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Sample records for arrested development high-resolution

  1. Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism.

    PubMed

    McAllister, John T; Dubis, Adam M; Tait, Diane M; Ostler, Shawn; Rha, Jungtae; Stepien, Kimberly E; Summers, C Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2010-04-07

    Albinism, an inherited disorder of melanin biosynthesis, disrupts normal retinal development, with foveal hypoplasia as one of the more commonly associated ocular phenotypes. However the cellular integrity of the fovea in albinism is not well understood - there likely exist important anatomical differences that underlie phenotypic variability within the disease and that also may affect responsiveness to therapeutic intervention. Here, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging, we obtained high-resolution images of the foveal region in six individuals with albinism. We provide a quantitative analysis of cone density and outer segment elongation demonstrating that foveal cone specialization is variable in albinism. In addition, our data reveal a continuum of foveal pit morphology, roughly aligning with schematics of normal foveal development based on post-mortem analyses. Different albinism subtypes, genetic mutations, and constitutional pigment background likely play a role in determining the degree of foveal maturation.

  2. Arrested Development: High-Resolution Imaging of Foveal Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, John T.; Dubis, Adam M.; Tait, Diane M.; Ostler, Shawn; Rha, Jungtae; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Albinism, an inherited disorder of melanin biosynthesis, disrupts normal retinal development, with foveal hypoplasia as one of the more commonly associated ocular phenotypes. However the cellular integrity of the fovea in albinism is not well understood – there likely exist important anatomical differences that underlie phenotypic variability within the disease and that also may affect responsiveness to therapeutic intervention. Here, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging, we obtained high-resolution images of the foveal region in six individuals with albinism. We provide a quantitative analysis of cone density and outer segment elongation demonstrating that foveal cone specialization is variable in albinism. In addition, our data reveal a continuum of foveal pit morphology, roughly aligning with schematics of normal foveal development based on post-mortem analyses. Different albinism subtypes, genetic mutations, and constitutional pigment background likely play a role in determining the degree of foveal maturation. PMID:20149815

  3. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  4. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  5. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  6. Use of High Resolution Simulations Training Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    observed data or subject matter expert ( SME ) data for development of training programs. Simulation derived data is neither observable nor viewed as...training developer has habitually relied on SMEs and questionaire data gathering techniques. The nature of current high resolution simulations allow for the...system. These task lists describe the individual and collective tasks to be performed by the operators of the new sem. Additionally, the SMEs on the new

  7. Developing and applying metamodels of high resolution ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As defined by Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamodeling), “(a) metamodel or surrogate model is a model of a model, and metamodeling is the process of generating such metamodels.” The goals of metamodeling include, but are not limited to (1) developing functional or statistical relationships between a model’s input and output variables for model analysis, interpretation, or information consumption by users’ clients; (2) quantifying a model’s sensitivity to alternative or uncertain forcing functions, initial conditions, or parameters; and (3) characterizing the model’s response or state space. Using five existing models developed by US Environmental Protection Agency, we generate a metamodeling database of the expected environmental and biological concentrations of 644 organic chemicals released into nine US rivers from wastewater treatment works (WTWs) assuming multiple loading rates and sizes of populations serviced. The chemicals of interest have log n-octanol/water partition coefficients ( ) ranging from 3 to 14, and the rivers of concern have mean annual discharges ranging from 1.09 to 3240 m3/s. Log linear regression models are derived to predict mean annual dissolved and total water concentrations and total sediment concentrations of chemicals of concern based on their , Henry’s Law Constant, and WTW loading rate and on the mean annual discharges of the receiving rivers. Metamodels are also derived to predict mean annual chemical

  8. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  9. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola.

    PubMed

    Jung, D; Hörlein, R; Kiefer, D; Letzring, S; Gautier, D C; Schramm, U; Hübsch, C; Öhm, R; Albright, B J; Fernandez, J C; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE∕E < 5% at 100 MeV/nucleon and impede premature merging of different ion species at low energies on the detector plane. First results from laser driven ion acceleration experiments performed at the Trident Laser Facility demonstrate high resolution and superior species and charge state separation of this novel Thomson parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon.

  10. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Schmitt, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is entering its 3rd phase with operational portals providing access to marine data for bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities, complemented by checkpoint projects, analysing the fitness for purpose of data provision. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs from 27 European data providers from 15 countries. For areas without coverage use has been made of the latest GEBCO DTM. The catalogue services and the generated EMODnet DTM have been published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal which includes a versatile DTM viewing service that also supports downloading in various formats. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM) as part of the third phase of EMODnet. This new project will continue gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry

  11. Development and Characterization of a High Resolution Portable Gamma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Muhammad

    The recent disaster of Fukushima in Japan combined with the high demand to enhance nuclear safety and to minimize personal exposure to radioactive materials has a significant impact on research and development of radiation detection instrumentation. Currently, there is ample effort worldwide in the pursuit of radiation detection to maximize the accuracy and meet international standards in terms of size and specifications to enable radiation protection decision making. Among the requirements is the development of a portable, light-weight gamma-ray isotope identifier to be used by first responders in nuclear accidents as well as for radiation security and identification of illicit material isotopes. From nuclear security perspective, research into advanced screening technologies has become a high priority in all aspects, while for occupational safety, and environmental radiation protection, the regulatory authorities are requiring specific performance of radiation detection and measuring devices. At the applied radiation laboratory of the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, UOIT, the development of a high resolution spectrometer for medium and high energy gamma ray has been conducted. The spectrometer used a newly developed scintillator based on a LaBr3(Ce) crystal. The detector has been modeled using advanced Monte Carlo code (MCNP/X code) for the response function simulation and parameter characterization. The simulation results have been validated by experimental investigations using a wide range of gamma radiation energies. The developed spectrometer has been characterized in terms of resolution and response in different fields. It has also been compared with other crystals such as NaI(TI) and LiI(Eu).

  12. Development of a high resolution module for PET scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringhini, G.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Stojkovic, A.; Tavernier, S.; Niknejad, T.; Varela, J.; Paganoni, M.; Auffray, E.

    2017-02-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners require high performances in term of spatial resolution and sensitivity to allow early detection of cancer masses. In small animal and organ dedicated PET scanners the Depth of Interaction (DOI) information has to be obtained to avoid parallax errors and to reconstruct high resolution images. In the whole body PET, the DOI information can be useful to correct for the time jitter of the optical photons along the main axis of the scintillator, improving the time performances. In this work we present the development of PET module designed to reach high performance as compared to the current scanners while keeping the complexity of the system reasonably low. The module presented is based on a 64 LYSO (Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate) crystals matrix and on a 4×4 MPPC (Multi Pixels Photon Counter) array as detector in a 4 to 1 coupling between the crystals and the detector and a single side readout. The lateral surfaces of the crystals are optically treated to be unpolished. The DOI and the energy resolution of the PET module are presented and a fast method to obtain the DOI calibration is discussed.

  13. Developing a high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Christopher; Fox-Hughes, Paul; Su, Chun-Hsu; Jakob, Dörte; Kociuba, Greg; Eisenberg, Nathan; Steinle, Peter; Harris, Rebecca; Corney, Stuart; Love, Peter; Remenyi, Tomas; Chladil, Mark; Bally, John; Bindoff, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    A dynamically consistent, long-term atmospheric reanalysis can be used to support high-quality assessments of environmental risk and likelihood of extreme events. Most reanalyses are presently based on coarse-scale global systems that are not suitable for regional assessments in fire risk, water and natural resources, amongst others. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology is currently working to close this gap by producing a high-resolution reanalysis over the Australian and New Zealand region to construct a sequence of atmospheric conditions at sub-hourly intervals over the past 25 years from 1990. The Australia reanalysis consists of a convective-scale analysis nested within a 12 km regional-scale reanalysis, which is bounded by a coarse-scale ERA-Interim reanalysis that provides the required boundary and initial conditions. We use an unchanging atmospheric modelling suite based on the UERRA system used at the UK Met Office and the more recent version of the Bureau of Meteorology's operational numerical prediction model used in ACCESS-R (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator-Regional system). An advanced (4-dimensional variational) data assimilation scheme is used to optimally combine model physics with multiple observations from aircrafts, sondes, surface observations and satellites to create a best estimate of state of the atmosphere over a 6-hour moving window. This analysis is in turn used to drive a higher-resolution (1.5 km) downscaling model over selected subdomains within Australia, currently eastern New South Wales and Tasmania, with the capability to support this anywhere in the Australia-New Zealand domain. The temporal resolution of the gridded analysis fields for both the regional and higher-resolution subdomains are generally one hour, with many fields such as 10 m winds and 2 m temperatures available every 10 minutes. The reanalysis also produces many other variables that include wind, temperature, moisture, pressure, cloud cover

  14. Ultra high resolution stepper motors design, development, performance and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moll, H.; Roeckl, G.

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of stepper motors with steps in the 10 arc sec to 2 arc min range is described. Some of the problem areas, e.g. rotor suspension, tribology aspects and environmental conditions are covered. A summary of achieved test results and the employment in different mechanisms already developed and tested is presented to give some examples of the possible use of this interesting device. Adaptations to military and commercial requirements are proposed and show the wide range of possible applications.

  15. Development toward high-resolution X-ray phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Momose, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    Since the 1990s, the use of X-ray phase contrast has been extensively studied for imaging weakly absorbing objects consisting of low-Z elements such as biological soft tissues and polymers. The development of X-ray microscopy was also progressing during this time, although absorption contrast was only available. It was straightforward and important to develop phase-contrast X-ray microscopy. One characteristic in the development is that quantitative phase measurement is possible through the acquisition of phase-contrast images under a specific procedure, thanks to digital X-ray image detectors. Therefore, such a technique is called 'phase imaging' rather than phase-contrast imaging in this review. Highly sensitive three-dimensional phase imaging is feasible in combination with tomography. This article reviews the progress in X-ray phase imaging, especially with regards to X-ray microscopy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Development of high resolution imaging detectors for x ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes our past activities and discusses the work performed over the period of 1 April 1990 through 1 April 1991 on x-ray optics, soft x-ray (0.1 - 10 KeV) imaging detectors, and hard x-ray (10 - 300 KeV) imaging detectors. If microchannel plates (MCPs) can be used to focus x-rays with a high efficiency and good angular resolution, they will revolutionize the field of x-ray optics. An x-ray image of a point source through an array of square MCP pores compared favorably with our ray tracing model for the MCP. Initial analysis of this image demonstrates the feasibility of MCPs for soft x-rays. Our work continues with optimizing the performance of our soft x-ray MCP imaging detectors. This work involves readout technology that should provide improved MCP readout devices (thin film crossed grid, curved, and resistive sheets), defect removal in MCPs, and photocathode optimization. In the area of hard x-ray detector development we have developed two different techniques for producing a CsI photocathode thickness of 10 to 100 microns, such that it is thick enough to absorb the high energy x-rays and still allow the photoelectrons to escape to the top MCP of a modified soft x-ray imaging detector. The methods involve vacuum depositing a thick film of CsI on a strong back, and producing a converter device that takes the place of the photocathode.

  17. Developing a high resolution groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, E.; de Graaf, I. E.; Alberti, K.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large-extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution of steady-state groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). Here we adopted the approach of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011) in order to make a MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological map (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorf, 2012). We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. Results are promising. The MODFLOW model can converge with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produce reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution that reflects the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. For this session, we aim to demonstrate and discuss the results and the prospects of this modeling study. References: D

  18. Development of high resolution Michelson interferometer for stable phase-locked ultrashort pulse pair generation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takumi; Komori, Kazuhiro; Goshima, Keishiro; Yamauchi, Shohgo; Morohashi, Isao; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Ogura, Mutsuo; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

    2008-10-01

    We developed a high resolution Michelson interferometer with a two-frequency He-Ne laser positioning system in order to stabilize the relative phase of a pulse pair. The control resolution corresponded to a 12 as time resolution or a phase of 1.5 degrees at 900 nm. This high resolution Michelson interferometer can generate a phase-locked pulse pair either with a specific relative phase such as 0 or pi radians or with an arbitrary phase. Coherent control of an InAs self-assembled quantum dot was demonstrated using the high resolution Michelson interferometer with a microspectroscopy system.

  19. [Development of three-dimensional stereo viewer for high-resolution data].

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Muraki, S; Kato, C; Sugio, T; Matsuo, K; Miki, Y; Kobayashi, H; Ueda, H; Ogata, M; Liu, X; Konishi, J; Togashi, K

    2001-02-01

    In order to visualize high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) data as a stereogram, a real-time volume-rendering system using a hardware graphic board and conventional PC was developed. A 256(3) data set could be visualized at a redrawing rate of 12 Hz, and a 512(3) data set at a rate of 2.5 Hz. It was demonstrated that stereogram visualization using volume graphic hardware architecture potentially enables rapid examination of high-resolution 3D data by changing visualization parameters such as level, window, transfer function for opacity, and color map or coordinate direction.

  20. Immersion grating development for the VLT high-resolution IR echelle spectrometer: status report.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, G.

    Infrared immersion gratings are a possible way to realize the very high-resolution option in the planned VLT IR echelle spectrograph. In addition, immersion gratings and particular aspects of their fabrication are of interest to other applications. This paper summarizes the present status of the development program.

  1. Development of a high resolution gamma camera system using finely grooved GAGG scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kataoka, Jun; Oshima, Tsubasa; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-06-01

    High resolution gamma cameras require small pixel scintillator blocks with high light output. However, manufacturing a small pixel scintillator block is difficult when the pixel size becomes small. To solve this limitation, we developed a high resolution gamma camera system using a finely grooved Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG) plate. Our gamma camera's detector consists of a 1-mm-thick finely grooved GAGG plate that is optically coupled to a 1-in. position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The grooved GAGG plate has 0.2×0.2 mm pixels with 0.05-mm wide slits (between the pixels) that were manufactured using a dicing saw. We used a Hamamatsu PSPMT with a 1-in. square high quantum efficiency (HQE) PSPMT (R8900-100-C12). The energy resolution for the Co-57 gamma photons (122 keV) was 18.5% FWHM. The intrinsic spatial resolution was estimated to be 0.7-mm FWHM. With a 0.5-mm diameter pinhole collimator mounted to its front, we achieved a high resolution, small field-of-view gamma camera. The system spatial resolution for the Co-57 gamma photons was 1.0-mm FWHM, and the sensitivity was 0.0025%, 10 mm from the collimator surface. The Tc-99m HMDP administered mouse images showed the fine structures of the mouse body's parts. Our developed high resolution small pixel GAGG gamma camera is promising for such small animal imaging.

  2. Development of a high resolution alpha spectrometer using a magnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, W. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, G. B.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, J. H.; So, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a high resolution alpha spectrometer with a magnetic calorimeter. The operating principle of the detector is the calorimetric measurement of the temperature increase from particle absorption in a gold foil absorber at milli-Kelvin temperatures. A magnetic calorimeter made of gold doped with erbium on a superconducting meander pickup coil was used to accurately measure the temperature change, thereby acting as an ultra-sensitive thermometer. The detector demonstrated 1.2 keV FWHM equivalent resolution in alpha particle detection with an 241Am source. Many peaks were observed in the low-energy region from the absorption of low-energy X-rays, gamma rays, and conversion electrons. An energy resolution of 400 eV FWHM was achieved for 60 keV gamma rays that were measured with the alpha particles. Possible applications of such high resolution detectors are discussed.

  3. Development of a high resolution optical-fiber tilt sensor by F-P filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jianjun; Nan, Qiuming; Li, Shujie; Hao, Zhonghua

    2017-04-01

    A high-resolution tilt sensor is developed, which is composed of a pair of optical fiber collimators and a simple pendulum with an F-P filter. The tilt angle is measured by demodulating the shift of center wavelength of F-P filter, which is caused by incidence angle changing. The relationship between tilted angle and the center wavelength is deduced. Calibration experiment results also confirm the deduction, and show that it is easy to obtain a high resolution. Setting the initial angle to 6degree, the measurement range is ±3degree, its average sensitivity is 1104pm/degree, and its average resolution is as high as 0.0009degree.

  4. High resolution digital soil mapping as a future instrument for developing sustainable landuse strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Philipp; Funke, Lisa-Marie; Baumann, Frank; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, increase in population and intensification of land use pose a great challenge for sustainable handling of soils. Intelligent landuse systems are able to minimize and/or avoid soil erosion and loss of soil fertility. A successful application of such systems requires area-wide soil information with high resolution. Containing three consecutive steps, the project INE-2-H („innovative sustainable landuse") at the University of Tuebingen is about creating high-resolution soil information using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) techniques to develop sustainable landuse strategies. Input data includes soil data from fieldwork (texture and carbon content), the official digital soil and geological map (1:50.000) as well as a wide selection of local, complex and combined terrain parameters. First, soil maps have been created using the DSM approach and Random Forest (RF). Due to high resolution (10x10 m pixels), those maps show a more detailed spatial variability of soil information compared to the official maps used. Root mean square errors (RMSE) of the modelled maps vary from 2.11 % to 6.87 % and the coefficients of determination (R²) go from 0.42 to 0.68. Second, soil erosion potentials have been estimated according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Long-term average annual soil loss ranges from 0.56 to 24.23 [t/ha/a]. Third, combining high-resolution erosion potentials with expert-knowledge of local farmers will result in a landuse system adapted to local conditions. This system will include sustainable strategies reducing soil erosion and conserving soil fertility.

  5. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    PubMed

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  6. Developing a high-resolution climatology for the Central California coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Bub, Frank L.

    2007-09-01

    This work presents a procedure for developing a high-resolution, regional climatology estimate, named RClimo, off the coast of central California. This high-resolution climatology may provide an alternative way to initialize numerical nowcast/forecast exercises in coastal regions. The methodology includes two primary steps: (1) averaging available data on a high-resolution grid and (2) objective interpolating the resulting average profiles onto a regular grid. The first step involves the computation of averages over density layers in the vertical and allowing for data gaps in the horizontal if data are unavailable at a high resolution. The OA in the second step uses anisotropic correlation length scales derived from the data themselves and an averaging radius to preserve the scales and variability of the synoptic fields. The dataset used to compute this climatology includes the archived CalCOFI dataset, the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) 2003 experiments near Monterey Bay, and many other previously undocumented profiles from various sources. As part of the climatology product, associated uncertainty is also generated through density averaging and employing the Gauss-Markov minimum error variance during Objective Analysis. The final climatology estimate is hence subject to greater error for larger mapping-grid size or lower data density, suggesting uncertainties that vary in space. The maximum value of the resulting error distribution for the RClimo estimate from the 50-km bins is less than 11% of the temperature estimate and 1% of the salinity estimate, whereas those for the 20-km-bin RClimo are 11% and 0.9%, respectively. We have conducted comparisons between the RClimo and 1/4° Levitus climatology fields via numerical simulations initialized with each field. Simulations were performed using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and for the month of August, a peak period of upwelling-favorable wind, with and without the atmospheric forcing. The RClimo

  7. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneyama, Akio Baba, Rika; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro; Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  8. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Baba, Rika; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro; Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  9. A Lower-Cost High-Resolution LYSO Detector Development for Positron Emission Mammography (PEM)

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Rocio A.; Zhang, Yuxuan; Liu, Shitao; Li, Hongdi; Baghaei, Hossain; An, Shaohui; Wang, Chao; Jan, Meei-Ling; Wong, Wai-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    In photomultiplier-quadrant-sharing (PQS) geometry for positron emission tomography applications, each PMT is shared by four blocks and each detector block is optically coupled to four round PMTs. Although this design reduces the cost of high-resolution PET systems, when the camera consists of detector panels that are made up of square blocks, half of the PMT’s sensitive window remains unused at the detector panel edge. Our goal was to develop a LYSO detector panel which minimizes the unused portion of the PMTs for a low-cost, high-resolution, and high-sensitivity positron emission mammography (PEM) camera. We modified the PQS design by using elongated blocks at panel edges and square blocks in the inner area. For elongated blocks, symmetric and asymmetrical reflector patterns were developed and PQS and PMT-half-sharing (PHS) arrangements were implemented in order to obtain a suitable decoding. The packing fraction was 96.3% for asymmetric block and 95.5% for symmetric block. Both of the blocks have excellent decoding capability with all crystals clearly identified, 156 for asymmetric and 144 for symmetric and peak-to-valley ratio of 3.0 and 2.3 respectively. The average energy resolution was 14.2% for the asymmetric block and 13.1% for the symmetric block. Using a modified PQS geometry and asymmetric block design, we reduced the unused PMT region at detector panel edges, thereby increased the field-of-view and the overall detection sensitivity and minimized the undetected breast region near the chest wall. This detector design and using regular round PMT allowed building a lower-cost, high-resolution and high-sensitivity PEM camera. PMID:20485510

  10. Development and application of the High resolution VOC Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, W.; Bohrer, G.; Chatziefstratiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    We have been working to develop a new post-processing model - High resolution VOC Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) - which will be able to resolve the dispersion and chemistry of reacting chemical species given their emission rates from the vegetation and soil, driven by high resolution meteorological forcing and wind fields from various high resolution atmospheric regional and large-eddy simulations. Hi-VACC reads in fields of pressure, temperature, humidity, air density, short-wave radiation, wind (3-D u, v and w components) and sub-grid-scale turbulence that were simulated by a high resolution atmospheric model. This meteorological forcing data is provided as snapshots of 3-D fields. Presently, the advection-diffusion portion of the model is fully developed, and we have tested it using a number of RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) runs. Here, we present results from utilizing Hi-VACC in a few different contexts where it performs smoke and particle dispersion well. These include simulations of smoke dispersion from a theoretical forest fire in a domain in The Pine Barrens in New Jersey, as well as simulations to test the effects of heat flux on a scalar plume dispersing over a vegetative windbreak in an agricultural setting. Additional, we show initial results from testing the coupled chemistry component of Hi-VACC. One of the primary benefits of Hi-VACC is that users of other models can utilize this tool with only minimal work on their part -- processing their output fields into the appropriate HI-VACC input format. We have developed our model such that for whatever atmospheric model is being used with it, a MATLAB function must be written to extract the necessary information from the output files of that model and shape it into the proper format. This is the only model-specific work required. As such, this sort of smoke dispersion modeling performed by Hi-VACC - as well as its other capabilities - can be easily performed in other

  11. Process development for high-resolution 3D-printing of bioresorbable vascular stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Henry Oliver T.; Farsheed, Adam C.; van Lith, Robert; Baker, Evan; Ameer, Guillermo; Sun, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The recent development of "continuous projection microstereolithography" also known as CLIP technology has successfully alleviated the main obstacles surrounding 3D printing technologies: production speed and part quality. Following the same working principle, we further developed the μCLIP process to address the needs for high-resolution 3D printing of biomedical devices with micron-scale precision. Compared to standard stereolithography (SLA) process, μCLIP fabrication can reduce fabrication time from several hours to as little as a few minutes. μCLIP can also produce better surface finish and more uniform mechanical properties than conventional SLA, as each individual "fabrication layer" continuously polymerizes into the subsequent layer. In this study, we report the process development in manufacturing high-resolution bioresorbable stents using our own μCLIP system. The bioresorbable photopolymerizable biomaterial (B-ink) used in this study is methacrylated poly(1, 12 dodecamethylene citrate) (mPDC). Through optimization of our μCLIP process and concentration of B-ink components, we have created a customizable bioresorbable stent with similar mechanical properties exhibited by nitinol stents. Upon optimization, fabricating a 2 cm tall vascular stent that comprises 4000 layers was accomplished in 26.5 minutes.

  12. Development of High Resolution Data for Irrigated Area and Cropping Patterns in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K a, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Information of crop phenology and its individual effect on irrigation is essential to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes. We use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at 250 m resolution for monitoring temporal changes in irrigation and cropping patterns in India. We used the obtained dataset of cropping pattern for quantifying the effect of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes by using an uncoupled land surface model. The cropping patterns are derived by using the planting, heading, harvesting, and growing dates for each agro-ecological zone separately. Moreover, we developed a high resolution irrigated area maps for the period of 1999-2014 for India. The high resolution irrigated area was compared with relatively coarse resolution (~ 10km) irrigated area from the Food and Agricultural Organization. To identify the seasonal effects we analyzed the spatial and temporal change of irrigation and cropping pattern for different temporal seasons. The new irrigation area information along with cropping pattern was used to study the water budget in India using the Noah Land surface Model (Noah LSM) for the period of 1999-2014.

  13. A high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomical observations and development of wavelength standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Ulrike; Reiners, Ansgar; Schäfer, Sebastian

    2012-09-01

    At the Institute for Astrophysics Goettingen (IAG), we are purchasing a high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) for astronomical observations and development of calibration standards aiming at high wavelength precision. Astronomical spectrographs that work in the regime of very high resolution (resolving powers λ/δλ>=105) now achieve unprecedented precision and stability. Precise line shifts can be investigated to conclude for an objects radial velocity relative to the observer. As a long-term scientific goal, the evolution of galaxy redshift due to dark energy can be monitored. Also, the detection of lower mass, down to Earth-like planets will become feasible. Here, M-dwarfs are promising objects where an orbiting exo-Earth can cause a wavelength shift large enough to be detected. Emitting mainly in the near infrared (NIR), these objects require novel calibration standards. Current schemes under consideration are gas cathode lamps (e.g. CN, UNe) and a highly stable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) to act as a cost-efficient alternative to the laser frequency comb (LFC, [1]). In addition to experiments exploring novel wavelength calibration types, light will be fed from our telescopes at IAG. A Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) for solar observations and the 50 cm Cassegrain telescope allow to investigate stellar and spatially resolved light at our facilities.

  14. A high-resolution anatomical ontology of the developing murine genitourinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Little, Melissa H.; Brennan, Jane; Georgas, Kylie; Davies, Jamie A.; Davidson, Duncan R.; Baldock, Richard A.; Beverdam, Annemiek; Bertram, John F.; Capel, Blanche; Chiu, Han Sheng; Clements, Dave; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Fleming, Jean; Gilbert, Thierry; Houghton, Derek; Kaufman, Matt H.; Kleymenova, Elena; Koopman, Peter A.; Lewis, Alfor G.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Mendelsohn, Cathy L.; Mitchell, Eleanor K.; Rumballe, Bree A.; Sweeney, Derina E.; Valerius, M. Todd; Yamada, Gen; Yang, Yiya; Yu., Jing

    2007-01-01

    Cataloguing gene expression during development of the genitourinary tract will increase our understanding not only of this process but also of congenital defects and disease affecting this organ system. We have developed a high-resolution ontology with which to describe the subcompartments of the developing murine genitourinary tract. This ontology incorporates what can be defined histologically and begins to encompass other structures and cell types already identified at the molecular level. The ontology is being used to annotate in situ hybridisation data generated as part of the Genitourinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP), a publicly available data resource on gene and protein expression during genitourinary development. The GUDMAP ontology encompasses Theiler stage (TS) 17 to 27 of development as well as the sexually mature adult. It has been written as a partonomic, text-based, hierarchical ontology that, for the embryological stages, has been developed as a high-resolution expansion of the existing Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP) ontology. It also includes group terms for well-characterised structural and/or functional units comprising several sub-structures, such as the nephron and juxtaglomerular complex. Each term has been assigned a unique identification number. Synonyms have been used to improve the success of query searching and maintain wherever possible existing EMAP terms relating to this organ system. We describe here the principles and structure of the ontology and provide representative diagrammatic, histological, and whole mount and section RNA in situ hybridisation images to clarify the terms used within the ontology. Visual examples of how terms appear in different specimen types are also provided. PMID:17452023

  15. Exploring the high-resolution mapping of gender-disaggregated development indicators.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Alegana, V; Bird, T; Pezzulo, C; Bengtsson, L; Sorichetta, A; Steele, J; Hornby, G; Ruktanonchai, C; Ruktanonchai, N; Wetter, E; Tatem, A J

    2017-04-01

    Improved understanding of geographical variation and inequity in health status, wealth and access to resources within countries is increasingly being recognized as central to meeting development goals. Development and health indicators assessed at national or subnational scale can often conceal important inequities, with the rural poor often least well represented. The ability to target limited resources is fundamental, especially in an international context where funding for health and development comes under pressure. This has recently prompted the exploration of the potential of spatial interpolation methods based on geolocated clusters from national household survey data for the high-resolution mapping of features such as population age structures, vaccination coverage and access to sanitation. It remains unclear, however, how predictable these different factors are across different settings, variables and between demographic groups. Here we test the accuracy of spatial interpolation methods in producing gender-disaggregated high-resolution maps of the rates of literacy, stunting and the use of modern contraceptive methods from a combination of geolocated demographic and health surveys cluster data and geospatial covariates. Bayesian geostatistical and machine learning modelling methods were tested across four low-income countries and varying gridded environmental and socio-economic covariate datasets to build 1×1 km spatial resolution maps with uncertainty estimates. Results show the potential of the approach in producing high-resolution maps of key gender-disaggregated socio-economic indicators, with explained variance through cross-validation being as high as 74-75% for female literacy in Nigeria and Kenya, and in the 50-70% range for many other variables. However, substantial variations by both country and variable were seen, with many variables showing poor mapping accuracies in the range of 2-30% explained variance using both geostatistical and machine

  16. Exploring the high-resolution mapping of gender-disaggregated development indicators

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, V.; Bird, T.; Pezzulo, C.; Bengtsson, L.; Sorichetta, A.; Hornby, G.; Ruktanonchai, C.; Ruktanonchai, N.; Wetter, E.; Tatem, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Improved understanding of geographical variation and inequity in health status, wealth and access to resources within countries is increasingly being recognized as central to meeting development goals. Development and health indicators assessed at national or subnational scale can often conceal important inequities, with the rural poor often least well represented. The ability to target limited resources is fundamental, especially in an international context where funding for health and development comes under pressure. This has recently prompted the exploration of the potential of spatial interpolation methods based on geolocated clusters from national household survey data for the high-resolution mapping of features such as population age structures, vaccination coverage and access to sanitation. It remains unclear, however, how predictable these different factors are across different settings, variables and between demographic groups. Here we test the accuracy of spatial interpolation methods in producing gender-disaggregated high-resolution maps of the rates of literacy, stunting and the use of modern contraceptive methods from a combination of geolocated demographic and health surveys cluster data and geospatial covariates. Bayesian geostatistical and machine learning modelling methods were tested across four low-income countries and varying gridded environmental and socio-economic covariate datasets to build 1×1 km spatial resolution maps with uncertainty estimates. Results show the potential of the approach in producing high-resolution maps of key gender-disaggregated socio-economic indicators, with explained variance through cross-validation being as high as 74–75% for female literacy in Nigeria and Kenya, and in the 50–70% range for many other variables. However, substantial variations by both country and variable were seen, with many variables showing poor mapping accuracies in the range of 2–30% explained variance using both geostatistical and

  17. Optical coherence tomography for high-resolution imaging of mouse development in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Saba H.; Larin, Kirill V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larina, Irina V.

    2011-04-01

    Although the mouse is a superior model to study mammalian embryonic development, high-resolution live dynamic visualization of mouse embryos remain a technical challenge. We present optical coherence tomography as a novel methodology for live imaging of mouse embryos through the uterine wall thereby allowing for time lapse analysis of developmental processes and direct phenotypic analysis of developing embryos. We assessed the capability of the proposed methodology to visualize structures of the living embryo from embryonic stages 12.5 to 18.5 days postcoitus. Repetitive in utero embryonic imaging is demonstrated. Our work opens the door for a wide range of live, in utero embryonic studies to screen for mutations and understand the effects of pharmacological and toxicological agents leading to birth defects.

  18. Development of High Resolution Land Surface Parameters for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Coleman, Andre M.; Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2012-11-06

    There is a growing need for high-resolution land surface parameters as land surface models are being applied at increasingly higher spatial resolution offline as well as in regional and global models. The default land surface parameters for the most recent version of the Community Land Model (i.e. CLM 4.0) are at 0.5° or coarser resolutions, released with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Plant Functional Types (PFTs), vegetation properties such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), Stem Area Index (SAI), and non-vegetated land covers were developed using remotely sensed datasets retrieved in late 1990’s and the beginning of this century. In this study, we developed new land surface parameters for CLM 4.0, specifically PFTs, LAI, SAI and non-vegetated land cover composition, at 0.05° resolution globally based on the most recent MODIS land cover and improved MODIS LAI products. Compared to the current CLM 4.0 parameters, the new parameters produced a decreased coverage by bare soil and trees, but an increased coverage by shrub, grass, and cropland. The new parameters result in a decrease in global seasonal LAI, with the biggest decrease in boreal forests; however, the new parameters also show a large increase in LAI in tropical forest. Differences between the new and the current parameters are mainly caused by changes in the sources of remotely sensed data and the representation of land cover in the source data. Advantages and disadvantages of each dataset were discussed in order to provide guidance on the use of the data. The new high-resolution land surface parameters have been used in a coupled land-atmosphere model (WRF-CLM) applied to the western U.S. to demonstrate their use in high-resolution modeling. A remapping method from the latitude/longitude grid of the CLM data to the WRF grids with map projection was also demonstrated. Future work will include global offline CLM simulations to examine the impacts of source data resolution and subsequent land parameter

  19. Development of sealed sample containers and high resolution micro-tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Uesugi, Kentaro Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-28

    A sample container and a high resolution micro-tomography system have been developed at BL47XU at SPring-8. The container is made of a SiN membrane in a shape of truncated pyramid, which makes it possible to exclude oxygen and moisture in the air. The sample rotation stage for tomography is set downward to keep the sample in the container without any glue. The spatial resolution and field of view are 300 nm and 110 μm using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 100 nm at 8 keV, respectively. The scan time is about 20 minutes for 1800 projections. A 3-D image of an asteroid particle was successfully obtained without adhesive and contamination.

  20. Recent developments in materials and processes for ink jet printing high resolution polymer OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Julian; Wehrum, Anja; Dowling, Mark C.; Cacheiro-Martinez, Martin; Baynes, Nick d. B.

    2003-03-01

    The fabrication of high resolution light emitting polymer (LEP) OLED displays using ink jet printing to deposit the hole conducting and conjugated polymer electroluminescent components has required the development of both printing and ink technology. We review the issues associated with meeting the technology requirement and split these into the areas of ink delivery, getting the correct volume out of ink jet nozzles with well defined velocity and direction; surface energy considerations to maximize aperture ratio and display resolution; solution drying to form flat films and solution formulation to create polymer films that perform as well as films created by conventional spin coating. In addition we will describe the current status of the technology both in terms of polymer performance for both passive and active matrix applications, printing technology and polymer ink performance.

  1. New developments in high-resolution gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clog, M. D.; Ellam, R. M.; Hilkert, A.; Schwieters, J. B.; Hamilton, D.

    2015-12-01

    Gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is one of the main tools for the study of the isotopic compositions of light elements, extended in the last 10 years to the measurements of molecules bearing several rare isotopes (e.g., clumped isotopes of CO2) as well as position-specific isotopic substitutions in a few choice analytes (e.g., in N2O). Measuring those low-abundance species creates several technical challenges, with the main one being the presence of numerous isobaric interferences. Those can come either from contaminants (background gases present in the source of the instrument or impurities introduced with the analyte), or unwanted beams created by the analyte itself during the ionization process (for example adducts and fragments). In order to avoid those isobaric species, new high-resolution, double-focusing IRMS have been developed. We present here the capabilities of the production series version of the ThermoFisher Scientific 253 Ultra, which was installed at SUERC in July 2015. The instrument is capable of reaching high mass resolving power (above 40,000) and is similar in design to the Caltech 253 Ultra prototype. The collector array has 9 detector positions, 8 of which are movable. Faraday cups at each detector can be linked to amplifiers with gains ranging from 3.108 to 1012 Ohm (and 1013 Ohm amplifiers being currently developped). There are also 4 ion counters, one of which located behind a retardation lens (RPQ) to limit background noise and improve abundance sensitivity. Additionally, one of the Faraday cup in the new instrument has a very narrow entrance slit, allowing high mass resolving power and high resolution, with a complete separation of the ion beams instead of complex peak shapes corresponding to overlapping ion beams. This will potentially remove the need for adduct lines or peak stripping schemes for analytes like CH4.

  2. High-Efficiency High-Resolution Global Model Developments at the NASA Goddard Data Assimilation Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shian-Jiann; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has been developing a new generation of ultra-high resolution General Circulation Model (GCM) that is suitable for 4-D data assimilation, numerical weather predictions, and climate simulations. These three applications have conflicting requirements. For 4-D data assimilation and weather predictions, it is highly desirable to run the model at the highest possible spatial resolution (e.g., 55 km or finer) so as to be able to resolve and predict socially and economically important weather phenomena such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and severe winter storms. For climate change applications, the model simulations need to be carried out for decades, if not centuries. To reduce uncertainty in climate change assessments, the next generation model would also need to be run at a fine enough spatial resolution that can at least marginally simulate the effects of intense tropical cyclones. Scientific problems (e.g., parameterization of subgrid scale moist processes) aside, all three areas of application require the model's computational performance to be dramatically improved as compared to the previous generation. In this talk, I will present the current and future developments of the "finite-volume dynamical core" at the Data Assimilation Office. This dynamical core applies modem monotonicity preserving algorithms and is genuinely conservative by construction, not by an ad hoc fixer. The "discretization" of the conservation laws is purely local, which is clearly advantageous for resolving sharp gradient flow features. In addition, the local nature of the finite-volume discretization also has a significant advantage on distributed memory parallel computers. Together with a unique vertically Lagrangian control volume discretization that essentially reduces the dimension of the computational problem from three to two, the finite-volume dynamical core is very efficient, particularly at high resolutions. I will also present the

  3. High-Efficiency High-Resolution Global Model Developments at the NASA Goddard Data Assimilation Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shian-Jiann; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has been developing a new generation of ultra-high resolution General Circulation Model (GCM) that is suitable for 4-D data assimilation, numerical weather predictions, and climate simulations. These three applications have conflicting requirements. For 4-D data assimilation and weather predictions, it is highly desirable to run the model at the highest possible spatial resolution (e.g., 55 kin or finer) so as to be able to resolve and predict socially and economically important weather phenomena such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and severe winter storms. For climate change applications, the model simulations need to be carried out for decades, if not centuries. To reduce uncertainty in climate change assessments, the next generation model would also need to be run at a fine enough spatial resolution that can at least marginally simulate the effects of intense tropical cyclones. Scientific problems (e.g., parameterization of subgrid scale moist processes) aside, all three areas of application require the model's computational performance to be dramatically improved as compared to the previous generation. In this talk, I will present the current and future developments of the "finite-volume dynamical core" at the Data Assimilation Office. This dynamical core applies modem monotonicity preserving algorithms and is genuinely conservative by construction, not by an ad hoc fixer. The "discretization" of the conservation laws is purely local, which is clearly advantageous for resolving sharp gradient flow features. In addition, the local nature of the finite-volume discretization also has a significant advantage on distributed memory parallel computers. Together with a unique vertically Lagrangian control volume discretization that essentially reduces the dimension of the computational problem from three to two, the finite-volume dynamical core is very efficient, particularly at high resolutions. I will also present the

  4. Development of silicon grisms and immersion gratings for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; McDavitt, Daniel L.; Bernecker, John L.; Miller, Shane; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    We report new results on silicon grism and immersion grating development using photolithography and anisotropic chemical etching techniques, which include process recipe finding, prototype grism fabrication, lab performance evaluation and initial scientific observations. The very high refractive index of silicon (n=3.4) enables much higher dispersion power for silicon-based gratings than conventional gratings, e.g. a silicon immersion grating can offer a factor of 3.4 times the dispersion of a conventional immersion grating. Good transmission in the infrared (IR) allows silicon-based gratings to operate in the broad IR wavelength regions (~1- 10 micrometers and far-IR), which make them attractive for both ground and space-based spectroscopic observations. Coarser gratings can be fabricated with these new techniques rather than conventional techniques, allowing observations at very high dispersion orders for larger simultaneous wavelength coverage. We have found new etching techniques for fabricating high quality silicon grisms with low wavefront distortion, low scattered light and high efficiency. Particularly, a new etching process using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is significantly simplifying the fabrication process on large, thick silicon substrates, while providing comparable grating quality to our traditional potassium hydroxide (KOH) process. This technique is being used for fabricating inch size silicon grisms for several IR instruments and is planned to be used for fabricating ~ 4 inch size silicon immersion gratings later. We have obtained complete K band spectra of a total of 6 T Tauri and Ae/Be stars and their close companions at a spectral resolution of R ~ 5000 using a silicon echelle grism with a 5 mm pupil diameter at the Lick 3m telescope. These results represent the first scientific observations conducted by the high-resolution silicon grisms, and demonstrate the extremely high dispersing power of silicon- based gratings. The future of

  5. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  6. Development and Evaluation of High-Resolution Climate Simulations Over the Mountainous Northeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Beckage, Brian; Bucini, Gabriela; Horton, Radley M.; Clemins, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain regions of the northeastern United States are a critical socioeconomic resource for Vermont, New York State, New Hampshire, Maine, and southern Quebec. While global climate models (GCMs) are important tools for climate change risk assessment at regional scales, even the increased spatial resolution of statistically downscaled GCMs (commonly approximately 1/ 8 deg) is not sufficient for hydrologic, ecologic, and land-use modeling of small watersheds within the mountainous Northeast. To address this limitation, an ensemble of topographically downscaled, high-resolution (30"), daily 2-m maximum air temperature; 2-m minimum air temperature; and precipitation simulations are developed for the mountainous Northeast by applying an additional level of downscaling to intermediately downscaled (1/ 8 deg) data using high-resolution topography and station observations. First, observed relationships between 2-m air temperature and elevation and between precipitation and elevation are derived. Then, these relationships are combined with spatial interpolation to enhance the resolution of intermediately downscaled GCM simulations. The resulting topographically downscaled dataset is analyzed for its ability to reproduce station observations. Topographic downscaling adds value to intermediately downscaled maximum and minimum 2-m air temperature at high-elevation stations, as well as moderately improves domain-averaged maximum and minimum 2-m air temperature. Topographic downscaling also improves mean precipitation but not daily probability distributions of precipitation. Overall, the utility of topographic downscaling is dependent on the initial bias of the intermediately downscaled product and the magnitude of the elevation adjustment. As the initial bias or elevation adjustment increases, more value is added to the topographically downscaled product.

  7. High resolution ultrasound elastomicroscopy imaging of soft tissues: system development and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y. P.; Bridal, S. L.; Shi, J.; Saied, A.; Lu, M. H.; Jaffre, B.; Mak, A. F. T.; Laugier, P.

    2004-09-01

    Research in elasticity imaging typically relies on 1-10 MHz ultrasound. Elasticity imaging at these frequencies can provide strain maps with a resolution in the order of millimetres, but this is not sufficient for applications to skin, articular cartilage or other fine structures. We developed a prototype high resolution elastomicroscopy system consisting of a 50 MHz ultrasound backscatter microscope system and a calibrated compression device using a load cell to measure the pressure applied to the specimen, which was installed between a rigidly fixed face-plate and a specimen platform. Radiofrequency data were acquired in a B-scan format (10 mm wide × 3 mm deep) in specimens of mouse skin and bovine patellar cartilage. The scanning resolution along the B-scan plane direction was 50 µm, and the ultrasound signals were digitized at 500 MHz to achieve a sensitivity better than 1 µm for the axial displacement measurement. Because of elevated attenuation of ultrasound at high frequencies, special consideration was necessary to design a face-plate permitting efficient ultrasound transmission into the specimen and relative uniformity of the compression. Best results were obtained using a thin plastic film to cover a specially shaped slit in the face-plate. Local tissue strain maps were constructed by applying a cross-correlation tracking method to signals obtained at the same site at different compression levels. The speed of sound in the tissue specimen (1589.8 ± 7.8 m s-1 for cartilage and 1532.4 ± 4.4 m s-1 for skin) was simultaneously measured during the compression test. Preliminary results demonstrated that this ultrasound elastomicroscopy technique was able to map deformations of the skin and articular cartilage specimens to high resolution, in the order of 50 µm. This system can also be potentially used for the assessment of other biological tissues, bioengineered tissues or biomaterials with fine structures.

  8. High resolution ultrasound elastomicroscopy imaging of soft tissues: system development and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y P; Bridal, S L; Shi, J; Saied, A; Lu, M H; Jaffre, B; Mak, A F T; Laugier, P

    2004-09-07

    Research in elasticity imaging typically relies on 1-10 MHz ultrasound. Elasticity imaging at these frequencies can provide strain maps with a resolution in the order of millimetres, but this is not sufficient for applications to skin, articular cartilage or other fine structures. We developed a prototype high resolution elastomicroscopy system consisting of a 50 MHz ultrasound backscatter microscope system and a calibrated compression device using a load cell to measure the pressure applied to the specimen, which was installed between a rigidly fixed face-plate and a specimen platform. Radiofrequency data were acquired in a B-scan format (10 mm wide x 3 mm deep) in specimens of mouse skin and bovine patellar cartilage. The scanning resolution along the B-scan plane direction was 50 microm, and the ultrasound signals were digitized at 500 MHz to achieve a sensitivity better than 1 microm for the axial displacement measurement. Because of elevated attenuation of ultrasound at high frequencies, special consideration was necessary to design a face-plate permitting efficient ultrasound transmission into the specimen and relative uniformity of the compression. Best results were obtained using a thin plastic film to cover a specially shaped slit in the face-plate. Local tissue strain maps were constructed by applying a cross-correlation tracking method to signals obtained at the same site at different compression levels. The speed of sound in the tissue specimen (1589.8+/-7.8 m s(-1) for cartilage and 1532.4+/-4.4 m s(-1) for skin) was simultaneously measured during the compression test. Preliminary results demonstrated that this ultrasound elastomicroscopy technique was able to map deformations of the skin and articular cartilage specimens to high resolution, in the order of 50 microm. This system can also be potentially used for the assessment of other biological tissues, bioengineered tissues or biomaterials with fine structures.

  9. Development of the Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Beasley, Matthew; Kane, Robert; Nell, Nicholas; Burgh, Eric B.; Green, James C.

    2012-09-01

    A key astrophysical theme that will drive future UV/optical space missions is the life cycle of cosmic matter, from the flow of intergalactic gas into galaxies to the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems. Spectroscopic systems capable of delivering high resolution with low backgrounds will be essential to addressing these topics. Towards this end, we are developing a rocket-borne instrument that will serve as a pathfinder for future high-sensitivity, highresolution UV spectrographs. The Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS) will provide 2 km s-1 velocity resolution (R = 150,000) over the 100 - 160 nm bandpass that includes key atomic and molecular spectral diagnostics for the intergalactic medium (H I Lyman-series, O VI, N V, and C IV), exoplanetary atmospheres (H I Lyman-alpha, O I, and C II), and protoplanetary disks (H2 and CO electronic band systems). CHESS uses a novel mechanical collimator comprised of an array of 10 mm x 10 mm stainless steel tubes to feed a low-scatter, 69 grooves mm-1 echelle grating. The cross-disperser is a holographically ruled toroid, with 351 grooves mm-1. The spectral orders can be recorded with either a 40 mm cross-strip microchannel plate detector or a 3.5k x 3.5k δ-doped CCD. The microchannel plate will deliver 30 μm spatial resolution and employs new 64 amp/axis electronics to accommodate high count rate observations of local OB stars. CHESS is scheduled to be launched aboard a NASA Terrier/Black Brant IX sounding rocket from White Sands Missile Range in the summer of 2013.

  10. Developments in High-Resolution Spectroscopy (R 10000) in the EUV Waveband.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruddace, R. G.

    2002-05-01

    We describe a new and mature technology, with which it is possible to build astrophysical EUV spectrometers of high resolving power. Solar research has shown that high resolving power is important in applying a wide range of plasma diagnostics unambiguously, and in studying plasma dynamics through measurements of line profiles and Doppler shifts. The regime 100-300 Å is of special importance, as it contains many strong emission and absorption lines from plasmas at 5 104 to 2 107 K, and because in this band the interstellar medium opacity is low enough to permit not only extensive studies of the local galactic disk, but in some directions galactic halo and extragalactic observations. The instrument concept comprises a multilayer-coated diffraction grating of high ruling density, working at near normal incidence in a Wadsworth mount, which focusses a spectrum onto a microchannelplate focal-plane detector. We summarise the developments over the last decade which have made possible an efficient spectrometer of high resolving power, in particular EUV multilayers and diffraction gratings produced by ion-etching. This included extensive experimental studies of multilayer gratings at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven, and culminated in February 2001 in the successfull flight of a prototype spectrometer on a sounding rocket, which obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the white dwarf G191-B2B in the 225-245 Å band. Finally, to further an assessment of the impact of high-resolution spectroscopy on EUV astronomy, we present a strawman design for an orbiting instrument, capable of achieving a resolving power of ~ 10,000 and an effective area of ~ 20 cm2 over the band 100-300 Å. The work described has been supported by the Office of Naval Research and NRL, and by NASA Research Opportunities in Space Science (ROSS) grants.

  11. Development and Evaluation of High-Resolution Climate Simulations Over the Mountainous Northeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Beckage, Brian; Bucini, Gabriela; Horton, Radley M.; Clemins, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain regions of the northeastern United States are a critical socioeconomic resource for Vermont, New York State, New Hampshire, Maine, and southern Quebec. While global climate models (GCMs) are important tools for climate change risk assessment at regional scales, even the increased spatial resolution of statistically downscaled GCMs (commonly approximately 1/ 8 deg) is not sufficient for hydrologic, ecologic, and land-use modeling of small watersheds within the mountainous Northeast. To address this limitation, an ensemble of topographically downscaled, high-resolution (30"), daily 2-m maximum air temperature; 2-m minimum air temperature; and precipitation simulations are developed for the mountainous Northeast by applying an additional level of downscaling to intermediately downscaled (1/ 8 deg) data using high-resolution topography and station observations. First, observed relationships between 2-m air temperature and elevation and between precipitation and elevation are derived. Then, these relationships are combined with spatial interpolation to enhance the resolution of intermediately downscaled GCM simulations. The resulting topographically downscaled dataset is analyzed for its ability to reproduce station observations. Topographic downscaling adds value to intermediately downscaled maximum and minimum 2-m air temperature at high-elevation stations, as well as moderately improves domain-averaged maximum and minimum 2-m air temperature. Topographic downscaling also improves mean precipitation but not daily probability distributions of precipitation. Overall, the utility of topographic downscaling is dependent on the initial bias of the intermediately downscaled product and the magnitude of the elevation adjustment. As the initial bias or elevation adjustment increases, more value is added to the topographically downscaled product.

  12. High Resolution Visualization Applied to Future Heavy Airlift Concept Development and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FordCook, A. B.; King, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of high resolution 3D visualization tools for exploring the feasibility and advantages of future military cargo airlift concepts and evaluating compatibility with existing and future payload requirements. Realistic 3D graphic representations of future airlifters are immersed in rich, supporting environments to demonstrate concepts of operations to key personnel for evaluation, feedback, and development of critical joint support. Accurate concept visualizations are reviewed by commanders, platform developers, loadmasters, soldiers, scientists, engineers, and key principal decision makers at various stages of development. The insight gained through the review of these physically and operationally realistic visualizations is essential to refining design concepts to meet competing requirements in a fiscally conservative defense finance environment. In addition, highly accurate 3D geometric models of existing and evolving large military vehicles are loaded into existing and proposed aircraft cargo bays. In this virtual aircraft test-loading environment, materiel developers, engineers, managers, and soldiers can realistically evaluate the compatibility of current and next-generation airlifters with proposed cargo.

  13. Preparation of developing Xenopus muscle for sarcomeric protein localization by high-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Nworu, Chinedu U; Krieg, Paul A; Gregorio, Carol C

    2014-04-01

    Mutations in several sarcomeric proteins have been linked to various human myopathies. Therefore, having an in vivo developmental model available that develops quickly and efficiently is key for investigators to elucidate the critical steps, components and signaling pathways involved in building a myofibril; this is the pivotal foundation for deciphering disease mechanisms as well as the development of myopathy-related therapeutics. Although striated muscle cell culture studies have been extremely informative in providing clues to both the distribution and functions of sarcomeric proteins, myocytes in vivo develop in an irreproducible 3D environment. Xenopus laevis (frog) embryos are cost effective, compliant to protein level manipulations and develop relatively quickly (⩽ a week) in a petri dish, thus providing a powerful system for de novo myofibrillogenesis studies. Although fluorophore-conjugated phalloidin labeling is the gold standard approach for investigating actin-thin filament architecture, it is well documented that phalloidin-labeling can be challenging and inconsistent within Xenopus embryos. Therefore we highlight several techniques that can be utilized to preserve both antibody and fluorophore-conjugated phalloidin labeling within Xenopus embryos for high-resolution fluorescence microscopy.

