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Sample records for arrows signals

  1. Enhancing the heavy Higgs boson [r arrow][ital WW] signal at hadron-hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Griffin, P.A. )

    1994-07-01

    The jet-jet profile methods that we developed to enhance the heavy Higgs boson [r arrow][ital ZZ] signal over its backgrounds at a proton-proton collider energy of 40 TeV are extended to the heavy Higgs boson [r arrow][ital WW] signal and backgrounds. The dominant background is now the pair production of top quarks via the subprocess [ital gg][r arrow][ital t[bar t

  2. On the time arrows, and randomness in cosmological signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurzadyan, V. G.; Sargsyan, S.; Yegorian, G.

    2013-09-01

    Arrows of time - thermodynamical, cosmological, electromagnetic, quantum mechanical, psychological - are basic properties of Nature. For a quantum system-bath closed system the de-correlated initial conditions and no-memory (Markovian) dynamics are outlined as necessary conditions for the appearance of the thermodynamical arrow. The emergence of the arrow for the system evolving according to non-unitary dynamics due to the presence of the bath, then, is a result of limited observability, and we conjecture the arrow in the observable Universe as determined by the dark sector acting as a bath. The voids in the large scale matter distribution induce hyperbolicity of the null geodesics, with possible observational consequences.

  3. Wingless/Wnt signal transduction requires distinct initiation and amplification steps that both depend on Arrow/LRP.

    PubMed

    Baig-Lewis, Shahana; Peterson-Nedry, Wynne; Wehrli, Marcel

    2007-06-01

    Members of the Wg/Wnt family provide key intercellular signals during embryonic development and in the maintenance of homeostatic processes, but critical aspects of their signal transduction pathways remain controversial. We have found that canonical Wg signaling in Drosophila involves distinct initiation and amplification steps, both of which require Arrow/LRP. Expressing a chimeric Frizzled2-Arrow protein in flies that lack endogenous Wg or Arrow showed that this construct functions as an activated Wg receptor but is deficient in signal amplification. In contrast, a chimeric Arrow protein containing the dimerization domain of Torso acted as a potent amplifier of Wg signaling but could not initiate Wg signaling on its own. The two chimeric proteins synergized, so that their co-expression largely reconstituted the signaling levels achieved by expressing Wg itself. The amplification function of Arrow/LRP appears to be particularly important for long-range signaling, and may reflect a general mechanism for potentiating signals in the shallow part of a morphogen gradient.

  4. Wingless/Wnt signal transduction requires distinct initiation and amplification steps that both depend on Arrow/LRP

    PubMed Central

    Baig-Lewis, Shahana; Peterson-Nedry, Wynne; Wehrli, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Members of the Wg/Wnt family provide key intercellular signals during embryonic development and in the maintenance of homeostatic processes, but critical aspects of their signal transduction pathways remain controversial. We have found that canonical Wg signaling in Drosophila involves distinct initiation and amplification steps, both of which require Arrow/LRP. Expressing a chimeric Frizzled2-Arrow protein in flies that lack endogenous Wg or Arrow showed that this construct functions as an activated Wg receptor but is deficient in signal amplification. In contrast, a chimeric Arrow protein containing the dimerization domain of Torso acted as a potent amplifier of Wg signaling but could not initiate Wg signaling on its own. The two chimeric proteins synergized, so that their co-expression largely reconstituted the signaling levels achieved by expressing Wg itself. The amplification function of Arrow/LRP appears to be particularly important for long-range signaling, and may reflect a general mechanism for potentiating signals in the shallow part of a morphogen gradient. PMID:17433287

  5. Membrane bound GSK-3 activates Wnt signaling through disheveled and arrow.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Anirudh G; Tolwinski, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    Wnt ligands and their downstream pathway components coordinate many developmental and cellular processes. In adults, they regulate tissue homeostasis through regulation of stem cells. Mechanistically, signal transduction through this pathway is complicated by pathway components having both positive and negative roles in signal propagation. Here we examine the positive role of GSK-3/Zw3 in promoting signal transduction at the plasma membrane. We find that targeting GSK-3 to the plasma membrane activates signaling in Drosophila embryos. This activation requires the presence of the co-receptor Arrow-LRP5/6 and the pathway activating protein Disheveled. Our results provide genetic evidence for evolutionarily conserved, separable roles for GSK-3 at the membrane and in the cytosol, and are consistent with a model where the complex cycles from cytosol to membrane in order to promote signaling at the membrane and to prevent it in the cytosol.

  6. Safety effects of traffic signing for left turn flashing yellow arrow signals.

    PubMed

    Schattler, Kerrie L; Gulla, Cody J; Wallenfang, Travis J; Burdett, Beau A; Lund, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, the left turn flashing yellow arrow (FYA) signal displays were installed at signalized intersections on state routes in the Peoria, Illinois, area. Supplemental traffic signs with text "Left Turn Yield on Flashing Yellow Arrow" were mounted on the mast arm adjacent to the left turn signal at over half of the FYA installations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the effectiveness evaluation of the FYA supplemental sign on safety. Analyses are presented on the effects of the FYA supplemental sign for all drivers and a subset of drivers age 65 and older. A crash-based comparison of 164 FYA approaches including 90 approaches with the sign and 74 approaches without the sign showed greater crash reductions when the supplemental FYA sign was present. The results also showed that crashes involving drivers age 65 and older did not experience the same magnitudes of crash reductions as compared to all drivers. The findings of this research indicate that supplemental FYA signs may help in improving safety for left-turning vehicles during the permissive interval. Thus, it is recommended that supplemental signs be used when initially implementing the FYA, and that effort to educate the driving public on new traffic control be made to further improve safety at signalized intersections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cellerator: extending a computer algebra system to include biochemical arrows for signal transduction simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Bruce E.; Levchenko, Andre; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Wold, Barbara J.; Mjolsness, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Cellerator describes single and multi-cellular signal transduction networks (STN) with a compact, optionally palette-driven, arrow-based notation to represent biochemical reactions and transcriptional activation. Multi-compartment systems are represented as graphs with STNs embedded in each node. Interactions include mass-action, enzymatic, allosteric and connectionist models. Reactions are translated into differential equations and can be solved numerically to generate predictive time courses or output as systems of equations that can be read by other programs. Cellerator simulations are fully extensible and portable to any operating system that supports Mathematica, and can be indefinitely nested within larger data structures to produce highly scaleable models.

  8. Cellerator: extending a computer algebra system to include biochemical arrows for signal transduction simulations.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Bruce E; Levchenko, Andre; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Wold, Barbara J; Mjolsness, Eric D

    2003-03-22

    Cellerator describes single and multi-cellular signal transduction networks (STN) with a compact, optionally palette-driven, arrow-based notation to represent biochemical reactions and transcriptional activation. Multi-compartment systems are represented as graphs with STNs embedded in each node. Interactions include mass-action, enzymatic, allosteric and connectionist models. Reactions are translated into differential equations and can be solved numerically to generate predictive time courses or output as systems of equations that can be read by other programs. Cellerator simulations are fully extensible and portable to any operating system that supports Mathematica, and can be indefinitely nested within larger data structures to produce highly scaleable models.

  9. Cellerator: extending a computer algebra system to include biochemical arrows for signal transduction simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Bruce E.; Levchenko, Andre; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Wold, Barbara J.; Mjolsness, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Cellerator describes single and multi-cellular signal transduction networks (STN) with a compact, optionally palette-driven, arrow-based notation to represent biochemical reactions and transcriptional activation. Multi-compartment systems are represented as graphs with STNs embedded in each node. Interactions include mass-action, enzymatic, allosteric and connectionist models. Reactions are translated into differential equations and can be solved numerically to generate predictive time courses or output as systems of equations that can be read by other programs. Cellerator simulations are fully extensible and portable to any operating system that supports Mathematica, and can be indefinitely nested within larger data structures to produce highly scaleable models.

  10. Loss of Tc-arrow and canonical Wnt signaling alters posterior morphology and pair-rule gene expression in the short-germ insect, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Renata; Fischer, Tamara D; Brown, Susan J

    2009-07-01

    Wnt signaling has been implicated in posterior patterning in short-germ insects, including the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Bolognesi et al. Curr Biol 18:1624-1629, 2008b; Angelini and Kaufman Dev Biol 283:409-423, 2005; Miyawaki et al. Mech Dev 121:119-130, 2004). Specifically, depletion of Wnt ligands Tc-Wnt1 and Tc-WntD/8 produces Tribolium embryos lacking abdominal segments. Similar phenotypes are produced by depletion of Tc-porcupine (Tc-porc) or Tc-pangolin (Tc-pan), indicating that the signal is transmitted through the canonical Wnt pathway (Bolognesi et al. Curr Biol 18:1624-1629, 2008b). Here we show that RNAi for the receptor Tc-arrow produced similar truncated phenotypes, providing additional evidence supporting canonical signal transduction. Furthermore, since in Tribolium segments are defined sequentially by a pair-rule gene circuit that, when interrupted, produces truncated phenotypes (Choe et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6560-6564, 2006), we investigated the relationship between loss of Wnt signaling and this pair-rule gene circuit. After depletion of the receptor Tc-arrow, expression of Tc-Wnt1 was noticeably absent from the growth zone, while Tc-WntD/8 was restricted to a single spot of expression in what remained of the posterior growth zone. The primary pair-rule genes Tc-runt (Tc-run) and Tc-even-skipped (Tc-eve) were expressed normally in the anterior segments, but were reduced to a single spot in the remnants of the posterior growth zone. Thus, expression of pair-rule genes and Tc-WntD/8 are similarly affected by depletion of Wnt signal and disruption of the posterior growth zone.

  11. Time's Arrows Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitt, Steven F.

    1997-06-01

    Introduction; Part I. Cosmology and Time's Arrow: 1. Time, gravity, and quantum mechanics W. Unruh; 2. Cosmology, time's arrow, and that old double standard H. Price; Part II. Quantum Theory and Time's Arrow: 3. Time's arrow and the quantum measurement problem A. Leggett; 4. Time, decoherence, and 'reversible' measurements P. Stamp; 5. Time flows, non-locality, and measurement in quantum mechanics S. McCall; 6. Stochastically branching spacetime topology R. Douglas; Part III. Thermodynamics and Time's Arrow: 7. The elusive object of desire: in pursuit of the kinetic equations and the second law L. Sklar; 8. Time in experience and in theoretical description of the world L. Sklar; 9. When and why does entropy increase? M. Barrett and E. Sober; Part IV. Time Travel and Time's Arrow: 10. Closed causal chains P Horwich; 11. Recent work on time travel J. Earman.

  12. Assessing the effect of introducing a permitted phase through the use of flashing yellow arrow signal for left-turning vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Chittoor Khader, Khamar Salma

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the direct and indirect effects of introducing a permitted phase, through the use of flashing yellow arrow (FYA) signal for left-turning vehicles, in reducing crashes at intersections. Data for 18 study intersections in the city of Charlotte, NC, USA were used to conduct a before-after comparison study through the use of Empirical Bayes (EB) method and examine the effects. The estimated number of left-turn crashes, had the FYA signal not been installed, was compared to the actual number of left-turn crashes to assess the direct effect, while the estimated total number of crashes, had the FYA signal not been installed, was compared to the actual total number of crashes to assess the indirect effect. Only left-turn crashes along a selected FYA leg were used to examine the direct effect as the number of legs (approaches) with the FYA signal varied between the selected study intersections. The results obtained indicate that the FYA signal helps reduce the left-turn crashes (direct effect). It does not lead to any negative consequences. Instead, the FYA signal has the potential to indirectly lower the total number of crashes (indirect effect) and contribute to improved safety at intersections.

  13. Intrauterine Arrow Injury.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Jayanta Kumar; Lahiri, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Injury of a pregnant lady risks both mother and fetus. Various modes of injuries are possible. But arrow injury is not usually heard of in today's world. We have reported a male child delivered with a cut injury on the face. It was caused by a penetrating arrow hitting his mother in her lower abdomen at term. The injury of the baby was repaired successfully.

  14. Intrauterine Arrow Injury

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Jayanta Kumar; Lahiri, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Injury of a pregnant lady risks both mother and fetus. Various modes of injuries are possible. But arrow injury is not usually heard of in today's world. We have reported a male child delivered with a cut injury on the face. It was caused by a penetrating arrow hitting his mother in her lower abdomen at term. The injury of the baby was repaired successfully. PMID:28082780

  15. Bow and arrow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, W. C.

    1981-04-01

    Past analyses of bow and arrow dynamics have assumed the string to be inextensible. This results in predictions of efficiencies that are significantly higher than measured values (efficiencies over 90% are predicted versus 70% to 85% for measurements, circa 1960). The present analysis allows for an elastic string. It is found that arrow exit then takes place when the string and bow limbs still have substantial kinetic energy, and therefore this energy is unavailable for kinetic energy of the arrow. Moreover, the potential energy remaining in the string and bow limb system can also reduce the amount of energy available for the arrow. For the Hickman model of a long bow used in this study, the elastic string prediction of efficiency is 78%, whereas the inelastic prediction is 92%. The analysis utilizes a Lagrangian distributed mass formulation to develop the governing equations of motion and to generate an equivalent point mass model. The equations of motion were numerically integrated to obtain efficiency, arrow velocity, virtual masses, string tension, string extension, arrow exit time, string and limb potential energies, system momentum, and the dynamic force required to hold the bow handle stationary. Estimates of the effect of air resistance were made and found to be less than 2% of the total system energy. The vibratory dynamics of the string and bow limbs subsequent to arrow exit was analyzed. The results of the elastic string considerations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and negate the usual explanation for the long-standing discrepancy between theory and experiment as due to air resistance and hysteresis losses in the string and bow limbs.

  16. Penetrating craniofacial arrow injury.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dk; Aggarwal, Gaurav; Lubana, Ps; Moses, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Arrow injuries are an extinct form of injury in most parts of the developed world, but are still seen, albeit infrequently in developing countries. Reports of penetrating injuries of the craniofacial region secondary to projectiles are few and far between. The morbidity-free outcome of surgical removal, in case of penetrating arrow injuries, despite the delay in presentation and, moreover, in the emergency surgical practice, are the salient points to be remembered whilst managing such cases, for 'what the mind knows is what the eyes see and what the eyes see is what can be practiced'. We report the case of a patient who was attacked by a projectile fired from a crossbow. Immediate surgery under general anesthesia was required to remove the arrow, with utmost care to avoid any neurovascular compromise to the facial nerve, as well as minimize postoperative complications such as otitis media and subsequent meningitis.

  17. [Homicide by bow and arrow].

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Jänisch, Stefanie; Tröger, Hans Dieter; Günther, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Since the invention of firearms, arrow wounds represent a rarity in the daily routine of forensic pathologists. In the present paper, we describe a homicide by a broadhead arrow shot from a compound bow in a domestic environment. Based on this homicide, we discuss the characteristics of the lesion caused by broadhead arrows and field-tip arrows. We look critically at the free saleability of this equipment mostly used for sport shooting in Germany.

  18. Aiming ARROW at Learning Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Colin

    1987-01-01

    ARROW (Aural-Read-Respond-Oral-Written) is a multisensory teaching approach where children listen to their own voices on tape recorders. Advantages of the ARROW program as demonstrated at four sites in Blackford, Somerset (England), with elementary/secondary students presenting moderate to severe learning difficulties, reading/spelling/vocabulary…

  19. Arrow trauma to cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Geissinger, Gregory; Magid, Gail A; McMahon, Robert C

    2009-07-01

    A 50-year-old man was the victim of an accidental arrow shooting while hunting. The arrow entered his posterolateral neck and came to rest in the space between the C1/C2 vertebrae in his cervical spine. He was able to maintain his own cervical immobilization. His hunting partners drove him to meet emergency medical technicians, who stabilized the arrow shaft, transferred him to a backboard and gurney, and continued manual cervical immobilization en route to a local hospital. Cervical spine X-ray results compelled an air ambulance transfer to a trauma center where he underwent surgical intervention to remove the arrow. Following approximately 12 months of physical and occupational therapy, he returned to work full-time. Adherence to training and utilization of proven techniques involving pre-hospital transfers and positioning of cervically injured patients proved imperative to the patient's ultimate recovery.

  20. Arrow-arrow correlations for the six-vertex model.

    PubMed

    Falco, P

    2013-09-01

    The six-vertex model on a square lattice is "exactly solvable" because an exact formula for the free energy can be obtained by the Bethe ansatz. However, exact formulas for the correlations of local bulk observables, such as the orientation of the arrow at a given edge, are, in general, not available. In this Rapid Communication, we consider the isotropic "zero-field" six-vertex model at small Δ. We derive the long-distance asymptotic formula of arrow-arrow correlations, which display power law decays with one anomalous exponent. Our method is based on an interacting fermion representation of the six-vertex model and does not use any information obtained from the exact solution.

  1. The Length of Time's Arrow

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-08-21

    An unresolved problem in physics is how the thermodynamic arrow of time arises from an underlying time reversible dynamics. We contribute to this issue by developing a measure of time-symmetry breaking, and by using the work fluctuation relations, we determine the time asymmetry of recent single molecule RNA unfolding experiments. We define time asymmetry as the Jensen-Shannon divergencebetween trajectory probability distributions of an experiment and its time-reversed conjugate. Among other interesting properties, the length of time's arrow bounds the average dissipation and determines the difficulty of accurately estimating free energy differences in nonequilibrium experiments.

  2. A subquantum arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2014-04-01

    The outcome of a single quantum experiment is unpredictable, except in a pure-state limit. The definite process that takes place in the apparatus may either be intrinsically random or be explainable from a deeper theory. While the first scenario is the standard lore, the latter implies that quantum mechanics is emergent. In that case, it is likely that one has to reconsider radiation by accelerated charges as a physical effect, which thus must be compensated by an energy input. Stochastic electrodynamics, for example, asserts that the vacuum energy arises from classical fluctuations with energy 1/2hslashω per mode. In such theories the stability of the hydrogen ground state will arise from energy input from fluctuations and output by radiation, hence due to an energy throughput. That flux of energy constitutes an arrow of time, which we call the "subquantum arrow of time". It is related to the stability of matter and it is more fundamental than, e.g., the thermodynamic and cosmological arrows.

