in myocardial contractility. These improvements accompanied transient mitochondrial inhibition which reduced oxidative injury to the heart. Based on preliminary evidence that nitrite may also protect against ischemic brain injury, we sought to test this hypothesis in a rat model of asphyxia cardiac arrest with prolonged survival (7d). Cardiac arrest resulted in hippocampal CA1 delayed neuronal death well characterized in this and other cardiac arrest models. Nitrite therapy did not alter post-arrest hemodynamics but did result in significant (75%) increases in CA1 neuron survival. This was associated with increases in hippocampal nitrite and S-nitrosothiol levels but not cGMP shortly after therapy. Mitochondrial function 1h after resuscitation trended towards improvement with nitrite therapy. Based on promising preclinical data, the first ever phase I trial of nitrite infusions in human cardiac arrest survivors has been undertaken. We present preliminary data showing low dose nitrite infusion did not result in hypotension or cause methemoglobinemia. Nitrite thus appears safe and effective for clinical translation as a promising therapy against cardiac arrest mediated heart and brain injury.

  19. Location of cardiac arrest and impact of pre-arrest chronic disease and medication use on survival.

    PubMed

    Granfeldt, Asger; Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Steen Møller; Lippert, Freddy K; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2017-05-01

    Cardiac arrest in a private location is associated with a higher mortality when compared to public location. Past studies have not accounted for pre-arrest factors such as chronic disease and medication. To investigate whether the association between cardiac arrest in a private location and a higher mortality can be explained by differences in chronic diseases and medication. We identified 27,771 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients ≥18 years old from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry (2001-2012). Using National Registries, we identified pre-arrest chronic disease and medication. To investigate the importance of cardiac arrest related factors and chronic disease and medication use we performed adjusted Cox regression analyses during day 0-7 and day 8-365 following cardiac arrest to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for death. Day 0-7: Un-adjusted HR for death day 0-7 was 1.21 (95%CI:1.18-1.25) in private compared to public location. When including cardiac arrest related factors HR for death was 1.09 (95%CI:1.06-1.12). Adding chronic disease and medication to the analysis changed HR for death to 1.08 (95%CI:1.05-1.12). 8-365 day: The un-adjusted HR for death day 8-365 was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.43-2.02) in private compared to public location. When including cardiac arrest related factors the HR decreased to 1.39 (95% CI: 1.14-1.68). Adding chronic disease and medication to the analysis changed HR for death to 1.27 (95% CI:1.04-1.54). The higher mortality following cardiac arrest in a private location is partly explained by a higher prevalence of chronic disease and medication use in patients surviving until day 8. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence of Mandatory Arrest Policies, Police Organizational Characteristics, and Situational Variables on the Probability of Arrest in Domestic Violence Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David

    2005-01-01

    Prior research into factors predicting arrest in domestic violence cases is limited in three regards: (a) no examination of whether mandatory arrest policies are associated with increased risk of arrest across multiple jurisdictions; (b) little consideration of whether police organizational characteristics influence arrest in such cases; and (c)…

  1. Structural arrest in an ideal gas.

    PubMed

    van Ketel, Willem; Das, Chinmay; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-04-08

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined at their midpoints. The crosses have random but fixed orientation. The static properties of this system are those of an ideal gas, and its collision frequency can be computed analytically. For number densities NL(3)/V>1, the single-particle diffusivity goes to zero. As the system is completely structureless, standard mode-coupling theory cannot describe the observed structural arrest. Nevertheless, the system exhibits many dynamical features that appear to be mode-coupling-like. All high-density incoherent intermediate scattering functions collapse onto master curves that depend only on the wave vector.

  2. The arrest of Agulhas retroflection during glaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, V.; Nof, D.; Ortiz, J. D.; Paldor, N.; Chassignet, E.

    2011-12-01

    Paleoceanographic proxy data indicate that the Agulhas leakage into the South Atlantic was dramatically reduced during glacial times, thus probably resulting in the collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. In our former papers, we hypothesized that this was due to a northward shift of the zero wind stress curl that, in turn, forced the retroflection to occur farther north, where the slant of the coastline relative to the north is steep. Here we propose that strong westerlies (0.4 Pa implying a wind speed of ~ 12 m/s at zero degrees centigrade), which were supposedly common during glaciations, also could have arrested the leakage. This arrest occurs because the wind stress opposes the momentum flux associated with the retroflection and, therefore, the retroflection does not shift in latitude. We use a simple, nonlinear, "reduced gravity" model to show analytically and numerically that, under the above conditions, the eastward wind stress compensates for the zonal westward flow-force associated with the retroflection, thus avoiding the development and shedding of rings. For a nearly zonal wall, westerly winds, and small upper layer thickness along the wall, the arresting wind stress is found, theoretically, to be, τx~0.042α3/2ρf[(2fQ)3/g']1/4 where α is twice the retroflection eddy vorticity, ρ the water density, and Q the Agulhas Current volume flux; the remaining notation is conventional. According to this formula, wind typical for the Agulhas region during glacial times (0.4Pa) significantly affects the moderately strong Agulhas rings of large PV (α=0.1) but, with increasing α, the influence of wind quickly decreases, and becomes negligible for α>0.2. This theoretical result is in agreement with the results of the numerical simulations that we conducted. The numerics show that the wind tends to destroy the detached rings by squeezing them onto the wall, a result that is valid in both the straight and the kinked coast cases. In the

  3. Arrested Bubble Rise in a Narrow Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamstaes, Catherine; Eggers, Jens

    2017-05-01

    If a long air bubble is placed inside a vertical tube closed at the top it can rise by displacing the fluid above it. However, Bretherton found that if the tube radius, R, is smaller than a critical value Rc=0.918 ℓ _c, where ℓ _c=√{γ /ρ g} is the capillary length, there is no solution corresponding to steady rise. Experimentally, the bubble rise appears to have stopped altogether. Here we explain this observation by studying the unsteady bubble motion for Rarrested motion.

  4. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: outcome predictors

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Ávila, Paulo; Cavaco, Raquel; Germano, Nuno; Bento, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Objective The determination of coma patient prognosis after cardiac arrest has clinical, ethical and social implications. Neurological examination, imaging and biochemical markers are helpful tools accepted as reliable in predicting recovery. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, these data need to be reconfirmed. In this study, we attempted to determine the validity of different markers, which can be used in the detection of patients with poor prognosis under hypothermia. Methods Data from adult patients admitted to our intensive care unit for a hypothermia protocol after cardiac arrest were recorded prospectively to generate a descriptive and analytical study analyzing the relationship between clinical, neurophysiological, imaging and biochemical parameters with 6-month outcomes defined according to the Cerebral Performance Categories scale (good 1-2, poor 3-5). Neuron-specific enolase was collected at 72 hours. Imaging and neurophysiologic exams were carried out in the 24 hours after the rewarming period. Results Sixty-seven patients were included in the study, of which 12 had good neurological outcomes. Ventricular fibrillation and electroencephalographic theta activity were associated with increased likelihood of survival and improved neurological outcomes. Patients who had more rapid cooling (mean time of 163 versus 312 minutes), hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging or neuron-specific enolase > 58ng/mL had poor neurological outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusion Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging and neuron-specific enolase were strong predictors of poor neurological outcomes. Although there is the belief that early achievement of target temperature improves neurological prognoses, in our study, there were increased mortality and worse neurological outcomes with earlier target-temperature achievement. PMID:26761469

  5. Flashback flame arrester devices for fuel cargo tank vapor vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.; Kushida, R. O.

    1981-03-01

    The flame quenching capability of four types of flame arresting devices suitable for installation on fuel cargo tank vents of marine transport vessels is evaluated. A single 30 mesh screen, a dual 20 mesh screen, a spiral wound crimped metal ribbon, and a packed bed of ballast rings were tested. Flame speed and flame penetration of the test arresters were determined. Eight fuels representative of bulk cargoes were tested. The test arresters quenched a minimum of three flashback flames from all eight fuels, with one exception: high speed ethylene flames penetrated the dual 20 mesh screen on three tests. The arresters withstood the sustained flame from a propane/air mixture for 30 minutes. None of the arresters withstood the sustained flame from an ethylene/air mixture for more than 7 minutes.

  6. Substance Use Disorders, Comorbidity, and Arrest among Indigenous Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.; Prentice, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous adolescents are overrepresented at multiple stages of the justice system, but we know very little about the role that mental health, particularly substance use disorder, plays in Indigenous pathways to arrest. This study examined the association between substance use disorder, its comorbidity with other disorders, and arrest using a longitudinal sample of Indigenous youth from the Northern Midwest and Canada. Of the 16% of youth who reported at least one arrest at Wave 5, half met criteria for substance abuse/dependence, and slightly more for conduct disorder. Substance abuse/dependence and conduct disorder were each associated with an increased risk of arrest, although co-occurring disorders were not. The reciprocal effects of arrest and mental disorder are discussed. PMID:26759503

  7. Growth arrest lines and recurrent patellar dislocation: a new sign.

    PubMed

    Abraham, A; Macnicol, M F

    2001-06-01

    The phenomenon of growth arrest lines has been widely described in the medical literature. They are usually found at the metaphysis of growing long bones and are the result of short periods of partial growth arrest. Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a well-recognised problem, particularly in adolescents. Several radiological features have been reported in association with patellar dislocation or instability. We have reported a hitherto undescribed radiological sign of patellar growth arrest lines on the skyline radiographs of two patients with this condition. The shape of the patella when symptoms were at their worst corresponded remarkably closely to the outline of the subsequent growth arrest line. We postulated that repeated dislocations adversely affect the process of normal maturation of the patella. With the resolution of symptoms, patella ossification resumes, leaving the telltale sign of previous injury in the form of a growth arrest line and an improvement in bone density once the patella has been stabilised and tracks normally.

  8. Flashback flame arrester devices for fuel cargo tank vapor vents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.; Kushida, R. O.

    1981-01-01

    The flame quenching capability of four types of flame arresting devices suitable for installation on fuel cargo tank vents of marine transport vessels is evaluated. A single 30 mesh screen, a dual 20 mesh screen, a spiral wound crimped metal ribbon, and a packed bed of ballast rings were tested. Flame speed and flame penetration of the test arresters were determined. Eight fuels representative of bulk cargoes were tested. The test arresters quenched a minimum of three flashback flames from all eight fuels, with one exception: high speed ethylene flames penetrated the dual 20 mesh screen on three tests. The arresters withstood the sustained flame from a propane/air mixture for 30 minutes. None of the arresters withstood the sustained flame from an ethylene/air mixture for more than 7 minutes.

  9. Acute hemodynamic effects of angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibition after prolonged cardiac arrest with Bretschneider's solution.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Alexandro; Kempfert, Jörg; Pritzwald-Stegmann, Patrick; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Dhein, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Evidence as to how ACE inhibitors attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IR) after cardioplegic arrest remains scarce. Twenty-four rabbit hearts were perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. Control hearts (n = 6) were arrested with pure histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK)-Bretschneider. Treatment groups received added to the cardioplegic solution (n = 6) captopril (100 μmol/l) and losartan (100 μmol/l) for selective AT1-receptor antagonism or BQ123 (100 nmol/l) for selective ETA-receptor antagonism. Pre-ischemic equilibration of 45 min was followed by 90 min of cardioplegic arrest and 30 min of reperfusion. Indices of myocardial contractility (LVP, dp/dt max, dp/dt min), coronary flow, heart rate, and O2 consumption were recorded before and after ischemic arrest. Tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were measured to evaluate energy content and oxidative stress, respectively. After selective cardiac arrest with Bretschneider, captopril-treated hearts showed improved hemodynamics compared to control and the other treatment groups. Oxygen consumption was significantly decreased during early reperfusion in captopril-treated hearts (34 ± 3 μmol/min/g/mmHg) compared to controls and losartan- and BQ123-treated hearts (controls: 77 ± 9 μmol/min/g/mmHg, p = 0.003; losartan: 54 ± 9 μmol/min/g/mmHg, p = 0.015; BQ123: 64 ± 13 μmol/min/g/mmHg, p = 0.046). The ATP content of the reperfused tissue was significantly elevated after captopril treatment compared to control group (24 ± 2 vs. 16 ± 2 μmol/g, p = 0.033), whereas the level of MDA was substantially decreased (0.58 ± 0.163 vs. 1.5 ± 0.28 μmol/g, p = 0.009). ACE inhibition leads to a significantly greater and faster recovery of myocardial contractility after prolonged cardiac arrest with Bretschneider solution. Due to decreased oxygen consumption, myocardial protection is enhanced. The association between ACE and ischemia cannot be clarified by selective blockade of

  10. Cold saline infusion and ice packs alone are effective in inducing and maintaining therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ing-Marie; Wallin, Ewa; Rubertsson, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia treatment with cold intravenous infusion and ice packs after cardiac arrest has been described and used in clinical practice. We hypothesised that with this method a target temperature of 32-34 degrees C could be achieved and maintained during treatment and that rewarming could be controlled. Thirty-eight patients treated with hypothermia after cardiac arrest were included in this prospective observational study. The patients were cooled with 4 degrees C intravenous saline infusion combined with ice packs applied in the groins, axillae, and along the neck. Hypothermia treatment was maintained for 26 h after cardiac arrest. It was estimated that passive rewarming would occur over a period of 8h. Body temperature was monitored continuously and recorded every 15 min up to 44 h after cardiac arrest. All patients reached the target temperature interval of 32-34 degrees C within 279+/-185 min from cardiac arrest and 216+/-177 min from induction of cooling. In nine patients the temperature dropped to below 32 degrees C during a period of 15 min up to 2.5h, with the lowest (nadir) temperature of 31.3 degrees C in one of the patients. The target temperature was maintained by periodically applying ice packs on the patients. Passive rewarming started 26 h after cardiac arrest and continued for 8+/-3h. Rebound hyperthermia (>38 degrees C) occurred in eight patients 44 h after cardiac arrest. Intravenous cold saline infusion combined with ice packs is effective in inducing and maintaining therapeutic hypothermia, with good temperature control even during rewarming. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytoplasm replacement following germinal vesicle transfer restores meiotic maturation and spindle assembly in meiotically arrested oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John; Liu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments are essential for the acquisition of meiotic competence. This study assessed the role of the cytoplasm in meiosis resumption in meiotically arrested oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Mouse oocytes at GV stage were meiotically arrested with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). GV transfer was performed between IBMX-treated and non-treated (control) mouse oocytes, and between control mouse and human GV oocytes. Extrusion of first polar body (PB) was examined as an indication of nuclear maturation. Meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome alignment were examined by immunostaining. Results indicated that oocytes arrested with IBMX for 24 and 48 h exhibited reduced ability for meiotic maturation and for extruding the first PB when compared with controls (P < 0.01). IBMX-treated oocytes reconstituted with cytoplasm, but not GV, of control oocytes restored the assembly of meiotic spindle and meiotic maturation. Mouse oocytes reconstituted with GV of human oocytes underwent meiosis similar to that observed in mice, but not humans. Additionally, human oocytes reconstituted by mouse GV underwent meiosis similar to that observed in humans, but not mice. These findings suggest that cytoplasm replacement by GV transfer could represent a potential therapeutic option for women who do not produce mature oocytes during IVF. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Time Series Analysis to Predict Cardiac Arrest in a PICU.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Curtis E; Aoki, Noriaki; Mariscalco, Michele; Turley, James P

    2015-11-01

    To build and test cardiac arrest prediction models in a PICU, using time series analysis as input, and to measure changes in prediction accuracy attributable to different classes of time series data. Retrospective cohort study. Thirty-one bed academic PICU that provides care for medical and general surgical (not congenital heart surgery) patients. Patients experiencing a cardiac arrest in the PICU and requiring external cardiac massage for at least 2 minutes. None. One hundred three cases of cardiac arrest and 109 control cases were used to prepare a baseline dataset that consisted of 1,025 variables in four data classes: multivariate, raw time series, clinical calculations, and time series trend analysis. We trained 20 arrest prediction models using a matrix of five feature sets (combinations of data classes) with four modeling algorithms: linear regression, decision tree, neural network, and support vector machine. The reference model (multivariate data with regression algorithm) had an accuracy of 78% and 87% area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The best model (multivariate + trend analysis data with support vector machine algorithm) had an accuracy of 94% and 98% area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Cardiac arrest predictions based on a traditional model built with multivariate data and a regression algorithm misclassified cases 3.7 times more frequently than predictions that included time series trend analysis and built with a support vector machine algorithm. Although the final model lacks the specificity necessary for clinical application, we have demonstrated how information from time series data can be used to increase the accuracy of clinical prediction models.

  13. Effects of reflex-based self-defence training on police performance in simulated high-pressure arrest situations.

    PubMed

    Renden, Peter G; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effects of reflex-based self-defence training on police performance in simulated high-pressure arrest situations. Police officers received this training as well as a regular police arrest and self-defence skills training (control training) in a crossover design. Officers' performance was tested on several variables in six reality-based scenarios before and after each training intervention. Results showed improved performance after the reflex-based training, while there was no such effect of the regular police training. Improved performance could be attributed to better communication, situational awareness (scanning area, alertness), assertiveness, resolution, proportionality, control and converting primary responses into tactical movements. As officers trained complete violent situations (and not just physical skills), they learned to use their actions before physical contact for de-escalation but also for anticipation on possible attacks. Furthermore, they learned to respond against attacks with skills based on their primary reflexes. The results of this study seem to suggest that reflex-based self-defence training better prepares officers for performing in high-pressure arrest situations than the current form of police arrest and self-defence skills training. Practitioner Summary: Police officers' performance in high-pressure arrest situations improved after a reflex-based self-defence training, while there was no such effect of a regular police training. As officers learned to anticipate on possible attacks and to respond with skills based on their primary reflexes, they were better able to perform effectively.

  14. The surgical arrest of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage: hospital episode statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, M. P. A.; Waddell, A.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the consent of patients for tonsillectomy, the risk of returning to theatre for control of postoperative bleeding may be determined from data provided on Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) provided by the Department of Health website. METHODS: HES data for England from 1998-2002 were used. The numbers of tonsillectomies and of surgical arrest of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage were considered for children and adults. RESULTS: Of 220,497 tonsillectomies performed over the 4-year period, 1804 (0.82%) returned to theatre for control of bleeding. However, this was 3.87 times more likely in adults than children (P <0.0001). CONCLUSION: Adults are nearly four times more likely than children to require surgery for the arrest of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage. PMID:15527575

  15. Soluble hyaluronan receptor RHAMM induces mitotic arrest by suppressing Cdc2 and cyclin B1 expression

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) receptor RHAMM is an important regulator of cell growth. Overexpression of RHAMM is transforming and is required for H- ras transformation. The molecular mechanism underlying growth control by RHAMM and other extracellular matrix receptors remains largely unknown. We report that soluble RHAMM induces G2/M arrest by suppressing the expression of Cdc2/Cyclin B1, a protein kinase complex essential for mitosis. Down-regulation of RHAMM by use of dominant negative mutants or antisense of mRNA also decreases Cdc2 protein levels. Suppression of Cdc2 occurs as a result of an increased rate of cdc2 mRNA degradation. Moreover, tumor cells treated with soluble RHAMM are unable to form lung metastases. Thus, we show that mitosis is directly linked to RHAMM through control of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1 expression. Failure to sustain levels of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1 proteins leads to cell cycle arrest. PMID:8666924

  16. 33 CFR 154.2111 - Vapor control system connected to a facility's main vapor control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...— (1) A detonation arrester, unless both the marine VCS and the facility's main VCS only control vapors..., quick closing valves, one on each side of any detonation arrester required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section, which automatically close when— (i) A flame is detected on the detonation arrester; (ii) The...

  17. Teenage cardiac arrest following abuse of synthetic cannabis.

    PubMed

    Davis, C; Boddington, D

    2015-10-01

    The cardiac effects of many illegal substances (cocaine, methadone) have previously been well described [1,2]. However the association between synthetic cannabis and cardiac arrest is less well documented. Here we describe an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a previously healthy 16-year-old female associated with the use of inhaled synthetic cannabis. An electronic systematic search of online databases PubMed and Embase was performed using keywords, "synthetic cannabis death" and "cardiac arrest". In this case study a previously healthy 16-year-old had a cardiac arrest after synthetic cannabis use. Despite extensive investigations no other cause for her arrest was found. To the best of our knowledge there has been one previous case report of cardiac arrest following synthetic cannabis use in a 56-year-old man [3]. This case report augments the relationship between synthetic cannabis and cardiac arrest in the medical community. More awareness surrounding the risk of synthetic cannabinoids is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Prevalence of supraventricular tachycardia and tachyarrhythmias in resuscitated cardiac arrest].

    PubMed

    Brembilla-Perrot, B; Marcon, O; Blangy, H; Terrier de la Chaise, A; Louis, P; Sadoul, N; Claudon, O; Nippert, M; Popovic, B; Belhakem, H

    2006-01-01

    Supraventricular arrhythmias are considered to be benign when the ventricular rate is slowed and treated by anticoagulants. The aim of this study was to determine the possible influence of these arrhythmias in resuscitated cardiac arrest. Between 1980 and 2002, 151 patients were admitted after a cardiac arrest. Supraventricular arrhythrmias were identified as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest in 21 patients. They underwent echocardiography, exercise stress test, Holter ECG monitoring , coronary angiography and electrophysiological investigation. After these investigations, three patients had a malignant form of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, two were asymptomatic and, in the third patient, ventricular fibrillation was induced by treatment with diltiazem. In 8 patients, a rapid supraventricular arrhythmia was considered to be the cause of cardiac arrest by cardiogenic shock; 2 patients had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 5 had severe dilated cardiomyopathy which regressed in one patient. In ten patients, cardiac arrest due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation was provoked by a rapid (> 220 beats/min) supraventricular arrhythmia; two patients had no apparent underlying cardiac pathology. In the others, myocardial ischaemia or acute cardiac failure were considered to be the cause of the cardiac arrest. The authors conclude that rapid supraventricular arrhythmias may cause cardiac arrest either by cardiogenic shock or degenerescence to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Usually, this event occurs in patients with severe cardiac disease but it may occur in subjects without cardiac disease or by an arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy.

  19. A closer look at arrested spinodal decomposition in protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Gibaud, Thomas; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2009-08-12

    Concentrated aqueous solutions of the protein lysozyme undergo a liquid-solid transition upon a temperature quench into the unstable spinodal region below a characteristic arrest temperature of T(f) = 15 °C. We use video microscopy and ultra-small angle light scattering in order to investigate the arrested structures as a function of initial concentration, quench temperature and rate of the temperature quench. We find that the solid-like samples show all the features of a bicontinuous network that is formed through an arrested spinodal decomposition process. We determine the correlation length ξ and demonstrate that ξ exhibits a temperature dependence that closely follows the critical scaling expected for density fluctuations during the early stages of spinodal decomposition. These findings are in agreement with an arrest scenario based on a state diagram where the arrest or gel line extends far into the unstable region below the spinodal line. Arrest then occurs when during the early stage of spinodal decomposition the volume fraction φ(2) of the dense phase intersects the dynamical arrest threshold φ(2,Glass), upon which phase separation gets pinned into a space-spanning gel network with a characteristic length ξ.