  14. Three-dimensional high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the developing rabbit brain.

    PubMed

    D'Arceuil, Helen; Liu, Christina; Levitt, Pat; Thompson, Barbara; Kosofsky, Barry; de Crespigny, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to structural ordering in brain tissue particularly in the white matter tracts. Diffusion anisotropy changes with disease and also with neural development. We used high-resolution DTI of fixed rabbit brains to study developmental changes in regional diffusion anisotropy and white matter fiber tract development. Imaging was performed on a 4.7-tesla Bruker Biospec Avance scanner using custom-built solenoid coils and DTI was performed at various postnatal ages. Trace apparent diffusion coefficient, fractional diffusion anisotropy maps and fiber tracts were generated and compared across the ages. The brain was highly anisotropic at birth and white matter anisotropy increased with age. Regional DTI tractography of the internal capsule showed refinement in regional tract architecture with maturation. Interestingly, brains with congenital deficiencies of the callosal commissure showed selectively strikingly different fiber architecture compared to age-matched brains. There was also some evidence of subcortical to cortical fiber connectivity. DTI tractography of the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule showed reproducibly coherent fiber tracts corresponding to known corticospinal and corticobulbar tract anatomy. There was some minor interanimal tract variability, but there was remarkable similarity between the tracts in all animals. Therefore, ex vivo DTI tractography is a potentially powerful tool for neuroscience investigations and may also reveal effects (such as fiber tract pruning during development) which may be important targets for in vivo human studies. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Spermatogonial morphology and kinetics during testis development in mice: a high-resolution light microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Ana Luiza; Meistrich, Marvin L; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio

    2011-07-01

    Despite the knowledge of spermatogonial biology in adult mice, spermatogonial development in immature animals has not been fully characterized. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ontogeny of the morphological development of the spermatogonial lineage in C57BL/6 mouse testis, using high-resolution light microscopy. Spermatogonial morphology, chronology, and absolute number were determined for different ages postpartum (pp). The morphology of spermatogonia in immature mice was similar to that of adult spermatogonia, although their nuclear diameter was slightly smaller. The A(1) spermatogonia were first observed on day 2 pp, and only 24 h later, differentiating type A(3) and A(4) spermatogonia were observed in the seminiferous cords. This result indicated a shortening of the spermatogonial phase for immature mice of about ∼2.5 days when compared with adult mice and suggests that gonocytes and/or A(1) spermatogonia could directly become A(4) spermatogonia, skipping the developmental sequence of type A spermatogonia. These A(4) spermatogonia are functional as they develop into type B spermatogonia by day 5 pp. At day 8 pp, while differentiation to spermatocytes begins, the A(und) spermatogonia reach their maximal numbers, which are maintained through adulthood. The various details of the spermatogonial behavior in immature normal mice described in this study can be used as a baseline for further studies under experimental or pathological conditions.

  16. Development of a flexible optical fiber based high resolution integrated PET∕MRI system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Tadashi; Aoki, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Eiji; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-11-01

    The simultaneous measurement of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging field for molecular imaging research. Although optical fiber based PET∕MRI systems have advantages on less interference between PET and MRI, there is a drawback in reducing the scintillation light due to the fiber. To reduce the problem, the authors newly developed flexible optical fiber bundle based block detectors and employed them for a high resolution integrated PET∕MRI system. The flexible optical fiber bundle used 0.5 mm diameter, 80 cm long double clad fibers which have dual 12 mm × 24 mm rectangular inputs and a single 24 mm × 24 mm rectangular output. In the input surface, LGSO scintillators of 0.025 mol.% (decay time: ∼31 ns: 0.9 mm × 1.3 mm × 5 mm) and 0.75 mol.% (decay time: ∼46 ns: 0.9 mm × 1.3 mm × 6 mm) were optically coupled in depth direction to form depth-of-interaction detector, arranged in 11 × 13 matrix and optically coupled to the fiber bundle. The two inputs of the bundle are bent for 90°, bound to one, and are optically coupled to a Hamamatsu 1-in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube. Light loss due to the fiber bundle could be reduced and the performance of the block detectors was improved. Eight optical fiber based block detectors (16 LGSO blocks) were arranged in a 56 mm diameter ring to form a PET system. Spatial resolution and sensitivity were 1.2 mm full-width at half-maximum and 1.2% at the central field-of-view, respectively. Sensitivity change was less than 1% for 2 °C temperature changes. This PET system was integrated with a 0.3 T permanent magnet MRI system which has 17 cm diameter hole at the yoke area for insertion of the PET detector ring. There was no observable interference between PET and MRI. Simultaneous imaging of PET and MRI was successfully performed for small animal studies. The authors confirmed that the developed high resolution PET∕MRI system is promising for molecular

  17. Development of a flexible optical fiber based high resolution integrated PET/MRI system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Tadashi; Aoki, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Eiji; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The simultaneous measurement of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging field for molecular imaging research. Although optical fiber based PET/MRI systems have advantages on less interference between PET and MRI, there is a drawback in reducing the scintillation light due to the fiber. To reduce the problem, the authors newly developed flexible optical fiber bundle based block detectors and employed them for a high resolution integrated PET/MRI system. Methods: The flexible optical fiber bundle used 0.5 mm diameter, 80 cm long double clad fibers which have dual 12 mm Multiplication-Sign 24 mm rectangular inputs and a single 24 mm Multiplication-Sign 24 mm rectangular output. In the input surface, LGSO scintillators of 0.025 mol.% (decay time: {approx}31 ns: 0.9 mm Multiplication-Sign 1.3 mm Multiplication-Sign 5 mm) and 0.75 mol.% (decay time: {approx}46 ns: 0.9 mm Multiplication-Sign 1.3 mm Multiplication-Sign 6 mm) were optically coupled in depth direction to form depth-of-interaction detector, arranged in 11 Multiplication-Sign 13 matrix and optically coupled to the fiber bundle. The two inputs of the bundle are bent for 90 Degree-Sign , bound to one, and are optically coupled to a Hamamatsu 1-in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube. Results: Light loss due to the fiber bundle could be reduced and the performance of the block detectors was improved. Eight optical fiber based block detectors (16 LGSO blocks) were arranged in a 56 mm diameter ring to form a PET system. Spatial resolution and sensitivity were 1.2 mm full-width at half-maximum and 1.2% at the central field-of-view, respectively. Sensitivity change was less than 1% for 2 Degree-Sign C temperature changes. This PET system was integrated with a 0.3 T permanent magnet MRI system which has 17 cm diameter hole at the yoke area for insertion of the PET detector ring. There was no observable interference between PET and MRI. Simultaneous imaging of PET and MRI was

  18. Development of a Si-PM-based high-resolution PET system for small animals.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Watabe, Tadashi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2010-10-07

    A Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET, especially for use in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, because it has high gain and is less sensitive to a static magnetic field. We developed a Si-PM-based depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET system for small animals. Hamamatsu 4 × 4 Si-PM arrays (S11065-025P) were used for its detector blocks. Two types of LGSO scintillator of 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼45 ns; 1.1 mm × 1.2 mm × 5 mm) and 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼31 ns; 1.1 mm × 1.2 mm × 6 mm) were optically coupled in the DOI direction to form a DOI detector, arranged in a 11 × 9 matrix, and optically coupled to the Si-PM array. Pulse shape analysis was used for the DOI detection of these two types of LGSOs. Sixteen detector blocks were arranged in a 68 mm diameter ring to form the PET system. Spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM and sensitivity was 0.6% at the center of the field of view. High-resolution mouse and rat images were successfully obtained using the PET system. We confirmed that the developed Si-PM-based PET system is promising for molecular imaging research.

  19. Early Tumor Development Captured Through Nondestructive, High Resolution Differential Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, A.; Pinzer, B. R.; McDonald, J. T.; Stampanoni, M.; Hlatky, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although a considerable amount is known about molecular dysregulations in later stages of tumor progression, much less is known about the regulated processes supporting initial tumor growth. Insight into such processes can provide a fuller understanding of carcinogenesis, with implications for cancer treatment and risk assessment. Work from our laboratory suggests that organized substructure emerges during tumor formation. The goal here was to examine the feasibility of using state-of-the-art differential phase contrast X-ray imaging to investigate density differentials that evolve during early tumor development. To this end the beamline for TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs (TOMCAT) at the Swiss Light Source was used to examine the time-dependent assembly of substructure in developing tumors. Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging based on grating interferometry as implemented with TOMCAT, offers sensitivity to density differentials within soft tissues and a unique combination of high resolution coupled with a large field of view that permits the accommodation of larger tissue sizes (1 cm in diameter), difficult with other imaging modalities. PMID:24125488

  20. Development of a high-resolution laser radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordone, Andrea; Ferri De Collibus, Mario; Fantoni, Roberta; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Guarneri, Marianna; Poggi, Claudio; Ricci, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    A high resolution Amplitude Modulation Laser Radar (AM-LR) sensor has recently been developed, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets -- either single objects or complex scenes. The sensor sounding beam can be swept linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotation platform. Both intensity and phase shift of the back-scattered light are then collected and processed, providing respectively a shade-free photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range or depth image, with resolution depending mainly on the laser modulation frequency. Starting from the sample points, with an uncertainty that can be made as small as 100 μm, the complete object surface can be reconstructed by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, bones) and is expected to have significant applications in industrial machining, artwork cataloguing and medical diagnostics. Examples of 3D reconstructions are presented and the relevance of this technology for reverse engineering applied to artwork restoration and conservation is briefly discussed.

  1. Challenges in the development of very high resolution Earth System Models for climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Xie, Shaocheng; Ma, Po-Lun; Lin, Wuyin; Wan, Hui; Qian, Yun

    2017-04-01

    The authors represent the 20+ members of the ACME atmosphere development team. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has, like many other organizations around the world, identified the need for an Earth System Model capable of rapid completion of decade to century length simulations at very high (vertical and horizontal) resolution with good climate fidelity. Two years ago DOE initiated a multi-institution effort called ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy) to meet this an extraordinary challenge, targeting a model eventually capable of running at 10-25km horizontal and 20-400m vertical resolution through the troposphere on exascale computational platforms at speeds sufficient to complete 5+ simulated years per day. I will outline the challenges our team has encountered in development of the atmosphere component of this model, and the strategies we have been using for tuning and debugging a model that we can barely afford to run on today's computational platforms. These strategies include: 1) evaluation at lower resolutions; 2) ensembles of short simulations to explore parameter space, and perform rough tuning and evaluation; 3) use of regionally refined versions of the model for probing high resolution model behavior at less expense; 4) use of "auto-tuning" methodologies for model tuning; and 5) brute force long climate simulations.

  2. Development of High Resolution Melting Analysis for the Diagnosis of Human Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kek Heng; Lim, Siew Chee; Ng, Ching Ching; Lee, Ping Chin; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Lau, Tze Pheng; Chai, Hwa Chia

    2015-01-01

    Molecular detection has overcome limitations of microscopic examination by providing greater sensitivity and specificity in Plasmodium species detection. The objective of the present study was to develop a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high-resolution melting (qRT-PCR-HRM) assay for rapid, accurate and simultaneous detection of all five human Plasmodium spp. A pair of primers targeted the 18S SSU rRNA gene of the Plasmodium spp. was designed for qRT-PCR-HRM assay development. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated. Samples collected from 229 malaria suspected patients recruited from Sabah, Malaysia were screened using the assay and results were compared with data obtained using PlasmoNexTM, a hexaplex PCR system. The qRT-PCR-HRM assay was able to detect and discriminate the five Plasmodium spp. with lowest detection limits of 1–100 copy numbers without nonspecific amplifications. The detection of Plasmodium spp. in clinical samples using this assay also achieved 100% concordance with that obtained using PlasmoNexTM. This indicated that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this assay in Plasmodium spp. detection is comparable with those of PlasmoNexTM. The qRT-PCR-HRM assay is simple, produces results in two hours and enables high-throughput screening. Thus, it is an alternative method for rapid and accurate malaria diagnosis. PMID:26507008

  3. Development of simple high-resolution embedded printing for transparent metal grid conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokari, Ryohei; Kurihara, Kazuma; Takada, Naoki; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    We developed a simple embedded printing method that is capable of forming high-resolution patterns for transparent metal grid conductors. The simple printing method involves embedding conductive ink in a groove structure formed by nanoimprinting. Since this printing utilizes capillary force, conductive ink easily fills groove structures with small widths of several microns to the submicron scale. An embedded pattern with a line width of 300 nm was printed. In addition, a high aspect ratio of 3.1 was achieved with a 1.6 μm embedded pattern. A prototype transparent conductive film was developed with excellent optical and electrical performances: a high transmittance of 82.7% and a low sheet resistance of 5.1 Ω/sq at a grid width of 3.0 μm and a grid pitch of 150 μm. The grid parameters can easily be changed by mold design during the nanoimprint process. The transparent conductive film (TCF) showed excellent bending resistance compared with indium tin oxide.

  4. Development of High Resolution Melting Analysis for the Diagnosis of Human Malaria.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kek Heng; Lim, Siew Chee; Ng, Ching Ching; Lee, Ping Chin; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Lau, Tze Pheng; Chai, Hwa Chia

    2015-10-28

    Molecular detection has overcome limitations of microscopic examination by providing greater sensitivity and specificity in Plasmodium species detection. The objective of the present study was to develop a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high-resolution melting (qRT-PCR-HRM) assay for rapid, accurate and simultaneous detection of all five human Plasmodium spp. A pair of primers targeted the 18S SSU rRNA gene of the Plasmodium spp. was designed for qRT-PCR-HRM assay development. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated. Samples collected from 229 malaria suspected patients recruited from Sabah, Malaysia were screened using the assay and results were compared with data obtained using PlasmoNex(TM), a hexaplex PCR system. The qRT-PCR-HRM assay was able to detect and discriminate the five Plasmodium spp. with lowest detection limits of 1-100 copy numbers without nonspecific amplifications. The detection of Plasmodium spp. in clinical samples using this assay also achieved 100% concordance with that obtained using PlasmoNex(TM). This indicated that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this assay in Plasmodium spp. detection is comparable with those of PlasmoNex(TM). The qRT-PCR-HRM assay is simple, produces results in two hours and enables high-throughput screening. Thus, it is an alternative method for rapid and accurate malaria diagnosis.

  5. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ellis, R.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, S.; Kauffman, R. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bettencourt, R.; Ma, T.; Nora, R. C.; Scott, H. A.; Thorn, D. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nelson, D.; Shoup, III, M.; Maron, Y.

    2016-09-28

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s2-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Furthermore, details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  6. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; ...

    2016-09-28

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s2-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal willmore » focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Furthermore, details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.« less

  7. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ellis, R.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, S.; Kauffman, R. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bettencourt, R.; Ma, T.; Nora, R. C.; Scott, H. A.; Thorn, D. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nelson, D.; Shoup, M.; Maron, Y.

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s2-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  8. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

    PubMed

    Hill, K W; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Efthimion, P C; Ellis, R; Gao, L; Maddox, J; Pablant, N A; Schneider, M B; Chen, H; Ayers, S; Kauffman, R L; MacPhee, A G; Beiersdorfer, P; Bettencourt, R; Ma, T; Nora, R C; Scott, H A; Thorn, D B; Kilkenny, J D; Nelson, D; Shoup, M; Maron, Y

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s(2)-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s(2)-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  9. (Development of an inexpensive high resolution positron multiwire proportional counter). Progress report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The development of surgical and medical techniques for the treatment of coronary artery disease has dramatized the need for a safe, relatively non-traumatic measure of regional perfusion. This is particularly critical during the early stages of coronary artery disease, well before symptoms become severe enough to warrant characterization. The primary limitation in the implementation of this new technique is the lack of a high resolution, relatively inexpensive positron detecting system to enable myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with rubidium-82 to be performed as a screening test in hospitals without direct access to cyclotron facilities. The positron multiwire proportional counter which will result from the proposed projects will solve this problem. The dispersion of the absorbing material will be achieved by stringing wires of high Z material, such as tungsten, in a cross pattern. By stacking the wires, an efficiency of 30% can be obtained for 0.5 MeV photons. The wire layers will be at graded voltages; the ionization from the photoelectrons is thereby drifted through the stack and picked up by sense wires operating in the proportional mode. Resolutions within the 3 mm range should also be achievable. 15 figs.

  10. Method Development for the Detection of Human Myostatin by High-Resolution and Targeted Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peiris, Hassendrini Nileishika; Ashman, Keith; Vaswani, Kanchan; Kvaskoff, David; Rice, Gregory Edward; Mitchell, Murray David

    2014-06-30

    Myostatin, a highly conserved secretory protein, negatively regulates muscle development, affecting both the proliferation and differentiation of muscle cells. Proteolytic processing of the myostatin precursor protein generates a myostatin pro-peptide and mature protein. Dimerization of the mature myostatin protein creates the active form of myostatin. Myostatin dimer activity can be inhibited by noncovalent binding of two monomeric myostatin pro-peptides. This ability for myostatin to self-regulate as well as the altered expression of myostatin in states of abnormal health (e.g., muscle wasting) support the need for specific detection of myostatin forms. Current protein detection methods (e.g., Western blot) rely greatly on antibodies and are semiquantitative at best. Tandem mass spectometry (as in this study) provides a highly specific method of detection, enabling the characterization of myostatin protein forms through the analysis of discrete peptides fragments. Utilizing the scheduled high-resolution multiple reaction monitoring paradigm (sMRM(HR); AB SCIEX 5600 TripleTOF) we identified the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of both mature (DFGLDCDEHSTESR) and pro-peptide regions (ELIDQYDVQR) as 0.19 nmol/L. Furthermore, scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM; AB SCIEX QTRAP 5500) identified a LLOQ for a peptide of the pro-peptide region (LETAPNISK) as 0.16 nmol/L and a peptide of the mature region (EQIIYGK) as 0.25 nmol/L.

  11. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  12. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ellis, R.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, S.; Kauffman, R. L.; Macphee, A. G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Ma, T.; Nora, R. C.; Scott, H. A.; Thorn, D. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nelson, D.; Shoup, M., III; Maron, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A high resolution (E/ ΔE 2000) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in NIF experiments. The instrument will be a positioner insertable cassette designed to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium- β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton, and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and sagittally focus (1) the Kr He β complex and (2) the He α and Ly α complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement. A third cylindrical crystal will focus the full He α to He β spectrum onto an image plate for a time integrated calibration spectrum. Performance estimates and design status will be presented. Performed under the auspices of the US DOE by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Development of a high resolution x-ray spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ellis, R.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, S.; Kauffman, R. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bettencourt, R.; Ma, T.; Nora, R. C.; Scott, H. A.; Thorn, D. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nelson, D.; Shoup, III, M.; Maron, Y.

    2016-09-28

    A high resolution (E/ΔE = 1200-1800) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer is being developed to measure plasma parameters in National Ignition Facility experiments. The instrument will be a diagnostic instrument manipulator positioned cassette designed mainly to infer electron density in compressed capsules from Stark broadening of the helium-β (1s2-1s3p) lines of krypton and electron temperature from the relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Two conically shaped crystals will diffract and focus (1) the Kr Heβ complex and (2) the Heα (1s2-1s2p) and Lyα (1s-2p) complexes onto a streak camera photocathode for time resolved measurement, and a third cylindrical or conical crystal will focus the full Heα to Heβ spectral range onto an image plate to provide a time integrated calibration spectrum. Calculations of source x-ray intensity, spectrometer throughput, and spectral resolution are presented. Furthermore, details of the conical-crystal focusing properties as well as the status of the instrumental design are also presented.

  14. Development of high-resolution detector module with depth of interaction identification for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknejad, Tahereh; Pizzichemi, Marco; Stringhini, Gianluca; Auffray, Etiennette; Bugalho, Ricardo; Da Silva, Jose Carlos; Di Francesco, Agostino; Ferramacho, Luis; Lecoq, Paul; Leong, Carlos; Paganoni, Marco; Rolo, Manuel; Silva, Rui; Silveira, Miguel; Tavernier, Stefaan; Varela, Joao; Zorraquino, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a Time-of-flight high resolution and commercially viable detector module for the application in small PET scanners. A new approach to depth of interaction (DOI) encoding with low complexity for a pixelated crystal array using a single side readout and 4-to-1 coupling between scintillators and photodetectors was investigated. In this method the DOI information is estimated using the light sharing technique. The detector module is a 1.53×1.53×15 mm3 matrix of 8×8 LYSO scintillator with lateral surfaces optically depolished separated by reflective foils. The crystal array is optically coupled to 4×4 silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) array and readout by a high performance front-end ASIC with TDC capability (50 ps time binning). The results show an excellent crystal identification for all the scintillators in the matrix, a timing resolution of 530 ps, an average DOI resolution of 5.17 mm FWHM and an average energy resolution of 18.29% FWHM.

  15. Development of an ultra-high resolution SPECT system with a CdTe semiconductor detector.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Koichi; Ohmura, Naoka; Iida, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Kayoko; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kubo, Atsushi

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate an ultra-high spatial resolution SPECT system with a semiconductor detector and a high-resolution parallel-hole collimator or a pinhole collimator for small animal imaging. We evaluated an ultra-high spatial resolution SPECT system with a high-resolution parallel-hole collimator attached to a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detector for small animal imaging. The sizes of an active area and a pixel in the semiconductor detector were 44 x 44 and 0.5 x 0.5 mm(2), respectively. In the high-resolution parallel-hole collimator the size of a hole was 0.4 x 0.4 mm(2), the thickness of a septum 0.1 mm, and the hole-length 30 mm. We also used a high-resolution pinhole collimator with a hole size of 0.3 or 0.5 mmvarphi. The physical performance of this SPECT system was evaluated with some experiments with phantoms filled with (99m)Tc-pertechnatate solution. In addition ideal performance and limitations of the system were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations under the same geometrical conditions as in the experiments. In the evaluation for small animal imaging, we used mice that were administered with (99m)Tc-MDP. We also conducted an ultra-high resolution X-ray CT of the mice to verify the accumulated location of (99m)Tc-MDP using the bone CT images of the mice. The results of the phantom experiments showed that we could resolve 1 mmvarphi hot-channels and 1.6 mmvarphi cold-rods with the high-resolution parallel-hole collimator and pinhole collimators. We could image 0.3 mmvarphi hot-channels with the high-resolution pinhole collimators. The results of the simulations showed that the resolution limit in the pinhole imaging was about 0.6 mm FWHM. And the results of experiments with mice showed that we could reconstruct high-resolution images of (99m)Tc-MDP. Furthermore, the distribution of (99m)Tc-MDP in a mouse was found to correspond closely to the location of the bones of the mouse in reconstructions made with the ultra-high

  16. High Resolution Computed Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-31

    samples. 14. SUBJECTTERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 38 High Resolution, Microfocus , Characterization, X - Ray , Micrography, Computed Tomography (CT), Failure...high resolutions (50 g.tm feature sensitivity) when a small field of view (50 mm) is used [11]. Specially designed detectors and a microfocus X - ray ...Wright Laboratories. Feldkamp [14] at Ford used a microfocus X - ray source and an X - ray image intensifier to develop a system capable of 20 g.m

  17. Application of high-resolution MS for development of peptide and large-molecule drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Kellie, John F; Kehler, Jonathan R; Szapacs, Matthew E

    2016-02-01

    For quantitative bioanalysis utilizing MS, the instrument of choice is typically a triple quadruple mass spectrometer. However, advances in high-resolution MS have allowed sensitivity and dynamic ranges to approach that of triple quadrupole instruments. A matrix-free protein digest, a digested therapeutic protein and the intact peptide therapeutic liraglutide were each analyzed on high-resolution and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers with data compared. Samples from a mouse PK study with liraglutide were analyzed using the two different instruments, and equivalent PK exposure data were demonstrated. High-resolution and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers can generate data resulting in identical PK parameters from an in-life sample set, thus giving confidence in either technique in support of biotherapeutic PK exposure studies.

  18. Diving deeper into Zebrafish development of social behavior: analyzing high resolution data.

    PubMed

    Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-30

    Vertebrate model organisms have been utilized in high throughput screening but only with substantial cost and human capital investment. The zebrafish is a vertebrate model species that is a promising and cost effective candidate for efficient high throughput screening. Larval zebrafish have already been successfully employed in this regard (Lessman, 2011), but adult zebrafish also show great promise. High throughput screening requires the use of a large number of subjects and collection of substantial amount of data. Collection of data is only one of the demanding aspects of screening. However, in most screening approaches that involve behavioral data the main bottleneck that slows throughput is the time consuming aspect of analysis of the collected data. Some automated analytical tools do exist, but often they only work for one subject at a time, eliminating the possibility of fully utilizing zebrafish as a screening tool. This is a particularly important limitation for such complex phenotypes as social behavior. Testing multiple fish at a time can reveal complex social interactions but it may also allow the identification of outliers from a group of mutagenized or pharmacologically treated fish. Here, we describe a novel method using a custom software tool developed within our laboratory, which enables tracking multiple fish, in combination with a sophisticated analytical approach for summarizing and analyzing high resolution behavioral data. This paper focuses on the latter, the analytic tool, which we have developed using the R programming language and environment for statistical computing. We argue that combining sophisticated data collection methods with appropriate analytical tools will propel zebrafish into the future of neurobehavioral genetic research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The development of a wide-field, high-resolution UV Raman hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Nelson, Matthew P.; Angel, S. M.

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of explosive and biological analytes because it provides a unique molecular fingerprint that allows for unambiguous target identification. Raman can be advantageous when utilized with deep UV excitation, but typical deep UV Raman systems have numerous limitations that hinder their performance and make their potential integration onto a field portable platform difficult. These systems typically offer very low throughput, are physically large and heavy, and can only probe an area the size of a tightly focused laser, severely diminishing the ability of the system to investigate large areas efficiently. The majority of these limitations are directly related to a system's spectrometer, which is typically dispersive grating based and requires a very narrow slit width and long focal length optics to achieve high spectral resolution. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS), teaming with the University of South Carolina, are developing a revolutionary wide-field Raman hyperspectral imaging system capable of providing wide-area, high resolution measurements with greatly increased throughput in a small form factor, which would revolutionize the way Raman is conducted and applied. The innovation couples a spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS), a novel slit-less spectrometer that operates similar to Michelson interferometer, with a fiber array spectral translator (FAST) fiber array, a two-dimensional imaging fiber for hyperspectral imagery. This combination of technologies creates a novel wide-field, high throughput Raman hyperspectral imager capable of yielding very high spectral resolution measurements using defocused excitation, giving the system a greater area coverage and faster search rate than traditional Raman systems. This paper will focus on the need for an innovative UV Raman system, provide an overview of spatial heterodyne Raman spectroscopy, and discuss the development

  20. High resolution, high frame rate video technology development plan and the near-term system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) development effort is to provide technology advancements to remove constraints on the amount of high speed, detailed optical data recorded and transmitted for microgravity science and application experiments. These advancements will enable the development of video systems capable of high resolution, high frame rate video data recording, processing, and transmission. Techniques such as multichannel image scan, video parameter tradeoff, and the use of dual recording media were identified as methods of making the most efficient use of the near-term technology.

  1. Development and validation of a High Resolution Melting Assay to detect azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Martínez, L; Gil, H; Rivero-Menéndez, O; Gago, S; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Mellado, E; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A

    2017-09-11

    The global emergence of azole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strains is a growing public health concern. Different patterns of azole resistance are linked to mutations in cyp51A. Therefore, an accurate characterization of the mechanisms underlying azole resistance is critical to guide selection of the most appropriate antifungal agent in patients with aspergillosis. This study describes a new sequencing-free molecular screening tool for the early detection of the most frequent mutations known to be associated with azole resistance in A. fumigatus PCRs targeting cyp51A mutations at positions G54, Y121, G448 and M220 and the promoter region targeting the different tandem repeats (TR) were designed. All PCRs were simultaneously performed using the same cycling conditions. Amplicons were then distinguished using a High Resolution Melting assay. For standardization, 30 well-characterized azole resistant A. fumigatus strains were used, obtaining melting curve clusters for different resistance mechanisms in each target and detecting the most frequent azole-resistance mutations: G54E, G54V, G54R, G54W, Y121F, M220V, M220I, M220T, M220K, G448S and the tandem repeats, TR34, TR46 and TR53 Validation of the method was performed using a blind panel of 80 A. fumigatus azole susceptible and resistant strains. All strains included in the blind panel were properly classified as susceptible or resistant by the developed method. The implementation of this screening method can reduce the time for the detection of azole resistant A. fumigatus isolates and therefore facilitate the selection of the best antifungal therapy in patients with aspergillosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Microstructure development in latex coatings: High-resolution cryo-scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Haiyan

    2005-07-01

    High-resolution cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development in drying latex coatings: from a colloidal stable suspension into a coherent strong film by drying. Useful sample preparation artifacts during the freeze-fracture, i.e., pullouts were documented and analyzed. Pullouts indicate both physical properties of latex particles and the drying stages in latex coatings. The mechanism of pullout formation was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Latex coatings must possess satisfactory freeze-thaw stability to avoid problems during transportation and storage in cold winter. The behavior of latex particles during freeze-thaw cycles was visualized by Cryo-SEM. The images indicated that high concentration of polymerizable surfactant in a latex suspension improved its freeze-thaw stability. In film formation, skinning was captured from edge in and top down in coatings of 80nm diameter styrene-butadiene latex particles with exceptional low Tg (-65°C). Effects on skinning of drying conditions and the way the latex was initially stabilized against flocculation were investigated. A skinned pocket was unexpectedly found in the coating. The cause of such a skin around the air bubble was explained by both simple models calculating the dissolution time and force analysis on the particles. The film formation processes in conventional and low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex coatings were compared by time-sectioning Cryo-SEM. Some low-VOC latex coatings were found to dry as fast as conventional ones without deteriorating final good film properties.

  3. Development of a high-resolution Si-PM-based gamma camera system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Imaizumi, Masao; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-12-07

    A silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET, especially for PET/MRI combined systems, due to its high gain, small size, and lower sensitivity to static magnetic fields. However, these properties are also promising for gamma camera systems for single-photon imaging. We developed an ultra-high-resolution Si-PM-based compact gamma camera system for small animals. Y(2)SiO(5):Ce (YSO) was selected as scintillators because of its high light output and no natural radioactivity. The gamma camera consists of 0.6 mm × 0.6 mm × 6 mm YSO pixels combined with a 0.1 mm thick reflector to form a 17 × 17 matrix that was optically coupled to a Si-PM array (Hamamatsu multi-pixel photon counter S11064-050P) with a 2 mm thick light guide. The YSO block size was 12 mm × 12 mm. The YSO gamma camera was encased in a 5 mm thick gamma shield, and a parallel hole collimator was mounted in front of the camera (0.5 mm hole, 0.7 mm separation, 5 mm thick). The two-dimensional distribution for the Co-57 gamma photons (122 keV) was almost resolved. The energy resolution was 24.4% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the Co-57 gamma photons. The spatial resolution at 1.5 mm from the collimator surface was 1.25 mm FWHM measured using a 1 mm diameter Co-57 point source. Phantom and small animal images were successfully obtained. We conclude that a Si-PM-based gamma camera is promising for molecular imaging research.

  4. Development and capabilities of the new 253 Ultra high resolution, gas source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clog, M. D.; Ellam, R. M.; Hilkert, A.; Schwieters, J. B.; Deerberg, M.

    2016-12-01

    The growing interest in clumped and position-specific isotope geochemistry drives the development of gas source mass spectrometers capable of overcoming the technical challenges that limits our capabilities. The main challenges is reaching a mass resolving power high enough to be able to resolve the species of interest from isobars (contaminants, isotopologues with different isotopes and products of ion source chemistry). Applications to natural samples also requires the ability to make measurements at the sub-permil level for low-intensity ion beams. It is thus also necessary for those instruments to have a high abundance sensitivity, high resolution to avoid the need for peak stripping schemes and a high stability of the signal intensities and peak positions in the image plane of the mass spectrometer. We present here the capabilities of the production series version of the ThermoFisher Scientific 253 Ultra, whose design is an iteration of the Caltech 253 Ultra prototype. It is a double-focusing, multi-collection instrument able to reach a mass resolving power of up to 48,000. Over 30 minutes, the standard deviation of the peak position at mass 44 was 20 micro a.m.u. (0.5 ppm). It is equipped with 9 Faraday cups (8 movable) and 4 ion counters (3 movable, the last one located behind a retardation lens). Without using the retardation lens, around mass 40, the abundance sensitivity at .5 a.m.u. is 1ppm, and at 3 a.m.u. drops to 100 ppb. One of movable Faraday cup and one of the movable ion counters have a narrow entrance slit, to allow for peak separation (for example, to measure separately 13CH3D and 12CD2H2). After integration on ion counters of beams ranging from 100 to 10⁵ cps for several hours, the standard error on the ratio of these peaks to ion beams measured on a Faraday cup was within 10% of the counting statistics error. Overall, the 253 Ultra is showing great potential for the development of clumped and position-specific isotope geochemistry.

  5. Development of high resolution simulations of the atmospheric environment using the MASS model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Zack, John W.; Karyampudi, V. Mohan

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed with a very high resolution (7.25 km) version of the MASS model (Version 4.0) in an effort to diagnose the vertical wind shear and static stability structure during the Shuttle Challenger disaster which occurred on 28 January 1986. These meso-beta scale simulations reveal that the strongest vertical wind shears were concentrated in the 200 to 150 mb layer at 1630 GMT, i.e., at about the time of the disaster. These simulated vertical shears were the result of two primary dynamical processes. The juxtaposition of both of these processes produced a shallow (30 mb deep) region of strong vertical wind shear, and hence, low Richardson number values during the launch time period. Comparisons with the Cape Canaveral (XMR) rawinsonde indicates that the high resolution MASS 4.0 simulation more closely emulated nature than did previous simulations of the same event with the GMASS model.

  6. Development of a High Resolution Analyzing Magnet System for Heavy Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaly, Mohamed O. A. El; Dehnel, Morgan; Defrance, Pierre

    At the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, Saudi Arabia), a versatile ion-beam injector was constructed to provide the electrostatic storage ring with the required high-quality ion beams. In order to remove the ambiguity over the ion mass due to the exclusive application of electric fields in the set-up, the injector is being equipped with a high resolution mass analyzing magnet. A high resolution Analyzing Magnet System has been designed to provide a singly-charged ion beam of kinetic energy up to 50 keV, mass up to 1500 Amu, and with the mass resolution fixed to Δm/m =1:1500. The system includes specific entrance and exit slits, designed to sustain the required mass resolution. Furthermore, specific focusing and shaping optics have been added upstream and downstream the system, in order to monitor and adapt the shape of the ion beam at the entrance and exit of the system, respectively. The present paper gives an overview on the design of this mass analyzing magnet system together with the upstream/downstream adapting optics.

  7. Development of in-aquifer heat testing for high resolution subsurface thermal-storage capability characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibertz, Klodwig Suibert Oskar; Chirila, Marian Andrei; Bumberger, Jan; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ongoing transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy source provision has resulted in increased geothermal uses as well as storage of the shallow subsurface. Existing approaches for exploration of shallow subsurface geothermal energy storage often lack the ability to provide information concerning the spatial variability of thermal storage parameters. However, parameter distributions have to be known to ensure that sustainable geothermal use of the shallow subsurface can take place - especially when it is subject to intensive usage. In this paper, we test a temperature decay time approach to obtain in situ, direct, qualitative, spatial high-resolution information about the distribution of thermal storage capabilities of the shallow subsurface. To achieve this, temperature data from a high-resolution Fibre-Optic-Distributed-Temperature-Sensing device, as well as data from conventional Pt100-temperature-sensors were collected during a heat injection test. The latter test was used to measure the decay time of temperature signal dissipation of the subsurface. Signal generation was provided by in-aquifer heating with a temperature self-regulating electric heating cable. Heating was carried out for 4.5 days. After this, a cooling period of 1.5 weeks was observed. Temperature dissipation data was also compared to Direct-Push-derived high-resolution (hydro-)geological data. The results show that besides hydraulic properties also the bedding and compaction state of the sediment have an impact on the thermal storage capability of the saturated subsurface. The temperature decay time approach is therefore a reliable method for obtaining information regarding the qualitative heat storage capability of heterogeneous aquifers for the use with closed loop system geothermal storage systems. Furthermore, this approach is advantageous over other commonly used methods, e.g. soil-sampling and laboratory analysis, as even small changes in (hydro-)geological properties lead to

  8. Focal plane actuation for the development of a high resolution suborbital telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke Miller, Alex; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We present a hexapod stabilized focal plane as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements (~50μm at 20hz) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and is the limiting resolution of the system. To solve this, the hexapod system actuates the focal plane to counteract the jitter through real-time closed loop feedback from star-trackers. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. This boost in resolution will allow for Hubble-quality imaging for a fraction of the cost. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. The design also thermally isolates the hexapod from the cryogenic focal plane enabling the use of well-established non-cryogenic hexapod technology. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giant outer planets, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new data. On an Antarctic ~100-day Long-Duration-Balloon mission the continued high-resolution imaging of gas giant storm systems would provide cloud formation and evolution data second to only a Flagship orbiter.

  9. Development of a High Resolution Weather Forecast Model for Mesoamerica Using the NASA Ames Code I Private Cloud Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Case, Jonathan; Venner, Jason; Moreno-Madrinan, Max J.; Delgado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Two projects at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have collaborated to develop a high resolution weather forecast model for Mesoamerica: The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, which integrates unique NASA satellite and weather forecast modeling capabilities into the operational weather forecasting community. NASA's SERVIR Program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data, and forecast models to improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas.

  10. Recent Progress in the Development of Printed Thin-Film Transistors and Circuits with High-Resolution Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Someya, Takao

    2017-07-01

    Printed electronics enable the fabrication of large-scale, low-cost electronic devices and systems, and thus offer significant possibilities in terms of developing new electronics/optics applications in various fields. Almost all electronic applications require information processing using logic circuits. Hence, realizing the high-speed operation of logic circuits is also important for printed devices. This report summarizes recent progress in the development of printed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits in terms of materials, printing technologies, and applications. The first part of this report gives an overview of the development of functional inks such as semiconductors, electrodes, and dielectrics. The second part discusses high-resolution printing technologies and strategies to enable high-resolution patterning. The main focus of this report is on obtaining printed electrodes with high-resolution patterning and the electrical performance of printed TFTs using such printed electrodes. In the final part, some applications of printed electronics are introduced to exemplify their potential. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Focal plane actuation by hexapod for the development of a high-resolution suborbital telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alexander D.; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a prototype hexapod image stabilization system as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. The unique design thermally isolates an off-the-shelf non-cryogenic hexapod from a liquid nitrogen cooled focal plane, enabling its use in a cryogenic environment. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements ( 20 micron amplitude at 20 Hz at the worst) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, and vibrations from cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and limits the resolution of the system. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. For a 0.8m telescope the improvement in resolution by this system would provide 0.1" angular resolution at 300nm, which is comparable to Hubble for a fraction of the cost. On an actual balloon, the hexapod system would actuate the focal plane to counteract the jitter using position information supplied by guidestar cameras. However, in the lab, we instead simulate guide camera tracking, using a 1024 × 1024 e2v science-grade CCD to take long exposures of a target attached to an XY stage driven with the balloon jitter signal recorded during the STO mission. Further confirmation of the positional accuracy and agility of the hexapod is achieved using a laser and fast-sampling position-sensitive diode. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giants, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new

  12. High resolution capillary column development for selective separations in gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Przybyciel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of techniques for the preparation of high resolution capillary columns for gas chromatography is presented. Surface roughing, surface deactivation, stationary phase coating, and stationary phase crosslinking are discussed. Criteria for the selection of GC stationary phases and procedures for column evaluation are presented. A method is proposed for the isolation and determination of crude oil contamination in tropical plants and sediments. The method uses Florisil (TM) chromatography for the simultaneous clean-up and fractionation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Crosslinked SE-54 fused silica capillary columns prepared in our laboratory were employed for all GC separations. Mass spectrometry was used to help locate and identify specific oil components despite the intense background of the chromatogram. Crude oil components were identified in extracts of mangrove plant samples collected from the Peck Slip oil spill site at Media Munda, Puerto Rico. Crude oil components were also identified in sediment samples from controlled oil spill of Prudhoe Bay oil at Laguna de Chiriqui, Panama.

  13. The development of high resolution coordinate detectors for the DEUTERON facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Shekhtman, L. I.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Maltsev, T. V.; Nikolenko, D. N.; Rachek, I. A.

    2014-09-01

    The DEUTERON internal target facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring at BINP is intended for the experiments on interaction of electrons and positrons with proton and deuteron. These experiments require high resolution tracking detectors which can provide the energy and angles of scattered electron. The prototype detector with a sensitive area of 160 × 40 mm2 was built and proved to be operational. It consists of three cascades of gaseous electron multiplier (GEM), the readout structure and detector electronics. Readout structure has 640 strips which are uniformly distributed in two layers skewed by 30 degrees. Electronics of the detector includes APC128 ASICs, Altera Cyclone III FPGA, 100 MBit ethernet. In the APC128 ASIC each channel has a separate analog pipeline consisting of 32 cells which are cyclically switched by a global clock synchronized to the bunch crossing rate ( ~ 4 MHz). For the needs of DEUTERON facility the expected resolution of less than 100 μm and thickness of ~ 0.15% of radiation length are considered to be quite satisfactory. The latest results obtained at the test beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider show that detector is fully operational with maximum detection efficiency reached 98%.

  14. Development of a high resolution interstellar dust engineering model - overview of the project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.; Strub, P.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Grün, E.

    2013-09-01

    Beyond 3 AU heliocentric distance, the flow of interstellar dust through the solar system is a dominant component of the total dust population. The modulation of this flux with the solar cycle and the position in the solar system has been predicted by theoretical studies since the seventies. The modulation was proven to exist by matching dust trajectory simulations with real spacecraft data from Ulysses in 1998. The modulations were further analyzed and studies in detail in 2012. The current ESA interplanetary meteoroid model IMEM includes an interstellar dust component, but this component was modelled only with straight line trajectories through the solar system. For the new ESA IMEX model, a high-resolution interstellar dust component is implemented separately from a dust streams module. The dust streams module focuses on dust in streams that was released from comets (cf. Abstract R. Soja). Parallel processing techniques are used to improve computation time (cf. Abstract P. Strub). The goal is to make predictions for the interstellar dust flux as close to the Sun as 1 AU or closer, for future space mission design.

  15. Exploiting high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy to inform the development of a quantum cascade laser based explosives detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlysle, Felicity; Nic Daeid, Niamh; Normand, Erwan; McCulloch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is regularly used in forensic analysis, however the application of high resolution Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy for the detection of explosive materials and explosive precursors has not been fully explored. This project aimed to develop systematically a protocol for the analysis of explosives and precursors using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and basic data analysis to enable the further development of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) based airport detection system. This paper details the development of the protocol and results of the initial analysis of compounds of interest.

  16. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  17. Use of High Resolution 3D Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Study Brain White Matter Development in Live Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yu; McMurray, Matthew S.; Oguz, Ipek; Yuan, Hong; Styner, Martin A.; Lin, Weili; Johns, Josephine M.; An, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    High resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can provide important information on brain development, yet it is challenging in live neonatal rats due to the small size of neonatal brain and motion-sensitive nature of DTI. Imaging in live neonatal rats has clear advantages over fixed brain scans, as longitudinal and functional studies would be feasible to understand neuro-developmental abnormalities. In this study, we developed imaging strategies that can be used to obtain high resolution 3D DTI images in live neonatal rats at postnatal day 5 (PND5) and PND14, using only 3 h of imaging acquisition time. An optimized 3D DTI pulse sequence and appropriate animal setup to minimize physiological motion artifacts are the keys to successful high resolution 3D DTI imaging. Thus, a 3D rapid acquisition relaxation enhancement DTI sequence with twin navigator echoes was implemented to accelerate imaging acquisition time and minimize motion artifacts. It has been suggested that neonatal mammals possess a unique ability to tolerate mild-to-moderate hypothermia and hypoxia without long term impact. Thus, we additionally utilized this ability to minimize motion artifacts in magnetic resonance images by carefully suppressing the respiratory rate to around 15/min for PND5 and 30/min for PND14 using mild-to-moderate hypothermia. These imaging strategies have been successfully implemented to study how the effect of cocaine exposure in dams might affect brain development in their rat pups. Image quality resulting from this in vivo DTI study was comparable to ex vivo scans. fractional anisotropy values were also similar between the live and fixed brain scans. The capability of acquiring high quality in vivo DTI imaging offers a valuable opportunity to study many neurological disorders in brain development in an authentic living environment. PMID:22013426

  18. Development of high-resolution GEM-based detector for the extracted electron beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Maltsev, T. V.; Shekhtman, L. I.

    2017-07-01

    The goal of the extracted beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider is to test prototypes of new detectors for particle physics. Measurements taken at this installation require high-resolution low-mass tracking detectors to precisely determine particle trajectories. The high-resolution GEM-based tracking detector developed for this facility is described in this paper.

  19. Development of high-resolution coastal DEMs: Seamlessly integrating bathymetric and topographic data to support coastal inundation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, B. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Warnken, R. R.; Carignan, K. S.; Sharman, G. F.

    2006-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is cooperating with the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), Center for Tsunami Research to develop high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of combined bathymetry and topography. The coastal DEMs will be used as input for the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model developed by PMEL to simulate tsunami generation, propagation and inundation. The DEMs will also be useful in studies of coastal inundation caused by hurricane storm surge and rainfall flooding, resulting in valuable information for local planners involved in disaster preparedness. We present our methodology for creating the high-resolution coastal DEMs, typically at 1/3 arc-second (10 meters) cell size, from diverse digital datasets collected by numerous methods, in different terrestrial environments, and at various scales and resolutions; one important step is establishing the relationships between various tidal and geodetic vertical datums, which may vary over a gridding region. We also discuss problems encountered and lessons learned, using the Myrtle Beach, South Carolina DEM as an example.

  20. The function and benefits of a multifunctional heating holder developed for use with conventional high resolution analytical TEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamino, T.

    2008-08-01

    Specimen heating holder consisting of a gas injector and two sets of heating element has been developed for use with conventional high resolution analytical TEMs. One of the heating elements is used for specimen heating and the other for metal deposition. Both heating elements are made of fine wire of tungsten. The specimen holder allows high resolution in-situ TEM observation of a process of gas-solid reaction followed by a metal deposition on the reactant product. The microscope used in the study was a standard TEM equipped with EDX detector and TV camera system. Thanks to the high speed pumping system and well designed column, the pressure of the electron gun area was kept at 5x10-5Pa or lower for more than 5 hours while the specimen chamber was gas injected to the pressure of 10-1Pa. Oxidation of Al to synthesize A12O3 carrier, deposition of AuPd catalyst on the Al2O3 carrier and behaviour of the deposited AuPd nano-particles at high temperatures in the air injected environment were successfully observed at atomic resolution.

  1. Evaluation on newly developed high resolution of surface solar radiation from MTSAT observations for the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X.; Yang, K.; Tang, W.; Qin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface measurement nor existing remote sensing products of the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) can meet the application requirements of hydrological and land process modeling in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). High resolution (hourly; 0.1⁰) of SSR estimates have been derived recently from the geostationary satellite observations - the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT). This SSR estimation is based on updating an existing physical model, the UMD-SRB (University of Maryland Surface Radiation Budget) which is the basis of the well-known GEWEX-SRB model. In the updated framework introduced is the high-resolution Global Land Surface Broadband Albedo Product (GLASS) with spatial continuity. The developed SSR estimates are demonstrated at different temporal resolutions over the TP and are evaluated against ground observations and other satellite products from: (1) China Meteorological Administration (CMA) radiation stations in TP; (2) three TP radiation stations contributed from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research; (3) and the universal used satellite products (i.e. ISCCP-FD, GEWEX-SRB) in relatively low spatial resolution (0.5º-2.5º) and temporal resolution (3-hourly, daily, or monthly).

  2. High-resolution computational algorithms for simulating offshore wind turbines and farms: Model development and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Calderer, Antoni; Yang, Xiaolei; Angelidis, Dionysios; Feist, Chris; Guala, Michele; Ruehl, Kelley; Guo, Xin; Boomsma, Aaron; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-10-30

    The present project involves the development of modeling and analysis design tools for assessing offshore wind turbine technologies. The computational tools developed herein are able to resolve the effects of the coupled interaction of atmospheric turbulence and ocean waves on aerodynamic performance and structural stability and reliability of offshore wind turbines and farms. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out to derive data sets for validating the computational models.

  3. Development of a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Seki, C.; Kashikura, K.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed and tested a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface of animals. The beta camera consists of a thin CaF{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator, a tapered fiber optics plate (taper fiber) and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The taper fiber is the key component of the camera. We have developed two types of beta cameras. One is 20mm diameter field of view camera for imaging brain surface of cats. The other is 10mm diameter camera for that of rats. Spatial resolutions of beta camera for cats and rats were 0.8mm FWHM and 0.5mm FWHM, respectively. We confirmed that developed beta cameras may overcome the limitation of the spatial resolution of the positron emission tomography (PET).

  4. A high resolution spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression of the developing mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Carol L.; Ng, Lydia; Menon, Vilas; Martinez, Salvador; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Glattfelder, Katie; Sunkin, Susan M.; Henry, Alex; Lau, Christopher; Dang, Chinh; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Pombero, Ana; Rubenstein, John L.R.; Wakeman, Wayne B.; Hohmann, John; Dee, Nick; Sodt, Andrew J.; Young, Rob; Smith, Kimberly; Nguyen, Thuc-Nghi; Kidney, Jolene; Kuan, Leonard; Jeromin, Andreas; Kaykas, Ajamete; Miller, Jeremy; Page, Damon; Orta, Geri; Bernard, Amy; Riley, Zackery; Smith, Simon; Wohnoutka, Paul; Hawrylycz, Mike; Puelles, Luis; Jones, Allan R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To provide a temporal framework for the genoarchitecture of brain development, in situ hybridization data were generated for embryonic and postnatal mouse brain at 7 developmental stages for ~2100 genes, processed with an automated informatics pipeline and manually annotated. This resource comprises 434,946 images, 7 reference atlases, an ontogenetic ontology, and tools to explore co-expression of genes across neurodevelopment. Gene sets coinciding with developmental phenomena were identified. A temporal shift in the principles governing the molecular organization of the brain was detected, with transient neuromeric, plate-based organization of the brain present at E11.5 and E13.5. Finally, these data provided a transcription factor code that discriminates brain structures and identifies the developmental age of a tissue, providing a foundation for eventual genetic manipulation or tracking of specific brain structures over development. The resource is available as the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas (developingmouse.brain-map.org). PMID:24952961

  5. A high-resolution spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression of the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carol L; Ng, Lydia; Menon, Vilas; Martinez, Salvador; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Glattfelder, Katie; Sunkin, Susan M; Henry, Alex; Lau, Christopher; Dang, Chinh; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Pombero, Ana; Rubenstein, John L R; Wakeman, Wayne B; Hohmann, John; Dee, Nick; Sodt, Andrew J; Young, Rob; Smith, Kimberly; Nguyen, Thuc-Nghi; Kidney, Jolene; Kuan, Leonard; Jeromin, Andreas; Kaykas, Ajamete; Miller, Jeremy; Page, Damon; Orta, Geri; Bernard, Amy; Riley, Zackery; Smith, Simon; Wohnoutka, Paul; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Puelles, Luis; Jones, Allan R

    2014-07-16

    To provide a temporal framework for the genoarchitecture of brain development, we generated in situ hybridization data for embryonic and postnatal mouse brain at seven developmental stages for ∼2,100 genes, which were processed with an automated informatics pipeline and manually annotated. This resource comprises 434,946 images, seven reference atlases, an ontogenetic ontology, and tools to explore coexpression of genes across neurodevelopment. Gene sets coinciding with developmental phenomena were identified. A temporal shift in the principles governing the molecular organization of the brain was detected, with transient neuromeric, plate-based organization of the brain present at E11.5 and E13.5. Finally, these data provided a transcription factor code that discriminates brain structures and identifies the developmental age of a tissue, providing a foundation for eventual genetic manipulation or tracking of specific brain structures over development. The resource is available as the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas (http://developingmouse.brain-map.org).