  3. Bow-arrow interaction in archery.

    PubMed

    Kooi, B W

    1998-11-01

    A mathematical model of the flight of the arrow during its discharge from a bow was proposed by Pekalski (1990). His description of the model was incomplete. In this paper, I give a full description of the model. Furthermore, I propose some improvements that make his model more consistent with reality. One achievement is the modelling of contact of the arrow and grip; the pressure button is modelled as a unilateral elastic support. The acceleration force acting upon the arrow during the launch is predicted by an advanced mathematical model of bow dynamics. There is a satisfactory conformity of the simulation and experimental results. The new model predicts that the arrow leaves the pressure button before it leaves the string, as reported previously. The ability to model arrow dynamics can be used to improve the adjustment of the bow-arrow system for optimal performance.

  4. Time's arrow: A numerical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowles, G. Richard

    1994-04-01

    The dependence of time's arrow on initial conditions is illustrated by a numerical example in which plane waves produced by an initial pressure pulse are followed as they are multiply reflected at internal interfaces of a layered medium. Wave interactions at interfaces are shown to be analogous to the retarded and advanced waves of point sources. The model is linear and the calculation is exact and demonstrably time reversible; nevertheless the results show most of the features expected of a macroscopically irreversible system, including the approach to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, ergodicity, and concomitant entropy increase.

  5. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  6. Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory Arrow

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-24

    Arrows is a software package that combines NWChem, SQL and NOSQL databases, email, and social networks (e.g. Twitter, Tumblr) that simplifies molecular and materials modeling and makes these modeling capabilities accessible to all scientists and engineers. EMSL Arrows is very simple to use. The user just emails chemical reactions to arrows@emsl.pnnl.gov and then an email is sent back with thermodynamic, reaction pathway (kinetic), spectroscopy, and other results. EMSL Arrows parses the email and then searches the database for the compounds in the reactions. If a compound isn't there, an NWChem calculation is setup and submitted to calculate it. Once the calculation is finished the results are entered into the database and then results are emailed back.

  7. Illustrating cerebral function: the iconography of arrows.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D

    2000-01-01

    For over a century the arrow has appeared in illustrations of cerebral function, yet the implications of using such symbols have not been previously considered. This review seeks to outline the nature, evolution, applications and limitations of this deceptively simple graphic device when it is used to picture functions of the brain. The arrow is found to have been used in several different ways: as a means of endowing anatomical structures with functional properties; as a method of displaying neural function either in free-standing form or in a structural or spatial framework; as a device for correlating functional data with underlying brain topography; and as a technique for linking functions of the brain with the world outside and with various philosophical concepts. For many of these uses the essential feature of the arrow is its directional characteristic. In contrast to the line, it is direction that enables the arrow to display information about time, which in turn can be exploited to depict functional rather than structural data. However, the use of the arrow is fraught with difficulties. It is often unclear whether an arrow has been used to illustrate fact, hypothesis, impression or possibility, or merely to provide a decorative flourish. Furthermore, the powerful symbolic nature of the arrow can so easily confer a spurious validity on the conjectural. Increasingly now there are insuperable difficulties when attempting to illustrate complex mechanisms of brain function. In the iconography of cerebral function, therefore, arrows with all their ambiguities may in certain circumstances become superseded by more non-representational symbols such as the abstract devices of the computational neuroscientist. PMID:11205341

  8. Illustrating cerebral function: the iconography of arrows.

    PubMed

    Schott, G D

    2000-12-29

    For over a century the arrow has appeared in illustrations of cerebral function, yet the implications of using such symbols have not been previously considered. This review seeks to outline the nature, evolution, applications and limitations of this deceptively simple graphic device when it is used to picture functions of the brain. The arrow is found to have been used in several different ways: as a means of endowing anatomical structures with functional properties; as a method of displaying neural function either in free-standing form or in a structural or spatial framework; as a device for correlating functional data with underlying brain topography; and as a technique for linking functions of the brain with the world outside and with various philosophical concepts. For many of these uses the essential feature of the arrow is its directional characteristic. In contrast to the line, it is direction that enables the arrow to display information about time, which in turn can be exploited to depict functional rather than structural data. However, the use of the arrow is fraught with difficulties. It is often unclear whether an arrow has been used to illustrate fact, hypothesis, impression or possibility, or merely to provide a decorative flourish. Furthermore, the powerful symbolic nature of the arrow can so easily confer a spurious validity on the conjectural. Increasingly now there are insuperable difficulties when attempting to illustrate complex mechanisms of brain function. In the iconography of cerebral function, therefore, arrows with all their ambiguities may in certain circumstances become superseded by more non-representational symbols such as the abstract devices of the computational neuroscientist.

  9. Penetrated arrow shot injury in anterior neck.

    PubMed

    Aremu, Shuaib K; Dike, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Although gunshot injuries are the most common penetrating anterior neck injuries in the developed world, this finding is not the case in the developing world, where knives, spears, arrows, and machetes are the preferred weapons, particularly in tribal societies. To present the case report of a patient with arrow shot injury to the anterior neck. A 48 year old cattle rearer in a village in northern part of Nigeria presented with 3 hr history of an arrow shot in anterior part of the neck which he sustained the while trying to prevent some armed robbers from stealing his cow. There was scanty bleeding from the site with the arrow in-situ sealing the wound. The entrance point of the arrow, about 1 cm in diameter, was just at the anterior border of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle; about 4 cm above the medial end of the right clavicle. There was a small skin bruise with slight swelling and tenderness around the opening but no active bleeding and no crepitus. Penetrating neck trauma from arrow shot may lead to potentially life-threatening injuries. A prompt diagnosis, a systematic treatment protocol, and an experienced trauma team are necessary to prevent a potential catastroph.

  10. Mathematical origin of time arrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimansky, Yury

    2005-03-01

    Laws describing the main types of physical interactions are symmetrical with respect to the direction of time flow. At the same time, many virtually irreversible processes are observed. This ``time arrow'' paradox usually is associated with the law of entropy increase. The fact that physical systems obey this law regardless of their physical nature suggests that it may be based on a certain, yet unknown, mathematical principle. Here it is demonstrated that, if, on a time micro scale, the intensity of fluctuations of a certain parameter depends on the parameter's value, it would appear to an external observer on a time macro scale that the parameter tends to be modified in the direction of fluctuation intensity decrease. It is shown that the law of entropy increase is a consequence of this principle, if it is applied to entropy as a state variable of a thermodynamic system. The fundamental nature of this principle suggests that it must operate on virtually every level of physical reality. The principle is of great potential value for understanding mechanisms of self-organization, learning, adaptation, and evolution.

  11. Electromyography of arrow release in archery.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, M P; Parker, A W

    1990-01-01

    An electronic arrow movement detector was used to accurately locate the muscle activity associated with release of the arrow during shooting in archery. Digital computer analysis of the electromyograms from thirty shots for two archers facilitated an examination of the relationship between the measured activity of the muscles and their function during release. Changes present in the direct and integrated electromyograms of muscles acting at the wrist and elbow joints of the bow arm and the shoulder of the draw arm tended to anticipate the moment of arrow release. These changes would produce muscular force to reduce unwanted movement at this critical phase of the shot in the bow arm and initiate release of the bow string by the fingers. This study provides a detailed quantitative analysis of the muscular action of the technique and identifies possibilities for prevention of injury by improving the understanding of muscle action in shooting.

  12. Entanglement and the thermodynamic arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2010-06-01

    We discuss quantum entanglement in the context of the thermodynamic arrow of time. We review the role of correlations in entropy-decreasing events and prove that the occurrence of a transformation between two thermodynamic states constitutes a new type of entanglement witness, one not defined as a separating plane in state space between separable and entangled states, but as a physical process dependent on the local initial properties of the states. Extending work by Partovi, we consider a general entangled multipartite system that allows large reversals of the thermodynamic arrow of time. We describe a hierarchy of arrows that arises from the different correlations allowed in a quantum state and examine these features in the context of Maxwell’s Demon. We examine in detail the case of three qubits, and also propose some simple experimental demonstrations possible with small numbers of qubits.

  13. Decision Making in the Arrow of Time.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Édgar; Neri, Izaak; Dörpinghaus, Meik; Meyr, Heinrich; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-12-18

    We show that the steady-state entropy production rate of a stochastic process is inversely proportional to the minimal time needed to decide on the direction of the arrow of time. Here we apply Wald's sequential probability ratio test to optimally decide on the direction of time's arrow in stationary Markov processes. Furthermore, the steady-state entropy production rate can be estimated using mean first-passage times of suitable physical variables. We derive a first-passage time fluctuation theorem which implies that the decision time distributions for correct and wrong decisions are equal. Our results are illustrated by numerical simulations of two simple examples of nonequilibrium processes.

  14. Decision Making in the Arrow of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Édgar; Neri, Izaak; Dörpinghaus, Meik; Meyr, Heinrich; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-12-01

    We show that the steady-state entropy production rate of a stochastic process is inversely proportional to the minimal time needed to decide on the direction of the arrow of time. Here we apply Wald's sequential probability ratio test to optimally decide on the direction of time's arrow in stationary Markov processes. Furthermore, the steady-state entropy production rate can be estimated using mean first-passage times of suitable physical variables. We derive a first-passage time fluctuation theorem which implies that the decision time distributions for correct and wrong decisions are equal. Our results are illustrated by numerical simulations of two simple examples of nonequilibrium processes.

  15. Axin and the Axin/Arrow-binding protein DCAP mediate glucose-glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroto; Yanagawa, Shin ichi

    2003-05-02

    Axin was found as a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt pathway. Human LRP5 was originally found as a candidate gene of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but its Drosophila homolog, Arrow, works as a co-receptor of the canonical Wnt signal. In our previous paper, we found a new Drosophila Axin (Daxin)-binding SH3 protein, DCAP, a homolog of mammalian CAV family protein. Among the subtypes, DCAPL3 shows significant homology with CAP, an essential component of glucose transport in insulin signal. Further binding assay revealed that DCAP binds to not only Axin but also Arrow, and Axin binds to not only GSK3beta but also Arrow. However, overexpression and RNAi experiments of DCAP do not affect the canonical Wnt pathway. As DCAP is expressed predominantly in insulin-target organs, and as RNAi of DCAP disrupts the pattern of endogenous glycogen accumulation in late stage embryos, we suggest that DCAP is also involved in glucose transport. Moreover, early stage embryos lacking maternal Axin show significant delay of initial glycogen decomposition, and RNAi of Axin in S2 cells revealed quite increase of endogenous glycogen level as well as GSK3beta. These results suggest that Axin and DCAP mediate glucose-glycogen metabolism in embryo. In addition, the interaction among Axin, Arrow, and DCAP implies a possible cross-talk between Wnt signal and insulin signal.

  16. Membrane Targeting of Disheveled Can Bypass the Need for Arrow/LRP5.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Prameet; Lam, Vanessa Yuk Man; Mannava, Anirudh Gautam; Suresh, Jahnavi; Jenny, Andreas; Tolwinski, Nicholas S

    2017-07-31

    The highly conserved Wnt signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in vertebrates and invertebrates. Upon binding of a Wnt ligand to a receptor of the Fz family, Disheveled (Dsh/Dvl) transduces the signal during canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The specific details of how this process occurs have proven difficult to study, especially as Dsh appears to function as a switch between different branches of Wnt signaling. Here we focus on the membrane-proximal events that occur once Dsh is recruited to the membrane. We show that membrane-tethering of the Dsh protein is sufficient to induce canonical Wnt signaling activation even in the absence of the Wnt co-receptor Arrow/LRP5/6. We map the protein domains required for pathway activation in membrane tethered constructs finding that both the DEP and PDZ domains are dispensable for canonical signaling only in membrane-tethered Dsh, but not in untethered/normal Dsh. These data lead to a signal activation model, where Arrow is required to localize Dsh to the membrane during canonical Wnt signaling placing Dsh downstream of Arrow.

  17. Arrow 227: Air transport system design simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontempi, Michael; Bose, Dave; Brophy, Georgeann; Cashin, Timothy; Kanarios, Michael; Ryan, Steve; Peterson, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    The Arrow 227 is a student-designed commercial transport for use in a overnight package delivery network. The major goal of the concept was to provide the delivery service with the greatest potential return on investment. The design objectives of the Arrow 227 were based on three parameters; production cost, payload weight, and aerodynamic efficiency. Low production cost helps to reduce initial investment. Increased payload weight allows for a decrease in flight cycles and, therefore, less fuel consumption than an aircraft carrying less payload weight and requiring more flight cycles. In addition, fewer flight cycles will allow a fleet to last longer. Finally, increased aerodynamic efficiency in the form of high L/D will decrease fuel consumption.

  18. Suicide using a compound bow and arrow.

    PubMed

    Cina, S J; Radentz, S S; Smialek, J E

    1998-03-01

    Accidental, suicidal, and homicidal injuries have been caused by arrows fired from crossbows. To our knowledge, a case of suicide using a full-size compound bow to fire a projectile has not been reported in the English literature. Described is a case of a 17-year-old man who shot himself in the chest with a broadhead hunting arrow fired from a compound bow. Examination of the footwear suggests that the decedent drew the bowstring with his left foot while holding the bow in his hands. The mechanism of injury is discussed. When dealing with a longbow-related fatality, examination of the weaponry used and reenactment of the fatal methodology are critical in determining whether self-inflicted injury is a probability.

  19. Magnetic charges, inertia, and arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnon, Anne M. R.

    1990-02-01

    The prerelativistic concept of inertial mass (as opposed to gravitational mass) is reconsidered in view of a possible relationship between inertia and magnetic (mass) monopoles. Assuming that such “fictitious” (topological) charges could have developed in the chaotic early cosmology, a physical principle is suggested, based on dissipation of topological charges and decoupling of interactions, which could have governed the onset of inertia and of the arrow of time, and controlled the critical balance between mass density and expansion rate in the FRW universe. In view of the recent accomplishments in the detection of Dirac monopoles, a generalization of the Eötvos experiment is proposed which could shed light on the grand unification regime. A comment is given on the issue of relating the psychological and the cosmological arrows of time.

  20. Inhibitory cueing effects following manual and saccadic responses to arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; He, Tao; Satel, Jason; Wang, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    With two cueing tasks, in the present study we examined output-based inhibitory cueing effects (ICEs) with manual responses to arrow targets following manual or saccadic responses to arrow cues. In all experiments, ICEs were observed when manual localization responses were required to both the cues and targets, but only when the cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA) was 2,000 ms or longer. In contrast, when saccadic responses were made in response to the cues, ICEs were only observed with CTOAs of 2,000 ms or less-and only when an auditory cue-back signal was used. The present study also showed that the magnitude of ICEs following saccadic responses to arrow cues decreased with time, much like traditional inhibition-of-return effects. The magnitude of ICEs following manual responses to arrow cues, however, appeared later in time and had no sign of decreasing even 3 s after cue onset. These findings suggest that ICEs linked to skeletomotor activation do exist and that the ICEs evoked by oculomotor activation can carry over to the skeletomotor system.

  1. t {r_arrow} cWW and WW {r_arrow} {anti t}c + t{anti c} in extended models

    SciTech Connect

    David Atwood; Marc Sher

    1997-07-01

    Jenkins has pointed out that the process t {r_arrow} cW{sup +}W{sup {minus}}is GIM suppressed in the standard model. In this note, the authors calculate the branching ratio for a wide range of models, in which the decay occurs at tree level through exchange of a scalar, fermion or vector. In the case of scalar exchange, a scalar mass between 2m{sub W} and 200 GeV leads to a resonant enhancement, giving a branching ratio as high as a few tenths of a percent. They then note that all of these models will also allow W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} {r_arrow} {anti t}c + t{anti c}, and they calculate the single-top/single-charm production rate at the LHC. The rates aren't negligibly small, but the background from single-top/single-bottom production will probably swamp the signal.

  2. Penetrating injury of ascending aorta with arrow in situ.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Siddharth; Prakash, Shashi; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Panigrahi, Debasish

    2012-04-01

    Penetrating injuries of the aorta are rare and highly lethal; very few patients are able to reach the hospital alive. We report a case of penetrating injury into the ascending aorta with the arrow still in situ, shot by a bow in a tribal region of India. The wound of entry into the aorta was sealed by the arrow itself. The patient came to us walking and supporting the arrow with his left hand. He was operated on, and the arrow was successfully removed from the aorta. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum voting and violation of Arrow's impossibility theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ning; Yunger Halpern, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    We propose a quantum voting system in the spirit of quantum games such as the quantum prisoner's dilemma. Our scheme enables a constitution to violate a quantum analog of Arrow's impossibility theorem. Arrow's theorem is a claim proved deductively in economics: Every (classical) constitution endowed with three innocuous-seeming properties is a dictatorship. We construct quantum analogs of constitutions, of the properties, and of Arrow's theorem. A quantum version of majority rule, we show, violates this quantum Arrow conjecture. Our voting system allows for tactical-voting strategies reliant on entanglement, interference, and superpositions. This contribution to quantum game theory helps elucidate how quantum phenomena can be harnessed for strategic advantage.

  4. An arrow penetrating at base of the skull successfully removed.

    PubMed

    Misra, Saibal; Anwar, Tarique; Basak, Bijan; Ghosh, Debasish

    2010-03-01

    A 30-year-old male presented with accidental injury with an arrow which referred to us from a peripheral village hospital. It was found that the arrow was penetrating through the nasal bones. An xray skull lateral view showed the tip of the arrow penetrating into the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus. As the patient had no clinical evidence of neurological or vascular injury, he was immediately operated upon and the arrow was removed. Patient was discharged in good condition and a 3-month follow-up was normal.

  5. GreenArrow version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-29

    GreenArrow is a visualization program for displaying directed graphs that can use text in place of lines to represent the edges between nodes. This text can be animated to show the link direction, and allow for more text to be displayed then would normally be allowed. The text is also tapered and arced to show direction. The node labels can be wrapped around the node to avoid label crossing as well. The program is interactive, and allows the user to zoom, pan and rotate a graph, as well as manipulate the individual nodes.

  6. The cued recognition task: dissociating the abrupt onset effect from the social and arrow cueing effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Buyun; Tanaka, James W

    2015-01-01

    the distractor condition than in the non-distractor condition, suggesting that the abrupt onset of the target object acts like an exogenous signal, thereby reducing the impact of the internal head turn and arrow cues.

  7. AlN antiresonant layer ARROW waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelegrini, M. V.; Carvalho, D. O.; Alayo, M. I.; Pereyra, I.