  20. Computer simulation on disease vector population replacement driven by the maternal effect dominant embryonic arrest.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Souza, Mauricio; Vallejo, Edgar E

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a series of computer simulations on the genetic modification of disease vectors. We compared the effectiveness of two techniques of genetic modification, transposable elements and maternal effect dominant embryonic arrest (MEDEA). A gene drive mechanism based on MEDEA is introduced in the population to confer immunity to individuals. Experimental results suggested that the genetic maternal effects could be necessary for the effectiveness of a disease control strategy based on the genetic modification of vectors.

  1. Modulation of Medium pH by Caulobacter crescentus Facilitates Recovery from Uranium-Induced Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidized form of uranium [U(VI)] predominates in oxic environments and poses a major threat to ecosystems. Due to its ability to mineralize U(VI), the oligotroph Caulobacter crescentus is an attractive candidate for U(VI) bioremediation. However, the physiological basis for U(VI) tolerance is unclear. Here we demonstrated that U(VI) caused a temporary growth arrest in C. crescentus and three other bacterial species, although the duration of growth arrest was significantly shorter for C. crescentus. During the majority of the growth arrest period, cell morphology was unaltered and DNA replication initiation was inhibited. However, during the transition from growth arrest to exponential phase, cells with shorter stalks were observed, suggesting a decoupling between stalk development and the cell cycle. Upon recovery from growth arrest, C. crescentus proliferated with a growth rate comparable to that of a control without U(VI), although a fraction of these cells appeared filamentous with multiple replication start sites. Normal cell morphology was restored by the end of exponential phase. Cells did not accumulate U(VI) resistance mutations during the prolonged growth arrest, but rather, a reduction in U(VI) toxicity occurred concomitantly with an increase in medium pH. Together, these data suggest that C. crescentus recovers from U(VI)-induced growth arrest by reducing U(VI) toxicity through pH modulation. Our finding represents a unique U(VI) detoxification strategy and provides insight into how microbes cope with U(VI) under nongrowing conditions, a metabolic state that is prevalent in natural environments. PMID:25002429

  2. Modulation of medium pH by Caulobacter crescentus facilitates recovery from uranium-induced growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Jiao, Yongqin

    2014-09-01

    The oxidized form of uranium [U(VI)] predominates in oxic environments and poses a major threat to ecosystems. Due to its ability to mineralize U(VI), the oligotroph Caulobacter crescentus is an attractive candidate for U(VI) bioremediation. However, the physiological basis for U(VI) tolerance is unclear. Here we demonstrated that U(VI) caused a temporary growth arrest in C. crescentus and three other bacterial species, although the duration of growth arrest was significantly shorter for C. crescentus. During the majority of the growth arrest period, cell morphology was unaltered and DNA replication initiation was inhibited. However, during the transition from growth arrest to exponential phase, cells with shorter stalks were observed, suggesting a decoupling between stalk development and the cell cycle. Upon recovery from growth arrest, C. crescentus proliferated with a growth rate comparable to that of a control without U(VI), although a fraction of these cells appeared filamentous with multiple replication start sites. Normal cell morphology was restored by the end of exponential phase. Cells did not accumulate U(VI) resistance mutations during the prolonged growth arrest, but rather, a reduction in U(VI) toxicity occurred concomitantly with an increase in medium pH. Together, these data suggest that C. crescentus recovers from U(VI)-induced growth arrest by reducing U(VI) toxicity through pH modulation. Our finding represents a unique U(VI) detoxification strategy and provides insight into how microbes cope with U(VI) under nongrowing conditions, a metabolic state that is prevalent in natural environments.

  3. Leg ischaemia before circulatory arrest alters brain leucocyte count and respiratory chain redox state.

    PubMed

    Yannopoulos, Fredrik S; Arvola, Oiva; Haapanen, Henri; Herajärvi, Johanna; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Jensen, Hanna; Kiviluoma, Kai; Juvonen, Tatu

    2014-03-01

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning and its neuroprotective abilities are currently under investigation and the method has shown significant effects in several small and large animal studies. In our previous studies, leucocyte filtration during cardiopulmonary bypass reduced cerebrocortical adherent leucocyte count and mitigated cerebral damage after hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) in piglets. This study aimed to obtain and assess direct visual data of leucocyte behaviour in cerebral vessels after hypothermic circulatory arrest following remote ischaemic preconditioning. Twelve native stock piglets were randomized into a remote ischaemic preconditioning group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 6). The intervention group underwent hind-leg ischaemia, whereas the control group received a sham-treatment before a 60-min period of hypothermic circulatory arrest. An intravital microscope was used to obtain measurements from the cerebrocortical vessel in vivo. It included three sets of filters: a violet filter to visualize microvascular perfusion and vessel diameter, a green filter for visualization of rhodamine-labelled leucocytes and an ultraviolet filter for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) analysis. The final magnification on the microscope was 400. After the experiment, cerebral and cerebellar biopsies were collected and analysed with transmission electron microscope by a blinded analyst. In the transmission electron microscope analysis, the entire intervention group had normal, unaffected rough endoplasmic reticulum's in their cerebellar tissue, whereas the control group had a mean score of 1.06 (standard deviation 0.41) (P = 0.026). The measured amount of adherent leucocytes was lower in the remote ischaemic preconditioning group. The difference was statistically significant at 5, 15 and 45 min after circulatory arrest. Statistically significant differences were seen also in the recovery phase at 90 and 120 min after reperfusion. Nicotinamide

  4. Impact of Early Vasopressor Administration on Neurological Outcomes after Prolonged Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Michael W; Tyson, Clark

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Vasopressors are associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), but no long-term benefit has been demonstrated in randomized trials. However, these trials did not control for the timing of vasopressor administration which may influence outcomes. Consequently, the objective of this study was to develop a model describing the likelihood of favorable neurological outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] 1 or 2) as a function of the public safety answering point call receipt (PSAP)-to-pressor-interval (PPI) in prolonged out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Hypothesis The likelihood of favorable neurological outcome declines with increasing PPI. This investigation was a retrospective study of cardiac arrest using linked data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) database (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Atlanta, Georgia USA]; American Heart Association [Dallas, Texas USA]; and Emory University Department of Emergency Medicine [Atlanta, Georgia USA]) and the North Carolina (USA) Prehospital Medical Information System. Adult patients suffering a bystander-witnessed, non-traumatic cardiac arrest between January 2012 and June 2014 were included. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of neurological outcome as a function of PPI, while controlling for patient age, gender, and race; endotracheal intubation (ETI); shockable rhythm; layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); and field hypothermia. Of the 2,100 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 913 (43.5%) experienced ROSC, 618 (29.4%) survived to hospital admission, 187 (8.9%) survived to hospital discharge, and 155 (7.4%) were discharged with favorable neurological outcomes (CPC 1 or 2). Favorable neurological outcome was less likely with increasing PPI (OR=0.90; P<.01) and increasing age (OR=0.97; P<.01). Compared to patients with non-shockable rhythms, patients with shockable rhythms were more likely to have favorable

  5. Leg ischaemia before circulatory arrest alters brain leucocyte count and respiratory chain redox state

    PubMed Central

    Yannopoulos, Fredrik S.; Arvola, Oiva; Haapanen, Henri; Herajärvi, Johanna; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Jensen, Hanna; Kiviluoma, Kai; Juvonen, Tatu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Remote ischaemic preconditioning and its neuroprotective abilities are currently under investigation and the method has shown significant effects in several small and large animal studies. In our previous studies, leucocyte filtration during cardiopulmonary bypass reduced cerebrocortical adherent leucocyte count and mitigated cerebral damage after hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) in piglets. This study aimed to obtain and assess direct visual data of leucocyte behaviour in cerebral vessels after hypothermic circulatory arrest following remote ischaemic preconditioning. METHODS Twelve native stock piglets were randomized into a remote ischaemic preconditioning group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 6). The intervention group underwent hind-leg ischaemia, whereas the control group received a sham-treatment before a 60-min period of hypothermic circulatory arrest. An intravital microscope was used to obtain measurements from the cerebrocortical vessel in vivo. It included three sets of filters: a violet filter to visualize microvascular perfusion and vessel diameter, a green filter for visualization of rhodamine-labelled leucocytes and an ultraviolet filter for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) analysis. The final magnification on the microscope was 400. After the experiment, cerebral and cerebellar biopsies were collected and analysed with transmission electron microscope by a blinded analyst. RESULTS In the transmission electron microscope analysis, the entire intervention group had normal, unaffected rough endoplasmic reticulum's in their cerebellar tissue, whereas the control group had a mean score of 1.06 (standard deviation 0.41) (P = 0.026). The measured amount of adherent leucocytes was lower in the remote ischaemic preconditioning group. The difference was statistically significant at 5, 15 and 45 min after circulatory arrest. Statistically significant differences were seen also in the recovery phase at 90 and 120 min after

  6. "Aren't I a victim?": Notes on identity challenges relating to police action in a mandatory arrest jurisdiction.

    PubMed

    Rajah, Valli; Frye, Victoria; Haviland, Mary

    2006-10-01

    The mandated arrest of domestic violence perpetrators is a policy response to the problem of partner violence. Mandatory arrest can result, however, in unintended and sometimes undesirable arrest outcomes, including dual arrests (when both parties are arrested), retaliatory arrests (when the perpetrator has his or her partner wrongfully arrested), and failures to make an arrest (when one is warranted by law). Using an interactionist perspective, this research focuses on one negative effect of mandatory arrest: the identity challenge faced by female victims of domestic violence who experience undesirable arrest outcomes. The authors discuss policy implications, focusing on the potential empowerment effects of mandatory arrest.

  7. Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing.

    PubMed

    Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bossaert, Leo

    2013-09-01

    Major European institutions report cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the first cause of death in adults, with cardiac arrest and sudden death due to coronary ischaemia as the primary single cause. Global incidence of CVD is decreasing in most European countries, due to prevention, lifestyle and treatment. Mortality of acute coronary events inside the hospital decreases more rapidly than outside the hospital. To improve the mortality of cardiac arrest outside the hospital, reliable epidemiological and process figures are essential: "we can only manage what we can measure". Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries (total population of 830 million), with a 10-fold difference in incidence of coronary heart disease between North and South, East and West, and a 5-fold difference in number of EMS-treated cardiac arrest (range 17-53/1000,000/year). Epidemiology of cardiac arrest should not be calculated as a European average, but it is appropriate to describe the incidence of cardiac arrest, the resuscitation process, and the outcome in each of the European regions, for benchmarking and quality management. Epidemiological reports of cardiac arrest should specify definitions, nominator (number of cases) and denominator (study population). Recently some regional registries in North America, Japan and Europe fulfilled these conditions. The European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) has the potential to achieve these objectives on a pan-European scale. For operational applications, the Utstein definition of "Cardiac arrest" is used which includes the potential of survival. For application in community health, the WHO definition of "sudden death" is frequently used, describing the mode of death. There is considerable overlap between both definitions. But this explains that no single method can provide all information. Integrating data from multiple sources (local, national, multinational registries and surveys, death certificates, post-mortem reports, community statistics, medical

  8. Early Immune Regulatory Changes in a Primary Controlled Human Plasmodium vivax Infection: CD1c(+) Myeloid Dendritic Cell Maturation Arrest, Induction of the Kynurenine Pathway, and Regulatory T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Woodberry, Tonia; Loughland, Jessica R; Minigo, Gabriela; Burel, Julie G; Amante, Fiona H; Piera, Kim A; McNeil, Yvette; Yeo, Tsin W; Good, Michael F; Doolan, Denise L; Engwerda, Christian R; McCarthy, James S; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health problem. The requirements for acquisition of protective immunity to the species are not clear. Dendritic cells (DC) are essential for immune cell priming but also perform immune regulatory functions, along with regulatory T cells (Treg). An important function of DC involves activation of the kynurenine pathway via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Using a controlled human experimental infection study with blood-stage P. vivax, we characterized plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and myeloid DC (mDC) subset maturation, CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(lo) Treg activation, and IDO activity. Blood samples were collected from six healthy adults preinoculation, at peak parasitemia (day 14; ∼31,400 parasites/ml), and 24 and 48 h after antimalarial treatment. CD1c(+) and CD141(+) mDC and pDC numbers markedly declined at peak parasitemia, while CD16(+) mDC numbers appeared less affected. HLA-DR expression was selectively reduced on CD1c(+) mDC, increased on CD16(+) mDC, and was unaltered on pDC. Plasma IFN-γ increased significantly and was correlated with an increased kynurenine/tryptophan (KT) ratio, a measure of IDO activity. At peak parasitemia, Treg presented an activated CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(lo) CD45RA(-) phenotype and upregulated TNFR2 expression. In a mixed-effects model, the KT ratio was positively associated with an increase in activated Treg. Our data demonstrate that a primary P. vivax infection exerts immune modulatory effects by impairing HLA-DR expression on CD1c(+) mDC while activating CD16(+) mDC. Induction of the kynurenine pathway and increased Treg activation, together with skewed mDC maturation, suggest P. vivax promotes an immunosuppressive environment, likely impairing the development of a protective host immune response. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Pollution performance of 110 kV metal oxide arresters

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzan, K.; Pohl, Z.; Grzybowski, S.; Koehler, W.

    1997-04-01

    Pollution test results of single unit 110 kV metal oxide surge arresters with porcelain housing according to the solid layer and salt fog methods are presented. During 6 hours of testing, the internal and external charge and maximum temperature along the varistor column were measured. The formation of single stable dry bands on the housing was often observed, especially during salt fog tests. In such cases, the varistor temperature can reach about 70 C. The simple electrical model of the arrester enabling calculations of voltages and currents as a function of arrester and pollution parameters is shown.

  10. Behavior of zinc oxide surge arresters under pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Feser, F.; Kohler, W.; Qiu, D. ); Chrzan, K. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents results of pollution tests with AC voltages which were carried out with a multi-unit zinc oxide arrester. The interaction between the polluted porcelain housing and the inner varistor column due to capacitive coupling has been found to be responsible for the temperature rise of varistor elements. The different voltage distribution between inside and outside of the arrester also causes a high radial electric field which can lead to internal discharges if the radial insulation system is not properly designed. These internal discharges may damage varistor elements which are not adequately coated and may cause a total destruction of the arrester.

  11. Effects of tibial intraosseous and IV administration of vasopressin on kinetics and survivability in cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Don; Giles, Kirk; Acuna, Alexis; Saenz, Crystal; Bentley, Michael; Budinich, Craig

    2016-03-01

    Purposes of this study were to compare tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) administration of vasopressin relative to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and time to ROSC in an adult swine cardiac arrest model. In addition, the purposes were to compare the concentration maximum (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and odds of ROSC. This was a between-subjects, prospective experimental study. Yorkshire swine (N = 21) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: TIO, IV, or control groups. The swine were anesthetized and instrumented, and then cardiac arrest was induced and sustained for 2 minutes. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated and continued for 2 minutes. Vasopressin was then administered via the TIO or IV route. Blood samples were collected for 4 minutes to determine the Cmax and Tmax of vasopressin. Concentration maximum and Tmax were calculated by use of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. There was no difference in ROSC between the TIO and IV groups (P = .63). The Cmax of vasopressin was significantly higher in the IV group compared to the TIO group (P = .017). However, there was no significant difference in ROSC, time to ROSC, or Tmax between groups (P > .05). All subjects had ROSC in both the IV and TIO groups, and none had ROSC in the control group. There was 225 times greater chance of survival for both the IV and TIO groups compared to the control group. The data support that the TIO is an effective route for vasopressin in a cardiac arrest model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Reversal of Growth Arrest With the Combined Administration of Oxandrolone and Propranolol in Severely Burned Children.

    PubMed

    Herndon, David N; Voigt, Charles D; Capek, Karel D; Wurzer, Paul; Guillory, Ashley; Kline, Andrea; Andersen, Clark R; Klein, Gordon L; Tompkins, Ronald G; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C; Meyer, Walter J; Sousse, Linda E

    2016-09-01

    The hypercatabolic response in severely burned pediatric patients is associated with increased production of catecholamines and corticosteroids, decreased formation of testosterone, and reduced strength alongside growth arrest for up to 2 years after injury. We have previously shown that, in the pediatric burned population, the administration of the testosterone analog oxandrolone improves lean body mass accretion and bone mineral content and that the administration of the β1-, β2-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol decreases cardiac work and resting energy expenditure while increasing peripheral lean mass. Here, we determined whether the combined administration of oxandrolone and propranolol has added benefit. In this prospective, randomized study of 612 burned children [52% ± 1% of total body surface area burned, ages 0.5-14 years (boys); ages 0.5-12 years (girls)], we compared controls to the individual administration of these drugs, and the combined administration of oxandrolone and propranolol at the same doses, for 1 year after burn. Data were recorded at discharge, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years after injury. Combined use of oxandrolone and propranolol shortened the period of growth arrest by 84 days (P = 0.0125 vs control) and increased growth rate by 1.7 cm/yr (P = 0.0024 vs control). Combined administration of oxandrolone and propranolol attenuates burn-induced growth arrest in pediatric burn patients. The present study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00675714 and NCT00239668.

  13. Take Heart America: A comprehensive, community-wide, systems-based approach to the treatment of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Lick, Charles J; Aufderheide, Tom P; Niskanen, Robert A; Steinkamp, Janet E; Davis, Scott P; Nygaard, Susan D; Bemenderfer, Kim K; Gonzales, Louis; Kalla, Jeffrey A; Wald, Sarah K; Gillquist, Debbie L; Sayre, Michael R; Osaki Holm, Susie Y; Oski Holm, Susie Y; Oakes, Dana A; Provo, Terry A; Racht, Ed M; Olsen, John D; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Lurie, Keith G

    2011-01-01

    To determine out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates before and after implementation of the Take Heart America program (a community-based initiative that sequentially deployed all of the most highly recommended 2005 American Heart Association resuscitation guidelines in an effort to increase out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Anoka County, MN, and greater St. Cloud, MN, from November 2005 to June 2009. Two sites in Minnesota with a combined population of 439,692 people (greater St. Cloud and Anoka County) implemented: 1) widespread cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator skills training in schools and businesses; 2) retraining of all emergency medical services personnel in methods to enhance circulation, including minimizing cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruptions, performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation before and after single-shock defibrillation, and use of an impedance threshold device; 3) additional deployment of automated external defibrillators in schools and public places; and 4) protocols for transport to and treatment by cardiac arrest centers for therapeutic hypothermia, coronary artery evaluation and treatment, and electrophysiological evaluation. More than 28,000 people were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator use in the two sites. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates increased from 20% to 29% (p = .086, odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 0.96-2.89). Three cardiac arrest centers were established, and hypothermia therapy for admitted out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims increased from 0% to 45%. Survival to hospital discharge for all patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in these two sites improved from 8.5% (nine of 106, historical control) to 19% (48 of 247, intervention phase) (p = .011, odds ratio 2.60, confidence interval 1.19-6.26). A financial analysis revealed that the cardiac arrest centers

  14. Cardiac arrest due to baclofen withdrawal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Ana Luísa; Quintaneiro, Claudio; Seabra, Helena; Teixeira, Carla

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with postcervical traumatic complete quadriparesis under intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) for refractory spasticity. Less than 24 h after having his baclofen pump substituted, he develops hyperthermia, seizures, cognitive depression, acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and cardiovascular instability leading to mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. He was transferred to an intensive care unit with diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia leading to septic shock. He evolved with progressive clinical worsening and multisystem organ failure and cardiac arrest in non-shockable rhythm (pulseless electrical activity)—4 min resuscitation with return of spontaneous circulation. Considering the possible diagnosis of baclofen withdrawal syndrome and, in suspicion of ITB delivery disruption, the catheter system was surgically explored and a leaking tubule attachment was found. Despite aggressive cardiovascular, respiratory and renal support therapy, clinical improvement occurred only after restoration of intrathecal drug delivery. He was discharged from the hospital after 56 days, having returned to baseline status. PMID:24827663

  15. Neuroprotective strategies and neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Crippa, Ilaria Alice; Dell'Anna, Antonio Maria; Scolletta, Sabino

    2015-12-01

    Neurocognitive disturbances are common among survivors of cardiac arrest (CA). Although initial management of CA, including bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, optimal chest compression, and early defibrillation, has been implemented continuously over the last years, few therapeutic interventions are available to minimize or attenuate the extent of brain injury occurring after the return of spontaneous circulation. In this review, we discuss several promising drugs that could provide some potential benefits for neurological recovery after CA. Most of these drugs have been investigated exclusively in experimental CA models and only limited clinical data are available. Further research, which also considers combined neuroprotective strategies that target multiple pathways involved in the pathophysiology of postanoxic brain injury, is certainly needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of these interventions in this setting. Moreover, the evaluation of neurological prognosis of comatose patients after CA remains an important challenge that requires the accurate use of several tools. As most patients with CA are currently treated with targeted temperature management (TTM), combined with sedative drug therapy, especially during the hypothermic phase, the reliability of neurological examination in evaluating these patients is delayed to 72-96 h after admission. Thus, additional tests, including electrophysiological examinations, brain imaging and biomarkers, have been largely implemented to evaluate earlier the extent of brain damage in these patients.

  16. Arresting dissolution by interfacial rheology design.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Peter J; Gupta, Manish; Alicke, Alexandra; Liascukiene, Irma; Gunes, Deniz Z; Baroud, Charles N; Vermant, Jan

    2017-09-26

    A strategy to halt dissolution of particle-coated air bubbles in water based on interfacial rheology design is presented. Whereas previously a dense monolayer was believed to be required for such an "armored bubble" to resist dissolution, in fact engineering a 2D yield stress interface suffices to achieve such performance at submonolayer particle coverages. We use a suite of interfacial rheology techniques to characterize spherical and ellipsoidal particles at an air-water interface as a function of surface coverage. Bubbles with varying particle coverages are made and their resistance to dissolution evaluated using a microfluidic technique. Whereas a bare bubble only has a single pressure at which a given radius is stable, we find a range of pressures over which bubble dissolution is arrested for armored bubbles. The link between interfacial rheology and macroscopic dissolution of [Formula: see text] 100 [Formula: see text]m bubbles coated with [Formula: see text] 1 [Formula: see text]m particles is presented and discussed. The generic design rationale is confirmed by using nonspherical particles, which develop significant yield stress at even lower surface coverages. Hence, it can be applied to successfully inhibit Ostwald ripening in a multitude of foam and emulsion applications.