  6. Development of a high resolution voxelised head phantom for medical physics applications.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, V; Guatelli, S; Bazalova-Carter, M; Rosenfeld, A B; Schulte, R W

    2017-01-01

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms have become an important investigation tool for medical imaging and dosimetry for radiotherapy and radiation protection. The development of computational phantoms with realistic anatomical features contribute significantly to the development of novel methods in medical physics. For many applications, it is desirable that such computational phantoms have a real-world physical counterpart in order to verify the obtained results. In this work, we report the development of a voxelised phantom, the HIGH_RES_HEAD, modelling a paediatric head based on the commercial phantom 715-HN (CIRS). HIGH_RES_HEAD is unique for its anatomical details and high spatial resolution (0.18×0.18mm(2) pixel size). The development of such a phantom was required to investigate the performance of a new proton computed tomography (pCT) system, in terms of detector technology and image reconstruction algorithms. The HIGH_RES_HEAD was used in an ad-hoc Geant4 simulation modelling the pCT system. The simulation application was previously validated with respect to experimental results. When compared to a standard spatial resolution voxelised phantom of the same paediatric head, it was shown that in pCT reconstruction studies, the use of the HIGH_RES_HEAD translates into a reduction from 2% to 0.7% of the average relative stopping power difference between experimental and simulated results thus improving the overall quality of the head phantom simulation. The HIGH_RES_HEAD can also be used for other medical physics applications such as treatment planning studies. A second version of the voxelised phantom was created that contains a prototypic base of skull tumour and surrounding organs at risk.

  7. Develop Solid State Laser Sources for High Resolution Video Projection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.

    2000-10-24

    Magic Lantern and Honeywell FM and T worked together to develop lower-cost, visible light solid-state laser sources to use in laser projector products. Work included a new family of video displays that use lasers as light sources. The displays would project electronic images up to 15 meters across and provide better resolution and clarity than movie film, up to five times the resolution of the best available computer monitors, up to 20 times the resolution of television, and up to six times the resolution of HDTV displays. The products that could be developed as a result of this CRADA could benefit the economy in many ways, such as: (1) Direct economic impact in the local manufacture and marketing of the units. (2) Direct economic impact in exports and foreign distribution. (3) Influencing the development of other elements of display technology that take advantage of the signals that these elements allow. (4) Increased productivity for engineers, FAA controllers, medical practitioners, and military operatives.

  8. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Michael D; Tinkham, Wade T; Hoffman, Chad; Cheng, Antony S; Hawbaker, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP) imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m(2)) having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability of an OBIA

  9. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of developing enamel in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Barry, John C; Kemp, Anne

    2007-12-01

    The permanent tooth plates of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are covered by enamel that develops initially in a similar manner to that of other vertebrates. As the enamel layer matures, it acquires several unusual characteristics. It has radially oriented protoprismatic structures with the long axes of the protoprisms perpendicular to the enamel surface. Protoprisms can be defined as aggregations of hydroxyapatite crystals that lack the highly ordered arrangement of the rods of mammalian enamel but are not without a specific structure of their own. The protoprisms are arranged in layers of variable thickness that are deposited sequentially as the tooth plate grows. They may be confined to the separate layers, or may cross the boundary between each layer. Crystals within the protoprisms are long and thin with hydroxyapatite c-axis dimensions of between 30 and 350 nm, and with typical a-b axis dimensions of 5-10 nm. The hydroxyapatite crystals of lungfish enamel have no centre dark lines of octacalcium phosphate, an unusual character among vertebrates. As each crystal develops, arrays of atoms may change direction, and regions exist where dislocations and extra lattice planes are inserted into the long crystal. The resulting hydroxyapatite crystal is not straight, and has a rough surface. The crystals are arranged in tangled structures with their crystallographic c-axes closely aligned with the long axis of the protoprism. Lungfish enamel differs from the enamel of higher vertebrates in that the hydroxyapatite crystals are of different shape, and, in mature enamel, the protoprisms remain as protoprisms and do not develop into the conventional prismatic structures characteristic of mammalian enamel.

  10. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caggiano, Michael D.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Hoffman, Chad; Cheng, Antony S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP) imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m2) having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability of an OBIA

  11. Development of a high resolution liquid xenon imaging chamber for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to develop the technology of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays from astrophysical sources emitting in the low to medium energy regime. In particular, the technical challenges and the physical processes relevant to the realization of the LXe detector operated as a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) were addressed and studied. Experimental results were obtained on the following topics: (1) long distance drift of free electrons in LXe (purity); (2) scintillation light yield for electrons and alphas in LXe (triggering); and (3) ionization yield for electrons and gamma rays in LXe (energy resolution). The major results from the investigations are summarized.

  12. Development of a high-resolution bathymetry dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Larson, Kyle B.; Lettrick, Joseph W.

    2010-10-08

    A bathymetric and topographic data collection and processing effort involving existing and newly collected data has been performed for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach in central Washington State, extending 60-miles from the tailrace of Priest Rapids Dam (river mile 397) to near the vicinity of the Interstate 182 bridge just upstream of the Yakima River confluence (river mile 337). The contents of this report provide a description of the data collections, data inputs, processing methodology, and final data quality assessment used to develop a comprehensive and continuous merged 1m resolution bathymetric and topographic surface dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach.

  13. Deformographics: High-Resolution Projection Display Development for Air Traffic Control Purposes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    AIIHSTUTIIl A* CI N 4:- The UvAted States Coveirnot’d..es vat se@rso pf~dwctf or mosawfac tutors. Trade or ammufacturru’s meie appear hereze solely...furnished N -I (flight strip posting) console, to develop as isterface to permit the display to be driven from a Digital Equipment Corp PDW-41 Scomputer, and...blue, and, trivially, black. The smaller characters , n the figure are approximately 4.75 m- (3/16 inch) high. The crulor capability was established but

  14. Development of compact and ultra-high-resolution spectrograph with multi-GHz optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Mamoru; Sukegawa, Takashi; Silva, Alissa; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, a calibration method for an astronomical spectrograph using an optical frequency comb (OFC) with a repetition rate of more than ten GHz has been developed successfully [1-5]. But controlling filtering cavities that are used for thinning out longitudinal modes precludes long term stability. The super-mode noise coming from the fundamental repetition rate is an additional problem. We developed a laser-diode pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic oscillator, which enabled the generation of 4-GHz (maximum repetition rate of 6.7 GHz) pulse trains directly with a spectrum width of 7 nm (full-width half-maximum, FWHM), and controlled its optical frequency within a MHz level of accuracy using a beat note between the 4-GHz laser and a 246-MHz Yb-fiber OFC. The optical frequency of the Yb-fiber OFC was phase locked to a Rb clock frequency standard. Furthermore we also built a table-top multi-pass spectrograph with a maximum frequency resolution of 600 MHz and a bandwidth of 1 nm using a large-size high-efficiency transmission grating. The resolution could be changed by selecting the number of passes through the grating. This spectrograph could resolve each longitudinal mode of our 4-GHz OFC clearly, and more than 10% throughput was obtained when the resolution was set to 600 MHz. We believe that small and middle scale astronomical observatories could easily implement such an OFC-calibrated spectrograph.

  15. Development of a High Resolution-High Sensitivity Ion Microprobe Facility for Cosmochemical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeegan, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    NASA NAGW-4112 has supported development of the CAMECA ims 1270 ion microprobe at UCLA for applications in cosmochemistry. The instrument has been brought to an operational status and techniques developed for accurate, precise microbeam analysis of oxygen isotope ratios in polished thin-sections. We made the first oxygen isotopic (delta(18)O and delta(17)O) measurements of rare mafic silicates in the most chemically primitive meteorites, the a chondrites (Leshin et al., 1997). The results have implications for both high temperature processing in the nebula and low-T aqueous alteration on the CI asteroid. We have performed measurements of oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite and co-existing olivine from carbonaceous (Choi et al., 1997) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (Choi et al., in press). This work has identified a significant new oxygen isotope reservoir in the early solar system: water characterized by a very high Delta(17)) value of approx. 5 % per thousand. We have determined the spatial distributions of oxygen isotopic anomalies in all major mineral phases of a type B CAI from Allende. We have also studied an unusual fractionated CAI from Leoville and made the first oxygen isotopic measurements in rare CAIs from ordinary chondrites.

  16. Development of a High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1992-01-01

    In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive preamplifiers for a nondestructive readout of the electron image on the induction wires, (5) performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations to obtain results on efficiency, background rejection capability, and source flux sensitivity, and (6) developed a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points.

  17. MRO High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE): Instrument Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, Alan; Becker, Ira; Bergstrom, Jim; Burkepile, Jon; Day, Joe; Dorn, David; Gallagher, Dennis; Hamp, Charlie; Lasco, Jeffrey; Meiers, Bill

    2003-01-01

    The primary functional requirement of the HiRISE imager is to allow identification of both predicted and unknown features on the surface of Mars to a much finer resolution and contrast than previously possible. This results in a camera with a very wide swath width, 6km at 300km altitude, and a high signal to noise ratio, >100:1. Generation of terrain maps, 30 cm vertical resolution, from stereo images requires very accurate geometric calibration. The project limitations of mass, cost and schedule make the development challenging. In addition, the spacecraft stability must not be a major limitation to image quality. The nominal orbit for the science phase of the mission is a 3pm orbit of 255 by 320 km with periapsis locked to the south pole. The track velocity is approximately 3,400 m/s.

  18. Development of a High-Resolution, Single-Photon X-Ray Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, George M.

    1996-01-01

    Research on the development of a low-temperature, magnetic bolometer for x-ray detection is reported. The principal accomplishments during the first phase of this research are as follows. (1) We have constructed SQUID magnetometers and detected both 122 keV and 6 keV x-rays in relatively larger metallic samples with high quantum efficiency. (2) The magnetic properties of a metal sample with localized paramagnetic spins have been measured and found to agree with theoretical expectations. (3) The size of the magnetic response of the sample to x-rays is in agreement with predictions based on the properties of the sample and sensitivity of the magnetometer, supporting the prediction that a resolution of 1 eV at 10 keV should be achievable.

  19. MRO High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE): Instrument Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, Alan; Becker, Ira; Bergstrom, Jim; Burkepile, Jon; Day, Joe; Dorn, David; Gallagher, Dennis; Hamp, Charlie; Lasco, Jeffrey; Meiers, Bill

    2003-01-01

    The primary functional requirement of the HiRISE imager is to allow identification of both predicted and unknown features on the surface of Mars to a much finer resolution and contrast than previously possible. This results in a camera with a very wide swath width, 6km at 300km altitude, and a high signal to noise ratio, >100:1. Generation of terrain maps, 30 cm vertical resolution, from stereo images requires very accurate geometric calibration. The project limitations of mass, cost and schedule make the development challenging. In addition, the spacecraft stability must not be a major limitation to image quality. The nominal orbit for the science phase of the mission is a 3pm orbit of 255 by 320 km with periapsis locked to the south pole. The track velocity is approximately 3,400 m/s.

  20. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multilayer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor); Gorenstein, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i .e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well.

  1. Development of high-resolution arrayed waveguide grating spectrometers for astronomical applications: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatkine, Pradip; Veilleux, Sylvain; Hu, Yiwen; Zhu, Tiecheng; Meng, Yang; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Dagenais, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Astrophotonics is the next-generation approach that provides the means to miniaturize near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers for upcoming large telescopes and make them more robust and inexpensive. The target requirements for our spectrograph are: a resolving power of 3000, wide spectral range (J and H bands), free spectral range of about 30 nm, high on-chip throughput of about 80% (-1dB) and low crosstalk (high contrast ratio) between adjacent on-chip wavelength channels of less than 1% (-20 dB). A promising photonic technology to achieve these requirements is Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs). We have developed our first generation of AWG devices using a silica-on-silicon substrate with a very thin layer of Si3N4 in the core of our waveguides. The waveguide bending losses are minimized by optimizing the geometry of the waveguides. Our first generation of AWG devices are designed for H band have a resolving power of 1500 and free spectral range of 10 nm around a central wavelength of 1600 nm. The devices have a footprint of only 12 mm × 6 mm. They are broadband (1450-1650 nm), have a peak on-chip throughput of about 80% ( -1 dB) and contrast ratio of about 1.5% (-18 dB). These results confirm the robustness of our design, fabrication and simulation methods. Currently, the devices are designed for Transverse Electric (TE) polarization and all the results are for TE mode. We are developing separate J- and H-band AWGs with higher resolving power, higher throughput and lower crosstalk over a wider free spectral range to make them better suited for astronomical applications.

  2. Development of a translation stage for in situ noninvasive analysis and high-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strivay, David; Clar, Mathieu; Rakkaa, Said; Hocquet, Francois-Philippe; Defeyt, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques and analytical instrumentation for cultural heritage object studies have undergone a tremendous development over the last years. Many new miniature and/or handheld systems have been developed and optimized. Nonetheless, these instruments are usually used with a tripod or a manual position system. This is very time consuming when performing point analysis or 2D scanning of a surface. The Centre Européen d'Archéométrie has built a translation system made of pluggable rails of 1 m long with a maximum length and height of 3 m. Three motors embedded in the system allow the platform to be moved along these axis, toward and backward from the sample. The rails hold a displacement system, providing a continuous movement. Any position can be reached with a reproducibility of 0.1 mm. The displacements are controlled by an Ethernet connection through a laptop computer running a multiplatform custom-made software written in JAVA. This software allows a complete control over the positioning using a simple, unique, and concise interface. Automatic scanning can be performed over a large surface of 3 m on 3 m. The Ethernet wires provide also the power for the different motors and, if necessary, the detection head. The platform has been originally designed for a XRF detection head (with its full power alimentation) but now can accommodate many different systems like IR reflectography, digital camera, hyperspectral camera, and Raman probes. The positioning system can be modified to combine the acquisition software of the imaging or analytical techniques and the positioning software.

  3. High-resolution gene expression atlases for adult and developing mouse brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Henry, Alex M; Hohmann, John G

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the structure, genetics, circuits, and physiological properties of the mammalian brain in both normal and pathological states is ever increasing as research labs worldwide probe the various aspects of brain function. Until recently, however, comprehensive cataloging of gene expression across the central nervous system has been lacking. The Allen Institute for Brain Science, as part of its mission to propel neuroscience research, has completed several large gene-mapping projects in mouse, nonhuman primate, and human brain, producing informative online public resources and tools. Here we present the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, covering ~20,000 genes throughout the adult mouse brain; the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas, detailing expression of approximately 2,000 important developmental genes across seven embryonic and postnatal stages of brain growth; and the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas, revealing expression for ~20,000 genes in the adult and neonatal mouse spinal cords. Integrated data-mining tools, including reference atlases, informatics analyses, and 3-D viewers, are described. For these massive-scale projects, high-throughput industrial techniques were developed to standardize and reliably repeat experimental goals. To verify consistency and accuracy, a detailed analysis of the 1,000 most viewed genes for the adult mouse brain (according to website page views) was performed by comparing our data with peer-reviewed literature and other databases. We show that our data are highly consistent with independent sources and provide a comprehensive compendium of information and tools used by thousands of researchers each month. All data and tools are freely available via the Allen Brain Atlas portal (www.brain-map.org).

  4. Developing synthesis techniques for zeolitic-imidazolate framework membranes for high resolution propylene/propane separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyuk Taek

    Propylene/propane separation is one of the most challenging separations, currently achieved by energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. Despite the great potentials for energy-efficient membrane-based propylene/propane separation processes, no commercial membranes are available due to the limitations (i.e., low selectivity) of current polymeric materials. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are promising membrane materials primarily due to their well-defined ultra-micropores with controllable surface chemistry along with their relatively high thermal/chemical stabilities. In particular, ZIF-8 with the effective aperture size of ~ 4.0 A has been shown very promising for propylene/propane separation. Despite the extensive research on ZIF-8 membranes, only a few of ZIF-8 membranes have displayed good propylene/propane separation performances presumably due to the challenges of controlling the microstructures of polycrystalline membranes. Since the membrane microstructures are greatly influenced by processing techniques, it is critically important to develop new techniques. In this dissertation, three state-of-the-art ZIF membrane synthesis techniques are developed. The first is a one-step in-situ synthesis technique based on the concept of counter diffusion. The technique enabled us to obtain highly propylene selective ZIF-8 membranes in less than a couple of hours with exceptional mechanical strength. Most importantly, due to the nature of the counter-diffusion concept, the new method offered unique opportunities such as healing defective membranes (i.e., poorly-intergrown) as well as significantly reducing the consumption of costly ligands and organic solvents. The second is a microwave-assisted seeding technique. Using this new seeding technique, we were able to prepare seeded supports with a high packing density in a couple of minutes, which subsequently grown into highly propylene-selective ZIF-8 membranes with an average propylene/propane selectivity of ~40

  5. Development of an ultra-high resolution diffraction grating forsoft x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Cambie, Rossana; Feshchenko, Ruslan M.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Padmore, Howard A.; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-21

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is the one of themost powerful methods for investigation of the electronic structure ofmaterials, specifically of excitations in correlated electron systems.However the potential of the RIXS technique has not been fully exploitedbecause conventional grating spectrometers have not been capable ofachieving the extreme resolving powers that RIXS can utilize. State ofthe art spectrometers in the soft x-ray energy range achieve ~;0.25 eVresolution, compared to the energy scales of soft excitations andsuperconducting gap openings down to a few meV. Development ofdiffraction gratings with super high resolving power is necessary tosolve this problem. In this paper we study the possibilities offabrication of gratings of resolving power of up to 106 for the 0.5 1.5KeV energy range. This energy range corresponds to all or most of theuseful dipole transitions for elements of interest in most correlatedelectronic systems, i.e., oxygen K-edge of relevance to all oxides, thetransition metal L2,3 edges, and the M4,5 edges of the rare earths.Various approaches based on different kinds of diffraction gratings suchas deep-etched multilayer gratings, and multilayer coated echelettes arediscussed. We also present simulations of diffraction efficiency for suchgratings, and investigate the necessary fabricationtolerances.

  6. Development of a compact scintillator-based high-resolution Compton camera for molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, A.; Kataoka, J.; Koide, A.; Sueoka, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T.; Ohsuka, S.

    2017-02-01

    The Compton camera, which shows gamma-ray distribution utilizing the kinematics of Compton scattering, is a promising detector capable of imaging across a wide range of energy. In this study, we aim to construct a small-animal molecular imaging system in a wide energy range by using the Compton camera. We developed a compact medical Compton camera based on a Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). A basic performance confirmed that for 662 keV, the typical energy resolution was 7.4 % (FWHM) and the angular resolution was 4.5° (FWHM). We then used the medical Compton camera to conduct imaging experiments based on a 3-D imaging reconstruction algorithm using the multi-angle data acquisition method. The result confirmed that for a 137Cs point source at a distance of 4 cm, the image had a spatial resolution of 3.1 mm (FWHM). Furthermore, we succeeded in producing 3-D multi-color image of different simultaneous energy sources (22Na [511 keV], 137Cs [662 keV], and 54Mn [834 keV]).

  7. High-resolution emission inventory of the Lombardy region: development and comparison with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommen, J.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baertsch-Ritter, N.; Maffeis, G.; Longoni, M. G.; Grüebler, F. C.; Thielmann, A.

    In the framework of the EUROTRAC-2 subproject limitation of oxidant production an emission inventory was developed for the Lombardy region in Italy with a 1 h temporal and 3 km spatial resolution. The emissions were processed in a bottom-up approach. We outline the emissions processing strategy used and summarize the inventory characteristics. Spatial maps and diurnal series charts of the total emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x), carbon monoxide CO, volatile organic compounds (VOC) are provided. The emission inventory shows distinct patterns for the urban area and the non-metropolitan region. We compare ratios of CO to NO x and CO to different VOC-classes between the emission inventory and measurements performed at two sites representative for the urban and non-metropolitan areas. Ratios were determined from the slopes of correlations between CO and the respective species class. Observed CO/NO x ratios are higher in the urban and non-metropolitan area by factors of 2 and 3, respectively. CO/VOC ratios show different discrepancies depending on the VOC-class but are generally lower in the emission inventory. Observations at the two sites yielded similar concentration ratios opposite to the inventory.

  8. Development of high-rate MRPCs for high resolution time-of-flight systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Wang, Yi; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Chen, Huangshan; Fan, Xingming; Li, Yuanjing; Cheng, Jianping; Kaspar, Marcus; Kotte, Roland; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Naumann, Lothar; Stach, Daniel; Wendisch, Christian; Wüstenfeld, Jörn

    2013-06-01

    We show how the high charged-particle flux (1-20 kHz/cm2) expected over the 150 m2 large time-of-flight wall of the future Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR can be realistically handled with Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). This crucial 100-fold increase of the chamber rate capability, as compared to that of standard MRPCs presently employed in experiments resorting to sub-100 ps timing, has been achieved thanks to the development of a new type of low-resistive doped glass. Following the encouraging results previously obtained with small counters, two types of modules (active area: ˜150 cm2) have been built at Tsinghua University with the new material. The measurements conveyed in this work, obtained with a quasi- minimum ionizing electron beam (γβ≥3), prove their suitability as the building blocks of the present hadron-identification concept of the CBM experiment. Namely, they provide a time resolution better than 80 ps and an efficiency above 90% at a particle flux well in excess of 20 kHz/cm2 (up to 35-60 kHz/cm2), being at the core of a modular concept that is easily scalable. Recent measurements of the electrical and mechanical properties of this new material, together with its long-term behavior, are shortly summarized.

  9. Development of micro-optics for high-resolution IL spectroscopy with a proton microbeam probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Wataru; Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2014-01-01

    Confocal optics for ion luminescence (IL) was developed for the precise analysis of the chemical composition of microscopic targets with an external proton microbeam probe. Anti-reflection-coated confocal micro-lens optics with an effective focus area of approximately 800 × 800 μm was installed on the microbeam line of a single-ended accelerator. Chromatic aberrations of the confocal optics were examined at wavelengths of 300-900 nm. An electrically-cooled back-thinned charge coupled device spectrometer with a wavelength resolution of 0.5 nm was used for the microscopic spectroscopy and IL imaging of microscopic mineral targets. Simultaneous microscopic IL and micro-PIXE analysis were performed using an external 3 MeV H+ microbeam with a current of less than 100 pA. A spectral resolution of 3 nm was achieved for a single IL peak which corresponded to Cr3+ impurities in a single-crystal of aluminum oxide. The use of IL spectroscopy and imaging for aerosol targets revealed microscopic distributions of the chemical and elemental composition in the atmosphere.

  10. Development of a High-Resolution Shallow Seismic Refraction Tomography System at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henthorn, R.; Caress, D. W.; Chaffey, M. R.; McGill, P. R.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Burgess, W. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is developing a high-resolution marine seismic refraction imaging system that can be deployed and operated using a remotely operated vehicle. Conventional marine seismic refraction methods typically use low-frequency sources and widely-spaced seafloor receivers to image crustal-scale subsurface structure. These systems often employ air-guns towed from a surface vessel to produce acoustic signals ranging from 1-100Hz, and ocean-bottom seismometers to record the refracted signals, resulting in images on the scale of hundreds of kilometers with resolutions no better than hundreds of meters. Images of subsurface structure at resolutions on the order of meters requires closely-spaced, near-seafloor sources and receivers capable of producing and recording higher-frequency signals centered around 3kHz. This poster will describe the first phase development of the High-Resolution Shallow Seismic Refraction Tomography System at MBARI including the science drivers, the design approach and trade-offs, and results from initial field tests conducted in the Monterey Bay. The capability to image fine-scale subsurface structure will augment ongoing research on hydrate deposits. Methane and the other hydrocarbon gases trapped in hydrates are climate-impacting greenhouse gases as well as potential energy sources. Therefore, research regarding the formation, stability, volume, and structure of these globally common deposits has considerable relevance today. High-resolution subsurface imaging can impact many important marine geological topics such as submarine faults, hydrothermal venting, and submarine volcanism. The system combines ROV-mounted transmission of chirp acoustic signals with a roughly 1-6 kHz sweep and an array of high-frequency ocean bottom hydrophone (OBH) receivers. The configuration of closely spaced receivers and a source pinging at tightly-spaced intervals provides the opportunity to pick refracted arrival times

  11. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multi-Layer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This is the annual report for the third year of a three-year program. Previous annual reports have described progress achieved in the first and second years. The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i.e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well. We are building upon technology that has proven to be successful in the XMM-Newton and SWIFT missions. The improvements that we are adding are a significant reduction in mass without much loss of angular resolution and an order of magnitude extension of the bandwidth through the use of multilayer coatings. The distinctive feature of this approach compared to those of other hard X-ray telescope programs is that we expect the angular resolution to be superior than telescopes made by other methods thanks to the structural integrity of the substrates. They are thin walled complete cylinders of revolution with a Wolter Type 1 figure; the front half is a parabola, the rear half a hyperbola.

  12. Recent developments in high-resolution optical diagnostics of repetitively pulsed laser-target effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred; Althaus, Marion

    1995-05-01

    High energy densities, as required both in research and in industry, are achieved by the use of lasers. Extremely highpower densities are obtained in the pulsed mode with short microsecond(s) -, ns-, or even ultrashort ps- to fs- pulses. The interaction of such powerful laser pulses with any type of solid state, liquid or gaseous materials is then causing rapidly developing, nonstationary, optically nonlinear processes. Experimental investigations of these effects are therefore requiring special measuring techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical and optronical methods have proven to be particularly useful. Methods based on laser diagnostics, including high speed photography, cinematography, speckle techniques, holography, videography, infrared techniques or arbitrary combinations of these, are therefore considered to be important tools in these laser effect studies. The investigations reported in the present paper are referring to carbon dioxide-laser effects in intensity ranges which are useful for many industrial applications, such as for example in the field of material processing. Basic interest is actually in pulsed, plasma sustained laser target interaction phenomena which occur above critical threshold power densities, specific for each type of material. Surface induced, highly ionized absorption waves are then determining the energy transfer from the coherent laser radiation field towards the targets. The experiments at ISL were aimed at investigating plasma parameters and their influence on the energy transfer rates, by fast optical, electrical and optronical techniques, such as mentioned above. The results to be discussed refer to target effects, basically observed on optically transparent materials, subject to high average power pulsed carbon dioxide-laser radiation, with repetition rates of several tens to hundred pps at multi-MW/cm2 to GW/cm2 peak power densities and average power densities in the multi-kW/cm2-range.

  13. Developing a high-resolution CO2 flux inversion model for global and regional scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Janardanan Achari, R.; Oda, T.; Ito, A.; Saito, M.; W Kaiser, J.; Belikov, D.; Ganshin, A.; Valsala, V.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    We develop and test an iterative inversion framework that is designed for estimating surface CO2 fluxes at a high spatial resolution using a Lagrangian-Eulerian coupled tracer transport model and atmospheric CO2 data collected by the global in-situ network and satellite observations. In our inverse modeling system, we employ the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART that was coupled to the Eulerian atmospheric tracer transport model (NIES-TM). We also derived an adjoint of the coupled model. Weekly corrections to prior fluxes are calculated at a spatial resolution of the FLEXPART-simulated surface flux responses (0.1 degree). Fossil fuel (ODIAC) and biomass burning (GFAS) emissions are given at original model spatial resolutions (0.1 degree), while other fluxes are interpolated from a coarser resolution. The terrestrial biosphere fluxes are simulated with the VISIT model at 0.5 degree resolution. Ocean fluxes are calculated using a 4D-Var assimilation system (OTTM) of the surface pCO2 observations. The flux response functions simulated with FLEXPART are used in forward and adjoint runs of the coupled transport model. To obtain a best fit to the observations we tested a set of optimization algorithms, including quasi-Newtonian algorithms and implicitly restarted Lanczos method. The square root of covariance matrix for surface fluxes is implemented as implicit diffusion operator, while the adjoint of it is derived using automatic code differentiation tool. The prior and posterior flux uncertainties are evaluated using singular vectors of scaled tracer transport operator. The weekly flux uncertainties and flux uncertainty reduction due to assimilating GOSAT XCO2 data were estimated for a period of one year. The model was applied to assimilating one year of Obspack data, and produced satisfactory flux correction results. Regional version of the model was applied to inverse model analysis of the CO2 flux distrubution in West Siberia using continuous observation

  14. Development of ALARO-Climate regional climate model for a very high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, Petr; Farda, Ales; Brozkova, Radmila; Masek, Jan

    2013-04-01

    ALARO-Climate is a new regional climate model (RCM) derived from the ALADIN LAM model family. It is based on the numerical weather prediction model ALARO and developed at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The model is expected to able to work in the so called "grey zone" physics (horizontal resolution of 4 - 7 km) and at the same time retain its ability to be operated in resolutions in between 20 and 50 km, which are typical for contemporary generation of regional climate models. Here we present the main features of the RCM ALARO-Climate and results of the first model simulations on longer time-scales (1961-1990). The model was driven by the ERA-40/Interim re-analyses and run on the large pan-European integration domain ("ENSEMBLES / Euro-Cordex domain") with spatial resolution of 25 km. The simulated model climate was compared with the gridded observation of air temperature (mean, maximum, minimum) and precipitation from the E-OBS version 7 dataset. The validation of the first ERA-40 simulation has revealed significant cold biases in all seasons (between -4 and -2 °C) and overestimation of precipitation on 20% to 60% in the selected Central Europe target area (0° - 30° eastern longitude ; 40° - 60° northern latitude). The consequent adaptations in the model and their effect on the simulated properties of climate variables are illustrated. Acknowledgements: This study was performed within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation) and CzechGlobe Centre (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0073). The partial support was also provided under the projects P209-11-0956 of the Czech Science Foundation and CZ.1.07/2.4.00/31.0056 (Operational Programme of Education for Competitiveness of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic).

  15. High-resolution cryo-EM proteasome structures in drug development.

    PubMed

    Morris, Edward P; da Fonseca, Paula C A

    2017-06-01

    With the recent advances in biological structural electron microscopy (EM), protein structures can now be obtained by cryo-EM and single-particle analysis at resolutions that used to be achievable only by crystallographic or NMR methods. We have explored their application to study protein-ligand interactions using the human 20S proteasome, a well established target for cancer therapy that is also being investigated as a target for an increasing range of other medical conditions. The map of a ligand-bound human 20S proteasome served as a proof of principle that cryo-EM is emerging as a realistic approach for more general structural studies of protein-ligand interactions, with the potential benefits of extending such studies to complexes that are unfavourable to other methods and allowing structure determination under conditions that are closer to physiological, preserving ligand specificity towards closely related binding sites. Subsequently, the cryo-EM structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 20S proteasome, with a new prototype specific inhibitor bound, revealed the molecular basis for the ligand specificity towards the parasite complex, which provides a framework to guide the development of highly needed new-generation antimalarials. Here, the cryo-EM analysis of the ligand-bound human and P. falciparum 20S proteasomes is reviewed, and a complete description of the methods used for structure determination is provided, including the strategy to overcome the bias orientation of the human 20S proteasome on electron-microscope grids and details of the icr3d software used for three-dimensional reconstruction.

  16. Development of high resolution eddy current imaging using an electro-mechanical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M. R.; Sathish, S.; Welter, J.; Reibel, R.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2012-05-01

    Typical eddy current probes are based on measuring the impedance change of a coil excited by an AC current when the coil is placed above a conductive sample. These types of probes are limited in spatial resolution to the dimensions of the coil, and coil diameter is limited by operating frequency. Because of this, the highest resolution available with these probes is on the order of 100 um. While detecting the impedance change of the probe has limited special resolution, various methods of detecting the change in magnetic field in and around the coil have been shown to improve the resolution of a standard coil. These methods have improved the resolution in eddy current imaging to 25 nm. To date, the resolutions achievable by modern eddy current technology have failed to encompass the 100nm - 100 um range, which would be ideal for microstructure characterization of conductive materials. In this paper, a new probe, called the electro-mechanical eddy current sensor (EMECS), is presented that is based on the electromechanical design to fill this resolution gap. The new probe is designed and developed with a sharpened magnetic tip attached to the membrane of an electret microphone. The magnet is actuated by an external coil with a low current AC voltage. The motion of the magnet produces eddy currents in a conductive sample, which then result in a damping force on the magnet. The results of the experimental measurements demonstrate that this probe has spatial resolution that is much higher compared with the measurements using the external excitation coil only. The role of competing eddy currents produced by the motion of the magnet and the excitation coil in the material are examined with numerical analysis and the effects of the eddy currents from the excitation coil are shown to be negligible. A governing equation for the probe is presented that treats the magnet as a magnetic dipole and uses the eddy current forces as a damping term in the equation of motion for the

  17. Development of a Novel, Parsimonious, Model-based Approach for Representing High-resolution Gravel Facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, N.; Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    A precise, time-efficient, cost-effective method for quantifying riverbed roughness and sediment size distribution has hitherto eluded river scientists. Traditional techniques (e.g., Wolman counts) have high potential for error brought about by operator bias and subjectivity when presented with complex facies assemblages, poor spatial coverage, insufficient sample sizes, and misrepresentation of bedforms. The application of LiDAR facilitated accurate observation of micro-scale habitats, and has been successfully employed in quantifying sediment grain size at the local level. However, despite considerable success of LiDAR instruments in remotely sensing riverine landscapes, and the obvious benefits they offer - very high spatial and temporal resolution, rapid data acquisition, and minimal disturbance in the field - procurement of these apparatus and their respective computer software comes at high financial cost, and extensive user training is generally necessary in order to operate such devices. Recent developments in computer software have led to advancements in digital photogrammetry over a broad range of scales, with Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques enabling production of precise DEMs based on point-clouds analogous to, and even denser than, those produced by LiDAR, at significantly reduced cost and complexity during post-processing. This study has employed both an SfM-photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) approach in a comparative analysis of sediment grain size, where LiDAR-derived data has previously provided a reliable reference of grain size. Total Station EDM theodolite provided the parent coordinate system for both SfM and meshing of TLS point-clouds. For each data set, a 0.19 m moving window (consistent with the largest sediment clast b axis) was applied to the resulting point-clouds. Two times standard deviation of elevation was calculated in order to provide a surrogate measure of grain protrusion, from which sediment frequency

  18. Development of ALARO-Climate regional climate model for a very high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, Petr; Farda, Ales; Brozkova, Radmila; Masek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    ALARO-Climate is a new regional climate model (RCM) derived from the ALADIN LAM model family. It is based on the numerical weather prediction model ALARO and developed at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The model is expected to able to work in the so called "grey zone" physics (horizontal resolution of 4 - 7 km) and at the same time retain its ability to be operated in resolutions in between 20 and 50 km, which are typical for contemporary generation of regional climate models. Here we present the main results of the RCM ALARO-Climate model simulations in 25 and 6.25 km resolutions on the longer time-scale (1961-1990). The model was driven by the ERA-40 re-analyses and run on the integration domain of ~ 2500 x 2500 km size covering the central Europe. The simulated model climate was compared with the gridded observation of air temperature (mean, maximum, minimum) and precipitation from the E-OBS version dataset 8. Other simulated parameters (e.g., cloudiness, radiation or components of water cycle) were compared to the ERA-40 re-analyses. The validation of the first ERA-40 simulation in both, 25 km and 6.25 km resolutions, revealed significant cold biases in all seasons and overestimation of precipitation in the selected Central Europe target area (0° - 30° eastern longitude ; 40° - 60° northern latitude). The differences between these simulations were small and thus revealed a robustness of the model's physical parameterization on the resolution change. The series of 25 km resolution simulations with several model adaptations was carried out to study their effect on the simulated properties of climate variables and thus possibly identify a source of major errors in the simulated climate. The current investigation suggests the main reason for biases is related to the model physic. Acknowledgements: This study was performed within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation) and CzechGlobe Centre (CZ.1

  19. Development of a near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph (WINERED) for a survey of bulge stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Yasui, C.; Kondo, S.; Minami, A.; Motohara, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Gouda, N.

    2008-07-01

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R[max] = 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9 1.35 μm. WINERED employs an innovative optical system; a portable design and a warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide precise positions, distances, and proper motions of the bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical composition will be measured by WINERED. These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument for observations of single objects by the end of 2008 and to attach it to various 4 10m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. We hope to upgrade WINERED with a multi-object feed in the future for efficient survey of the JASMINE bulge stars.

  20. Development and characterization of 16-channel silicon photomultiplier prototype with sub-mm pixels for high-resolution PET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Lipovec, A.; Takahashi, H.; Wiest, F.; Iskra, P.; Ganka, T.; Kamada, K.

    2014-11-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are one of the most promising photodetectors for high-resolution PET systems because of their high gain and fast rise time. The resolution of a modern animal PET scanner is now in the sub-mm range; it has also been reported that an individual readout for pixels is necessary in order to achieve the theoretically best resolution. For achieving sub-mm resolution, a detector with pixelated crystals individually coupled to the photodetector is ideal. To this end, a prototype 16-channel SiPM with a pitch of 500μm was designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were studied. Several parameters, such as dark count rate (DCR), gain, crosstalk, and photon detection efficiency (PDE) are characterized in this study. The developed SiPM shows the performance required for future PET detector application.

  1. Development and Validation of a Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting Method for High-Resolution Genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Susan L.; Mutschall, Steven K.; MacKinnon, Joanne M.; Roberts, Michael J.; Buchanan, Cody J.; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Thomas, James E.; Nash, John H. E.; Gannon, Victor P. J.; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Clark, Clifford G.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The need for molecular subtyping methods with enhanced discrimination in the context of surveillance- and outbreak-based epidemiologic investigations of Campylobacter spp. is critical to our understanding of sources and routes of transmission and the development of mitigation strategies to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis. We describe the development and validation of a rapid and high-resolution comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) method for C. jejuni. A total of 412 isolates from agricultural, environmental, retail, and human clinical sources obtained from the Canadian national integrated enteric pathogen surveillance program (C-EnterNet) were analyzed using a 40-gene assay (CGF40) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The significantly higher Simpson's index of diversity (ID) obtained with CGF40 (ID = 0.994) suggests that it has a higher discriminatory power than MLST at both the level of clonal complex (ID = 0.873) and sequence type (ID = 0.935). High Wallace coefficients obtained when CGF40 was used as the primary typing method suggest that CGF and MLST are highly concordant, and we show that isolates with identical MLST profiles are comprised of isolates with distinct but highly similar CGF profiles. The high concordance with MLST coupled with the ability to discriminate between closely related isolates suggests that CFG40 is useful in differentiating highly prevalent sequence types, such as ST21 and ST45. CGF40 is a high-resolution comparative genomics-based method for C. jejuni subtyping with high discriminatory power that is also rapid, low cost, and easily deployable for routine epidemiologic surveillance and outbreak investigations. PMID:22170908

  2. Development and validation of a comparative genomic fingerprinting method for high-resolution genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Eduardo N; Ross, Susan L; Mutschall, Steven K; Mackinnon, Joanne M; Roberts, Michael J; Buchanan, Cody J; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Jokinen, Cassandra C; Thomas, James E; Nash, John H E; Gannon, Victor P J; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Clark, Clifford G

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The need for molecular subtyping methods with enhanced discrimination in the context of surveillance- and outbreak-based epidemiologic investigations of Campylobacter spp. is critical to our understanding of sources and routes of transmission and the development of mitigation strategies to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis. We describe the development and validation of a rapid and high-resolution comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) method for C. jejuni. A total of 412 isolates from agricultural, environmental, retail, and human clinical sources obtained from the Canadian national integrated enteric pathogen surveillance program (C-EnterNet) were analyzed using a 40-gene assay (CGF40) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The significantly higher Simpson's index of diversity (ID) obtained with CGF40 (ID = 0.994) suggests that it has a higher discriminatory power than MLST at both the level of clonal complex (ID = 0.873) and sequence type (ID = 0.935). High Wallace coefficients obtained when CGF40 was used as the primary typing method suggest that CGF and MLST are highly concordant, and we show that isolates with identical MLST profiles are comprised of isolates with distinct but highly similar CGF profiles. The high concordance with MLST coupled with the ability to discriminate between closely related isolates suggests that CFG40 is useful in differentiating highly prevalent sequence types, such as ST21 and ST45. CGF40 is a high-resolution comparative genomics-based method for C. jejuni subtyping with high discriminatory power that is also rapid, low cost, and easily deployable for routine epidemiologic surveillance and outbreak investigations.

  3. Development of urban area geospatial information products from high resolution satellite imagery using advanced image analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackelford, Aaron K.

    The latest generation of commercial satellite imaging sensors have a number of characteristics (e.g. high spatial resolution, multispectral bands, and quick revisit time), that make them ideal data sources for a variety of urban area applications. The goal of this doctoral research was to develop advanced automated and semi-automated image analysis and classification techniques for the extraction of urban area geospatial information products from commercial high-resolution satellite imagery. We developed two semi-automated urban land cover classification approaches, as well as fully automated techniques for road network and 2-D building footprint extraction. By utilizing fully automated feature extraction techniques for training data generation, a self-supervised classification approach was also developed. The self-supervised classifier is significantly more accurate than traditional classification approaches, and unlike traditional approaches it is fully automated. The development of automated and semi-automated techniques for generation of urban geospatial information products is of high importance not only for the many applications where they can be used but also because the large volume of data collected by these sensors exceeds the human capacity of trained image specialists to analyze. In addition, many applications, especially those for the military and intelligence communities, require near real time exploitation of the image data.

  4. Some lessons and thoughts from development of an old-fashioned high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohfuchi, Wataru; Enomoto, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Mayumi K.; Takaya, Koutarou

    2014-05-01

    Some high-resolution simulations with a conventional atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) were conducted right after the first Earth Simulator started operating in the spring of 2002. More simulations with various resolutions followed. The AGCM in this study, AFES (Agcm For the Earth Simulator), is a primitive equation spectral transform method model with a cumulus convection parameterization. In this presentation, some findings from comparisons between high and low-resolution simulations, and some future perspectives of old-fashioned AGCMs will be discussed. One obvious advantage of increasing resolution is capability of resolving the fine structures of topography and atmospheric flow. By increasing resolution from T39 (about 320 km horizontal grid interval) to T79 (160 km), to T159 (80 km) to T319 (40 km), topographic precipitation over Japan becomes increasingly realistic. This feature is necessary for climate and weather studies involving both global and local aspects. In order to resolve submesoscale (about 100 km horizontal scale) atmospheric circulation, about 10-km grid interval is necessary. Comparing T1279 (10 km) simulations with T319 ones, it is found that, for example, the intensity of heavy rain associated with Baiu front and the central pressure of typhoon become more realistic. These realistic submesoscale phenomena should have impact on larger-sale flow through dynamics and thermodynamics. An interesting finding by increasing horizontal resolution of a conventional AGCM is that some cumulus convection parameterizations, such as Arakawa-Schubert type scheme, gradually stop producing precipitation, while some others, such as Emanuel type, do not. With the former, the grid condensation increases with the model resolution to compensate. Which characteristics are more desirable is arguable but it is an important feature one has to consider when developing a high-resolution conventional AGCM. Many may think that conventional primitive equation

  5. Development and characterization of high-resolution neutron pixel detectors based on Timepix read-out chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejci, F.; Zemlicka, J.; Jakubek, J.; Dudak, J.; Vavrik, D.; Köster, U.; Atkins, D.; Kaestner, A.; Soltes, J.; Viererbl, L.; Vacik, J.; Tomandl, I.

    2016-12-01

    Using a suitable isotope such as 6Li and 10B semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors can be successfully adapted for position sensitive detection of thermal and cold neutrons via conversion into energetic light ions. The adapted devices then typically provides spatial resolution at the level comparable to the pixel pitch (55 μm) and sensitive area of about few cm2. In this contribution, we describe further progress in neutron imaging performance based on the development of a large-area hybrid pixel detector providing practically continuous neutron sensitive area of 71 × 57 mm2. The measurements characterising the detector performance at the cold neutron imaging instrument ICON at PSI and high-flux imaging beam-line Neutrograph at ILL are presented. At both facilities, high-resolution high-contrast neutron radiography with the newly developed detector has been successfully applied for objects which imaging were previously difficult with hybrid pixel technology (such as various composite materials, objects of cultural heritage etc.). Further, a significant improvement in the spatial resolution of neutron radiography with hybrid semiconductor pixel detector based on the fast read-out Timepix-based detector is presented. The system is equipped with a thin planar 6LiF convertor operated effectively in the event-by-event mode enabling position sensitive detection with spatial resolution better than 10 μm.

  6. Developing a novel UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) helicopter platform for very high resolution environmental monitoring of catchment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, J. E.; Richardson, T.; Yang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information has led the way for the development of hyperspectral sensors and cloud scanning LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). Both these technologies can be used to sense environmental processes and capture detailed spatial information, they are often deployed in ground, aircraft and satellite based systems. Hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, is a relatively new technology that is currently being investigated by researchers and scientists with regard to the detection and identification of landscapes, terrestrial vegetation, and manmade materials and backgrounds. There are many applications that could take advantages of hyperspectral remote sensing coupled to detailed surface feature mapping using LIDAR. This embryonic project involves developing the engineering solutions and post processing techniques needed to realise an ultra high resolution helicopter based environmental sensing platform which can fly at lower altitudes than aircraft systems and can be deployed more frequently. We aim to present this new technology platform in this special session (the only one of it's kind in the UK). Initial applications are planned on a range of environmental sensing problems that would benefit from such complex and detailed data.We look forward to being able to display and discuss this initiative with colleagues and any potential interest in future collaborative projects.

  7. Developing a novel UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) helicopter platform for very high resolution environmental monitoring of catchment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, J.; Richardson, T. S.

    2012-04-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information has led the way for the development of hyperspectral sensors and cloud scanning LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). Both these technologies can be used to sense environmental processes and capture detailed spatial information, they are often deployed in ground, aircraft and satellite based systems. Hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, is a relatively new technology that is currently being investigated by researchers and scientists with regard to the detection and identification of landscapes, terrestrial vegetation, and manmade materials and backgrounds. There are many applications that could take advantages of hyperspectral remote sensing coupled to detailed surface feature mapping using LIDAR. This embryonic project involves developing the engineering solutions and post processing techniques needed to realise an ultra high resolution helicopter based environmental sensing platform which can fly at lower altitudes than aircraft systems and can be deployed more frequently. We aim to display this new technology platform in this special session (the only one of it's kind in the UK). Initial applications are planned on a range of environmental sensing problems that would benefit from such complex and detailed data. We look forward to being able to display and discuss this initiative with colleagues and any potential interest in future collaborative projects.

  8. Development of a Dynamic Barrier Island (Sylt, Eastern North Sea) Based on High-Resolution Aerial Photographs and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, T.; Hass, H. C.

    2004-12-01

    Wind and currents are the driving forces for the morphological development of coastlines and islands by giving them their shape, run and structure. This is especially true in highly dynamic areas such as the Wadden Sea in North-Western Europe. In this unique environment changes are continuous and distinct developments can be noticed within decades. The Island of Sylt, located in the Wadden Sea near the German-Danish border, is a sandy barrier island that protects the mainland against storm floods and waves. Thus, it experiences strong erosion (about 1 m coastal retreat per year). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), that controls the atmospheric circulation over the North Sea, and northerly currents are the driving forces for the morphological development. Rising sea-level due to global change amplifies the erosion processes and forces people to protect the coastline (in this case beach nourishment). The Koenigshafen, a protected, semi-enclosed bay in the north of the Island of Sylt, can be regarded as representative for the study of many coastal processes that affect the island. In this case study, a long-term series of high resolution aerial photographs of the Koenigshafen (starting in 1936) shows the development of the survey area. Wind and currents affect not only the run of the coastline but also sediment composition and biodynamics in the bay. Looking at the hydrodynamics governing the bay, it should have mostly muddy sediments. Strong westerly winds, however, supply the bay with large amounts of sand from inland dunes and create sandy tidal flats. The long-term development of seagrass and mussel beds can also be retrieved from aerial photographs. In both cases a distinct decline in size can be noticed. Remote sensing and GIS techniques allow monitoring the conditions as well as to reconstruct the past development and to predict future developments.

  9. Development of a nonfragmenting distribution surge arrester. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.E.

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the investigation and testing carried out in the development of a nonfragmenting distribution surge arrester. It is commonly assumed that pressure buildup in a failing surge arrester will cause the porcelain to burst unless the pressure is rapidly relieved. Even after pressure relief, however, the porcelain can shatter from the thermal shock produced by the internal arc. There is little published information on the sequence of events during failure and the relative importance of pressure and thermal stress. A prerequisite for the design of a nonfragmenting arrester is a thorough knowledge of the failure mechanism. Extensive testing was performed to determine the contribution of both pressure and heat to porcelain breakage. This research demonstrated the importance of thermal shock and led to the design of an ablative thermal shield for the porcelain housing. This was combined with pressure relief provided by end-cap venting and a retaining system to prevent ejection of internal parts. The final result was the design and production of nonfragmenting distribution arresters rated 9 kV through 27 kV.

  10. Development of high-resolution gamma detector using sub-mm GAGG crystals coupled to TSV-MPPC array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovec, A.; Shimazoe, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this study a high-resolution gamma detector based on an array of sub-millimeter Ce:GAGG (Cerium doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount type of TSV-MPPC was developed. MPPC sensor from Hamamatsu which has a 26 by 26 mm2 detector area with 64 channels was used. One channel has a 3 by 3 mm2 photosensitive area with 50 μ m pitch micro cells. MPPC sensor provides 576 mm2 sensing area and was used to decode 48 by 48 array with 0.4 by 0.4 by 20 mm3 Ce:GAGG crystals of 500 μ m pitch. The base of the detector with the crystal module was mounted to a read out board which consists of charge division circuit, thus allowing for a read out of four channels to identify the position of the incident event on the board. The read out signals were amplified using charge sensitive amplifiers. The four amplified signals were digitized and analyzed to produce a position sensitive event. For the performance analysis a 137Cs source was used. The produced events were used for flood histogram and energy analysis. The effects of the glass thickness between the Ce:GAGG and MPPC were analyzed using the experimental flood diagrams and Geant4 simulations. The glass between the scintillator and the detector allows the spread of the light over different channels and is necessary if the channel's sensitive area is bigger than the scintillator's area. The initial results demonstrate that this detector module is promising and could be used for applications requiring compact and high-resolution detectors. Experimental results show that the detectors precision increases using glass guide thickness of 1.35 mm and 1.85 mm; however the precision using 2.5 mm are practically the same as if using 0.8 mm or 1.0 mm glass guide thicknesses. In addition, simulations using Geant4 indicate that the light becomes scarcer if thicker glass is used, thus reducing the ability to indicate which crystal was targeted. When 2.5 mm glass thickness is used, the scarce light effect becomes

  11. Development of an Apparatus for High-Resolution Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) and Electron Ion Coincidence (EICO) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Hashimoto, Shogo; Fujita, Narihiko; Mase, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Okusawa, Makoto

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) apparatus for high-resolution Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA), a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DP-CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a magnetic shield, an xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface was irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons were energy-analyzed and detected by the ASMA and the DP-CMA, while desorbed ions were mass-analyzed and detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring Si 2p photoelectron spectra of clean Si(001)-2×1 and Si(111)-7×7, and by measuring Si-L23VV-Si-2p Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra (Si-L23VV-Si-2p APECS) of clean Si(001)-2×1.