    2010-02-01

    Aluminum Nitride (AlN) is a wide band gap III-V semiconductor material often used for optical applications due to its transparency and high refractive index. We have produced and characterized AlN thin films by reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering in different Ar-N2 atmospheres in order to verify the best gaseous concentration to be utilized as anti-resonant layer in ARROW waveguides. The corresponding films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Ellipsometry and visible optical absorption. The AlN properties did not varied significantly between the films deposited with 20 and 70 sccm of N2, most of the variations occurred for films deposited with 18 sccm of N2 or below. The film deposited with 20 sccm was selected to be used as the first ARROW layer in the fabricated waveguides. Two routines were used to design the waveguides parameters, the transfer matrix method (TMM) and the semi-vectorial non-uniform finite difference method (NU-FDM). Attenuation as low as 3.5dB/cm was obtained for a 7 μm wide waveguide.

  8. Probability of Intrinsic Time-Arrow from Information Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    Time-arrow s=±, intrinsic to a concrete physical system, is associated with the direction of information loss I displayed by the random evolution of the given system. When the information loss tends to zero the intrinsic time-arrow becomes uncertain. We propose the heuristic relationship for the probability of the intrinsic time-arrow. The main parts of the present work are trying to confirm this heuristic equation. The probability of intrinsic time arrow is defined by Bayesian inference from the observed random process. From irreversible thermodynamic systems, the proposed heuristic probabilities follow via the Gallavotti-Cohen relations between time-reversed random processes. In order to explore the underlying microscopic mechanism, a trivial microscopic process is analyzed and an obvious discrepancy is identified. It can be resolved by quantum theory. The corresponding trivial quantum process will exactly confirm the proposed heuristic time-arrow probability.

  9. Observation of [ital D][sup 0][r arrow][ital K][sup +][pi][sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Cinabro, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Gollin, G.; Ong, B.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Ball, S.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; O'Neill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmier, C.M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Skovpen, Y.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.L.; Wood, M.; Brown, D.N.; Fast, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Payne, D.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H.; Dominick,

    1994-03-07

    Using the CLEO II data sample, with an integrated luminosity of 1.8 fb[sup [minus]1] at and near the [Upsilon](4[ital S]) resonance, we have observed a signal for [ital D][sup 0][r arrow][ital K][sup +][pi][sup [minus

  10. Adding and subtracting vectors: The problem with the arrow representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Scaife, Thomas M.

    2015-06-01

    A small number of studies have investigated student understanding of vector addition and subtraction in generic or introductory physics contexts, but in almost all cases the questions posed were in the vector arrow representation. In a series of experiments involving over 1000 students and several semesters, we investigated student understanding of vector addition and subtraction in both the arrow and algebraic notation (using i ^, j ^, k ^) in generic mathematical and physics contexts. First, we replicated a number of previous findings of student difficulties in the arrow format and discovered several additional difficulties, including the finding that different relative arrow orientations can prompt different solution paths and different kinds of mistakes, which suggests that students need to practice with a variety of relative orientations. Most importantly, we found that average performance in the i j k format was typically excellent and often much better than performance in the arrow format in either the generic or physics contexts. Further, while we find that the arrow format tends to prompt students to a more physically intuitive solution path, we also find that, when prompted, student solutions in the i j k format also display significant physical insights into the problem. We also find a hierarchy in correct answering between the two formats, with correct answering in the i j k format being more fundamental than for the arrow format. Overall, the results suggest that many student difficulties with these simple vector problems lie with the arrow representation itself. For instruction, these results imply that introducing the i j k notation (or some equivalent) with the arrow notation concurrently may be a very useful way to improve student performance as well as help students to learn physics concepts involving vector addition and subtraction.

  11. Work-place homicide by bow and arrow.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A; Georén, B; Oström, M

    2000-07-01

    Arrow wounds represent an unusual class of wounds rarely seen by most forensic pathologists. In this paper we present a case of homicide by bow and arrow and the characteristics of such injuries. The essential characteristics of the lesions obtained from conically-tapered field points and from hunting broadhead tips are described and discussed in relation to injuries caused by firearm bullets. In the present case, three arrows struck the victim, and the order in which the injuries were sustained are analyzed. We also discuss the possibilities of localizing the shooter relative to the victim by analysis of the trajectories.

  12. Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

  13. Visuospatial Attention Is Guided by Both the Symbolic Value and the Spatial Proximity of Selected Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Jay; Radulescu, Petre; Guo, Ruo Mu; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that overlearned symbols, especially arrows, can orient attention to peripheral locations. In 2003, Pratt and Hommel showed that when 1 arrow is selected from a set of arrows, based on an attentional control setting for a specific target color, the selected arrow determines the orientation of attention. Recently,…

  14. Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

  15. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Arrow Pipeline, LLC - Station #7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the administratively revised synthetic minor permit to construct for the Arrow Pipeline, LLC, Station #7, located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in Dunn County, North Dakota.

  16. Clinical reliability of the "furcation arrow" as a diagnostic marker.

    PubMed

    Deas, David E; Moritz, Alan J; Mealey, Brian L; McDonnell, Howard T; Powell, Charles A

    2006-08-01

    The radiographic entity known as the "furcation arrow" has long been used in practice even though little is known about its usefulness as a clinical indicator. The definitive study of the furcation arrow suggests that its presence on a radiograph reliably predicts furcation invasion, but this has not been confirmed in an in vivo investigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the furcation arrow in a clinical setting, testing the assertion that the furcation arrow image is an accurate predictor of furcation invasion. Specifically, we sought to determine the following. First, what is the prevalence of furcation arrow images in the radiographs of maxillary molars with periodontitis? Second, what is the interexaminer agreement on what constitutes a furcation arrow? Third, how does the presence or absence of a furcation arrow correlate with the true clinical status of the furcation? Fourth, what is the sensitivity and specificity of the furcation arrow as a diagnostic indicator? Eighty-nine patients requiring surgical treatment of periodontitis in the maxillary molar regions were included in this study. Before surgery, one of five calibrated examiners viewed periapical and bitewing radiographs of the surgical site and recorded the presence or absence of a furcation arrow at each proximal furcation. Before administering anesthesia, the same examiner recorded a Hamp index value of each proximal furcation, with a second Hamp index taken after flap reflection and debridement. After surgery, each of the four remaining examiners independently reviewed the radiographs for furcation arrows. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to correlate the appearance of the furcation arrow image to the actual degree of furcation invasion as determined by the intrasurgical Hamp index. A total of 164 maxillary molars were examined, providing 328 interproximal furcations; 111 (33.8%) furcations were determined at surgical debridement to have a furcation invasion of Hamp

  17. ARROW-PAK Macroencapsulation. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    An ARROW-PAK is a high density polyethylene (HDPE) tube, about 21 feet long and 30 inches wide. Each ARROW-PAK can hold the equivalent of 21 55-gallon drums of mixed waste debris. Each tube is fused to HDPE endcaps using localized heating and high pressure contact. The sleeves and encaps form a tube for macroencapsulating mixed waste debris. The ARROW-PAK may achieve a mixed waste debris volume one-fourth that of the conventional macroencapsulation approach. The mixed waste debris is loaded into 55-gallon drums. Once filled a 'supercompactor' crushes the drums into 12-inch thick pucks. Three pucks can be loaded into a standard 85-gallon metal drum known as an 'overpack'. Seven overpacks fit into each ARROW-PAK.

  18. ARROW (Version 2) Commercial Software Validation and Configuration Control

    SciTech Connect

    HEARD, F.J.

    2000-02-10

    ARROW (Version 2), a compressible flow piping network modeling and analysis computer program from Applied Flow Technology, was installed for use at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington.

  19. Relation between the psychological and thermodynamic arrows of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlodinow, Leonard; Brun, Todd A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we lay out an argument that generically the psychological arrow of time should align with the thermodynamic arrow of time where that arrow is well defined. This argument applies to any physical system that can act as a memory, in the sense of preserving a record of the state of some other system. This result follows from two principles: the robustness of the thermodynamic arrow of time to small perturbations in the state, and the principle that a memory should not have to be fine-tuned to match the state of the system being recorded. This argument applies even if the memory system itself is completely reversible and nondissipative. We make the argument with a paradigmatic system, and then formulate it more broadly for any system that can be considered a memory. We illustrate these principles for a few other example systems and compare our criteria to earlier treatments of this problem.

  20. The arrow of time and the expansion of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadir, Asghar

    1987-04-01

    It is pointed out that a model used to test any suggestion regarding the arrow of time in a cosmological contect, must have sufficient complexity. The clain of Zeh that the arrow of time defined by a universal wavefunction does not permit a reversal of cosmic expansion to be observed, is refuted on these grounds. On leave from the Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

  1. Charming penguin contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi}

    SciTech Connect

    Isola, C.; Ladisa, M.; Nardulli, G.; Pham, T. N.; Santorelli, P.

    2001-07-01

    We present calculations of the charming-penguin long-distance contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi} decays due to intermediate charmed meson states. Our calculation is based on the chiral effective Lagrangian for light and heavy mesons, corrected for the hard pion and kaon momenta. We find that the charming-penguin contributions increase significantly the B{r_arrow}K{pi} decay rates in comparison with the short-distance contributions, giving results in better agreement with experimental data.

  2. Arrow wounds: major stimulus in the history of surgery.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Sudhues, H; Brinkmann, B

    2001-12-01

    To illustrate how the high incidence of arrow wounds provided a major stimulus for the development of surgery until a century ago, we conducted a literature search. Our research shows that archaic peoples developed considerable surgical skill for extraction of arrows, including thoracotomy and trephination. A classical Hindu veda describes a variety of extraction methods, and Homer's Iliad introduces the term iatros, which means "he who extracts arrows." Hippocrates of Kos and Galen, representatives of the humoral doctrine, both shunned surgical intervention and considered purulence a drainage of materia peccans (spoiled humors). Cornelius Celsus was the first to systematically differentiate removal of arrows per extractionem and per expulsionem. Celsus recommended the spoon of Diocles, an ancient surgical instrument specially designed for extraction of arrows. Paulus of Aegina favored rapid extraction, aggressive therapy, and ligature on both sides of a vessel before extraction efforts. Paulus was the first to describe a special instrument for the removal of detached arrowheads per expulsionem (propulsorium). In medieval Europe, the standard of surgery declined drastically. The classical procedure under the dominant influence of the humoral concept was to await pus before extraction and to burn the wound with boiling oil and a branding iron. Arab authors had conserved the knowledge of Celsus and Paulus, and in Europe a renewal was achieved by Ambroise Paré, who has been called the creator of modern surgery. The incidence of arrow wounds increased once more in the American West. Joseph H. Bill, a famous U.S. Army Surgeon preoccupied with arrow wounds, favored rapid extraction and aggressive therapy, and he taught recruits not to apply traction on the shaft. The principles established by Celsus, Paulus, Paré, and Bill not only mark important landmarks in the evolution of surgery but can also serve as the basis for modern treatment of arrow wounds, which still

  3. The bow and arrow in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Maschner, Herbert; Mason, Owen K

    2013-01-01

    There were at least four waves of bow and arrow use in northern North America. These occurred at 12000, 4500, 2400, and after about 1300 years ago. But to understand the role of the bow and arrow in the north, one must begin in the eighteenth century, when the Russians first arrived in the Aleutian Islands. At that time, the Aleut were using both the atlatl and dart and the bow and arrow (Fig. ). This is significant for two particular and important reasons. First, there are few historic cases in which both technologies were used concurrently; second, the bow and arrow in the Aleutian Islands were used almost exclusively in warfare. The atlatl was a critical technology because the bow and arrow are useless for hunting sea mammals. One cannot launch an arrow from a kayak because it is too unstable and requires that both hands remain on a paddle. To use an atlatl, it is necessary only to stabilize the kayak with a paddle on one side and launch the atlatl dart with the opposite hand. The Aleut on the Alaska Peninsula did indeed use the bow and arrow to hunt caribou there. However, in the 1,400 km of the Aleutian Islands, there are no terrestrial mammals except humans and the bow was reserved almost exclusively for conflicts among them. The most significant event in the history of the bow and arrow is not its early introduction, but rather the Asian War Complex 1300 years ago, when the recurve and backed bows first entered the region, altering regional and hemispheric political dynamics forever. [Figure: see text].

  4. Research on flight stability of non rotating fin arrow shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yachao; He, Guanglin; Zhang, Jiashuo

    2017-09-01

    To research the influence of the variable density fin arrow shaft warhead on flight stability, three different structures of non rotating fin arrow shaft warhead of the individual small caliber cluster arrow projectile is put forward and designed. The aerodynamic characteristics, static stability reserve and the change of the attack angle in the fin arrow shaft warhead are calculated and analyzed through using the static stability reserve theory and the rigid body trajectory equations. The results show that the static stability reserve of the variable density steel-aluminum composite fin arrow shaft warhead is about 21% ~ 27%, which is obviously higher than 13% ~ 17% of the single density steel material. When the initial velocity is 280 m/s and range is 100 m, the attack angle of the fin arrow shaft warhead of variable density and single density are reduced from ± 5 degree to within ± 1 degree.It is indicated that dynamic stability is guaranteed; however, dynamic stability of the former is better than that of the latter according to the decay rate of the attack angle.

  5. Identification of a gravitational arrow of time.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Julian; Koslowski, Tim; Mercati, Flavio

    2014-10-31

    It is widely believed that special initial conditions must be imposed on any time-symmetric law if its solutions are to exhibit behavior of any kind that defines an "arrow of time." We show that this is not so. The simplest nontrivial time-symmetric law that can be used to model a dynamically closed universe is the Newtonian N-body problem with vanishing total energy and angular momentum. Because of special properties of this system (likely to be shared by any law of the Universe), its typical solutions all divide at a uniquely defined point into two halves. In each, a well-defined measure of shape complexity fluctuates but grows irreversibly between rising bounds from that point. Structures that store dynamical information are created as the complexity grows and act as "records." Each solution can be viewed as having a single past and two distinct futures emerging from it. Any internal observer must be in one half of the solution and will only be aware of the records of one branch and deduce a unique past and future direction from inspection of the available records.

  6. Better security levels for broken arrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fuchun; Furon, Teddy; Fontaine, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the security of the robust zero-bit watermarking technique "Broken Arrows" (BA),1 which was invented and tested for the international challenge BOWS-2.2 The results of the first episode of the challenge showed that BA is very robust and we proposed last year an enhancement called "Averaging Wavelet Coefficients" (AWC),3 which further strengthens the robustness against the worst attack disclosed during this BOWS-2's first episode.4 However, in the second and third episodes of the challenge, during which the pirates could observe plenty of pictures watermarked with the same secret key, security flaws have been revealed and discussed.5 Here we propose counterattacks to these security flaws, investigating BA and its variant AWC. We propose two counterattack directions: to use the embedding technique AWC instead of BA, and to regulate the system parameters to lighten the watermarking embedding footprint. We also discuss these directions in the context of traitor tracing.6 Experimental results show that following these recommendations is sufficient to counter these attacks.

  7. Electrodynamic arrow of time and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radecke, Hans-Dieter

    Simplified mathematical models were used for the examination of the relationship between the arrows of time of electrodynamics and cosmology. The model of a 1-D harmonic oscillator, coupled to a scalar field, was first used. The combined system of coupled differential equations could be exactly resolved and allowed an examination of the field solution type, with regard to retard and advance in the framework of the cosmological geometry of the standard model, by which a closed universe was taken as a basis. It was shown that the oscillation radiation was clearly retarded at the big bang, and clearly advanced at the final explosion. In order to interpolate between these asymptotical boundary values, it was necessary to consider the radiation absorption of the cosmical medium. The general behavior of the considered system solutions showed that only the retarded radiation prevailed at big bang. Because of the cosmical absorption, its amplitude was completely attenuated to zero, before the universe heat death was installed. The advanced field amplitude is to be preceived after the universe contraction beginning and swings to a maximal value which is reached at the final explosion.

  8. Maxwell's Demons Everywhere: Evolving Design as the Arrow of Time

    PubMed Central

    Bejan, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Science holds that the arrow of time in nature is imprinted on one-way (irreversible) phenomena, and is accounted for by the second law of thermodynamics. Here I show that the arrow of time is painted much more visibly on another self-standing phenomenon: the occurrence and change (evolution in time) of flow organization throughout nature, animate and inanimate. This other time arrow has been present in science but not recognized as such since the birth of thermodynamics. It is Maxwell's demon. Translated in macroscopic terms, this is the physics of the phenomenon of design, which is the universal natural tendency of flow systems to evolve into configurations that provide progressively greater access over time, and is summarized as the constructal law of design and evolution in nature. Knowledge is the ability to effect design changes that facilitate human flows on the landscape. Knowledge too flows. PMID:24510201

  9. Maxwell's demons everywhere: evolving design as the arrow of time.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Adrian

    2014-02-10

    Science holds that the arrow of time in nature is imprinted on one-way (irreversible) phenomena, and is accounted for by the second law of thermodynamics. Here I show that the arrow of time is painted much more visibly on another self-standing phenomenon: the occurrence and change (evolution in time) of flow organization throughout nature, animate and inanimate. This other time arrow has been present in science but not recognized as such since the birth of thermodynamics. It is Maxwell's demon. Translated in macroscopic terms, this is the physics of the phenomenon of design, which is the universal natural tendency of flow systems to evolve into configurations that provide progressively greater access over time, and is summarized as the constructal law of design and evolution in nature. Knowledge is the ability to effect design changes that facilitate human flows on the landscape. Knowledge too flows.

  10. Gaze and arrow distractors influence saccade trajectories similarly.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Frouke; Walker, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Perceiving someone's averted eye-gaze is thought to result in an automatic shift of attention and in the preparation of an oculomotor response in the direction of perceived gaze. Although gaze cues have been regarded as being special in this respect, recent studies have found evidence for automatic attention shifts with nonsocial stimuli, such as arrow cues. Here, we directly compared the effects of social and nonsocial cues on eye movement preparation by examining the modulation of saccade trajectories made in the presence of eye-gaze, arrows, or peripheral distractors. At a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the distractor and the target, saccades deviated towards the direction of centrally presented arrow distractors, but away from the peripheral distractors. No significant trajectory deviations were found for gaze distractors. At the longer SOA, saccades deviated away from the direction of the distractor for all three distractor types, but deviations were smaller for the centrally presented gaze and arrow distractors. These effects were independent of whether line-drawings or photos of faces were used and could not be explained by differences in the spatial properties of the peripheral distractor. The results suggest that all three types of distractors (gaze, arrow, peripheral) can induce the automatic programming of an eye movement. Moreover, the findings suggest that gaze and arrow distractors affect oculomotor preparation similarly, whereas peripheral distractors, which are classically regarded as eliciting an automatic shift of attention and an oculomotor response, induce a stronger and faster acting influence on response preparation and the corresponding inhibition of that response.