  17. Drinking and driving and perceptions of arrest risk among California drivers: Relationships with DUI arrests in their city of residence

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Kara E.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Satariano, William A.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John H.; Ragland, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Addressing drinking and driving remains a challenge in the U.S. The present study aims to provide feedback on DUI in California by assessing if drinking and driving behavior is associated with the DUI arrest rates in the city in which the driver lives; if this is through perceptions that one can get arrested for this behavior; and if this differed by those drivers who would be most affected by deterrence efforts (those most likely to drink outside the home). Methods This study consisted of a 2012 roadside survey of 1,147 weekend nighttime drivers in California. City DUI arrest rates for 2009–2011 were used as an indicator of local enforcement efforts. Population average logistic modeling was conducted modeling the odds of perceived high arrest likelihood for DUI and drinking and driving behavior within the past year. Results As the DUI arrest rates for the city in which the driver lives increased, perceived high risk of DUI arrest increased. There was no significant relationship between either city DUI arrest rates or perceived high risk of DUI arrest with self-reported drinking and driving behavior in the full sample. Among a much smaller sample of those most likely to drink outside the home, self-reported drinking and driving behavior was negatively associated with DUI arrests rates in their city of residence but this was not mediated by perceptions. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that perceptions are correlated with one aspect of DUI efforts in one’s community. Those who were more likely to drink outside the home could be behaviorally influenced by these efforts. PMID:28107033

  18. Sudden cardiac arrest in people with epilepsy in the community

    PubMed Central

    Lamberts, Robert J.; Blom, Marieke T.; Wassenaar, Merel; Bardai, Abdennasser; Leijten, Frans S.; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan; Sander, Josemir W.; Thijs, Roland D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether characteristics of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) differed between people with epilepsy and those without and which individuals with epilepsy were at highest risk. Methods: We ascertained 18 people with active epilepsy identified in a community-based registry of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) with ECG-confirmed VT/VF (cases). We compared them with 470 individuals with VT/VF without epilepsy (VT/VF controls) and 54 individuals with epilepsy without VT/VF (epilepsy controls). Data on comorbidity, epilepsy severity, and medication use were collected and entered into (conditional) logistic regression models to identify determinants of VT/VF in epilepsy. Results: In most cases, there was an obvious (10/18) or presumed cardiovascular cause (5/18) in view of preexisting heart disease. In 2 of the 3 remaining events, near–sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) was established after successful resuscitation. Cases had a higher prevalence of congenital/inherited heart disease (17% vs 1%, p = 0.002), and experienced VT/VF at younger age (57 vs 64 years, p = 0.023) than VT/VF controls. VT/VF in cases occurred more frequently at/near home (89% vs 58%, p = 0.009), and was less frequently witnessed (72% vs 89%, p = 0.048) than in VT/VF controls. Cases more frequently had clinically relevant heart disease (50% vs 15%, p = 0.005) and intellectual disability (28% vs 1%, p < 0.001) than epilepsy controls. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease rather than epilepsy characteristics is the main determinant of VT/VF in people with epilepsy in the community. SCA and SUDEP are partially overlapping disease entities. PMID:26092917

  19. The impact of offenders leaving the scene on the police decision to arrest in cases of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Hirschel, David; Buzawa, Eve S

    2013-09-01

    In this article, the authors examine an issue that has not been studied in depth by prior research: the impact that fleeing the scene has on the likelihood of arrest in intimate partner violence cases. Using police data obtained from 25 police departments in four states, and controlling for a variety of incident, offender, victim, and jurisdictional characteristics, the authors find that an offender who flees the scene of the incident is more than 5 times less likely to be arrested than one who remains at the scene. The policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Extension of time until cardiac arrest after injection of a lethal dose of pentobarbital in the hibernating Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Seiji; Shiina, Takahiko; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether entry of peripherally injected drugs into the central nervous system is reduced during hibernation. When a lethal dose of pentobarbital was injected intraperitoneally, the time until cardiac arrest was significantly longer in hibernating hamsters than in active controls. The time difference was not a consequence of low body temperature or diminished circulation, because mimicking these parameters in artificial hypothermia did not prolong the time. In contrast, there was no difference in the time until cardiac arrest after intracerebroventricular injection of the anesthetic. These results indicate that entry of peripherally injected anesthetics into the central nervous system may be suppressed during hibernation.

  1. 3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print no. S-C-01-00478, no date. Photographer unknown. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Transmission Lines, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 157. Detail of lightning arresters; looking west. Photo by Jet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Detail of lightning arresters; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. 156. Detail of lightning arrester on hillside above powerhouse; looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. Detail of lightning arrester on hillside above powerhouse; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  4. 154. Detail of lightning arrester on hillside above powerhouse; looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Detail of lightning arrester on hillside above powerhouse; looking north. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  5. 53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455670-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 155. Detail of lightning arrester on hillside above powerhouse; looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Detail of lightning arrester on hillside above powerhouse; looking north. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  7. Cardiac Arrest? Someday, Drones May Come to Your Rescue

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166543.html Cardiac Arrest? Someday, Drones May Come to Your Rescue Like something from ... 13, 2017 TUESDAY, June 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Drones have been proposed for some pretty mundane uses, ...

  8. [Effect of phenibut on the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin].

    PubMed

    Tarakanov, I A; Tarasova, N N; Belova, E A; Safonov, V A

    2006-01-01

    The role of the GABAergic system in mechanisms of the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin administration was studied in anaesthetized rats. Under normal conditions, the systemic administration of serotonin (20-60 mg/kg, i.v.) resulted in drastic changes of the respiratory pattern, whereby the initial phase of increased respiratory rate was followed by the respiratory arrest. The preliminary injection of phenibut (400 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished or sharply reduced the duration of the respiratory arrest phase induced by serotonin. Bilateral vagotomy following the phenibut injection potentiated the anti-apnoesic effect of phenibut, which was evidence of the additive action of vagotomy and phenibut administration. The mechanism of apnea caused by serotonin administration is suggested to include a central GABAergic element, which is activated by phenibut so as to counteract the respiratory arrest.

  9. [Refractory cardiac arrest patients in prehospital care, potential organ donors].

    PubMed

    Le Jan, Arnaud; Dupin, Aurélie; Garrigue, Bruno; Sapir, David

    2016-09-01

    Under the authority of the French Biomedicine Agency, a new care pathway integrates refractory cardiac arrest patients into a process of organ donation. It is a medical, logistical and ethical challenge for the staff of the mobile emergency services.

  10. 44. #3 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. #3 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING MURAL OF LUCY AND CHARLIE BROWN ON HYDRAULIC OIL ACCUMULATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. Sealants for preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal caries in primary and permanent molars: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials-a report of the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wright, John T; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2016-08-01

    information about adverse events, but they did not report any adverse events. Available evidence suggests that sealants are effective and safe to prevent or arrest the progression of noncavitated carious lesions compared with a control without sealants or fluoride varnishes. Further research is needed to provide information about the relative merits of the different types of sealant materials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and implementation of the AIRWAYS-2 trial: A multi-centre cluster randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of the i-gel supraglottic airway device versus tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of out of hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jodi; Black, Sarah; J Brett, Stephen; Kirby, Kim; Nolan, Jerry P; Reeves, Barnaby C; Robinson, Maria; Rogers, Chris A; Scott, Lauren J; South, Adrian; Stokes, Elizabeth A; Thomas, Matthew; Voss, Sarah; Wordsworth, Sarah; Benger, Jonathan R

    2016-12-01

    Health outcomes after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are extremely poor, with only 7-9% of patients in the United Kingdom (UK) surviving to hospital discharge. Currently emergency medical services (EMS) use either tracheal intubation or newer supraglottic airway devices (SGAs) to provide advanced airway management during OHCA. Equipoise between the two techniques has led to calls for a well-designed randomised controlled trial. The primary objective of the AIRWAYS-2 trial is to assess whether the clinical effectiveness of the i-gel, a second-generation SGA, is superior to tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of OHCA patients in the UK. Paramedics recruited to the AIRWAYS-2 trial are randomised to use either tracheal intubation or i-gel as their first advanced airway intervention. Adults who have had a non-traumatic OHCA and are attended by an AIRWAYS-2 paramedic are retrospectively assessed against eligibility criteria for inclusion. The primary outcome is the modified Rankin Scale score at hospital discharge. Secondary objectives are to: (i) estimate differences between groups in outcome measures relating to airway management, hospital stay and recovery at 3 and 6 months; (ii) estimate the cost effectiveness of the i-gel compared to tracheal intubation. Because OHCA patient needs immediate treatment there are several unusual features and challenges to the design and implementation of this trial; these include level of randomisation, the automatic enrolment model, enrolment of patients that lack capacity and minimisation of bias. Patient enrolment began in June 2015. The trial will enrol 9070 patients over two years. The results are expected to influence future resuscitation guidelines. Trial Registration ISRCTN: 08256118. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Akt activation suppresses Chk2-mediated, methylating agent-induced G2 arrest and protects from temozolomide-induced mitotic catastrophe and cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yuchi; Katayama, Makoto; Mirzoeva, Olga K; Berger, Mitchel S; Pieper, Russell O

    2005-06-01

    Pharmacologic inhibition of the DNA signal transducers Chk1 and p38 blocks G2 arrest and sensitizes glioblastoma cells to chemotherapeutic methylating agent-induced cytotoxicity. Because Akt pathway activation has been suggested to also block G2 arrest induced by DNA-damaging agents and because glioma cells frequently have high levels of Akt activation, we examined the contribution of the Akt pathway to methylating agent-induced G2 arrest and toxicity. U87MG human glioma cells containing an inducible Akt expression construct were incubated with inducing agent or vehicle, after which the cells were exposed to temozolomide and assayed for activation of the components of the G2 arrest pathway and survival. Temozolomide-treated control cells activated the DNA damage signal transducers Chk1, Chk2, and p38, leading to Cdc25C and Cdc2 inactivation, prolonged G2 arrest, and loss of clonagenicity by a combination of senescence and mitotic catastrophe. Temozolomide-treated cells induced to overexpress Akt, however, exhibited significantly less drug-induced Cdc25C/Cdc2 inactivation and less G2 arrest. Akt-mediated suppression of G2 arrest was associated not with alterations in Chk1 or p38 activation but rather with suppression of Chk2 activation and reduced recruitment of Chk2 to sites of damage in chromatin. Unlike bypass of the G2 checkpoint induced by pharmacologic inhibitors of Chk1 or p38, however, Akt-induced bypass of G2 arrest suppressed, rather than enhanced, temozolomide-induced senescence and mitotic catastrophe. These results show that whereas Akt activation suppresses temozolomide-induced Chk2 activation and G2 arrest, the overriding effect is protection from temozolomide-induced cytotoxicity. The Akt pathway therefore represents a new target for the sensitization of gliomas to chemotherapeutic methylating agents such as temozolomide.

  14. New-type steel plate with ultra high crack-arrestability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, T.; Nomiyama, Y.; Hagiwara, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Oshita, S.; Mabuchi, H.

    1995-12-31

    A new-type steel plate has been developed by controlling the microstructure of the surface layers. The surface layer consists of ultra fine grain ferrite microstructure, which provides excellent fracture toughness even at cryogenic temperature. When an unstable brittle crack propagates in the developed steel plate, shear-lips can be easily formed due to the surface layers with ultra fine grain microstructure. Since unstable running crack behavior is strongly affected by side-ligaments (shear-lips), which are associated with extensive plastic deformation, enhanced formation of the shear-lips can improve crack arrestability. This paper describes the developed steel plates of HT500MPa tensile strength class for shipbuilding use. Fracture mechanics investigations using large-scale fracture testings (including ultrawide duplex ESSO tests) clarified that the developed steel plates have ultra high crack-arrestability. It was also confirmed that the plates possess sufficient properties, including weldability and workability, for ship building use.

  15. Early Adult Outcomes of Male Arrest Trajectories: Propensity versus Causation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Margit; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined early adult outcomes of differing arrest trajectories across childhood through early adulthood that were identified in prior work for 197 at-risk young men. Early adult outcomes were assessed at ages 27-28 to 29-30 years. Predictive effects of arrest trajectory membership on outcomes were examined after controlling for various factors, including prior levels and early antisocial propensity. As early adults, both chronic offender groups showed poorer adjustment in terms of deviant peer affiliation, education, and work domains than did the Rare Offenders; High-Level Chronic Offenders stood out from all other groups in terms of mental health problems and physical aggression toward a partner. These effects represent plausible causal effects of developmental pathways of offending on the outcomes. Evidence for propensity effects on the outcomes was more limited. Theoretical and prevention implications are discussed. PMID:23730147

  16. In-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Herce, Jesús; del Castillo, Jimena; Cañadas, Sonia; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Carrillo, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to analyze the characteristics and prognostic factors of in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest in Spain. A prospective observational study was performed to examine in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest. Two hundred children were studied, aged between 1 month and 18 years, with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of each factor on survival to hospital discharge. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 74% of the patients and 41% survived to hospital discharge. The survival rate was significantly higher than that reported in a previous Spanish study 10 years earlier (25.9%). In the univariate analysis, the factors related to mortality were body weight higher than 10 kg; continuous infusion of vasoactive drugs prior to cardiac arrest; sepsis and neurological disorders as causes of cardiac arrest, the need for treatment with adrenaline, bicarbonate, and volume expansion, and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the multivariate analysis, the factors related to mortality were hematologic/oncologic diseases, continuous infusion of vasoactive drugs prior to cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 20 min, and treatment with bicarbonate and volume expansion. Survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest in children has significantly improved in recent years. The factors related to in-hospital mortality were hematologic/oncologic diseases, continuous infusion of vasoactive drugs prior to cardiac arrest, the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and treatment with bicarbonate and volume expansion. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac catheterization is underutilized after in-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Raina M; Abella, Benjamin S; Khan, Monica; Huang, Kuang-Ning; Beiser, David G; Neumar, Robert W; Carr, Brendan G; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2008-12-01

    Indications for immediate cardiac catheterization in cardiac arrest survivors without ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are uncertain as electrocardiographic and clinical criteria may be challenging to interpret in this population. We sought to evaluate rates of early catheterization after in-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrest and the association with survival. Using a billing database we retrospectively identified cases with an ICD-9 code of cardiac arrest (427.5) or VF (427.41). Discharge summaries were reviewed to identify in-hospital VF arrests. Rates of catheterization on the day of arrest were determined by identifying billing charges. Unadjusted analyses were performed using Chi-square, and adjusted analyses were performed using logistic regression. One hundred and ten in-hospital VF arrest survivors were included in the analysis. Cardiac catheterization was performed immediately or within 1 day of arrest in 27% (30/110) of patients and of these patients, 57% (17/30) successfully received percutaneous coronary intervention. Of those who received cardiac catheterization the indication for the procedure was STEMI or new left bundle branch block (LBBB) in 43% (13/30). Therefore, in the absence of standard ECG data suggesting acute myocardial infarction, 57% (17/30) received angiography. Patients receiving cardiac catheterization were more likely to survive than those who did not receive catheterization (80% vs. 54%, p<.05). In patients receiving cardiac catheterization, more than half received this procedure for indications other than STEMI or new LBBB. Cardiac catheterization was associated with improved survival. Future recommendations need to be established to guide clinicians on which arrest survivors might benefit from immediate catheterization.

  18. Resuscitating the heart but losing the brain: brain atrophy in the aftermath of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, A; Frisch, S; Jentzsch, R T; Müller, K; Villringer, A; Schroeter, M L

    2010-01-26

    Many survivors of cardiac arrest are left with considerable long-term impairments due to a transient ischemic state of the brain. Neuropsychologists identified a wide range of neuropsychological deficits in these patients besides the well-known amnesic syndrome. To date, there is no complete and unbiased documentation of the affected brain areas in vivo. We aimed to identify the brain tissue atrophy underlying the observed neuropsychological deficits in a case-control study. We measured gray matter loss by voxel-based morphometry of 3-T structural magnetic resonance images in a sample of 12 patients who had had cardiac arrest with successful subsequent resuscitation in comparison with 12 individually age- and sex-matched control subjects. Such data are rare because many of these patients wear cardiac pacemakers. We found extensive reductions of gray matter volumes in the anterior, medial, and posterior cingulate cortex, the precuneus, the insular cortex, the posterior hippocampus, and the dorsomedial thalamus in tight correlation with neuropsychological impairments, namely, amnestic deficits and apathy. The identified neuroanatomical pattern of brain tissue loss substantiates the reports of wide-ranging neuropsychological impairments in patients after cardiac arrest.

  19. An energy analysis of crack-initiation and arrest in epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Kim, A.; Bosnyak, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study fracture processes such as crack initiation and arrest in epoxy. A compact tension specimen with displacement-controlled loading is employed to observe multiple crack initiations and arrests. The energy release rate at crack initiation is significantly higher than that at crack arrest, as has been observed elsewhere. In this study, the difference between these energy release rates is found to depend on specimen size (scale effect), and is quantitatively related to the fracture surface morphology. The scale effect, similar to that in strength theory, is conventionally attributed to the statistics of defects which control the fracture process. Triangular shaped ripples, deltoids, are formed on the fracture surface of the epoxy during the slow sub-critical crack growth, prior to the smooth mirrorlike surface characteristic of fast cracks. The deltoids are complimentary on the two crack faces which excludes any inelastic deformation from consideration. The deltoids are analogous to the ripples created on a river surface downstream from a small obstacle. However, in spite of the expectation based on this analogy and the observed scale effect, there are no 'defects' at the apex of the deltoids detectable down to the 0.1 micron level. This suggests that the formation of deltoids during the slow process of subcritical crack growth is an intrinsic feature of the fracture process itself, triggered by inhomogeneity of material on a submicron scale. This inhomogeneity may be related to a fluctuation in the cross-link density of the epoxy.

  20. Arrests two years after exiting a well-established mental health court.

    PubMed

    Hiday, Virginia A; Ray, Bradley

    2010-05-01

    Relatively few studies have evaluated whether mental health courts reduce criminal recidivism. This study evaluated an established court and followed for two years defendants who exited the program in the court's fifth year of operation. Court administrative data and state arrest records for 99 defendants who exited a mental health court in 2005 were used to determine whether the proportion arrested and number of arrests were lower in the two years after court exit than in the two years before court entry and whether the reduction was greater for those who completed the court process. Logistic regression was used to examine completion's effect on recidivism with controls for other predictors. Survival analysis was used to discern how long court effects were sustained after exit. Defendants had significantly reduced recidivism from precourt entry to postcourt exit. Completers (N=60) and those ejected from the program (N=31) had fewer rearrests, but completers were much less likely to be rearrested (odds ratio=.12), even with confounds controlled for, and they had a much longer period before rearrest. This study adds to the evidence that mental health courts can reduce criminal recidivism among offenders with mental illness and shows that this effect was sustained for two years, even though defendants were no longer being monitored by the court or receiving court-mandated treatment. The results show that the mental health court program studied had a greater impact on defendants who completed the program than on defendants who did not.

  1. Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Ren; Li, Chao-Jui; Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Wu, Han-Ping; Hsu Chen, Cheng; Lu, Huai-En; Chen, Wen-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level.

  2. Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Hsu Chen, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level. PMID:28058255

  3. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  4. Effects of Maternal Work Incentives on Teen Drug Arrests

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval; Kalil, Ariel; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study exploits differences in the implementation of welfare reform across states and over time in the United States in the attempt to identify causal effects of welfare reform on youth arrests for drug-related crimes between 1990 and 2005, the period during which welfare reform unfolded. Methodology Using monthly arrest data from the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, we estimate the effects of welfare reform implementation on drug-related arrests among 15–17 year olds in the United States between 1990 and 2005. We use a difference-in-differences (DD) approach that exploits the implementation of welfare reform across states and over time to estimate effects for teens exposed to welfare reform. Findings The findings, based on numerous different model specifications, suggest that welfare reform had no statistically significant effect on teen drug arrests. Most estimates were positive and suggestive of a small (3%) increase in arrests. Originality/Value This study investigated the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on youth drug arrests.

  5. Optimizing survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Hess, Erik P; White, Roger D

    2010-05-01

    Cardiac arrest is an important public health problem and often occurs in the out-of-hospital setting in patients without a prior history of heart disease. Very few communities or emergency medical service (EMS) systems report survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Among those who do, survival rates vary substantially between cities, due in large part to community differences in the chain of survival. To improve survival in cardiac arrest, care must be optimized at each point along the cardiac arrest continuum, including a rapid emergency response, provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystanders, delivery of high-quality chest compressions with minimal interruptions by first responders, rapid defibrillation, and optimization of postresuscitation care, including therapeutic hypothermia. Important current initiatives to improve cardiac arrest survival include hands-only CPR delivered by laypersons prior to the arrival of EMS, dispatcher-assisted CPR, and implementation of hospital-based therapeutic hypothermia protocols to improve postresuscitation care. Optimizing cardiac arrest survival requires a team effort between EMS directors, emergency physicians, cardiologists, hospital leadership, and the public.

  6. Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: relatives' experiences.

    PubMed

    Löf, Susanna; Sandström, Agneta; Engström, Asa

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study describing the experiences of relatives when someone they care for survived a cardiac arrest and was treated with therapeutic hypothermia in an intensive care unit. Witnessing a family member suffering a cardiac arrest is a traumatic event for relatives. Relatives constitute an important support for critically ill patients. It is suggested that therapeutic hypothermia improves the outcome for patients who survive cardiac arrest. Qualitative personal interviews were conducted during 2009 with eight relatives of patients who had survived cardiac arrest and been treated with therapeutic hypothermia. The interview texts were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three themes and eight categories. Relatives described the event of the cardiac arrest as frightening. Seeing the patient connected to tubes and equipment induced a feeling of unreality; the patient was experienced as cold, lifeless and hard to recognize. The relatives faced an anxiety-filled future not knowing what the outcome for their relative would be. Relatives supported each other during this the difficult time, and kept hoping that the patient would survive injury. Seeing a patient who has had a cardiac arrest and received therapeutic hypothermia is extremely demanding for relatives, as the patient seems to be lifeless. Relatives need to know what is happening on a continual basis during the patient's entire stay in hospital and even afterwards, and they need to be given opportunities to discuss their own situation and worries.

  7. Cardiac Rehabilitation After Acute Myocardial Infarction Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Kang, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation on patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. Methods The study included 23 subjects, including 8 with history of cardiac arrest and 15 without history of cardiac arrest. Both groups underwent initial graded exercise test (GXT) and subsequent cardiac rehabilitation for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, both groups received follow-up GXT. Results Statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of VO2peak and maximal MVO2 but significant (p<0.05) decrease of submaximal MVO2 and resting heart rate were observed in both groups after 6 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation. An increasing trend of maximal heart rates was observed in both groups. However, the increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant change of resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal MVO2, or submaximal MVO2 in both groups after cardiac rehabilitation. Fatal cardiac complications, such as abnormal ECG, cardiac arrest, death or myocardial infarction, were not observed. All subjects finished the cardiac rehabilitation program. Conclusion Improvement was observed in the exercise capacity of patients after aerobic exercise throughout the cardiac rehabilitation program. Therefore, cardiac rehabilitation can be safely administered for high-risk patients with history of cardiac arrest. Similar improvement in exercise capacity can be expected in patients without cardiac arrest experience. PMID:25566479

  8. Structural basis of RNA polymerase II backtracking, arrest and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-03-10

    During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) II moves forwards along DNA and synthesizes messenger RNA. However, at certain DNA sequences, Pol II moves backwards, and such backtracking can arrest transcription. Arrested Pol II is reactivated by transcription factor IIS (TFIIS), which induces RNA cleavage that is required for cell viability. Pol II arrest and reactivation are involved in transcription through nucleosomes and in promoter-proximal gene regulation. Here we present X-ray structures at 3.3 Å resolution of an arrested Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II complex with DNA and RNA, and of a reactivation intermediate that additionally contains TFIIS. In the arrested complex, eight nucleotides of backtracked RNA bind a conserved 'backtrack site' in the Pol II pore and funnel, trapping the active centre trigger loop and inhibiting mRNA elongation. In the reactivation intermediate, TFIIS locks the trigger loop away from backtracked RNA, displaces RNA from the backtrack site, and complements the polymerase active site with a basic and two acidic residues that may catalyse proton transfers during RNA cleavage. The active site is demarcated from the backtrack site by a 'gating tyrosine' residue that probably delimits backtracking. These results establish the structural basis of Pol II backtracking, arrest and reactivation, and provide a framework for analysing gene regulation during transcription elongation.