  12. Development of an autonomic portable single-board computer based high resolution NIRS device for microcirculation analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, E R; Safaie, J; Gupta, R; Pattnaik, D; Abrishamimoghaddam, H; Grebe, R; Wallois, F

    2012-01-01

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a wellestablished non-invasive technique for measuring metabolic changes in biological tissue. In this paper we describe the design and development of an autonomic portable single board computer based high resolution NIRS device, which allows quantification of these changes. The sensor-patch consisting of 8LEDs and 2photo-detectorsprovides8 channels for each detector, offering increased depth resolution for monitoring microcirculatory activity..NIRS data is acquired with a sampling rate of about 2Hz per channel using the data acquisition board which consists of a 16 bit ADC, a LED driver and programmable gain amplifiers. The components on the data acquisition board are controlled via the Advantech's PCM-3355L SBC based on Windows XP platform. The software was created using Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. It offers optionally a real time 'monitoring' and a static data (offline) visualization mode. The most unique feature of the system is its ability to auto-calibrate itself i.e. Adopt the intensity of the LEDs output light to different experimental conditions, e.g. local melanin content, density of the tissue, and emitter-detector distances. To validate the device various experiments have been carried out such as measurements on resting and working gastrocnemius and biceps muscle in ambulatory situations. The achieved results confirmed adequate performance and reliability of the device.

  13. Development and testing of a high-resolution model for tropospheric sulfate driven by observation-derived meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1994-05-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional Eulerian transport and transformation model has been developed to simulate concentrations of tropospheric sulfate for specific times and locations; it was applied over the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions during October and November, 1986. The model represents emissions of anthropogenic SO{sub 2} and sulfate and of biogenic sulfur species, horizontal and vertical transport, gas-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2} and dimethylsulfide, aqueous-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2}, and wet and dry deposition of SO{sub 2}, sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA). The meteorological driver is the 6-hour output from the forecast model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Calculated sulfate concentrations and column burdens, examined in detail for October 15 and October 22 at 6Z, are related to existing weather patterns. These results exhibit rich temporal and spatial structure; the characteristic (1/e) temporal autocorrelation time for the sulfate column burdens over the central North Atlantic averages 20 hours; 95% of the values were 25 hours or less. The characteristic distance of spatial autocorrelation over this region depends on direction and averages 1,600 km; with 10{sup th} percentile value of 400 km and 90{sup th} percentile value of 1,700 km. Daily average model sulfate concentrations at the lowest vertical accurately represent the spatial variability, temporal episodicity, and absolute magnitudes of surface concentrations measured by monitoring stations in Europe, Canada and Barbados.

  14. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis Method for CYP2C19*17 Genotyping in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Zahra; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Ejabati, Mahsa; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Sharafi, Ali; Ramazani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolisms by cytochrome P450 (P450s) could affect drug response, attracting particular interest in the pharmacogenetics. Due to the importance of CYP2C19* 17 allele and its capability of super- fast metabolism and also lack of information about distribution of the alleles in Iranian population, this research aimed to use High Resolution Melting (HRM) method compared to PCR-RFLP for genotyping healthy Iranian population. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 100 healthy Iranian volunteers. DNA was extracted by salting out method. Real-time PCR was used for amplification of the CYP2C19 gene and the alleles were identified by HRM. Sequencing was used to confirm the amplified DNA fragments and data were analyzed using SPSS software ver.18. Results: The frequency of alleles CYP2C19*1/*1, CYP2C19*1/*17 and CYP2C19*17/*17 were estimated as 58.33, 29.1 and 11.1%, respectively. Specificity and sensitivity of HRM method were 90% and 100%, with respect to PCR-RFLP. Also, HRM analysis has been evaluated as a faster and more effective approach. Conclusion: Comparison of our results based on HRM analysis with PCR-RFLP showed that our developed method is rapid, accurate, fast and economic to study the CYP2C19*17 allele and it is appropriate for other similar population genetic studies. PMID:27920888

  15. Geographic Object-based Image Analysis for Developing Cryospheric Surface Mapping Application using Remotely Sensed High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawak, S. D.; Luis, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A novel semi-automated method was devised by coupling spectral index ratios (SIRs) and geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) to extract cryospheric geoinformation from very high resolution WorldView 2 (WV-2) satellite imagery. The present study addresses development of multiple rule sets for GEOBIA-based classification of WV-2 imagery to accurately extract land cover features in the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. Multi-level segmentation process was applied to WV-2 image to generate different sizes of geographic image objects corresponding to various land cover features w.r.t scale parameter. Several SIRs were applied to geographic objects at different segmentation levels to classify landmass, man-made features, snow/ice, and water bodies. A specific attention was paid to water body class to identify water areas at the image level, considering their uneven appearance on landmass and ice. The results illustrated that synergetic usage of SIRs and GEOBIA can provide accurate means to identify land cover classes with an overall classification accuracy of ≈97%. In conclusion, the results suggest that GEOBIA is a powerful tool for carrying out automatic and semiautomatic analysis for most cryospheric remote-sensing applications, and the synergetic coupling with pixel-based SIRs is found to be a superior method for mining geoinformation.

  16. Development, calibration, and sensitivity analyses of a high-resolution dissolved oxygen mass balance model for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-resolution dissolved oxygen mass balance model was developed for the Louisiana coastal shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. GoMDOM (Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model) was developed to assist in evaluating the impacts of nutrient loading on hypoxia development and exte...

  17. Development, calibration, and sensitivity analyses of a high-resolution dissolved oxygen mass balance model for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-resolution dissolved oxygen mass balance model was developed for the Louisiana coastal shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. GoMDOM (Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model) was developed to assist in evaluating the impacts of nutrient loading on hypoxia development and exte...

  18. Direct analysis in real time--high resolution mass spectrometry as a valuable tool for the pharmaceutical drug development.

    PubMed

    Srbek, Jan; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Douša, Michal; Břicháč, Jiří; Stasiak, Pawel; Reitmajer, Josef; Nováková, Lucie

    2014-12-01

    In this study, direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was assessed for the analysis of various pharmaceutical formulations with intention to summarize possible applications for the routine pharmaceutical development. As DART is an ambient ionization technique, it allows direct analysis of pharmaceutical samples in solid or liquid form without complex sample preparation, which is often the most time-consuming part of the analytical method. This makes the technique suitable for many application fields, including pharmaceutical drug development. DART mass spectra of more than twenty selected tablets and other common pharmaceutical formulations, i.e. injection solutions, ointments and suppositories developed in the pharmaceutical industry during several recent years are presented. Moreover, as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is still very popular for the monitoring of the reactions in the synthetic chemistry, several substances were analyzed directly from the TLC plates to demonstrate the simplicity of the technique. Pure substance solutions were spotted onto a TLC plate and then analyzed with DART without separation. This was the first DART-MS study of pharmaceutical dosage forms using DART-Orbitrap combination. The duration of sample analysis by the DART-MS technique lasted several seconds, allowing enough time to collect sufficient number of data points for compound identification. The experimental setup provided excellent mass accuracy and high resolution of the mass spectra which allowed unambiguous identification of the compounds of interest. Finally, DART mass spectrometry was also used for the monitoring of the selected impurity distribution in the atorvastatin tablets. These measurements demonstrated DART to be robust ionization technique, which provided easy-to-interpret mass spectra for the broad range of compounds. DART has high-throughput potential for various types of pharmaceutical analyses and therefore eliminates the time for sample

  19. Development of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for fusion and light-source research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Efthimion, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.

    2014-09-01

    One dimensional spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy with spherically bent crystals and 2D pixelated detectors is an established technique on magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) experiments world wide for Doppler measurements of spatial profiles of plasma ion temperature and flow velocity. This technique is being further developed for diagnosis of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) plasmas at laser-plasma facilities and synchrotron/x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. Useful spatial resolution (micron scale) of such small-scale plasma sources requires magnification, because of the finite pixel size of x-ray CCD detectors (13.5 μm). A von-Hamos like spectrometer using spherical crystals is capable of magnification, as well as uniform sagittal focusing across the full x-ray spectrum, and is being tested in laboratory experiments using a tungsten-target microfocus (5-10 μm) x-ray tube and 13-μm pixel x-ray CCD. A spatial resolution better than 10 μm has been demonstrated. Good spectral resolution is indicated by small differences (0.02 - 0.1 eV) of measured line widths with best available published natural line widths. Progress and status of HEDP measurements and the physics basis for these diagnostics are presented. A new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer with a convex spherically bent crystal is also reported. The status of testing of a 2D imaging microscope using matched pairs of spherical crystals with x rays will also be presented. The use of computational x-ray optics codes in development of these instrumental concepts is addressed.

  20. Estimation of the solar energy potential in Egypt by developing high resolution solar Atlas and nowcasting service in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Kosmopoulos, P.; Kazadzis, S.; Taylor, M.; Raptis, P.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Kiranoudis, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    In light of efforts made by the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt to achieve the desired economic growth while preserving the environment, the government tries to address the demand for energy efficiency through the use of renewable energy sources. In the framework of the HORIZON 2020 GEO-Cradle project, we report on the estimation of the solar energy potential in Egypt by developing the analytical solar Atlas of Egypt for optimal Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power system installations as well as an innovative nowcasting service in real time based on a number of priority parameters (optical properties of clouds and aerosols, solar zenith angle, total ozone column, water vapor, etc) for efficient energy planning. The mean monthly solar energy maps are based on a 15-year complex and highly variable climatology taking into account the clouds and aerosols impact on Direct Normal and Global Horizontal Irradiances (DNI and GHI respectively), while the spatial resolution is almost 5 km, maximizing the exploitative value of the solar energy technologies. On the other hand, the operational nowcasting service of the GHI and DNI is developed in the framework of the solea project (www.solea.gr) and is based on a synergy of large (2.5M record) Radiative Transfer Model simulation look-up tables, neural networks and satellite-based cloud (Meteosat) and aerosol inputs (CAMS) in real time. This system is able to produce maps of Egypt at high resolution (1nm, 0.05 x 0.05 degrees, 15 min) and the whole approach is ideal for effective energy planning and services while it can support the local energy managing authorities.

  1. Development and Preliminary Application of High-Resolution Endoscopic Piv for Quantification of Flow Structure Within a Pore Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blois, G.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Best, J.; Hardy, R.; Lead, J.

    2008-12-01

    Most natural rivers have beds of loose, cohesionless sediment that form a porous bed, thus permitting significant interactions between the free flow above the bed and that within the pore spaces. Many unresolved problems in channel engineering and ecohydraulics are related to an incomplete understanding of this interstitial flow. For example, the mechanisms of pollutant transport and prediction of river bed morphodynamics may be strongly influenced by flow occurring within the pore spaces. While this lack of understanding has been widely acknowledged, the direct experimental investigation of flow within the pore spaces has been restricted by the practical difficulties in collecting such data. This has also created drawbacks in the numerical modeling of pore flow as there remains a dearth of robust experimental data with which to validate such models. In order to help address these issues, we present details of a new endoscopic PIV system designed to tackle some of the challenges highlighted above. The work presented in this paper is also being used to validate a numerical model that is being developed as part of this project. A fully endoscopic PIV system has been developed to collect velocity and turbulence data for flow within the pore space of a gravel bed. The system comprises a pulsed Nd:YAG laser that provides high intensity illumination for single exposure pairs of images on a high-resolution digital camera. The use of rigid endoscopes for both the laser light source and camera allows measurement of quasi-instantaneous flow fields by high-resolution PIV images (2352*1728 pixels). In the first instance, the endoscopic PIV system has been used to study flow within an artificial pore space model constructed from 38 and 51 mm diameter spheres, used to represent a simplified version of a natural gravel-bed river. Across-correlation processing approach has been applied to the PIV images and the processing parameters have been optimized for the experimental

  2. Development of a seismic borehole sonde for high resolution geophysical exploration ahead and around the drill bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, K.; Giese, R.; Kopf, M.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of exploration with high resolution increases more and more because reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are characterized of small-scale geological structures. Today, surface seismic surveys were often combined with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD to improve the velocity model and to image the structures with higher resolution. The accuracy of structure localization depends strongly on the surveying depth. There is the need for resolution of such small-scale structures in the range of meters to explore deeper structures with a high resolution. In the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD) a new approach for a seismic exploration method in boreholes will be examined. SPWD comprises the seismic sources and receivers in one device. This allows an exploration with a resolution independent from depth and a system development for an exploration ahead and around the drill bit. At first a prototype of a borehole device for dry horizontal boreholes in a mine was developed and tested. The source device consists of four magnetostrictive vibrators emitting sweep signals from 500 Hz to 5000 Hz. To achieve a radiation pattern for focusing the seismic wave energy in predefined directions the signals of each vibrator must be independently controlled in amplitude and phase. The adjustment of amplitudes and phases of each sweep signal resulting in constructive interference with a predefined direction. A control of the emitted signals is retained by 30 three-component receivers mounted along the surrounding galleries in distances of up to 50 m. In measurements several parameters were examined to control the radiation pattern. The enhancement and diminishment of the wave amplitudes in the predefined directions of the radiation pattern is clearly exhibited also a dependency of the frequency. Using a three-component Fresnel-Volume-Migration to image the reflected wave field the results show clearly the effect of the radiation pattern on

  3. Development of High Resolution Mirrors and Cd-Zn-Te Detectors for Hard X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Speegle, Chet O.; Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Engelhaupt, Darell; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and implementation of a high-resolution conical, grazing- incidence, hard X-ray (20-70 keV) telescope. When flown aboard stratospheric balloons, these mirrors are used to image cosmic sources such as supernovae, neutron stars, and quasars. The fabrication process involves generating super-polished mandrels, mirror shell electroforming, and mirror testing. The cylindrical mandrels consist of two conical segments; each segment is approximately 305 mm long. These mandrels are first, precision ground to within approx. 1.0 micron straightness along each conical segment and then lapped and polished to less than 0.5 micron straightness. Each mandrel segment is the super-polished to an average surface roughness of approx. 3.25 angstrom rms. By mirror shell replication, this combination of good figure and low surface roughness has enabled us to achieve 15 arcsec, confirmed by X-ray measurements in the Marshall Space Flight Center 102 meter test facility. To image the focused X-rays requires a focal plane detector with appropriate spatial resolution. For 15 arcsec optics of 6 meter focal length, this resolution must be around 200 microns. In addition, the detector must have a high efficiency, relatively high energy resolution, and low background. We are currently developing Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride fine-pixel detectors for this purpose. The detectors under study consist of a 16x16 pixel array with a pixel pitch of 300 microns and are 1 mm and 2 mm thick. At 60 keV, the measured energy resolution is around 2%.

  4. Development of High Resolution Mirrors and Cd-Zn-Te Detectors for Hard X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Speegle, Chet O.; Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Engelhaupt, Darell; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and implementation of a high-resolution conical, grazing- incidence, hard X-ray (20-70 keV) telescope. When flown aboard stratospheric balloons, these mirrors are used to image cosmic sources such as supernovae, neutron stars, and quasars. The fabrication process involves generating super-polished mandrels, mirror shell electroforming, and mirror testing. The cylindrical mandrels consist of two conical segments; each segment is approximately 305 mm long. These mandrels are first, precision ground to within approx. 1.0 micron straightness along each conical segment and then lapped and polished to less than 0.5 micron straightness. Each mandrel segment is the super-polished to an average surface roughness of approx. 3.25 angstrom rms. By mirror shell replication, this combination of good figure and low surface roughness has enabled us to achieve 15 arcsec, confirmed by X-ray measurements in the Marshall Space Flight Center 102 meter test facility. To image the focused X-rays requires a focal plane detector with appropriate spatial resolution. For 15 arcsec optics of 6 meter focal length, this resolution must be around 200 microns. In addition, the detector must have a high efficiency, relatively high energy resolution, and low background. We are currently developing Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride fine-pixel detectors for this purpose. The detectors under study consist of a 16x16 pixel array with a pixel pitch of 300 microns and are 1 mm and 2 mm thick. At 60 keV, the measured energy resolution is around 2%.

  5. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  6. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  7. High Resolution Model Development to Quantify the Impact of Icebergs on the Stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Condron, Alan

    2016-10-18

    In the present-day North Atlantic Ocean, relatively warm and salty water moves northwards from the tropics to the high latitudes, sinks, and returns southward towards the equator as North Atlantic Deep Water, forming the so called Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been found that the stability of the AMOC is non-linearly related to the freshwater budget of the North Atlantic. In this way, additional fresh water can be added to the ocean with little impact, until a tipping point is reached that causes the AMOC to suddenly weaken and the Northern Hemisphere to abruptly cool. A great deal of uncertainty still remains over the sensitivity of the AMOC to changes in freshwater discharge as a result of the unrealistic manner in which freshwater has historically been added to climate models. Frequently, freshwater is discharged in ocean models entirely as liquid water, but in reality a large fraction of freshwater entering the ocean is ice calving from marine glaciers (half for Antarctica and two-thirds for Greenland). To more accurately quantify AMOC sensitivity to past and future changes in freshwater input, this project developed a comprehensive iceberg model to more realistically simulate the interaction between the cryosphere and the oceans at high-latitudes. The iceberg model created is written in Fortran90 and designed to scale efficiently on High Performance Computing (HPC) clusters so that tens-of-thousands of icebergs can be simulated at any time. Experiments performed with our model showed that in the Pleistocene there would have been enormous floods of freshwater released into the North Atlantic that would have transported icebergs and meltwater along the entire east coast of the United States, as far south as Florida Keys. In addition, high-resolution, modern-day, model simulations showed that if the Greenland Ice Sheet continues to melt at its current rate then there will be a 6-fold increase in the number of icebergs drifting in the

  8. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  9. Arresting developments: trends in female arrests for domestic violence and proposed explanations.

    PubMed

    Deleon-Granados, William; Wells, William; Binsbacher, Ruddyard

    2006-04-01

    This article represents an effort to generate more systematic and specified discussion on the topic of unintended consequences in the movement to decrease violence against women. In this case, the consequence is increases in female arrests for domestic violence. This article builds on recent discussions by first using a sample of data to examine felony domestic violence arrest rates for men and women. The data support the conclusion that domestic violence arrests of women have increased. Second, the article presents six explanations that are derived from existing literature. Although the authors do not offer empirical tests of these explanations, this presentation can play an important part in better understanding the outcomes of criminal justice policies that are aimed at increasing victim safety.

  10. Development and application of a high resolution hybrid modelling system for the evaluation of urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, N.; Pirovano, G.; Lonati, G.; Balzarini, A.; Toppetti, A.; Riva, G. M.; Bedogni, M.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid modelling system (HMS) was developed to provide hourly concentrations at the urban local scale. The system is based on the combination of a meteorological model (WRF), a chemical and transport eulerian model (CAMx), which computes concentration levels over the regional domains, and a lagrangian dispersion model (AUSTAL2000), accounting for dispersion phenomena within the urban area due to local emission sources; a source apportionment algorithm is also included in the HMS in order to avoid the double counting of local emissions. The HMS was applied over a set of nested domains, the innermost covering a 1.6 × 1.6 km2 area in Milan city center with 20 m grid resolution, for NOX simulation in 2010. For this paper the innermost domain was defined as "local", excluding usual definition of urban areas. WRF model captured the overall evolution of the main meteorological features, except for some very stagnant situations, thus influencing the subsequent performance of regional scale model CAMx. Indeed, CAMx was able to reproduce the spatial and temporal evolution of NOX concentration over the regional domain, except a few episodes, when observed concentrations were higher than 100 ppb. The local scale model AUSTAL2000 provided high-resolution concentration fields that sensibly mirrored the road and traffic pattern in the urban domain. Therefore, the first important outcome of the work is that the application of the hybrid modelling system allowed a thorough and consistent description of urban air quality. This result represents a relevant starting point for future evaluation of pollution exposure within an urban context. However, the overall performance of the HMS did not provide remarkable improvements with respect to stand-alone CAMx at the two only monitoring sites in Milan city center. HMS results were characterized by a smaller average bias, that improved about 6-8 ppb corresponding to 12-13% of the observed concentration, but by a lower correlation, that

  11. Development of a High Resolution Weather Forecast Model for Mesoamerica Using the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Venner, Jason; Moreno-Madrinan, Max. J.; Delgado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two years, scientists in the Earth Science Office at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have explored opportunities to apply cloud computing concepts to support near real ]time weather forecast modeling via the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Collaborators at NASA fs Short ]term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the SERVIR project at Marshall Space Flight Center have established a framework that provides high resolution, daily weather forecasts over Mesoamerica through use of the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform at Ames Research Center. Supported by experts at Ames, staff at SPoRT and SERVIR have established daily forecasts complete with web graphics and a user interface that allows SERVIR partners access to high resolution depictions of weather in the next 48 hours, useful for monitoring and mitigating meteorological hazards such as thunderstorms, heavy precipitation, and tropical weather that can lead to other disasters such as flooding and landslides. This presentation will describe the framework for establishing and providing WRF forecasts, example applications of output provided via the SERVIR web portal, and early results of forecast model verification against available surface ] and satellite ]based observations.

  12. Development of a 55 μm pitch 8 inch CMOS image sensor for the high resolution NDT application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. S.; Kim, G.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.

    2016-11-01

    A CMOS image sensor (CIS) with a large area for the high resolution X-ray imaging was designed. The sensor has an active area of 125 × 125 mm2 comprised with 2304 × 2304 pixels and a pixel size of 55 × 55 μm2. First batch samples were fabricated by using an 8 inch silicon CMOS image sensor process with a stitching method. In order to evaluate the performance of the first batch samples, the electro-optical test and the X-ray test after coupling with an image intensifier screen were performed. The primary results showed that the performance of the manufactured sensors was limited by a large stray capacitance from the long path length between the analog multiplexer on the chip and the bank ADC on the data acquisition board. The measured speed and dynamic range were limited up to 12 frame per sec and 55 dB respectively, but other parameters such as the MTF, NNPS and DQE showed a good result as designed. Based on this study, the new X-ray CIS with ~ 50 μm pitch and ~ 150 cm2 active area are going to be designed for the high resolution X-ray NDT equipment for semiconductor and PCB inspections etc.

  13. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  14. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  15. Panoramic High Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2008-10-01

    Stellar populations in galaxies are vast repositories of fossil information. In recent years it has become possible to consider high resolution spectroscopic surveys of millions of stars. New high resolution multi-object spectrographs on 4-8m class telescopes (HERMES, WFMOS) will allow us for the first time to make large and detailed chemical abundance surveys of stars in the Galactic disk, bulge and halo, and apply the techniques of chemical tagging to recovering the fossil information left over from galaxy assembly. These instruments will have strong synergies with the GAIA astrometric satellite due to launch in 2011. The level of detail made possible by these future facilities will be necessary if we are to fully understand the physical processes involved in galaxy formation.

  16. High resolution data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1992-12-31

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock pulse train and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train. The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  17. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  18. First permanent molar root development arrest associated with compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Sachin A; Patil, Anil; Varekar, Aniruddha

    2013-07-04

    Trauma or infection to the primary tooth may have deleterious effects on the underlying developing tooth buds. Anatomically the root apices of primary teeth are in close proximity to the developing permanent tooth buds; hence spread of infection originating from pulp necrosis of primary tooth may not only affect the underlying tooth bud but may also affect the adjacent tooth buds. The extent of malformation depends on the developmental stage of tooth or the age of patient. Presented here is a rare case of complete arrest of maxillary first permanent molar root growth due to spread of periapical infection originating from second primary molar leading to failure of its eruption and finally extraction. Histopathlogical analysis revealed compound odontoma associated with maxillary first permanent molar.

  19. High-Resolution Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-14

    vThe goal of this project is to formulate and investigate new approaches for forming images of radar targets from spotlight-mode, delay-doppler...the new methods we are studying. There are two modules in the program. The first module produces simulated radar back-scatter data. The simulation...gives the model and fundamental estimation equations for the method we are developing. The abstract is: "A new approach to high resolution radar

  20. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  1. The link between a negative high resolution resist contrast/developer performance and the Flory-Huggins parameter estimated from the Hansen solubility sphere

    SciTech Connect

    StCaire, Lorri; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Chao, Weilun L.; Lewis, Mark D.; Lu, Haoren; Dhuey, Scott D.; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2008-07-01

    We have implemented a technique to identify candidate polymer solvents for spinning, developing, and rinsing for a high resolution, negative electron beam resist hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene to elicit the optimum pattern development performance. Using the three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters for over 40 solvents, we have constructed a Hansen solubility sphere. From this sphere, we have estimated the Flory Huggins interaction parameter for solvents with hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene and found a correlation between resist development contrast and the Flory-Huggins parameter. This provides new insights into the development behavior of resist materials which are necessary for obtaining the ultimate lithographic resolution.

  2. Development of a high-resolution melting-based approach for efficient differentiation among Bacillus cereus group isolates.

    PubMed

    Antolinos, Vera; Fernández, Pablo S; Ros-Chumillas, María; Periago, Paula M; Weiss, Julia

    2012-09-01

    Strains belonging to Bacillus cereus Group include six different species, among which are Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus cereus sensu stricto, a causative agent of food poisoning. Sequence of the panC-housekeeping gene is used for B. cereus Group affiliation to seven major phylogenetic groups (I-VII) with different ecological niches and variations in thermal growth range and spore heat resistance of B. cereus Group microorganisms varies among phylogenetic groups. We assigned a selection of B. cereus sensu stricto strains related to food poisoning from the Spanish cultivar Collection (Valencia) to Group IV strains based on panC gene sequence. Thermal inactivation assays revealed variability of spore heat resistance within these Group IV strains. Adequate food sanitizing treatments therefore require fast and reliable identification of particular strains. In the present study, feasibility of genotyping via high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was examined. HRM analysis of amplified polymorphic 16S-23 intergenic spacer region (ISR) region proved to be discriminatory for B. cereus sensu stricto strain typing, while two other polymorphic regions within the bacterial rRNA operon allowed differentiation between Bacillus species, demonstrating its applicability for discrimination on the species and strain level within B. cereus Group.

  3. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    SciTech Connect

    Katzner, Todd

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  4. Development and Operation of a High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography System to Perform Metabolic Studies on Small Animals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Matthew John

    A positron emission tomography system designed to perform high resolution imaging of small volumes has been characterized. Two large area planar detectors, used to detect the annihilation gamma rays, formed a large aperture stationary positron camera. The detectors were multiwire proportional chambers coupled to high density lead stack converters. Detector efficiency was 8%. The coincidence resolving time was 500 nsec. The maximum system sensitivity was 60 cps/(mu)Ci for a solid angle of acceptance of 0.74(pi) St. The maximum useful coincidence count rate was 1500 cps and was limited by electronic dead time. Image reconstruction was done by performing a 3-dimensional deconvolution using Fourier transform methods. Noise propagation during reconstruction was minimized by choosing a 'minimum norm' reconstructed image. In the stationary detector system (with a limited angle of acceptance for coincident events) statistical uncertainty in the data limited reconstruction in the direction normal to the detector surfaces. Data from a rotated phantom showed that detector rotation will correct this problem. Resolution was 4 mm in planes parallel to the detectors and (TURN)15 mm in the normal direction. Compton scattering of gamma rays within a source distribution was investigated using both simulated and measured data. Attenuation due to scatter was as high as 60%. For small volume imaging the Compton background was identified and an approximate correction was performed. A semiquantitative blood flow measurement to bone in the leg of a cat using the ('18)F('-) ion was performed. The results were comparable to investigations using more conventional techniques. Qualitative scans using ('18)F labelled deoxy -D-glucose to assess brain glucose metabolism in a rhesus monkey were also performed.

  5. Developing an Ice Volume Estimate of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska, using Ground-Penetrating Radar and High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N. L.; Campbell, S. W.; Douglas, T. A.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Jarvis Glacier is an important water source for Fort Greely and Delta Junction, Alaska. Yet with warming summer temperatures caused by climate change, the glacier is melting rapidly. Growing concern of a dwindling water supply has caused significant research efforts towards determining future water resources from spring melt and glacier runoff which feeds the community on a yearly basis. The main objective of this project was to determine the total volume of the Jarvis Glacier. In April 2012, a centerline profile of the Jarvis Glacier and 15 km of 100 MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles were collected in cross sections to provide ice depth measurements. These depth measurements were combined with an interpreted glacier boundary (depth = 0 m) from recently collected high resolution WorldView satellite imagery to estimate total ice volume. Ice volume was calculated at 0.62 km3 over a surface area of 8.82 km2. However, it is likely that more glacier-ice exists within Jarvis Glacier watershed considering the value calculated with GPR profiles accounts for only the glacier ice within the valley and not for the valley side wall ice. The GLIMS glacier area database suggests that the valley accounts for approximately 50% of the total ice covered watershed. Hence, we are currently working to improve total ice volume estimates which incorporate the surrounding valley walls. Results from this project will be used in conjunction with climate change estimates and hydrological properties downstream of the glacier to estimate future water resources available to Fort Greely and Delta Junction.

  6. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  7. High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi

    2005-02-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy provides fundamental information for understanding the effective ?-Nucleon interaction. Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-107 was designed to perform high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction of strangeness in four 1p-shell nuclei: 12C, 9Be, 16O, and 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in January and April-May 2004 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Significant modifications were made to the standard Hall A apparatus for this challenging experiment: two septum magnets and a RICH detector have been added to get reasonable counting rates and excellent particle identification, as required for the experiment. A description of the apparatus and the preliminary analysis results are presented here.

  8. Arrested development in Xenopus laevis tadpoles: how size constrains metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Rot-Nikcevic, Irena; Wassersug, Richard J

    2004-05-01

    Xenopus laevis tadpoles that arrest development and remain as larvae for several years sometimes occur spontaneously in laboratory populations. These tadpoles cease development at an early hindlimb stage, but continue to grow and develop into grossly deformed giants. Giant tadpoles lack thyroid glands, and differ in morphology and behaviour from normal larvae. They are negatively buoyant, typically with small and partially solidified lungs, and have greatly enlarged fat bodies. Giant tadpoles have mature gonads with eggs and sperm, whereas normal tadpoles of the same stage have undifferentiated gonads. Larval reproduction has never been reported in anurans, but gonadal development decoupled from metamorphosis brings these giants the closest of any anurans to being truly neotenic. We discuss behavioural and morphological factors that may hinder both reproduction in giant Xenopus larvae and the evolution of neoteny in anurans in general. Experimental treatment with exogenous thyroid hormone induces some, but not complete, metamorphic changes in these giants. The limbs and head progress through metamorphosis; however, all tadpoles die at the stage when the tail would normally be resorbed. The disproportionate growth of tissues and organs in giant tadpoles may preclude complete metamorphosis, even under exogenous thyroid hormone induction.

  9. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  10. Development of high-resolution dynamic dust source function - A case study with a strong dust storm in a regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongchul; Chin, Mian; Kemp, Eric M.; Tao, Zhining; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ginoux, Paul

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution dynamic dust source has been developed in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to improve the existing coarse static dust source. In the new dust source map, topographic depression is in 1-km resolution and surface bareness is derived using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The new dust source better resolves the complex topographic distribution over the Western United States where its magnitude is higher than the existing, coarser resolution static source. A case study is conducted with an extreme dust storm that occurred in Phoenix, Arizona in 02-03 UTC July 6, 2011. The NU-WRF model with the new high-resolution dynamic dust source is able to successfully capture the dust storm, which was not achieved with the old source identification. However the case study also reveals several challenges in reproducing the time evolution of the short-lived, extreme dust storm events.

  11. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  12. To Grow or Not to Grow: Nutritional Control of Development During Caenorhabditis elegans L1 Arrest

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans arrest development by forming dauer larvae in response to multiple unfavorable environmental conditions. C. elegans larvae can also reversibly arrest development earlier, during the first larval stage (L1), in response to starvation. “L1 arrest” (also known as “L1 diapause”) occurs without morphological modification but is accompanied by increased stress resistance. Caloric restriction and periodic fasting can extend adult lifespan, and developmental models are critical to understanding how the animal is buffered from fluctuations in nutrient availability, impacting lifespan. L1 arrest provides an opportunity to study nutritional control of development. Given its relevance to aging, diabetes, obesity and cancer, interest in L1 arrest is increasing, and signaling pathways and gene regulatory mechanisms controlling arrest and recovery have been characterized. Insulin-like signaling is a critical regulator, and it is modified by and acts through microRNAs. DAF-18/PTEN, AMP-activated kinase and fatty acid biosynthesis are also involved. The nervous system, epidermis, and intestine contribute systemically to regulation of arrest, but cell-autonomous signaling likely contributes to regulation in the germline. A relatively small number of genes affecting starvation survival during L1 arrest are known, and many of them also affect adult lifespan, reflecting a common genetic basis ripe for exploration. mRNA expression is well characterized during arrest, recovery, and normal L1 development, providing a metazoan model for nutritional control of gene expression. In particular, post-recruitment regulation of RNA polymerase II is under nutritional control, potentially contributing to a rapid and coordinated response to feeding. The phenomenology of L1 arrest will be reviewed, as well as regulation of developmental arrest and starvation survival by various signaling pathways and gene regulatory

  13. Development of a virtual learning environment for cardiorespiratory arrest training.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anazilda Carvalho da; Bernardes, Andrea; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; Dalri, Maria Célia Barcellos; Silva, Alexandre Ribeiro da; Sampaio, Camila Santana Justo Cintra

    2016-01-01

    To develop a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) aiming at the training of nursing team workers and emergency vehicle drivers in Basic Life Support (BLS) to attend Cardiorespiratory arrest, and to evaluate the quality of its contents among specialists in the area of Emergency and Urgent care. Applied research of technological development. The methodology used was based on the Instructional Design Model (ADDIE), which structures the teaching-learning planning in different stages (analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation). The VLE was composed of texts elaborated from bibliographic research, links, edited video from a simulation scenario in the laboratory and questions to evaluate the fixation of the content, organized in modules. After its development, it was evaluated as adequate to satisfy the needs of the target public, by eight expert judges, which was made available for electronic access. The VLE has potential as a tool for training and qualification in BLS, as it can be easily integrated with other pedagogical approaches and strategies with active methodologies. Desenvolver um Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizagem (AVA) visando à capacitação de trabalhadores da equipe de enfermagem e condutores de veículo de emergência em Suporte Básico de Vida (SBV) no atendimento à Parada Cardiorrespiratória, e avaliar a qualidade do seu conteúdo junto a especialistas na área de Urgência e Emergência. Pesquisa aplicada, de produção tecnológica. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada no Modelo de Design Instrucional (ADDIE), que estrutura o planejamento de ensino-aprendizagem em estágios distintos (analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation). O AVA foi composto por textos elaborados a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica, links, vídeo construído a partir de um cenário de simulação em laboratório e questões para avaliar a fixação do conteúdo, organizados em módulos. Após a sua construção, foi avaliado como adequado para

  14. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  15. High-resolution modelling of interactions between soil moisture and convective development in a mountain enclosed Tibetan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Babel, W.; Herzog, M.; Fuchs, K.; Sun, F.; Ma, Y.; Foken, T.; Graf, H.-F.

    2015-09-01

    The Tibetan Plateau plays a significant role in atmospheric circulation and the Asian monsoon system. Turbulent surface fluxes and the evolution of boundary-layer clouds to deep and moist convection provide a feedback system that modifies the plateau's surface energy balance on scales that are currently unresolved in mesoscale models. This work analyses the land surface's role and specifically the influence of soil moisture on the triggering of convection at a cross section of the Nam Co Lake basin, 150 km north of Lhasa using a cloud-resolving atmospheric model with a fully coupled surface. The modelled turbulent fluxes and development of convection compare reasonably well with the observed weather. The simulations span Bowen ratios of 0.5 to 2.5. It is found that convective development is the strongest at intermediate soil moisture. Dry cases with soils close to the permanent wilting point are moisture limited in convective development, while convection in wet soil moisture cases is limited by cloud cover reducing incoming solar radiation and sensible heat fluxes, which has a strong impact on the surface energy balance. This study also shows that local development of convection is an important mechanism for the upward transport of water vapour, which originates from the lake basin that can then be transported to dryer regions of the plateau. Both processes demonstrate the importance of soil moisture and surface-atmosphere interactions on the energy and hydrological cycles of the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. High-resolution modelling of interactions between soil moisture and convection development in mountain enclosed Tibetan basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Babel, W.; Herzog, M.; Fuchs, K.; Sun, F.; Ma, Y.; Foken, T.; Graf, H.-F.

    2015-05-01

    The Tibetan Plateau plays a significant role in the atmospheric circulation and the Asian monsoon system. Turbulent surface fluxes and the evolution of boundary layer clouds to deep and moist convection provide a feedback system that modifies the Plateau's surface energy balance on scales that are currently unresolved in mesoscale models. This work analyses the land surface's role and specifically the influence of soil moisture on the triggering of convection at a cross-section of the Nam Co Lake basin, 150 km north of Lhasa using a cloud resolving atmospheric model with a fully coupled surface. The modelled turbulent fluxes and development of convection compare reasonably well with the observed weather. The simulations span Bowen-ratios of 0.5 to 2.5. It is found that convection development is strongest at intermediate soil moistures. Dry cases with soils close to the permanent wilting point are moisture limited in the convection development, while convection in wet soil moisture cases is limited by cloud cover reducing incoming solar radiation and sensible heat fluxes. This has a strong impact on the surface energy balance. This study also shows that local development of convection is an important mechanism for the upward transport of water vapour that originates from the lake basin that can then be transported to dryer regions of the plateau. Both processes demonstrate the importance of soil moisture and surface-atmosphere interactions on the energy and hydrological cycles of the Tibetan Plateau.

  17. Three dimensional monitoring of urban development by means of ortho-rectified aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, E; Erden, O; Gormus, E T

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, cities are developing and changing rapidly due to the increases in the population and immigration. Rapid changing brings obligation to control the cities by planning. The satellite images and the aerial photographs enable us to track the urban development and provide the opportunity to get the current data about urban. With the help of these images, cities may have interrogated dynamic structures. This study is composed of three steps. In the first step, orthophoto images have been generated in order to track urban developments by using the aerial photographs and the satellite images. In this step, the panchromatic (PAN), the multi spectral (MS) and the pan-sharpened image of IKONOS satellite have been used as input satellite data and the accuracy of orthophoto images has been investigated in detail, in terms of digital elevation model (DEM), control points, input images and their properties. In the second step, a 3D city model with database has been generated with the help of orthophoto images and the vector layouts. And in the last step, up to date urban information obtained from 3D city model. This study shows that it is possible to detect the unlicensed buildings and the areas which are going to be nationalized and it also shows that it is easy to document the existing alterations in the cities with the help of current development plans and orthophoto images. And since accessing updated data is very essential to control development and monitor the temporal alterations in urban areas, in this study it is proven that the orthophoto images generated by using aerial photos and satellite images are very reliable to use in obtaining topographical information, in change detection and in city planning. When digital orthophoto images used with GIS, they provide quick decision control mechanisms and quick data collection. Besides, they help to find efficient solutions in a short time in the planning applications.

  18. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development. Quarterly technical progress and schedule report, September 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Mardesich, N.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of the contract covers the development and evaluation of forming solar cell collector grid contacts by the MIDFILM process. This is a proprietary process developed by the Ferro Corporation which is a subcontractor for the program. The MIDFILM process attains line resolution characteristics of photoresist methods with processing related to screen printing. The surface to be processed is first coated with a thin layer of photoresist material. Upon exposure to ultraviolet light through a suitable mask, the resist in the non-pattern area cross-links and becomes hard. The unexposed pattern areas remain tacky. The conductor material is applied in the form of a dry mixture of metal and frit particles which adhere to the tacky pattern area. The assemblage is then fired to ash the photopolymer and sinter the fritted conductor powder. Effort was concentrated during this period on the establishment, optimization and identification of problem areas of the MIDFILM process. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  19. Development of a high-resolution automatic digital (urine/electrolytes) flow volume and rate measurement system of miniature size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    To aid in the quantitative analysis of man's physiological rhythms, a flowmeter to measure circadian patterns of electrolyte excretion during various environmental stresses was developed. One initial flowmeter was designed and fabricated, the sensor of which is the approximate size of a wristwatch. The detector section includes a special type of dielectric integrating type sensor which automatically controls, activates, and deactivates the flow sensor data output by determining the presence or absence of fluid flow in the system, including operation under zero-G conditions. The detector also provides qualitative data on the composition of the fluid. A compact electronic system was developed to indicate flow rate as well as total volume per release or the cumulative volume of several releases in digital/analog forms suitable for readout or telemetry. A suitable data readout instrument is also provided. Calibration and statistical analyses of the performance functions required of the flowmeter were also conducted.

  20. Flapping before Flight: High Resolution, Three-Dimensional Skeletal Kinematics of Wings and Legs during Avian Development

    PubMed Central

    Heers, Ashley M.; Baier, David B.; Jackson, Brandon E.; Dial, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small “protowings”, and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained. Such traits are often thought to preclude extinct theropods from powered flight, yet young birds with similarly rudimentary anatomies flap-run up slopes and even briefly fly, thereby challenging longstanding ideas on skeletal and feather function in the theropod-avian lineage. Though skeletons and feathers are the common link between extinct and extant theropods and figure prominently in discussions on flight performance (extant birds) and flight origins (extinct theropods), skeletal inter-workings are hidden from view and their functional relationship with aerodynamically active wings is not known. For the first time, we use X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology to visualize skeletal movement in developing birds, and explore how development of the avian flight apparatus corresponds with ontogenetic trajectories in skeletal kinematics, aerodynamic performance, and the locomotor transition from pre-flight flapping behaviors to full flight capacity. Our findings reveal that developing chukars (Alectoris chukar) with rudimentary flight apparatuses acquire an “avian” flight stroke early in ontogeny, initially by using their wings and legs cooperatively and, as they acquire flight capacity, counteracting ontogenetic increases in aerodynamic output with greater skeletal channelization. In conjunction with previous work, juvenile birds thereby demonstrate that the initial function of developing wings is to enhance leg

  1. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  2. Flapping before Flight: High Resolution, Three-Dimensional Skeletal Kinematics of Wings and Legs during Avian Development.

    PubMed

    Heers, Ashley M; Baier, David B; Jackson, Brandon E; Dial, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained. Such traits are often thought to preclude extinct theropods from powered flight, yet young birds with similarly rudimentary anatomies flap-run up slopes and even briefly fly, thereby challenging longstanding ideas on skeletal and feather function in the theropod-avian lineage. Though skeletons and feathers are the common link between extinct and extant theropods and figure prominently in discussions on flight performance (extant birds) and flight origins (extinct theropods), skeletal inter-workings are hidden from view and their functional relationship with aerodynamically active wings is not known. For the first time, we use X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology to visualize skeletal movement in developing birds, and explore how development of the avian flight apparatus corresponds with ontogenetic trajectories in skeletal kinematics, aerodynamic performance, and the locomotor transition from pre-flight flapping behaviors to full flight capacity. Our findings reveal that developing chukars (Alectoris chukar) with rudimentary flight apparatuses acquire an "avian" flight stroke early in ontogeny, initially by using their wings and legs cooperatively and, as they acquire flight capacity, counteracting ontogenetic increases in aerodynamic output with greater skeletal channelization. In conjunction with previous work, juvenile birds thereby demonstrate that the initial function of developing wings is to enhance leg

  3. Design and development of the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES and the unique volume phase holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijmans, J. A. C.; Gers, L.; Faught, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the grating development for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES). This paper discusses the challenges of designing, optimizing, and tolerancing large aperture volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for HERMES. The high spectral resolution requirements require steep angles of incidence, of 67.2 degrees, and high line densities, ranging between 2400 and 3800 lines per mm, resulting in VPH gratings that are highly s-polarized that push the fabrication process to its limits.

  4. Mapping Primary Gyrogenesis During Fetal Development in Primate Brains: High-Resolution in Utero Structural MRI of Fetal Brain Development in Pregnant Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, Peter; Castro, Carlos; Davis, Duff; Dudley, Donald; Brewer, Jordan; Zhang, Yi; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Purdy, David; Fox, Peter T.; Simerly, Calvin; Schatten, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17–25 of 26 weeks total gestation). Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of 10 primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length) axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth) axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r = −0.60; p < 0.10), while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p = 0.3; p = 0.40). These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates. PMID:20631812

  5. Intensity and Development Forecasts of Tropical Cyclones by the JMA High-Resolution Global NWP Model: Impacts of Resolution Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, T.; Kitagawa, H.

    2007-12-01

    It is widely considered that a spatial resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model plays an important role for forecasting severe weather events such as tropical cyclones (TCs) and heavy rainfall. Under the KAKUSHIN project (funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has developed a new Global Spectral Model (GSM) with a high horizontal resolution of about 20km and 60 vertical layers (hereafter called g20km GSMh), which is utilized to evaluate severe weather events in future climate. The 20km GSM will be operational in November 2007 replacing the current GSM with a horizontal resolution of about 60km and 40 vertical layers (hereafter called g60km GSMh). In the present study, we investigate how a model resolution impacts on TC forecasts because this resolution enhancement aims to improve the model's ability to forecast severe weather. Due to the more realistic model topography in higher horizontal resolution, the 20km GSM can give more accurate forecasts of orographic precipitation than the 60km GSM, especially over the area range of heavy precipitation. According to the statistically verified results, the enhancement of horizontal and vertical resolution appears to fairly improve the accuracy of TC intensity forecasts. However, for TC track forecasts, it may be more important to accurately represent large-scale environmental contexts surrounding the TC than to resolve the TC structure itself. In order to clarify resolution impacts on the TC intensity prediction, we categorize the TC intensity forecasts into three stages (development stage, maturation stage and dissipation stage). The results show that the effectiveness of the resolution enhancement is bigger in the development stage and relatively small in the maturation and dissipation stages. For the maturation and dissipation stages, improvement of physical processes seems to be more important than the resolution

  6. High Resolution Crop Mapping Along The Growing Season: Methodological Developments Towards An Operational Exploitation Of Sentinel-1, 2 And 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldner, Francois; d'Andrimont, Raphael; Defourny, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural remote sensing can be used operationally to tackle the issues of food security and speculation on food commodities. Timely and reliable crop specific maps are essential to production forecasting because it supports the estimation of its two components: yield and planted area. This study proposes some developments towards an operational exploitation of Sentinel-1,2 and 3 for crop classification along the season. Using proxy data, the method is demonstrated over a large site in Russia. Three maps are produced along the season with an increasing accuracy and an increasing number of class: cropland in September, crop group in March and crop species from April to August.

  7. Development of Small-Pixel CZT Detectors for Future High-Resolution Hard X-ray Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilicke, Matthias

    Owing to recent breakthroughs in grazing incidence mirror technology, next-generation hard X-ray telescopes will achieve angular resolutions of between 5 and 10 arc seconds - about an order of magnitude better than that of the NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope. As a consequence, the next generation of hard X-ray telescopes will require pixelated hard X- ray detectors with pixels on a grid with a lattice constant of between 120 and 240 um. Additional detector requirements include a low energy threshold of less than 5 keV and an energy resolution of less than 1 keV. The science drivers for a high angular-resolution hard X-ray mission include studies and measurements of black hole spins, the cosmic evolution of super-massive black holes, AGN feedback, and the behavior of matter at very high densities. We propose a R&D research program to develop, optimize and study the performance of 100-200 um pixel pitch CdTe and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors of 1-2 mm thickness. Our program aims at a comparison of the performance achieved with CdTe and CZT detectors, and the optimization of the pixel, steering grid, and guard ring anode patterns. Although these studies will use existing ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), our program also includes modest funds for the development of an ultra-low noise ASIC with a 2-D grid of readout pads that can be directly bonded to the 100-200 um pixel pitch CdTe and CZT detectors. The team includes the Washington University group (Prof. M. Beilicke and Co-I Prof. H.S.W. Krawczynski et al.), and co-investigator G. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Washington University group has a 10 year track record of innovative CZT detector R&D sponsored by the NASA Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis (APRA) program. The accomplishments to date include the development of CZT detectors with pixel pitches between 350 um and 2.5 mm for the ProtoExist, EXIST, and X-Calibur hard X-ray missions with some of the best

  8. Development of ultrasonic thermometry for high-temperature high-resolution temperature profiling applications in LMFBR safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, M. E.

    1986-05-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry was developed as a high temperature profiling diagnostic for use in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Debris Coolability Program at Sandia National Laboratories. These instruments were used successfully in the DC series experiments and the D10 experiment. Temperatures approaching 3000 C with spatial resolution of 10 mm and indicated temperature gradients of 700 C/cm were measured. Instruments were operated in molten sodium, molten steel, and molten UO2 environments. Up to 14 measurement zones on a single instrument in molten sodium were used with 12 mm and 15 mm spatial resolution. Hermetically sealed units operating at elevated temperatures were used. Post-test examination revealed very little systematic calibration drifts (less than 10 C) with random drifts occuring with less than 40 C standard deviation in a 10 to 12 mm measured zone. The stability of the system varies from +/- 1 C to +/- 15 C depending on the sensor design constraints for a particular application. Doped tungsten sensors were developed to permit operation of total measurement zone length of 30 cm at temperatures above 2500 C.

  9. Development of a novel precision instrument for high-resolution simultaneous normal and shear force measurements between small planar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, Troy; Clark, William; Jalili, Nader

    2017-05-01

    In the design and development of end effector pads for silicon wafer handling robots, it is imperative that the static friction/adhesion force properties of the pads with respect to a variety of planar surfaces be characterized. In this work, the overall design, calibration, and data acquisition procedure of an instrument developed for performing these measurements on small (<10 mm × 10 mm) planar samples is presented. This device was used to perform adhesion/maximum shear force measurements on polydimethylsiloxane, a silicon wafer, and custom carbon nanotubes forest surfaces. The device was successfully able to measure an effective, mean profile adhesion force of 715 μN between a silicon wafer and a polydimethylsiloxane (2.768 × 10-6 m2) sample. In addition, a nonlinear maximum shear over normal force relationship was also measured between custom carbon nanotubes forest and the silicon wafer surfaces. The maximum shear over a normal force coefficient was found to decrease with increasing initial normal force. Currently, there are numerous devices for measuring normal/shear forces at the nano/micro- and macroscales; however, this device allows for the consistent measurement of these same types of forces on components with surface dimensions ranging from 0.1 mm to 10 mm.

  10. Development of a versatile capacitive tactile sensor based on transparent flexible materials integrating an excellent sensitivity and a high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Tang, Q. Y.; Chan, Y. C.

    2012-06-01

    A versatile capacitive tactile sensor based on transparent flexible materials is developed in a simple and low-cost fabrication process. The sensor shows an excellent sensitivity (S=2.05 N-1), and is highly sensitive to the load as low as about 3 mN. Moreover, it exhibits a prominent resolution. The excellent device performance is attributed to the creative design of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer, used as the structural material of the sensor, in which each sensing section acting as a sensor unit is a concave square with hemispheric micro-structured PDMS arrays. Meanwhile, other sections without any PDMS arrays serving as perfect natural wall-barriers can make each sensor unit separated effectively.

  11. Development and evaluation of high resolution quadrupole mass analyzer and an inductively coupled plasma-Mach disk

    SciTech Connect

    Amad, Ma'an Hazem

    1999-12-10

    By definition a plasma is an electrically conducting gaseous mixture containing a significant concentration of cations and electrons. The Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) is an electrodeless discharge in a gas at atmospheric pressure. This discharge is an excellent one for vaporizing, atomizing, and ionizing elements. The early development of the ICP began in 1942 by Babat and then by Reed in the early 1960s. This was then followed by the pioneering work of Fassel and coworkers in the late 1960s. Commercial ICP spectrometers were introduced in the mid 1970s. A major breakthrough in the area of ICP took place in the early 1980s when the ICP was shown to be an excellent ion source for mass spectrometry.