  11. Silicon-based dual ARROW power splitters with remote coupling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Feng; Hsu, Ming-Shun; Lu, Ming-Feng; Huang, Yang-Tung

    2015-03-10

    In this research, Si-based power splitters based on dual antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROW) with remote coupling by a separation distance of 30 μm were designed and realized. Characterization of the power splitters with different lengths of the coupling region was performed. Measurement characteristics of fabricated devices with the propagation losses lower than 1.90 dB/cm and the imbalances lower than 0.60 dB show that our dual ARROW power splitters can be efficiently realized.

  12. Time's arrows today. Recent physical and philosophical work on the direction of time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitt, S. F.

    Most of the work in this volume, the paperback version of the 1995 edition, was presented at a conference, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada), Jun 1992. The eleven contributions are arranged under the following subject headings: 1. Cosmology and time's arrow (W. Unruh, H. Price). 2. Quantum theory and time's arrow (A. Leggett, P. Stamp, S. McCall, R. Douglas). 3. Thermodynamics and time's arrow (L. Sklar, M. Barrett, E. Sober). 4. Time travel and time's arrow (P. Horwich, J. Earman).

  13. The Effect of Arrow Mass and Shape on Penetration into a Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, S.; Gurram, A.; Madireddy, S.

    2016-12-01

    We conducted an archery experiment in order to quantify how aerodynamic design impacted the depth of arrow impact. Research shows that the smaller the surface area of an object, the more easily it travels through the air and the deeper it penetrates a target (Benson 2014). Momentum also affects how far and fast the arrow will go and therefore, how deep it will penetrate into the target. Therefore, a combination of an arrow with greater momentum and better aerodynamics will help the arrow fly faster and penetrate the target deeper. Mass, velocity, momentum, acceleration, force, and drag are the factors that acted on our experiment and produced its results. We hypothesized that the arrow with a thin shaft and pointed arrowhead would penetrate deepest, as opposed to both arrows with no arrowheads or arrows with thick shafts and blunt arrowheads. We tested our hypothesis by having a well-trained archer shoot different types of arrows into a target. We used arrows with shaft lengths of 7 cm and 5.3 cm, coupled with either pointed, blunt, or no arrowhead. We measured the time to target and arrow penetration (in cm) to see which style reached the target the fastest and penetrated the deepest. The results demonstrated that arrows with thin shafts and pointed arrowheads penetrated our target the deepest, followed by arrows with thick shafts and blunt arrowheads. Arrows with thin shafts and blunt arrowheads came after, and arrows with thick shafts and pointed arrowheads came last in depth of penetration. The arrows with no arrowheads either barely penetrated the target, or bounced back. We were able to conclude that the thinner the shaft and the more pointed the arrowhead, the better the arrow cuts the air. This is because, according to the principles of aerodynamics, it creates less drag since the surface area is smaller. However, mass also plays an important role in force through momentum, which also significantly affected our results.

  14. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows... § 48.4161(b)-1 Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b...) Any bow that has a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows... § 48.4161(b)-1 Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b...) Any bow that has a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows... § 48.4161(b)-1 Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b...) Any bow that has a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. 48... Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b) imposes a tax on the... a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or more in length...

  18. Cystic hematoma formation following use of a biodegradable arrow for meniscal repair.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, K S; Uribe, J W

    1999-03-01

    This is a case report of a cystic hematoma formation following the use of a biodegradable arrow for repair of a medial meniscus tear. A literature search found no previous report of this complication. Open hematoma debridement and arrow removal were effective in the treatment of this complication following all-inside meniscal repair with a biodegradable arrow.

  19. Multivacuum initial conditions and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Zukowski, Claire

    2013-05-01

    Depending on the type and arrangement of metastable vacua in the theory, initial conditions in a de Sitter vacuum with arbitrarily large entropy can be compatible with the observed arrow of time, if the causal patch or related measures are used to regulate divergences. An important condition, however, is that the initial vacuum cannot produce observers from rare fluctuations (Boltzmann brains). Here we consider more general initial conditions where multiple vacua have nonzero initial probability. We examine whether the prediction of an arrow of time is destroyed by a small initial admixture of vacua that can produce Boltzmann brains. We identify general criteria and apply them to two nontrivial examples of such initial probability distributions. The Hartle-Hawking state is superexponentially dominated by the vacuum with smallest positive cosmological constant, so one might expect that other initial vacua can be neglected; but in fact, their inclusion drastically narrows the range of theory parameters for which an arrow of time is predicted. The dominant eigenvector of the global rate equation of eternal inflation is dominated by the longest-lived metastable vacuum. If an arrow of time emerges in the single-initial-vacuum approximation, then we find that this conclusion survives the admixture of other initial vacua. By global-local measure duality, this result amounts to a successful consistency test of certain global cutoffs, including light-cone time and scale-factor time.

  20. Accumulated span loadings of an arrow wing having vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1989-01-01

    The vortex flow over an arrow wing is theoretically investigated using the free-vortex-sheet method. The sectional lift coefficient and accumulated span loadings, which are important in determining the root bending moment, are calculated. The longitudinal stability variation is also estimated.

  1. Adding and Subtracting Vectors: The Problem with the Arrow Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Scaife, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    A small number of studies have investigated student understanding of vector addition and subtraction in generic or introductory physics contexts, but in almost all cases the questions posed were in the vector arrow representation. In a series of experiments involving over 1000 students and several semesters, we investigated student understanding…

  2. Elliptical Orbit [arrow right] 1/r[superscript 2] Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Newton's proof of the connection between elliptical orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation "elliptical orbit" [arrow right]…

  3. Elliptical Orbit [arrow right] 1/r[superscript 2] Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Newton's proof of the connection between elliptical orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation "elliptical orbit" [arrow right]…

  4. Adding and Subtracting Vectors: The Problem with the Arrow Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Scaife, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    A small number of studies have investigated student understanding of vector addition and subtraction in generic or introductory physics contexts, but in almost all cases the questions posed were in the vector arrow representation. In a series of experiments involving over 1000 students and several semesters, we investigated student understanding…

  5. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment, Technical Report 1999-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    The Arrow Lakes food web has been influenced by several anthropogenic stressors during the past 45 years. These include the introduction of mysid shrimp (Mysis relicta) in 1968 and 1974 and the construction of large hydroelectric impoundments in 1969, 1973 and 1983. The construction of the impoundments affected the fish stocks in Upper and Lower Arrow lakes in several ways. The construction of Hugh Keenleyside Dam (1969) resulted in flooding that eliminated an estimated 30% of the available kokanee spawning habitat in Lower Arrow tributaries and at least 20% of spawning habitat in Upper Arrow tributaries. The Mica Dam (1973) contributed to water level fluctuations and blocked upstream migration of all fish species including kokanee. The Revelstoke Dam (1983) flooded 150 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 80 km of tributary streams which were used by kokanee, bull trout, rainbow trout and other species. The construction of upstream dams also resulted in nutrient retention which ultimately reduced reservoir productivity. In Arrow Lakes Reservoir (ALR), nutrients settled out in the Revelstoke and Mica reservoirs, resulting in decreased productivity, a process known as oligotrophication. Kokanee are typically the first species to respond to oligotrophication resulting from aging impoundments. To address the ultra-oligotrophic status of ALR, a bottom-up approach was taken with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of liquid fertilizer from 1999 to 2004). Two of the main objectives of the experiment were to replace lost nutrients as a result of upstream impoundments and restore productivity in Upper Arrow and to restore kokanee and other sport fish abundance in the reservoir. The bottom-up approach to restoring kokanee in ALR has been successful by replacing nutrients lost as a result of upstream impoundments and has successfully restored the productivity of Upper Arrow. Primary production rates increased, the phytoplankton community responded

  6. Measurement of the Neutral B Meson Lifetime using Partially Reconstructed Bo right arrow D (sup asterisk -) pi + Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, M.

    2002-03-01

    The neutral B meson lifetime has been measured with the data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring during the year 2000 for a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb to the minus 1 power. The B0 right arrow D(sup asterisk -)pi+ decays have been selected with a partial reconstruction method in which only the fast pion from the B0 decay and the slow pion from D(sup asterisk -) right arrow overline Do pi- are reconstructed. The B0 lifetime has been measured to be 1.510 + or - 0.040 + or - 0.038 ps with a sample of 6971 + or - 241 reconstructed signal events.

  7. Cupid's Arrow: An Innovative Nanosat to Sample Venus' Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienstock, Bernie; Darrach, Murray; Madzunkov, Stojan; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In NASA's Discovery 2014 AO, the opportunity to propose a Technology Demonstration Opportunity (TDO) to enhance the primary mission was specified. For the Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy (VERITAS) mission, we elected to include the Cupid's Arrow nanosat TDO to sample and measure the abundances of noble gases and their isotopic ratios in Venus's upper atmosphere below the homopause. This paper will provide a basic overview of the VERITAS mission, with a focus on the Cupid's Arrow concept including a description of the mission, spacecraft design, and JPL's quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) instrument specifications and design. In previous planetary entry probe mission designs, particularly at Venus, engineers w ere focused on entry and descent. A landed probe was also proposed for the New Frontiers SAGE mission. For Cupid's Arrow, the nanosat is designed to skim through the upper atmosphere, just below the homopause, in order to sample the atmosphere, perform the analysis, and then exit the atmosphere to transmit its data to the orbiting VERITAS spacecraft. Cupid's Arrow is a compelling addition to the VERITAS geology mission. A key missing link in our understanding of Venus' evolution is the noble gas abundances and their isotopic ratios. Not since Pioneer Venus have these measurements been made in the Venus atmosphere and never in the upper atmosphere, just below the homopause, to the degree of accuracy that will be accomplished by VERITAS' Cupid's Arrow nanosat.Such measurements were ranked as the number 1 investigation of the number 1 objective of the goal "Atmospheric Formation, Evolution, and Climate History ".

  8. Measurement of the. pi. sup + r arrow e sup +. nu. branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, D.I.; Ahmad, S.; Bryman, D.A.; Burnham, R.A.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Kitching, P.; Kuno, Y.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Olin, A.; Poutissou, J. ); Dixit, M.S. )

    1992-05-18

    A new measurement of the {pi}{sup +}{r arrow}{ital e}{sup +}{nu} branching ratio gives {ital R}{sub {pi}{ital e}{nu}}={Gamma}({pi}{r arrow}{ital e}{nu}+{pi}{r arrow}{ital e}{nu}{gamma})/{Gamma} ({pi}{r arrow}{mu}{nu}+{pi}{r arrow}{mu}{nu}{gamma}) =(1.2265{plus minus}0.0034(stat){plus minus}0.0044(sys)){times}10{sup {minus}4}. This result is in agreement with standard model calculations and confirms the hypothesis of electron-muon universality at the 0.2% level.

  9. Arrows as anchors: An analysis of the material features of electric field vector arrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2014-12-01

    Representations in physics possess both physical and conceptual aspects that are fundamentally intertwined and can interact to support or hinder sense making and computation. We use distributed cognition and the theory of conceptual blending with material anchors to interpret the roles of conceptual and material features of representations in students' use of representations for computation. We focus on the vector-arrows representation of electric fields and describe this representation as a conceptual blend of electric field concepts, physical space, and the material features of the representation (i.e., the physical writing and the surface upon which it is drawn). In this representation, spatial extent (e.g., distance on paper) is used to represent both distances in coordinate space and magnitudes of electric field vectors. In conceptual blending theory, this conflation is described as a clash between the input spaces in the blend. We explore the benefits and drawbacks of this clash, as well as other features of this representation. This analysis is illustrated with examples from clinical problem-solving interviews with upper-division physics majors. We see that while these intermediate physics students make a variety of errors using this representation, they also use the geometric features of the representation to add electric field contributions and to organize the problem situation productively.

  10. Damped Arrow-Hurwicz algorithm for sphere packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degond, Pierre; Ferreira, Marina A.; Motsch, Sebastien

    2017-03-01

    We consider algorithms that, from an arbitrarily sampling of N spheres (possibly overlapping), find a close packed configuration without overlapping. These problems can be formulated as minimization problems with non-convex constraints. For such packing problems, we observe that the classical iterative Arrow-Hurwicz algorithm does not converge. We derive a novel algorithm from a multi-step variant of the Arrow-Hurwicz scheme with damping. We compare this algorithm with classical algorithms belonging to the class of linearly constrained Lagrangian methods and show that it performs better. We provide an analysis of the convergence of these algorithms in the simple case of two spheres in one spatial dimension. Finally, we investigate the behaviour of our algorithm when the number of spheres is large in two and three spatial dimensions.

  11. Overview of the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, Clifford J.; Lamar, John E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the F-16XL-1 aircraft, its role in the High Speed Research program and how it was morphed into the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project. Various flight, wind-tunnel and Computational Fluid Dynamics data sets were generated as part of the project. These unique and open flight datasets for surface pressures, boundary-layer profiles and skin-friction distributions, along with surface flow data, are described and sample data comparisons given. This is followed by a description of how the project became internationalized to be known as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International and is concluded by an introduction to the results of a four year computational predictive study of data collected at flight conditions by participating researchers.

  12. Recent developments in the field of arrow and dart poisons.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Geneviève; Angenot, Luc

    2005-08-22

    Arrow and dart poisons, considered as conventional natural sources for future drug discovery, have already provided numerous biologically active molecules used as drugs in therapeutic applications or in pharmacological research. Plants containing alkaloids or cardiotonic glycosides have generally been the main ingredients responsible for the efficacy of these poisons, although some animals, such as frogs, have also been employed. This paper, without being exhaustive, reports the greater strides made during the past 15 years in the understanding of the chemical nature and biological properties of arrow and dart poison constituents. Examples both of promising biological properties shown by these molecules and of crucial discoveries achieved by their use as pharmacological tools are given. Further studies of these toxic principles are likely to enable scientists to find new valuable lead compounds, useful in many fields of research, like oncology, inflammation and infectious diseases.

  13. [ital b][r arrow][ital s][gamma] and [ital Z][r arrow][ital b[bar b

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G.T. Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center , The Woodlands, Texas 77381 )

    1994-07-01

    We perform a combined analysis of two stringent constraints on the two Higgs doublet model: one coming from the recently announced CLEO II bound on [ital B]([ital b][r arrow][ital s][gamma]) and the other from the recent CERN LEP data on the ratio [Gamma]([ital Z][r arrow][ital b[bar b

  14. Emergence of randomness and arrow of time in quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Shikano, Yutaka; Chisaki, Kota; Konno, Norio; Segawa, Etsuo

    2010-06-15

    Quantum walks are powerful tools not only for constructing the quantum speedup algorithms but also for describing specific models in physical processes. Furthermore, the discrete time quantum walk has been experimentally realized in various setups. We apply the concept of the quantum walk to the problems in quantum foundations. We show that randomness and the arrow of time in the quantum walk gradually emerge by periodic projective measurements from the mathematically obtained limit distribution under the time-scale transformation.

  15. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time.

    PubMed

    Spinney, Richard E; Lizier, Joseph T; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  16. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Richard E.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  17. Observation of large oscillator strengths for both 1 r arrow 2 and 1 r arrow 3 intersubband transitions of step quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Mii, Y.J.; Wang, K.L.; Karunasiri, R.P.G.; Yuh, P.F. )

    1990-03-12

    Both 1{r arrow}2 and 1{r arrow}3 intersubband transitions have been observed in a step quantum well structure consisting of 60 A GaAs wells, 90 A Al{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}As steps, and 280 A Al{sub 0.44}Ga{sub 0.56}As barriers. The transition energy and oscillator strength are 112 meV and 0.23 for the 1{r arrow}2 transition and 150 meV and 0.15 for the 1{r arrow}3 transition, respectively. The asymmetric property of a step quantum well allows the normally forbidden 1{r arrow}3 transition to occur. The relaxation of the selection rule suggests a possibility of using optical pumping for infrared laser applications.

  18. Battling Arrow's Paradox to Discover Robust Water Management Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Hadka, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study explores whether or not Arrow's Impossibility Theorem, a theory of social choice, affects the formulation of water resources systems planning problems. The theorem discusses creating an aggregation function for voters choosing from more than three alternatives for society. The Impossibility Theorem is also called Arrow's Paradox, because when trying to add more voters, a single individual's preference will dictate the optimal group decision. In the context of water resources planning, our study is motivated by recent theoretical work that has generalized the insights for Arrow's Paradox to the design of complex engineered systems. In this framing of the paradox, states of society are equivalent to water planning or design alternatives, and the voters are equivalent to multiple planning objectives (e.g. minimizing cost or maximizing performance). Seen from this point of view, multi-objective water planning problems are functionally equivalent to the social choice problem described above. Traditional solutions to such multi-objective problems aggregate multiple performance measures into a single mathematical objective. The Theorem implies that a subset of performance concerns will inadvertently dictate the overall design evaluations in unpredictable ways using such an aggregation. We suggest that instead of aggregation, an explicit many-objective approach to water planning can help overcome the challenges posed by Arrow's Paradox. Many-objective planning explicitly disaggregates measures of performance while supporting the discovery of the planning tradeoffs, employing multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to find solutions. Using MOEA-based search to address Arrow's Paradox requires that the MOEAs perform robustly with increasing problem complexity, such as adding additional objectives and/or decisions. This study uses comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of MOEA search performance across multiple problem formulations (both aggregated and many

  19. Follow the sign! Top-down contingent attentional capture of masked arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Heiko; Pohl, Carsten; Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Arrow cues and other overlearned spatial symbols automatically orient attention according to their spatial meaning. This renders them similar to exogenous cues that occur at stimulus location. Exogenous cues trigger shifts of attention even when they are presented subliminally. Here, we investigate to what extent the mechanisms underlying the orienting of attention by exogenous cues and by arrow cues are comparable by analyzing the effects of visible and masked arrow cues on attention. In Experiment 1, we presented arrow cues with overall 50% validity. Visible cues, but not masked cues, lead to shifts of attention. In Experiment 2, the arrow cues had an overall validity of 80%. Now both visible and masked arrows lead to shifts of attention. This is in line with findings that subliminal exogenous cues capture attention only in a top-down contingent manner, that is, when the cues fit the observer's intentions.