  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest: the importance of uninterrupted chest compressions in cardiac arrest resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Lee M; Mattu, Amal; O'Connor, Robert E; Brady, William J

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, the importance of delivering high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiac arrest patients has become increasingly emphasized. Many experts are in agreement concerning the appropriate compression rate, depth, and amount of chest recoil necessary for high-quality CPR. In addition to these factors, there is a growing body of evidence supporting continuous or uninterrupted chest compressions as an equally important aspect of high-quality CPR. An innovative resuscitation protocol, called cardiocerebral resuscitation, emphasizes uninterrupted chest compressions and has been associated with superior rates of survival when compared with traditional CPR with standard advanced life support. Interruptions in chest compressions during CPR can negatively impact outcome in cardiac arrest; these interruptions occur for a range of reasons, including pulse determinations, cardiac rhythm analysis, electrical defibrillation, airway management, and vascular access. In addition to comparing cardiocerebral resuscitation to CPR, this review article also discusses possibilities to reduce interruptions in chest compressions without sacrificing the benefit of these interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploration of the arrest peptide sequence space reveals arrest-enhanced variants.

    PubMed

    Cymer, Florian; Hedman, Rickard; Ismail, Nurzian; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2015-04-17

    Translational arrest peptides (APs) are short stretches of polypeptides that induce translational stalling when synthesized on a ribosome. Mechanical pulling forces acting on the nascent chain can weaken or even abolish stalling. APs can therefore be used as in vivo force sensors, making it possible to measure the forces that act on a nascent chain during translation with single-residue resolution. It is also possible to score the relative strengths of APs by subjecting them to a given pulling force and ranking them according to stalling efficiency. Using the latter approach, we now report an extensive mutagenesis scan of a strong mutant variant of the Mannheimia succiniciproducens SecM AP and identify mutations that further increase the stalling efficiency. Combining three such mutations, we designed an AP that withstands the strongest pulling force we are able to generate at present. We further show that diproline stretches in a nascent protein act as very strong APs when translation is carried out in the absence of elongation factor P. Our findings highlight critical residues in APs, show that certain amino acid sequences induce very strong translational arrest and provide a toolbox of APs of varying strengths that can be used for in vivo force measurements.

  11. Prehospital randomised assessment of a mechanical compression device in cardiac arrest (PaRAMeDIC) trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Gavin D; Woollard, Malcolm; Cooke, Matthew W; Deakin, Charles; Horton, Jessica; Lall, Ranjit; Lamb, Sarah E; McCabe, Chris; Quinn, Tom; Slowther, Anne; Gates, Simon

    2010-11-05

    Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is closely linked to the quality of CPR, but in real life, resuscitation during prehospital care and ambulance transport is often suboptimal. Mechanical chest compression devices deliver consistent chest compressions, are not prone to fatigue and could potentially overcome some of the limitations of manual chest compression. However, there is no high-quality evidence that they improve clinical outcomes, or that they are cost effective. The Prehospital Randomised Assessment of a Mechanical Compression Device In Cardiac Arrest (PARAMEDIC) trial is a pragmatic cluster randomised study of the LUCAS-2 device in adult patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The primary objective of this trial is to evaluate the effect of chest compression using LUCAS-2 on mortality at 30 days post out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, compared with manual chest compression. Secondary objectives of the study are to evaluate the effects of LUCAS-2 on survival to 12 months, cognitive and quality of life outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Ambulance service vehicles will be randomised to either manual compression (control) or LUCAS arms. Adult patients in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, attended by a trial vehicle will be eligible for inclusion. Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest or who are pregnant will be excluded. The trial will recruit approximately 4000 patients from England, Wales and Scotland. A waiver of initial consent has been approved by the Research Ethics Committees. Consent will be sought from survivors for participation in the follow-up phase. The trial will assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of the LUCAS-2 mechanical chest compression device. The trial is registered on the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry (ISRCTN08233942).

  12. Population movement and sudden cardiac arrest location.

    PubMed

    Marijon, Eloi; Bougouin, Wulfran; Tafflet, Muriel; Karam, Nicole; Jost, Daniel; Lamhaut, Lionel; Beganton, Frankie; Pelloux, Patricia; Degrange, Hervé; Béal, Guillaume; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Hagège, Albert A; Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Desnos, Michel; Dumas, Florence; Spaulding, Christian; Celermajer, David S; Cariou, Alain; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-05-05

    Although the benefits of automatic external defibrillators are undeniable, their effectiveness could be dramatically improved. One of the key issues is the disparity between the locations of automatic external defibrillators and sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs). From emergency medical services and other Parisian agencies, data on all SCAs occurring in public places in Paris, France, were prospectively collected between 2000 and 2010 and recorded using 2020 grid areas. For each area, population density, population movements, and landmarks were analyzed. Of the 4176 SCAs, 1255 (30%) occurred in public areas, with a highly clustered distribution of SCAs, especially in areas containing major train stations (12% of SCAs in 0.75% of the Paris area). The association with population density was poor, with a nonsignificant increase in SCAs with population density (P=0.4). Occurrence of public SCAs was, in contrast, highly associated with population movements (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis including other landmarks in each grid cell in the model and demographic characteristics, population movement remained significantly associated with the occurrence of SCA (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.63; P<0.0001), as well as grid cells containing train stations (odds ratio, 3.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.66-5.36; P<0.0001). Using a systematic analysis of determinants of SCA in public places, we demonstrated the extent to which population movements influence SCA distribution. Our findings also suggested that beyond this key risk factor, some areas are dramatically associated with a higher risk of SCA. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Effect of pregabalin on cerebral outcome after cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Ma, Qing; Zhang, Zhiquan; Podgoreanu, Mihai V; Mackensen, G Burkhard

    2014-07-01

    Activation of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels and release of glutamate play a central role in neuronal necrosis after cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Pregabalin binds to the α2-δ subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in reduced glutamate release. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of pregabalin on cerebral outcome after cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest through an established rat model allowing long-term survival. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg of pregabalin or an equal amount of normal saline 1 hour before cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 10, each). Rats were cooled to a pericranial temperature of 18°C and underwent deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for 60 minutes. Neurologic performance was assessed at postoperative days 3, 7, and 12. Cognitive performance (Morris water maze) was assessed daily from postoperative day 3 to 12 when histologic assessment was performed. Neurologic scores were significantly better in the pregabalin group than in the control group at all time points of measurements. Morris water maze latencies were not statistically different between the groups. The percentage of necrotic neurons in the cerebral cortex was significantly less in the pregabalin group compared with the control group (8.6% [interquartile range, 5.0-8.9] vs 13.6% [interquartile range, 6.9-18.6], P = .045), whereas no difference was observed in the hippocampus. Preemptive treatment with pregabalin conveyed a beneficial influence on functional and histologic cerebral outcome in rats undergoing 60 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest after cardiopulmonary bypass without any noticeable side effects. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of epinephrine on survival after cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patanwala, A E; Slack, M K; Martin, J R; Basken, R L; Nolan, P E

    2014-07-01

    The use of epinephrine is currently recommended as a treatment option for patients with cardiac arrest. The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine if epinephrine use during cardiac arrest is associated with improved survival to hospital discharge. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS Previews), and bibliographies of previous systematic reviews. Studies involving patients with cardiac arrest that compared epinephrine to no epinephrine (or placebo) with regard to survival to hospital discharge or 30-day survival. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. The results were stratified into three groups: 1) RCTs, 2) observational studies with unadjusted data (observational-U), and 3) observational studies with adjusted data using multivariate analysis (observational-A). There were a total of 10 studies included in the systematic review and nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. The association between epinephrine use and survival to hospital discharge, grouped by study type was not significant for RCTs (OR 2.33, 95% CI 0.85 to 6.40; p=0.10; I2=0.00%) or observational-U studies (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.07; p=0.58; I2=76.68%). But epinephrine was associated with decreased survival in observational-A studies (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.48; P<0.01; I2=0.00%). Epinephrine use during cardiac arrest is not associated with improved survival to hospital discharge. Observational studies with a lower-risk for bias suggest that it may be associated with decreased survival.

  15. Silver diamine fluoride and education to prevent and arrest root caries among community-dwelling elders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; McGrath, C; Lo, E C M; Li, J Y

    2013-01-01

    Root caries among elderly communities is of growing public health concern globally. This controlled clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and oral health education in preventing and arresting root caries. Two hundred sixty-six elderly subjects who had at least 5 teeth with exposed root surfaces and did not have serious life-threatening medical diseases were allocated to 3 groups according to a computer-generated random list: group 1 (the control group) received oral hygiene instructions (OHI) annually; group 2 received OHI and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) application annually, and group 3 was given OHI and SDF application annually, plus an oral health education (OHE) programme every 6 months. Two hundred twenty-seven elderly subjects were followed for 24 months. The mean numbers of new root caries surfaces in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 1.33, 1.00 and 0.70, respectively (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Group 3 had fewer root surfaces with new caries than group 1 (Scheffé multiple-comparison test, p < 0.05). The mean numbers of arrested root caries surfaces in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 0.04, 0.28 and 0.33, respectively (ANOVA, p < 0.01). Group 3 and group 2 had a greater number of active root caries surfaces which became arrested than group 1 (Scheffé multiple-comparison test, p < 0.05). Annual application of SDF together with biannual OHE was effective in preventing new root caries and arresting root caries among community-dwelling elderly subjects. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Allelic variants of SCN5A and risk of sudden cardiac arrest in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stecker, Eric C; Sono, Megan; Wallace, Erin; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S

    2006-06-01

    Most sudden cardiac arrests occur in patients who have associated significant coronary artery disease (CAD), but current methods of risk stratification are inadequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether allelic variation of SCN5A could determine risk of sudden cardiac arrest among patients with CAD. This case-control study was conducted as part of the ongoing Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (Ore-SUDS). Cases of sudden cardiac arrest with associated CAD were identified among residents of Multnomah County, Oregon (population 660,486). Geographically matched control subjects had significant CAD but no history of cardiac arrest, ventricular arrhythmia, or syncope. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and all 28 exons of SCN5A were screened for allelic variants using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. All identified variants were confirmed by direct sequencing. Sixty-seven cases (mean age 65 +/- 13 years, 18% female) and 91 controls (mean age 66 +/- 12 years, 30% female) were compared. Race was known in 94% of all patients; 92% of case subjects and 89% of control subjects were Caucasian. No patient had clinically manifest familial long QT syndrome. Nonsynonymous nucleotide changes were found in 4% of cases and 1% of controls (P = .31), with one novel mutation (G1291A) identified in one case subject. Synonymous nucleotide changes were found in 27% of cases and 21% of controls (P = .45). The overall prevalence of amino acid-altering polymorphisms of the SCN5A gene was relatively low in both groups. Allelic variants of SCN5A did not contribute to risk of sudden cardiac arrest in this primarily Caucasian population with significant CAD.

  17. Electron beam welding produces improved duplex crack arrest specimens

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.; Hudson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The crack arrest toughness, K/sub Ia/, is generally determined using a monolithic compact type specimen which contains a brittle weld bead to act as a crack initiation site. To test at higher temperatures and toughnesses, electron beam (EB) welded duplex specimens were fabricated. These specimens required the joining of hardened 4340 steel, which acts as the crack initiator, to A533 grade B class 1 steel base material and submerged arc welds in this base metal. The successful fabrication of these specimens required the development of an EB welding procedure with a very narrow heat-affected zone (HAZ). A technique was also developed to eliminate the porosity which was always present in the EB welds through the submerged arc weld deposit region of the joint. The technique involved remelting the joint surface of the A533 steel containing the submerged arc weld to a controlled depth using an oscillated electron beam. This remelt in vacuum reduced the gaseous constituents to low levels and prevented porosity from forming in the deep penetration EB welds between this surface and the 4340 steel.

  18. Hemostatic Mechanisms, Independent of Platelet Aggregation, Arrest Gastric Mucosal Bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Brendan J. R.; Kauffman, Gordon L.; Moncada, Salvador

    1986-08-01

    Platelet adhesion, aggregation, and subsequent plug formation play a major role in the control of cutaneous and vascular hemostasis. Little is known, however, about the hemostatic processes in gastric mucosal tissue. A method for evaluating bleeding from a standard incision in the gastric mucosa of the rat, rabbit, and dog has therefore been developed. By using pharmacological agents that interfere with platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, the mechanism of gastric hemostasis has been compared to that in the vasculature, using the rat mesenteric artery. Intravenous infusion of prostacyclin (0.5 μ g\\cdot kg-1\\cdot min-1), which inhibits platelet aggregation directly, or administration of the thromboxane synthase inhibitor 1-benzylimidazole (50 mg\\cdot kg-1) significantly prolonged bleeding in the mesenteric artery yet failed to alter gastric mucosal bleeding. In contrast, a low dose of heparin (100 units\\cdot kg-1), which interferes with the clotting process, had no effect on mesenteric bleeding but substantially prolonged bleeding from the gastric mucosa. These findings suggest that, unlike in the skin or vasculature, platelet aggregation plays a minimal role in the initial hemostatic events in the gastric mucosa and that the arrest of gastric hemorrhage is brought about largely by processes primarily involving the coagulation system.

  19. Perioperative cardiac arrest: an evolutionary analysis of the intra-operative cardiac arrest incidence in tertiary centers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vane, Matheus Fachini; do Prado Nuzzi, Rafael Ximenes; Aranha, Gustavo Fabio; da Luz, Vinicius Fernando; Sá Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita Castro; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Great changes in medicine have taken place over the last 25 years worldwide. These changes in technologies, patient risks, patient profile, and laws regulating the medicine have impacted the incidence of cardiac arrest. It has been postulated that the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest has decreased over the years, especially in developed countries. The authors hypothesized that, as in the rest of the world, the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest is decreasing in Brazil, a developing country. The aim of this study was to search the literature to evaluate the publications that relate the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in Brazil and analyze the trend in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest. There were 4 articles that met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 204,072 patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia in two tertiary and academic hospitals, totalizing 627 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest. The mean intraoperative cardiac arrest incidence for the 25 years period was 30.72:10,000 anesthesias. There was a decrease from 39:10,000 anesthesias to 13:10,000 anesthesias in the analyzed period, with the related lethality from 48.3% to 30.8%. Also, the main causes of anesthesia-related cause of mortality changed from machine malfunction and drug overdose to hypovolemia and respiratory causes. There was a clear reduction in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in the last 25 years in Brazil. This reduction is seen worldwide and might be a result of multiple factors, including new laws regulating the medicine in Brazil, incorporation of technologies, better human development level of the country, and better patient care. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [Perioperative cardiac arrest: an evolutionary analysis of the intra-operative cardiac arrest incidence in tertiary centers in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vane, Matheus Fachini; do Prado Nuzzi, Rafael Ximenes; Aranha, Gustavo Fabio; da Luz, Vinicius Fernando; Sá Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita Castro; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Great changes in medicine have taken place over the last 25 years worldwide. These changes in technologies, patient risks, patient profile, and laws regulating the medicine have impacted the incidence of cardiac arrest. It has been postulated that the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest has decreased over the years, especially in developed countries. The authors hypothesized that, as in the rest of the world, the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest is decreasing in Brazil, a developing country. The aim of this study was to search the literature to evaluate the publications that relate the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in Brazil and analyze the trend in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest. There were 4 articles that met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 204,072 patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia in two tertiary and academic hospitals, totalizing 627 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest. The mean intraoperative cardiac arrest incidence for the 25 years period was 30.72:10,000 anesthesias. There was a decrease from 39:10,000 anesthesias to 13:10,000 anesthesias in the analyzed period, with the related lethality from 48.3% to 30.8%. Also, the main causes of anesthesia-related cause of mortality changed from machine malfunction and drug overdose to hypovolemia and respiratory causes. There was a clear reduction in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in the last 25 years in Brazil. This reduction is seen worldwide and might be a result of multiple factors, including new laws regulating the medicine in Brazil, incorporation of technologies, better human development level of the country, and better patient care. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival after Cardiac Arrest and Changing Task Profile of the Cardiac Arrest Team in a Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Möhnle, Patrick; Huge, Volker; Polasek, Jan; Weig, Isabella; Atzinger, Rolf; Kreimeier, Uwe; Briegel, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background. The characteristics of in-hospital emergency response systems, survival rates, and variables associated with survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest vary significantly among medical centers worldwide. Aiming to optimize in-hospital emergency response, we performed an analysis of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the task profile of our cardiac arrest team. Methods. In-hospital emergencies handled by the cardiac arrest team in the years 2004 to 2006 were analyzed retrospectively, and patient and event characteristics were tested for their associations with survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The results were compared to a similar prior analysis for the years 1995 to 1997. Results. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the survival rate to discharge was 30.2% for the years 2004 to 2006 compared to 25.1% for the years 1995 to 1997 (difference not statistically significant). Survival after one year was 18.5 %. An increasing percentage of emergency calls not corresponding to medical emergencies other than cardiac arrest was observed. Conclusions. The observed survival rates are considerably high to published data. We suggest that for further improvement of in-hospital emergency response systems regular training of all hospital staff members in immediate life support is essential. Furthermore, future training of cardiac arrest team members must include basic emergency response to a variety of medical conditions besides cardiac arrest. PMID:22654585

  2. Survival after cardiac arrest and changing task profile of the cardiac arrest team in a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Möhnle, Patrick; Huge, Volker; Polasek, Jan; Weig, Isabella; Atzinger, Rolf; Kreimeier, Uwe; Briegel, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of in-hospital emergency response systems, survival rates, and variables associated with survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest vary significantly among medical centers worldwide. Aiming to optimize in-hospital emergency response, we performed an analysis of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the task profile of our cardiac arrest team. In-hospital emergencies handled by the cardiac arrest team in the years 2004 to 2006 were analyzed retrospectively, and patient and event characteristics were tested for their associations with survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The results were compared to a similar prior analysis for the years 1995 to 1997. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the survival rate to discharge was 30.2% for the years 2004 to 2006 compared to 25.1% for the years 1995 to 1997 (difference not statistically significant). Survival after one year was 18.5 %. An increasing percentage of emergency calls not corresponding to medical emergencies other than cardiac arrest was observed. The observed survival rates are considerably high to published data. We suggest that for further improvement of in-hospital emergency response systems regular training of all hospital staff members in immediate life support is essential. Furthermore, future training of cardiac arrest team members must include basic emergency response to a variety of medical conditions besides cardiac arrest.

  3. Contemporary animal models of cardiac arrest: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vognsen, Mikael; Fabian-Jessing, Bjørn K; Secher, Niels; Løfgren, Bo; Dezfulian, Cameron; Andersen, Lars W; Granfeldt, Asger

    2017-04-01

    Animal models are widely used in cardiac arrest research. This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of contemporary animal models of cardiac arrest. Using a comprehensive research strategy, we searched PubMed and EMBASE from March 8, 2011 to March 8, 2016 for cardiac arrest animal models. Two investigators reviewed titles and abstracts for full text inclusion from which data were extracted according to pre-defined definitions. Search criteria yielded 1741 unique titles and abstracts of which 490 full articles were included. The most common animals used were pigs (52%) followed by rats (35%) and mice (6%). Studies favored males (52%) over females (16%); 17% of studies included both sexes, while 14% omitted to report on sex. The most common methods for induction of cardiac arrest were either electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation (54%), asphyxia (25%), or potassium (8%). The median no-flow time was 8min (quartiles: 5, 8, range: 0-37min). The majority of studies used adrenaline during resuscitation (64%), while bicarbonate (17%), vasopressin (8%) and other drugs were used less prevalently. In 53% of the studies, the post-cardiac arrest observation time was ≥24h. Neurological function was an outcome in 48% of studies while 43% included assessment of a cardiac outcome. Multiple animal models of cardiac arrest exist. The great heterogeneity of these models along with great variability in definitions and reporting make comparisons between studies difficult. There is a need for standardization of animal cardiac arrest research and reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiferroic vortices: arrested Kosterlitz-Thouless order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2012-02-01

    The fascinating concept of topological defects permeates ubiquitously our understanding of the early-stage universe, hurricanes, quantum matters such as superfluids and superconductors, and also technological materials such as liquid crystals and magnets. Large-scale spatial configurations of these topological defects have been investigated only in a limited degree. Exceptions include the cases of supercurrent vortices or liquid crystals, but they tend to exhibit either trivial or rather-irregular configurations. Hexagonal REMnO3 (RE= rare earths) with RE=Ho-Lu, Y, and Sc, is an improper ferroelectric where the size mismatch between RE and Mn induces a trimerization-type structural phase transition, and this structural transition leads to three structural domains, each of which can support two directions of ferroelectric polarization. We reported that domains in h-REMnO3 meet in cloverleaf arrangements that cycle through all six domain configurations, Occurring in pairs, the cloverleafs can be viewed as vortices and antivortices, in which the cycle of domain configurations is reversed. Vortices and antivortices are topological defects: even in a strong electric field they won't annihilate. These ferroelectric vortices/antivortices are found to be associated with intriguing magnetism. The seemingly-irregular configurations of a zoo of multiferroic vortices and antivortices in h-REMnO3 can be neatly analyzed in terms of graph theory and this graph theoretical analysis reflects the nature of self-organized criticality in complexity phenomena as well as the condensation and eventual annihilation processes of topological vortex-antivortex pairs. Furthermore, these numerous multiferroic vortices/antivortices can be understood as an arrested Kosterlitz-Thouless phase. [4pt] [1] Insulating Interlocked Ferroelectric and Structural Antiphase Domain Walls in Multiferroic YMnO3, T. Choi, - - -, S-W. Cheong, Nature Materials 9, 253 (2010). [0pt] [2] Self

  5. Critical Care Management Focused on Optimizing Brain Function After Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ryuta; Hifumi, Toru; Kawakita, Kenya; Okazaki, Tomoya; Egawa, Satoshi; Inoue, Akihiko; Seo, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Nobuhiro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-24

    The discussion of neurocritical care management in post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) has generally focused on target values used for targeted temperature management (TTM). There has been less attention paid to target values for systemic and cerebral parameters to minimize secondary brain damage in PCAS. And the neurologic indications for TTM to produce a favorable neurologic outcome remain to be determined. Critical care management of PCAS patients is fundamental and essential for both cardiologists and general intensivists to improve neurologic outcome, because definitive therapy of PCAS includes both special management of the cause of cardiac arrest, such as coronary intervention to ischemic heart disease, and intensive management of the results of cardiac arrest, such as ventilation strategies to avoid brain ischemia. We reviewed the literature and the latest research about the following issues and propose practical care recommendations. Issues are (1) prediction of TTM candidate on admission, (2) cerebral blood flow and metabolism and target value of them, (3) seizure management using continuous electroencephalography, (4) target value of hemodynamic stabilization and its method, (5) management and analysis of respiration, (6) sedation and its monitoring, (7) shivering control and its monitoring, and (8) glucose management. We hope to establish standards of neurocritical care to optimize brain function and produce a favorable neurologic outcome.