  12. Development of a supercritical fluid chromatography high-resolution separation method suitable for pharmaceuticals using cyanopropyl silica.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Claudio; Zhao, Yining; Brown, Melissa-Hanna; Sandra, Pat

    2008-03-28

    A method has been developed for the analysis of a broad spectrum of pharmaceuticals using packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) on a cyanopropyl silicagel stationary phase. Five 25 cm x 4.6 mm I.D., 5.0 microm columns were coupled to generate ca. 100000 plates. The selectivity was tuned by varying the nature and concentration of various modifiers and additives in the carbon dioxide mobile phase. It was noted that pressure influences both efficiency and selectivity of the chromatographic process. Final method conditions are: outlet pressure 100 bar, flow 2.0 mL/min, temperature 40 degrees C, organic modifier program from 5% (1 min) to 40% at 2.0%/min, organic modifier composition methanol:acetonitrile in a ratio of 3:1 (variable according to sample composition) with peak symmetry additives trifluoroacetic acid and diisopropylamine both at levels of 0.5%.

  13. SU-F-BRF-01: A GPU Framework for Developing Interactive High-Resolution Patient-Specific Biomechanical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Neylon, J; Qi, S; Sheng, K; Kupelian, P; Santhanam, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a GPU-based framework that can generate highresolution and patient-specific biomechanical models from a given simulation CT and contoured structures, optimized to run at interactive speeds, for addressing adaptive radiotherapy objectives. Method: A Massspring-damping (MSD) model was generated from a given simulation CT. The model's mass elements were generated for every voxel of anatomy, and positioned in a deformation space in the GPU memory. MSD connections were established between neighboring mass elements in a dense distribution. Contoured internal structures allowed control over elastic material properties of different tissues. Once the model was initialized in GPU memory, skeletal anatomy was actuated using rigid-body transformations, while soft tissues were governed by elastic corrective forces and constraints, which included tensile forces, shear forces, and spring damping forces. The model was validated by applying a known load to a soft tissue block and comparing the observed deformation to ground truth calculations from established elastic mechanics. Results: Our analyses showed that both local and global load experiments yielded results with a correlation coefficient R{sup 2} > 0.98 compared to ground truth. Models were generated for several anatomical regions. Head and neck models accurately simulated posture changes by rotating the skeletal anatomy in three dimensions. Pelvic models were developed for realistic deformations for changes in bladder volume. Thoracic models demonstrated breast deformation due to gravity when changing treatment position from supine to prone. The GPU framework performed at greater than 30 iterations per second for over 1 million mass elements with up to 26 MSD connections each. Conclusions: Realistic simulations of site-specific, complex posture and physiological changes were simulated at interactive speeds using patient data. Incorporating such a model with live patient tracking would facilitate real

  14. Development of Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometers as Stable Near-infrared Calibration Sources for High Resolution Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Samuel; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Hearty, Fred; Wilson, John; Holtzman, Jon; Redman, Stephen; Nave, Gillian; Nidever, David; Nelson, Matt; Venditti, Nick; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Fleming, Scott

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the ongoing development of single-mode fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) Interferometers as precise astro-photonic calibration sources for high precision radial velocity (RV) spectrographs. FFPs are simple, inexpensive, monolithic units that can yield a stable and repeatable output spectrum. An FFP is a unique alternative to a traditional etalon, as the interferometric cavity is made of single-mode fiber rather than an air-gap spacer. This design allows for excellent collimation, high spectral finesse, rigid mechanical stability, insensitivity to vibrations, and no need for vacuum operation. The device we have tested is a commercially available product from Micron Optics. Our development path is targeted towards a calibration source for the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph designed to detect terrestrial-mass planets around low-mass stars, but this reference could also be used in many existing and planned fiber-fed spectrographs as we illustrate using the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) instrument. With precise temperature control of the fiber etalon, we achieve a thermal stability of 100 $\\mu$K and associated velocity uncertainty of 22 cm s$^{-1}$. We achieve a precision of $\\approx$2 m s$^{-1}$ in a single APOGEE fiber over 12 hours using this new photonic reference after removal of systematic correlations. This high precision (close to the expected photon-limited floor) is a testament to both the excellent intrinsic wavelength stability of the fiber interferometer and the stability of the APOGEE instrument design. Overall instrument velocity precision is 80 cm s$^{-1}$ over 12 hours when averaged over all 300 APOGEE fibers and after removal of known trends and pressure correlations, implying the fiber etalon is intrinsically stable to significantly higher precision.

  15. Novel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector Developments for Future Large Area and High Resolution X-ray Astronomy Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Abe

    In the coming years, X-ray astronomy will require new soft X-ray detectors that can be read very quickly with low noise and can achieve small pixel sizes over a moderately large focal plane area. These requirements will be present for a variety of X-ray missions that will attempt to address science that was highly ranked by the 2010 Decadal Survey, including missions with science that overlaps with that of IXO and Athena, as well as other missions addressing science topics beyond those of IXO and Athena. An X-ray Surveyor mission was recently chosen by NASA for study by a Science & Technology Definition Team (STDT) so it can be considered as an option for an upcom-ing flagship mission. A mission such as this was endorsed by the NASA long term planning document entitled "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions," and a detailed description of one possible reali-zation of such a mission has been referred to as SMART-X, which was described in a recent NASA RFI response. This provides an example of a future mission concept with these requirements since it has high X-ray throughput and excellent spatial resolution. We propose to continue to modify current active pixel sensor designs, in particular the hybrid CMOS detectors that we have been working with for several years, and implement new in-pixel technologies that will allow us to achieve these ambitious and realistic requirements on a timeline that will make them available to upcoming X-ray missions. This proposal is a continuation of our program that has been work-ing on these developments for the past several years. The first 3 years of the program led to the development of a new circuit design for each pixel, which has now been shown to be suitable for a larger detector array. The proposed activity for the next four years will be to incorporate this pixel design into a new design of a full detector array (2k×2k pixels with digital output) and to fabricate this full-sized device so it can be thoroughly tested and

  16. Development of a frequency-tunable optical phase lock loop (OPLL) for high resolution fiber optic distributed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperschmidt, Vladimir; Stolpner, Lew; Mols, Peter; Alalusi, Mazin; Mehnert, Axel; Barsan, Radu; Ansari, Farhad

    2011-04-01

    We report on the development of a precision-tunable, dual wavelength, optical light source suitable for high performance fiber optic Brillouin scattering distributed sensing. The design is based on an Optical Phase Locked Loop (OPLL) system using novel narrow linewidth, low frequency noise and high stability PLANEX external cavity semiconductor. The inherent wavelength stability of PLANEX lasers (typically an order of magnitude better that any DFB laser on the market) enable the OPLL to operate continuously over a wide ambient temperature range without degradation in wavelength locking performance. The OPLL architecture is implemented with polarization maintaining (PM) components and has a very low beat frequency jitter on the order of few kHz. The OPLL frequency tuning range is between 8 and 14 GHz, with fast tuning of sweep steps on the order of 100 μsec. Such a frequency tuning range covers practically all corresponding temperature and strain sensing applications based on the measurement of the frequency shift produced by spontaneous or stimulated Brillouin scattering, and thus is a versatile and enabling technology for both BOTDA/BOTDR distributed sensing systems.

  17. Development of high-resolution multi-scale modelling system for simulation of coastal-fluvial urban flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Joanne; Indiana Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Urban developments in coastal zones are often exposed to natural hazards such as flooding. In this research, a state-of-the-art, multi-scale nested flood (MSN_Flood) model is applied to simulate complex coastal-fluvial urban flooding due to combined effects of tides, surges and river discharges. Cork city on Ireland's southwest coast is a study case. The flood modelling system comprises a cascade of four dynamically linked models that resolve the hydrodynamics of Cork Harbour and/or its sub-region at four scales: 90, 30, 6 and 2 m. Results demonstrate that the internalization of the nested boundary through the use of ghost cells combined with a tailored adaptive interpolation technique creates a highly dynamic moving boundary that permits flooding and drying of the nested boundary. This novel feature of MSN_Flood provides a high degree of choice regarding the location of the boundaries to the nested domain and therefore flexibility in model application. The nested MSN_Flood model through dynamic downscaling facilitates significant improvements in accuracy of model output without incurring the computational expense of high spatial resolution over the entire model domain. The urban flood model provides full characteristics of water levels and flow regimes necessary for flood hazard identification and flood risk assessment.

  18. High resolution ultrasound-guided microinjection for interventional studies of early embryonic and placental development in vivo in mice

    PubMed Central

    Slevin, John C; Byers, Lois; Gertsenstein, Marina; Qu, Dawei; Mu, Junwu; Sunn, Nana; Kingdom, John CP; Rossant, Janet; Adamson, S Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background In utero microinjection has proven valuable for exploring the developmental consequences of altering gene expression, and for studying cell lineage or migration during the latter half of embryonic mouse development (from embryonic day 9.5 of gestation (E9.5)). In the current study, we use ultrasound guidance to accurately target microinjections in the conceptus at E6.5–E7.5, which is prior to cardiovascular or placental dependence. This method may be useful for determining the developmental effects of targeted genetic or cellular interventions at critical stages of placentation, gastrulation, axis formation, and neural tube closure. Results In 40 MHz ultrasound images at E6.5, the ectoplacental cone region and proamniotic cavity could be visualized. The ectoplacental cone region was successfully targeted with 13.8 nL of a fluorescent bead suspension with few or no beads off-target in 51% of concepti microinjected at E6.5 (28/55 injected). Seventy eight percent of the embryos survived 2 to 12 days post injection (93/119), 73% (41/56) survived to term of which 68% (38/56) survived and appeared normal one week after birth. At E7.5, the amniotic and exocoelomic cavities, and ectoplacental cone region were discernable. Our success at targeting with few or no beads off-target was 90% (36/40) for the ectoplacental cone region and 81% (35/43) for the exocoelomic cavity but tended to be less, 68% (34/50), for the smaller amniotic cavity. At E11.5, beads microinjected at E7.5 into the ectoplacental cone region were found in the placental spongiotrophoblast layer, those injected into the exocoelomic cavity were found on the surface or within the placental labyrinth, and those injected into the amniotic cavity were found on the surface or within the embryo. Following microinjection at E7.5, survival one week after birth was 60% (26/43) when the amniotic cavity was the target and 66% (19/29) when the target was the ectoplacental cone region. The survival rate was

  19. The JPL ASTER Volcano Archive: the development and capabilities of a 15 year global high resolution archive of volcano data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linick, J. P.; Pieri, D. C.; Sanchez, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The physical and temporal systematics of the world's volcanic activity is a compelling and productive arena for the exercise of orbital remote sensing techniques, informing studies ranging from basic volcanology to societal risk. Comprised of over 160,000 frames and spanning 15 years of the Terra platform mission, the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) is the world's largest (100+Tb) high spatial resolution (15-30-90m/pixel), multi-spectral (visible-SWIR-TIR), downloadable (kml enabled) dedicated archive of volcano imagery. We will discuss the development of the AVA, and describe its growing capability to provide new easy public access to ASTER global volcano remote sensing data. AVA system architecture is designed to facilitate parameter-based data mining, and for the implementation of archive-wide data analysis algorithms. Such search and analysis capabilities exploit AVA's unprecedented time-series data compilations for over 1,550 volcanoes worldwide (Smithsonian Holocene catalog). Results include thermal anomaly detection and mapping, as well as detection of SO2 plumes from explosive eruptions and passive SO2 emissions confined to the troposphere. We are also implementing retrospective ASTER image retrievals based on volcanic activity reports from Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). A major planned expansion of the AVA is currently underway, with the ingest of the full 1972-present LANDSAT, and NASA EO-1, volcano imagery for comparison and integration with ASTER data. Work described here is carried out under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of the California Institute of Technology.

  20. Imaging of radiocesium uptake dynamics in a plant body by using a newly developed high-resolution gamma camera.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Naoki; Yin, Yong-Gen; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishii, Satomi; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Watabe, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Fujimaki, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new gamma camera specifically for plant nutritional research and successfully performed live imaging of the uptake and partitioning of (137)Cs in intact plants. The gamma camera was specially designed for high-energy gamma photons from (137)Cs (662 keV). To obtain reliable images, a pinhole collimator made of tungsten heavy alloy was used to reduce penetration and scattering of gamma photons. A single-crystal scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12, with high sensitivity, no natural radioactivity, and no hygroscopicity was used. The array block of the scintillator was coupled to a high-quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube to obtain accurate images. The completed gamma camera had a sensitivity of 0.83 count s(-1) MBq(-1) for (137)Cs with an energy window from 600 keV to 730 keV, and a spatial resolution of 23.5 mm. We used this gamma camera to study soybean plants that were hydroponically grown and fed with 2.0 MBq of (137)Cs for 6 days to visualize and investigate the transport dynamics in aerial plant parts. (137)Cs gradually appeared in the shoot several hours after feeding, and then accumulated preferentially and intensively in growing pods and seeds; very little accumulation was observed in mature leaves. Our results also suggested that this gamma-camera method may serve as a practical analyzing tool for breeding crops and improving cultivation techniques resulting in low accumulation of radiocesium into the consumable parts of plants.

  1. Development of Curves for Estimating Aircraft Arresting Hook Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AFFTC engineers with a reliable, accurate method for predicting maximum aircraft arresting hook loads bAsed on a knowledge Ir aircraft weight and...IyvPk (8 (LB I (Lbt) (KT I C&: N1k (F-1) N Lfvbk& k uptit 0 F-1~ I 6 :CCOO 59200 521000 113.9 b0 8C-33 11 F-1%c f-CC00 59300 353C0U 91.3 W) 8(1-3 1 ’ F

  2. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-01-29

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1 MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and vφ on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  3. Development of high-resolution liquid-argon and -xenon detectors for 1 MeV-20 GeV gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hademenos, G. J.; Fenyves, E. J.; Cline, David B.; Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-04-01

    A new concept in gamma ray detection is under development by the University of Texas at Dallas and the University of California, Los Angeles collaboration. Liquid-argon and -xenon detectors, used simultaneously as drift ionization chambers and as scintillation counters, combine the high energy resolution of ionization chambers and the high time resolution of scintillation counters with the very high spatial resolution and particle-track-imaging capability of liquid drift chambers. The detectors are characterized by their event-by-event processing and decision-making feature. Together with gas drift chambers and plastic scintillators, these detectors will be capable of carrying out gamma-ray and charged-particle measurements on accelerators, detecting cosmic gamma rays and charged particles in space-based experiments and observing high-energy particles deep underground. In addition to this, liquid-xenon detectors can be applied to high-resolution medical imaging of gamma rays.

  4. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-02-27

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and vφ on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  5. Estimating Sediment Delivery to The Rio Maranon, Peru Prior to Large-Scale Hydropower Developments Using High Resolution Imagery from Google Earth and a DJI Phantom 3 Drone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, J. R.; Candelaria, T.; Kramer, N. R.; Hill, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    As global energy demands increase, generating hydroelectric power by constructing dams and reservoirs on large river systems is increasingly seen as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, especially in emerging economies. Many large-scale hydropower projects are located in steep mountainous terrain, where environmental factors have the potential to conspire against the sustainability and success of such projects. As reservoir storage capacity decreases when sediment builds up behind dams, high sediment yields can limit project life expectancy and overall hydropower viability. In addition, episodically delivered sediment from landslides can make quantifying sediment loads difficult. These factors, combined with remote access, limit the critical data needed to effectively evaluate development decisions. In the summer of 2015, we conducted a basic survey to characterize the geomorphology, hydrology and ecology of 620 km of the Rio Maranon, Peru - a major tributary to the Amazon River, which flows north from the semi-arid Peruvian Andes - prior to its dissection by several large hydropower dams. Here we present one component of this larger study: a first order analysis of potential sediment inputs to the Rio Maranon, Peru. To evaluate sediment delivery and storage in this system, we used high resolution Google Earth imagery to delineate landslides, combined with high resolution imagery from a DJI Phantom 3 Drone, flown at alluvial fan inputs to the river in the field. Because hillslope-derived sediment inputs from headwater tributaries are important to overall ecosystem health in large river systems, our study has the potential to contribute to the understanding the impacts of large Andean dams on sediment connectivity to the Amazon basin.

  6. Development of a Rapid High-Throughput Method for High-Resolution Melting Analysis for Routine Detection and Genotyping of Noroviruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri-Utagawa, Etsuko; Hara, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Mayumi; Wakita, Takaji

    2009-01-01

    We developed a simple, rapid, high-throughput detection and genotyping method for noroviruses using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to create a difference plot. The capsid gene was amplified by real-time RT-PCR in the presence of ResoLight HRM dye, a saturating DNA dye. Following optimization of the HRM assay conditions, the major norovirus genotypes were selected. Because we had only small quantities of the patient stool samples used in this study, we constructed plasmids for each genotype and used these to optimize the HRM assay. We selected six stool samples, each positive for one of the six dominant subtypes of noroviruses that have been circulating in Japan, namely, genotypes 4, 8, and 9 from genogroup 1 and genotypes 3, 4, and 10 from genogroup 2. The specific high-resolution derivate plot of the HRM assay for each plasmid was constructed by subtracting the melting-curve shape of the plasmid from the reference or base curve. The RNAs extracted from 14 clinical samples positive for small round structured viruses were then directly analyzed using the HRM assay. The HRM data from the clinical RNA samples corresponded with the genotype results obtained by RT-PCR and sequencing of the clinical samples. In addition, the HRM data from the clinical RNA samples corresponded with the HRM data from the six reference plasmid DNAs, indicating that this assay is useful for the direct detection and genotyping of noroviruses in clinical samples. This assay requires no multiplexing or hybridization probes and provides a new approach to the genetic screening of noroviruses in clinical virology laboratories. PMID:19073870

  7. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  8. High resolution imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goody, R.; Papaliolios, C.; Beletic, J.

    1986-01-01

    Diffraction-limited telescopic observations were obtained of solar system objects and a program of research into Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and the asteroids based upon the data obtained was persued. Two camera systems appropriate for this work were developed. Most importantly, the PAPA photon address camera was developed and proven. Algorithms were developed for both phase and amplitude recovery and were validated on theoretical and laboratory data and to a limited extent on telescopic data. A laboratory simulator was constructed that was used for development but is also available for controlled investigation of image reconstruction. During 1985 two successful expeditions were made to Hawaii and Cerro Tololo and a large body of data on Pluto, Uranus, Neptune and two asteroids are on tape.

  9. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  10. Cell cycle arrest and activation of development in marine invertebrate deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Costache, Vlad; McDougall, Alex; Dumollard, Rémi

    2014-08-01

    Like most metazoans, eggs of echinoderms and tunicates (marine deuterostomes, there is no data for the cephalochordates) arrest awaiting fertilization due to the activity of the Mos/MEK/MAPK cascade and are released from this cell cycle arrest by sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals. Invertebrate deuterostome eggs display mainly three distinct types of cell cycle arrest before fertilization mediated by potentially different cytostatic factors (CSF): one CSF causes arrest during meiotic metaphase I (MI-CSF in tunicates and some starfishes), another CSF likely causes arrest during meiotic metaphase II (amphioxus), and yet another form of CSF causes arrest to occur after meiotic exit during G1 of the first mitotic cycle (G1-CSF). In tunicates and echinoderms these different CSF activities have been shown to rely on the Mos//MAPK pathway for establishment and on Ca2+ signals for their inactivation. Despite these molecular similarities, release of MI-CSF arrest is caused by APC/C activation (to destroy cyclin B) whereas release from G1-CSF is caused by stimulating S phase and the synthesis of cyclins. Further research is needed to understand how both the Mos//MAPK cascade and Ca2+ achieve these tasks in different marine invertebrate deuterostomes. Another conserved feature of eggs is that protein synthesis of specific mRNAs is necessary to proceed through oocyte maturation and to maintain CSF-induced cell cycle arrest. Then activation of development at fertilization is accompanied by an increase in the rate of protein synthesis but the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown in most of the marine deuterostomes. How the sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals cause an increase in protein synthesis has been studied mainly in sea urchin eggs. Here we review these conserved features of eggs (arrest, activation and protein synthesis) focusing on the non-vertebrate deuterostomes.

  11. Development patterns and controlling factors of Tertiary carbonate buildups: Insights from high-resolution 3D seismic and well data in the Malampaya gas field (Offshore Palawan, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, F.; Borgomano, J.; Montaggioni, L. F.

    2005-04-01

    The comprehensive subsurface database of the Malampaya buildup (Late Eocene to Early Miocene, offshore NW Palawan) provides a rare insight into the development of South-East Asian Cenozoic carbonate systems and their controlling factors. The newly acquired high-resolution three-dimensional seismic survey, combined with facies and well-log analysis, allowed a better understanding of the internal architecture of a carbonate platform whose development was largely controlled by tectonic deformation. The Malampaya carbonate system was initiated in the Late Eocene, as an attached shelf influenced by significant clastic input. The Late Eocene-Early Oligocene shelf was subject to syn-depositional extensional tectonics (eastward tilting and block faulting) that favoured the development of small size buildups on structural highs. After a stage of eastward reef progradation, an aggrading carbonate shelf, frequently affected by subaerial exposure, developed from the earliest Late Oligocene to the Early Miocene. During this period, recurrent reactivation of highs along the western and northeastern buildup margins determined the asymmetric morphology and internal architecture of the carbonate system. The final demise of the carbonate buildup occurred in the late Early Miocene. It resulted from an increase in subsidence rate and/or a sharp increase in nutrient input. Additional parameters like eustacy, oceanographic conditions and the type of carbonate producers played a subordinate role in the buildup development and ultimate demise.

  12. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-01-01

    Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio WALTER C. WILLIAMS, B. S., Chief, High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, Calif. HIItIU-ItE•,OL.I’TION Al’TIlT.AI) iIO (ltAIIII 3 Of )4r...comparison was made betw,,ia wvet-prociss autoraffio- eraluate this autoradiographic technique, several types of radio - graphs and autoradiographs...apart. heterogeneous system. The radiation emitted by the radio - Wet-process autoradiography, as developed in 1949 by Dr. active elements acts on a

  13. Progress in the development of ATHAM-Fluidity: A new high-resolution atmospheric model for simulating localised extreme weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savre, Julien; Herzog, Michael; Percival, James; Pain, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the EU FP7-PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastaL regions) project, a new high-resolution non hydrostatic atmospheric model is currently developed: ATHAM-Fluidity. Unlike many existing atmospheric models, ATHAM-Fluidity's dynamical core is based on a mixed finite-element discretisation designed to operate on unstructured and adaptive meshes, for an optimized use of computational power. The model is designed to simulate extreme weather conditions at local scales (on the order of 50x50 km2) and will ultimately help better understand and assess the impacts of heavy precipitation events in coastal areas. As such, ATHAM-Fluidity will constitute an important component of a suite of multi-physics models, including for example storm surge and flood modelling systems, whose role will particularly consist in producing high-resolution precipitation maps in areas of interest. A series of case studies identified within PEARL (for example Greve, Denmark, an area particularly vulnerable to floods and storm surges) will be further investigated using ATHAM-Fluidity and this integrated modelling framework. In order to successfully achieve its tasks, ATHAM-Fluidity must be equipped with a series of physical parameterisations to capture the formation and evolution of clouds and heavy precipitation. After a careful evaluation of ATHAM-Fluidity under dry atmospheric conditions [Savre et al., submitted to MWR 2015] for which the performances of the dynamical core and mesh adaptivity algorithm have been assessed, the model has recently been extended to handle moist atmospheric conditions and clouds. These new developments include the implementation of ATHAM's active tracer concept to account for atmospheric moisture and hydrometeors, as well as a warm two-moment bulk microphysics scheme to parameterise the formation and evolution of liquid clouds and precipitation. In addition, a turbulence diffusion closure, specifically designed for Large Eddy

  14. Development of 36M-pixel x-ray detector for large field of view and high-resolution micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, Keiji; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru

    2016-10-01

    A high-resolution and large field-of-view micro-CT system is indispensable for the visualization of fine threedimensional (3-D) structures of a large specimen. Such a system drastically increases the overall number of effective sensor pixels. At SPring-8 over a decade ago, a micro-CT system based on a 10M-pixel CCD camera was developed for 3-D specimen imaging of centimeter-sized objects with approximately 7 μm spatial resolution. Subsequently, more recent studies have required systems with higher spatial resolution and a wider field-of-view. Detectors with spatial resolution of around 5 μm can visualize capillaries. However, such detectors make it extremely expensive to develop a new x-ray detector with several tens of megapixels in a conventional manner. Fortunately, dizzying advances in image sensor technology for consumer appliances have enabled the development of x-ray detectors with spatial resolution of around 5 μm using a commercial digital single-lens reflex camera fitted with a 36M-pixel CMOS image sensor for the visualization of fine 3-D structures of large human lung specimens. This paper describes a comparison of the performance offered by the new 36M-pixel micro-CT system and the 10M-pixel system.

  15. Development of fluorogenic probe-based and high-resolution melting-based polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and differentiation of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Yan; Zhao, Long-Sheng; Song, Xiu-Ping; Du, Peng-Chen; Li, Dong-Mei; Chen, Zhong-Ke; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana are the major etiological agents of infective endocarditis, which pose a serious threat to human health. To simultaneously detect and differentiate B. henselae and B. quintana, a reliable and fast method to simultaneously detect and differentiate B. henselae and B. quintana is required. In this study, we developed and validated two rapid, highly sensitive and specific, duplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays-one based on high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, and the other on TaqMan probes-to simultaneously detect and differentiate B. henselae and B. quintana. The sensitivity of developed assays were found 100 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR. The specificity of the assays were validated by the absence of any cross reaction with the other Bartonella species, non-Bartonella bacteria and other animals. The results indicate that the duplex HRM-based and TaqMan probe-based assays have high specificity and sensitivity, and good reproducibility for simultaneous the detection of B. henselae and B. quintana. They are cost-effective, sensitive and reliable methods; and are thus suitable for clinical diagnosis, epidemiological surveys, and disease surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Approach for Scanning Beta Globin Gene Point Mutations in the Greek and Other Mediterranean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chassanidis, Christos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Voskaridou, Ersi; Balassopoulou, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. The disease’s high incidence, which is observed in the broader Mediterranean area has led to the establishment of molecular diagnostics’ assays to prevent affected births. Therefore, the development of a reliable, cost-effective and rapid scanning method for β globin gene point mutations, easily adapted to a routine laboratory, is absolutely essential. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) approach, suitable for scanning the particularly heterogeneous beta globin gene mutations present in the Greek population, and thus adaptable to the Mediterranean and other areas where these mutations have been identified. Within this context, β globin gene regions containing mutations frequently identified in the Greek population were divided in ten overlapping amplicons. Our reactions’ setup allowed for the simultaneous amplification of multiple primer sets and partial multiplexing, thereby resulting in significant reduction of the experimental time. DNA samples from β-thalassaemia patients/carriers with defined genotypes were tested. Distinct genotypes displayed distinguishable melting curves, enabling accurate detection of mutations. The described HRMA can be adapted to a high-throughput level. It represents a rapid, simple, cost-effective, reliable, highly feasible and sensitive method for β-thalassaemia gene scanning. PMID:27351925

  17. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Approach for Scanning Beta Globin Gene Point Mutations in the Greek and Other Mediterranean Populations.

    PubMed

    Chassanidis, Christos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Voskaridou, Ersi; Balassopoulou, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. The disease's high incidence, which is observed in the broader Mediterranean area has led to the establishment of molecular diagnostics' assays to prevent affected births. Therefore, the development of a reliable, cost-effective and rapid scanning method for β globin gene point mutations, easily adapted to a routine laboratory, is absolutely essential. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) approach, suitable for scanning the particularly heterogeneous beta globin gene mutations present in the Greek population, and thus adaptable to the Mediterranean and other areas where these mutations have been identified. Within this context, β globin gene regions containing mutations frequently identified in the Greek population were divided in ten overlapping amplicons. Our reactions' setup allowed for the simultaneous amplification of multiple primer sets and partial multiplexing, thereby resulting in significant reduction of the experimental time. DNA samples from β-thalassaemia patients/carriers with defined genotypes were tested. Distinct genotypes displayed distinguishable melting curves, enabling accurate detection of mutations. The described HRMA can be adapted to a high-throughput level. It represents a rapid, simple, cost-effective, reliable, highly feasible and sensitive method for β-thalassaemia gene scanning.

  18. Developing a high-resolution vehicular emission inventory by integrating an emission model and a traffic model: Part 2--A case study in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikun; Fu, Lixin; Chen, Jinchuan

    2010-12-01

    A grid-based, bottom-up method has been proposed by combining a vehicle emission model and a travel demand model to develop a high-resolution vehicular emission inventory for Chinese cities. Beijing is used as a case study in which the focus is on fuel consumption and emissions from hot-stabilized activities of light-duty gasoline vehicles (LGVs) in 2005. The total quantity of emissions, emission intensity, and spatial distribution of emissions at 1- by 1-km resolution are presented and compared with results from other inventory methods commonly used in China. The results show that the total daily fuel consumption and vehicular emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen from LGVs in the Beijing urban area in 2005 were 1.95 x 10(7) L, 4.28 x 10(4) t, 1.97 x 10(3) t, 0.28 x 10(3) t, and 0.14 x 10(3) t, respectively. Vehicular fuel consumption and emissions show spatial variations that are consistent with the traffic characteristics. The grid-based inventory developed in this study reflects the influence of traffic conditions on vehicle emissions at the microscale and may be applied to evaluate the effectiveness of traffic-related measures on emission control in China.

  19. Development of a metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry to screen for clenbuterol abuse in calves.

    PubMed

    Courant, Frédérique; Pinel, Gaud; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Monteau, Fabrice; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Beta-agonist compounds can be misused in food-producing animals for growth promoting purposes. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. To circumvent those problems, new analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent a new emerging strategy for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of beta-agonists (either "cocktails" or unknown compounds). As a first demonstration of feasibility, an untargeted metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry measurements was developed and made it possible to highlight metabolic modifications in urine consecutively to a clenbuterol administration. By the means of chemometrics, those metabolic differences were used to build predictive models able to suspect clenbuterol administration in calves. This new approach may be considered of valuable interest to overcome current limitations in the control of growth promoters' abuse, with promising perspectives in terms of screening.

  20. High-resolution infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  1. The development and performance of UV-enhanced APD-arrays for high resolution PET imaging coupled with pixelized Pr:LuAG crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, M.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Matsuda, H.; Miura, T.; Katou, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kawabata, N.; Matsunaga, Y.; Kamada, K.; Usuki, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Yanagida, T.

    2011-07-01

    The development of high-resolution, UV-enhanced avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays usable in high-resolution PET imaging is underway. These APD arrays were specifically designed as photosensors capable of direct coupling with pixelized Pr-doped Lu 3Al 5O 12 (Pr:LuAG) scintillators. An excellent quantum efficiency (QE) of 55% was achieved at the peak emission of Pr:LuAG (310 nm), namely, a substantial improvement from the QE ≤5% as measured with the conventional Hamamatsu reverse-type APDs (S8664 series). Each APD device has 8×8 (TYP1) and 12×12 (TYP2) pixel structures with active areas of 3×3 mm 2 and 2×2 mm 2 in each pixel, respectively. A gain uniformity of ±8% and low dark noise of ≤2 nA/pixel have been achieved, measured at +25 °C. We also report on the large size single crystal growth of improved Pr:LuAG scintillators and the preliminary performance test of the same. An energy resolution of 4.2% (FWHM) was obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays for 10×10×10 mm 3 crystal, measured with a PMT employing a super-bialkali photocathode. We made a test module consisting of a UV-enhanced APD-array (either TYP1 or TYP2) optically coupled with an 8×8 (or 12×12) pixel Pr:LuAG matrix. The linearity between the output signals and incident gamma-ray energy of TYP1 and TYP2 gamma-ray detectors were only 0.27 and 0.33%, as measured at +25 °C for various gamma-ray sources, respectively. Energy resolutions of 7.0±0.2% (FWHM) and 9.0±0.6% (FWHM) were, respectively, obtained for TYP1 and TYP2 detector arrays for 662 keV gamma-rays. The uniformity of the pulse height distributions was also measured at less than 8% for both detectors. Finally, we measured the coincidence timing resolution of these gamma-ray detectors and obtained 4.0±0.1 ns (FWHM) for the 511 keV annihilation quanta from a 22Na source. These results suggest that UV-enhanced APD-arrays coupled with Pr:LuAG scintillators could be a promising device for future application in nuclear medicine.

  2. Practical aspects of high resolution esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de León San Juan, Antonio; Ciriza de Los Ríos, Constanza; Pérez de la Serna Bueno, Julio; Canga Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; Estremera Arévalo, Fermín; García Sánchez, Raquel; Huamán Ríos, José Walter; Pérez Fernández, María Teresa; Santander Vaquero, Cecilio; Serra Pueyo, Jordi; Sevilla Mantilla, Concepción; Barba Orozco, Elisabeth; Bosque López, María José; Casabona Francés, Sergio; Carrión Bolorino, Silvia; Castillo Grau, Pilar; Delgado Aros, Silvia; Domínguez Carbajo, Ana Belén; Fernández Orcajo, Pilar; García-Lledó, Javier; Gigantó Tomé, Froilán; Iglesias Picazo, Rosa; Lacima Vidal, Gloria; López López, Pilar; Llabrés Rosselló, Magdalena; Mas Mercader, Pilar; Mego Silva, Marianela; Mendarte Barrenetxea, María Usua; Miliani Molina, Carlos; Oreja Arrayago, Milagros; Sánchez Ceballos, Francisco; Sánchez Prudencio, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) is currently under development as can be seen in the various Chicago classifications. In order to standardize criteria in certain practical aspects with limited scientific evidence, the First National Meeting for Consensus in High Resolution Manometry of the Spanish Digestive Motility Group took place, bringing together a wide group of experts. The proposals were based on a prior survey composed of 47 questions, an exhaustive review of the available literature and the experience of the participants. Methodological aspects relating to the poorly defined analysis criteria of certain new high resolution parameters were discussed, as well as other issues previously overlooked such as spontaneous activity or secondary waves. Final conclusions were drawn with practical applications.

  3. Development of a method for enhancing metabolomics coverage of human sweat by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-01-28

    Sweat has recently gained popularity as clinical sample in metabolomics analysis as it is a non-invasive biofluid the composition of which could be modified by certain pathologies, as is the case with cystic fibrosis that increases chloride levels in sweat. However, the whole composition of sweat is still unknown and there is a lack of analytical strategies for sweat analysis. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a method for metabolomic analysis of human sweat by gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) in high resolution mode. Thus, different sample preparation strategies were compared to check their effect on the profile of sweat metabolites. Sixty-six compounds were tentatively identified by the obtained MS information. Amino acids, dicarboxylic acids and other interesting metabolites such as myo-inositol and urocanic acid were identified. Among the tested protocols, methyoxiamination plus silylation after deproteinization was the most suited option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome. The intra-day repeatability of the method ranged from 0.60 to 16.99% and the inter-day repeatability from 2.75 to 31.25%. As most of the identified metabolites are involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new possibilities to the use of sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of specific disorders.

  4. Development of a quantitation method to assay both lyoniresinol enantiomers in wines, spirits, and oak wood by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cretin, Blandine N; Dubourdieu, Denis; Marchal, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Wine taste balance evolves during oak aging by the release of volatile and non-volatile compounds from wood. Among them, an enantiomer of lyoniresinol, (+)-lyoniresinol, has been shown to exhibit bitterness. To evaluate the impact of (+)-lyoniresinol on wine taste, a two-step quantitation method was developed and validated. First, (±)-lyoniresinol was assayed in wines, spirits, and oak wood macerates by C-18 liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Then, the lyoniresinol enantiomeric ratio was determined by chiral LC-HRMS in order to calculate the (+)-lyoniresinol content. In red and white wines, the average concentrations of (+)-lyoniresinol were 1.9 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The enantiomer proportions were not affected by bottle aging, and lyoniresinol appeared to remain stable over time. The sensory study of (+)-lyoniresinol established its perception threshold at 0.46 mg/L in wine. All the commercial wines quantitated were above this perception threshold, demonstrating its impact on wine taste by an increase in bitterness. In spirits, (+)-lyoniresinol ranged from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/L and was found to be released continuously during oak aging. Finally, neither botanical origin nor toasting was found to significantly affect the (+)-lyoniresinol content of oak wood. Graphical abstract From oak wood to wine: evaluation of the influence of (+)-lyoniresinol on the bitterness of wines and spirits.

  5. Advancements in medium and high resolution Earth observation for land-surface imaging: Evolutions, future trends and contributions to sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouma, Yashon O.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies for imaging the surface of the Earth, through satellite based Earth observations (EO) have enormously evolved over the past 50 years. The trends are likely to evolve further as the user community increases and their awareness and demands for EO data also increases. In this review paper, a development trend on EO imaging systems is presented with the objective of deriving the evolving patterns for the EO user community. From the review and analysis of medium-to-high resolution EO-based land-surface sensor missions, it is observed that there is a predictive pattern in the EO evolution trends such that every 10-15 years, more sophisticated EO imaging systems with application specific capabilities are seen to emerge. Such new systems, as determined in this review, are likely to comprise of agile and small payload-mass EO land surface imaging satellites with the ability for high velocity data transmission and huge volumes of spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolution data. This availability of data will magnify the phenomenon of ;Big Data; in Earth observation. Because of the ;Big Data; issue, new computing and processing platforms such as telegeoprocessing and grid-computing are expected to be incorporated in EO data processing and distribution networks. In general, it is observed that the demand for EO is growing exponentially as the application and cost-benefits are being recognized in support of resource management.

  6. Note: Development of a high resolution and wide band terahertz spectrometer based on a 1 μm-band external cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, K.; Oto, K.; Nakajima, M.; Muro, K.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a frequency-domain terahertz spectrometer based on homebuilt 1 μm band external cavity diode lasers, for high resolution spectroscopy. Our spectrometer is digitally controlled to a resolution of 10 MHz, and uses InGaAs/GaAs photoconductive antennas. We have obtained a spectrum in the range 0.02 THz to 2.5 THz, which exceeds the conventional temperature tuning range of a distributed feedback diode laser. We achieved a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 80 dB at around 0.05 THz, and 20 dB at around 2.0 THz. We observed water vapor spectra in the atmosphere with a frequency step of 0.6 GHz in the region between 1.0 THz and 2.0 THz. We have demonstrated that our 1 μm-band frequency-domain terahertz spectrometer is competitive when compared with existing 800 nm- and 1.5 μm-band systems.

  7. Note: Development of a high resolution and wide band terahertz spectrometer based on a 1 μm-band external cavity diode laser.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, K; Oto, K; Nakajima, M; Muro, K

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a frequency-domain terahertz spectrometer based on homebuilt 1 μm band external cavity diode lasers, for high resolution spectroscopy. Our spectrometer is digitally controlled to a resolution of 10 MHz, and uses InGaAs/GaAs photoconductive antennas. We have obtained a spectrum in the range 0.02 THz to 2.5 THz, which exceeds the conventional temperature tuning range of a distributed feedback diode laser. We achieved a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 80 dB at around 0.05 THz, and 20 dB at around 2.0 THz. We observed water vapor spectra in the atmosphere with a frequency step of 0.6 GHz in the region between 1.0 THz and 2.0 THz. We have demonstrated that our 1 μm-band frequency-domain terahertz spectrometer is competitive when compared with existing 800 nm- and 1.5 μm-band systems.

  8. High resolution 1H NMR-based metabonomic study of the auditory cortex analogue of developing chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) following prenatal chronic loud music and noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Sharma, Uma; Mewar, Sujeet; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2014-10-01

    Proper functional development of the auditory cortex (ACx) critically depends on early relevant sensory experiences. Exposure to high intensity noise (industrial/traffic) and music, a current public health concern, may disrupt the proper development of the ACx and associated behavior. The biochemical mechanisms associated with such activity dependent changes during development are poorly understood. Here we report the effects of prenatal chronic (last 10 days of incubation), 110dB sound pressure level (SPL) music and noise exposure on metabolic profile of the auditory cortex analogue/field L (AuL) in domestic chicks. Perchloric acid extracts of AuL of post hatch day 1 chicks from control, music and noise groups were subjected to high resolution (700MHz) (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate regression analysis of the concentration data of 18 metabolites revealed a significant class separation between control and loud sound exposed groups, indicating a metabolic perturbation. Comparison of absolute concentration of metabolites showed that overstimulation with loud sound, independent of spectral characteristics (music or noise) led to extensive usage of major energy metabolites, e.g., glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and ATP. On the other hand, high glutamine levels and sustained levels of neuromodulators and alternate energy sources, e.g., creatine, ascorbate and lactate indicated a systems restorative measure in a condition of neuronal hyperactivity. At the same time, decreased aspartate and taurine levels in the noise group suggested a differential impact of prenatal chronic loud noise over music exposure. Thus prenatal exposure to loud sound especially noise alters the metabolic activity in the AuL which in turn can affect the functional development and later auditory associated behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  10. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  11. Developing the First Gapless ZnO Surge Arrester in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Misao

    Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) technology was first developed in Japan and improved. Original discovery was made by Matsushita Electric Industry Co., Ltd by a finding of some diode phenomenon. Meidensha Corporation applied it to high voltage grid system in Japan in 1975 as a reliable lightning protection device. Japanese MOSA manufactures played a leading role in world MOSA innovations and developments. The BIL has been standardized based on arrester protective characteristics. Due to MOSA, the product shift to MOSA occurred from the gapped type arresters (GTA) 35 years ago as GTA had many gap-related problems. The MOSA became a complete IEC standard (IEC60099-4-1991) taking 20 years from starting development. The MOSA now has a solid footprint in the world lightning protection space.

  12. Development of a method for metabolomic analysis of human exhaled breath condensate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Peralbo-Molina, A; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-08-05

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising biofluid scarcely used in clinical analysis despite its non-invasive sampling. The main limitation in the analysis of EBC is the lack of standardized protocols to support validation studies. The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical method for analysis of human EBC by GC-TOF/MS in high resolution mode. Thus, sample preparation strategies as liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction were compared in terms of extraction coverage. Liquid-liquid extraction resulted to be the most suited sample preparation approach providing an average extraction efficiency of 77% for all compounds in a single extraction. Different normalization approaches were also compared to determine which strategy could be successfully used to obtain a normalized profile with the least variability among replicates of the same sample. Normalization to the total useful mass spectrometry signal (MSTUS) proved to be the most suited strategy for the analysis of EBC from healthy individuals (n = 50) reporting a within-day variability below 7% for the 51 identified compounds and a suited data distribution in terms of percentage of metabolites passing the Skewness and Kurtosis test for normality distribution. The composition of EBC was clearly dominated by the presence of fatty acids and derivatives such as methyl esters and amides, and volatile prenol lipids. Therefore, EBC offers the profile of both volatile and non-volatile components as compared to other similar biofluids such as exhaled breath vapor, which only provides the volatile profile. This human biofluid could be an alternative to others such as serum/plasma, urine or sputum to find potential markers with high value for subsequent development of screening models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a high-resolution (1 km × 1 km, 1 h) emission model for Spain: The High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, José María; Güereca, Leonor Patricia; López, Eugeni; Gassó, Santiago; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro

    This work presents the results of the development and application of the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES). HERMES generates the emissions for Spain needed for the application of high-resolution chemistry transport models, taking the year 2004 as reference with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 1 km 2 considering both anthropogenic (power generation, industrial activities, on-road traffic, ports, airports, solvent use, domestic and commercial fossil fuel use) and biogenic sources (vegetation), using a bottom-up approach, up-to-date information and state-of-the-art methodologies for emission estimation. HERMES is capable of calculating emissions by sector-specific sources or by individual installations and stacks. The annual addition of hourly sectorial emissions leads to an estimation of total annual emissions as follows: NO x, 795 kt; NMVOCs, 1025 kt; CO, 1236 kt; SO 2, 1142 kt and TSP, 180 kt; which are distributed principally in the greater areas of the main cities, highways and large point sources. NO x, SO 2 and PM 2.5 highly correlate with the power generation by coal use, achieving higher emission levels during summertime due to the increase of electricity demand by cooling systems. NMVOCs show high correlation with temperature and solar radiation (mainly as a consequence of the important weight of biogenic emissions) causing the maximum emissions during the daylight hours of summer months. CO emissions are mostly influenced by the on-road traffic; consequently the higher emissions are attained in summer because of the increase of daily average traffic during holidays. The most significant total emission sources are on-road traffic (38%), combustion in power generation plants (33%), biogenic sources (12%) and combustion in manufacturing industries (9%). The inventory generated with HERMES emission model has been successfully integrated within the Spanish Ministry of the Environment's air quality forecasting

  14. Development and uncertainty analysis of a high-resolution NH3 emissions inventory and its implications with precipitation over the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. Y.; Yin, S. S.; Kang, D. W.; Che, W. W.; Zhong, L. J.

    2012-08-01

    Detailed NH3 emission inventories are important to understand various atmospheric processes, air quality modeling studies, air pollution management, and related environmental and ecological issues. A high-resolution NH3 emission inventory was developed based on state-of-the-science techniques, up-to-date information, and advanced expert knowledge for the Pearl River Delta region, China. To provide model-ready emissions input, this NH3 emissions inventory was spatially allocated to 3 km × 3 km grid cells using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. For NH3 emissions, 9 source categories and 45 subcategories were identified in this region, and detailed spatial and temporal characteristics were investigated. Results show that livestock is by far the most important NH3 emission source by contributing about 61.7% of the total NH3 emissions in this region, followed by nitrogen fertilizer applications (~23.7%) and non-agricultural sources (~14.6%). Uncertainty analysis reveals that the uncertainties associated with different sources vary from source to source and the magnitude of the uncertainty associated with a specific source mainly depends on the degree of accuracy of the emission factors and activity data as well as the technique used to perform the estimate. Further studies should give priority to the hog, broiler, goose subsectors of the livestock source and N fertilizer application source in order to reduce uncertainties of ammonia emission estimates in this region. The validity of the NH3 emissions inventory is justified by the trend analysis of local precipitation compositions, such as pH values, the Ca2++NH4+/SO42-+ NO3- ratios, and NH4+ concentrations which are directly or indirectly related to NH3 emissions.

  15. Development of a quantitation approach for total human and male DNA based on real time PCR followed by high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Ginart, Santiago; Caputo, Mariela; Alechine, Evguenia; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We developed and validated a total human DNA quantitation technique that simultaneously allows male DNA detection. This assay, called Amel-Y, is a duplex Real Time PCR followed by HRM (high resolution melting) analysis using the intercalating dye SYTO9. Amel-Y duplex produces two amplicons, one for the amelogenin gene (106/112 bp, female/male) and another (84 bp) corresponding to human Y chromosome-specific fragment to detect male DNA. After HRM analysis, two melting peaks differing in 5.3°C-5.5°C are detected if both male and female DNA are present and only one if only female DNA is present. For specificity assessment, the inclusion of high concentrations of bacterial and fungal DNA in the quantitation reactions allowed discarding species cross-reactivity. A set of crime scene evidence from forensic casework has been quantified with commercial kits and compared with Amel-Y duplex. Our method detected male DNA from a concentration of 18 pg/μL and supports autosomal/Y DNA detection ratio up to 200:1. A limitation of the technique is its inability to quantify male and female donnors in a mixed sample. The Amel-Y duplex demonstrated to be an efficient system for quantifying total human DNA being a specific, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method suitable for mixed DNA samples and applicable to any field where human DNA quantification is required, such as molecular diagnosis, population genetics, and forensic identification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Adapting High-Resolution Respirometry to Glucose-Limited Steady State Mycelium of the Filamentous Fungus Penicillium ochrochloron: Method Development and Standardisation

    PubMed Central

    Schinagl, Christoph W.; Vrabl, Pamela; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fungal electron transport systems (ETS) are branched, involving alternative NADH dehydrogenases and an alternative terminal oxidase. These alternative respiratory enzymes were reported to play a role in pathogenesis, production of antibiotics and excretion of organic acids. The activity of these alternative respiratory enzymes strongly depends on environmental conditions. Functional analysis of fungal ETS under highly standardised conditions for cultivation, sample processing and respirometric assay are still lacking. We developed a highly standardised protocol to explore in vivo the ETS—and in particular the alternative oxidase—in Penicillium ochrochloron. This included cultivation in glucose-limited chemostat (to achieve a defined and reproducible physiological state), direct transfer without any manipulation of a broth sample to the respirometer (to maintain the physiological state in the respirometer as close as possible to that in the chemostat), and high-resolution respirometry (small sample volume and high measuring accuracy). This protocol was aimed at avoiding any changes in the physiological phenotype due to the high phenotypic plasticity of filamentous fungi. A stable oxygen consumption (< 5% change in 20 minutes) was only possible with glucose limited chemostat mycelium and a direct transfer of a broth sample into the respirometer. Steady state respiration was 29% below its maximum respiratory capacity. Additionally to a rotenone-sensitive complex I and most probably a functioning complex III, the ETS of P. ochrochloron also contained a cyanide-sensitive terminal oxidase (complex IV). Activity of alternative oxidase was present constitutively. The degree of inhibition strongly depended on the sequence of inhibitor addition. This suggested, as postulated for plants, that the alternative terminal oxidase was in dynamic equilibrium with complex IV—independent of the rate of electron flux. This means that the onset of activity does not depend on a

  17. Stalagmite high resolution local paleoclimatic proxies for Late Holocene in Mesoamerica: Exploring role of moisture upon the development of Mesoamerican cultures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Izquierdo, H. B.; Bernal, J. P.; Pérez Enriquez, R.; Böhnel, H.; Morales-Malacara, J. B.; Solari, L.; Gómez-Tuena, A.

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between climate change and culture development in Mesoamerica is complex to unravel since many written archives were destroyed during natural disasters and cultural conflicts such as Spanish conquest. Local paleoclimate records offer a way to reconstruct this relationship. Stalagmites are amongst the most reliable records of past climate variability, due to their evolution in closed-system conditions, ease of dating, and inclusion of several geochemical proxies (such as calcite oxygen and carbon isotopic composition, trace element concentration and/or elemental ratios, color and grey-tone scale). Recently, stalagmites have been used as records to explore the climatic change during Holocene and its cultural relation in Mediterranean, Asian, North American and east African cultures. Only few works were made, however, for Mesoamerican cultures. We study here a banded stalagmite belonging to Jalpan, Queretaro, central Mexico. This stalagmite was found actively growing, with its base dated at 6.85 +/- 0.3 Ka B.P. A high resolution LA-ICP-MS Mg/Ca analysis as well as grey tone analysis were obtained in order to create annual resolution time series. The proxies were correlated with local and north Atlantic paleoclimate records. Such proxies also show signals associated with volcanic eruptions (Tacana, el Chichon, Popocatepetl and Ceboruco) during the Classic period. Other signals are associated with Maya civilization collapse. These results portray the relationship between the agricultural and population patterns with moisture variability for the center of Mexico (Teotihuacan influence zone) during late Formative and Classic period. Finally, we observe patterns such as the corresponding to the little ice age and the anthropogenic climate warming, the latter correlated with local precipitation data.

  18. Development and Validation of High-Resolution Melting Markers Derived from Rysto STS Markers for High-Throughput Marker-Assisted Selection of Potato Carrying Rysto.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xianzhou; Sutherland, Darcy; Dickison, Virginia; Singh, Mathuresh; Murphy, Agnes M; De Koeyer, David

    2016-11-01

    Sequence analysis of the chromosome region harboring the sequence-tagged site (STS) markers YES3-3A and YES3-3B for Rysto, a gene responsible for extreme resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato, was performed in tetraploid potato 'Barbara' (Rrrr) and 'AC Chaleur' (rrrr) as well as their progeny selections. Three and two sequence variants were identified in Barbara resistant (R) selections and AC Chaleur susceptible (S) selections, respectively. Further analysis indicates that the variant with a 21-nucleotide (nt) deletion is likely the chromosome copy harboring the STS markers. Two primer pairs, one targeting the region containing a 20-nt deletion and the other targeting the region anchoring the YES3-3A reverse primer, were designed. As anticipated, pair one produced two visible fragments in Barbara-R bulk and one visible fragment in AC Chaleur-S bulk; pair two produced one visible fragment in all samples. When subjected to high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, two distinct melting profiles for R and S samples were observed. Analysis of 147 progeny of Barbara × AC Chaleur revealed 72 and 75 progeny with R and S melting profiles, respectively, which was consistent with YES3-3A and YES3-3B assays and phenotyping analysis, thus demonstrating the potential of HRM profiles as novel molecular markers for Rysto. The efficacy of the newly developed HRM markers for high-throughput marker-assisted selection for Rysto-conferred resistance to PVY was validated further with three populations involving Barbara as the R parent.