  20. Arrow shaft injury of the wrist and hand: case report, management, and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Launikitis, Robert A; Viegas, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    A case of accidental, self-inflicted injury to the hand from a hollow carbon shaft arrow which broke in its midshaft while attempting to shoot the arrow from a compound bow is presented. Basic knowledge of low velocity gunshot wounds and arrow injuries was applied in the treatment of this injury along with a unique management technique. The outcome, including hand function was good without any functional loss.

  1. [Forensic medical assessment of injuries to the human body and clothes caused by a crossbow arrow].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the data published in the special literature revealed the lack of information for the objective comprehensive forensic medical evaluation of injuries to the human body and clothes caused by the arrows from different models of crossbows. Morphological characteristics of injuries were shown to strongly depend on the design features of the arrows. This fact can be used to differentiate between injuries inflicted by crossbow arrows and other types of missile weapons.

  2. Visuospatial attention shifts by gaze and arrow cues: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Leppänen, Jukka M; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Astikainen, Piia

    2008-06-18

    Orienting of visual attention can be automatically triggered not only by illumination changes occurring in the visual periphery but also by centrally presented gaze and arrow cues. We investigated whether the automatic shifts of visuospatial attention triggered by centrally displayed gaze and arrow cues rely on the same neural systems. To this end we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the cue and target onsets while the participants (n=17) performed a spatial cuing task. In the task, the participants detected and responded to laterally presented targets preceded by centrally presented, non-predictive, gaze or arrow cues. Manual reaction times and target-triggered ERP data showed that both gaze and arrow cues automatically oriented attention and facilitated subsequent processing of target stimuli. However, the cue-triggered electrophysiological data indicated that the ERPs elicited by the gaze and arrow cues were different at lateral parietal and fronto-central electrode sites. Most notably, for the arrows, we found a typical early attention direction negativity (EDAN) effect occurring 220-260 ms after the cue onset. The ERPs were shifted in the negative direction when the arrows pointed to a direction which was contralateral to the recorded hemisphere as compared to arrows with ipsilateral direction. This effect was not observed for the gaze stimuli. These results provide further support for earlier behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicating that automatic orienting of attention by arrow cues and gaze cues are based on different neural mechanisms.

  3. Which way is which? Examining symbolic control of attention with compound arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Mills, Mark; Dodd, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Spatial symbols can generate attentional biases toward peripheral locations compatible with the symbol's meaning. An important question concerns how one symbol is selected when competing symbols are present. Studies examining this issue for spatially distinct symbols have suggested that selection depends on the task goals. In the present study, we examined whether the influence of competing symbolic stimuli (arrows) at different levels of structure on attentional control also depends on the task goals. Participants made simple detection responses to a peripheral target preceded by a spatially uninformative compound arrow (global arrow composed of local arrows). In addition, participants were required to perform a secondary task in which they matched the orientation of the global arrow (global task) or the location of a uniquely colored local arrow (local task) to a test display presented immediately following a detection response. When the global and local arrows pointed at opposite locations, a local cueing effect emerged in the local task, and a global cueing effect in the global task, indicating that the task goals influenced the selection of the level of structure. However, when the local level was spatially neutral (global arrow, local rectangles), a cueing effect was observed independent of task, and when the global level was spatially neutral (global rectangle, local arrows), a cueing effect was observed in the local task only, suggesting that global processing was obligatory and local processing optional. These findings suggest that attentional effects triggered by the global level are more strongly reflexive than those triggered by the local level.

  4. Measuring effects of voluntary attention: a comparison among predictive arrow, colour, and number cues.

    PubMed

    Olk, Bettina; Tsankova, Elena; Petca, A Raisa; Wilhelm, Adalbert F X

    2014-10-01

    The Posner cueing paradigm is one of the most widely used paradigms in attention research. Importantly, when employing it, it is critical to understand which type of orienting a cue triggers. It has been suggested that large effects elicited by predictive arrow cues reflect an interaction of involuntary and voluntary orienting. This conclusion is based on comparisons of cueing effects of predictive arrows, nonpredictive arrows (involuntary orienting), and predictive numbers (voluntary orienting). Experiment 1 investigated whether this conclusion is restricted to comparisons with number cues and showed similar results to those of previous studies, but now for comparisons to predictive colour cues, indicating that the earlier conclusion can be generalized. Experiment 2 assessed whether the size of a cueing effect is related to the ease of deriving direction information from a cue, based on the rationale that effects for arrows may be larger, because it may be easier to process direction information given by symbols such as arrows than that given by other cues. Indeed, direction information is derived faster and more accurately from arrows than from colour and number cues in a direction judgement task, and cueing effects are larger for arrows than for the other cues. Importantly though, performance in the two tasks is not correlated. Hence, the large cueing effects of arrows are not a result of the ease of information processing, but of the types of orienting that the arrows elicit.

  5. Of arrows and flows. Causality, determination, and specificity in the Central Dogma of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2006-01-01

    From its first proposal, the Central Dogma had a graphical form, complete with arrows of different types, and this form quickly became its standard presentation. In different scientific contexts, arrows have different meanings and in this particular case the arrows indicated the flow of information among different macromolecules. A deeper analysis illustrates that the arrows also imply a causal statement, directly connected to the causal role of genetic information. The author suggests a distinction between two different kinds of causal links, defined as 'physical causality' and 'biological determination', both implied in the production of biological specificity.

  6. Cabibbo-angle-favored, -suppressed, and -doubly-suppressed D r arrow PP and D r arrow VP decays in SU(3) symmetry with final-state interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.C.; Kamal, A.N. . Theoretical Physics Institute University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta . Department of Physics)

    1991-02-01

    We have studied Cabibbo-angle-favored, -suppressed, and -doubly-suppressed {ital D}{r arrow}{ital PP} and {ital D}{r arrow}{ital VP} decays in a nonet-symmetry and a broken-nonet-symmetry scheme, with the inclusion of final-state-interaction phases. For {ital D}{r arrow}{ital VP} decays, the implications of sextet dominance are also investigated. In the discussion we have argued that the symmetry approach, as also the diagrammatic approach used by other authors, does not fare as well in describing {ital D}{r arrow}{ital VP} decays as the factorization approach, particularly in describing {ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{omega}{pi}{sup +}), {ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{phi}{pi}{sup +}), and {ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{rho}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}).

  7. B[sup +] [r arrow] D[sub s][sup *+][gamma] and B[sup +] [r arrow] D[sup *+][gamma] as probes of Vub

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, B.; Lebed, R.F.

    1999-02-01

    The decays B[sup +] [r arrow] D[sub s][sup *+][gamma] and B[sup +] [r arrow] D[sup *+]gamma can be used for an extraction of [vert bar]Vub[vert bar]. When the b and c quarks are nearly degenerate the rate for these modes can be determined in terms of other observed rates, namely B[anti B] mixing and D[sup *] [r arrow] D[gamma] decay. To this end the authors introduce a novel application of heavy quark and flavor symmetries. Although somewhat unrealistic, this limit provides one with a first estimate of these rates.

  8. Time arrow is influenced by the dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Gurzadyan, V. G.

    2016-05-01

    The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. We advance the viewpoint that the dark energy (positive cosmological constant) accelerating the expansion of the universe also supports the time asymmetry. It is related to the decay of metastable states under generic perturbations, as we show on example of a microcanonical ensemble. These states will not be metastable without dark energy. The latter also ensures a hyperbolic motion leading to dynamic entropy production with the rate determined by the cosmological constant.

  9. Time arrow is influenced by the dark energy.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, A E; Gurzadyan, V G

    2016-05-01

    The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. We advance the viewpoint that the dark energy (positive cosmological constant) accelerating the expansion of the universe also supports the time asymmetry. It is related to the decay of metastable states under generic perturbations, as we show on example of a microcanonical ensemble. These states will not be metastable without dark energy. The latter also ensures a hyperbolic motion leading to dynamic entropy production with the rate determined by the cosmological constant.

  10. SCAR arrow-wing active flutter suppression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, C. K.; Visor, O. E.

    1977-01-01

    The potential performance and direct operating cost benefits of an active flutter suppression system (FSS) for the NASA arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were determined. A FSS designed to increase the flutter speed of the baseline airplane 20 percent. A comparison was made of the performance and direct operating cost between the FSS equipped aircraft and a previously defined configuration with structural modifications to provide the same flutter speed. Control system synthesis and evaluation indicated that a FSS could provide the increase in flutter speed without degrading airplane reliability, safety, handling qualities, or ride quality, and without increasing repeated loads or hydraulic and electrical power capacity requirements.

  11. Fundamental Aerodynamic Investigations for Development of Arrow-Stabilized Projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzweg, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    The numerous patent applications on arrow-stabilized projectiles indicate that the idea of projectiles without spin is not new, but has appeared in various proposals throughout the last decades. As far as projectiles for subsonic speeds are concerned, suitable shapes have been developed for sometime, for example, numerous grenades. Most of the patent applications, though, are not practicable particularly for projectiles with supersonic speed. This is because the inventor usually does not have any knowledge of aerodynamic flow around the projectile nor any particular understanding of the practical solution. The lack of wind tunnels for the development of projectiles made it necessary to use firing tests for development. These are obviously extremely tedious or expensive and lead almost always to failures. The often expressed opinion that arrow-stabilized projectiles cannot fly supersonically can be traced to this condition. That this is not the case has been shown for the first time by Roechling on long projectiles with foldable fins. Since no aerodynamic investigations were made for the development of these projectiles, only tedious series of firing tests with systematic variation of the fins could lead to satisfactory results. These particular projectiles though have a disadvantage which lies in the nature cf foldable fins. They occasionally do not open uniformly in flight, thus causing unsymmetry in flow and greater scatter. The junctions of fins and body are very bad aerodynamically and increase the drag. It must be possible to develop high-performance arrow-stabilized projectiles based on the aerodynamic research conducted during the last few years at Peenemuende and new construction ideas. Thus the final shape, ready for operational use, could be developed in the wind tunnel without loss of expensive time in firing tests. The principle of arrow-stabilized performance has been applied to a large number of caliburs which were stabilized by various means Most

  12. Monosomy 9p24{r_arrow}pter and trisomy 5q31{r_arrow}qter: Case report and review of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmenti, L.A.; Steinberger, J.; Mammel, M.C.

    1995-05-22

    Partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 (p24{r_arrow}pter) and partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 5 (q32{r_arrow}qter) were observed in an abnormal boy who died at age 8 weeks of a complex cyanotic cardiac defect. He also had minor anomalies, sagittal craniosynostosis, triphalangeal thumbs, hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum. Two other infants with similar cytogenetic abnormalities were described previously. These patients had severe congenital heart defect, genitourinary anomalies, broad nasal bridge, low hairline, apparently low-set ears, short neck, and triphalangeal thumbs, in common with our patient. We suggest that combined monosomy 9q23,24{r_arrow}pter and trisomy 5q31,32{r_arrow}qter may constitute a clinically recognizable syndrome. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Search for the flavor changing neutral current B-meson decays B^+arrow μ^+ μ^- K^+ and B^0arrow μ^+ μ^-K^*0 at CDF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Wolfram; Speer, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    We present a search for rare B-meson decays B^+arrow μ^+ μ^- K^+ and B^0arrow μ^+ μ^-K^*0 using data from pbarp collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV recorded with CDF during the 1994 to 95 running period. We set upper limits on BR(B^+arrow μ^+ μ^- K^+) and BR(B^0arrow μ^+ μ^-K^*0). ^ Supported by U.S. DOE DE-AC02-76CH03000. ^*We thank the Fermilab staff and the technical staffs of the participating institutions for their vital contributions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation.

  14. New Bouncing Curved Arrow Technique for the Depiction of Organic Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straumanis, Andrei R.; Ruder, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Many students fail to develop a conceptual understanding of organic chemistry. Evidence suggests this failure goes hand-in-hand with a failure to grasp the techniques, meaning, and usefulness of curved arrow notation. Use of curved arrow notation to illustrate electrophilic addition appears to be a critical juncture in student understanding.…

  15. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  16. V sup 0 r arrow P sup 0 P sup 0. gamma. decay rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfer, S. ); Oakes, R.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The radiative decay processes of the type {ital V}{sup 0}{r arrow}{ital P}{sup 0}{ital P}{sup 0}{gamma} are described by the gauged Wess-Zumino terms in a low-energy effective Lagrangian, there being no bremsstrahlung contributions. Using such an effective Lagrangian, describing pseudoscalar and vector mesons, we have calculated the branching ratios for the decays {omega}{r arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, {omega}{r arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{eta}{gamma}, {rho}{r arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, {rho}{r arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{eta}{gamma}, {phi}{r arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, {phi}{r arrow}{pi}{sup 0}{eta}{gamma}, and {phi}{r arrow}{ital K}{sup 0}{ital {bar K}}{sup 0}{gamma}. Since scalar mesons have been neglected, these rates provide estimates of the expected backgrounds in searches for {ital J}{sup {pi}}=0{sup +} resonances, particularly the possible four-quark states in {phi} decays.

  17. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  18. New Bouncing Curved Arrow Technique for the Depiction of Organic Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straumanis, Andrei R.; Ruder, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Many students fail to develop a conceptual understanding of organic chemistry. Evidence suggests this failure goes hand-in-hand with a failure to grasp the techniques, meaning, and usefulness of curved arrow notation. Use of curved arrow notation to illustrate electrophilic addition appears to be a critical juncture in student understanding.…

  19. Arrow physicians: are economics and medicine philosophically incompatible?

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again.

  20. Bloodstain pattern analysis in a case of suicide with a compound bow and arrow.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christopher I; Altschul, Samuel; Mead, Anthony; Flannagan, Lisa M

    2004-03-01

    The incidence of human fatalities due to arrow injuries in the medical literature is rare. We report an incident involving a 46-year-old man who was found in his secured apartment with a fatal arrow wound of his chest and abdomen. The initial scene investigation suggested that the victim impaled himself with an arrow attached to a razor-sharp, 4-bladed broad-head hunting tip before collapsing on the floor. However, analysis of the bloodstain patterns suggested that the victim used the compound bow to propel the arrow. When investigating deaths due to bows and arrows, thorough scene investigation along with bloodstain pattern analysis is essential in determining the mechanism of injury and manner of death.

  1. New Limit for the Lepton-Family-Number Nonconserving Decay [mu][sup +][r arrow]e[sup +] [gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.C. ); Cooper, P.S. ); Chen, Y.K.; Dzemidzic, M.; Empl, A.; Hungerford, E.V. III; Lan, K.A.; Mayes, B.W. II; von Witsch, W.H. ); Knott, J.E.; Stantz, K.M.; Szymanski, J.J. ); Brooks, M.L.; Cooper, M.D.; Hogan, G.E.; Kroupa, M.A.; Mischke, R.E.; Stanislaus, T.D.; Szymanski, J.J. ); Hughes, E.B.; Jui, C.C. ); Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Tu, X.L.; Van Ausdeln, L.A. ); Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.; Stanislaus, T.D. ); Ziock, K.O. (University

    1999-08-01

    An experiment has been performed to search for the muon- and electron-number nonconserving decay [mu][sup +][r arrow]e[sup +][gamma] . The upper limit for the branching ratio is found to be [Gamma]([mu][sup +][r arrow]e[sup +][gamma] ) /[Gamma]([mu][sup +][r arrow]e[sup +][nu] [bar [nu

  2. Bell's theorem and the causal arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argaman, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    Einstein held that the formalism of quantum mechanics involves "spooky actions at a distance." In the 1960s, Bell amplified this by showing that the predictions of quantum mechanics disagree with the results of any locally causal description. It should be appreciated that accepting nonlocal descriptions while retaining causality leads to a clash with relativity. Furthermore, the causal arrow of time by definition contradicts time-reversal symmetry. For these reasons, Wheeler and Feynman, Costa de Beauregard, Cramer, Price, and others have advocated abandoning microscopic causality. In this paper, a simplistic but concrete example of this line of thought is presented, in the form of a retro-causal toy model that is stochastic and provides an appealing description of the quantum correlations discussed by Bell. It is concluded that Einstein's "spooky actions" may occur "in the past" rather than "at a distance," resolving the tension between quantum mechanics and relativity and opening unexplored possibilities for future reformulations of quantum mechanics.

  3. Structural design studies of a supersonic cruise arrow wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.; Mccullers, L. A.; Ricketts, R. H.; Santoro, N. J.; Beskenis, S. D.; Kurtze, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Structural member cross sections were sized with a system of integrated computer programs to satisfy strength and flutter design requirements for several variants of the arrow wing supersonic cruise vehicle. The resulting structural weights provide a measure of the structural efficiency of the planform geometry, structural layout, type of construction, and type of material including composites. The material distribution was determined for a baseline metallic structure and the results indicate that an approximate fatigue constraint has an important effect on the structural weight required for strength but, in all cases, additional material had to be added to satisfy flutter requirements with lighter mass engines with minimum fuel onboard. The use of composite materials on the baseline configuration was explored and indicated increased structural efficiency. In the strength sizing, the all-composite construction provided a lower weight design than the hybrid construction which contained composites only in the wing cover skins. Subsequent flutter analyses indicated a corresponding lower flutter speed.

  4. Janus sequences of quantum measurements and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andrew N.; Chantasri, Areeya; Murch, Kater; Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander N.

    2017-05-01

    We examine the time reversal symmetry of quantum measurement sequences by introducing a forward and backward Janus sequence of measurements. If the forward sequence of measurements creates a sequence of quantum states in time, starting from an initial state and ending in a final state, then the backward sequence begins with the time-reversed final state, exactly retraces the intermediate states, and ends with the time-reversed initial state. We prove that such a sequence can always be constructed, showing that unless the measurements are ideal projections, it is impossible to tell if a given sequence of measurements is progressing forward or backward in time. A statistical arrow of time emerges only because typically the forward sequence is more probable than the backward sequence.