  6. An efficient method to isolate yeast genes causing overexpression-mediated growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Espinet, C; de la Torre, M A; Aldea, M; Herrero, E

    1995-01-01

    In order to characterize new yeast genes regulating cell proliferation, a number of overexpression-sensitive clones have been isolated from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cDNA library in a multicopy vector under the control of the GAL1 promoter, on the basis of growth arrest phenotype under galactose-induction conditions. Thirteen of the independent clones isolated in this way correspond to previously known genes (predominantly coding for morphogenesis-related proteins or for multifunctional transcriptional factors), while the remaining 11 independent clones represent new genes with unknown functions. The more stringent conditions employed in this screening compared with previous ones that also employed a dominant genetics approach to isolate overexpression-sensitive genes has allowed us to extend the number of yeast genes that exhibit this phenotype. The effect of overexpression of MCM1 (whose product participates in the regulation of a number of apparently unrelated cellular functions) has been studied in more detail. Galactose-induced overexpression of MCM1 leads to rapid growth arrest at the G1 or S cell cycle stages, with many morphologically-abnormal cells. Several of the other clones also exhibit a G1 arrest terminal phenotype when overexpressed.

  7. Desacetyluvaricin induces S phase arrest in SW480 colorectal cancer cells through superoxide overproduction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jun-Yi; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Chen, Tianfeng; Gao, Si; Choi, Mei-Yuk; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2014-03-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) are a group of fatty acid-derivatives with potent anticancer effects. In the present study, we found desacetyluvaricin (Dau) exhibited notable in vitro antiproliferative effect on SW480 human colorectal carcinoma cells with IC50 value of 14 nM. The studies on the underlying mechanisms revealed that Dau inhibited the cancer cell growth through induction of S phase cell cycle arrest from 11.3% (control) to 33.2% (160 nM Dau), which was evidenced by the decreased protein expression of cyclin A Overproduction of superoxide, intracellular DNA damage, and inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling pathway, were also found involved in cells exposed to Dau. Moreover, pre-treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid significantly prevented the Dau-induced overproduction of superoxide, DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results suggest that Dau induces S phase arrest in cancer cells by firstly superoxide overproduction and subsequently the involvement of various signaling pathways.

  8. Rectal Instillation of Cold Fluids for Targeted Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Markota, Andrej; Fluher, Jure; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2017-07-14

    The optimal method of temperature management after cardiac arrest remains unknown. Methods that are most effective are usually invasive and expensive. Noninvasive methods are not as effective and obstruct access to the patient. Temperature management via rectal cooling offers some potential advantages in survivors of cardiac arrest, namely, relatively large volumes of temperature-controlled fluids can be instilled, access to the patient is not obstructed, and fluid overload can be ameliorated by removal of a fraction of instilled fluid. We used rectal cooling in a 72-year-old male comatose survivor of cardiac arrest with an initial body temperature of 36.8°C. We instilled 3000 mL of normal saline at 4°C in 75 minutes, and ∼2000 mL of effluent fluid was removed via gravity at 105 minutes after instillation. At 135 minutes, temperature decreased to a minimum of 35.2°C. No leakage was observed. Standard procedures (insertion of central venous and arterial catheters, electrocardiography, echocardiography, chest radiography) were performed with a rectal catheter in situ. At 210 minutes after instillation, the catheter was removed and there were no clinical signs of rectal injury after removal. To conclude, rectal instillation of cold fluids resulted in a significant decrease of body temperature and we observed no major side effects. Fluid overloading was avoided by removing effluent fluid. Additional studies are needed if this technique is to gain more widespread use.

  9. Dimethyl sulfoxide can initiate cell divisions of arrested callus protoplasts by promoting cortical microtuble assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, G.; Hoffmann, F.

    1984-09-01

    A serious problem in the technology of plant cell culture is that isolated protoplasts from many species are reluctant to divide. We have succeeded in inducing consecutive divisions in a naturally arrested system i.e., protoplasts from a hibiscus cell line, which do not divide under standard conditions and in an artificially arrested system i.e., colchicine-inhibited callus protoplasts of Nicotiana glutinosa, which do readily divide in the absence of colchicine. In both cases, the reinstallation of a net of cortical microtubules, which had been affected either by colchicine or by the protoplast isolation procedure, resulted in continuous divisions of the formerly arrested protoplasts. Several compounds known to support microtubule assembly in vitro were tested for their ability to promote microtubule assembly in vivo. Best results were obtained by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide to the culture medium. Unlimited amounts of callus could be produced with the dimethyl sulfoxide method from protoplasts which never developed a single callus in control experiments. 30 references, 3 figures.

  10. Powder cocaine and crack use in the United States: an examination of risk for arrest and socioeconomic disparities in use.

    PubMed

    Palamar, Joseph J; Davies, Shelby; Ompad, Danielle C; Cleland, Charles M; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In light of the current sentencing disparity (18:1) between crack and powder cocaine possession in the United States, we examined socioeconomic correlates of use of each, and relations between use and arrest, to determine who may be at highest risk for arrest and imprisonment. We conducted secondary data analyses on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009-2012. Data were analyzed for adults age ≥ 18 to determine associations between use and arrest. Socioeconomic correlates of lifetime and annual use of powder cocaine and of crack were delineated using multivariable logistic regression and correlates of frequency of recent use were examined using generalized negative binomial regression. Crack users were at higher risk than powder cocaine users for reporting a lifetime arrest or multiple recent arrests. Racial minorities were at low risk for powder cocaine use and Hispanics were at low risk for crack use. Blacks were at increased risk for lifetime and recent crack use, but not when controlling for other socioeconomic variables. However, blacks who did use either powder cocaine or crack tended to use at higher frequencies. Higher education and higher family income were negatively associated with crack use although these factors were sometimes risk factors for powder cocaine use. Crack users are at higher risk of arrest and tend to be of lower socioeconomic status compared to powder cocaine users. These findings can inform US Congress as they review bills (e.g., The Smarter Sentencing Act), which would help eliminate cocaine-related sentencing disparities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Powder Cocaine and Crack Use in the United States: An Examination of Risk for Arrest and Socioeconomic Disparities in Use

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Davies, Shelby; Ompad, Danielle C.; Cleland, Charles M.; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background In light of the current sentencing disparity (18:1) between crack and powder cocaine possession in the United States, we examined socioeconomic correlates of use of each, and relations between use and arrest, to determine who may be at highest risk for arrest and imprisonment. Methods We conducted secondary data analyses on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009–2012. Data were analyzed for adults age ≥18 to determine associations between use and arrest. Socioeconomic correlates of lifetime and annual use of powder cocaine and of crack were delineated using multivariable logistic regression and correlates of frequency of recent use were examined using generalized negative binomial regression. Results Crack users were at higher risk than powder cocaine users for reporting a lifetime arrest or multiple recent arrests. Racial minorities were at low risk for powder cocaine use and Hispanics were at low risk for crack use. Blacks were at increased risk for lifetime and recent crack use, but not when controlling for other socioeconomic variables. However, blacks who did use either powder cocaine or crack tended to use at higher frequencies. Higher education and higher family income were negatively associated with crack use although these factors were sometimes risk factors for powder cocaine use. Conclusions Crack users are at higher risk of arrest and tend to be of lower socioeconomic status compared to powder cocaine users. These findings can inform US Congress as they review the proposed Smarter Sentencing Act of 2014, which would help eliminate cocaine-related sentencing disparities. PMID:25702933

  12. Parkin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in TNF-α-treated HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Ho; Cho, Yoonjung; Jung, Byung Chul; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kang, Yeo Wool; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2015-08-14

    Parkin is a known tumor suppressor. However, the mechanism by which parkin acts as a tumor suppressor remains to be fully elucidated. Previously, we reported that parkin expression induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in TNF-α-treated HeLa cells. However, at that time, we did not consider the involvement of parkin in cell cycle control. In the current study, we investigated whether parkin is involved in cell cycle regulation and suppression of cancer cell growth. In our cell cycle analyses, parkin expression induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in TNF-α-treated HeLa cells. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which parkin induces this G2/M arrest, we analyzed cell cycle regulatory molecules involved in the G2/M transition. Parkin expression induced CDC2 phosphorylation which is known to inhibit CDC2 activity and cause G2/M arrest. Cyclin B1, which is degraded during the mitotic transition, accumulated in response to parkin expression, thereby indicating parkin-induced G2/M arrest. Next, we established that Myt1, which is known to phosphorylate and inhibit CDC2, increased following parkin expression. In addition, we found that parkin also induces increased Myt1 expression, G2/M arrest, and reduced cell viability in TNF-α-treated HCT15 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of parkin expression by parkin-specific siRNA decreased Myt1 expression and phosphorylation of CDC2 and resulted in recovered cell viability. These results suggest that parkin acts as a crucial molecule causing cell cycle arrest in G2/M, thereby suppressing tumor cell growth.

  13. Variation in developmental arrest among male orangutans: a comparison between a Sumatran and a Bornean population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The presence of two sexually active male morphs with different reproductive tactics in a single species is rare among mammals. The most striking case of bimaturism among primates is exhibited by the orangutan (Pongo spp), in which one adult morph, the unflanged male, irreversibly develops into another one, the flanged form, but may remain arrested in the unflanged state for many years. However, it has been suggested that such arrest is less common among Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) compared to Sumatrans (Pongo abelii). To investigate this possible inter-specific difference we compared both the number of developing males and the ratios of the two male morphs at two long-term study sites, Suaq Balimbing on Sumatra and Tuanan on Borneo. Results First, we observed a significantly greater number of flanged than unflanged males per month in the Tuanan study area, whereas the opposite pattern held at Suaq. Second, the same contrast held for the total number of identified individuals over the study, with more flanged than unflanged males at Tuanan and the opposite at Suaq. These differences were mainly due to transient males. For Tuanan, the identification results were confirmed by detailed genetic analyses. Finally, we recorded a higher proportion of unflanged males that became flanged during any given year at Tuanan than at Suaq. Conclusion These results show that developmental arrest is far more common at Suaq than at Tuanan. Preliminary comparisons suggest that this is a general contrast between the island taxa of orangutans and should help efforts to identify the function and proximate control of developmental arrest in orangutan males. PMID:23510027

  14. Modifications of myofilament protein phosphorylation and function in response to cardiac arrest induced in a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Mike; Previs, Michael J.; Mader, Timothy J.; Debold, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is a prevalent condition with a poor prognosis, attributable in part to persistent myocardial dysfunction following resuscitation. The molecular basis of this dysfunction remains unclear. We induced cardiac arrest in a porcine model of acute sudden death and assessed the impact of ischemia and reperfusion on the molecular function of isolated cardiac contractile proteins. Cardiac arrest was electrically induced, left untreated for 12 min, and followed by a resuscitation protocol. With successful resuscitations, the heart was reperfused for 2 h (IR2) and the muscle harvested. In failed resuscitations, tissue samples were taken following the failed efforts (IDNR). Actin filament velocity, using myosin isolated from IR2 or IDNR cardiac tissue, was nearly identical to myosin from the control tissue in a motility assay. However, both maximal velocity (25% faster than control) and calcium sensitivity (pCa50 6.57 ± 0.04 IDNR vs. 6.34 ± 0.07 control) were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced using native thin filaments (actin+troponin+tropomyosin) from IDNR samples, suggesting that the enhanced velocity is mediated through an alteration in muscle regulatory proteins (troponin+tropomyosin). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that only samples from the IR2 had an increase in total phosphorylation levels of troponin (Tn) and tropomyosin (Tm), but both IR2 and IDNR samples demonstrated a significant shift from mono-phosphorylated to bis-phosphorylated forms of the inhibitory subunit of Tn (TnI) compared to control. This suggests that the shift to bis-phosphorylation of TnI is associated with the enhanced function in IDNR, but this effect may be attenuated when phosphorylation of Tm is increased in tandem, as observed for IR2. There are likely many other molecular changes induced following cardiac arrest, but to our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence that this form cardiac arrest can alter the in vitro function of the cardiac contractile proteins

  15. Hydroxocobalamin and epinephrine both improve survival in a swine model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Dixon, Patricia S; Valtier, Sandra; Esquivel, Luis; Bush, Anneke; Little, Charles M

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether hydroxocobalamin will improve survival compared with epinephrine and saline solution controls in a model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest. Forty-five swine (38 to 42 kg) were tracheally intubated, anesthetized, and central venous and arterial continuous cardiovascular monitoring catheters were inserted. Potassium cyanide was infused until cardiac arrest developed, defined as mean arterial pressure less than 30 mm Hg. Animals were treated with standardized mechanical chest compressions and were randomly assigned to receive one of 3 intravenous bolus therapies: hydroxocobalamin, epinephrine, or saline solution (control). All animals were monitored for 60 minutes after cardiac arrest. Additional epinephrine infusions were used in all arms of the study after return of spontaneous circulation for systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg. A sample size of 15 animals per group was determined according to a power of 80%, a survival difference of 0.5, and an α of 0.05. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. Baseline weight, time to arrest, and cyanide dose at cardiac arrest were similar in the 3 groups. Coronary perfusion pressures with chest compressions were greater than 15 mm Hg in both treatment groups indicating sufficient compression depth. Zero of 15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0% to 25%) animals in the control group, 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the hydroxocobalamin group, and 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the epinephrine group survived to the conclusion of the study (P<.001). The proportion of animals with return of spontaneous circulation at 5 minutes was 4 of 15 (27%; 95% CI 10% to 52%), and that of return of spontaneous circulation at 10 minutes was 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the 2 treatment groups. Additional epinephrine infusion after return of spontaneous circulation was administered for hypotension in 2 of 11 (18%; 95% CI 4% to 48

  16. Objective diagnosis of arrested labor on transperineal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuaki; Yoshimura, Kazuaki; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Hachisuga, Toru

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments in transperineal ultrasound imaging of the pelvis have prompted trials to objectively evaluate labor progression for labor management. We evaluated the accuracy of transperineal ultrasound in diagnosing arrest of labor. Transperineal ultrasound and digital pelvic examinations were performed simultaneously in 63 term laboring patients (singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation). We analyzed a total of 216 ultrasound images (Sonography Volume Computer Aided Display Labor [Sono VCAD Labor®] installed in Voluson E8 ultrasound). We examined the correlation between the three ultrasound parameters head direction (HD), progression distance (PD), and progression angle (PA), and digital pelvic examination findings during labor in a transvaginal delivery group and an arrested labor group. The coefficient of correlations between HD/PD/PA and cervical dilation/fetal station were 0.667/0.657/0.706 and 0.667/0.751/0.803, respectively. The three parameters had strong correlations with digital pelvic examination (P < 0.05). In the 11 cases (17%) of cesarean section due to arrested labor, the position of the fetal head was visually unchanged on sequential ultrasound images. According to receiver operating characteristic curves, the significant cut-offs for HD, PD, and PA for arrested labor were 105° (P = 0.048), 35 mm (P = 0.048), and 120° (P = 0.001), respectively. Transperineal ultrasound imaging is helpful for objective evaluation of labor progression and the diagnosis of arrested labor. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Sculpting Pickering Emulsion Droplets by Arrest and Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Christopher; Wei, Zengyi; Caggioni, Marco; Spicer, Patrick; Atherton, Tim

    Pickering emulsion droplets can be arrested into non-spherical shapes--useful for applications such as active delivery--through a general mechanism of deformation followed by absorption of additional colloidal particles onto the interface, relaxation of the droplet caused by surface tension and arrest at some point due to crowding of the particles. We perform simulations of the arrest process to clarify the relative importance of diffusive rearrangement of particles and collective forcing due to surface evolution. Experiment and theory are compared, giving insight into the stability of the resulting capsules and the robustness of the production process for higher-throughput production in, for example, microfluidic systems. We adapt theoretical tools from the jamming literature to better understand the arrested configurations and long timescale evolution of the system: using linear programming and a penalty function approach, we identify unjamming motions in kinetically arrested states. We propose a paradigm of ``metric jamming'' to describe the limiting behavior of this class of system: a structure is metric-jammed if it is stable with respect to collective motion of the particles as well as evolution of the hypersurface on which the packing is embedded. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  18. The psychosocial outcomes of anoxic brain injury following cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle; Staniforth, Andrew; Till, Richard; das Nair, Roshan; Vesey, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate the psychosocial outcomes for cardiac arrest survivors and explore if there is a greater impact on psychosocial outcome for individuals experiencing anoxic brain injury as a result of the cardiac arrest. Self-report measures were used to compare the quality of life, social functioning and symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress of individuals with and without anoxic brain injury. Secondary measures of subjective memory and executive difficulties were also used. Fifty-six participants (27 with anoxia, 29 without anoxia) took part in the study between six months and four years after experiencing cardiac arrest. A MANOVA identified a significant difference between the two groups, with the anoxia group reporting more psychosocial difficulties. They reported more social functioning difficulties and more anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms. There was, however, no significant difference in self-reported quality of life between the two groups. As the first known study to compare psychosocial outcomes for cardiac arrest survivors experiencing anoxic brain injury with those without anoxia, the current results suggest that cardiac arrest survivors with subsequent acquired brain injury experience more psychosocial difficulties. This could be due to a combination of neuropsychological, social and psychological factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest: Possible Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kido, Kazuhiko; Adams, Val R; Morehead, Richard S; Flannery, Alexander H

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest, possibly secondary to type I Kounis syndrome. A 47-year-old man with a history of T3N1 moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon, status-post sigmoid resection, was started on adjuvant capecitabine approximately five months prior to presentation of cardiac arrest secondary to ventricular fibrillation. An electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed ST segment elevation on the lateral leads and the patient was taken emergently to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The catheterization revealed no angiographically significant stenosis and coronary artery disease was ruled out. After ruling out other causes of cardiac arrest, the working diagnosis was capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest. As such, an inflammatory work up was sent to evaluate for the possibility of a capecitabine hypersensitivity, or Kounis syndrome, and is the first documented report in the literature to do so when evaluating Kounis syndrome. Immunoglobulin E (IgE), tryptase, and C-reactive protein were normal but histamine, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were elevated. Histamine elevation supports the suspicion that our patient had type I Kounis syndrome. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicates a probable adverse effect due to capecitabine with seven points. A case of capecitabine-induced ventricular fibrillation arrest is reported, with a potential for type 1 Kounis syndrome as an underlying pathology supported by immunologic work up.

  20. Registries to measure and improve outcomes after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, Zachary D; Nichol, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac arrest registries are used to measure and improve the process and outcome of resuscitation care, and can give insight into risk factors, prognosis, and the effectiveness of interventions to mitigate its impact. This review provides an overview of current out-of-hospital (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) registries, with attention to key recent findings and future directions. Major OHCA registries include the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Cardiac Arrest Epistry and Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival. Registry data from IHCA largely stem from the US and Canada with Get with the Guidelines-Resuscitation, and the UK with the National Cardiac Arrest Audit. Each registry has strengths and limitations. Important findings include trends in survival, racial disparities in care, and hospital and community-level variations in performance, as well as estimates of the effectiveness of individual interventions. Utstein definitions facilitate uniform reporting of the process and outcome of care, and are currently being updated. Standardization of registry data is an ongoing challenge. OHCA and IHCA registries are invaluable in advancing our understanding of resuscitation care, as well as variations in international practice. Investigations that compare and contrast outcomes from established and evolving registries will help advance resuscitation science further.

  1. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron Yun; Qiu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection have been widely documented. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death is often directly associated with disease outcomes (e.g., anemia resulting from loss of erythroid progenitors during parvovirus B19 infection). Apoptosis is the major form of cell death induced by parvovirus infection. However, nonapoptotic cell death, namely necrosis, has also been reported during infection of the minute virus of mice, parvovirus H-1 and bovine parvovirus. Recent studies have revealed multiple mechanisms underlying the cell death during parvovirus infection. These mechanisms vary in different parvoviruses, although the large nonstructural protein (NS)1 and the small NS proteins (e.g., the 11 kDa of parvovirus B19), as well as replication of the viral genome, are responsible for causing infection-induced cell death. Cell cycle arrest is also common, and contributes to the cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection. While viral NS proteins have been indicated to induce cell cycle arrest, increasing evidence suggests that a cellular DNA damage response triggered by an invading single-stranded parvoviral genome is the major inducer of cell cycle arrest in parvovirus-infected cells. Apparently, in response to infection, cell death and cell cycle arrest of parvovirus-infected cells are beneficial to the viral cell lifecycle (e.g., viral DNA replication and virus egress). In this article, we will discuss recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21331319

  2. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for Arresting Caries Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yee, R; Holmgren, C; Mulder, J; Lama, D; Walker, D; van Palenstein Helderman, W

    2009-07-01

    Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT) has been proposed to manage untreated dental caries in children. This prospective randomized clinical trial investigated the caries-arresting effectiveness of a single spot application of: (1) 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) with tannic acid as a reducing agent; (2) 38% SDF alone; (3) 12% SDF alone; and (4) no SDF application in primary teeth of 976 Nepalese schoolchildren. The a priori null hypothesis was that the different treatments have no effect in arresting active cavitated caries. Only the single application of 38% SDF with or without tannic acid was effective in arresting caries after 6 months (4.5 and 4.2 mean number of arrested surfaces; p < 0.001), after 1 year (4.1 and 3.4; p < 0.001), and after 2 years (2.2 and 2.1; p < 0.01). Tannic acid conferred no additional benefit. ACT with 38% SDF provides an alternative when restorative treatment for primary teeth is not an option.

  3. Remineralisation and arresting caries in children with topical fluorides.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, Neeraj; Gugnani, Shalini

    2017-06-23

    Data sourcesThe Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase and the ISI Web of Science.Study selectionEnglish language clinical trials in children with outcome measures including the remineralisation or arresting effect of caries by professional fluoride treatment were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers screened the studies and assessed risk of bias. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted.ResultsSeventeen studies were included, ten focused on remineralisation, seven on arresting carious lesions. Meta-analysis of four studies using 5% fluoride varnish found a 63.6% (95% CI; 36.0% - 91.2%) remineralisation of early enamel caries. For five studies using 38% silver diamine fluoride solution meta-analysis found 65.9% (95% CI; 41.2% - 90.7%) of caries arrested.ConclusionsProfessionally applied 5% sodium fluoride varnish shows the capability to remineralise early enamel caries in children. Silver diamine fluoride solution at 38% is effective in arresting active dentine caries. Because the number of clinical trials that studied the arresting effect of dental caries is limited, more clinical trials should be performed.