  19. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  20. High-resolution electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Employing scanning transmission electron microscope as interferometer, relative phases of diffraction maximums can be determined by analysis of dark field images. Synthetic aperture technique and Fourier-transform computer processing of amplitude and phase information provide high resolution images at approximately one angstrom.

  1. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-02

    Functions, ICCES 2010, Las Vegas. 17. David Fullwood, Brent Adams, Mike Miles, Stuart Rogers, Ali Khosravani, Raj Mishra, Design for Ductility : Defect... Pseudo -Symmetries by High Resolution EBSD Methods, MS&T. 2009: Pittsburgh. 27. Oliver Johnson, Calvin Gardner, David Fullwood, Brent Adams, George...applied to strain measurements ................................... 6 2.3 Recovery of Lattice Tetragonality and Pseudo -Symmetry Resolution

  2. High-resolution slug testing.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  3. Development of a high-resolution emission inventory and its evaluation and application through air quality modeling for Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Yaduan; Mao, Pan; Zhang, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Improved emission inventories combining detailed source information are crucial for better understanding the atmospheric chemistry and effectively making emission control policies using air quality simulation, particularly at regional or local scales. With the downscaled inventories directly applied, chemical transport model might not be able to reproduce the authentic evolution of atmospheric pollution processes at small spatial scales. Using the bottom-up approach, a high-resolution emission inventory was developed for Jiangsu China, including SO2, NOx, CO, NH3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and CO2. The key parameters relevant to emission estimation for over 6000 industrial sources were investigated, compiled and revised at plant level based on various data sources and on-site survey. As a result, the emission fractions of point sources were significantly elevated for most species. The improvement of this provincial inventory was evaluated through comparisons with other inventories at larger spatial scales, using satellite observation and air quality modeling. Compared to the downscaled Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), the spatial distribution of NOX emissions in our provincial inventory was more consistent with summer tropospheric NO2 VCDs observed from OMI, particularly for the grids with moderate emission levels, implying the improved emission estimation for small and medium industrial plants by this work. Three inventories (national, regional, and provincial by this work) were applied in the Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system for southern Jiangsu October 2012, to evaluate the model performances with different emission inputs. The best agreement between available ground observation and simulation was found when the provincial inventory was applied, indicated by the smallest normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized mean

  4. Development of a high-resolution emission inventory and its evaluation and application through air quality modeling for Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaduan; Zhao, Yu; Mao, Pan; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Qiu, Liping; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Improved emission inventories combining detailed source information are crucial for better understanding of the atmospheric chemistry and effectively making emission control policies using air quality simulation, particularly at regional or local scales. With the downscaled inventories directly applied, chemical transport models might not be able to reproduce the authentic evolution of atmospheric pollution processes at small spatial scales. Using the bottom-up approach, a high-resolution emission inventory was developed for Jiangsu China, including SO2, NOx, CO, NH3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and CO2. The key parameters relevant to emission estimation for over 6000 industrial sources were investigated, compiled, and revised at plant level based on various data sources and on-site surveys. As a result, the emission fractions of point sources were significantly elevated for most species. The improvement of this provincial inventory was evaluated through comparisons with other inventories at larger spatial scales, using satellite observation and air quality modeling. Compared to the downscaled Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), the spatial distribution of NOx emissions in our provincial inventory was more consistent with summer tropospheric NO2 VCDs observed from OMI, particularly for the grids with moderate emission levels, implying the improved emission estimation for small and medium industrial plants by this work. Three inventories (national, regional, and provincial by this work) were applied in the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system for southern Jiangsu October 2012, to evaluate the model performances with different emission inputs. The best agreement between available ground observation and simulation was found when the provincial inventory was applied, indicated by the smallest normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized

  5. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells from developing and arrested embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Stojkovic, Petra; Przyborski, Stefan; Cooke, Michael; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-12-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) hold huge promise in modern regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and as a model for studying early human development. However, usage of embryos and derivation of hESC for research and potential medical application has resulted in polarized ethical debates since the process involves destruction of viable developing human embryos. Here we describe that not only developing embryos (morulae and blastocysts) of both good and poor quality but also arrested embryos could be used for the derivation of hESC. Analysis of arrested embryos demonstrated that these embryos express pluripotency marker genes such OCT4, NANOG, and REX1. Derived hESC lines also expressed specific pluripotency markers (TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA4, alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, NANOG, TERT, and REX1) and differentiated under in vitro and in vivo conditions into derivates of all three germ layers. All of the new lines, including lines derived from late arrested embryos, have normal karyotypes. These results demonstrate that arrested embryos are additional valuable resources to surplus and donated developing embryos and should be used to study early human development or derive pluripotent hESC.

  6. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of lower Paleozoic sheet sandstones in central North America: The role of special conditions of cratonic interiors in development of stratal architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Anthony C.; Miller, J.F.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.; Taylor, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Well-known difficulties in applying sequence stratigraphic concepts to deposits that accumulated across slowly subsiding cratonic interior regions have limited our ability to interpret the history of continental-scale tectonism, oceanographic dynamics of epeiric seas, and eustasy. We used a multi-disciplinary approach to construct a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for lower Paleozoic strata in the cratonic interior of North America. Within this framework, these strata proved readily amenable to modern sequence stratigraphic techniques that were formulated based on successions along passive margins and in foreland basins, settings markedly different from the cratonic interior. Parasequences, parasequence stacking patterns, systems tracts, maximum flooding intervals, and sequence-bounding unconformities can be confidently recognized in the cratonic interior using mostly standard criteria for identification. The similarity of cratonic interior and foreland basin successions in size, geometry, constituent facies, and local stacking patterns of nearshore parasequences is especially striking. This similarity indicates that the fundamental processes that establish shoreface morphology and determine the stratal expression of retreat and progradation were likewise generally the same, despite marked differences in tectonism, physiography, and bathymetry between the two settings. Our results do not support the widespread perception that Paleozoic cratonic interior successions are so anomalous in stratal geometries, and constitute such a poor record of time, that they are poorly suited for modern sequence stratigraphic analyses. The particular arrangement of stratal elements in the cratonic interior succession we studied is no more anomalous or enigmatic than the variability in architecture that sets all sedimentary successions apart from one another. Thus, Paleozoic strata of the cratonic interior are most appropriately considered as a package that belongs in a

  7. Development of a 2D Image Reconstruction and Viewing System for Histological Images from Multiple Tissue Blocks: Towards High-Resolution Whole-Organ 3D Histological Images.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Bautista, Pinky A; Haneishi, Hideaki; Snuderl, Matija; Yagi, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution 3D histology image reconstruction of the whole brain organ starts from reconstructing the high-resolution 2D histology images of a brain slice. In this paper, we introduced a method to automatically align the histology images of thin tissue sections cut from the multiple paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of a brain slice. For this method, we employed template matching and incorporated an optimization technique to further improve the accuracy of the 2D reconstructed image. In the template matching, we used the gross image of the brain slice as a reference to the reconstructed 2D histology image of the slice, while in the optimization procedure, we utilized the Jaccard index as the metric of the reconstruction accuracy. The results of our experiment on the initial 3 different whole-brain tissue slices showed that while the method works, it is also constrained by tissue deformations introduced during the tissue processing and slicing. The size of the reconstructed high-resolution 2D histology image of a brain slice is huge, and designing an image viewer that makes particularly efficient use of the computing power of a standard computer used in our laboratories is of interest. We also present the initial implementation of our 2D image viewer system in this paper. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Solar influence on climate variability and human development during the Neolithic: evidence from a high-resolution multi-proxy record from Templevanny Lough, County Sligo, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolze, Susann; Muscheler, Raimund; Dörfler, Walter; Nelle, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between climatic variations, vegetation dynamics and early human activity between c. 4150-2860 BC was reconstructed from a high-resolution pollen and geochemical record obtained from a small lake located in County Sligo, Ireland. The proxy record suggests the existence of a woodland with a largely closed canopy at the start of the fourth millennium BC. Only minor human disturbance is recorded. Following an episode of increased rainfall at c. 3990 BC, a decrease in the elm population occurred between c. 3970 and 3820 BC. This coincided with a period of warming and drying climatic conditions and an initial increase in anthropogenic activities. A second episode of high precipitation between c. 3830-3800 BC was followed by a steep increase in human impact on the landscape, which became most pronounced between c. 3740 and 3630 BC. At this time, the lake level of Templevanny Lough was at its lowest during the Neolithic. The onset of wetter and cooler conditions after c. 3670 BC, representing the transition from the Early to the Middle Neolithic, coincided with a period of woodland recovery. The Middle Neolithic was characterised by pronounced climatic oscillations including periods of substantial rainfall between c. 3600 and 3500 BC and between c. 3500 and 3460 BC. A nearly century-long climatic amelioration between c. 3460-3370 BC facilitated a revival of human activity on a small scale around the lake. Abandonment of the area and full woodland recovery occurred after a period of particularly wet and cool conditions ranging from c. 3360-3290 BC. The pollen and geochemistry data suggest that the Late Neolithic was marked by a period of ameliorated conditions between c. 3110-3050 BC that was followed by two episodes of high rainfall at c. 3060-3030 BC and c. 2940-2900 BC. The timing of the climatic shifts inferred from the Templevanny Lough record is in agreement with those of moisture/precipitation and temperature reconstructions from northern and

  9. Development of a liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of viral envelope glycoprotein in Ebola virus-like particle vaccine preparations.

    PubMed

    Cazares, Lisa H; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst E; Kenny, Tara; Demond, Paul; Mahone, Christopher R; Martins, Karen A O; Nuss, Jonathan E; Glaros, Trevor; Bavari, Sina

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus like particles (EBOV VLPs, eVLPs), are produced by expressing the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (GP) and structural matrix protein VP40 in mammalian cells. When expressed, these proteins self-assemble and bud from 'host' cells displaying morphology similar to infectious virions. Several studies have shown that rodents and non-human primates vaccinated with eVLPs are protected from lethal EBOV challenge. The mucin-like domain of envelope glycoprotein GP1 serves as the major target for a productive humoral immune response. Therefore GP1 concentration is a critical quality attribute of EBOV vaccines and accurate measurement of the amount of GP1 present in eVLP lots is crucial to understanding variability in vaccine efficacy. After production, eVLPs are characterized by determining total protein concentration and by western blotting, which only provides semi-quantitative information for GP1. Therefore, a liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) approach for accurately measuring GP1 concentration in eVLPs was developed. The method employs an isotope dilution strategy using four target peptides from two regions of the GP1 protein. Purified recombinant GP1 was generated to serve as an assay standard. GP1 quantitation in 5 eVLP lots was performed on an LTQ-Orbitrap Elite and the final quantitation was derived by comparing the relative response of 200 fmol AQUA peptide standards to the analyte response at 4 ppm. Conditions were optimized to ensure complete tryptic digestion of eVLP, however, persistent missed cleavages were observed in target peptides. Additionally, N-terminal truncated forms of the GP1 protein were observed in all eVLP lots, making peptide selection crucial. The LC-HRMS strategy resulted in quantitation of GP1 with a lower limit of quantitation of 1 fmol and an average percent coefficient of variation (CV) of 7.6 %. Unlike western blot values, the LC-HRMS quantitation of GP1 in 5 eVLP vaccine lots exhibited a

  10. Method development for the determination of cadmium in fertilizer samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and slurry sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Aline R.; Becker, Emilene M.; Lequeux, Céline; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Ferreira, Sergio L. C.; Welz, Bernhard

    2011-07-01

    The determination of cadmium (Cd) in fertilizers is of major interest, as this element can cause growth problems in plants, and also affect animals and humans. High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) with charge-coupled device (CCD) array detection overcomes several of the limitations encountered with conventional line source AAS, especially the problem of accurate background measurement and correction. In this work an analytical method has been developed to determine Cd in fertilizer samples by HR-CS GF AAS using slurry sampling. Both a mixture of 10 μg Pd + 6 μg Mg in solution and 400 μg of iridium as permanent modifier have been investigated and aqueous standards were used for calibration. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 600 °C and 1600 °C for the Pd-Mg modifier, and 500 °C and 1600 °C for Ir, respectively. The results obtained for Cd in the certified reference material NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer) of 16.7 ± 1.3 μg g -1 and 16.4 ± 0.75 μg g -1 for the Pd-Mg and Ir modifier, respectively, were statistically not different from the certified value of 16.9 ± 0.2 μg g -1 on a 95% confidence level; however, the results obtained with the Ir modifier were significantly lower than those for the Pd-Mg modifier for most of the samples. The characteristic mass was 1.0 pg for the Pd-Mg modifier and 1.1 pg Cd for the Ir modifier, and the correlation coefficients (R 2) of the calibration were > 0.99. The instrumental limits of detection were 7.5 and 7.9 ng g -1, and the limits of quantification were 25 and 27 ng g -1 for Pd-Mg and Ir, respectively, based on a sample mass of 5 mg. The cadmium concentration in the investigated samples was between 0.07 and 5.5 μg g -1 Cd, and hence below the maximum value of 20 μg g -1 Cd permitted by Brazilian legislation.

  11. Development of a simple method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in groundwater by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Pereira, Raimundo N; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2014-01-02

    In this work, it was developed a method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in groundwater by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry of NO produced by thermal decomposition of nitrate in a graphite furnace. The NO line at 215.360 nm was used for all analytical measurements and the signal obtained by integrated absorbance of three pixels. A volume of 20 μL of standard solution or groundwater sample was injected into graphite furnace and 5 μL of a 1% (m/v) Ca solution was co-injected as chemical modifier. The pyrolisis and vaporization temperatures established were of 150 and 1300°C, respectively. Under these conditions, it was observed a difference of thermal stability among the two nitrogen species in the presence of hydrochloric acid co-injected. While that the nitrite signal was totally suppressed, nitrate signal remained nearly stable. This way, nitrogen can be quantified only as nitrate. The addition of hydrogen peroxide provided the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, which allowed the total quantification of the species and nitrite obtained by difference. A volume of 5 μL of 0.3% (v/v) hydrochloric acid was co-injected for the elimination of nitrite, whereas that hydrogen peroxide in the concentration of 0.75% (v/v) was added to samples or standards for the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Analytical curve was established using standard solution of nitrate. The method described has limits of detection and quantification of 0.10 and 0.33 μg mL(-1) of nitrogen, respectively. The precision, estimated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was of 7.5 and 3.8% (n=10) for groundwater samples containing nitrate-N concentrations of 1.9 and 15.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 10 groundwater samples and the results were compared with those obtained by ion chromatography method. In all samples analyzed, the concentration of nitrite-N was always below of the limit of

  12. High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and how ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, R.

    2002-07-01

    An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.

  13. The role of peer arrests on the development of youths' attitudes towards the justice system.

    PubMed

    Fine, Adam; Cavanagh, Caitlin; Donley, Sachiko; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    During adolescence, youths develop attitudes about the justice system. Although there is consistent evidence that personal experiences with legal actors contribute to attitudes toward the justice system, adolescents' attitudes may also be influenced vicariously through their friends' experiences with the justice system. Using data from a sample of 1,216 first-time male adolescent offenders, the present study examines how attitudes toward the justice system develop over 24 months following the adolescent's first arrest. Even after accounting for personal justice system experiences, including self-reported offending, time on the streets, and contacts with the police, results indicate that adolescents with friends who were arrested report more negative attitudes toward the justice system than those without friends who were arrested. Further, experiencing a friend's arrest has a larger impact on the attitudes of youths who are experiencing it for the first time. We provide evidence that attitudes toward the justice system are a product of accumulated social experiences-both personal and vicarious-with the justice system.

  14. Stellar Tools for High Resolution Population Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Buzzoni, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the application of a new stellar library of high-resolution synthetic spectra (based upon ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz) in the calculation of the ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution of simple stellar populations (SSPs). For this purpose, the library has been coupled with Buzzoni's population synthesis code. Part of this paper is also devoted to illustrate quantitatively the extent to which synthetic stellar libraries represent real stars.

  15. A High Resolution Ammunition Resupply Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. HELAPS II is a stochastic, event sequenced simulation that is run on a CDC 6000 series machine with GASP IV simulation language ...high resolution, event sequenced, stochastic model of ground combat. The language used was SINSCRIPT 11.5. Since much of what was developed is still...simulation language . These critical descriptors and the information they convey are as follows: (a) Arcs: length of road segment; type of road

  16. Developing a transcultural academic-community partnership to arrest obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Soltero, Erica G; Mama, Scherezade K; Saavedra, Fiorella; Ledoux, Tracey A; McNeill, Lorna

    2013-01-01

    Innovative and empirically tested strategies are needed to define and understand obesity prevention and reduction in a transcultural society. This manuscript describes the development of Science & Community, a partnership developed over a 3-year period with the end goal of implementing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) trial to reduce and prevent obesity. Outreach strategies focused on promoting the project via existing and new channels and identifying and contacting potential partners using established strategies. Science & Community developed and fostered partnerships by hosting a series of interactive meetings, including three Opportunity Receptions, four Community Open Forum Symposia, and quarterly Community Advisory Board (CAB) meetings. Opportunity Reception (N = 62) and Symposia attendees (N = 103) represented the diversity of the community, and participants reported high satisfaction with content and programming. From these events, the CAB was formed and was comprised of 13 community representatives. From these meetings, a Partnership representing 34 organizations and 614 individuals emerged that has helped to guide the development of future proposals and strategies to reduce obesity in Houston/Harris County.

  17. The characterization of soil properties in in-situ conditions to develop "soil management/mapping units" using high-resolution remotely sensed data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, D. Keith

    The intent of this research was to assess the possible use of high resolution remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral data to characterize soil types, specifically focusing on organic matter content, in an associative manner with the results obtained from traditional Order 1 and Order 2 soil surveys. A chi-square analysis indicated a strong association between soil type and organic matter content. A Cramer's V analysis (of a supervised classification) indicated a stronger relationship between the Order 1 and organic matter. However, when an unsupervised classification scheme was applied to the aerial imagery, again using Cramer's analysis, the Order 2 out-performed the Order 1. This superior performance was due in part to the grouping of multi-band spectral response patterns into statistically separable clusters. A One-Way ANOVA analysis indicated that all soils were significantly different in the Order 2 survey for both the hyperspectral and the multispectral data sets. However, the Order 1 results show the ITD sensor more successfully grouping the darker soils than did the ATLAS which grouped the lighter soils. A linear discriminate analysis (LDA) demonstrates that the computer classification of images more successfully assessed the Order 2 survey than the Order 1. Again it is worth noting that the LDA also grouped the soils in a similar manner as did the ANOVA in that the ITD sensor grouped the darker soils and the ATLAS sensor grouped the lighter soils. This sensor preference is another significant secondary finding of this study. Despite the subjective nature of the soil mapping exercise and the use of un-calibrated data sets, high resolution imagery was able to differentiate different soil mapping scales. Even though associations were relatively low statistically, this study supports the hypothesis that high resolution imagery, although limited by its two-dimensional capabilities, can be effectively used as a predictive tool, although with the current

  18. High-resolution emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particle black carbon in Fort Collins, Colorado: development of a Bayesian uncertainty modeling and evaluation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Stuart, A. L.; Dagne, G.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and health effects and to manage pollutant sources. Quantification of uncertainties is also needed. Bayesian approaches are promising for systematic uncertainty analysis that combines information from measurements and modeling. The work presented discusses an emissions inventory and concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particle (PM2.5) black carbon for the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. The development of a Bayesian framework for updating estimates of emissions and concentrations (and exposures) in multiple stages, using measurement data, is also presented. The emissions inventory was constructed using the 2008 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual and county-level resolution. Data from the Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) for the years 2001-2010 were used to define the hourly temporal structure and variability in power plant emissions. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach (using emission factors and activities) for large roadway links within Fort Collins with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were obtained from local 2009 travel demand model results. The AERMOD Gaussian plume dispersion model was used to estimate air pollutant concentrations. Multiple years of available meteorological data are used to capture temporal variability in transport. A Bayesian stochastic ensemble approach is used to generate distributions of concentrations for each spatial location and time frame. Input data for ensemble members are sampled from distributions defined from the emissions inventory and meteorological data. Simulated distributions are compared with fixed

  19. Studies on deformation/pore pressure coupling processes at Japanese URLs and the development of ultra-high resolution FBG strain sensors for rock mechanics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T.; Matsui, H.; Zuyuan, H.; Kashiwai, Y.

    2009-12-01

    with the opposite side of the fault. The transient increase of pore pressure by pumping activity is intuitively thought to be opposite in the polarity of change, however, it is interpreted to be related to the coupling process between deformation of rock masses and the change of pore pressure. Our numerical simulation supports our interpretation based on the deformation/pore pressure coupling process. This result strongly suggests that spatially high-density, high-resolution strain measurements together with pore pressure measurements in the subsurface can provide us quite exciting information on the behavior of rock mass deformation and fluid flow processes in the subsurface environments. For this purpose, we have started our new project on the development of multiplexed, high-accuracy, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensors for geo-engineering application. The target specifications are 10 nanostrain in strain resolution, 10 to 100 m in total length, 0.1 to 1 m in spatial resolution, and 10 to 100 in measurement points. We expect to finish this development in JFY 2011 and are hoping to deploy our sensors to both Mizunami in Japan and Homestake in US very near future.

  20. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  1. High-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    König, Karsten; Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg

    2014-03-15

    An ultracompact high-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscope with a femtosecond near infrared fiber laser has been utilized to study the cellular autofluorescence during freezing and thawing of cells. Cooling resulted in an increase of the intracellular fluorescence intensity followed by morphological modifications at temperatures below -10 °C, depending on the application of the cryoprotectant DMSO and the cooling rate. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging revealed an increase of the mean lifetime with a decrease in temperature. Non-destructive, label-free optical biopsies of biomaterial in ice can be obtained with sub-20 mW mean powers.

  2. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  3. A High Resolution CCD Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Larry S.; Kadekod i, Narayan; Nugroho, Yohanes; Lo, Mike; Mortz, Margaret; Ibrahim, Ali

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes a high resolution CCD multiplexer for focal plane imaging systems. The multiplexer incorporates quadrilinear readout registers to achieve two times the resolution of conventional bilinear structure while using the same design rules. Complete parallel charge transfer are ensured by a novel buried channel poly gate isolation scheme. A monolithic silicon photodiode array of 8 Am pitch, 3533 elements was designed with the multi-plexer. Video preprocessing circuits of high speed four to one channel stitching, compensated sample and hold and bad pixel deletion were integrated on chip for improved performance. The modulation transfer functions due to the geometry and the transfer inefficiency are discussed. The theoretically calculated total MTF agrees with the experimental result. At Nyquist frequency of 62.5 c/mm the total MTF is better than 0.6 in the absence of the diffusion MTF degradation. The noise spectrum of the CCD and the output amplifier are presented. The RMS noise of the CCD in dark is approximately 0.35 my over 1 MHz bandwidth. The CCD noise increases with light input attributed primarily to the shot noise. The low noise nature of the multiplexer makes it ideal for the high resolution low light level detection applications.

  4. Developing and testing a low cost method for high resolution measurements of volcanic water vapour emissions at Vulcano and Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pering, Tom D.; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Bitetto, Marcello; Rubino, Cosimo

    2015-04-01

    The most voluminous of emissions from volcanoes are from water vapour (H2O) (Carroll and Holloway, 1994), however, measurements of this species receive little focus due to the difficulty of independent measurement, largely a result of high atmospheric background concentrations which often undergo rapid fluctuations. A feasible method of measuring H2O emissions at high temporal and spatial resolutions would therefore be highly valuable. We describe a new and low-cost method combining modified web cameras (i.e. with infrared filters removed) with measurements of temperature and relative humidity to produce high resolution measurements (≈ 0.25 Hz) of H2O emissions. The cameras are affixed with near-infrared filters at points where water vapour absorbs (940 nm) and doesn't absorb (850 nm) incident light. Absorption of H2O is then determined by using Lambert-Beer's law on a pixel by pixel basis, producing a high spatial resolution image. The system is then calibrated by placing a Multi-GAS unit within the gas source and camera field-of-view, which measures; SO2, CO2, H2S and relative humidity. By combining the point measurements of the Multi-GAS unit with pixel values for absorption, first correcting for the width of the gas source (generally a Gaussian distribution), a calibration curve is produced which allows the conversion of absorption values to mass of water within a pixel. In combination with relative humidity measurements made outside of the plume it is then possible to subtract the non-volcanic background H2O concentration to produce a high resolution calibrated volcanic H2O flux. This technique is demonstrated in detail at the active fumarolic system on Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Data processing and image acquisition was completed in Matlab® using a purpose built code. The technique is also demonstrated for the plume of the North-East Crater of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). Here, contemporaneously acquired measurements of SO2 using a UV camera, combined

  5. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  6. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens, J.C.E. Williams, J.J. Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-06-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: • Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization • Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency • X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution • Novel lab

  7. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  8. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  9. High-resolution land topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles

    2006-11-01

    After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land topography, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  10. HIRAS, high resolution IRAS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontekoe, Tj. R.; Kester, D. J. M.; Wesselius, P. R.

    The IRAS Software Telescope allows everyone to obtain the state-of-the-art IRAS products (survey, pointed observations, as well as low-resolution spectra) from raw uncalibrated scan data to FITS maps and any stage in between, any size area up to five by five degree, within 24 hours response time, and without the tedious proposal and refereeing process. This is done via an electronic mail server, without manual interaction. High Resolution Images can also be made by running HIRAS, which drives the MemSys5 (Gull & Skilling 1991) maximum entropy package. Herewith a resolution of order one arc-minute, instead of the usual five arc-minutes, can be obtained.

  11. High-resolution interferometric spectrophotopolarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Spectrophotopolarimetric capability can be added to a laboratory interferometer-spectrometer by use of a specially designed module described herein. With the instrument so augmented, high-resolution spectra can be obtained of the Stokes parameters of the reference beam and the beams diffusely reflected or transmitted by a sample medium of interest. For any such beam, the exponential Fourier transforms of the two interferograms obtained with a polarizer-analyzer oriented along the 0 deg and the 90 deg directions provide the spectra of I and Q, separately. Within experimental (and numerical) noise, this I spectrum should be the same as the one obtained with the polarizer removed. The remaining Stokes parameters U and V are obtained with a third interferogram recorded with the polarizer along the 45 deg direction. The complete theory of this instrument is described including the detailed analysis of the polarization-interferograms it provides.

  12. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  13. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  14. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  15. Extending the High-Resolution Global Climate Record in Santa Barbara Basin: Developing a More Continuous Composite Section from Overlapping Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, R. J.; Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Pak, D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Cannariato, K. G.; Nicholson, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Hopkins, S. E.; Team, S.

    2005-12-01

    More than thirty ~2 to 5m-long piston cores were recovered from an eroded, breached anticline on the Mid-Channel Trend of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB). Precision placement of cores enabled us to build several composite stratigraphic sections of overlapping cores. This was accomplished by continuous shipboard evaluation and feedback between pre-existing and concurrently acquired high-resolution seismic data and immediate sedimentologic core analysis to determine subsequent core locations. Overlap was confirmed by correlated stratigraphic patterns of alternating laminated vs. massive intervals, gray flood layers, spectrophotometric and MST density/porosity data. These cores were acquired to provide a semi-continuous, composite paleoceanographic record of the Quaternary SBB and the California Margin that extends beyond the fertile ODP Site 893 core, to possibly as old as 450 to 600 ka, an age previously unreachable by conventional methods. Most cores were mantled by glauconitic sand or a thin carbonate hardground encrusted with sessile organisms, including solitary corals. Underlying the condensed Holocene sand or hardground deposits are alternating layers of Pleistocene laminated and massive/bioturbated sediment with minor sand and sandy clay layers. The style, continuity, and variability of laminated fabric and the nature of bedding contacts are similar to that observed at ODP Site 893 where glacial episodes were associated with oxygenated, bioturbated sediment and interglacial and interstadial sediment were associated with dysoxic, laminated sediment. Laminated sediment comprises 38% of the hemipelagic deposits which is nearly identical with the ratio of laminated to massive sediment over the past 160 ky at Site 893. By extrapolation, despite accumulating in a mobile, deforming, active margin basin, the earlier Pleistocene deposits seem to record similar behavior to the last 160 ky recorded at ODP Site 893. In some intervals, gray layers are thicker and more

  16. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  17. Development of high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for population studies of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), the giant liver fluke of ruminants.

    PubMed

    Radvánský, Ján; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Minárik, Gabriel; Kádaši, Ludevít

    2011-01-01

    The high-resolution melting (HRM) technique was successfully optimized as fast and effective method for population study of digenetic fluke, Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), originally North American liver parasite of free-living and domestic ruminants. Previously selected variable region (439 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) of 249 fluke individuals from enzootic European and North American regions were sequenced and mutually compared. The sequence analysis of partial cox1 revealed presence of seven structurally different haplotypes. Based on the sequence structure and alignments of six of them (Ha1-Ha6), three internal probes were designed and applied in HRM-based haplotype determination of all F. magna specimens. HRM analysis, performed with three designed probes, resulted in classification of samples into the seven haplogroups, equally with their assortment according to the sequence analysis. The representative of the haplotype, which was not involved in probe design (Ha7), was characterized by a unique melting curve shape as well. This provided an evidence of optimally settled conditions in HRM assay and indicated a probability of successful discrimination of novel haplotypes in future population studies on F. magna. The successful optimization of HRM method stands for an opportunity of detection of genetically unknown North American variants of F. magna and promises its application as fast and cheap screening technique for phylogeography studies of the giant liver fluke on its original continent.

  18. The development and validation of a rapid genetic method for species identification and genotyping of medically important fungal pathogens using high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Alnuaimi, A D; Wiesenfeld, D; O'Brien-Simpson, N M; Reynolds, E C; Peng, B; McCullough, M J

    2014-06-01

    Accurate, rapid and economical fungal species identification has been a major aim in mycology. In this study, our goal was to examine the feasibility of a high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMA) of internal transcribed regions ITS1 and ITS2 in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for a rapid, simple and inexpensive differentiation of eight clinically relevant Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida dubliniensis and Candida lusitaniae). In addition, for the first time, we tested the applicability of HRMA to classify C. albicans strains into four previously described genotypes (A, B, C and D) using a primer set that spans the transposable intron region of 25S of rDNA. Type and unknown clinical oral isolates were used in this study and the melting curve analysis was compared with both amplicons' sequencing and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. Real-time PCR and subsequent HRMA of the two described rDNA regions generated distinct melting curve profiles that were in accord with sequencing and gel electrophoresis analysis, highly reproducible, and characteristic of each of the eight Candida species and C. albicans genotypes. Moreover, results were obtained in 4 h and without the need for any post-amplification handling, so reducing time and cost. Owing to its simplicity and speed, this technique is a good fit for genotypic analysis of hundreds of clinical strains in large epidemiological settings.

  19. Method development for the determination of bromine in coal using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Éderson R.; Castilho, Ivan N. B.; Welz, Bernhard; Gois, Jefferson S.; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Carasek, Eduardo; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    2014-06-01

    This work reports a simple approach for Br determination in coal using direct solid sample analysis in a graphite tube furnace and high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. The molecular absorbance of the calcium mono-bromide (CaBr) molecule has been measured using the rotational line at 625.315 nm. Different chemical modifiers (zirconium, ruthenium, palladium and a mixture of palladium and magnesium nitrates) have been evaluated in order to increase the sensitivity of the CaBr absorption, and Zr showed the best overall performance. The pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 800 °C and 2200 °C, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated using certified coal reference materials (BCR 181, BCR 182, NIST 1630a, and NIST 1632b) with good agreement (between 98 and 103%) with the informed values for Br. The detection limit was around 4 ng Br, which corresponds to about 1.5 μg g- 1 Br in coal, based on a sample mass of 3 mg. In addition, the results were in agreement with those obtained using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, based on a Student t-test at a 95% confidence level. A mechanism for the formation of the CaBr molecule is proposed, which might be considered for other diatomic molecules as well.

  20. High resolution imaging at Palomar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years we have embarked on a program of understanding the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging. We have designed and fabricated a camera specifically for high resolution imaging. This camera has now been pressed into service at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. We have concentrated on two techniques: the Non-Redundant Masking (NRM) and Weigelt's Fully Filled Aperture (FFA) method. The former is the optical analog of radio interferometry and the latter is a higher order extension of the Labeyrie autocorrelation method. As in radio Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), both these techniques essentially measure the closure phase and, hence, true image construction is possible. We have successfully imaged binary stars and asteroids with angular resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope and image quality approaching that of a typical radio VLBI map. In addition, we have carried out analytical and simulation studies to determine the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging, the limits of space-based interferometric imaging, and investigated the details of imaging tradeoffs of beam combination in optical interferometers.

  1. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  2. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  3. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  4. High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

  5. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  6. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  7. Development and Validation of an Internationally-Standardized, High-Resolution Capillary Gel-Based Electrophoresis PCR-Ribotyping Protocol for Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Fawley, Warren N.; Knetsch, C. W.; MacCannell, Duncan R.; Harmanus, Celine; Du, Tim; Mulvey, Michael R.; Paulick, Ashley; Anderson, Lydia; Kuijper, E. J.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    PCR-ribotyping has been adopted in many laboratories as the method of choice for C. difficile typing and surveillance. However, issues with the conventional agarose gel-based technique, including inter-laboratory variation and interpretation of banding patterns have impeded progress. The method has recently been adapted to incorporate high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis (CE-ribotyping), so improving discrimination, accuracy and reproducibility. However, reports to date have all represented single-centre studies and inter-laboratory variability has not been formally measured or assessed. Here, we achieved in a multi-centre setting a high level of reproducibility, accuracy and portability associated with a consensus CE-ribotyping protocol. Local databases were built at four participating laboratories using a distributed set of 70 known PCR-ribotypes. A panel of 50 isolates and 60 electronic profiles (blinded and randomized) were distributed to each testing centre for PCR-ribotype identification based on local databases generated using the standard set of 70 PCR-ribotypes, and the performance of the consensus protocol assessed. A maximum standard deviation of only ±3.8bp was recorded in individual fragment sizes, and PCR-ribotypes from 98.2% of anonymised strains were successfully discriminated across four ribotyping centres spanning Europe and North America (98.8% after analysing discrepancies). Consensus CE-ribotyping increases comparability of typing data between centres and thereby facilitates the rapid and accurate transfer of standardized typing data to support future national and international C. difficile surveillance programs. PMID:25679978

  8. Development of a high-resolution melting curve analysis screening test for SRSF2 splicing factor gene mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garza, Eduardo; Fabiani, Emiliano; Noguera, Nelida; Panetta, Paola; Piredda, Maria L; Borgia, Loredana; Maurillo, Luca; Catalano, Gianfranco; Voso, Maria T; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations of the spliceosome machinery have been recently identified by whole genome analysis in hematologic diseases, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, acute myeloid leukemia, and advanced forms of mastocytosis, and also in nonhematologic conditions. SRSF2 is a member of the serine/arginine-rich family pre-mRNA splicing factors that plays a role in mRNA export from the nucleus and translation. We describe a high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis to screen for SRSF2 hotspot mutations in a fast, sensitive, and reliable way. Fifty bone marrow samples from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were analyzed by the HRM assay and by direct sequencing. HRM screening identified four melting patterns corresponding to a negative (wild-type) group and three different mutated groups. Each mutated group was identified according to the positive control used: P95H, P95L, and P95R, respectively. An HRM mutated pattern was identified in seven patients. Positive and negative results from HRM were compared with direct sequencing results with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 0.56-1, and 95% CI, 0.89-1, respectively). Analytical sensitivity analysis revealed a detection threshold of up to 1:9 (mutated/wild type) dilution. This rapid screening method may provide useful information for clinical decision making and be helpful to optimize laboratory resources and reduce turnaround time. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Arrested human embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos from women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shu-Tao; Liang, Li-Feng; Xian, Ye-Xing; Liu, Jian-Qiao; Wang, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy is one of the major factors that result in low efficiency in human infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF). The development of DNA microarray technology allows for aneuploidy screening by analyzing all 23 pairs of chromosomes in human embryos. All chromosome screening for aneuploidy is more accurate than partial chromosome screening, as errors can occur in any chromosome. Currently, chromosome screening for aneuploidy is performed in developing embryos, mainly blastocysts. It has not been performed in arrested embryos and/or compared between developing embryos and arrested embryos from the same IVF cycle. The present study was designed to examine all chromosomes in blastocysts and arrested embryos from the same cycle in patients of advanced maternal ages. Embryos were produced by routine IVF procedures. A total of 90 embryos (45 blastocysts and 45 arrested embryos) from 17 patients were biopsied and analyzed by the Agilent DNA array platform. It was found that 50% of the embryos developed to blastocyst stage; however, only 15.6% of the embryos (both blastocyst and arrested) were euploid, and most (84.4%) of the embryos had chromosomal abnormalities. Further analysis indicated that 28.9% of blastocysts were euploid and 71.1% were aneuploid. By contrast, only one (2.2%) arrested embryo was euploid while others (97.8%) were aneuploid. The prevalence of multiple chromosomal abnormalities in the aneuploid embryos was also higher in the arrested embryos than in the blastocysts. These results indicate that high proportions of human embryos from patients of advanced maternal age are aneuploid, and the arrested embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos.

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Han, M-H; Guevara-Garcia, A; Fedoroff, N V

    2002-11-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) mediates plant responses to environmental stress, particularly to water status. During germination, the embryo emerges from dormancy as the ABA concentration declines. Exposure to exogenous ABA during germination arrests development rapidly, but reversibly, enabling seedlings to withstand early water stress without loss of viability. Postgermination proteolytic degradation of the essential ABI5 transcription factor is interrupted by perception of an increase in ABA concentration, leading to ABI5 accumulation and reactivation of embryonic genes. Making use of the ABA-hypersensitive hyl1 mutant of Arabidopsis, we show that the ABA signal is transmitted to the transcriptional apparatus through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

  11. Floodplain development in engineered and natural settings determined with novel, high resolution 210-Pb geochronology: Insights from sedimentation studies along the lower Sacramento River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R.; Singer, M. B.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation summarizes results from studies of floodplain sedimentation along the middle and lower Sacramento River that investigate processes using a new, high resolution methodology for 210Pb geochronology of 1-5 m floodplain cores. This approach accounts both for grain-size effects and radon ventilation and can resolve both deposition and erosional events. Therefore, it was possible to assess sedimentation over the past century within a wide array of sedimentary environments throughout the Sacramento Valley, where other techniques are limited. In particular, the Sacramento Valley has naturally low 210Pb activity due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, high rates of radon ventilation due to dry, porous floodplain sediment, and deposition of widely varying grain sizes - challenges that we have addressed with our enhanced methodology. The analytical approach affords a new ability to assess and directly compare dates and rates of sedimentation and erosion in disparate sedimentary environments throughout this complex fluvial dispersal system. We compare and contrast sediment deposition in engineered floodplains called bypasses, levied ancestral floodplains which serve as floodways during high flow, with sedimentation occurring in some remaining natural floodplains adjacent to the Sacramento River. We find that bypasses tend to accumulate sand and silt at their entrances, but that rates and textures decline rapidly with distance away from the channel. Essentially, a quasi-natural physical process of levee construction by advective overbank transport and deposition of sediment is operating (Singer and Aalto, ESPL, in press). These engineered floodways tend to siphon sediment out of the active channel, such that relatively low sedimentation rates prevail in floodplains and oxbow lakes within the active meander corridor that is bypassed. However, we document significant accumulation of fine-grained material in sedimentary sinks throughout floodplains upstream

  12. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  13. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol.

  15. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria)

    PubMed Central

    Meradi, Salah; Cabaret, Jacques; Bentounsi, Bourhane

    2016-01-01

    Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes was studied in 30 permanent grazing lambs on a large farm in the North-East of Algeria. The steppe climate has cold winters and hot and dry summers. The lambs were monitored monthly for gastrointestinal nematodes using nematode faecal egg counts, from February 2008 to February 2009. Every 2 months, two of the original 30 permanent lambs were necropsied after being held in pens for three weeks so that recently ingested infective larvae could develop into adults. The highest percentage of fourth stage larvae (L4), reaching 48% of the total worm burden, was recorded in abomasal contents in June. Teladorsagia and other Ostertagiinae constituted the highest percentage of L4 larvae (71%), whereas the percentage of Trichostrongylus (17.4%) or Haemonchus (11.6%) remained low. The dynamics of infection observed here (highest faecal egg count in August) and the stage composition of worm burden (highest percentage of L4 in June) provide strong evidence that arrested development had occurred. PMID:27608531

  16. SPARTAN: An Instructional High Resolution Land Combat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    AD-A248 1681111 1 1 1 11 1 I’Ii’ I! ! DTICELECTIED m APR,0 11992.S Oct-D SPARTAN: An Instructional High Rezolution Land Combat Model THESIS David...SPARTAN: An Instructional Accesion For - High Resolution Land Combat Model NTIS CRA&IDTIC TAB ., THESIS U. a,1:!ot%,ced U 1stilcatonl...developed an instructional high resolution land combat simulation model . The purpose of this model is to demonstrate common techniques of modeling used

  17. AVHRR/1-FM Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer is discussed. The program covers design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical/structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was developed for use on the program. The flight model program objectives were to fabricate, assemble and test four of the advanced very high resolution radiometers along with a bench cooler and collimator.

  18. High Resolution TPM Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guohong

    1995-01-01

    studied several variations of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) type. The standard CDM model, although with many known problems, is treated to compare with the previous simulations. The low density models with and without a cosmological constant are of special interest because they give better fit to the large scale structure and much observational evidence implies that Omega_0 < 1.. With our high resolution simulations, we are specially interested to study the structure of the objects from different cosmological models. The slopes of the dark halo density profiles from different models are only slightly different from each other, with a broad distribution within each model. All the models can successfully produce flat rotation curves for dark halos. We find the biggest difference in the cluster structure among various models is the predicted X-ray core radius. The standard CDM model predicts bigger X-ray core radius than the low density models, but all the models predicts smaller core radius than that from X-ray observations. We find the low density models can produce significant substructures in X-ray clusters to be in agreement with observations, while the X-ray clusters in the standard CDM model are known to have abundant substructures.

  19. Final report on development of Pulse Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) for aging aircraft wiring application

    SciTech Connect

    Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Howard, R. Kevin; Pena, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.; Higgins, Matthew B.; Glover, Steven Frank

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) is a Sandia National Laboratories Patented, non-destructive wiring system diagnostic that has been developed to detect defects in aging wiring systems in the commercial aircraft fleet. PASD was previously demonstrated on relatively controlled geometry wiring such as coaxial cables and shielded twisted-pair wiring through a contract with the U.S. navy and is discussed in a Sandia National Laboratories report, SAND2001-3225 ''Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) Diagnostic Technique for the Location of Defects in Aging Wiring Systems''. This report describes an expansion of earlier work by applying the PASD technique to unshielded twisted-pair and discrete wire configurations commonly found in commercial aircraft. This wiring is characterized by higher impedances as well as relatively non-uniform impedance profiles that have been found to be challenging for existing aircraft wiring diagnostics. Under a three year contract let by the Federal Aviation Administration, Interagency Agreement DTFA-03-00X90019, this technology was further developed for application on aging commercial aircraft wiring systems. This report describes results of the FAA program with discussion of previous work conducted under U.S. Department of Defense funding.

  20. Arrested Development and Disrupted Callosal Microstructure Following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Relation to Neurobehavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R.; Swank, Paul; Kramer, Larry; Cox, Charles S.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barnes, Marcia; Zhang, Xiaoling; Hasan, Khader M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with significant and persistent neurobehavioral deficits. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we examined area, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion, and axial diffusion from six regions of the corpus callosum (CC) in 41 children and adolescents with TBI and 31 comparison children. Midsagittal cross-sectional area of the posterior body and isthmus was similar in younger children irrespective of injury status; however, increased area was evident in the older comparison children but was obviated in older children with TBI, suggesting arrested development. Similarly, age was correlated significantly with indices of tissue microstructure only for the comparison group. TBI was associated with significant reduction in FA and increased radial diffusivity in the posterior third of the CC and in the genu. The axial diffusivity did not differ by either age or group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that FA and radial diffusivity were equally sensitive to post-traumatic changes in 4 of 6 callosal regions; radial diffusivity was more sensitive for the rostral midbody and splenium. IQ, working memory, motor, and academic skills were correlated significantly with radial diffusion and/or FA from the isthmus and splenium only in the TBI group. Reduced size and microstructural changes in posterior callosal regions after TBI suggest arrested development, decreased organization, and disrupted myelination. Increased radial diffusivity was the most sensitive DTI-based surrogate marker of the extent of neuronal damage following TBI; FA was most strongly correlated with neuropsychological outcomes. PMID:18655838

  1. High resolution wavefront measurement of aspheric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erichsen, I.; Krey, S.; Heinisch, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2008-08-01

    With the recently emerged large volume production of miniature aspheric lenses for a wide range of applications, a new fast fully automatic high resolution wavefront measurement instrument has been developed. The Shack-Hartmann based system with reproducibility better than 0.05 waves is able to measure highly aspheric optics and allows for real time comparison with design data. Integrated advanced analysis tools such as calculation of Zernike coefficients, 2D-Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Point Spread Function (PSF), Strehl-Ratio and the measurement of effective focal length (EFL) as well as flange focal length (FFL) allow for the direct verification of lens properties and can be used in a development as well as in a production environment.

  2. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  3. High-resolution confocal imaging of wall ingrowth deposition in plant transfer cells: Semi-quantitative analysis of phloem parenchyma transfer cell development in leaf minor veins of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Suong T T; McCurdy, David W

    2015-04-23

    Transfer cells (TCs) are trans-differentiated versions of existing cell types designed to facilitate enhanced membrane transport of nutrients at symplasmic/apoplasmic interfaces. This transport capacity is conferred by intricate wall ingrowths deposited secondarily on the inner face of the primary cell wall, hence promoting the potential trans-membrane flux of solutes and consequently assigning TCs as having key roles in plant growth and productivity. However, TCs are typically positioned deep within tissues and have been studied mostly by electron microscopy. Recent advances in fluorophore labelling of plant cell walls using a modified pseudo-Schiff-propidium iodide (mPS-PI) staining procedure in combination with high-resolution confocal microscopy have allowed visualization of cellular details of individual tissue layers in whole mounts, hence enabling study of tissue and cellular architecture without the need for tissue sectioning. Here we apply a simplified version of the mPS-PI procedure for confocal imaging of cellulose-enriched wall ingrowths in vascular TCs at the whole tissue level. The simplified mPS-PI staining procedure produced high-resolution three-dimensional images of individual cell types in vascular bundles and, importantly, wall ingrowths in phloem parenchyma (PP) TCs in minor veins of Arabidopsis leaves and companion cell TCs in pea. More efficient staining of tissues was obtained by replacing complex clearing procedures with a simple post-fixation bleaching step. We used this modified procedure to survey the presence of PP TCs in other tissues of Arabidopsis including cotyledons, cauline leaves and sepals. This high-resolution imaging enabled us to classify different stages of wall ingrowth development in Arabidopsis leaves, hence enabling semi-quantitative assessment of the extent of wall ingrowth deposition in PP TCs at the whole leaf level. Finally, we conducted a defoliation experiment as an example of using this approach to statistically

  4. High-Resolution Photoelectron and Photoionization Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, F.

    2012-06-01

    Since its development in the late 1950s and early 1960s, photoelectron spectroscopy has established itself as an important method to study the electronic structure of molecules, their photoionization dynamics, and the structure and dynamics of molecular cations. In recent years, and particularly since the development of pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy, considerable progress has been made in the resolution that can be achieved by photoelectron spectroscopy. This progress relies on the systematic exploitation of the unusual physical properties of high Rydberg states and enables one today to resolve the rotational structure in the photoelectron spectra of even large molecules and the hyperfine structure in the photoelectron spectra of small molecules. This talk will begin with a brief historical review of photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the relationship between photoelectron spectroscopy, photoionization spectroscopy and the spectroscopy of high Rydberg states will be discussed. It will be explained how this relationship is currently exploited to improve the resolution achievable by PFI-ZEKE photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the physical principles that are at the heart of the latest methods related to high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy will be described together with their fundamental limitations. Depending on the resolution and the spectral range needed to address a specific scientific problem, a choice can be made between several different methods with spectral resolutions ranging from 30 GHz to better than 1 MHz. The talk will summarize the current state of the art in gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy and be illustrated by several examples, primarily taken from the research in my group, in which photoelectron spectroscopy has contributed to answer questions concerning the structure and dynamics of small-sized molecular cations. F. I. Vilesov, B. C. Kurbatov, and N. Terrenin, Soviet Phys. (Doklady) 6

  5. Arrest of neuronal migration by excitatory amino acids in hamster developing brain.

    PubMed

    Marret, S; Gressens, P; Evrard, P

    1996-12-24

    The influence of the excitotoxic cascade on the developing brain was investigated using ibotenate, a glutamatergic agonist of both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic receptors and metabotropic receptors. Injected in the neopallium of the golden hamster at the time of production of neurons normally destined for layers IV, III, and II, ibotenate induces arrests of migrating neurons at different distances from the germinative zone within the radial migratory corridors. The resulting cytoarchitectonic patterns include periventricular nodular heterotopias, subcortical band heterotopias, and intracortical arrests of migrating neurons. The radial glial cells and the extracellular matrix are free of detectable damage that could suggest a defect in their guiding role. The migration disorders are prevented by coinjection of DL-2-amino-7-phosphoheptanoic acid, an NMDA ionotropic antagonist, but are not prevented by coinjection of L(+)-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid, a metabotropic antagonist. This implies that an excess of ionic influx through the NMDA channels of neurons alters the metabolic pathways supporting neuronal migration. Ibotenate, a unique molecular trigger of the excitotoxic cascade, produces a wide spectrum of abnormal neuronal migration patterns recognized in mammals, including the neocortical deviations encountered in the human brain.

  6. Developing New Predictive Alarms Based on ECG Metrics for Bradyasystolic Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Quan; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Mortara, David; Do, Duc; Boyle, Noel G.; Pelter, Michele M.; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We investigated 17 metrics derived from four leads of electrocardiographic (ECG) signals from hospital patient monitors to develop new ECG alarms for predicting adult bradyasystolic cardiac arrest events. Methods A retrospective case-control study was designed to analyze 17 ECG metrics from 27 adult bradyasystolic and 304 control patients. The 17 metrics consisted of PR interval (PR), P-wave duration (Pdur), QRS duration (QRSdur), RR interval (RR), QT interval (QT), estimate of serum K+ using only frontal leads (SerumK2), T-wave complexity (T Complex), ST segment levels for leads I, II, V (ST I, ST II, ST V), and 7 heart rate variability (HRV) metrics. These 7 HRV metrics were standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), total power, very low frequency power, low frequency power, high frequency power, normalized low frequency power, and normalized high frequency power. Controls were matched by gender, age (± 5 years), admission to the same hospital unit within the same month, and the same major diagnostic category. A research ECG analysis software program developed by co-author Mortara D was used to automatically extract the metrics. The absolute value for each ECG metric, and the duration, terminal value, and slope of the dominant trend for each ECG metric, were derived and tested as the alarm conditions. The maximal true positive rate (TPR) of detecting cardiac arrest at a prescribed maximal false positive rate (FPR) based on the trending conditions was reported. Lead time was also recorded as the time between the first time alarm condition was triggered and the event of cardiac arrest. Results While conditions based on the absolute values of ECG metrics do not provide discriminative information to predict bradyasystolic cardiac arrest, the trending conditions can be useful. For example, with a max FPR = 5.0%, some derived alarms conditions are: trend duration of PR > 2.8 hours (TPR = 48.2%, lead time = 10.0 ± 6.6 hours), trend duration

  7. High-Resolution Anamorphic SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Durko, Heather L.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-ray imaging system that combines a high-resolution silicon detector with two sets of movable, half-keel-edged copper-tungsten blades configured as crossed slits. These apertures can be positioned independently between the object and detector, producing an anamorphic image in which the axial and transaxial magnifications are not constrained to be equal. The detector is a 60 mm × 60 mm, one-millimeter-thick, one-megapixel silicon double-sided strip detector with a strip pitch of 59 μm. The flexible nature of this system allows the application of adaptive imaging techniques. We present system details; calibration, acquisition, and reconstruction methods; and imaging results. PMID:26160983

  8. Cryogenic high resolution translation unit (CTU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Javier; Moreno Raso, Javier; Pedrosa, Enrique; Moral, Andoni; San Juan, José Luis; Lecina, María; Díez, Lucía; Sanz, Alfonso; Belenguer, Tomás; Ramos, Gonzalo

    2008-07-01

    The CTU (Cryogenics Translation Unit) is a low range (+/-1 mm) high resolution (<50 nm) translation unit to be used at cryogenic temperature (20K). The unit is a multipurpose device capable of fine closed loop positioning. This device can be used as active element in IR Instrumentation for compensating thermo-elastic deformation moving optical elements or sensors. CTU motion system is based in thin flexures deformation to assure repeatability and moves in closed loop mode by means of a fine linear actuator and a calibrated non contact capacitive sensor. This paper describes main design features, how cryogenic testing of main requirements was carried out (including methodologies used for calibration and submicron verification), tested performances, and main lesson learned during the development.