  5. Theoretical evaluation of high speed aerodynamics for arrow wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    A limited study in the use of theoretical methods to calculate the high speed aerodynamics of arrow wing supersonic cruise configurations was conducted. The study consisted of correlations with existing wind tunnel data at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 2.7, using theoretical methods to extrapolate the wind tunnel data to full scale flight conditions, and presentation of a typical supersonic data package for an advanced supersonic transport application prepared using the theoretical methods. A brief description of the methods and their application was given. In general, all three methods had excellent correlation with wind tunnel data at supersonic speeds for drag and lift characteristics and fair to poor agreement with pitching moment characteristics. The VORLAX program had excellent correlation with wind tunnel data at subsonic speeds for lift and pitching moment characteristics and fair agreement in drag characteristics.

  6. Controlling attention to gaze and arrows in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Andrea; Pasini, Augusto; Menotti, Erica; Pasquini, Alessia; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; Casagrande, Maria

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to assess implicit processing of social and non-social distracting cues in children with ADHD. Young people with ADHD and matched controls were asked to classify target words (LEFT/RIGHT) which were accompanied by a distracter eye-gaze or arrow. Typically developing participants showed evidence of interference effects from both eye-gaze and arrow distracters. In contrast, the ADHD group showed evidence of interference effects from arrow but failed to show interference from eye-gaze. This absence of interference effects from eye-gaze observed in the participants with ADHD may reflect an attentional impairment in attending to socially relevant information.

  7. The politics of attention contextualized: gaze but not arrow cuing of attention is moderated by political temperament.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Luciana; Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Galfano, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    It is known that an averted gaze can trigger shifts of attention in an observer, a phenomenon known as gaze-cuing effect. Recently, Dodd et al. (Atten Percept Psychophys 73:24-29, 2011) have reported a reliable gaze-cuing effect for liberals but not for conservatives. The present study tested whether this result is gaze-specific or extends over nonsocial spatial signals. Conservatives and liberals took part in a spatial-cuing task in which centrally placed gaze and arrow cues, pointing rightward or leftward, were followed by a peripheral onset target requiring a simple detection response. Whereas a reliable cuing effect was present for both gaze and arrow cues in the case of liberals, conservatives showed a reduced cuing response only for gaze cues. These results provide further support for the pattern reported by Dodd et al. (2011) and are consistent with the view that conservatives are less susceptible to the influence of spatial cues provided by other individuals.

  8. Search for the decay. pi. sup 0 r arrow. gamma. + X

    SciTech Connect

    Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Ito, M.M.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Stevens, A.J.; Sambamurti, A.; Strand, R.C. ); Louis, W.C. ); Akerib, D.S.; Marlow, D.R.; Meyers, P.D.; Selen, M.A.; Shoemaker, F.C.; Smith, A.J.S. ); Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Felawka, L.; Kitching, P.; Konaka, A.; Kuno, Y.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Poutissou, J.; Poutissou, R.; Roy, J.; Turcot, A.S. )

    1992-08-03

    A search for the decay {pi}{sup 0}{r arrow}{gamma}{ital X}, where {ital X} is any long-lived weakly interacting neutral vector particle with mass smaller than the neutral pion pass, was performed using neutral pions tagged by {ital K}{sup +}{r arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}. A 90%-C.L. upper limit for the branching ratio of the two-body decay {ital B}({pi}{sup 0}{r arrow}{gamma}{ital X}){lt}5{times}10{sup {minus}4} is set. Limits are also set for three-body decays {pi}{sup 0}{r arrow}{gamma}{ital XX}{prime}.

  9. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions

  10. Results on {ital {nu}}{sub {ital {ital {mu}}}} {r_arrow} {ital {nu}}{sub {ital {ital e}}} Neutrino Oscillations from the LSND Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.D.; McIlhany, K.; Stancu, I.; Strossman, W.; VanDalen, G.J.; Vernon, W.; Caldwell, D.O.; Yellin, S.; Smith, D.; Waltz, J.; Cohen, I.; Burman, R.L.; Donahue, J.B.; Federspiel, F.J.; Garvey, G.T.; Louis, W.C.; Sandberg, V.; Tayloe, R.; White, D.H.; Gunasingha, R.M.; Imlay, R.; Kim, H.J.; Mills, G.B.; Wadia, N.; Johnston, K.; Reeder, R.A.; Fazely, A.; Athanassopoulos, C.; Auerbach, L.B.; Majkic, R.; Works, D.; Xiao, Y.

    1998-08-01

    A search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{r_arrow}{nu}{sub e} oscillations has been conducted with the LSND apparatus using {nu}{sub {mu}} from {pi}{sup +} decay in flight. Two analyses observe a total of 40 beam-on high-energy (60{endash}200 MeV) electron events consistent with the {nu}{sub e}thinspC{r_arrow}e{sup {minus}} thinspX inclusive reaction. This number is significantly above the 21.9{plus_minus}2.1 events expected from the {nu}{sub e} contamination in the beam and the beam-off background. If interpreted as an oscillation signal, the observed oscillation probability of (2.6{plus_minus}1.0{plus_minus}0.5){times}10{sup {minus}3} is consistent with the previously reported {ovr {nu}}{sub {mu}}{r_arrow}{ovr {nu}}{sub e} oscillation evidence from LSND. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Arrows of time in the bouncing universes of the no-boundary quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hertog, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    We derive the arrows of time of our universe that follow from the no-boundary theory of its quantum state (NBWF) in a minisuperspace model. Arrows of time are viewed four-dimensionally as properties of the four-dimensional Lorentzian histories of the universe. Probabilities for these histories are predicted by the NBWF. For histories with a regular “bounce” at a minimum radius fluctuations are small at the bounce and grow in the direction of expansion on either side. For recollapsing classical histories with big bang and big crunch singularities the fluctuations are small near one singularity and grow through the expansion and recontraction to the other singularity. The arrow of time defined by the growth in fluctuations thus points in one direction over the whole of a recollapsing spacetime but is bidirectional in a bouncing spacetime. We argue that the electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and psychological arrows of time are aligned with the fluctuation arrow. The implications of a bidirectional arrow of time for causality are discussed.

  12. [A Case of Transoral Penetrating Head Injury from a Crossbow-Fired Arrow].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoto; Fujita, Yuichi; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Sakagami, Yoshio; Okazaki, Ken; Kida, Kouta

    2017-09-01

    Penetrating head injuries are extremely rare in Japan. The authors describe a case involving a penetrating head injury from an arrow fired from a crossbow. A 52-year-old man who had shot himself transorally in a suicide attempt was admitted to the authors' hospital. On admission, he was conscious and exhibited no neurological deficits. The end of the arrow was visible inside his oral cavity. Computed tomography revealed the arrow had penetrated the right cerebellum and occipital lobe, resulting in a very small hematoma. Digital subtraction angiography revealed no significant vascular injuries. After considering these findings and the nature of the object, the authors decided to remove the arrow from the cranium by pulling it from the patient's oral cavity. To remove the arrow, surgery was performed with several devices, including intraoperative X-ray, endoscopy, and intraoperative angiography. The authors were able to completely remove the arrow, and the patient experienced no new deficits, except mild ataxia and mild dysphasia, and no signs of cerebral infection or cerebrospinal fluid leakage after the surgery. Although most cases of penetrating head injuries require craniotomies, the authors were able to safely remove the foreign object in this case without performing a craniotomy. Because guidelines for the treatment of penetrating head injuries have not been established, the treatment of each case must be modified according to the nature of the foreign object and the findings of preoperative imaging techniques.

  13. Moving Single Dots as Primes for Static Arrow Targets.

    PubMed

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    In response priming, responses are typically faster and more accurate if the prime calls for the same response as the target (i.e., compatible trials) than when primes and targets trigger different responses (i.e., incompatible trials). With moving rows-of-dots as primes for static arrow targets, participants instead responded faster to incompatible targets with longer SOAs (stimulus onset asynchrony, > 200 ms). Until now, it is unclear whether this effect is specific to the material. In the present research, a single moving dot was used as a prime. Further, we analyzed compatibility effects depending on reaction times (RTs). Positive compatibility effects in reaction times were found with an SOA of 147 ms and even with a relatively long SOA of 360 ms; for very long SOAs (800-1,200 ms), negative effects were found. We interpreted this as evidence that the specific type of motion is irrelevant for the occurrence of a negative compatibility effect.

  14. DNA → RNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein products. We investigated understanding of central dogma concepts and found that students are not primed to think about information when presented with the canonical figure of the central dogma. We also uncovered conceptual errors in student interpretation of the meaning of the transcription arrow in the central dogma representation; 36% of students (n = 128; all undergraduate levels) described transcription as a chemical conversion of DNA into RNA or suggested that RNA existed before the process of transcription began. Interviews confirm that students with weak conceptual understanding of information flow find inappropriate meaning in the canonical representation of central dogma. Therefore, we suggest that use of this representation during instruction can be counterproductive unless educators are explicit about the underlying meaning. PMID:26086664

  15. High-resolution {upsilon}{sub OH} = 3{l_arrow}0 and {upsilon}{sub OH} = 4{l_arrow}0 overtone spectroscopy of HOD

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, J.R.; Votava, O.; Nesbitt, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    High-resolution (0.005 cm{sup -1}) IR overtone excitation with an injection seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is used to investigate the spectroscopy of HOD in the {upsilon}{sub OH} = 3{l_arrow}0 region via room temperature photoacoustic detection methods. Comparison of the photoacoustic spectra from an H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O/HOD mixture and from pure H{sub 2}O determines the lines corresponding to {upsilon}{sub OH} = 3{l_arrow}0 absorptions in HOD. A prediction of the HOD spectrum in this region is generated from an extrapolation of {upsilon}{sub OH} = 0 and 1 rotational constants and from the {upsilon}{sub OH} = 3{l_arrow}0 band origin calculated by Tennyson and coworkers [private communication]. This predicted spectrum enables the HOD {upsilon}{sub OH} = 3{l_arrow}0 photoacoustic spectrum to be assigned; a fit of the experimental data produces the low-order rotational constants for this transition as well as a Birge-Sponer analysis of the overtone series. The vibrational dependence of the HOD rotational constants is demonstrated to be quite linear in {upsilon}{sub OH}, permitting reliable extrapolation to the {upsilon}{sub OH} = 4 manifold. As a result, the {upsilon}{sub OH} = 0, 1 and 3 constants can be used to predict the spectrum of HOD {upsilon}{sub OH} = 4{l_arrow}0, which now enables the assignment of the vibrationally mediated photodissociation spectrum measured by Crim and coworkers. The overtone spectroscopic data for HOD is further confirmed in double resonance IR and UV photolysis of HOD and HOD-containing clusters in slit supersonic expansions.

  16. Arrows of time and the beginning of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    I examine two cosmological scenarios in which the thermodynamic arrow of time points in opposite directions in the asymptotic past and future. The first scenario, suggested by Aguirre and Gratton, assumes that the two asymptotic regions are separated by a de Sitter-like bounce, with low-entropy boundary conditions imposed at the bounce. Such boundary conditions naturally arise from quantum cosmology with Hartle-Hawking wave function of the universe. The bounce hypersurface breaks de Sitter invariance and represents the beginning of the universe in this model. The second scenario, proposed by Carroll and Chen, assumes some generic initial conditions on an infinite spacelike Cauchy surface. They argue that the resulting spacetime will be nonsingular, apart from black holes that could be formed as the initial data is evolved, and will exhibit eternal inflation in both time directions. Here I show, assuming the null convergence condition, that the Cauchy surface in a nonsingular (apart from black holes) universe with two asymptotically inflating regions must necessarily be compact. I also argue that the size of the universe at the bounce between the two asymptotic regions cannot much exceed the de Sitter horizon. The spacetime structure is then very similar to that in the Aguirre-Gratton scenario and does require special boundary conditions at the bounce. If cosmological singularities are allowed, then an infinite Cauchy surface with “random” initial data will generally produce inflating regions in both time directions. These regions, however, will be surrounded by singularities and will have singularities in their past or future.

  17. The Arrow of Time through the Lens of Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palem, Krishna V.

    The concepts of temporal logic were introduced by Amir Pnueli [1] into the realm of computer science in general and programs in particular, to great effect. Given a program specification, a crucial element of reasoning through temporal logic is our ability to assert that one program event occurs before or after the other, with an order intuitively rooted in our notion of "time". In the realm of temporal logic, such assertions are abstracted as pure mathematical facts. An alternative is to consider the physical realization by executing the specified program through, for example, a microprocessor-based system. In such a case, a mechanism is used to ensure that the desired temporal relationships from the program specification are obeyed, and quite often this mechanism takes the form of a clock. In physical instantiations however clocks and similar mechanisms have an associated energy cost. They are guided by the laws of physics in general and thermodynamics in particular, with which the arrow of time and the associated irreversibility are intimately intertwined. Viewed through this lens, a key question arises of whether the need for ensuring that the temporal norms needed for program correctness accrue an inevitable energy cost. In this paper, I sketch some of the intricacies underlying this question. I will hint at the subtle interactions between models of computing, time as it is represented in them, and the associated thermodynamic cost. In his early work, Amir relied as much on the philosophy of reasoning about time [2-4] as on the technical intricacies of mathematical logic. In recognition of the richness of his intellectual endeavor, I have developed this exposition in a philosophical style mimicking that of the ancient greek philosopher Zeno [5,6].

  18. Fixation of osteochondral fragments in the human knee using Meniscus Arrows.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Diederick B; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; de Hosson, Jeff T M; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the hold in bone of Meniscus Arrows and Smart Nails, followed by the report of the results of the clinical application of Meniscus Arrows as fixation devices. First, pull-out tests were performed to analyse the holdfast of both nails in bone. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference; therefore, the thinner Meniscus Arrow was chosen as fixation device in the patient series of two patients with a symptomatic Osteochondritis dissecans fragment and three patients with an osteochondral fracture of a femur condyle. The cartilage margins were glued with Tissuecoll. All fragments consolidated. Second look arthroscopy in three patients showed fixed fragments with stable, congruent cartilage edges. At an average follow-up period of 5 years no pain, effusion, locking, restricted range of motion or signs of osteoarthritis were reported. Based on the results of the pull-out tests and available clinical studies, Meniscus Arrows and Smart Nails are both likely to perform adequately as fixation devices in the treatment of Osteochondritis dissecans and osteochondral fractures in the knee. They both provide the advantage of one stage surgery. However, based on their smaller diameter, the Meniscus Arrows should be preferred for this indication.

  19. Preliminary Study on Distribution and Abundance of Chaetognaths (Arrow Worms) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmartin, J.; Yang, Q.; Liu, H.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of zooplankton presumably reflect ocean conditions. Chaetognaths (arrow worms) consist of an important zooplankton component and are recognized as a significant trophic link between smaller marine zooplankton, such as copepods, and larger predators, including many commercially important fish species. Arrow worms are raptorial predators which feed mainly on zooplankton and larval fish, which may affect recruitment dynamics of fish. Despite their trophic significance, there is limited information on the distribution and abundance of arrow worms in terms of environmental conditions in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). In this study, we processed zooplankton samples that were collected using 200 µm vertical plankton nets at inshore and offshore stations in the GoM during spring and summer of 2015. Concurrently, we collected vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and density using a CTD in the spring, and surface temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen in the summer. Our preliminary results indicate that Sagitta friderici and Sagitta tenius are abundant species in offshore stations. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between arrow worm species abundance and distribution with relation to physical variables in the region. This research will improve our understanding on the abundance and distribution of arrow worms in terms of ocean conditions in the GoM.

  20. Measurement of the Amplitude Ratio between the Decays B^0 arrow J/ψ \\overlineK^*0 (\\overlineK^*0arrow K^-π^+) and B^0 arrow J/ψ K^*0 (K^*0arrow K^+π^-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baak, Max

    2003-04-01

    We report a study of the time-dependent rate of decay for the process B^0arrow J/ψ K^*0 (K^*0arrow K^+π^-) in 82 fb-1 of e^+e^- annihilation data collected by the BaBar detector at center-of-mass energies near the Υ(4S) resonance. We search for a deviation in the B decay-time distributions from usual B^0\\overlineB^0 oscillations. Such a deviation would be an indication for a wrong-flavor amplitude B^0arrow J/ψ \\overlineK^*0 and a sign for new physics. A non-zero wrong-flavor amplitude could lead to a done by measuring the coefficients of the s(Δ m_dt) distributions for the J/ψ \\overlineK^*0. The result a limit on the potential difference between the measured values of sin(2β) using B^0/\\overlineB^0 arrow J/ψ KS and B^0/\\overlineB^0 arrow J/ψ KL decays.

  1. Electrophysiological responses to violations of expectation from eye gaze and arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Tipples, Jason; Johnston, Pat; Mayes, Angela

    2013-06-01

    Isolating processes within the brain that are specific to human behavior is a key goal for social neuroscience. The current research was an attempt to test whether recent findings of enhanced negative ERPs in response to unexpected human gaze are unique to eye gaze stimuli by comparing the effects of gaze cues with the effects of an arrow cue. ERPs were recorded while participants (N = 30) observed a virtual actor or an arrow that gazed (or pointed) either toward (object congruent) or away from (object incongruent) a flashing checkerboard. An enhanced negative ERP (N300) in response to object incongruent compared to object congruent trials was recorded for both eye gaze and arrow stimuli. The findings are interpreted as reflecting a domain general mechanism for detecting unexpected events.

  2. Expression pattern of the Brachyury gene in the arrow worm paraspadella gotoi (chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Takada, Norio; Goto, Taichiro; Satoh, Nori

    2002-03-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), which are among the major marine planktonic animals, are direct developers and exhibit features characteristic of both deuterostomes and protostomes. In particular, the embryonic development of arrow worms appears to be of the deuterostome type. Brachyury functions critically in the formation of the notochord in chordates, whereas the gene is expressed in both the blastopore and stomodeum invagination regions in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms. Here we analyzed the expression of Brachyury (Pg-Bra) in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi and showed that Pg-Bra is expressed in the blastopore region and the stomodeum region in the embryo and then around the mouth opening region at the time of hatching. The expression of Pg-Bra in the embryo resembles that of Brachyury in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms, whereas that in the mouth opening region in the hatchling appears to be novel.