  4. Identification and Characterization of a Mutation Affecting the Division Arrest Signaling of the Pheromone Response Pathway in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    Mating pheromones, a- and α-factors, arrest the division of cells of opposite mating types, α and a cells, respectively. I have isolated a sterile mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is defective in division arrest in response to α-factor but not defective in morphological changes and agglutinin induction. The mutation was designated dac2 for division arrest control by mating pheromones. The dac2 mutation was closely linked to gal1 and was different from the previously identified cell type nonspecific sterile mutations (ste4, ste5, ste7, ste11, ste12, ste18 and dac1). Although dac2 cells had no phenotype in the absence of pheromones, they showed morphological alterations and divided continuously in the presence of pheromones. As a result, dac2 cells had a mating defect. The dac2 mutation could suppress the lethality caused by the disruption of the GPA1 gene (previously shown to encode a protein with similarity to the α subunit of mammalian G proteins). In addition, dac2 cells formed prezygotes with wild-type cells of opposite mating types, although they could not undergo cell fusion. These results suggest that the DAC2 product may control the signal for G-protein-mediated cell-cycle arrest and indicate that the synchronization of haploid yeast cell cycles by mating pheromones is essential for cell fusion during conjugation. PMID:2407613

  5. Quality of evidence in studies evaluating neuroimaging for neurologic prognostication in adult patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Hahn, David K; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Greer, David M

    2014-02-01

    Neuroimaging has been proposed as a predictor of neurologic outcome in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. We reviewed the quality and level of evidence of the current neuroimaging literature for predicting neurologic outcome in cardiac arrest patients treated with or without therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Databases were searched using the terms "cardiac arrest," "cardiopulmonary resuscitation," "brain hypoxia," "brain anoxia," "brain hypoxia-ischaemia," "neuroimaging," and "prognosis." Eligible studies were reviewed and classified by level of evidence and methodological quality as defined by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). 928 studies were identified, 84 of which met inclusion criteria: 74 were supportive of neuroimaging to predict outcome, eight unsupportive, and two equivocal. Several studies investigated more than one imaging modality: 27 investigated computed tomography (CT), 46 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 18 alternate imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. No randomized controlled trials were identified. Seven cohort and case control studies were identified, only one of which was graded "good" quality, two were "fair" and four were "poor." Neuroimaging is an evolving modality as a prognostic parameter in cardiac arrest survivors. However, the quality of the available literature is not robust, highlighting the need for higher quality studies before neuroimaging can be supported as a standard tool for prognostication in the patient population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and characterization of a mutation affecting the division arrest signaling of the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Hiroaki Hoechst Japan Ltd., Kawagoe )

    1990-02-01

    Mating pheromones, a- and {alpha}-factors, arrest the division of cells of opposite mating types, {alpha} and a cells, respectively. The author has isolated a sterile mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using EMS that is defective in division arrest in response to {alpha}-factor but not defective in morphological changes and agglutinin induction. The mutation was designated dac2 for division arrest control by mating pheromones. The dac2 mutation was closely linked to gal1 and was different from the previously identified cell type nonspecific sterile mutations (ste4, ste5, ste7, ste11, ste12, ste18, and dac1). Although dac2 cells had no phenotype in the absence of pheromones, they showed morphological alterations and divided continuously in the presence of pheromones. As a result, dac2 cells had a mating defect. The dac2 mutation could suppress the lethality caused by the disruption of the GPA1 gene. These results suggest that the DAC2 product may control the signal for G-protein-mediated cell-cycle arrest and indicate that the synchronization of haploid yeast cell cycles by mating pheromones is essential for cell fusion during conjugation.

  7. Selective aortic arch perfusion enables to avoid deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for extirpation of renal cell carcinoma with tumour thrombus extension into the right atrium.

    PubMed

    Zacek, Pavel; Dominik, Jan; Brodak, Milos; Louda, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with a tumour thrombus extending into the right heart chambers necessitates extensive combined urological and cardiac surgery. Maximum safety and exactness in extirpation of the caval and intracardiac thrombus is achieved under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, at a price of its non-physiological burden and time constraints. We propose a simple surgical manoeuvre enabling selective arch perfusion allowing for a milder hypothermia and liberal interval of circulatory arrest. On a routine cardiopulmonary bypass via median sternotomy, the dissection is extended along the aortic arch to identify the origins of the supra-aortic vessels. After standard aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegic cardiac arrest at moderate hypothermia, a second cross-clamp is applied at the aortic arch beyond the left carotid artery. A selective closed aortic arch perfusion is started while the extirpation of the tumour thrombus from the right atriotomy and abdominal cavotomy is being performed under conditions of circulatory arrest. Using selective aortic arch perfusion, successful and uncomplicated extirpation of voluminous caval and intracardiac tumour thrombi was accomplished in 3 presented patients. Unexpectedly difficult thrombus adhering to hepatic veins in 1 patient required 42 min of circulatory arrest. Postoperative courses were uneventful in all 3 patients. Second aortic cross-clamp to start selective closed aortic arch perfusion provides excellent surgical control of the operative field over a liberal time interval during circulatory arrest under milder hypothermia.

  8. Cardiac arrest due to a missed diagnosis of Boerhaave's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jennifer; Spitzer, David; Phylactou, Maria; Glasser, Martin

    2016-05-06

    A 91-year-old presented with a rare cause of cardiac arrest. He was initially admitted with severe back pain following vomiting and diagnosed with probable aspiration pneumonia. On day 3 of admission, he was discovered in cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started. On intubation, a left-sided pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema were noted. Needle decompression showed gastric fluid leaking from the cannula. The patient regained a cardiac output, and a subsequent CT scan confirmed a large pneumomediastinum with air tracking to the neck and chest, and bilateral pneumothoraces. A diagnosis of Boerhaave's syndrome was made. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit but did not survive. This case demonstrates the importance of looking for and treating the rarer reversible causes of cardiac arrest, and of maintaining a high index of suspicion for Boerhaave's syndrome. Despite its rarity, Boerhaave's syndrome is often misdiagnosed on initial presentation, leading to delayed treatment and poor outcomes.

  9. The optimal hemodynamics management of post-cardiac arrest shock.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Tommaso; Sanfilippo, Filippo; Ristagno, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest develop a pathophysiological state named "post-cardiac arrest syndrome." Post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction is a common feature of this syndrome, and many patients eventually die from cardiovascular failure. Cardiogenic shock accounts for most deaths in the first 3 days, when post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction peaks. Thus, identification and treatment of cardiovascular failure is one of the key therapeutic goals during hospitalization of post-cardiac arrest patients. Patients with hemodynamic instability may require advanced cardiac output monitoring. Inotropes and vasopressors should be considered if hemodynamic goals are not achieved despite optimized preload. If these measures fail to restore adequate organ perfusion, a mechanical circulatory assistance device may be considered. Adequate organ perfusion should be ensured in the absence of definitive data on the optimal target pressure goals. Hemodynamic goals should also take into account targeted temperature management and its effect on the cardiovascular function.

  10. Alphaherpesvirus Subversion of Stress-Induced Translational Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Finnen, Renée L.; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of translational arrest in eukaryotic cells in response to stress and the tactics used specifically by alphaherpesviruses to overcome translational arrest. One consequence of translational arrest is the formation of cytoplasmic compartments called stress granules (SGs). Many viruses target SGs for disruption and/or modification, including the alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Recently, it was discovered that HSV-2 disrupts SG formation early after infection via virion host shutoff protein (vhs), an endoribonuclease that is packaged within the HSV-2 virion. We review this discovery and discuss the insights it has provided into SG biology as well as its potential significance in HSV-2 infection. A model for vhs-mediated disruption of SG formation is presented. PMID:26999187

  11. Transcranial optical vascular imaging (TOVI) during cardiac arrest (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

    2017-03-01

    Based on the recent studies the prognosis of patients after cardiac arrest (CA) remains poor. Thus it is extremely important to understand fine mechanisms related to the influence of CA on the brain and Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) during and after cardiac arrest. Recently our group introduced Transcranial Optical Vascular Imaging (TOVI) approach that combines laser speckle and dynamic fluorescent imaging. TOVI proved to be useful during various preclinical brain research applications. For example it allows imaging of brain blood vessels of a mouse in vivo through the intact cranium. Herein for the first time we present the use of TOVI during cardiac arrest. TOVI possibly could be a useful tool for preclinical studies of CBF during and after CA.

  12. Fatigue crack arrest in a self-healing polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E. N.; White, S. R.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental program is performed to assess the in situ fatigue behavior of a self-healing polymer. A fatigue-life-extension protocol is established for characterizing healing efficiency of the self-healing epoxy under cyclic loading. At moderate {Delta}K{sub I} and at high {Delta}K{sub I}, when a rest period is employed, in situ healing extends fatigue life though temporary crack arrest and retardation. In situ self-healing permanently arrests crack growth at low {delta}K{sub I} and at moderate {Delta}K{sub I}, when a rest period is employed. Fatigue crack retardation and arrest result from two primary crack-tip shielding mechanisms: hydrodynamic pressure in the viscous healing agent and artificial crack closure. Application of self-healing functionality to fatigue slows the crack growth rate and increases the fatigue threshold.

  13. Fronts under arrest: Nonlocal boundary dynamics in biology.

    PubMed

    McCalla, Scott G; von Brecht, James H

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a minimal geometric partial differential equation framework to understand pattern formation from interacting, counterpropagating fronts. Our approach concentrates on the interfaces between different states in a system, and relies on both nonlocal interactions and mean-curvature flow to track their evolution. As an illustration, we use this approach to describe a phenomenon in bacterial colony formation wherein sibling colonies can arrest each other's growth. This arrested motion leads to static separations between healthy, growing colonies. As our minimal model faithfully recovers the geometry of these competing colonies, it captures and elucidates the key leading-order mechanisms responsible for such patterned growth.

  14. Fronts under arrest: Nonlocal boundary dynamics in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, Scott G.; von Brecht, James H.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a minimal geometric partial differential equation framework to understand pattern formation from interacting, counterpropagating fronts. Our approach concentrates on the interfaces between different states in a system, and relies on both nonlocal interactions and mean-curvature flow to track their evolution. As an illustration, we use this approach to describe a phenomenon in bacterial colony formation wherein sibling colonies can arrest each other's growth. This arrested motion leads to static separations between healthy, growing colonies. As our minimal model faithfully recovers the geometry of these competing colonies, it captures and elucidates the key leading-order mechanisms responsible for such patterned growth.

  15. Optimizing Survival Outcomes For Adult Patients With Nontraumatic Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julianna

    2016-10-01

    Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed.

  16. Traumatic ulnar physeal arrest after distal forearm fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Ray, T D; Tessler, R H; Dell, P C

    1996-01-01

    A review of the orthopaedic literature suggests that traumatic ulnar physeal arrest associated with radial fracture is a rare occurrence. Twenty-three cases of traumatic ulnar physeal arrest have been reported in patients with distal radius fractures, and we report five additional cases. A classification system for the distal ulnar growth deformities is proposed, and the compensatory radial changes are reviewed. Surgical indications for treatment include cosmetic deformity, progressive carpal subluxation, and decreased range of motion. Surgical options for treatment are discussed and include epiphysiodesis, ulnar lengthening, radial osteotomy, and the Suave-Kapandji procedure.

  17. Delamination Arrestment in Bonded-Bolted Composite Structures by Fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Chi Ho Eric

    Laminated composites have exceptional in-plane strengths and fatigue properties. However, they are susceptible to the interlaminar mode of failure, namely disbond and delamination. This failure mode challenges the edges of structural interface, such as the skin-stringer flange and run-out, where interlaminar tension, shear, and opening moment are concentrated. The fasteners provide a substantiation path for the FAA damage tolerance requirement for composite bonded joints (FAR 23.573). A comprehensive understanding of delamination arrestment by fasteners was developed. The fastener provides crack arrest capability by three main mechanisms: 1) mode I suppression, 2) crack-face friction, and 3) fastener joint shear stiffness. The fastener mechanically closes the crack tip, suppressing mode I fracture and forcing the crack to propagate in pure mode II with higher fracture toughness. Fastener preload generates significant friction force on the cracked surfaces which reduces crack-tip forces and moments. The fastener shear joint provides an alternate load path around the crack tip that becomes more effective as crack length increases. The three mechanisms work in concert to provide various degrees of crack arrestment and retardation capability. A novel test technique was developed to quantify the delamination arrestment capability by fasteners under in-plane dominated loading, i.e. mode II propagation. The test results show that the fastener is highly capable of delamination arrestment and retardation. The test also demonstrates that fastener installation preload, which is directly related to crack-face friction, is an important factor in delamination arrestment. A computationally efficient analytical method was developed to capture the behavior and efficacy of delamination arrestment by fasteners. The solution method is based on the principle of minimum potential energy and beam-column modeling of the delaminating structure. The fastener flexibility approach is used to

  18. Management of partial growth arrest: physis, fat, or silastic?

    PubMed

    Lee, E H; Gao, G X; Bose, K

    1993-01-01

    A rabbit model was developed for the study of partial growth arrest and its correction by epiphysiolysis and transfer of physis, free fat, or silastic. Growth arrest involved half of the proximal tibial physis. Clinical, radiologic, and histologic studies showed that a physeal graft (from iliac apophysis) was superior to silastic in terms of correction of angular deformity as well as contribution to longitudinal growth of the tibia after resection of a large peripherally situated bone bridge. Interposition of fat yielded the poorest results.

  19. Is moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion superior to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in elective aortic arch surgery?

    PubMed

    Poon, Shi Sum; Estrera, Anthony; Oo, Aung; Field, Mark

    2016-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether moderate hypothermia circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) is more beneficial than deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in elective aortic arch surgery. Altogether, 1028 papers were found using the reported search, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. There were four retrospective observational studies, one prospective randomized controlled trial and one meta-analysis study. There were no local or neuromuscular complications related to axillary arterial cannulation reported. In the elective setting, four studies showed that the in-hospital mortality for moderate hypothermia is consistently low, ranging from 1.0 to 4.3%. In a large series of hemiarch replacement comparing 682 cases of deep hypothermia with 94 cases of moderate hypothermia with SACP, 20 cases (2.8%) of permanent neurological deficit were reported, compared to 3 cases (3.2%) in moderate hypothermia. Three observational studies and a meta-analysis study did not identify an increased risk of postoperative renal failure and dialysis following either deep or moderate hypothermia although a higher incidence of stroke was reported in the meta-analysis study with deep hypothermia (12.7 vs 7.3%). Longer cardiopulmonary bypass time and circulatory arrest time were reported in four studies for deep hypothermia, suggesting an increased time required for systemic cooling and rewarming in that group. Overall, these findings suggested that in elective aortic arch surgery, moderate hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion adapted to the duration of circulatory arrest can be performed safely with acceptable mortality and morbidity outcomes. The risk of spinal cord

  20. Evaluation of polymer-housed distribution arresters for use on rural electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mackevich, J. P.

    1994-03-01

    Users have converted to polymer-housed distribution surge arresters because of concerns over violent porcelain arrester failure. There is a false perception in the industry that polymer arresters are intrinsically fail-safe. It is proposed that there is a lack of understanding of the differences in failure mechanisms between porcelain and polymer arresters. Polymer arresters have unique design requirements to provide the desired reliability improvements. This paper suggests criteria for rural electric power system user evaluation of polymer arrester design and performance. Users are encouraged to participate in the standards writing process to facilitate changes beneficial to the industry.

  1. Contemporary approach to neurologic prognostication of coma after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hamouda, Nawfel; Taccone, Fabio S; Rossetti, Andrea O; Oddo, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Coma after cardiac arrest (CA) is an important cause of admission to the ICU. Prognosis of post-CA coma has significantly improved over the past decade, particularly because of aggressive postresuscitation care and the use of therapeutic targeted temperature management (TTM). TTM and sedatives used to maintain controlled cooling might delay neurologic reflexes and reduce the accuracy of clinical examination. In the early ICU phase, patients' good recovery may often be indistinguishable (based on neurologic examination alone) from patients who eventually will have a poor prognosis. Prognostication of post-CA coma, therefore, has evolved toward a multimodal approach that combines neurologic examination with EEG and evoked potentials. Blood biomarkers (eg, neuron-specific enolase [NSE] and soluble 100-β protein) are useful complements for coma prognostication; however, results vary among commercial laboratory assays, and applying one single cutoff level (eg, > 33 μg/L for NSE) for poor prognostication is not recommended. Neuroimaging, mainly diffusion MRI, is emerging as a promising tool for prognostication, but its precise role needs further study before it can be widely used. This multimodal approach might reduce false-positive rates of poor prognosis, thereby providing optimal prognostication of comatose CA survivors. The aim of this review is to summarize studies and the principal tools presently available for outcome prediction and to describe a practical approach to the multimodal prognostication of coma after CA, with a particular focus on neuromonitoring tools. We also propose an algorithm for the optimal use of such multimodal tools during the early ICU phase of post-CA coma.

  2. Intraoperative care for aortic surgery using circulatory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Del Valle, David; González Alvarez, Adrián; Pérez-Lozano, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    The total circulatory arrest (CA) is necessary to achieve optimal surgical conditions in certain aortic pathologies, especially in those affecting the ascending aorta and aortic arch. During this procedure it is necessary to protect all the organs of ischemia, especially those of the central nervous system and for this purpose several strategies have been developed. The first and most important protective method is systemic hypothermia. The degree of hypothermia and the route of application have been evolving and currently tend to use moderate hypothermia (MH) (20.1–28 °C) associated with unilateral or bilateral selective cerebral perfusion methods. In this way the neurological results are better, the interval of security is greater and the times of extracorporeal circulation are smaller. Even so, it is necessary to take into account that there is the possibility of ischemia in the lower part of the body, especially of the abdominal viscera and the spinal cord, therefore the time of circulatory stop should be limited and not to exceed 80 minutes. Evidence of possible neurological drug protection is very weak and only mannitol, magnesium, and statins can produce some benefit. Inhalational anesthetics and some intravenous seem to have advantages, but more studies would be needed to test their long-term benefit. Other important parameters to be monitored during these procedures are blood glucose, anemia and coagulation disorders and acid-base balance. The recommended monitoring is common in complex cardiovascular procedures and it is of special importance the neurological monitoring that can be performed with several techniques, although currently the most used are Bispectral Index (BIS) and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). It is also essential to monitor the temperature routinely at the nasopharyngeal and bladder level and it is important to control coagulation with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). PMID:28616347

  3. Cardiac arrest in the OR: how are our ACLS skills?

    PubMed

    Kurrek, M M; Devitt, J H; Cohen, M

    1998-02-01

    While advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training is widely available, it is not mandatory for all anaesthetists. We hypothesised that adherence to ACLS guidelines during resuscitation of ventricular fibrillation (VFib) as assessed in a simulator environment would be poor by anaesthetists not trained in ACLS compared with those who had received training. With approval by the ethics review board, 89 subjects participated in the study. The simulation system consisted of a computer controlled mannequin with lifelike qualities set in a mock operating room. Each subject was given a test scenario that contained several standard anaesthetic problems. A VFib cardiac arrest occurred after approximately one hour into the simulation. A perfect score (score = A) defined complete compliance with the ACLS guidelines, whereas minor deviations (score = B) included changes in energy levels, drug doses or treatment order. The failure to discontinue the anaesthetic, defibrillate or administer epinephrine were considered major deviations (score = C). Eight subjects followed the ACLS guidelines (9%, score = A), while 27 subjects showed minor (30%, score = B) and 54 subjects major deviations (61%, score = C). Sixty-two of the 89 participants (70%) had taken the ACLS course and achieved higher scores than did anaesthetists without such training (P < 0.05). Forty-two participants (47%) did not discontinue the anaesthetic, 10 (11%) never gave epinephrine and 5 (6%) never used the defibrillator. Adherence to ACLS guidelines was poor. A greater proportion of subjects without previous ACLS training had deviations from protocol than did subjects who had received training. We need to consider ways to ensure that anaesthetists obtain and retain resuscitation skills according to ACLS guidelines.

  4. Estrogen Is Renoprotective via a Nonreceptor-dependent Mechanism after Cardiac Arrest In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hutchens, Michael P.; Nakano, Takaaki; Kosaka, Yasuharu; Dunlap, Jennifer; Zhang, Wenri; Herson, Paco S.; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Anderson, Sharon; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Severe ischemia induces renal injury less frequently in women than men. In this study, cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were used to assess whether estradiol is renoprotective via an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent mechanism. Materials and Methods Male and female C57BL/6 and ER gene-deleted mice underwent 10 min of cardiac arrest followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Serum chemistries and renal stereology were measured 24 h after arrest. Results Estrogen did not affect mean arterial pressure, regional renal cortical blood flow, and arterial blood gases. Hence, female kidneys were protected (mean ± SEM: blood urea nitrogen, 65 ± 21 vs.149 ± 27 mg/dl, P = 0.04; creatinine, 0.14 ± 0.05 vs. 0.73 ± 0.16 mg/dl, P = 0.01; volume of necrotic tubules, 7 ± 1% vs. 10 ± 0%, P = 0.04). Estrogen also reduced renal injury. In intact females (n = 5), ovariectomized/vehicle-treated (n = 8), and ovariectomized/estrogen-treated (n = 8) animals, blood urea nitrogen was 65 ± 21, 166 ± 28, and 50 ± 14 mg/dl (P = 0.002); creatinine was 0.14 ± 0.05, 0.74 ± 0.26, and 0.23 ± 0.27 mg/dl (P = 0.014); necrotic tubules were 2.5 ± 0.25%, 12.0 ± 1.9%, and 5.0 ± 1.6% (P = 0.004), respectively. In ER-α and ER-β gene-deleted mice and controls estradiol-reduced functional injury (blood urea nitrogen: estradiol 117 ± 71, vehicle 167 ± 56, P = 0.007; creatinine: estradiol 0.5 ± 0.5, vehicle 1.0 ± 0.4, P = 0.013), but the effect of estradiol was not different between ER-α or ER-β gene-deleted mice. Adding ICI 182,780 to estradiol did not alter injury. Conclusions In women, kidneys were protected from cardiac arrest through estrogen. Estradiol-mediated renoprotection was not affected by ER deletion or blockade. Estradiol is renoprotective after cardiac arrest. The results indicate that estradiol renoprotection is ER-α and ER-β independent. PMID:20068453

  5. [Cardiac arrest in spectators in German football stadiums. Precautionary measures, frequency and short-term outcome].

    PubMed

    Luiz, T; Preisegger, T; Rombach, D; Madler, C

    2014-09-01

    Provision of medical care is an important element of safety precautions for visitors of sports arenas. The organizational requirements are especially high if cardiac arrest occurs; how this scenario is managed may thus serve as the ultimate indicator of the quality of stadium medical care. The objectives of this study were to analyze the structures and the resources available for the medical care of spectators in German professional soccer stadiums and to identify the frequency and the primary resuscitation success of cardiac arrest. In 2011 a questionnaire-based survey was performed among the clubs of the first and second German soccer leagues regarding medical care of spectators during the seasons 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The focus was on the qualifications of emergency teams, the equipment and the incidence of cardiac arrest. A total of 15 stadiums were included (38%) in the survey. The mean number of physicians and emergency medical technicians on site was 0.6/10,000 seats and 16/10,000 seats, respectively. Of the latter, a mean of 82% (minimum 20% and maximum 100%) had received training with automatic external defibrillators. In 87% of the stadiums regular advanced life support training (ALS) was required. The mean number of defibrillators per stadium was 2.8/10,000 seats (minimum 1.3 and maximum 3.8) including 1.7 automatic defibrillators (minimum 0.4 and maximum 2.8). For patient transport, a mean of 0.65 ALS ambulance vehicles per 10,000 seats (minimum 0.14 and maximum 1.46) were available on site. In all stadiums staff members were connected via mobile radio communication with the stadium medical control room. A total of 52 cardiac arrests (=0.25/100,000 spectators) were recorded of which 96% of the patients were transported to hospitals with spontaneous circulation. Cardiac arrests are not a rare occurrence in German soccer stadiums. The participating stadiums are overall well prepared for such incidents in terms of organization, staff and technology and

  6. Cardiac arrest with coronary artery spasm: does the use of epinephrine during cardiopulmonary arrest exacerbate the spasm?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Su, Xi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Ming-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Liu, Chen-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery spasm can lead to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias or heart block. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines recommend the use of epinephrine during cardiopulmonary arrest. However, in the event of cardiac arrest caused by coronary artery spasm, the use of epinephrine may be harmful. We report 2 cases who had witnessed cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and complete heart block. Intravenous epinephrine was administered during resuscitation.Their hemodynamics did not improve. Emergent coronary angiography revealed that the entire right and left coronary artery systems diffuse spasm. One patient's coronary artery spasm was successfully reversed immediately with administration of intracoronary boluses of nitroglycerin. The other patient's hemodynamic instability persisted,requiring temporary mechanical circulatory support with an intra aortic balloon pump. His hemodynamics finally improved with administration of intravenous diltiazem and nitroglycerin under the intraaortic balloon pump support. They both were discharged from the hospital without any other complications.