  9. High resolution analysis of satellite gradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite gravity gradiometry is a technique now under development which, by the middle of the next decade, may be used for the high resolution charting from space of the gravity field of the earth and, afterwards, of other planets. Some data analysis schemes are reviewed for getting detailed gravity maps from gradiometry on both a global and a local basis. It also presents estimates of the likely accuracies of such maps, in terms of normalized spherical harmonics expansions, both using gradiometry alone and in combination with data from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver carried on the same spacecraft. It compares these accuracies with those of current and future maps obtained from other data (conventional tracking, satellite-satellite tracking, etc.), and also with the spectra of various signals of geophysical interest.

  10. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  11. Speleothems as high-resolution paleoflood archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Luetscher, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Over the last two decades, speleothems have become widely utilized records of past environmental variability, typically through their stable isotopic and trace elemental chemistry. Numerous speleothem researchers have identified evidence of flooding recorded by detrital layers trapped within speleothems, but few studies have developed paleoflood reconstructions from such samples. Because they can be precisely dated, are generally immune to post-depositional distortion or erosion, and can be tied to a fixed elevational baseline, speleothems hold enormous potential as high-resolution archives of cave floods, and thus as proxies for extreme rainfall or other hydrologic drivers of cave flooding. Here we review speleothem-based paleoflood reconstruction methods, identify potential biases and pitfalls, and suggest standard practices for future studies.

  12. A high resolution ultraviolet Shuttle glow spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectrograph-B (HRSGS-B) is a small payload being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. It is intended for study of shuttle surface glow in the 180-400 nm near- and middle-ultraviolet wavelength range, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. It will search for, among other possible features, the band systems of excited NO which result from surface-catalyzed combination of N and O. It may also detect O2 Hertzberg bands and N2 Vegard-Kaplan bands resulting from surface recombination. This wavelength range also includes possible N2+ and OH emissions. The HRSGS-B will be housed in a Get Away Special canister, mounted in the shuttle orbiter payload bay, and will observe the glow on the tail of the orbiter.

  13. Venus gravity - A high-resolution map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.; Macneil, P. E.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The Doppler data from the radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) have been used in a two-stage analysis to develop a high-resolution map of the gravitational potential of Venus, represented by a central mass and a surface mass density. The two-stage procedure invokes a Kalman filter-smoother to determine the orbit of the spacecraft, and a stabilized linear inverter to estimate the surface mass density. The resultant gravity map is highly correlated with the topographic map derived from the PVO radar altimeter data. However, the magnitudes of the gravity variations are smaller than would be expected if the topography were uncompensated, indicating that at least partial compensation has taken place.

  14. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  15. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  16. Very High Resolution Bathymetric Mapping at the Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Sites: Acquisition and Processing Protocols Developed During Recent Alvin Field Programs to the East Pacific Rise and Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V.; Fornari, D. J.; Shank, T.; Tivey, M.; Kelley, D. S.; Glickson, D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Howland, J.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Yoerger, D.

    2004-12-01

    Recent field programs at the East Pacific Rise and Juan de Fuca Ridge have resulted in the refinement of data processing protocols that enable the rapid creation of high-resolution (meter-scale) bathymetric maps from pencil-beam altimetric sonar data that are routinely collected during DSV Alvin dives. With the development of the appropriate processing tools, the Imagenex sonar, a permanent sensor on Alvin, can be used by a broad range of scientists permitting the analysis of various data sets within the context of high-quality bathymetric maps. The data processing protocol integrates depth data recorded with Alvin's Paroscientific pressure sensor with bathymetric soundings collected with an Imagenex 675 kHz articulating (scanning) sonar system, and high-resolution navigational data acquired with DVLNAV, which includes bottom lock Doppler sonar and long baseline (LBL) navigation. Together these data allow us, for the first time, to visualize portions of Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) at 1-m vertical and horizontal resolution. These maps resolve morphological details of structures within the summit trough at scales that are relevant to biological communities (e.g. hydrothermal vents, lava pillars, trough walls), thus providing the important geologic context necessary to better understand spatial patterns associated with integrated biological-hydrothermal-geological processes. The Imagenex sonar is also a permanent sensor on the Jason2 ROV, which is also equipped with an SM2000 (200 kHz) near-bottom multibeam sonar. In the future, it is envisioned that near-bottom multibeam sonars will be standard sensors on all National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) vehicles. Streamlining data processing protocols makes these datasets more accessible to NDSF users and ensures broad compatibility between data formats among NDSF vehicle systems and allied vehicles (e.g. ABE). Establishing data processing protocols and software suites, routinely calibrating sensors (e

  17. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-04-23

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  18. Development of metal-oxide varistors for gas-insulated surge arresters

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, M.E.; Sokoly, T.

    1982-07-01

    Metal-oxide varistors have a high degree of non-linearity in their voltage-current characteristic, making arrester application without gaps possible. This is a particularly significant advantage in gas-insulated substation (GIS) arrester applications. The metal-oxide varistor elements have excellent long-term stability and compatibility in an SF/sub 6/ environment. Using multiple soldered columns of metal-oxide varistors, a gapless arrester assembly has been designed that has a simplified overall construction.

  19. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2006-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH4 (methane), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). The data required for the analyses were obtained from two different Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS); one of which is located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, Arizona and the other instrument is located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. The data were analyzed using a modified multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner of the College of William and Mary. The results from these studies made significant improvements in the line positons and intensities for these molecules. The measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for hundreds of infrared transitions of HCN, CO3 CH4 and H2O were also performed during this period. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields. The research conducted during the period 2003-2006 has resulted in publications given in this paper. In addition to Journal publications, several oral and poster presentations were given at various Scientific conferences within the United States

  20. The criticality of high-resolution N-linked carbohydrate assays and detailed characterization of antibody effector function in the context of biosimilar development

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Lowell J; Velayudhan, Jyoti; Visone, Devi B; Daugherty, Ken C; Bartron, Jeff L; Coon, Michael; Cornwall, Cabot; Hinckley, Peter J; Connell-Crowley, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement and functional characterization of antibody Fc domain N-linked glycans is critical to successful biosimilar development. Here, we describe the application of methods to accurately quantify and characterize the N-linked glycans of 2 IgG1 biosimilars with effector function activity, and show the potential pitfalls of using assays with insufficient resolution. Accurate glycan assessment was combined with glycan enrichment using lectin chromatography or production with glycosylation inhibitors to produce enriched pools of key glycan species for subsequent assessment in cell-based antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity effector function assays. This work highlights the challenges of developing high-quality biosimilar candidates and the need for modern biotechnology capabilities. These results show that high-quality analytics, combined with sensitive cell-based assays to study in vivo mechanisms of action, is an essential part of biosimilar development. PMID:25898160

  1. The criticality of high-resolution N-linked carbohydrate assays and detailed characterization of antibody effector function in the context of biosimilar development.

    PubMed

    Brady, Lowell J; Velayudhan, Jyoti; Visone, Devi B; Daugherty, Ken C; Bartron, Jeff L; Coon, Michael; Cornwall, Cabot; Hinckley, Peter J; Connell-Crowley, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement and functional characterization of antibody Fc domain N-linked glycans is critical to successful biosimilar development. Here, we describe the application of methods to accurately quantify and characterize the N-linked glycans of 2 IgG1 biosimilars with effector function activity, and show the potential pitfalls of using assays with insufficient resolution. Accurate glycan assessment was combined with glycan enrichment using lectin chromatography or production with glycosylation inhibitors to produce enriched pools of key glycan species for subsequent assessment in cell-based antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity effector function assays. This work highlights the challenges of developing high-quality biosimilar candidates and the need for modern biotechnology capabilities. These results show that high-quality analytics, combined with sensitive cell-based assays to study in vivo mechanisms of action, is an essential part of biosimilar development.

  2. Developing and applying metamodels of high resolution process-based simulations for high throughput exposure assessment of organic chemicals in riverine ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As defined by Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamodeling), “(a) metamodel or surrogate model is a model of a model, and metamodeling is the process of generating such metamodels.” The goals of metamodeling include, but are not limited to (1) developing func...

  3. Development of a new generation of high-resolution anatomical models for medical device evaluation: the Virtual Population 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Esra; Moser, Heidi; Huber, Eveline; Farcito, Silvia; Gerber, Livia; Jedensjö, Maria; Hilber, Isabel; Di Gennaro, Fabienne; Lloyd, Bryn; Cherubini, Emilio; Szczerba, Dominik; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Family computational whole-body anatomical human models were originally developed for electromagnetic (EM) exposure evaluations, in particular to study how absorption of radiofrequency radiation from external sources depends on anatomy. However, the models immediately garnered much broader interest and are now applied by over 300 research groups, many from medical applications research fields. In a first step, the Virtual Family was expanded to the Virtual Population to provide considerably broader population coverage with the inclusion of models of both sexes ranging in age from 5 to 84 years old. Although these models have proven to be invaluable for EM dosimetry, it became evident that significantly enhanced models are needed for reliable effectiveness and safety evaluations of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including medical implants safety. This paper describes the research and development performed to obtain anatomical models that meet the requirements necessary for medical implant safety assessment applications. These include implementation of quality control procedures, re-segmentation at higher resolution, more-consistent tissue assignments, enhanced surface processing and numerous anatomical refinements. Several tools were developed to enhance the functionality of the models, including discretization tools, posing tools to expand the posture space covered, and multiple morphing tools, e.g., to develop pathological models or variations of existing ones. A comprehensive tissue properties database was compiled to complement the library of models. The results are a set of anatomically independent, accurate, and detailed models with smooth, yet feature-rich and topologically conforming surfaces. The models are therefore suited for the creation of unstructured meshes, and the possible applications of the models are extended to a wider range of solvers and physics. The impact of these improvements is shown for the MRI exposure of an adult

  4. Limonene Arrests Parasite Development and Inhibits Isoprenylation of Proteins in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Ivan Cruz; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Uhrig, Maria L.; Couto, Alicia S.; Peres, Valnice J.; Katzin, Alejandro M.; Kimura, Emília A.

    2001-01-01

    Isoprenylation is an essential protein modification in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we report that in Plasmodium falciparum, a number of proteins were labeled upon incubation of intraerythrocytic forms with either [3H]farnesyl pyrophosphate or [3H]geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. By thin-layer chromatography, we showed that attached isoprenoids are partially modified to dolichol and other, uncharacterized, residues, confirming active isoprenoid metabolism in this parasite. Incubation of blood-stage P. falciparum treated with the isoprenylation inhibitor limonene significantly decreased the parasites' progression from the ring stage to the trophozoite stage and at 1.22 mM, 50% of the parasites died after the first cycle. Using Ras- and Rap-specific monoclonal antibodies, putative Rap and Ras proteins of P. falciparum were immunoprecipitated. Upon treatment with 0.5 mM limonene, isoprenylation of these proteins was significantly decreased, possibly explaining the observed arrest of parasite development. PMID:11502528

  5. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development. Quarterly technical progress and schedule report for the period ending December 31, 1980. CDRL 4

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.

    1981-01-12

    The scope of the contract covers the development and evaluation of forming solar cell collector grid contacts by the MIDFILM process. This is a proprietary process developed by the Ferro Corporation which is a subcontractor for the program. The MIDFILM process attains line resolution characteristics of photoresist methods with processing related to screen printing. The surface to be processed is first coated with a thin layer of photoresist material. Upon exposure to ultraviolet light through a suitable mask, the resist in the non-pattern area cross-links and becomes hard. The unexposed pattern areas remain tacky. The conductor material is applied in the form of a dry mixture of metal and frit particles which adher to the tacky pattern area. The assemblage is then fired to ash the photo-polymer and sinter the fritted conductor powder. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  6. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  7. Developing fine-pixel CdTe detectors for the next generation of high-resolution hard x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven

    Over the past decade, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been improving the angular resolution of hard X-ray (HXR; 20 "70 keV) optics to the point that we now routinely manufacture optics modules with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec Half Power Diameter (HDP), almost three times the performance of NuSTAR optics (Ramsey et al. 2013; Gubarev et al. 2013a; Atkins et al. 2013). New techniques are currently being developed to provide even higher angular resolution. High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For the HERO mirrors, where the HPD is 26 arcsec over a 6-m focal length converts to 750 μm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 μm. At a 10-m focal length these detectors can support a 16 arcsec HPD. Of course, the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage (Ramsey 2001). The ability to handle high counting rates is also desirable for efficient calibration. A collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MSFC, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK is developing precisely such detectors under an ongoing, funded APRA program (FY2015 to FY2017). The detectors use the RALdeveloped Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology. These HEXITEC ASICs can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) to create a fine (250 μm pitch) HXR detector (Jones et al. 2009; Seller et al. 2011). The objectives of this funded effort are to develop and test a HEXITEC

  8. Development and validation of a generic nontarget method based on liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry analysis for the evaluation of different wastewater treatment options.

    PubMed

    Nürenberg, Gudrun; Schulz, Manoj; Kunkel, Uwe; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-12-24

    A comprehensive workflow for using nontarget approaches as process evaluation tools was implemented, including data acquisition based on a LC-HRMS (QTOF) system using direct injection and data post-processing for the peak recognition in "full scan" data. Both parts of the approach were not only developed and validated in a conventional way using the suspected analysis of a set of spiked known micropollutants but also the nontarget analysis of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent itself was utilized to consider a more environmental relevant range of analytes. Hereby, special focus was laid on the minimization of false positive results (FPs) during the peak recognition. The optimized data post-processing procedure reduced the percentage of FPs from 42% to 10-15%. Furthermore, the choice of a suitable chromatography for biological treated wastewater systems was also discussed during the method development. The workflow paid also attention to differences in the performance levels of the LC-HRMS system by implementation of an adaption system for intensity variations comparing different measurements dates or different instruments. The application of this workflow on wastewater samples from a municipal WWTP revealed that more than 91% compounds were eliminated by the biological treatment step and that the received effluent contained 55% newly formed potential transformation products.

  9. Preparation for GPM: Development of a New Near Real-time High Resolution Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimation Product Based on Analyzing the Existing Precipitation Estimation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, A.; Sorooshian, S.; Hsu, K.; Bellerby, T. J.; Huffman, G. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.

    2010-12-01

    By analyzing the existing precipitation estimation techniques, a new near real-time multi-platform multi-sensor satellite precipitation estimation algorithm is developed which incorporates cloud classification techniques to effectively adjust microwave (MW) precipitation intensities as advected forward/backward in time. The technique which will significantly benefit from the future Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission consists of three main steps: The first step uses successive IR images to calculate cloud motion streamlines from a 2D cloud tracking algorithm, explicitly incorporating the effect of cloud motion, growth, deformation and dispersal. The second step classifies cloudy pixels into a number of predefined clusters using several infrared-extracted cloud features representing radiative, textural and dynamic properties of clouds. The algorithm is also capable to readily incorporate multi-spectral information to improve the cloud classification system. By calculating the precipitation features in each class, MW precipitation intensity is adjusted as advected between two consecutive microwave overpasses, both forward-only and forward- backward. The technique was developed and tested at 0.08-degree latitude/longitude resolution every 30 minutes and evaluated over the conterminous United States. The performance of the algorithm compared favorably with several existing products which will be discussed.

  10. A multi-proxy, high-resolution record of peatland development and its drivers during the last millennium from the subalpine Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, W. O.; Lamentowicz, M.; van Leeuwen, J. F. N.; Hangartner, S.; Leuenberger, M.; Mauquoy, D.; Goslar, T.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Lamentowicz, Ł.; Kamenik, C.

    2011-11-01

    We present a record of peatland development during the last 1000 years from Mauntschas mire in the eastern Swiss Alps (Upper Engadine valley; 1818 m a.s.l.) inferred from testate amoebae (pH and depth to the water table (DWT) reconstructions), stable oxygen isotopes in Sphagnum (δ 18O; proxy for water vapour pressure) and carbon isotopes in Sphagnum (δ 13C; proxy for mire surface wetness), peat accumulation rates, charcoal (indicating local burning), pollen and spores (proxies for human impact), and plant macrofossils (reflecting local vegetation and trophic state). Past human impact on the local mire conditions was strong but fluctuating during AD 1000-1570 (±50 yr; depth-age model based on 29 14C AMS dates) with local irrigation of nutrient-enriched water and grazing. Human impact was minor AD 1570-1830 (±30 yr) with partial recovery of the local mire vegetation, and it was absent AD 1830 (±30 yr)-present when hummock formation took place. Correlations among DWT, pH, δ 13C, and δ 18O, carried out both with the raw data and with linear trends removed, suggest that the factors driving peatland development changed over time, since only testate amoeba-based pH and DWT co-varied during all the three aforementioned periods. δ 18O correlates with δ 13C only in the period AD 1830-present and with DWT only during AD 1570-1830, δ 13C correlates with DWT only during AD 1000-1570. Part of this apparent instability among the four time series might be attributed to shifts in the local mire conditions which potentially formed very different (non-analogue) habitats. Lack of analogues, caused, for example, by pre-industrial human impact, might have introduced artefacts in the reconstructions, since those habitats are not well represented in some proxy transfer functions. Human impact was probably the main factor for peatland development, distorting most of the climate signals.

  11. SPARTAN high resolution solar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed on Contract NAS5-29739, a sub-orbital research program directed toward the study of the geometry of and physical conditions in matter found in the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. The report describes a new sounding rocket payload developed under the contract, presents a guide to the contents of semiannual reports submitted during the contract, discusses the results of the first flight of the payload and the progress on scientific analysis. A bibliography of papers and publications is included.

  12. Development and testing of an automated High-resolution InSAR volcano-monitoring system in the MED-SUV project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Tanvir Ahmed; Minet, Christian; Fritz, Thomas; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic unrest which produces a variety of geological and hydrological hazards is difficult to predict. Therefore it is important to monitor volcanoes continuously. The monitoring of active volcanoes requires the reliable measurement of surface deformation before, during and after volcanic activities. Besides the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius/ Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna, one of the main goals of the MED-SUV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes) project is to design a system for automatically monitoring ground deformations over active volcanoes. Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR), persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) and small baseline subset algorithm (SBAS) provide powerful tools for observing the surface changes with millimeter accuracy. All the mentioned techniques address the challenges by exploiting medium to large SAR image stacks. The generation of interferometric products constitutes a major effort in terms of processing and planning. It requires a high degree of automation, robustness and quality control of the overall process. As a consequence of these requirements and constrains, the Integrated Wide Area Processor (IWAP) developed at DLR is introduced in the framework of a remote sensing task of MED-SUV project. The IWAP has been conceived and designed to optimize the processing workflow in order to minimize the processing time. Moreover, a quality control concept has been developed and integrated in the workflow. The IWAP is structured into three parts: (i) firstly, preparation of an order file containing some configuration parameters and invokes the processor; (ii) secondly, upon request from the processor, the operator performs some manual interactions by means of visual interfaces; (iii) analysis of the final product supported by extensive product visualization. This visualization supports the interpretation of the results without the need of

  13. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  14. Development of a Web GIS Application for Visualizing and Analyzing Community Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patterns.

    PubMed

    Semple, Hugh; Qin, Han; Sasson, Comilla

    2013-01-01

    Improving survival rates at the neighborhood level is increasingly seen as a priority for reducing overall rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the United States. Since wide disparities exist in OHCA rates at the neighborhood level, it is important for public health officials and residents to be able to quickly locate neighborhoods where people are at elevated risk for cardiac arrest and to target these areas for educational outreach and other mitigation strategies. This paper describes an OHCA web mapping application that was developed to provide users with interactive maps and data for them to quickly visualize and analyze the geographic pattern of cardiac arrest rates, bystander CPR rates, and survival rates at the neighborhood level in different U.S. cities. The data comes from the CARES Registry and is provided over a period spanning several years so users can visualize trends in neighborhood out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patterns. Users can also visualize areas that are statistical hot and cold spots for cardiac arrest and compare OHCA and bystander CPR rates in the hot and cold spots. Although not designed as a public participation GIS (PPGIS), this application seeks to provide a forum around which data and maps about local patterns of OHCA can be shared, analyzed and discussed with a view of empowering local communities to take action to address the high rates of OHCA in their vicinity.

  15. Development of a Web GIS Application for Visualizing and Analyzing Community Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Hugh; Qin, Han; Sasson, Comilla

    2013-01-01

    Improving survival rates at the neighborhood level is increasingly seen as a priority for reducing overall rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the United States. Since wide disparities exist in OHCA rates at the neighborhood level, it is important for public health officials and residents to be able to quickly locate neighborhoods where people are at elevated risk for cardiac arrest and to target these areas for educational outreach and other mitigation strategies. This paper describes an OHCA web mapping application that was developed to provide users with interactive maps and data for them to quickly visualize and analyze the geographic pattern of cardiac arrest rates, bystander CPR rates, and survival rates at the neighborhood level in different U.S. cities. The data comes from the CARES Registry and is provided over a period spanning several years so users can visualize trends in neighborhood out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patterns. Users can also visualize areas that are statistical hot and cold spots for cardiac arrest and compare OHCA and bystander CPR rates in the hot and cold spots. Although not designed as a public participation GIS (PPGIS), this application seeks to provide a forum around which data and maps about local patterns of OHCA can be shared, analyzed and discussed with a view of empowering local communities to take action to address the high rates of OHCA in their vicinity. PMID:23923097

  16. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  17. Development of a high resolution modeling tool for prediction of waterflows through complex mires: Example of the Mukhrino bog complex in West Siberian middle Taiga Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarov, Evgeny A.; Schmitz, Oliver; Bleuten, Wladimir

    2015-04-01

    Water flow through peat bogs differ substantially from mineral soil landscapes. Permeability of the peatlayers decrease dramatically with depth within the permanently watersaturated peat layers (Catotelm), whereas the 10-60 cm thick superficial layer (Acrotelm) has a very high conductivity. Water flows predominantly in this acrotelm layer where an open structure of stems of mosses and few plants hardly limit water flow. By omitting this superficial flow infrastructures in many places block the waterflow. Moreover, the different bog types within a complex bog have different hydrological conductivities. Without considering the typical water-flow of bogs the construction of roads and platforms for oil and gas production threatens downhill mire ecosystems by partly drainage. The objective of our study was to develop a modeling tool which can be used to predict quantitatively spatially distributed water-flow of a bog complex. A part of the extensive bog complex "Mukhrino bog complex" located at the left bank of Irtysh river near the West Siberian town Khanty-Mansiysk' was chosen as modeling area. Water discharge from this bog catchment occurs by "waterfalls" at the East margin where a scarp with ca. 8 m elevation difference has been developed by backward erosion into the bog by the Mukhrino river. From field observations it was proven that no discharge of groundwater occurred at the margin of the bog catchment area. We used PCRaster-MODFLOW as modeling environment. The model area size was 3.8 km2, cell size 5 m and the model included 3 Acrotelm layers and 3 Catotelm layers. Thickness of Acrotelm and Catotelm have been measured by coring in transects. Input data of rain, snow have been recorded in the study area. Evapotranspiration was measured with small lysimeters and crop factors for different land unit types (open water, raised bog, patterned bog, poor fens) were elaborated by water balance modeling (1-D). Land unit types have been mapped by supervised classification

  18. Development of a High-Resolution H3O+ Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Gas-phase Hydrocarbons and its Application During the 2015 SONGNEX Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Stark, H.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometers (ToF-CIMS) using H3O+ reagent ion chemistry (PTR-MS) are a relatively new technique in detection of gas-phase hydrocarbons, and recent improvements in instrument sensitivity, mass resolution, and ease of field deployment have expanded their use in atmospheric chemistry. The comparatively low-energy H3O+ ionization technique is ideal for measuring complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, and, compared to conventional quadrupole PTRMS, the newest generation of ToF-CIMS measure many more species simultaneously and with a sensitivity that is as high as a quadrupole PTR-MS. We describe here the development of a commercially available ToF CIMS into an H3O+CIMS suitable for deployment on aircraft, and its application during an aircraft campaign studying emissions from oil and natural gas extraction industry. We provide an overview of instrument development and specifications, including design, characterization, and field operation. We then discuss data processing and interpretation. First, we investigate determination of intensities of poorly resolved peaks. The mass resolution of the present instrument (m/Δm ~4500) enables separate analysis of many isobaric peaks, but peaks are also frequently not fully resolved. Using results from laboratory tests, we quantify how the accuracy can be limited by the overlap in neighboring peaks, and compare to theoretical predictions from literature. We then briefly describe our method for quality assurance of reported compounds, and correction for background and humidity effects. Finally, we present preliminary results from the first field deployment of this instrument during the Spring 2015 SONGNEX aircraft campaign. This campaign sampled emissions from oil and natural gas extraction regions and associated infrastructure in the Western and Central United States. We will highlight results that illustrate (1) new scientific capability from improved mass resolution, which

  19. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybdal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1986-09-01

    The development of an instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high range resolution is described. Such range resolution capability is required for two reasons: (1) to evaluate the response of targets to the operational waveforms used in high-performance radars; and (2) to obtain a means of separating the individual mechanisms that comprise the target scattering response to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house-fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in. range resolution. A key feature of the radar is its ability to combine amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity, with the result being very good range sidelobe performance.

  20. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The program covered the design, construction, and test of a Breadboard Model, Engineering Model, Protoflight Model, Mechanical/Structural Model, and a Life Test Model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program. Initially, the instrument was to operate from a 906 n.mi. orbit and be thermally isolated from the spacecraft. The Breadboard Model and the Mechanical/Structural Model were designed and built to these requirements. The spacecraft altitude was changed to 450 n.mi., IFOVs and spectral characteristics were modified, and spacecraft interfaces were changed. The final spacecraft design provided a temperature-controlled Instrument Mounting Platform (IMP) to carry the AVHRR and other instruments. The design of the AVHRR was modified to these new requirements and the modifications were incorporated in the Engineering Model. The Protoflight Model and the Flight Models conform to this design.

  1. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  2. Developing high-resolution urban scale heavy-duty truck emission inventory using the data-driven truck activity model output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugu, Harikishan; Wei, Heng; Yao, Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelers often rely on regional travel demand models to estimate the vehicle activity data for emission models, however, most of the current travel demand models can only output reliable person travel activity rather than goods/service specific travel activity. This paper presents the successful application of data-driven, Spatial Regression and output optimization Truck model (SPARE-Truck) to develop truck-related activity inputs for the mobile emission model, and eventually to produce truck specific gridded emissions. To validate the proposed methodology, the Cincinnati metropolitan area in United States was selected as a case study site. From the results, it is found that the truck miles traveled predicted using traditional methods tend to underestimate - overall 32% less than proposed model- truck miles traveled. The coefficient of determination values for different truck types range between 0.82 and 0.97, except the motor homes which showed least model fit with 0.51. Consequently, the emission inventories calculated from the traditional methods were also underestimated i.e. -37% for NOx, -35% for SO2, -43% for VOC, -43% for BC, -47% for OC and - 49% for PM2.5. Further, the proposed method also predicted within ∼7% of the national emission inventory for all pollutants. The bottom-up gridding methodology used in this paper could allocate the emissions to grid cell where more truck activity is expected, and it is verified against regional land-use data. Most importantly, using proposed method it is easy to segregate gridded emission inventory by truck type, which is of particular interest for decision makers, since currently there is no reliable method to test different truck-category specific travel-demand management strategies for air pollution control.

  3. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  4. Development of a framework for a high-resolution, three-dimensional regional air quality simulation and its application to predicting future air quality over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, Satoru; Morikawa, Tazuko; Nakatsuka, Seiji; Matsunaga, Sou; Minoura, Hiroaki

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a framework for a three-dimensional regional air quality simulation that is applicable to various air quality studies over Japan. The framework consists of the following simulation model systems: the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate meteorological fields; the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to simulate pollutant concentrations; emissions estimate models; and emission databases. Motor vehicle emissions in Japan are estimated using the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP) vehicle emissions estimate model; anthropogenic emissions from sources other than motor vehicles in Japan are estimated using the Georeference-Based Emission Activity Modeling System (G-BEAMS); and biogenic emissions are estimated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). The Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) is used for emissions in Asian countries except for Japan. The most prominent feature of our framework is its ability to simulate multi-scale air quality. The framework allows for the simulation of emissions and the dynamic transport of pollutants in heavily polluted urban areas with a maximum resolution of 1 × 1 km, and the long-range transport of pollutants is also taken into account. This framework is used to analyze the impact of future emissions from anthropogenic sources on air quality over the Tokyo metropolitan area. NOx, NMVOC and primary PM2.5 emissions over the Tokyo metropolitan area are estimated to be reduced by 44.5%, 18.1% and 41.7%, respectively, from 2005 to 2020. The simulation predicts that concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 over the Tokyo metropolitan area will decrease by approximately 30-40% and 15-20%, respectively, during the above period. O3 concentrations significantly increase in winter due to decreased titration by NO, whereas no significant variations are observed in spring and summer. In addition, we analyzed the impact of future long-range transport projected under

  5. Development and evaluation of a high-resolution aerosol optical depth product for the southern California region during the October 2007 wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Raffuse, S. M.; Dewinter, J. L.; Lurmann, F.; Craig, K. J.; Fruin, S.

    2010-12-01

    Current methods for estimating acute exposure to high levels of air pollution (e.g., particles, CO, NOx, aldehydes) during fire events require spatial interpolation over the study area using concentrations at central air quality monitors to represent the population of interest. This may inaccurately represent the magnitude of exposure because pollutant concentrations vary widely depending on the location of the fire plume, vertical mixing, and prevailing winds dispersing the pollutant. Remotely sensed datasets, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the NASA MODIS instrument, can provide greater spatial coverage than ground-based air quality monitors. Past studies have shown positive correlations between AOD, a measure of aerosols in an atmospheric column, and ground-level measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. However, current standard AOD products are not sufficient for assessing intra-urban variability due to the low spatial resolution (e.g., 10x10 km for MODIS) of datasets. In addition such products typically perform poorly with very dense smoke in the atmosphere and over reflective, semi-arid land surfaces such as southern California. A highly resolved AOD product (500m resolution) was developed for southern California during the October 2007 fires using radiance data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) MODIS instrument. AOD was calculated at 0.55µm wavelength using a unique algorithm tailored to the southern California region and for an atmosphere dominated by biomass burning aerosols. The AOD product was compared with column measurements of AOD from surface-based AERONET sites. AOD was not predictive of surface PM during the October 2007 fires when compared to surface PM concentrations throughout southern California; R-square correlation coefficients were low. However, the relationship varied during the time period studied: correlations were weak early in the event (0.02) but improved during the later days of the

  6. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  7. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Kasameyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria are presented for seismic networks. An analysis of a small swarm near Mammoth Lakes, California, demonstrates these relationships and the usefulness of high-resolution seismic studies. A small network is currently monitoring the Mammoth-Pacific geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo as it begins production.

  8. Retrieving high-resolution tropospheric gradients from multiconstellation GNSS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Zus, Florian; Lu, Cuixian; Ning, Tong; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-05-01

    The developing multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) constellations have the potential to provide accurate high-resolution tropospheric gradients. Such data, closely linked to strong humidity gradients accompanying severe weather phenomena, are considered a new important data source for meteorological studies, e.g., nowcasting of severe rainfall events. Here we describe the development of a multi-GNSS processing system for the precise retrieval of high-resolution tropospheric gradients. The retrieved products were validated by using independent water vapor radiometer (WVR) observations and numerical weather model (NWM) data. The multi-GNSS high-resolution gradients agree well with those, derived from NWM and WVR, especially for the fast-changing peaks which were mostly associated with synoptic fronts. Compared to GPS-only gradients, the correlations with the validation data are significantly improved up to 20-35%. The new data product has significant potential to improve numerical weather prediction and to advance meteorological studies.

  9. Assessment of Digital Terrain Model algorithms for the development of a massive processing system for all high-resolution stereo images of Mars from CTX and HiRISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yershov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Anton; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu; Mr; Pool, William; Kim, Jung-Rack; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis

    We assess several algorithms for generating digital terrain models (DTM) of Mars using high-resolution stereoscopic images produced by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and Context Camera (CTX) onboard the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. One of the algorithms was developed jointly by University of Seoul and University College London and uses a stereo processing chain based on a non-rigorous sensor model with geodetic control derived from a reference stereo data source (HRSC co-registered to MOLA). The second algorithm was developed at École Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne on the basis of the Integrated Software for Images and Spectrometers (ISIS) application programme interface for deriving ray information and ray intersection points corresponding to the matched pixels of two images forming a stereo pair. The quality assessment of image photogrammetric registration of these two algorithms is made by using reference (“true”) data generated by USGS using SOCET® and using the NASA Ames pipeline and for limited areas using DTMs from re-projected and ortho-rectified images obtained on the Martian surface by Mars Exploration Rovers A and B within the EU-FP7-PROViDE project. The latter images were produced at University College London by a different software designed for stereo-matching rover images. The quality assessment of two DTM-building algorithms is made within the iMars project of the European Seventh Framework Programme. Acknowledgements: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement n˚ 607379, PRoViDE grant agreement n˚ 312377 and partial funding for PS from the STFC “MSSL Consolidated Grant” ST/K000977/1.

  10. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  11. Development of High-Resolution Scintillator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larry A. Franks; Warnick J. Kernan

    2007-09-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is a well known material for the direct detection of gamma-rays; however, the largest volume achievable is limited by the thickness of the detector which needs to be a small fraction of the average trapping length for electrons. We report results of using HgI2 crystals to fabricate photocells used in the readout of scintillators. The optical spectral response and efficiency of these photocells were measured and will be reported. Nuclear response from an HgI2 photocell that was optically matched to a cerium-activated scintillator is presented and discussed. Further improvements can be expected by optimizing the transparent contact technology.

  12. The impact of extended preovipositional arrest on embryonic development and hatchling fitness in the flatback sea turtle.

    PubMed

    Rings, Chloe C; Rafferty, Anthony R; Guinea, Michael L; Reina, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Turtle embryos pause development before oviposition in a process known as preovipositional arrest. Embryonic development arrests due to hypoxia (low oxygen) in the maternal oviducts and resumes only after exposure to normoxia when eggs are laid. Recently, several studies have hypothesized that the prolonged periods of preovipositional arrest may have a detrimental effect on embryo survival and development after eggs are laid. We tested this hypothesis by comparing embryo survival (determined by white spot formation and hatching success) and hatchling fitness (measured by self-righting, crawling, and swimming ability) of flatback sea turtle (Natator depressus) eggs following incubation in hypoxic (∼ 1%) and normoxic (∼ 21%) treatments for 5 d immediately following oviposition. We also measured embryo survival and hatchling fitness when eggs were incubated in hyperoxic conditions (42% oxygen), to determine whether hyperoxia could improve developmental outcome or whether some consequence of oxidative stress might manifest. Eggs incubated in hypoxia remained arrested during the 5-d treatment, and 97.5% of the eggs successfully recommenced development after exposure to normoxia when the treatment finished. At treatment commencement, 100% and 97.5% of eggs in the hyperoxic and normoxic treatments, respectively, began developing. Although hatching success was significantly lower following hypoxia (15%) compared to normoxia (80%) and hyperoxia (85%), hatchings from the hypoxic treatment were larger (carapace length and width and plastron length) than normoxic hatchlings. Similarly, hypoxic hatchings also swam significantly faster than hyperoxic hatchlings. Considering larger hatchlings may have a greater chance of survival, the production of larger hatchings may offset the high cost (lower hatching success) when preovipositional arrest is prolonged. Hyperoxia does not appear to have deleterious consequences for development.

  13. Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead

  14. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel Dragos

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  15. Developing new predictive alarms based on ECG metrics for bradyasystolic cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Ding, Quan; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Mortara, David; Do, Duc; Boyle, Noel G; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    We investigated 17 metrics derived from four leads of electrocardiographic (ECG) signals from hospital patient monitors to develop new ECG alarms for predicting adult bradyasystolic cardiac arrest events.A retrospective case-control study was designed to analyze 17 ECG metrics from 27 adult bradyasystolic and 304 control patients. The 17 metrics consisted of PR interval (PR), P-wave duration (Pdur), QRS duration (QRSdur), RR interval (RR), QT interval (QT), estimate of serum K  +  using only frontal leads (SerumK2), T-wave complexity (T Complex), ST segment levels for leads I, II, V (ST I, ST II, ST V), and 7 heart rate variability (HRV) metrics. These 7 HRV metrics were standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), total power, very low frequency power, low frequency power, high frequency power, normalized low frequency power, and normalized high frequency power. Controls were matched by gender, age (±5 years), admission to the same hospital unit within the same month, and the same major diagnostic category. A research ECG analysis software program developed by co-author D M was used to automatically extract the metrics. The absolute value for each ECG metric, and the duration, terminal value, and slope of the dominant trend for each ECG metric, were derived and tested as the alarm conditions. The maximal true positive rate (TPR) of detecting cardiac arrest at a prescribed maximal false positive rate (FPR) based on the trending conditions was reported. Lead time was also recorded as the time between the first time alarm condition was triggered and the event of cardiac arrest.While conditions based on the absolute values of ECG metrics do not provide discriminative information to predict bradyasystolic cardiac arrest, the trending conditions can be useful. For example, with a max FPR  =  5.0%, some derived alarms conditions are: trend duration of PR  >  2.8 h (TPR  =  48.2%, lead time  =  10.0  ±  6.6

  16. Horizontal gradient correction of the high resolution ocean climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Chang, Y. S.; Shin, H. R.

    2016-12-01

    National Oceanography Data Center (NODC) has developed high resolution (0.1° by 0.1°) regional climatologies. They provide reliable temperature and salinity mean fields comparing to those of previous 1°or 0.25° gridded data. However, Chang and Shin (2014) pointed a vertical gradient problem showing abnormal density inverse phenomena along the coastal areas in the East Asian Seas regional climatology. In this study, we additionally recognized abnormal geostrophic currents when we use same climatology. Geostrophic currents show repeated strong patterns at 1° intervals especially in the East Sea, which is related to horizontal temperature gradients at the same areas. It is due to employ new small radius of influence to generate high resolution climatology, meanwhile they still use 1° gridded background and sparse serial observations. Here, we reproduce high resolution climatology by using optimal interpolation method and seek possible horizontal gradient corrections to resolve this problem.

  17. Recent developments in the management of patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Jentzer, Jacob C; Clements, Casey M; Murphy, Joseph G; Wright, R Scott

    2017-02-16

    Cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death in Europe and the United States. Many patients who are initially resuscitated die in the hospital, and hospital survivors often have substantial neurologic dysfunction. Most cardiac arrests are caused by coronary artery disease; patients with coronary artery disease likely benefit from early coronary angiography and intervention. After resuscitation, cardiac arrest patients remain critically ill and frequently suffer cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure. Early cardiopulmonary stabilization is important to prevent worsening organ injury. To achieve best patient outcomes, comprehensive critical care management is needed, with primary goals of stabilizing hemodynamics and preventing progressive brain injury. Targeted temperature management is frequently recommended for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest to mitigate the neurologic injury that drives outcomes. Accurate neurologic assessment is central to managing care of cardiac arrest survivors and should combine physical examination with objective neurologic testing, with the caveat that delaying neurologic prognosis is essential to avoid premature withdrawal of supportive care. A combination of clinical findings and diagnostic results should be used to estimate the likelihood of functional recovery. This review focuses on recent advances in care and specific cardiac intensive care strategies that may improve morbidity and mortality for patients after cardiac arrest.

  18. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Baboi, N.; Noelle, D.; Mildner, N.; Zapfe, K.; Rouvière, N.

    2006-11-01

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 μm and the damping time down to 10 ns.

  19. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  20. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  1. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Vriend, Nathalie; Brennan, Paul; Ash, Matt; Keylock, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallee de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  2. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, J. N.; Vriend, N. M.; Sovilla, B.; Keylock, C. J.; Brennan, P.; Ash, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallée de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  3. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Rouviere, N.

    2006-11-20

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 {mu}m and the damping time down to 10 ns.

  4. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  5. CrIS High Resolution Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, C. L.; Strow, L. L.; Motteler, H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Tobin, D. C.; Martin, G.; Gumley, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CrIS hyperspectral sounder flying on Suomi-NPPpresently has reduced spectral resolution in the mid-wave andshort-wave spectral bands due to truncation of the interferograms inorbit. CrIS has occasionally downlinked full interferograms for thesebands (0.8 cm max path, or 0.625 cm-1 point spacing) for a feworbits up to a full day. Starting Oct.1, 2014 CrIS will be commandedto download full interferograms continuously for the remainder of themission, although NOAA will not immediately produce high-spectralresolution Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Although the originalmotivation for operating in high-resolution mode was improved spectralcalibration, these new data will also improve (1) vertical sensitivityto water vapor, and (2) greatly increase the CrIS sensitivity tocarbon monoxide. This should improve (1) NWP data assimilation ofwater vapor and (2) provide long-term continuity of carbon monoxideretrievals begun with MOPITT on EOS-TERRA and AIRS on EOS-AQUA. Wehave developed a SDR algorithm to produce calibrated high-spectralresolution radiances which includes several improvements to theexisting CrIS SDR algorithm, and will present validation of thesehigh-spectral resolution radiances using a variety of techniques,including bias evaluation versus NWP model data and inter-comparisonsto AIRS and IASI using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs). Theauthors are presently working to implement this algorithm for NASASuomi NPP Program production of Earth System Data Records.

  6. Brief report: Arrested development of audiovisual speech perception in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Siemann, Justin K; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Schneider, Brittany C; Eberly, Haley E; Camarata, Stephen M; Wallace, Mark T

    2014-06-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their typically developing peers. To shed light on possible differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech integration, we tested younger (ages 6-12) and older (ages 13-18) children with and without ASD on a task indexing such multisensory integration. To do this, we used the McGurk effect, in which the pairing of incongruent auditory and visual speech tokens typically results in the perception of a fused percept distinct from the auditory and visual signals, indicative of active integration of the two channels conveying speech information. Whereas little difference was seen in audiovisual speech processing (i.e., reports of McGurk fusion) between the younger ASD and TD groups, there was a significant difference at the older ages. While TD controls exhibited an increased rate of fusion (i.e., integration) with age, children with ASD failed to show this increase. These data suggest arrested development of audiovisual speech integration in ASD. The results are discussed in light of the extant literature and necessary next steps in research.

  7. Inactivation of a glycyl-tRNA synthetase leads to an arrest in plant embryo development.

    PubMed Central

    Uwer, U; Willmitzer, L; Altmann, T

    1998-01-01

    Embryo formation is the first patterning process during vegetative plant growth. Using transposons as insertional mutagens in Arabidopsis, we identified the mutant edd1 that shows embryo-defective development. The insertion mutation is lethal, arresting embryo growth between the globular and heart stages of embryonic development. The mutant phenotype cosegregates with a transposed Dissociation element. Sequences flanking the transposed element were isolated and used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone representing the wild-type EDD1 gene. Complementation of the mutant through Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer of an EDD1 wild-type copy as well as loss of the transposon concomitant with phenotypic reversion demonstrated that the transposon had caused the mutation. Based on homology to Escherichia coli, the EDD1 gene is predicted to encode a novel glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) that has not been identified previously in higher plants. An N-terminal portion of the plant protein is able to direct a marker protein into pea chloroplasts. Thus, the gene identified by the embryo-defective insertion mutation encodes a GlyRS homolog, probably acting within the plastidic compartment. PMID:9707529

  8. In vivo exposure to northern diatoms arrests sea urchin embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Gudimova, Elena; Eilertsen, Hans C; Jørgensen, Trond Ø; Hansen, Espen

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous reports indicating that marine diatoms may act harmful to early developmental stages of invertebrates. It is believed that the compounds responsible for these detrimental effects are oxylipins resulting from oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, and that they may function as grazing deterrents. Most studies reporting these effects have exposed test organisms to diatom extracts or purified toxins, but data from in vivo exposure to intact diatoms are scarce. We have conducted sea urchin egg incubation and plutei feeding experiments to test if intact diatom cells affected sea urchin embryo development and survival. This was done by exposing the common northern sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and Echinus acutus to northern strains of the diatoms Chaetoceros socialis, Skeletonema marinoi, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Attheya longicornis, Thalassiosira gravida and Porosira glacialis. The intact diatom cell suspensions were found to inhibit sea urchin egg hatching and embryogenesis. S. marinoi was the most potent one as it caused acute mortality in S. droebachiensis eggs after only four hours exposure to high (50 μg/L Chla) diatom concentrations, as well as 24 h exposure to normal (20 μg/L Chla) and high diatom concentrations. The second most potent species was T. gravida that caused acute mortality after 24 h exposure to both diatom concentrations. A. longicornis was the least harmful of the diatom species in terms of embryo development arrestment, and it was the species that was most actively ingested by S. droebachiensis plutei.

  9. Cardiac arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... or low levels can cause cardiac arrest. Severe physical stress. Anything that causes a severe stress on your body can lead to cardiac arrest. This can include trauma, electrical shock, or major blood loss. Recreational drugs. Using certain drugs, such as cocaine ...

  10. Cell Arrest and Cell Death in Mammalian Preimplantation Development: Lessons from the Bovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Leidenfrost, Sandra; Boelhauve, Marc; Reichenbach, Myriam; Güngör, Tuna; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Sinowatz, Fred; Wolf, Eckhard; Habermann, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The causes, modes, biological role and prospective significance of cell death in preimplantation development in humans and other mammals are still poorly understood. Early bovine embryos represent a very attractive experimental model for the investigation of this fundamental and important issue. Methods and Findings To obtain reference data on the temporal and spatial occurrence of cell death in early bovine embryogenesis, three-dimensionally preserved embryos of different ages and stages of development up to hatched blastocysts were examined in toto by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In parallel, transcript abundance profiles for selected apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our study documents that in vitro as well as in vivo, the first four cleavage cycles are prone to a high failure rate including different types of permanent cell cycle arrest and subsequent non-apoptotic blastomere death. In vitro produced and in vivo derived blastocysts showed a significant incidence of cell death in the inner cell mass (ICM), but only in part with morphological features of apoptosis. Importantly, transcripts for CASP3, CASP9, CASP8 and FAS/FASLG were not detectable or found at very low abundances. Conclusions In vitro and in vivo, errors and failures of the first and the next three cleavage divisions frequently cause immediate embryo death or lead to aberrant subsequent development, and are the main source of developmental heterogeneity. A substantial occurrence of cell death in the ICM even in fast developing blastocysts strongly suggests a regular developmentally controlled elimination of cells, while the nature and mechanisms of ICM cell death are unclear. Morphological findings as well as transcript levels measured for important apoptosis-related genes are in conflict with the view that classical caspase-mediated apoptosis is the major cause of cell death in early bovine development. PMID

  11. Cell arrest and cell death in mammalian preimplantation development: lessons from the bovine model.

    PubMed

    Leidenfrost, Sandra; Boelhauve, Marc; Reichenbach, Myriam; Güngör, Tuna; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Sinowatz, Fred; Wolf, Eckhard; Habermann, Felix A

    2011-01-01

    The causes, modes, biological role and prospective significance of cell death in preimplantation development in humans and other mammals are still poorly understood. Early bovine embryos represent a very attractive experimental model for the investigation of this fundamental and important issue. To obtain reference data on the temporal and spatial occurrence of cell death in early bovine embryogenesis, three-dimensionally preserved embryos of different ages and stages of development up to hatched blastocysts were examined in toto by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In parallel, transcript abundance profiles for selected apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our study documents that in vitro as well as in vivo, the first four cleavage cycles are prone to a high failure rate including different types of permanent cell cycle arrest and subsequent non-apoptotic blastomere death. In vitro produced and in vivo derived blastocysts showed a significant incidence of cell death in the inner cell mass (ICM), but only in part with morphological features of apoptosis. Importantly, transcripts for CASP3, CASP9, CASP8 and FAS/FASLG were not detectable or found at very low abundances. In vitro and in vivo, errors and failures of the first and the next three cleavage divisions frequently cause immediate embryo death or lead to aberrant subsequent development, and are the main source of developmental heterogeneity. A substantial occurrence of cell death in the ICM even in fast developing blastocysts strongly suggests a regular developmentally controlled elimination of cells, while the nature and mechanisms of ICM cell death are unclear. Morphological findings as well as transcript levels measured for important apoptosis-related genes are in conflict with the view that classical caspase-mediated apoptosis is the major cause of cell death in early bovine development.

  12. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  13. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  14. Towards the Automated Analysis and Database Development of Defibrillator Data from Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Eftestøl, Trygve; Sherman, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. During resuscitation of cardiac arrest victims a variety of information in electronic format is recorded as part of the documentation of the patient care contact and in order to be provided for case review for quality improvement. Such review requires considerable effort and resources. There is also the problem of interobserver effects. Objective. We show that it is possible to efficiently analyze resuscitation episodes automatically using a minimal set of the available information. Methods and Results. A minimal set of variables is defined which describe therapeutic events (compression sequences and defibrillations) and corresponding patient response events (annotated rhythm transitions). From this a state sequence representation of the resuscitation episode is constructed and an algorithm is developed for reasoning with this representation and extract review variables automatically. As a case study, the method is applied to the data abstraction process used in the King County EMS. The automatically generated variables are compared to the original ones with accuracies ≥90% for 18 variables and ≥85% for the remaining four variables. Conclusions. It is possible to use the information present in the CPR process data recorded by the AED along with rhythm and chest compression annotations to automate the episode review. PMID:24524074

  15. A high-resolution tungstate membrane label

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.; Quaite, F.E. ); Lipka, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A new class of membrane labels was synthesized which contain a tungstate cluster (having 11 tungsten atoms) and an aliphatic organo-tin moiety with various chain lengths (C{sub 4}, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, C{sub 18}, C{sub 22}). These molecules were found to insert into synthetic phospholipid vesicles and biological membranes (human red blood cell membranes). The tungstate clusters can be individually visualized in the high resolution STEM or seen en mass in thin-sectioned labeled membranes in the CTEM. These new labels should provide a means for direct high-resolution imaging of lipid-phase systems.

  16. RAPID DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Disaster impact modeling and analysis uses huge volumes of image data that are produced immediately following a natural or an anthropogenic disaster event. Rapid damage assessment is the key to time critical decision support in disaster management to better utilize available response resources and accelerate recovery and relief efforts. But exploiting huge volumes of high resolution image data for identifying damaged areas with robust consistency in near real time is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique to identify areas of structural damage from high resolution optical satellite data using features based on image content.

  17. Development of a new type of nonlinear resistance valve block for surge arresters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoly, T.O.; Seitz, M.A.; Guertin, J.P.; Schumacher, P.P.; Potter, M.E.