  3. Demonstration of a liquid core optical ring resonator sensor coupled with an ARROW waveguide array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ian M.; Oveys, Hesam; Fan, Xudong; Smith, Terry L.; Zhang, Junying

    2007-02-01

    The liquid core optical ring resonator (LCORR) sensor is a newly developed capillary-based ring resonator that integrates microfluidics with photonic sensing technology. The circular cross-section of the capillary forms a ring resonator that supports whispering gallery modes (WGM). The WGM evanescent field is exposed to the capillary core and detects the aqueous samples conducted by the capillary using a label-free protocol. The high-Q of the WGM allows for repetitive light-analyte interaction, resulting in excellent sensitivity. Recently a detection limit of the LCORR on the order of 10 -6 refractive index units was reported. In this work, we have further integrated the LCORR with an anti-resonant reflective optical waveguide (ARROW) array for multiplexed sensor development. The ARROW, with an array of 8 waveguides separated by 250 microns each, consists of a core and a lower reflective double-layer with alternating high and low refractive index, and thus has a significant evanescent field above the waveguide. The WGM is excited at each LCORR/ARROW junction simultaneously when the LCORR is brought into contact with the ARROW array. We experimentally investigated the optimal waveguide geometry for WGM excitation using a range of waveguide heights from 2 to 5 microns. Furthermore, the LCORR/ARROW system is utilized for a biomolecule sensing demonstration. The LCORR/ARROW system is not only essential for assembling a robust, practical, and densely multiplexed sensor array, but also enables on-capillary flow analysis that has broad applications in capillary electrophoresis, chromatography, and lab-on-a-chip development.

  4. Arrow-Elicited Cueing Effects at Short Intervals: Rapid Attentional Orienting or Cue-Target Stimulus Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jessica J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2012-01-01

    The observation of cueing effects (faster responses for cued than uncued targets) rapidly following centrally-presented arrows has led to the suggestion that arrows trigger rapid automatic shifts of spatial attention. However, these effects have primarily been observed during easy target-detection tasks when both cue and target remain on the…

  5. Parametric flutter studies of an arrow-wing configuration: Some early results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Michael H.; Cole, Stanley R.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Keller, Donald F.; Parker, Ellen C.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    1988-01-01

    Some early experimental results from a combined experimental and analytical study being conducted at NASA-Langley of the transonic flutter characterisitics of a generic arrow wing configuration are presented. The planned study includes the parametric variation of a variety of structural and geometric characteristics. Presented here are flutter results of the basic arrow wing, for the basic wing with the addition of two simulated lower-surface-mounted engine nacelles, and for the basic wing with the addition of both the fin and the engine nacelles.

  6. MEGA: A search for the decay {mu}{r_arrow}{ital e}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, J.J.; Amann, J.F.; Baker, K.; Barlow, D.; Black, K.; Bolton, R.D.; Brooks, M.; Carius, S.; Chen, Y.; Cooper, M.D.; Cooper, P.S.; Crocker, J.; Dzemidzic, M.; Fisk, R.J.; Flick, J.; Foreman, W.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Haim, D.; Hallin, A.; Harrison, R.; Hart, G.; Hoffman, C.M.; Hogan, G.E.; Hughes, E.B.; Hungerford, E.V. III; Johnston, K.; Jui, C.; Kim, G.J.; Knott, J.E.

    1995-07-10

    The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the rare decay {mu}{r_arrow}{ital e}{gamma} with a branching ratio sensitivity of {similar_to}5{times}10{sup {minus}13}. Production data have been taken during 1992 and 1993, and the detector is working as expected. Following a complete analysis, the present data set should represent an improvement of 12--15 in sensitivity over the previous limit of {mu}{r_arrow}{ital e}{gamma}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. Search for Supernarrow Dibaryons Production in pd [right arrow] p + pX1 and pd [right arrow] p + dX2 Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fil'kov, L. V.; Kashevarov, V. L.; Konobeevski, E. S.; Mordovskoy, M. V.; Potashev, S. I.; Simonov, V. A.; Skorkin, V. M.

    2002-06-01

    We study a production of supernarrow dibaryons, the decay of which into two nucleons is forbidden by the Pauli exclusion principle, in the reactions pd [right arrow] p+pX1 and pd [right arrow] p + dX2 at Linear Accelerator of INR (Moscow). Dibaryons with masses 1904plus-or-minus2, 1926plus-or-minus2 and 1942plus-or-minus2 MeV have been observed in missing mass MpX1 spectra. In missing mass MX1 spectra, the peaks at MX1 = 966plus-or-minus2, 986plus-or-minus2, and 1003plus-or-minus2 MeV have been found. The analysis of the data obtained leads to the conclusion that the observed dibaryons are supernarrow dibaryons. The possible interpretation of "exotic baryon states" with small masses is discussed.

  8. Branching fractions of B{sup plus} {r_arrow} {Psi}(2S)K{sup plus} and B{sup O} {r_arrow} {Psi}(2S)K{sup {asterisk}0} decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, A.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the observation of the decays B{sup {plus}} {r_arrow} {psi}(2S)K{sup {plus}} and B{sup 0} {r_arrow} {psi}(2S)K{sup {asterisk}}(892){sup 0} in 1.8 TeV p{ovr p} collisions and presents measurements of the branching fractions Br(B{sup {plus}} {r_arrow} {psi}(2S)K{sup {plus}}) and Br(B{sup 0} {r_arrow} {psi}(2S)K{sup {asterisk}}(892){sup 0}) relative to Br(B{sup {plus}} {r_arrow} J/{psi}K{sup {plus}}) and Br(B{sup 0} {r_arrow} J/{psi}K{sup {asterisk}}(892){sup 0}), respectively. The {psi}(2S) mesons are reconstructed in both the {psi}(2S) {r_arrow} {mu}{sup {plus}}{mu}{sup {minus}} and {psi}(2S) {r_arrow} J/{psi}{pi}{sup {plus}}{pi}{sup {minus}} channels. The world average branching fractions for the J/{psi} channels are used to extract the absolute branching fractions Br(B{sup {plus}} {r_arrow} {psi}(2S)K{sup {plus}}) = (6.8{plus_minus}1.0(stat.){plus_minus}1.4(syst.)){times}10{sup {minus}4} and Br(B{sup 0} {r_arrow} {psi}(2S)K{sup {asterisk}}(892){sup 0}) = (9.0{plus_minus}2.1(stat.){plus_minus}2. 0(syst.)){times}10{sup {minus}4}. 9 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Uncertainties from long range effects in [ital B][r arrow][ital K][sup *][gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Golowich, E. ); Pakvasa, S. )

    1995-02-01

    We reconsider the long-range'' component of the radiative transition [ital B][r arrow][ital K][sup *][gamma]. A careful analysis of the vector dominance amplitude [ital B][r arrow][ital V][sub 1][ital V][sub 2][r arrow][ital V][sub 1][gamma] is carried out, with emphasis on the role of gauge invariance. The procedure for incorporating phenomenological [ital B][r arrow][ital V][sub 1][ital V][sub 2] data is identified, and polarization data, only recently available, is employed to estimate the magnitude of the vector dominance effect. We summarize uncertainties in the [ital B][r arrow][ital K][sup *][gamma] radiative transition produced by long-range effects and provide suggestions for further experimental work.

  10. Observation of D sub s sup + r arrow K sup 0 K sup + and D sub s sup + r arrow K sup 0 K sup + and an upper limit on D sub s sup + r arrow K sup 0. pi. sup +

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bai, Z.; Becker, J.J.; Blaylock, G.T.; Bolton, T.; Brient, J.; Brown, J.S.; Bunnell, K.O.; Burchell, M.; Burnett, T.H.; and others; Mark III Collaboration

    1989-09-18

    We report the first observation of the decay {ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{bar K}{sup 0}{ital K}{sup +} and a new measurement of the decay {ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{ital {bar K}} *(892){sup 0}{ital K}{sup +}. The data were collected at {radical}{ital s}=4.14 GeV with the Mark III detector at the SLAC {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} storage ring at SPEAR. We obtain the relative branching fractions {ital B}({ital D}{sup +}{sub {ital s}}{r arrow}{ital {bar K}}{sup 0}{ital K}{sup +}/ {ital B}{ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{phi}{pi}{sup +})=0.92{plus minus}0.32{plus minus}0.20 and {ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{ital {bar K}}{sup *0}{ital K}{sup +})/ {ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{phi}{pi}{sup +})=0.84{plus minus}0.30{plus minus}0.22, using our new determination of {sigma}{ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{phi}{pi}{sup +}). A search for the Cabibbo-suppressed decay {ital D}{ital s}{sup +}{r arrow}{ital K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} yields a limit {ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{ital K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +})/{ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{r arrow}{phi}{pi}{sup +}){lt}0.21 at the 90% confidence level.

  11. Pycellerator: an arrow-based reaction-like modelling language for biological simulations.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Bruce E; Mjolsness, Eric

    2016-02-15

    We introduce Pycellerator, a Python library for reading Cellerator arrow notation from standard text files, conversion to differential equations, generating stand-alone Python solvers, and optionally running and plotting the solutions. All of the original Cellerator arrows, which represent reactions ranging from mass action, Michales-Menten-Henri (MMH) and Gene-Regulation (GRN) to Monod-Wyman-Changeaux (MWC), user defined reactions and enzymatic expansions (KMech), were previously represented with the Mathematica extended character set. These are now typed as reaction-like commands in ASCII text files that are read by Pycellerator, which includes a Python command line interface (CLI), a Python application programming interface (API) and an iPython notebook interface. Cellerator reaction arrows are now input in text files. The arrows are parsed by Pycellerator and translated into differential equations in Python, and Python code is automatically generated to solve the system. Time courses are produced by executing the auto-generated Python code. Users have full freedom to modify the solver and utilize the complete set of standard Python tools. The new libraries are completely independent of the old Cellerator software and do not require Mathematica. All software is available (GPL) from the github repository at https://github.com/biomathman/pycellerator/releases. Details, including installation instructions and a glossary of acronyms and terms, are given in the Supplementary information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sociopolitical effects of bow and arrow technology in prehistoric coastal California.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Douglas J; Lambert, Patricia M; Johnson, John R; Culleton, Brendan J

    2013-01-01

    Bow and arrow technology spread across California between ∼AD 250 and 1200, first appearing in the intermountain deserts of the Great Basin and later spreading to the coast. We critically evaluate the available data for the initial spread in bow and arrow technology and examine its societal effects on the well-studied Northern Channel Islands off the coast of Southern California. The introduction of this technology to these islands between AD 650 and 900 appears to predate the appearance of hereditary inequality between AD 900 and 1300. We conclude, based on the available data, that this technology did not immediately trigger intergroup warfare. We argue that the introduction of the bow and arrow contributed to sociopolitical instabilities that were on the rise within the context of increasing population levels and unstable climatic conditions, which stimulated intergroup conflict and favored the development of hereditary inequality. Population aggregation and economic intensification did occur with the introduction of the bow and arrow. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that social coercion via intra-group "law enforcement" contributed to changes in societal scale that ultimately resulted in larger groups that were favored in inter-group conflict. We argue that the interplay between intra-group "law enforcement" and inter-group warfare were both essential for the ultimate emergence of social inequality between AD 900 and 1300. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Decorating with Arrows: Toward the Development of Representational Competence in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Rush, Kelli M.

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has been expended in developing improved methods for presenting mechanistic thinking and the curved-arrow notation to organic chemistry students; however, most of these techniques are not research-based. The little research that has been conducted has mainly focused on understanding the meaning that students associate with the…

  14. A Couple of "Lim (h[right arrow]0)-Is-Missing" Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ko Hin

    2007-01-01

    Since most students "hate" the concept of limit, in order to make them "happier," this article suggests a couple of naive "lim (h[right arrow]0)-is-missing" problems for them to try for fun. Indeed, differential functional equations that are related to difference quotients in calculus are studied in this paper. In particular, two interesting…

  15. Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

  16. Activation of frontoparietal attention networks by non-predictive gaze and arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Robert M; Fricker, Zachary; Keehn, Brandon

    2015-02-01

    Gaze and arrow cues automatically orient visual attention, even when they have no predictive value, but the neural circuitry by which they direct attention is not clear. Recent evidence has indicated that the ventral frontoparietal attention network is primarily engaged by breaches of a viewer's cue-related expectations. Accordingly, we hypothesized that to the extent that non-predictive gaze and arrow cues automatically engender expectations with regard to cue location, they should activate the ventral attention network when they cue attention invalidly. Using event-related fMRI, we found that invalid gaze but not arrow cues activated the ventral attention network, specifically in the area of the right temporal parietal junction (TPJ), as well as nodes along the dorsal attention network associated with a redirection of attention to the correct target location. In additional whole-brain analyses, facilitation of behavioral response time by valid gaze cues was linearly associated with the degree of activation in the right TPJ. We conclude from our findings that gaze direction elicits potent expectations in humans with regard to an actor's intention that engage attention networks if not differently from, at least more robustly than, arrow cues. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Eye Gaze versus Arrows as Spatial Cues: Two Qualitatively Different Modes of Attentional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Andrea; Lupianez, Juan; Martella, Diana; Casagrande, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the type of attentional selection (location- and/or object-based) triggered by two different types of central noninformative cues: eye gaze and arrows. Two rectangular objects were presented in the visual field, and subjects' attention was directed to the end of a rectangle via the observation of noninformative…

  18. How Do Selected Arrows Guide Visuospatial Attention? Dissociating Symbolic Value and Spatial Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Emilie; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the control of visuospatial attention showed that overlearned symbols like arrows have the potential to induce involuntary shifts of attention. Following work on the role of attentional control settings and of the content of working memory in the involuntary deployment of visuospatial attention, Pratt and Hommel (2003) found…

  19. Activation of frontoparietal attention networks by non-predictive gaze and arrow cues

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, Zachary; Keehn, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Gaze and arrow cues automatically orient visual attention, even when they have no predictive value, but the neural circuitry by which they direct attention is not clear. Recent evidence has indicated that the ventral frontoparietal attention network is primarily engaged by breaches of a viewer’s cue-related expectations. Accordingly, we hypothesized that to the extent that non-predictive gaze and arrow cues automatically engender expectations with regard to cue location, they should activate the ventral attention network when they cue attention invalidly. Using event-related fMRI, we found that invalid gaze but not arrow cues activated the ventral attention network, specifically in the area of the right temporal parietal junction (TPJ), as well as nodes along the dorsal attention network associated with a redirection of attention to the correct target location. In additional whole-brain analyses, facilitation of behavioral response time by valid gaze cues was linearly associated with the degree of activation in the right TPJ. We conclude from our findings that gaze direction elicits potent expectations in humans with regard to an actor’s intention that engage attention networks if not differently from, at least more robustly than, arrow cues. PMID:24748545

  20. Decorating with Arrows: Toward the Development of Representational Competence in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Rush, Kelli M.

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has been expended in developing improved methods for presenting mechanistic thinking and the curved-arrow notation to organic chemistry students; however, most of these techniques are not research-based. The little research that has been conducted has mainly focused on understanding the meaning that students associate with the…

  1. Ballistic parameters and trauma potential of carbon dioxide-actuated arrow pistols.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta; Frank, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Medical literature abounds with reports of injuries and fatalities caused by arrows and crossbow bolts. Crossbows are of particular forensic and traumatological interest, because their mode of construction allows for temporary mechanical storage of energy. A newly developed type of pistol (Arcus Arrowstar), which belongs to the category of air and carbon dioxide weapons, discharges arrow-shaped bolts actuated by carbon dioxide cylinders. As, to the best of the authors' knowledge, literature contains no information on this uncommon subclass of weapons it is the aim of this work to provide the experimental data and to assess the trauma potential of these projectiles based on the ascertained physical parameters. Basic kinetic parameters of these carbon dioxide-actuated bolts (velocity v = 39 m/s, energy E = 7.2 J, energy density E' = 0.26 J/mm(2)) are similar to bolts discharged by pistol crossbows. Subsequent firing resulted in a continuous and fast decrease in kinetic energy of the arrows. Test shots into ballistic soap blocks reveal a high penetration capacity, especially when compared to conventional projectiles of equal kinetic energy values (like, e.g., airgun pellets). To conclude, these data demonstrate the high efficiency of arrow-shaped projectiles, which are also characterized by a high cross-sectional density (ratio of mass to cross-sectional area of a projectile).

  2. Investigating Hemispheric Lateralization of Reflexive Attention to Gaze and Arrow Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Andrea; Lupianez, Juan; Casagrande, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that central cues, such as eyes and arrows, reflexively trigger attentional shifts. However, it is not clear whether the attentional mechanisms induced by these two cues are similar or rather differ in some important way. We investigated hemispheric lateralization of the orienting effects induced by the two cue…

  3. Design, fabrication, and characterization of Si-based ARROW photonic crystal bend waveguides and power splitters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Huang, Yang-Tung; Yang, Yu-Lin; Lu, Ming-Feng; Shieh, Jia-Min

    2012-08-20

    Silicon-based (Si-based) photonic crystal waveguide based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW PCW) structures consisting of 60° bends and Y-branch power splitters were designed and first efficiently fabricated and characterized. The ARROW structure has a relatively large core size suitable for efficient coupling with a single-mode fiber. Simple capsule-shaped topography defects at 60° photonic crystal (PC) bend corners and Y-branch PC power splitters were used for increasing the broadband light transmission. In the preliminary measurements, the propagation losses of the ARROW PC straight waveguides lower than 2 dB/mm with a long length of 1500 μm were achieved. The average bend loss of 60° PC bend waveguides was lower than 3 dB/bend. For the Y-branch PC power splitters, the average power imbalance was lower than 0.6 dB. The results show that our fabricated Si-based ARROW PCWs with 60° bends and Y-branch structures can provide good light transmission and power-splitting ability.

  4. Disconnection of the rubber tip of arrow-trerotola percutaneous thrombolytic device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Myun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Woo, Sungmin; Son, Kyu Ri; Jae, Hwan Jun

    2014-01-01

    A rubber tip disconnection of Arrow-Trerotola percutaneous thrombolytic device (PTD) may occur occasionally. We experienced 5 cases of a rubber tip disconnection among 453 mechanical thrombectomy sessions with the use of PTD. We present a report about these five cases and suggest possible causes for the occurrences.