  7. Time course of the meiotic arrest in sheep cumulus-oocyte complexes treated with roscovitine.

    PubMed

    Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Marques Filho, Wolff Camargo; Ackermann, Camila Louise; Paschoal, Daniela Martins; Guastali, Midyan Daroz; Dias Maziero, Rosiára Rosária; Sudano, Mateus José; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz; Bicudo, Sony Dimas

    2016-04-01

    Temporary meiosis arrest with cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors has been proposed in order to improve the quality of in vitro matured oocytes. In sheep, however, this phenomenon has been rarely investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different incubation times with roscovitine on nuclear maturation and cumulus cell expansion of sheep cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). For this, COCs were cultured for 0, 6, 12 or 20 h in basic maturation medium (Control) containing 75 μM roscovitine (Rosco). After, they were in vitro matured (IVM) for 18 h in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). At the end of each treatment, cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation were assessed under a stereomicroscope and by Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. In the Control and Rosco groups, the absence of cumulus cell expansion prevailed at 0, 6, 12 and 20 h. After IVM for 18 h, total cumulus cell expansion in the Rosco treatments was dependent on the exposure time to roscovitine. A significantly high percentage of oocytes treated with roscovitine for 6 h (87%), 12 h or 20 h (65%) were arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. In contrast, 23% GVBD, 54% metaphase I (MI) and 61% MII oocytes were observed in the Control groups at 6, 12 and 20 h, respectively. In all treatments, a significant percentage of oocytes reached MII after IVM for 18 h. Therefore, roscovitine reversibly arrested the meiosis of sheep oocytes during different culture times with the maximal efficiency of meiotic inhibition reached at 6 h. In addition, reversibility of its inhibitory action on cumulus cells was exposure-time dependent.

  8. Epilepsy Is a Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Arrest in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bardai, Abdennasser; Lamberts, Robert J.; Blom, Marieke T.; Spanjaart, Anne M.; Berdowski, Jocelyn; van der Staal, Sebastiaan R.; Brouwer, Henk J.; Koster, Rudolph W.; Sander, Josemir W.; Thijs, Roland D.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2012-01-01

    Background People with epilepsy are at increased risk for sudden death. The most prevalent cause of sudden death in the general population is sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular fibrillation (VF). SCA may contribute to the increased incidence of sudden death in people with epilepsy. We assessed whether the risk for SCA is increased in epilepsy by determining the risk for SCA among people with active epilepsy in a community-based study. Methods and Results This investigation was part of the Amsterdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) in the Netherlands. It was designed to assess SCA risk in the general population. All SCA cases in the study area were identified and matched to controls (by age, sex, and SCA date). A diagnosis of active epilepsy was ascertained in all cases and controls. Relative risk for SCA was estimated by calculating the adjusted odds ratios using conditional logistic regression (adjustment was made for known risk factors for SCA). We identified 1019 cases of SCA with ECG-documented VF, and matched them to 2834 controls. There were 12 people with active epilepsy among cases and 12 among controls. Epilepsy was associated with a three-fold increased risk for SCA (adjusted OR 2.9 [95%CI 1.1–8.0.], p = 0.034). The risk for SCA in epilepsy was particularly increased in young and females. Conclusion Epilepsy in the general population seems to be associated with an increased risk for SCA. PMID:22916156

  9. Does the probability of DWI arrest fall following participation in DWI and hybrid drug treatment court programs?

    PubMed

    Sloan, Frank A; Gifford, Elizabeth J; Eldred, Lindsey M; McCutchan, Sabrina A

    2016-12-01

    Using North Carolina administrative data, this study examined recidivism following participation in specialty hybrid drug and driving while intoxicated (DWI) court programs. Three court program participation levels were considered-being referred to, enrolling in, and completing a specialty court program. Measures of DWI recidivism were: arrest and total number of arrests for DWI, and being convicted of DWI during follow-up periods of two and, alternatively, four years. Propensity score matching was used to obtain comparable control groups. Using a four-year follow-up, persons convicted of a DWI who completed a specialty court program were associated with a greater reduction in DWI re-arrests and re-convictions than did matched individuals who were never referred to a specialty court program. DWI courts were more effective in reducing re-arrests than hybrid drug courts were. Although promising from the vantage point of participants, few persons convicted of a DWI were referred to either court type, thus limiting this strategy's potential effectiveness in reducing DWI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Arrested blood flow during false aneurysm formation in the carotid arteries of cattle slaughtered with and without stunning.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G; Schuster, P; Mirabito, L; Kolesar, R; McManus, T

    2012-02-01

    The time to onset of arrested blood flow and the size of false aneurysms in the severed carotid arteries were assessed in 126 cattle during halal slaughter without stunning. Thirty six cattle (29%) showed early arrest of blood flow. In 6%, both the left and right carotid arteries in the same animal stopped bleeding before 60s had elapsed following the neck cut. The time to early arrested blood flow was on average 21s, and this was accompanied by enlargement with false aneurysms which occluded the arteries. In the arteries which were still bleeding at 60s after the neck was cut the artery size was normal. Based on comparative data from different slaughter premises it appeared that making the cut in the neck at the first cervical vertebra instead of the second to fourth cervical vertebrae reduced the frequency of false aneurysm formation and early arrested blood flow. This was confirmed in a separate controlled trial where 100 cattle were stunned with a captive bolt and the arteries were examined following neck cutting at either the C1 or C3 positions.

  11. [Cell cycle arrest at M phase induced by vinblastine in MOLT-4 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi-Sheng; Pan, Chang-Chuan; Jin, Chang-Nan; Li, Jian-Jun; Xiong, Gong-Peng; Zhang, Jian-Xi; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2009-04-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the biological effect of vinblastine (VLS), usually known as inductor of mitotic arrest, on MOLT-4 of ALL cells and to evaluate its significance. The cell arrest in M phase and/or cell apoptosis were induced by treatment of MOLT-4 cells with 0.05 microg/ml VLS for 0 - 12 hours; the DNA histogram was detected by flow cytometry; the morphological changes of cells were observed by confocal microscopy; the cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis and morphological changes of cells before and after arrest were analyzed by using arrest increasing rate (AIR), arrest efficiency (AE), apoptosis rate (AR) and morphologic parameters respectively. The results indicated that the cell arrest did not accompanied by significant increase of apoptosis rate; the DNA histogram of cell arrest showed dynamic change of cell cycle in time-dependent manner; the arrest efficiency could be quantified. The cell arrest at M phase was accompanied by cell stack in S phase, the cell proliferation rate dropped after cell arrest occurred. The cells arrested at M phase possessed of characteristic morphologic features in cell mitosis. It is concluded that the vinblastine can solely induce arrest of MOLT-4 cells at M phase. This study provides experimental basis for further investigating the relation of cell cycle arrest to apoptosis, mechanism of checkpoint and development of new anticancer drugs.

  12. Estimating plane strain fracture toughness of high strength aluminum alloys from crack arrest toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made between fracture toughness KIc as measured by recommended ASTM procedures and crack arrest toughness KIa as measured on more than 100 bolt-loaded double-cantilever beam (DCB) specimens from 7075, 7050, and 7049 alloy plates. Close agreement was found between the two values, KIa being on the average less than KIc over a specified range. This indicates that a simplified test based on a bolt-loaded DCB specimen could be used for quality control, lot release, and screening purposes. Measurements of crack length and specimen deflection are all that are required. The specimens do not have to be fatigue precracked, nor is a tensile machine needed.

  13. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  14. [Survival and the quality of life in extrahospital cardiorespiratory arrest].

    PubMed

    Martín-Castro, C; Bravo, M; Navarro-Pérez, P; Mellado Vergel, F J

    1999-07-03

    There are few data in Spain on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the efficacy of emergency systems. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate an emergency system, comparing survival at hospital discharge according to the origin, cardiac or non-cardiac, of cardiac arrest in out-of-hospital critically ill patients, and to describe the quality of life of the survivors. Prospective study on 282 patients treated during 1995 and 1996 by ICU ambulances units of the Andalusian Public Health Emergency Company (061) in Granada, Almería and El Ejido-Poniente (Spain). The Utstein style was followed, gathering the mortality at different times up to 6 months after hospital discharge and the origin (cardiac/non-cardiac) of the arrest. Quality of life 6 months after discharge was collected among survivors. Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was applied to 176 (62.4%) patients. The survival rate to discharge was 4.9% for patients with cardiac etiology (7/142 x 100) and 5.9% for those with non-cardiac etiology (2/34 x 100), with non-significant differences between the two groups. An optimal quality of life in all domains, except for pharmacological dependence in seven, was found in the eight survivors 6 months after hospital discharge. The origin (cardiac/non-cardiac) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is not associated with survival at hospital discharge. The survivors exhibit an optimal quality of life 6 months after discharge.

  15. 32 CFR 553.9 - Power of arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.9 Power of arrest. The superintendents of Army national cemeteries..., shrub, or plant within the limits of the cemetery and to bring that person before any United States... cemeteries are situated, to hold that person to answer for the misdemeanor, and then and there to make...

  16. Ketogenic diet prevents cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Tai, K-K; Nguyen, N; Pham, L; Truong, D D

    2008-07-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for intractable epilepsies. We recently found that KD can prevent seizure and myoclonic jerk in a rat model of post-hypoxic myoclonus. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that KD can prevent the cerebral ischemic neurodegeneration in this animal model. Rats fed a standard diet or KD for 25 days were being subjected to mechanically induced cardiac arrest brain ischemia for 8 min 30 s. Nine days after cardiac arrest, frozen rat brains were sectioned for evaluation of ischemia-induced neurodegeneration using fluoro-jade (FJ) staining. The FJ positive degenerating neurons were counted manually. Cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemia in rats fed the standard diet exhibited extensive neurodegeneration in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, the number of FJ positive neurons was 822+/-80 (n=4). They also showed signs of neurodegeneration in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in the thalamic reticular nucleus, the number of FJ positive neurons in the cerebellum was 55+/-27 (n=4), the number of FJ positive neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus was 22+/-5 (n=4). In contrast, rats fed KD showed no evidence of neurodegeneration, the number of FJ positive neurons in these areas were zero. The results demonstrate that KD can prevent cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemic neurodegeneration in selected brain regions.

  17. Recurrent sinus arrest in association with neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parry, A K; Ormerod, L P; Hamlin, G W; Saleem, P T

    1994-05-01

    We report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome where the catatonia clearly followed the administration of neuroleptics and where the neurovegetative disturbance was remarkably severe, including episodes of tracheal spasm, apnoea and episodes of bradycardia, and sinus arrest requiring insertion of a temporary external pacing wire. To our knowledge, such severe disturbance has not previously been reported.

  18. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  19. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equivalent strength. (2) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall... maintains a safety factor of at least two; and (ii) Under the direction and supervision of a qualified... be used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equivalent strength. (2) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall... maintains a safety factor of at least two; and (ii) Under the direction and supervision of a qualified... be used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalent strength. (2) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall... maintains a safety factor of at least two; and (ii) Under the direction and supervision of a qualified... be used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equivalent strength. (2) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall... maintains a safety factor of at least two; and (ii) Under the direction and supervision of a qualified... be used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at...

  3. Arrest Patterns into Adulthood of Adolescents with Serious Emotional Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Maryann

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined Massachusetts' automated court records (CORI) of all arrests by the age of 25 in 82 individuals who had received Boston-area intensive public adolescent mental health services between 1988 and 1994. Clinical records from individuals targeted adolescent treatments were also examined.…

  4. Paramedics, technicians, and survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Rainer, T H; Marshall, R; Cusack, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that limited paramedic advanced life support skills afford no advantage in survival from cardiac arrest when compared with non-paramedic ambulance crews equipped with defibrillators in an urban environment; and to investigate whether separate response units delayed on scene times. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted over 17 consecutive months on all adult patients brought to the accident and emergency (A&E) department of Glasgow Royal Infirmary having suffered an out of hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac aetiology. The main interventions were bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and limited advance life support skills. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Return of spontaneous circulation, survival to admission, and discharge. RESULTS: Of 240 patients brought to the A&E department, 19 had no clear record of whether a paramedic was or was not involved and so were excluded. There was no difference in survival between the two groups, although a trend to admission favoured non-paramedics. Paramedics spent much longer at the scene (P < 0.0001). Witnessed arrests (P = 0.01), early bystander CPR (P = 0.12), shockable rhythms (P = 0.003), and defibrillation (P < 0.0001) were associated with better survival. Intubation and at scene times were not associated with better survival. Delayed second response units did not prolong at scene times. CONCLUSIONS: The interventions of greatest benefit in out of hospital cardiac arrest are basic life support and defibrillation. Additional skills are of questionable benefit and may detract from those of greatest benefit. PMID:9315925

  5. The gas production rate of periodic comet d'Arrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Festou, Michel C.; Feldman, Paul D.; Ahearn, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/d'Arrest is a potential target for a rendezvous mission to a short period comet. Its light curve is rather peculiar, the comet being active only after perihelion passage. One apparition out of two is easy to observe from the ground. The 1995 apparition of the comet will offer a unique opportunity to characterize the outgassing properties of its nucleus.

  6. How should we manage arrest following cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Ley, S Jill

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative arrest occurs in thousands of cardiac surgical patients annually, yet standard resuscitation methods are ineffective or potentially harmful. These "high risk, low volume" events typically occur in well-monitored patients in the highly specialized environment of the operating room or intensive care unit, with a short list of likely causes of arrest, making a protocolized approach to management feasible and desirable. An evidence-based guideline for resuscitation specific to the cardiac surgical patient was first published by Dunning et al in 2009 and adopted by the European Resuscitation Council the following year. It emphasizes important deviations from advanced cardiac life support, including immediate defibrillation or pacing of arrhythmias before external compressions, if feasible within 1 minute, and avoidance of epinephrine due to potential rebound hypertension. In standard fashion, the rapid exclusion of reversible causes of arrest is followed by chest reopening within 5 minutes. This approach is now standard of care in most European countries and is under review for use in the United States by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. The anesthesiologist, as either team leader or participant, plays a critical role in optimally managing arrests after cardiac surgery. Their familiarity with this new standard is essential to optimal patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Flashback Flame Arrester Devices for Fuel Cargo Tank Vapor Vents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    I. EXEAUST- BURN STACK------------------------------------- 3-6 S. SUSTAINED BURNING TEST FACILITY------------------------ b TV. INSTRUMENTATION AND... BURNING TESTS -------- 1 vi IX. SUSTAINED BURNING ARRESTER TESTS --------------------------- A. PROFANE/AIR MIXTURE TESTS ---------------------------- 1...D-I E. TABULAR SUMMARY OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FOR SUSTAINED BURNING TESTS ----------- E-i vii - I _ _ _ .. .. . FIGURES 1-1. B-Stand

  8. Physeal bar resections after growth arrest about the knee.

    PubMed

    Kasser, J R

    1990-06-01

    Localized growth arrest about the knee can be treated with excision when less than 50% of the physis is involved and when at least 2.5 cm of growth remains. Simultaneous corrective osteotomy should be performed when the angular deformity exceeds 20 degrees. The superiority of the various interposition materials remains controversial, but the alternatives are fat, cartilage, elastomer, and methylmethacrylate.

  9. 153. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    153. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above powerhouse (similar view as WA-64-152). Looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. 152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above powerhouse. To the right is surge tank for penstock no. 1. Looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  11. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Diego Grimaldi; Simas, Ana Amélia Souza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome. PMID:27872765

  12. Race as a Factor in Juvenile Arrests. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; Snyder, Howard E.

    This bulletin examines the effect of race on police decisions to take juvenile offenders into custody. Analysis of 1997 and 1998 data on 17 states from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Incident-Based Reporting System indicates that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that police are more likely to arrest nonwhite juvenile…

  13. Minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation resuscitation in hypothermic cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Bernhard; Jenni, Hans Jörg; Gygax, Erich; Schnüriger, Beat; Seidl, Christian; Erdoes, Gabor; Kadner, Alexander; Carrel, Thierry; Eberle, Balthasar

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines for the treatment of hypothermic cardiocirculatory arrest recommend extracorporeal life support and rewarming, using cardiopulmonary bypass or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits. Both have design-related shortcomings which may result in prolonged reperfusion time or insufficient oxygen delivery to vital organs. This article describes clear advantages of minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation systems during emergency extracorporeal life support in hypothermic arrest. The technique of minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation for reperfusion and rewarming is represented by the case of a 59-year-old patient in hypothermic cardiocirculatory arrest at 25.3°C core temperature, with multiple trauma. With femoro-femoral cannulation performed under sonographic and echocardiographic guidance, extracorporeal life support was initiated using a minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation system. Perfusing rhythm was restored at 28°C. During rewarming on the mobile circuit, trauma surveys were completed and the treatment initiated. Normothermic weaning was successful on the first attempt, trauma surgery was completed and the patient survived neurologically intact. For extracorporeal resuscitation from hypothermic arrest, minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation offers all the advantages of conventional cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation systems without their shortcomings. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Development of a nonfragmenting distribution surge arrester. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.E.

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the investigation and testing carried out in the development of a nonfragmenting distribution surge arrester. It is commonly assumed that pressure buildup in a failing surge arrester will cause the porcelain to burst unless the pressure is rapidly relieved. Even after pressure relief, however, the porcelain can shatter from the thermal shock produced by the internal arc. There is little published information on the sequence of events during failure and the relative importance of pressure and thermal stress. A prerequisite for the design of a nonfragmenting arrester is a thorough knowledge of the failure mechanism. Extensive testing was performed to determine the contribution of both pressure and heat to porcelain breakage. This research demonstrated the importance of thermal shock and led to the design of an ablative thermal shield for the porcelain housing. This was combined with pressure relief provided by end-cap venting and a retaining system to prevent ejection of internal parts. The final result was the design and production of nonfragmenting distribution arresters rated 9 kV through 27 kV.

  15. Chemical Society Reinstates Iranian Chemists; Iranian-American Scholar Arrested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…

  16. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  17. Sequential steps for developmental arrest in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Raz, V; Bergervoet, J H; Koornneef, M

    2001-01-01

    The continuous growth of the plant embryo is interrupted during the seed maturation processes which results in a dormant seed. The embryo continues development after germination when it grows into a seedling. The embryo growth phase starts after morphogenesis and ends when the embryo fills the seed sac. Very little is known about the processes regulating this phase. We describe mutants that affect embryo growth in two sequential developmental stages. Firstly, embryo growth arrest is regulated by the FUS3/LEC type genes, as mutations in these genes cause a continuation of growth in immature embryos. Secondly, a later stage of embryo dormancy is regulated by ABI3 and abscisic acid; abi3 and aba1 mutants exhibit premature germination only after embryos mature. Mutations affecting both developmental stages result in an additive phenotype and double mutants are highly viviparous. Embryo growth arrest is regulated by cell division activities in both the embryo and the endosperm, which are gradually switched off at the mature embryo stage. In the fus3/lec mutants, however, cell division in both the embryo and endosperm is not arrested, but rather is prolonged throughout seed maturation. Furthermore ectopic cell division occurs in seedlings. Our results indicate that seed dormancy is secured via at least two sequential developmental processes: embryo growth arrest, which is regulated by cell division and embryo dormancy.

  18. Practical implementation of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Gaieski, David F; Fuchs, Barry; Carr, Brendan G; Merchant, Raina; Kolansky, Daniel M; Abella, Benjamin S; Becker, Lance B; Maguire, Cheryl; Whitehawk, Michael; Levine, Joshua; Goyal, Munish

    2009-12-01

    Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains unacceptably low. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the most efficacious treatment option available for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. However, clearly delineated instructions for how to induce, maintain, and conclude TH have not been published in a codified format. We assembled 11 clinicians from the University of Pennsylvania Schools of Medicine and Nursing for a day-long moderated discussion to review our institution's TH protocol and reach consensus on a step-by-step management plan of the comatose survivor of OHCA. We attempted to systematically work our way through the existing University of Pennsylvania TH protocol. The goal was to address critical decisions at each stage of care of the post-arrest patient, including whom to cool, how to cool, how long to cool, how to rewarm, neuroprognostication, and other fundamental aspects of patient management. We made every effort to include relevant scientific evidence with appropriate citations. However, given the paucity of data in certain areas, we have relied heavily on expert opinion. We present a step-by-step management plan for incorporation of TH in the care of the comatose survivor of OHCA, which can be adapted to a variety of clinical settings with diverse resources. This article is intended to supplement current care provided by health care providers and should be adopted in concert with current standards of post-arrest and intensive care unit care.

  19. Speech arrest after sleeping on the left body side.

    PubMed

    Wojtecki, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2011-06-01

    Stroke like episodes can occur by cortical compression due to changes in intracranial pressure. We report a patient after left hemicraniectomy who presented transient speech arrest after sleeping on the left side. We propose that mechanical compression of the left inferior or superior frontal gyrus led to this episode similar to a major mass effect due to an unprotected brain surface after hemicraniectomy.

  20. An evaluation of the narrowing gender gap in DUI arrests.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela A; Liew, Hui; Gardner, Sheena

    2011-07-01

    Although males account for the vast majority of those convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs (DUI), female DUI convictions have increased over the past two decades. In this study, we examined the ratio of males-to-females who were court-mandated between the years 1992 and 2008 to attend the Mississippi Alcohol Safety Education Program (MASEP), a DUI intervention program in Mississippi. The data for this study came from MASEP records; the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR); the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS); the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS); and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency within the US Department of Transportation. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) tests were used to assess the nature (i.e., convergence, divergence, or stability) of this trend and to identify predictors. The results showed that, over the 17-year period, the gender gap in DUI convictions, self-reported history of prior arrest, official drug arrests, and substance abuse treatment admissions has narrowed considerably. Results from the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models show that three factors account for increases in the proportion of women mandated to attend MASEP: self-reported arrest prior to the DUI conviction, female admissions to substance abuse treatment, and annual miles driven. Changes in both women's behavior and law enforcement practices have increased female exposure to DUI arrests and narrowed the gender gap in DUI convictions.