    1980-12-01

    Present day surge arresters based on silicon carbide material have approached their technological performance limits because of the relatively low degree of nonlinearity in their V-I characteristics. Series gaps were introduced to compensate for this, but the gaps complicate arrester assembly and raise costs, while reducing both protection and reliability. Since 1970, electrical equipment manufacturers have been improving the quality of arresters with material based on zinc oxide. This ceramic material has a very high degree of nonlinearity in its V-I characteristic. The research project conducted here investigated how chemical composition and processing variables affected the electrical and physical characteristics of these metal oxide varistors. Various chemical compositions were studied. Bismuth oxide, antimony oxide, cobalt oxide, manganese oxide, chromium oxide, nickel oxide, and aluminum oxide in a zinc-oxide based varistor were evaluated. The effect of these materials on the varistors' leakage current, discharge voltage, and energy handling capability was evaluated. Mixing procedures and sintering programs were then established for the processing of these varistors. Since the elimination of series gaps would require the metal oxide arrester to be continuously subjected to operating voltage, the work sought to determine the mechanisms and controlling variables affecting a long-term deterioration of these varistors. Based on the electrical modes of conduction, an equivalent circuit model was constructed for the devices. Methods of encapsulating a stack of varistor blocks into an epoxy housing were examined and a potential application for the gapless arrester was demonstrated.

  18. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-limited vs. Life-course-persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest trajectory group; those (n = 24) whose ego levels reached the Conformist or Post-conformist level at age 25 were assigned to an adolescence-limited profound ego development arrest trajectory group. Analysis of predictors and age 25 correlates of group membership revealed that selected age 14 family interaction behaviors differentiated the two groups. At age 25, members of the adolescence-limited group showed superior performance on several measures of interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. PMID:28154436

  19. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  20. Technical aspects: development, manufacture and installation of a cryo-cooled HTS coil system for high-resolution in-vivo imaging of the mouse at 1.5 T.

    PubMed

    Ginefri, Jean-Christophe; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Girard, Olivier; Darrasse, Luc

    2007-09-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio improvement is of major importance to achieve microscopic spatial resolution in magnetic resonance experiments. Magnetic resonance imaging of small animals is particularly concerned since it typically requires voxels of less than (100 microm)(3) to observe the small anatomical structures having size reduction by a factor of more than 10 as compared to human being. The signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by working at high static magnetic field strengths, but the biomedical interest of such high-field systems may be limited due to field-dependent contrast mechanisms and severe technological difficulties. An alternative approach that allows working in clinical imaging system is to improve the sensitivity of the radio-frequency receiver coil. This can be done using small cryogenically operated coils made either of copper or high-temperature superconducting material. We report the technological development of cryo-cooled superconducting coils for high-resolution imaging in a whole-body magnetic resonance scanner operating at 1.5 T. The technological background supporting this development is first addressed, including HTS coil design, simulation tools, cryogenic mean description and electrical characterization procedure. To illustrate the performances of superconducting coils for magnetic resonance imaging at intermediate field strength, in-vivo mouse images of various anatomic sites acquired with a 12 mm diameter cryo-cooled superconducting coil are presented.

  1. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  2. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  3. Titania High-Resolution Color Composite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This high-resolution color composite of Titania was made from NASA Voyager 2 images taken Jan. 24, 1986, as the spacecraft neared its closest approach to Uranus. A large, trenchlike feature is seen near the terminator. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00036

  4. High-Resolution Global Soil Moisture Map

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-19

    High-resolution global soil moisture map from NASA SMAP combined radar and radiometer instruments, acquired between May 4 and May 11, 2015 during SMAP commissioning phase. The map has a resolution of 5.6 miles (9 kilometers). The data gap is due to turning the instruments on and off during testing. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19337

  5. Improved contrast and spatial resolution with Single Photon Counting (SPC) for an area x-ray imager, the newly developed high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) detector.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    Although in radiological imaging, the prevailing mode of acquisition is the integration of the energy deposited by all x-rays absorbed in the imaging detector, much improvement in image spatial and contrast resolution could be achieved if each individual x-ray photon were detected and counted separately. In this work we compare the conventional energy integration (EI) mode with the new single photon counting (SPC) mode for a recently developed high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) detector, which is uniquely capable of both modes of operation. The MAF has 1024×1024 pixels of 35 microns effective size and is capable of real-time imaging at 30 fps. The large variable gain of its light image intensifier (LII) provides quantum limited operation with essentially no additive instrumentation noise and enables the MAF to operate in both EI and the very sensitive low-exposure SPC modes. We used high LII gain with very low exposure (<1 x-ray photon/pixel) per frame for SPC mode and higher exposure per frame with lower gain for EI mode. Multiple signal-thresholded frames were summed in SPC mode to provide an integrated frame with the same total exposure as EI mode. A heavily K-edge filtered x-ray beam (average energy of 31 keV) was used to provide a nearly monochromatic spectrum. The MTF measured using a standard slit method showed a dramatic improvement for the SPC mode over the EI mode at all frequencies. Images of a line pair phantom also showed improved spatial resolution with 12 lp/mm visible in SPC mode compared to only 8 lp/mm in EI mode. In SPC mode, images of human distal and middle phalanges showed the trabecular structures of the bone with far better contrast and detail. These improvements with the SPC mode should be advantageous for clinical applications where high resolution and/or high contrast are essential such as in mammography and extremity imaging as well as for dual modality applications, which combine nuclear medicine and x-ray imaging

  6. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy

  7. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  8. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Lin, Yong; Martin, Sara F.; Panasenco, Olga; Romashets, Eugene P.

    2013-08-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal, for high-resolution telescopes, will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can serve as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly, one after another, using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch open telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points in the guider image which indicates the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. Automatic production of flats is also programmed. For the first time, mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions. The mosaic movies show larger regions of the solar disk in high resolution and fill a gap between available whole-sun images with limited spatial resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  9. Development of a novel real-time PCR assay with high-resolution melt analysis to detect and differentiate OXA-48-Like β-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Hemarajata, Peera; Yang, Shangxin; Hindler, Janet A; Humphries, Romney M

    2015-09-01

    The rapid global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) poses an urgent threat to public health. More than 250 class D β-lactamases (OXAs) have been described in recent years, with variations in hydrolytic activity for β-lactams. The plasmid-borne OXA-48 β-lactamase and its variants are identified only sporadically in the United States but are common in Europe. Recognition of these OXA-48-like carbapenemases is vital in order to control their dissemination. We developed a real-time PCR assay based on high-resolution melt analysis, using bla OXA-48-like-specific primers coupled with an unlabeled 3'-phosphorylated oligonucleotide probe (LunaProbe) homologous to OXA-48-like carbapenemase genes. The assay was validated using genomic DNA from 48 clinical isolates carrying a variety of carbapenemase genes, including bla KPC, bla SME, bla IMP, bla NDM-1, bla VIM, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-162, bla OXA-181, bla OXA-204, bla OXA-244, bla OXA-245, and bla OXA-232. Our assay identified the presence of bla OXA-48-like β-lactamase genes and clearly distinguished between bla OXA-48 and its variants in control strains, including between bla OXA-181 and bla OXA-232, which differ by only a single base pair in the assay target region. This approach has potential for use in epidemiological investigations and continuous surveillance to help control the spread of CRE strains producing OXA-48-like enzymes.

  10. Development of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry method for the rapid detection and confirmation of illegal adulterated sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuyin; Tan, Huijie; Guo, Changchuan; Gong, Liping; Shi, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A novel method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) was developed and validated for the simultaneous screening, identification and quantification of sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements. Chromatographic conditions were optimised and a full data-dependent MS(2) scan (MS/dd-MS(2)) in positive and negative ion mode was used. A single injection was sufficient to perform the simultaneous screening and identification/quantification of samples. The response showed a good linear relationship with analyte concentrations over wide ranges (e.g., 1.0-1000 ng g(-1) for diazepam) with all the determination coefficients (r(2)) > 0.9985. The method was validated, obtaining accuracy (intra- and inter-day) in the range of 94.5-105.3% and precision (intra- and inter-day) in the range of 0.4-8.9%, respectively. The detection limits (LODs) were in the range of 0.3-1.0 ng g(-1) for different analytes. Recoveries were performed and ranged from 74.1% to 90.2%, while all matrix effects were over the range of 85.4-93.6%. Finally, this method was used to detect sedative-hypnotics in commercial dietary supplements. Of a total of 45 batches of dietary supplements, only three batches were found to be positive samples with concentrations of diazepam, clonazepam and alprazolam at high levels (≥ 8.22 mg g(-1)).

  11. High resolution, large area, high energy x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Trebes, J.E.; Dolan, K.W.; Haddad, W.S.; Haskins, J.J.; Lerche, R.A.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Rikard, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    An x-ray tomography system is being developed for high resolution inspection of large objects. The goal is to achieve 25 micron resolution over object sizes that are tens of centimeters in extent. Typical objects will be metal in composition and therefore high energy, few MeV x-rays will be required. A proof-of-principle system with a limited field of view has been developed. Preliminary results are presented.

  12. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the analysis of more than 500 pesticides and drugs in water based on on-line and liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Jérôme; Leroux, Fanny; Broudin, Simon; Poirel, Marion; Corman, Bruno; Junot, Christophe; Ducruix, Céline

    2016-11-01

    Screening of a large number of emerging pollutants is highly desirable for the control of water quality. In this respect, a novel, fully automated contaminant screening method based on an integrated sample preconcentration and liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-HRMS) has been developed. The optimal chromatographic column and experimental conditions allowing the retention and subsequent elution of the maximum number of analytes were defined. Liquid chromatography and Q-exactive (Orbitrap™) parameters were optimized to obtain the best separation of molecules of interest, and the lowest detection limits. Due to the large amount of data to compare, a script written in R language was developed to evaluate the quality of the data generated by the comparison of 14 experimental conditions. The developed method enables the simultaneous semi quantitative analysis of 539 compounds (pesticides and drug residues), in 36 min with only 5 mL of water. Method validation was achieved through studies of repeatability, selectivity, linearity and matrix effect. Application to 20 tap water samples collected in and around Paris showed the presence of 34 different compounds all with concentrations below 0.1 μg/L, the European Union limit for drinking water. Pesticides and transformation products frequently found in water resources such as atrazine and its metabolites, hexazinone, oxadixyl, propazine and simazine were detected. Drug residues such as valsartan and carbamazepine, usually not monitored, were also found. The next step will be to assess the ability of this method to highlight the presence of unexpected contaminants not present in our database. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of an analytical method for the targeted screening and multi-residue quantification of environmental contaminants in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for evaluation of human exposures.

    PubMed

    Cortéjade, A; Kiss, A; Cren, C; Vulliet, E; Buleté, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method and contribute to the assessment of the Exposome. Thus, a targeted analysis of a wide range of contaminants in contact with humans on daily routines in urine was developed. The method focused on a list of 38 contaminants, including 12 pesticides, one metabolite of pesticide, seven veterinary drugs, five parabens, one UV filter, one plastic additive, two surfactants and nine substances found in different products present in the everyday human environment. These contaminants were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqToF) instrument from a raw urinary matrix. A validation according to the FDA guidelines was employed to evaluate the specificity, linear or quadratic curve fitting, inter- and intra-day precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification (LOQ). The developed analysis allows for the quantification of 23 contaminants in the urine samples, with the LOQs ranging between 4.3 ng.mL(-1) and 113.2 ng.mL(-1). This method was applied to 17 urine samples. Among the targeted contaminants, four compounds were detected in samples. One of the contaminants (tributyl phosphate) was detected below the LOQ. The three others (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and O,O-diethyl thiophosphate potassium) were detected but did not fulfill the validation criteria for quantification. Among these four compounds, two of them were found in all samples: tributyl phosphate and the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High Resolution Convective Heat Transfer Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-30

    ONR Thermal Materials Workshop 2001 1 HIGH RESOLUTION CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS Peter Ireland and Terry Jones R-R UTC in Heat Transfer...temperatures. • Fluid dynamics correct through use of Reynolds number, Mach number and Prandtl number. Mach)Pr,(Re,fNu Dimensionless heat transfer...depends on local h su rf ac e te m p T s gas temperature Tg timestart of test hTc Calibration Test data ONR Thermal Materials Workshop 2001 10 Heat

  15. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  16. A high-resolution anatomical rat atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xueling; Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Jie; Li, Anan; Han, Dao; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the availability of a high-resolution atlas of the adult rat. The atlas is composed of 9475 cryosectional images captured in 4600 × 2580 × 24-bit TIFF format, constructed using serial cryosection-milling techniques. Cryosection images were segmented, labelled and reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) computerized models. These images, 3D models, technical details, relevant software and further information are available at our website, http://vchibp.vicp.net/vch/mice/. PMID:17062027

  17. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  18. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  19. High-Resolution Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. PMID:24974038

  20. High-resolution traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, Sergey V; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Waterman, Clare M

    2014-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Partial homogeneity based high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe

    2014-09-29

    In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, it is of great necessity and importance to obtain high-resolution spectra, especially under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this study, a method based on partial homogeneity is proposed for retrieving high-resolution one-dimensional NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Signals from series of small voxels, which characterize high resolution due to small sizes, are recorded simultaneously. Then, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to correct the influence brought by field inhomogeneity automatically, thus yielding high-resolution information. Experiments on chemical solutions and fish spawn were carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method serves as a single radiofrequency pulse high-resolution NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields and may provide an alternative of obtaining high-resolution spectra of in vivo living systems or chemical-reaction systems, where performances of conventional techniques are usually degenerated by field inhomogeneity.

  2. Development of a high-resolution melting genotyping assay for the angiotensin I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and establishment of genotype-specific reference intervals in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Peter H; Campbell, Nina Buntzen; Højskov, Carsten S; Fløe, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Hilberg, Ole; Ladefoged, Søren A; Møller, Holger J

    2015-01-01

    The serum-angiotensin I converting enzyme (s-ACE) activity is influenced by a genetic insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene, and the resulting large interindividual variation in s-ACE limits the use of normal reference intervals in the evaluation of sarcoidosis. In this study, we developed a new method for genotyping the I/D polymorphism in ACE and established genotype-specific reference intervals in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and the value for treatment of sarcoidosis. The new genotyping assay is based on high-resolution melting (HRM) using LCGreen + and was used to genotype 400 healthy Danish individuals. The assay was compared to a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in a validation set of 86 samples. Enzyme activity in serum was measured using the Infinity™ ACE Liquid Stable Reagent from Thermo adapted for the ABX Pentra analyzer. There was full concordance between genotyping assays. The three genotypes II, ID and DD were present with a frequency of 0.23, 0.51 and 0.26. The distribution of s-ACE values in the total population was non-Gaussian (non-parametric 95% reference interval 12.0-60.0 U/L). The median activities of the genotypes differed significantly (P<0.0001). Ninety-five per cent non-parametric reference intervals for the subpopulations were determined to 6.3-38.5, 14.0-56.0 and 23.3-71.2 U/L for II, ID and DD, respectively. We have developed a simple and robust method for ACE genotyping and determined genotype-specific reference intervals for s-ACE concentrations in the Danish population. The new reference intervals may increase the value of s-ACE measurements. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Development of a simultaneous high resolution typing method for three SLA class II genes, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 and the analysis of SLA class II haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Le, MinhThong; Choi, Hojun; Choi, Min-Kyeung; Cho, Hyesun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Cha, Se-Yeon; Seo, Kunho; Dadi, Hailu; Park, Chankyu

    2015-06-15

    The characterization of the genetic variations of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to understand the relationship between the genetic diversity of MHC molecules and disease resistance and susceptibility in adaptive immunity. We previously reported the development of high-resolution individual locus typing methods for three of the most polymorphic swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class II loci, namely, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1. In this study, we extensively modified our previous protocols and developed a method for the simultaneous amplification of the three SLA class II genes and subsequent analysis of individual loci using direct sequencing. The unbiased and simultaneous amplification of alleles from the all three hyper-polymorphic and pseudogene containing genes such as MHC genes is extremely challenging. However, using this method, we demonstrated the successful typing of SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 for 31 selected individuals comprising 26 different SLA class II haplotypes which were identified from 700 animals using the single locus typing methods. The results were identical to the known genotypes from the individual locus typing. The new method has significant benefits over the individual locus typing, including lower typing cost, use of less biomaterial, less effort and fewer errors in handling large samples for multiple loci. We also extensively characterized the haplotypes of SLA class II genes and reported three new haplotypes. Our results should serve as a basis to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of MHC class II and differences in immune responses to exogenous antigens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry in the analysis of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers: method development and comparative evaluation versus ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Rjabova, J; Pugajeva, I; Nakurte, I; Viksna, A; Bartkevics, V

    2014-10-31

    An efficient ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry (TOF-HRMS) method was elaborated for the determination of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers in fish samples and compared against UHPLC-Orbitrap-HRMS and UHPLC-triple quadrupole (QqQ) tandem MS (MS/MS) techniques. The TOF-HRMS analyzer was operated at high resolution (>10000 full width at half maximum (FWHM)) with scanning the m/z range from 600 to 700, to achieve picogram quantitation limits. The effects of various operational parameters on the instrumental response were systematically investigated. Evaluation of the influence of sample clean-up procedure steps on signal suppression effect including removal of the matrix components by means of destructive acidic treatment or non-destructive gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and additional Florisil column chromatography step showed that the analytical response of UHPLC-TOF-HRMS system is much more affected by the presence of matrix components in the final extracts in comparison with UHPLC-Orbitrap-HRMS and UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS systems. The method was robustly validated and used for the analysis of eel (Anquilla anquilla) samples originating from a Latvian lake. UHPLC-TOF-HRMS showed a suitable performance under the optimized conditions: recoveries for three selected diastereomers in the range of 99-116%; repeatability and intermediate precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the ranges of 2.3-7.1% and 2.9-8.1%, respectively. The elaborated method achieved instrumental limits of quantification (i-LOQ) of 0.9-4.5pg on column that were suitable for the trace analysis of three HBCD diastereomers, corresponding to the method limits of quantification (m-LOQ) of 7.0-29pgg(-1) wet weight (w.w.). The efficiency of UHPLC-TOF-HRMS method was evaluated by comparing the performance characteristics and analytical data from real samples with the validation data and real sample results

  5. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  6. Development of two major resources for pea genomics: the GenoPea 13.2K SNP Array and a high-density, high-resolution consensus genetic map.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aluome, Christelle; Falque, Matthieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Kreplak, Jonathan; Boucherot, Karen; Martin, Chantal; Baranger, Alain; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Warkentin, Thomas D; Brunel, Dominique; Marget, Pascal; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays represent important genotyping tools for innovative strategies in both basic research and applied breeding. Pea is an important food, feed and sustainable crop with a large (about 4.45 Gbp) but not yet available genome sequence. In the present study, 12 pea recombinant inbred line populations were genotyped using the newly developed GenoPea 13.2K SNP Array. Individual and consensus genetic maps were built providing insights into the structure and organization of the pea genome. Largely collinear genetic maps of 3918-8503 SNPs were obtained from all mapping populations, and only two of these exhibited putative chromosomal rearrangement signatures. Similar distortion patterns in different populations were noted. A total of 12 802 transcript-derived SNP markers placed on a 15 079-marker high-density, high-resolution consensus map allowed the identification of ohnologue-rich regions within the pea genome and the localization of local duplicates. Dense syntenic networks with sequenced legume genomes were further established, paving the way for the identification of the molecular bases of important agronomic traits segregating in the mapping populations. The information gained on the structure and organization of the genome from this research will undoubtedly contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the pea genome and to its assembly. The GenoPea 13.2K SNP Array and individual and consensus genetic maps are valuable genomic tools for plant scientists to strengthen pea as a model for genetics and physiology and enhance breeding. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genetic Diversity and mRNA Expression of Porcine MHC Class I Chain-Related 2 (SLA-MIC2) Gene and Development of a High-Resolution Typing Method

    PubMed Central

    Dinka, Hunduma; Nguyen, DinhTruong; Choi, Hojun; Cho, Hyesun; Choi, Minkyeung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jin-Ki; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Park, Chankyu

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure and function of MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes in the pig genome have not been well characterized, and show discordance in available data. Therefore, we have experimentally characterized the exon-intron structure and functional copy expression pattern of the pig MIC gene, SLA-MIC2. We have also studied the genetic diversity of SLA-MIC2 from seven different breeds using a high-resolution genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT) method. Our results showed that the SLA-MIC2 gene has a similar molecular organization as the human and cattle orthologs, and is expressed in only a few tissues including the small intestine, lung, and heart. A total of fifteen SLA-MIC2 alleles were identified from typing 145 animals, ten of which were previously unreported. Our analysis showed that the previously reported and tentatively named SLA-MIC2*05, 07, and 01 alleles occurred most frequently. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.26 to 0.73 among breeds. The number of alleles of the SLA-MIC2 gene in pigs is somewhat lower compared to the number of alleles of the porcine MHC class I and II genes; however, the level of heterozygosity was similar. Our results indicate the comprehensiveness of using genomic DNA-based typing for the systemic study of the SLA-MIC2 gene. The method developed for this study, as well as the detailed information that was obtained, could serve as fundamental tools for understanding the influence of the SLA-MIC2 gene on porcine immune responses. PMID:26305091

  8. Genetic Diversity and mRNA Expression of Porcine MHC Class I Chain-Related 2 (SLA-MIC2) Gene and Development of a High-Resolution Typing Method.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Hailu; Le, MinhThong; Dinka, Hunduma; Nguyen, DinhTruong; Choi, Hojun; Cho, Hyesun; Choi, Minkyeung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jin-Ki; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Park, Chankyu

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure and function of MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes in the pig genome have not been well characterized, and show discordance in available data. Therefore, we have experimentally characterized the exon-intron structure and functional copy expression pattern of the pig MIC gene, SLA-MIC2. We have also studied the genetic diversity of SLA-MIC2 from seven different breeds using a high-resolution genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT) method. Our results showed that the SLA-MIC2 gene has a similar molecular organization as the human and cattle orthologs, and is expressed in only a few tissues including the small intestine, lung, and heart. A total of fifteen SLA-MIC2 alleles were identified from typing 145 animals, ten of which were previously unreported. Our analysis showed that the previously reported and tentatively named SLA-MIC2*05, 07, and 01 alleles occurred most frequently. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.26 to 0.73 among breeds. The number of alleles of the SLA-MIC2 gene in pigs is somewhat lower compared to the number of alleles of the porcine MHC class I and II genes; however, the level of heterozygosity was similar. Our results indicate the comprehensiveness of using genomic DNA-based typing for the systemic study of the SLA-MIC2 gene. The method developed for this study, as well as the detailed information that was obtained, could serve as fundamental tools for understanding the influence of the SLA-MIC2 gene on porcine immune responses.

  9. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  10. High resolution computed tomography of advanced composite and ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, R. N.; Klima, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced composite and ceramic materials are being developed for use in many new defense and commercial applications. In order to achieve the desired mechanical properties of these materials, the structural elements must be carefully analyzed and engineered. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of high resolution computed tomography (CT) as a macrostructural analysis tool for advanced composite and ceramic materials. Several samples were scanned using a laboratory high resolution CT scanner. Samples were also destructively analyzed at the locations of the scans and the nondestructive and destructive results were compared. The study provides useful information outlining the strengths and limitations of this technique and the prospects for further research in this area.

  11. High Resolution Coherent Three-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Zuri R.; Wells, Thresa A.; Chen, Peter C.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    The heavy congestion found in many one-dimensional spectra can make it difficult to study many transitions. A new coherent three-dimensional spectroscopic technique has been developed to eliminate the kind of congestion commonly seen in high resolution electronic spectra. The molecule used for this test was Iodine. A well-characterized transition (X to B) was used to determine which four wave mixing process or processes were responsible for the peaks in the resulting multidimensional spectrum. The resolution of several peaks that overlap in a coherent 2D spectrum can be accomplished by using a higher dimensional (3D) spectroscopic method. This talk will discuss strategies for finding spectroscopic constants using this high resolution coherent 3D spectroscopic method.

  12. Space to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Sensemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Christopher P.; Endert, Alexander; North, Chris

    2010-05-05

    Space supports human cognitive abilities in a myriad of ways. The note attached to the side of the monitor, the papers spread out on the desk, diagrams scrawled on a whiteboard, and even the keys left out on the counter are all examples of using space to recall, reveal relationships, and think. Technological advances have made it possible to construct large display environments in which space has real meaning. This paper examines how increased space affects the way displays are regarded and used within the context of the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. A study was conducted observing analysts using a prototype large, high-resolution display to solve an analytic problem. This paper reports on the results of this study and suggests a number of potential design criteria for future sensemaking tools developed for large, high-resolution displays.

  13. High-resolution array processing using implicit eigenvector weighting techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, A.K. ); Byrne, C.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Many high-resolution bearing estimators require the explicit calculation of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the cross-spectral matrix of the sensor outputs. Once the eigenvectors have been calculated, various different estimators can be derived by altering the eigenvalues to give a re-weighing of the eigenvectors. For example, in the MUSIC method the eigenvalues corresponding to those eigenvectors in the noise subspace are set to unity, while the eigenvalues corresponding to those eigenvectors in the signal subspace are set to zero. These weighing functions are reminiscent of ideal filter responses in analog filter theory, where practical filters are designed by using polynomial approximations to the ideal desired response. In this paper, the approximation theory developed for filter design is used to derive high-resolution bearing estimators that do not require explicit calculation of the eigenvectors.

  14. A High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Devicm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, Hans; Dallas, William J.; Ovitt, Theron W.; Lamoreaux, Richard D.; Vercillo, Richard; McNeill, Kevin M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes a high resolution x-ray imaging device, which is under development at the University of Arizona. It is sponsored by NIH for application in coronary angiography, but has also application in other x-ray imaging fields requi ing high spatial resolution, such as mammography and nondestructive tasting. It consists of a 6" diameter external modular sensor, coupled fiber optically to the input of a 6" proximity focussed image intensifier. The intensifier's output is coupled via 6 fiber optic tapers to 6 CCD's for readout. The tapers are joined at the large end to form a 6" by 6" coplanar fiber optic taper assembly. The electronics is designed to form a composite image out of the 6 individual images provided by the 6 CCD's and display the image in full resolution (1152 x 1152) on a high resolution physicians review console. The paper discusses the design considerations, the features, the major problems and some preliminary results.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  16. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  17. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  18. High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    1986-01-01

    The major objectives of the high resolution telescope and spectrograph (HRTS) are: (1) the investigation of the energy balance and mass balance of the temperature minimum, chromosphere, transition zone, and corona in quiet regions on the Sun as well as in plages, flares, and sunspots; (2) the investigation of the velocity field of the lower corona to study the origin of the solar wind; and (3) the investigation of preflare and flare phenomena. The HRTS instruments consists of a telescope, an ultraviolet spectrograph, an ultraviolet spectroheliograph, and an H alpha slit display system, all housed in a thermal control cannister mounted on an instrument pointing system.

  19. High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. L.

    The major objectives of the high resolution telescope and spectrograph (HRTS) are: (1) the investigation of the energy balance and mass balance of the temperature minimum, chromosphere, transition zone, and corona in quiet regions on the Sun as well as in plages, flares, and sunspots; (2) the investigation of the velocity field of the lower corona to study the origin of the solar wind; (3) the investigation of preflare and flare phenomena. The HRTS instruments consists of a telescope, an ultraviolet spectrograph, and ultraviolet spectroheliograph, and an H alpha slit display system, all housed in a thermal control canister mounted on an instrument pointing system.

  20. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  1. Ultra-high resolution DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, A H; Robinson, H; Gao, Y G

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the progress in our efforts at producing ultra-high resolution (< 0.8 A) DNA structures using advanced cryo-crystallography and synchrotron. Our work is aimed at providing reliable geometric (bond length and bond angle), electronic and motional information of DNA molecules in different conformational contexts. These highly-reliable, new structures will be the basis for constructing better DNA force-field parameters, which will benefit the structural refinement of DNA, protein-DNA complexes, and ligand-DNA complexes.

  2. High resolution thermal denaturation of mammalian DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Guttmann, T; Vítek, A; Pivec, L

    1977-01-01

    High resolution melting profiles of different mammalian DNAs are presented. Melting curves of various mammalian DNAs were compared with respect to the degree of asymmetry, first moment, transition breath and Tmi of individual subtransitions. Quantitative comparison of the shape of all melting curves was made. Correlation between phylogenetical relations among mammals and shape of the melting profiles of their DNAs was demonstrated. The difference between multi-component heterogeneity of mammalian DNAs found by optical melting analysis and sedimentation in CsCl-netropsin density gradient is also discussed. PMID:840642

  3. Biological organization: Macromolecular interactions at high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.M.; Vogel, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The main thrust of this book is to feature important current information on interactions of macromolecules themselves (rather than, say, enzyme-substrate interactions). Viruses, as paradigms of small biological systems, are covered as are the pivotal areas of DNA-protein and of antibody interactions. The treatment of the comparatively new field of membrane structure at high resolution includes the latest results on the photosynthetic reaction center, placed in perspective by contributions on light sensitivity of proteins. Finally, chapters on signal receptors highlight the importance of mechanisms for the control of the other systems presented.

  4. Single shot high resolution digital holography.

    PubMed

    Khare, Kedar; Ali, P T Samsheer; Joseph, Joby

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate a novel computational method for high resolution image recovery from a single digital hologram frame. The complex object field is obtained from the recorded hologram by solving a constrained optimization problem. This approach which is unlike the physical hologram replay process is shown to provide high quality image recovery even when the dc and the cross terms in the hologram overlap in the Fourier domain. Experimental results are shown for a Fresnel zone hologram of a resolution chart, intentionally recorded with a small off-axis reference beam angle. Excellent image recovery is observed without the presence of dc or twin image terms and with minimal speckle noise.

  5. High resolution millimeter-wave imaging sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Howard, R. J.; Parks, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A scanning 3-mm radiometer is described that has been built for use on a small aircraft to produce real time high resolution images of the ground when atmospheric conditions such as smoke, dust, and clouds make IR and visual sensors unusable. The sensor can be used for a variety of remote sensing applications such as measurements of snow cover and snow water equivalent, precipitation mapping, vegetation type and extent, surface moisture and temperature, and surface thermal inertia. The advantages of millimeter waves for cloud penetration and the ability to observe different physical phenomena make this system an attractive supplement to visible and IR remote sensing systems.

  6. Arrested diatreme development: Standing Rocks East, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Nathalie S.; White, James D. L.; Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    fluidal, folded-over shapes and ropy surfaces, subordinate thermally altered wall-rock and variegated domains of lapilli tuff. SRE shows a progressive transition from fissure to diatreme, and overall evolution from more explosive to weakly explosive eruption styles recorded at the conduit-crater transition. Diatreme development was initiated by deep-quarrying explosive eruptions along a fissure to form the country rock-rich breccia. Only parts of the fissure remained active as magma feeding the highly explosive eruptions along the fissure localized into discrete point sources forming the matrix-rich lapilli tuff deposits. These superimposed deposits record the passage of multiple debris-jets and subvertical fallback from shallow cratering arising from explosions triggered by magma-water interaction at numerous, discrete sites. However, instead of continuing to build a well-formed diatreme, the system switched to weak spattering with intermittent explosive activity and near-surface dike emplacement into the unconsolidated anisotropic, pyroclastic debris of the crater floor. Dominant spatter from strombolian-style bursts accumulated on the topographically varied, evolving unstable syn-eruptive crater floor, and led to local failure and remobilization. This study demonstrates how the combination of fissure behavior and sensitivity of the shallow plumbing system to local conditions during an eruption can lead to a decrease in eruptive footprint within the diatreme structure, and an overall decrease in explosivity resulting in the arrested development of an immature diatreme.

  7. High Resolution Modeling of Tropical Cyclones Using Rare Event Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, D. A.; Abbot, D. S.; Weare, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) present a challenge to modeling using general circulation models (GCMs) because they involve processes and structures that are too fine for GCMs to resolve. TCs have fine structures - e.g. the eye, eyewall, and rain bands - with length scales on the order of 10 km, while GCMs have typical resolutions on the order of 50-100 km. High resolution GCM runs that are sufficiently long to exhibit multiple TCs can be prohibitively computationally expensive. Thus, while GCMs exhibit TC-like vortices with similar spatial and temporal frequencies to observed TCs, the ability of GCMs to reproduce fine TC structures remains largely untested. In this study, we use recently developed rare event analysis and simulation methods to selectively simulate TCs under GCMs at very high resolution. These rare event simulation methods have been developed mostly in the context of computational chemistry, but are broadly applicable. They allow (either by careful manipulation of the model or by selection of trajectories) direct and detailed interrogation of the event of interest without introducing error and without the need to simulated for long periods of time to see the event. By creating targeted, high resolution GCM simulations with many TCs, we hope to determine whether or not GCMs can capture fine TC structures such as eyewalls and individual rain bands.

  8. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  9. Development of analytical procedures for determination of total chromium by quadrupole ICP-MS and high-resolution ICP-MS, and hexavalent chromium by HPLC-ICP-MS, in different materials used in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Séby, F; Gagean, M; Garraud, H; Castetbon, A; Donard, O F X

    2003-10-01

    A European directive was recently adopted limiting the use of hazardous substances such as Pb, Hg, Cd, and Cr(VI) in vehicle manufacturing. From July 2003 a maximum of 2 g Cr(VI) will be authorised per vehicle in corrosion-preventing coatings of key components. As no standardised procedures are available to check if produced vehicles are in agreement with this directive, the objective of this work was to develop analytical procedures for total chromium and Cr(VI) determination in these materials. The first step of this study was to optimise digestion procedures for total chromium determination in plastic and metallic materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High resolution (HR) ICP-MS was used to examine the influence of polyatomic interferences on the detection of the (52)Cr(+) and (53)Cr(+) isotopes. If there was strong interference with m/ z 52 for plastic materials, it was possible to use quadrupole ICP-MS for m/ z 53 if digestions were performed with HNO(3)+H(2)O(2). This mixture was also necessary for digestion of chromium from metallic materials. Extraction procedures in alkaline medium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3) buffer solution at pH 8.9) assisted by sonication were developed for determining Cr(VI) in four different corrosion-preventing coatings by HPLC-ICP-MS. After optimisation and validation with the only solid reference material certified for its Cr(VI) content (BCR 545; welding dusts), the efficiency of this extraction procedure for screw coatings was compared with that described in the EN ISO 3613 standard generally used in routine laboratories. For coatings comprising zinc and aluminium passivated in depth with chromium oxides the extraction procedure developed herein enabled determination of higher Cr(VI) concentrations. This was also observed for the screw covered with a chromium passivant layer on zinc-nickel. For coating comprising a chromium passivant layer on alkaline zinc the standardized extraction procedure was more efficient

  10. New Challenges in High-Resolution Modeling of Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.

    2006-12-01

    The extreme active Atlantic hurricane seasons in recent years have highlighted the urgent need for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to hurricane intensity and for development of the corresponding advanced hurricane prediction models to improve intensity forecasts. The lack of skill in present forecasts of hurricane structure and intensity may be attributed in part to deficiencies in the current prediction models: insufficient grid resolution, inadequate surface and boundary layer formulations, and the lack of full coupling to a dynamic ocean. The extreme high winds, intense rainfall, large ocean waves, and copious sea spray in hurricanes push the surface-exchange parameters for temperature, water vapor, and momentum into untested regimes. The recent modeling effort is to develop and test a fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean modeling system that is capable of resolving the eye and eyewall in a hurricane at ~1 km grid resolution. The new challenges for these very high resolution models are the corresponding physical representations at 1-km scale, including microphysics, sub-grid turbulence parameterization, atmospheric boundary layer, physical processes at the air-sea interface with surface waves among others. The lack of accurate initial conditions for high-resolution hurricane modeling presents another major challenge. Improvements in initial conditions rest on the use of more airborne and remotely sensed observations in high-resolution assimilation systems and on the application of advanced assimilation schemes to hurricanes. This study aimed to provide an overview of these new challenges using high-resolution model simulations of Hurricanes Isabel (2003), Frances (2004), Katrina and Rita (2005) that were observed extensively by two recent field programs, namely, the Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer (CBLAST)-Hurricane in 2003-2004 and the Hurricane Rainbands and Intensity Change Experiment (RAINEX) in 2005.

  11. A VLSI Processor Design of Real-Time Data Compression for High-Resolution Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, W.

    1994-01-01

    For the high-resolution imaging radar systems, real-time data compression of raw imaging data is required to accomplish the science requirements and satisfy the given communication and storage constraints. The Block Adaptive Quantizer (BAQ) algorithm and its associated VLSI processor design have been developed to provide a real-time data compressor for high-resolution imaging radar systems.

  12. Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenbo; Yu, Diqiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, we isolated T-DNA insertion mutants. Two independent T-DNA insertion mutants for WRKY2 were hypersensitive to ABA responses only during seed germination and postgermination early growth. wrky2 mutants displayed delayed or decreased expression of ABI5 and ABI3, but increased or prolonged expression of Em1 and Em6. wrky2 mutants and wild type showed similar levels of expression for miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. Analysis of WRKY2 expression level in ABA-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants abi5-1, abi3-1, aba2-3 and aba3-1 further indicated that ABA-induced WRKY2 accumulation during germination and postgermination early growth requires ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3. Conclusion ABA hypersensitivity of the wrky2 mutants during seed germination and postgermination early seedling establishment is attributable to elevated mRNA levels of ABI5, ABI3 and ABI5-induced Em1 and Em6 in the mutants. WRKY2-mediated ABA responses are independent of miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3 are important regulators of the transcripts of WRKY2 by ABA treatment. Our results suggest that WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination developmental arrest by ABA. PMID:19622176

  13. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  14. High resolution guided wave pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    Commercial guided wave inspection systems provide rapid screening of pipes, but limited sizing capability for small defects. However, accurate detection and sizing of small defects is essential for assessing the integrity of inaccessible pipe regions where guided waves provide the only possible inspection mechanism. In this paper an array-based approach is presented that allows guided waves to be focused on both transmission and reception to produce a high resolution image of a length of pipe. In the image, it is shown that a signal to coherent noise ratio of over 40 dB with respect to the reflected signal from a free end of pipe can be obtained, even taking into account typical levels of experimental uncertainty in terms of transducer positioning, wave velocity etc. The combination of an image with high resolution and a 40 dB dynamic range enables the detection of very small defects. It also allows the in-plane shape of defects over a certain size to be observed directly. Simulations are used to estimate the detection and sizing capability of the system for crack-like defects. Results are presented from a prototype system that uses EMATs to fully focus pipe guided wave modes on both transmission and reception in a 12 inch diameter stainless steel pipe. The 40 dB signal to coherent noise ratio is obtained experimentally and a 2 mm diameter (0.08 wavelengths) half-thickness hole is shown to be detectable.

  15. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon-and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  16. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  17. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhenium Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Hall, Ryan M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The first spectroscopic study of rhenium carbide, ReC, has been performed using both low and high resolution techniques to collect rotationally resolved electronic spectra from 420 to 500nm. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and dispersed fluorescence (DF) techniques were employed. ReC was formed in our laser ablation molecular jet apparatus by ablating a rhenium target rod in the presence of 1% methane in helium. The low resolution spectrum identified four bands of an electronic system belonging to ReC, three of which have been studied so far. Extensive hyperfine structure composed of six hyperfine components was observed in the high resolution spectrum, as well as a clear distinction between the 187ReC and 185ReC isotopologues. The data seems consistent with a ^4Π - ^4Σ- transition, as was predicted before experimentation. Dispersed fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the ground state vibrational frequency (ωe"=994.4 ± 0.3 wn), and to identify a low-lying electronically excited state at Te"=1118.4 ± 0.4 wn with a vibrational frequency of ωe"=984 ± 2 wn. Personal communication, F. Grein, University of New Brunswick

  18. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  19. High-resolution SAR ATR performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Joel; Burke, Monica; Ettinger, Gil J.

    2004-09-01

    High resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery (e.g., four inch or better resolution) contains features not seen in one foot or lower resolution imagery, due to the isolation of the scatterers into separate resolution cells. These features provide the potential for additional discrimination power for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) systems. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the Real-Time MSTAR (RT-MSTAR) system as a function of image resolution. Performance is measured both in terms of the probability of correct identification on military targets, and also in terms of confuser rejection. The analysis demonstrates two factors that significantly enhance performance. First, use of the high resolution imagery results in much higher probability of correct identification, as demonstrated using Lynx SAR imagery at 4" and 12". Second, incorporating models of the confusers, when available, greatly reduces false alarms, even at higher resolutions. Several new areas of work emerge, including making use of higher-level feature information available in the imagery, and rapid creation of models for vehicles that pose particular confuser rejection challenges.

  20. High Resolution Camera for Mapping Titan Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest moon, has a dense atmosphere and is the only object besides Earth to have stable liquids at its surface. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed the extraordinary breadth of geological processes shaping its surface. Further study requires high resolution imaging of the surface, which is restrained by light absorption by methane and scattering from aerosols. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has demonstrated that Titan's surface can be observed within several windows in the near infrared, allowing us to process several regions in order to create a geological map and to determine the morphology. Specular reflections monitored on the lakes of the North Pole show little scattering at 5 microns, which, combined with the present study of Titan's northern pole area, refutes the paradigm that only radar can achieve high resolution mapping of the surface. The present data allowed us to monitor the evolution of lakes, to identify additional lakes at the Northern Pole, to examine Titan's hypothesis of non-synchronous rotation and to analyze the albedo of the North Pole surface. Future missions to Titan could carry a camera with 5 micron detectors and a carbon fiber radiator for weight reduction.

  1. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  2. Development and validation of risk models to predict outcomes following in-hospital cardiac arrest attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team☆

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, David A.; Patel, Krishna; Nixon, Edel; Soar, Jasmeet; Smith, Gary B.; Gwinnutt, Carl; Nolan, Jerry P.; Rowan, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) is the UK national clinical audit for in-hospital cardiac arrest. To make fair comparisons among health care providers, clinical indicators require case mix adjustment using a validated risk model. The aim of this study was to develop and validate risk models to predict outcomes following in-hospital cardiac arrest attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team in UK hospitals. Methods Risk models for two outcomes—return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for greater than 20 min and survival to hospital discharge—were developed and validated using data for in-hospital cardiac arrests between April 2011 and March 2013. For each outcome, a full model was fitted and then simplified by testing for non-linearity, combining categories and stepwise reduction. Finally, interactions between predictors were considered. Models were assessed for discrimination, calibration and accuracy. Results 22,479 in-hospital cardiac arrests in 143 hospitals were included (14,688 development, 7791 validation). The final risk model for ROSC > 20 min included: age (non-linear), sex, prior length of stay in hospital, reason for attendance, location of arrest, presenting rhythm, and interactions between presenting rhythm and location of arrest. The model for hospital survival included the same predictors, excluding sex. Both models had acceptable performance across the range of measures, although discrimination for hospital mortality exceeded that for ROSC > 20 min (c index 0.81 versus 0.72). Conclusions Validated risk models for ROSC > 20 min and hospital survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest have been developed. These models will strengthen comparative reporting in NCAA and support local quality improvement. PMID:24830872

  3. Arrested development - a comparative analysis of multilayer corona textures in high-grade metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Paula; Gibson, Roger L.

    2017-02-01

    Coronas, including symplectites, provide vital clues to the presence of arrested reaction and preservation of partial equilibrium in metamorphic and igneous rocks. Compositional zonation across such coronas is common, indicating the persistence of chemical potential gradients and incomplete equilibration. Major controls on corona mineralogy include prevailing pressure (P), temperature (T) and water activity (aH2O) during formation, reaction duration (t) single-stage or sequential corona layer growth; reactant bulk compositions (X) and the extent of metasomatic exchange with the surrounding rock; relative diffusion rates for major components; and/or contemporaneous deformation and strain. High-variance local equilibria in a corona and disequilibrium across the corona as a whole preclude the application of conventional thermobarometry when determining P-T conditions of corona formation, and zonation in phase composition across a corona should not be interpreted as a record of discrete P-T conditions during successive layer growth along the P-T path. Rather, the local equilibria between mineral pairs in corona layers more likely reflect compositional partitioning of the corona domain during steady-state growth at constant P and T. Corona formation in pelitic and mafic rocks requires relatively dry, residual bulk rock compositions. Since most melt is lost along the high-T prograde to peak segment of the P-T path, only a small fraction of melt is generally retained in the residual post-peak assemblage. Reduced melt volumes with cooling limit length scales of diffusion to the extent that diffusion-controlled corona growth occurs. On the prograde path, the low melt (or melt-absent) volumes required for diffusion-controlled corona growth are only commonly realized in mafic igneous rocks, owing to their intrinsic anhydrous bulk composition, and in dry, residual pelitic compositions that have lost melt in an earlier metamorphic event. Experimental work characterizing rate

  4. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  5. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  6. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  7. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics. PMID:22312577

  8. Machine Learning Based Road Detection from High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ye; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Xiangyun

    2016-06-01

    At present, remote sensing technology is the best weapon to get information from the earth surface, and it is very useful in geo- information updating and related applications. Extracting road from remote sensing images is one of the biggest demand of rapid city development, therefore, it becomes a hot issue. Roads in high-resolution images are more complex, patterns of roads vary a lot, which becomes obstacles for road extraction. In this paper, a machine learning based strategy is presented. The strategy overall uses the geometry features, radiation features, topology features and texture features. In high resolution remote sensing images, the images cover a great scale of landscape, thus, the speed of extracting roads is slow. So, roads' ROIs are firstly detected by using Houghline detection and buffering method to narrow down the detecting area. As roads in high resolution images are normally in ribbon shape, mean-shift and watershed segmentation methods are used to extract road segments. Then, Real Adaboost supervised machine learning algorithm is used to pick out segments that contain roads' pattern. At last, geometric shape analysis and morphology methods are used to prune and restore the whole roads' area and to detect the centerline of roads.

  9. A high-resolution study of isotopic compositions of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Kim, Songyi; Han, Yeongcheol; Oh, Yoon Seok; Kim, Young-Hee; Kim, Hyerin; Ham, Ji-Young; Choi, Hye-Bin; Na, Un-Sung; Koh, Dong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Isotopic compositions of precipitation have been used to understand moisture transport in the atmosphere and interactions between precipitation and groundwater. Isotopic compositions of speleothems and ice cores, so called, "paleoarchives", can be utilized to interpret climate of the past and global circulation models (GCMs), which are able to explain the paleoarchives, can be validated by the precipitation isotopes. The developments of stable isotope analyzers make high-resolution isotopic studies feasible and a high-resolution study of precipitation isotopes is needed. For this study, precipitation samples were collected for every 5 to 15 minutes, depending on precipitation rates, using an auto-sampler for precipitation isotopes near coastal area. The isotopic compositions of precipitation range from -5.7‰ (-40.1‰)) to -10.8‰ (-74.3‰)) for oxygen (hydrogen). The slope of δ18O-δD diagram for the whole period is 6.8, but that of each storm is 5.1, 4.2, 7.9 and 7.7, respectively. It indicates that evaporation occurred during the first two storms, while the latter two storms did not experience any evaporation. The isotopic fractionations of precipitation has significant implications for the water cycle and high-resolution data of precipitation isotopes will be needed for the future studies related to the precipitation isotopes.

  10. The effects of ethanol and strontium on growth and development of two-cell arrested mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Mohammad Reza; Shiravi, Abdolhossein; Hojati, Vida

    2012-01-01

    Arresting at a certain stage of development like the two-cell stage could be one of the causes of infertility. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ethanol and strontium on growth and development of mice embryos arrested at the two-cell stage. In this experimental study, female mice were coupled with a male following superovulation. Positive vaginal plug mice were sacrificed 48 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection. Two-cell embryos were transferred to M16 medium and divided to four groups. The first control group was incubated without any exposure to low temperatures. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to 4°C for 24 hours. The second control group was incubated immediately, while the third and fourth groups were exposed to 10 mM strontium for five minutes and 0.1% ethanol for a further five minutes. Growth rate and developmental parameters of embryos were analyzed by one- way ANOVA. The significant difference between the groups was determined by Post Hoc. The data shows that developmental rate is decreased significantly by 4°C exposure. The mean percentage of degenerated embryo was significantly different between groups but the mean cleavage rate was not significantly different. The mean percent of morula, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst formation were significantly different between groups during a 120 hours study post hCG injection. The effect of strontium and ethanol on arrested two-cell embryos had no significant effect on the mean percentage of morula, but ethanol treatment significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst and hatched blastocyst formation compared to strontium.

  11. Divergent evolution of arrested development in the dauer stage of Caenorhabditis elegans and the infective stage of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Elling, Axel A; Mitreva, Makedonka; Recknor, Justin; Gai, Xiaowu; Martin, John; Maier, Thomas R; McDermott, Jeffrey P; Hewezi, Tarek; McK Bird, David; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Nettleton, Dan; McCarter, James P; Baum, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Background The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines is the most important parasite in soybean production worldwide. A comprehensive analysis of large-scale gene expression changes throughout the development of plant-parasitic nematodes has been lacking to date. Results We report an extensive genomic analysis of H. glycines, beginning with the generation of 20,100 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In-depth analysis of these ESTs plus approximately 1,900 previously published sequences predicted 6,860 unique H. glycines genes and allowed a classification by function using InterProScan. Expression profiling of all 6,860 genes throughout the H. glycines life cycle was undertaken using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array GeneChip. Our data sets and results represent a comprehensive resource for molecular studies of H. glycines. Demonstrating the power of this resource, we were able to address whether arrested development in the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva and the H. glycines infective second-stage juvenile (J2) exhibits shared gene expression profiles. We determined that the gene expression profiles associated with the C. elegans dauer pathway are not uniformly conserved in H. glycines and that the expression profiles of genes for metabolic enzymes of C. elegans dauer larvae and H. glycines infective J2 are dissimilar. Conclusion Our results indicate that hallmark gene expression patterns and metabolism features are not shared in the developmentally arrested life stages of C. elegans and H. glycines, suggesting that developmental arrest in these two nematode species has undergone more divergent evolution than previously thought and pointing to the need for detailed genomic analyses of individual parasite species. PMID:17919324

  12. Validation of supraglacial bathymetry models developed for optical sensors using high-resolution stereo-imagery: Implications for meltwater storage assessments across the ablation region of the Greenland ice sheet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussavi, M. S.; Abdalati, W.; Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet have attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific community with respect to their role in seasonal enhancements of ice flow velocities. Large amounts of meltwater generated at the surface can be efficiently delivered to the base of the ice sheet through hydro-fractured pathways beneath supraglacial lakes, potentially increasing basal sliding velocities. Therefore, assessments of surface meltwater volumes stored in and transported from supraglacial lakes to the englacial and subglacial systems are crucial for better coupling models of ice sheet hydrology and dynamics, particularly in response to a warming climate. Several physically-based and empirical passive remote sensing techniques based on MODIS, ASTER, Landsat measurements have been proposed to derive bathymetric information over supraglacial lakes. While unvalidated, most of the techniques have been calibrated against limited in-situ observations and yet have been applied across large regions of the ablation region. In this study, we investigate the validity of such techniques, specifically developed for MODIS, Landsat and WorldView-2 instruments. To make such an assessment, we calibrate the depth-retrieval models by using water-leaving radiances over lakes captured by a specific sensor early in the melt season, and depth measurements from a high resolution WV-2 DEM over the same lakes when devoid of water. Having applied calibrated models over lakes (validation dataset), we then compare the modeled depths against observations derived from the after-drainage DEM of the area. Our primary study site is located in a portion of the ablation region of the GrIS with its center situated at 67o 18' N, 48o 55' W at approximately 1200 m A.S.L[1]. Initial results from the study specifically point to the capability of WV-2 multispectral measurements in calculating lake depths with a high degree of accuracy (bias< 2% of mean depth) and precision (RMSE< 12% of mean

  13. Development of a new corona discharge based ion source for high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to measure gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Yang, Dongsen; Ma, Yan; Chen, Mindong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Shizheng; Wang, Ming

    2015-10-01

    A new corona discharge (CD) based ion source was developed for a commercial high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) (Aerodyne Research Inc.) to measure both gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and aerosol sulfate after thermal desorption. Nitrate core ions (NO3-) were used as reagent ions and were generated by a negative discharge in zero air followed by addition of excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to convert primary ions and hydroxyl radicals (OH) into NO3- ions and nitric acid (HNO3). The CD-HRToF-CIMS showed no detectable interference from hundreds parts per billion by volume (ppbv) of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Unlike the atmospheric pressure