  1. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children

    PubMed Central

    Moler, F.W.; Silverstein, F.S.; Holubkov, R.; Slomine, B.S.; Christensen, J.R.; Nadkarni, V.M.; Meert, K.L.; Browning, B.; Pemberton, V.L.; Page, K.; Gildea, M.R.; Scholefield, B.R.; Shankaran, S.; Hutchison, J.S.; Berger, J.T.; Ofori-Amanfo, G.; Newth, C.J.L.; Topjian, A.; Bennett, K.S.; Koch, J.D.; Pham, N.; Chanani, N.K.; Pineda, J.A.; Harrison, R.; Dalton, H.J.; Alten, J.; Schleien, C.L.; Goodman, D.M.; Zimmerman, J.J.; Bhalala, U.S.; Schwarz, A.J.; Porter, M.B.; Shah, S.; Fink, E.L.; McQuillen, P.; Wu, T.; Skellett, S.; Thomas, N.J.; Nowak, J.E.; Baines, P.B.; Pappachan, J.; Mathur, M.; Lloyd, E.; van der Jagt, E.W.; Dobyns, E.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Sanders, R.C.; Clark, A.E.; Dean, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. METHODS In a trial conducted at 37 children’s hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. RESULTS The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P = 0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P = 0.56). The incidences of blood-product use

  2. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children.

    PubMed

    Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Gildea, Marianne R; Scholefield, Barnaby R; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Berger, John T; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Newth, Christopher J L; Topjian, Alexis; Bennett, Kimberly S; Koch, Joshua D; Pham, Nga; Chanani, Nikhil K; Pineda, Jose A; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi J; Alten, Jeffrey; Schleien, Charles L; Goodman, Denise M; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Bhalala, Utpal S; Schwarz, Adam J; Porter, Melissa B; Shah, Samir; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Wu, Theodore; Skellett, Sophie; Thomas, Neal J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Baines, Paul B; Pappachan, John; Mathur, Mudit; Lloyd, Eric; van der Jagt, Elise W; Dobyns, Emily L; Meyer, Michael T; Sanders, Ronald C; Clark, Amy E; Dean, J Michael

    2017-01-26

    Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. In a trial conducted at 37 children's hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P=0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P=0.56). The incidences of blood-product use, infection, and serious adverse

  3. Socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Reinier, Kyndaron; Thomas, Elizabeth; Andrusiek, Douglas L; Aufderheide, Tom P; Brooks, Steven C; Callaway, Clifton W; Pepe, Paul E; Rea, Thomas D; Schmicker, Robert H; Vaillancourt, Christian; Chugh, Sumeet S

    2011-10-18

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor cardiovascular health. We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations. Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle-King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income. A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrestin the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5-3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census tract, the disparity across socioeconomic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.2) than in Canada (IRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0) (p<0.001 for interaction). The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association between socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development

  4. Inhibition of REV3 Expression Induces Persistent DNA Damage and Growth Arrest in Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Philip A; Kotov, Ilya N; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf A; Marti, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    REV3 is the catalytic subunit of DNA translesion synthesis polymerase ζ. Inhibition of REV3 expression increases the sensitivity of human cells to a variety of DNA-damaging agents and reduces the formation of resistant cells. Surprisingly, we found that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of REV3 per se suppresses colony formation of lung (A549, Calu-3), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), mesothelioma (IL45 and ZL55), and colon (HCT116 +/-p53) tumor cell lines, whereas control cell lines (AD293, LP9-hTERT) and the normal mesothelial primary culture (SDM104) are less affected. Inhibition of REV3 expression in cancer cells leads to an accumulation of persistent DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-ATM, 53BP1, and phospho-H2AX foci formation, subsequently leading to the activation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response cascade. REV3 depletion in p53-proficient cancer cell lines results in a G1 arrest and induction of senescence as indicated by the accumulation of p21 and an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In contrast, inhibition of REV3 expression in p53-deficient cells results in growth inhibition and a G2/M arrest. A small fraction of the p53-deficient cancer cells can overcome the G2/M arrest, which results in mitotic slippage and aneuploidy. Our findings reveal that REV3 depletion per se suppresses growth of cancer cell lines from different origin, whereas control cell lines and a mesothelial primary culture were less affected. Thus, our findings indicate that depletion of REV3 not only can amend cisplatin-based cancer therapy but also can be applied for susceptible cancers as a potential monotherapy. PMID:22028621

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in hyperoxia-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Veniamin; Starkov, Anatoly; Matsiukevich, Dzmitry; Polin, Richard A; Ten, Vadim S

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in a mouse model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To induce BPD, 3-day-old mice were exposed to 75% O2. Mice were studied at two time points of hyperoxia (72 h or 2 wk) and after 3 weeks of recovery in room air (RA). A separate cohort of mice was exposed to pyridaben, a complex-I (C-I) inhibitor, for 72 hours or 2 weeks. Alveolarization was quantified by radial alveolar count and mean linear intercept methods. Pulmonary mitochondrial function was defined by respiration rates, ATP-production rate, and C-I activity. At 72 hours, hyperoxic mice demonstrated significant inhibition of C-I activity, reduced respiration and ATP production rates, and significantly decreased radial alveolar count compared with controls. Exposure to pyridaben for 72 hours, as expected, caused significant inhibition of C-I and ADP-phosphorylating respiration. Similar to hyperoxic littermates, these pyridaben-exposed mice exhibited significantly delayed alveolarization compared with controls. At 2 weeks of exposure to hyperoxia or pyridaben, mitochondrial respiration was inhibited and associated with alveolar developmental arrest. However, after 3 weeks of recovery from hyperoxia or 2 weeks after 72 hours of exposure to pyridaben alveolarization significantly improved. In addition, there was marked normalization of C-I and mitochondrial respiration. The degree of hyperoxia-induced pulmonary simplification and recovery strongly (r(2) = 0.76) correlated with C-I activity in lung mitochondria. Thus, the arrest of alveolar development induced by either hyperoxia or direct inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation indicates that bioenergetic failure to maintain normal alveolar development is one of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for BPD.

  6. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride in caries prevention and arrest: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Violeta; Toro, Milagros J.; Elías-Boneta, Augusto R.; Encarnación-Burgos, Angeliz

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in preventing and arresting caries in the primary dentition and permanent first molars. A systematic review (SR) was performed by 2 independent reviewers using 3 electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). The database search employed the following key words: “topical fluorides” AND “children” AND “clinical trials”; “topical fluorides” OR “silver diamine fluoride” AND “randomized controlled trial”; “silver diamine fluoride” AND “children” OR “primary dentition” AND “tooth decay”; “silver diamine fluoride” OR “sodium fluoride varnish” AND “early childhood caries”; and “silver diamine fluoride” AND “children”. Inclusion criteria were articles published in English, from 2005 to January 2016, on clinical studies using SDF as a treatment intervention to evaluate caries arrest in children with primary dentition and/or permanent first molars. Database searches provided 821 eligible publications, of which 33 met the inclusion criteria. After the abstracts were prescreened, 25 articles were dismissed based on exclusion criteria. The remaining 8 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 7 publications were included in the SR. These included 1 study assessing the effectiveness of SDF at different concentrations; 3 studies comparing SDF with other interventions; 2 investigations comparing SDF at different application frequencies and with other interventions; and 1 study comparing semiannual SDF applications versus a control group. The literature indicates that SDF is a preventive treatment for dental caries in community settings. At concentrations of 30% and 38%, SDF shows potential as an alternative treatment for caries arrest in the primary dentition and permanent first molars. To establish guidelines, more studies are needed to fully assess the effectiveness of SDF and to

  7. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride in caries prevention and arrest: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Violeta; Toro, Milagros J; Elías-Boneta, Augusto R; Encarnación-Burgos, Angeliz

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in preventing and arresting caries in the primary dentition and permanent first molars. A systematic review (SR) was performed by 2 independent reviewers using 3 electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). The database search employed the following key words: "topical fluorides" AND "children" AND "clinical trials"; "topical fluorides" OR "silver diamine fluoride" AND "randomized controlled trial"; "silver diamine fluoride" AND "children" OR "primary dentition" AND "tooth decay"; "silver diamine fluoride" OR "sodium fluoride varnish" AND "early childhood caries"; and "silver diamine fluoride" AND "children". Inclusion criteria were articles published in English, from 2005 to January 2016, on clinical studies using SDF as a treatment intervention to evaluate caries arrest in children with primary dentition and/or permanent first molars. Database searches provided 821 eligible publications, of which 33 met the inclusion criteria. After the abstracts were prescreened, 25 articles were dismissed based on exclusion criteria. The remaining 8 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 7 publications were included in the SR. These included 1 study assessing the effectiveness of SDF at different concentrations; 3 studies comparing SDF with other interventions; 2 investigations comparing SDF at different application frequencies and with other interventions; and 1 study comparing semiannual SDF applications versus a control group. The literature indicates that SDF is a preventive treatment for dental caries in community settings. At concentrations of 30% and 38%, SDF shows potential as an alternative treatment for caries arrest in the primary dentition and permanent first molars. To establish guidelines, more studies are needed to fully assess the effectiveness of SDF and to determine the appropriate application frequency.

  8. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: unintentional overcooling is common using ice packs and conventional cooling blankets.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Raina M; Abella, Benjamin S; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Soar, Jasmeet; Ong, Marcus E H; Schmidt, Gregory A; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2006-12-01

    Although therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac arrest survivors has been shown to improve neurologically intact survival, optimal methods to ensure controlled induction and maintenance of cooling are not clearly established. Precise temperature control is important to evaluate because unintentional overcooling below the consensus target range of 32-34 degrees C may place the patient at risk for serious complications. We sought to measure the prevalence of overcooling (<32 degrees C) in postarrest survivors receiving primarily noninvasive cooling. Retrospective chart review of postarrest patients. Three large teaching hospitals. Cardiac arrest survivors receiving therapeutic hypothermia. Charts were reviewed if primarily surface cooling was used with a target temperature goal between 32 degrees C and 34 degrees C. Of the 32 cases reviewed, overcooling lasting for >1 hr was identified as follows: 20 of 32 patients (63%) reached temperatures of <32 degrees C, 9 of 32 (28%) reached temperatures of <31 degrees C, and 4 of 32 (13%) reached temperatures of <30 degrees C. Of those with overcooling of <32 degrees C, 6 of 20 (30%) survived to hospital discharge, whereas of those without overcooling, 7 of 12 (58%) survived to hospital discharge (p = not significant). The majority of the cases reviewed demonstrated unintentional overcooling below target temperature. Improved mechanisms for temperature control are required to prevent potentially deleterious complications of more profound hypothermia.

  9. Rosuvastatin improves myocardial and neurological outcomes after asphyxial cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun; Wu, Yichen; Meng, Min; Luo, Man; Zhao, Hongmei; Sun, Hong; Gao, Sumin

    2017-03-01

    Rosuvastatin, a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is cholesterol-lowering drugs and reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. This study is to explore whether rosuvastatin improves outcomes after cardiac arrest in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8min of cardiac arrest (CA) by asphyxia and randomly assigned to three experimental groups immediately following successful resuscitation: Sham; Control; and Rosuvastatin. The survival, hemodynamics, myocardial function, neurological outcomes and apoptosis were assessed. The 7-d survival rate was greater in the rosuvastatin treated group compared to the Control group (P=0.019 by log-rank test). Myocardial function, as measured by cardiac output and ejection fraction, was significantly impaired after CA and notably improved in the animals treated with rosuvastatin beginning at 60min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (P<0.05). Moreover, rosuvastatin treatment significantly ameliorated brain injury after ROSC, which was characterized by the increase of neurological function scores, and reduction of brain edema in cortex and hippocampus (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the levels of cardiac troponin T and neuron-specific enolase and the caspase-3 activity were significantly decreased in the Rosuvastatin group when compared with the Control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, rosuvastatin treatment substantially improves the 7-d survival rate as well as myocardial function and neurological outcomes after ROSC.

  10. Cardiac arrest and resuscitation epidemiology in Singapore (CARE I study).

    PubMed

    Eng Hock Ong, Marcus; Chan, Yiong Huak; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Lau, Siew Tiang; Lim, Swee Han; Seldrup, Jorgen

    2003-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Singapore, the emergency medical services (EMS) response, and to identify possible areas for improvement. This prospective observational study constitutes phase I of the Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation Epidemiology (CARE) project. Included were all patients with nontraumatic OHCA conveyed by the national emergency ambulance service. Patient characteristics, cardiac arrest circumstances, EMS response, and outcomes were recorded according to the Utstein style. From October 1, 2001, to April 30, 2002, 548 patients were enrolled into the study. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 62.2 (17.9) years, with a male predominance (65.6%). A total of 59.8% of collapses occurred at home, 35.3% of arrests were not witnessed, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was present for 20.6%. Mean (SD) time from collapse to call received by EMS was 10.6 (13.1) minutes. Mean (SD) EMS response time was 10.2 (4.3) minutes. Mean (SD) time from call to defibrillation was 16.7 (7.2) minutes. Mean (SD) on-scene time was 9.9 (4.5) minutes. First presenting rhythm at the scene was asystole in 54.5%, pulseless electrical activity 22.9%, ventricular fibrillation 19.6%, and ventricular tachycardia 0.4%. Of all cardiac arrests, 351 had resuscitation attempted and were of cardiac origin. Among these patients, 17.9% had return of spontaneous circulation, 8.5% survived to hospital admission, and 2.0% survived to discharge. CARE I establishes the baseline for the evaluation of incremental introduction of prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support interventions planned for future phases. Continuing efforts should be made to strengthen all chains of survival. This represents the most comprehensive OHCA study yet conducted in Singapore.

  11. Epidemiology and Outcomes After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Punkaj; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Gaynor, J. William; O’Brien, Sean M.; He, Max; Sheng, Shubin; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Imamura, Michiaki; Jacobs, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multicenter data regarding cardiac arrest in children undergoing heart operations are limited. We describe epidemiology and outcomes associated with postoperative cardiac arrest in a large multiinstitutional cohort. Methods Patients younger than 18 years in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2007 through 2012) were included. Patient factors, operative characteristics, and outcomes were described for patients with and without postoperative cardiac arrest. Multivariable models were used to evaluate the association of center volume with cardiac arrest rate and mortality after cardiac arrest, adjusting for patient and procedural factors. Results Of 70,270 patients (97 centers), 1,843 (2.6%) had postoperative cardiac arrest. Younger age, lower weight, and presence of preoperative morbidities (all p < 0.0001) were associated with cardiac arrest. Arrest rate increased with procedural complexity across common benchmark operations, ranging from 0.7% (ventricular septal defect repair) to 12.7% (Norwood operation). Cardiac arrest was associated with significant mortality risk across procedures, ranging from 15.4% to 62.3% (all p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, arrest rate was not associated with center volume (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.57 in low- versus high-volume centers). However, mortality after cardiac arrest was higher in low-volume centers (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 2.63). This association was present for both high- and low-complexity operations. Conclusions Cardiac arrest carries a significant mortality risk across the stratum of procedural complexity. Although arrest rates are not associated with center volume, lower-volume centers have increased mortality after cardiac arrest. Further study of mechanisms to prevent cardiac arrest and to reduce mortality in those with an arrest is warranted. PMID:25443018

  12. Girls with Emotional Disturbance and a History of Arrest: Characteristics and School-Based Predictors of Arrest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Josephs, Nikki L.; Lunde, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that girls receiving special education services for Emotional Disturbance (ED) may have unique characteristics and needs. Similarly, juvenile justice research has identified unique characteristics of court-involved girls. This study examined characteristics of girls with ED and a history of arrest. Additionally, classroom-based…

  13. Girls with Emotional Disturbance and a History of Arrest: Characteristics and School-Based Predictors of Arrest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Josephs, Nikki L.; Lunde, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that girls receiving special education services for Emotional Disturbance (ED) may have unique characteristics and needs. Similarly, juvenile justice research has identified unique characteristics of court-involved girls. This study examined characteristics of girls with ED and a history of arrest. Additionally, classroom-based…

  14. Lipid emulsion improves recovery from bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest, but not from ropivacaine- or mepivacaine-induced cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Zausig, York A; Zink, Wolfgang; Keil, Meike; Sinner, Barbara; Barwing, Juergen; Wiese, Christoph H R; Graf, Bernhard M

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac toxicity significantly correlates with the lipophilicity of local anesthetics (LAs). Recently, the infusion of lipid emulsions has been shown to be a promising approach to treat LA-induced cardiac arrest. As the postulated mechanism of action, the so-called "lipid sink" effect may depend on the lipophilicity of LAs. In this study, we investigated whether lipid effects differ with regard to the administered LAs. In the isolated rat heart, cardiac arrest was induced by administration of equipotent doses of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine, respectively, followed by cardiac perfusion with or without lipid emulsion (0.25 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Subsequently, the times from the start of perfusion to return of first heart activity and to recovery of heart rate and rate-pressure product (to 90% of baseline values) were assessed. In all groups, lipid infusion had no effects on the time to the return of any cardiac activity. However, recovery times of heart rate and rate-pressure product (to 90% of baseline values) were significantly shorter with the administration of lipids in bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity, but not in ropivacaine- or mepivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity. These data show that the effects of lipid infusion on LA-induced cardiac arrest are strongly dependent on the administered LAs itself. We conclude that lipophilicity of LAs has a marked impact on the efficacy of lipid infusions to treat cardiac arrest induced by these drugs.

  15. Phytochemical induction of cell cycle arrest by glutathione oxidation and reversal by N-acetylcysteine in human colon carcinomacarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Odom, R. Y.; Dansby, M. Y.; Rollins-Hairston, A. M.; Jackson, K. M.; Kirlin, W. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals has been shown to involve decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest. However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms involved. Previously, we have shown that a common effect of phytochemicals investigated is to oxidize the intracellular glutathione (GSH) pool. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether changes in the glutathione redox potential in response to dietary phytochemicals was related to their induction of cell cycle arrest. Human colon carcinoma (HT29) cells were treated with benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT), diallyl disulfide (DADS), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), lycopene (LYC), sodium butyrate (NaB) or buthione sulfoxamine (BSO, a GSH synthesis inhibitor) at concentrations shown to cause oxidation of the GSH: glutathione disulfide pool. A decrease in cell proliferation, as measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, was observed that could be reversed by pretreatment with the GSH precursor and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Cell cycle analysis on cells isolated 16 h after treatment indicated an increase in the percentage (ranging from 75% to 30% for benzyl isothiocyanate and lycopene, respectively) of cells at G2/M arrest compared to control treatments (dimethylsulfoxide) in response to phytochemical concentrations that oxidized the GSH pool. Pretreatment for 6 h with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) resulted in a partial reversal of the G2/M arrest. As expected the GSH oxidation from these phytochemical treatments was reversible by NAC. That both cell proliferation and G2/M arrest, were also reversed by NAC leads to the conclusion that these phytochemical effects are also mediated, in part, by intracellular oxidation. Thus, one potential mechanism for cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals is inhibition of the growth of cancer cells through modulation of their intracellular redox environment. PMID:19373606

  16. Women of child-bearing age have better inhospital cardiac arrest survival outcomes than do equal-aged men.

    PubMed

    Topjian, Alexis A; Localio, A Russell; Berg, Robert A; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Meaney, Peter A; Pepe, Paul E; Larkin, G Luke; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Becker, Lance B; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2010-05-01

    Estrogen and progesterone improve neurologic outcomes in experimental models of cardiac arrest and stroke. Our objective was to determine whether women of child-bearing age are more likely than men to survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Prospective, observational study. Five hundred nineteen hospitals in the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation database. Patients included 95,852 men and women 15-44 yrs and 56 yrs or older with pulseless cardiac arrests from January 1, 2000 through July 31, 2008. Patients were stratified a priori by gender and age groups (15-44 yrs and > or =56 yrs). Fixed-effects regression conditioning on hospital was used to examine the relationship between age, gender, and survival outcomes. The unadjusted survival to discharge rate for younger women of child-bearing age (15-44 yrs) was 19% (940/4887) vs. 17% (1203/7025) for younger men (p = .013). The adjusted hospital discharge difference between these younger women and men was 2.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.0% to 4.6%; p = .002), and these younger women also had a 2.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.9% to 4.3%; p = .002) absolute increase in favorable neurologic outcome. For older women compared with men (> or =56 yrs), there were no demonstrable differences in discharge rates (18% vs. 18%; adjusted difference, -0.1%; 95% confidence interval, -0.9% to 0.6%; p = .68) or favorable neurologic outcome (14% vs. 14%; adjusted difference, -0.1%; 95% confidence interval, -0.7% to 0.5%; p = .74). Women of child-bearing age were more likely than comparably aged men to survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest, even after controlling for etiology of arrest and other important variables.

  17. 33 CFR 150.619 - What are the fall arrest system requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the fall arrest system... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Fall Arrest § 150.619 What are the fall arrest system requirements? (a) The deepwater port operator must ensure...

  18. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  19. Modes of induced cardiac arrest: hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia--literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; Santos, Carlos Alberto dos; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseini; Cortez, José Luis Lasso; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The entry of sodium and calcium play a key effect on myocyte subjected to cardiac arrest by hyperkalemia. They cause cell swelling, acidosis, consumption of adenosine triphosphate and trigger programmed cell death. Cardiac arrest caused by hypocalcemia maintains intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels, improves diastolic performance and reduces oxygen consumption, which can be translated into better protection to myocyte injury induced by cardiac arrest.

  20. What Happens After Arrest? A Court Perspective of Police Operations in the District of Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forst, Brian; And Others

    The problem of arrests not ending in conviction is described in terms of its magnitude and costs. Three major aspects of the role of the police in influencing what happens after arrest are studied. Factors such as tangible evidence and witnesses are influenced by the time between the offense and the arrest. The characteristics of the officers…

  1. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  2. Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma (EPR-CAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    TITLE: Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma (EPR-CAT) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER From Trauma 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0682...SUBJECT TERMS Trauma, hemorrhagic shock, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation , hypothermia 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  3. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  4. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates between Black and White Male Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to…

  5. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  6. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100 feet...

  7. 10 CFR 1047.6 - Use of physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of physical force when making an arrest. 1047.6 Section 1047.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.6 Use of physical force when making an arrest...

  8. 10 CFR 1047.6 - Use of physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of physical force when making an arrest. 1047.6 Section 1047.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.6 Use of physical force when making an arrest...

  9. 10 CFR 1047.6 - Use of physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of physical force when making an arrest. 1047.6 Section 1047.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.6 Use of physical force when making an arrest...

  10. 10 CFR 1047.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines. 1047.5 Section 1047.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.5 Exercise of arrest...

  11. 10 CFR 1049.7 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force. 1049.7 Section 1049.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.7 Exercise of arrest...

  12. 10 CFR 1049.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-General guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-General guidelines. 1049.5 Section 1049.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.5 Exercise of arrest...

  13. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  14. 10 CFR 1049.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-General guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-General guidelines. 1049.5 Section 1049.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.5 Exercise of arrest...

  15. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  16. 10 CFR 1049.7 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force. 1049.7 Section 1049.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.7 Exercise of arrest...

  17. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  18. 10 CFR 1047.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines. 1047.5 Section 1047.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.5 Exercise of arrest...

  19. 10 CFR 1047.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines. 1047.5 Section 1047.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.5 Exercise of arrest...

  20. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...