  5. Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

  6. Reflexive Orienting in Response to Eye Gaze and an Arrow in Children with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether another person's social attention, specifically the direction of their eye gaze, and a non-social directional cue, an arrow, triggered reflexive orienting in children with and without autism in an experimental situation. Methods: Children with autism and typically developed children participated in one…

  7. How Do Selected Arrows Guide Visuospatial Attention? Dissociating Symbolic Value and Spatial Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Emilie; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the control of visuospatial attention showed that overlearned symbols like arrows have the potential to induce involuntary shifts of attention. Following work on the role of attentional control settings and of the content of working memory in the involuntary deployment of visuospatial attention, Pratt and Hommel (2003) found…

  8. Reflexive Orienting in Response to Eye Gaze and an Arrow in Children with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether another person's social attention, specifically the direction of their eye gaze, and a non-social directional cue, an arrow, triggered reflexive orienting in children with and without autism in an experimental situation. Methods: Children with autism and typically developed children participated in one…

  9. Upper limit on the branching ratio for the decay. pi. sup 0 r arrow. nu. nu

    SciTech Connect

    Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Ito, M.M.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Stevens, A.; Strand, R.C. ); Louis, W.C. ); Akerib, D.S.; Marlow, D.R.; Meyers, P.D.; Selen, M.A.; Shoemaker, F.C.; Smith, A.J.S. ); Azuelos, G.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Felawka, L.; Kitching, P.; Kuno, Y.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Poutissou, J.; Poutissou, R.; Roy, J. V6T 2A3)

    1991-04-29

    An experimental upper limit on the branching ratio for the decay {pi}{sup 0}{r arrow}{nu}{bar {nu}} is set at 8.3{times}10{sup {minus}7} (90% C.L.). This decay is forbidden if neutrinos are purely left handed. The limit also applies to any decays of the {pi}{sup 0} to weakly interacting neutrals.

  10. Poor vigilance affects attentional orienting triggered by central uninformative gaze and arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Andrea; Martella, Diana; Maccari, Lisa; Sebastiani, Mara; Casagrande, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Behaviour and neuroimaging studies have shown that poor vigilance (PV) due to sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects exogenously cued selective attention. In the current study, we assessed the impact of PV due to both partial SD and night-time hours on reflexive attentional orienting triggered by central un-informative eye-gaze and arrow cues. Subjective mood and interference performance in emotional Stroop task were also investigated. Twenty healthy participants performed spatial cueing tasks using central directional arrow and eye-gaze as a cue to orient attention. The target was a word written in different coloured inks. The participant's task was to identify the colour of the ink while ignoring the semantic content of the word (with negative or neutral emotional valence). The experiment took place on 2 days. On the first day, each participant performed a 10-min training session of the spatial cueing task. On the second day, half of participants performed the task once at 4:30 p.m. (BSL) and once at 6:30 a.m. (PV), whereas the other half performed the task in the reversed order. Results showed that mean reaction times on the spatial cueing tasks were worsened by PV, although gaze paradigm was more resistant to this effect as compared to the arrow paradigm. Moreover, PV negatively affects attentional orienting triggered by both central un-informative gaze and arrow cues. Finally, prolonged wakefulness affects self-reported mood but does not influence interference control in emotional Stroop task.

  11. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  12. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  13. The Effect of Arrow Diagrams on Achievement in Applying the Chain Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uygur, Tangul; Ozdas, Aynur

    2007-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an arrow diagram which can help students apply the Chain Rule was investigated. Different variations of this diagram were used as mnemonic devices for applying the Chain Rule. For the investigation two instruments were developed, diagnostic test and post-test. The diagnostic test was developed to determine the…

  14. Javelin, Arrow, Dart and Pin Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.; Pesavento, Lisa C.

    This study was designed to determine (1) the arrow, dart, javelin, and pin games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American…

  15. Early Twentieth Century Arrow, Javelin, and Dart Games of the Western Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…

  16. A new neutron polarimeter and measurement of {sup n}{sub E} from the {sup 2}H(e [downward right arrow] e' n [downward right arrow]){sup 1}H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; A. Lai; Tom Eden

    1994-09-01

    In a continuing effort to improve the quality of measurements for extracting the neutron electronic form factor (G{sup n}{sub E} from the {sup 2}H[downward right arrow]e'n[downward right arrow]) {sup 1}H reaction, one of us (RM) proposed a new configuration for a neutron polarimeter (NPOL) to measure G{sup n}{sub E}from the {sup 2}H (e[downward right arrow], e'n[downward right arrow]){sup 1}H reaction in Bates E89-04 and CEBAF E93-038. Substantially higher count rates with this new neutron polarimeter reduce the uncertainties in G{sup n}{sub E}. A description of the new NPOL is given here followed by an outline of the experiment with projections of uncertainties in G{sup n}{sub E}.

  17. Electroweak Penguins, Final State Interaction Phases, and {ital CP} Violation in B {r_arrow} K {pi} Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, N.G.; He, X.; Hou, W.; He, X.; Hou, W.; Pakvasa, S.

    1999-03-01

    The recently observed B{sup {minus}} {r_arrow} K{sup {minus}} {pi} {sup 0}, {bar K}{sup 0} {pi} {sup {minus}} and {bar B} {sup 0} {r_arrow} K{sup {minus}} {pi} {sup +} decay modes appear to have nearly equal branching ratios. This suggests that tree and electroweak penguins play an important role, and inclusion of the latter improves agreement between factorization calculation and experimental data. The value of {gamma} in the range of 90{degree} {endash} 130{degree} and 220{degree} {endash} 260{degree} is favored, while the {bar B} {sup 0} {r_arrow} {bar K} {sup 0} {pi} {sup 0} rate is suppressed. Direct CP violation for B{r_arrow} K{pi} modes can be large if final state interaction phases are large. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. The facile synthesis of single crystalline palladium arrow-headed tripods and their application in formic acid electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Su, Na; Chen, Xueying; Ren, Yuanhang; Yue, Bin; Wang, Han; Cai, Wenbin; He, Heyong

    2015-04-28

    Single crystalline palladium arrow-headed tripods prepared via a simple one-pot strategy exhibit high electro-activity in formic acid oxidation, which could be a promising anodic catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells.

  19. Search for Proton Decay through p {r_arrow} {bar {nu}}K{sup +} in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Okumura, K.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Kearns, E.; Messier, M.D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.R.; Mine, S.; Price, L.R.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.J.; Takemori, D.; Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Haines, T.J.; Blaufuss, E.; Kim, B.K.; Sanford, R.; and others

    1999-08-01

    We present results of a search for proton decays, p{r_arrow}{bar {nu}}K{sup +} , using data from a 33 kt{center_dot}yr exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. Two decay modes of the kaon, K{sup +}{r_arrow}{mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}} and K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} , were studied. The data were consistent with the background expected from atmospheric neutrinos; therefore a lower limit on the partial lifetime of the proton {tau}/B(p{r_arrow}{bar {nu}} K{sup +}) was found to be 6.7{times}10{sup 32} years at 90{percent} confidence level. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Flap effectiveness on subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinto, P. F.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified arrow-wing model was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel. This investigation addressed the effectiveness of the leading and trailing edge flap deflections of this model. The arrow wing was tested at a Mach number of 0.02 and at an angle-of-attack range from -4 deg to 24 deg. The results of the investigation showed that deflecting the leading edge and trailing edge in combination could promote an attached-flow condition at the wing leading edge. Also, the leading edge suction could be maximized over the complete lift-coefficient range by scheduling a combination of leading and trailing edge flap deflections.

  1. Review of Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project: Its International Aeronautical Community Role

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Obara, Clifford J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the F-16XL-1 aircraft, its role in the High Speed Research (HSR) program and how it was morphed into the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP). Various flight, wind-tunnel and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data sets were generated during the CAWAP. These unique and open flight datasets for surface pressures, boundary-layer profiles and skinfriction distributions, along with surface flow data, are described and sample data comparisons given. This is followed by a description of how the project became internationalized to be known as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) and is concluded by an introduction to the results of a 4 year CFD predictive study of data collected at flight conditions by participating researchers.

  2. From the Dynamics of Coupled Map Lattices to the Psychological Arrow of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas; Scheingraber, Herbert

    2006-10-01

    Stable neuronal assemblies are generally regarded as neural correlates of mental representations. Their temporal sequence corresponds to the experience of a direction of time, sometimes called the psychological time arrow. We show that the stability of particular, biophysically motivated models of neuronal assemblies, called coupled map lattices, is supported by causal interactions among neurons and obstructed by non-causal or anti-causal interactions among neurons. This surprising relation between causality and stability suggests that those neuronal assemblies that are stable due to causal neuronal interactions, and thus correlated with mental representations, generate a psychological time arrow. Yet this impact of causal interactions among neurons on the directed sequence of mental representations does not rule out the possibility of mentally less efficacious non-causal or anti-causal interactions among neurons.

  3. Space Station ATCS radiator rotation profiles in LVLH, TEA/LVLH, Arrow and Gravity Gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantara, James J.; Graf, Jonathan

    1992-07-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the Active Thermal Control System Central Thermal Bus radiator rotation profiles for the Space Station Freedom in local vertical/local horizontal (LVLH) two torgue equilibrium attitudes (MB11 and MB17), Arrow and Gravity Gradient modes, while maintaining radiator angular velocity and acceleration under 45 deg/min and 0.01 deg/sq sec, respectively. The model used in the analysis, which is an enhancement to the model described in the LESC-28760 (1990) technical memo, is structured to orient the radiator to the minimum environment during the sunlit portion of the orbit and to maximum environment during the dark-side portion. The results of the investigated cased indicate that, in order to minimize the environmental incident fluxes on the radiator and maximize the radiator heat rejection capabilities, the radiator should be allowed to rotate between -167 deg (Gravity Gradient mode) and 207 deg (Arrow mode).

  4. The Significance of Causally Coupled, Stable Neuronal Assemblies for the Psychological Time Arrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas; Scheingraber, Herbert

    2005-10-01

    Stable neuronal assemblies are generally regarded as neural correlates of mental representations. Their temporal sequence corresponds to the experience of a direction of time, sometimes called the psychological time arrow. We show that the stability of particular, biophysically motivated models of neuronal assemblies, called coupled map lattices, is supported by causal interactions among neurons and obstructed by non-causal or anti-causal interactions among neurons. This surprising relation between causality and stability suggests that those neuronal assemblies that are stable due to causal neuronal interactions, and thus correlated with mental representations, generate a psychological time arrow. Yet this impact of causal interactions among neurons on the directed sequence of mental representations does not rule out the possibility of mentally less efficacious non-causal or anti-causal interactions among neurons.

  5. High Statistics Measurement of B arrow Λc X and Σc X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wappler, Frank

    1997-04-01

    This analysis is based on about 5 fb-1 of data recorded by the CLEO II detector operating at CESR on the Υ(4S) resonance and at center-of-mass energies just below the threshold for the production of B\\overlineB mesons. The first observation of the inclusive decays B arrow Λ_c^+ X, Σ_c^0 X and Σ_c^++X has already been reported by ARGUS (1988) and CLEO (1992). We now present a high statistics measurement of these decay modes. Improved values for branching fractions and momentum spectra will be presented. Results of the search for the inclusive decay B arrow Σ_c^+ X, which has not yet been observed, will also be presented.

  6. Effects of vortex flaps on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Murri, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 12-foot low-speed wind-tunnel to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic effects of plain and tabbed vortex flaps on a flat-plate, highly swept arrow-wing model. Flow-visualization studies were made using a helium-bubble technique. Static forces and moments were measured over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg to 50deg for sideslip angles of 0 deg and + or - 4 deg.

  7. Iroquois Engine for the Avro Arrow in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1957-08-21

    A researcher examines the Orenda Iroquois PS.13 turbojet in a Propulsion Systems Laboratory test chamber at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The Iroquois was being developed to power the CF-105 Arrow fighter designed by the Avro Canada Company. Avro began design work on the Arrow jet fighter in 1952. The company’s Orenda branch suggested building a titanium-based PS.13 Iroquois engine after development problems arose with the British engines that Avro had originally intended to use. The 10-stage, 20,000-pound-thrust Iroquois would prove to be more powerful than any contemporary US or British turbojet. It was also significantly lighter and more fuel efficient. An Iroquois was sent to Cleveland in April 1957 so that Lewis researchers could study the engine’s basic performance for the air force in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The tests were run over a wide range of speeds and altitudes with variations in exhaust-nozzle area. Initial studies determined the Iroquois’s windmilling and ignition characteristics at high altitude. After operating for 64 minutes, the engine was reignited at altitudes up to the 63,000-foot limit of the facility. Various modifications were attempted to reduce the occurrence of stall but did not totally eradicate the problem. The Arrow jet fighter made its initial flight in March 1958 powered by a substitute engine. In February 1959, however, both the engine and the aircraft programs were cancelled. The world’s superpowers had quickly transitioned from bombers to ballistic missiles which rendered the Avro Arrow prematurely obsolete.

  8. Evidence for {Kappa}{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{anti {nu}}

    SciTech Connect

    Kettell, S.

    1998-12-31

    The first observation of the decay {Kappa}{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{anti {nu}} has been reported. The E787 experiment presented evidence for the {Kappa}{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{anti {nu}} decay, based on the observation of a single clean event from data collected during the 1995 run of the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The branching ratio indicated by this observation, {Beta}({Kappa}{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{anti {nu}}) = 4.2{sub {minus}3.5}{sup +9.7} {times} 10{sup {minus}10}, is consistent with the Standard Model expectation although the central experimental value is four times larger. The final E787 data sample, from the 1995--98 runs, should reach a sensitivity of about five times that of the 1995 run alone. A new experiment, E949, has been given scientific approval and should start data collection in 2001. It is expected to achieve a sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude below the prediction of the Standard Model.

  9. Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment of Morrowan (Zone 2) brachiopoda, Bird Spring Group, Arrow Canyon, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiden, R.C.; Langenheim, R.L.

    1985-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the Morrowan brachiopod faunas of the Bird Spring Group at Arrow Canyon, Clark County, Nevada, is important because the section has been suggested as a stratotype for the base and top of the Pennsylvanian Subsystem and for the Atoka Series. Twenty-three species of brachiopods belonging to 17 genera occur in zone 20 at Arrow Canyon. Many of these also occur in described Morrowan faunas in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico; but similarities with the Mid-Continent and Appalachian assemblages are less. However, no striking regional differences are evident, and it appears that the North American Morrowan fauna is more or less homogeneous. In contrast to the exotic South American and Arctic elements known from Atokan, Missourian, and Virgilian rocks at Arrow Canyon, no foreign taxa have been noted in zone 20. Microfacies and faunal association indicate four distinct brachiopod-bearing environments; (1) relatively deep water below turbulence with few brachiopods on a soft substrate; (2) somewhat shallower, more turbulent water with many species, of which only a few are represented by large populations, living on a more firm substrate; (3) environments just below the zone of turbulence in which many species of brachiopods are represented by substantial populations on a calcarenitic substrate; and (4) crinoidal bars in the zone of turbulence with a few species represented by relatively few individuals.

  10. Sociopolitical complexity and the bow and arrow in the American Southwest.

    PubMed

    VanPool, Todd L; O'Brien, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of sociopolitical complexity, including heightened relations of cooperation and competition among large nonkin groups, has long been a central focus of anthropological research. Anthropologists suggest any number of variables that affect the waxing and waning of complexity and define the precise trajectories that groups take, including population density, subsistence strategies, warfare, the distribution of resources, and trade relationships. Changes in weaponry, here the introduction of the bow and arrow, can have profound implications for population aggregation and density, subsistence and settlement strategies, and access to resources, trade, and warfare.Bingham and Souza provide a general conceptual model for the relationship between complexity and the bow and arrow, arguing that this compound weapon system, whereby smaller projectiles travel at higher speed and are capable of hitting targets more accurately and at greater distances than hand-thrown darts, fundamentally favors the formation of larger groups because it allows for cost-effective means of dealing with conflicts of interest through social coercion, thereby dramatically transforming kin-based social relations. Here we consider the impacts the introduction of the bow and arrow had on sociopolitical complexity in the North American Southwest. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Expression of actin genes in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi (Chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Yasuda, E; Goto, T; Makabe, K W; Satoh, N

    1997-12-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), one of the major marine planktonic animals, exhibit features characteristic to both deuterostomes and protostomes, and their ancestry therefore remains unknown. As the first step to elucidate the molecular bases of arrow worm phylogeny, physiology and embryology, we isolated cDNA clones for three different actin genes (PgAct1, PgAct2 and PgAct3) from the benthic species Paraspadella gotoi, and examined their expression patterns in adults and juveniles. The amino acid sequences of the three actins resembled each other, with identities ranging from 86% to 92%. However, the patterns of the spatial expression of the genes were independent. The PgAct1 gene might encode a cytoplasmic actin and was expressed in oogenic cells, spermatogenic cells, and cells in the ventral ganglion. The PgAct2 and PgAct3 genes encoded actins of divergent types. The former was expressed in well-developed muscle of the head (gnathic) region and trunk muscle cells, whereas the latter was expressed in muscle of the trunk and tail regions and oogenic cells. These results suggest that, similarly to other metazoans, the chaetognath contains multiple forms of actins, which are expressed in various manners in the adult and juvenile arrow worm.

  12. Form factors of the transitions {gamma}{sup *}{pi}{sup 0} {r_arrow} {gamma} and {gamma}{sup *}{eta}{r_arrow}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasev, A.

    1994-04-01

    The author discusses possibilities to study {gamma}*{pi}{sup 0} and {gamma}*{eta} {r_arrow} {gamma} transition form factors at CEBAF energies. The author shows that for 4 GeV electron beam, these form factors can be measured at CEBAF for the 4-momentum transfers Q{sup 2} {le} 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} using virtual Compton scattering on the proton and nuclear target in the kinematic regime of low momentum transfers to the target. These measurements can be extended to Q{sup 2} {le} 4.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} using the electron beam with the energy 6 GeV.

  13. Complete leading order analysis in Chiral Perturbation Theory of the decays K{sub L}{r_arrow}{gamma}{gamma} and K{sub L}{r_arrow}l{sub +}l{sub {minus}}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Goity; Longzhe Zhang

    1997-02-01

    The decays K{sub L}{r_arrow}{gamma}{gamma} and K{sub L}{r_arrow}l{sup +}l{sup {minus}}{gamma} are studied at the leading order p{sup 6} in Chiral Perturbation Theory. One-loop contributions stemming from the odd intrinsic parity {vert_bar}{Delta}S{vert_bar}=1 effective Lagrangian of order p{sup 4} are included and shown to be of possible relevance. They affect the decay K{sub L}{r_arrow}{gamma}{gamma} adding to the usual pole terms a piece free of counterterm uncertainties. In the case of the K{sub L}{r_arrow}l{sup +}l{sup {minus}}{gamma} decays the dependence of the form factor on the dilepton invariant mass requires a counterterm. The form factor may receive a sizeable contribution from chiral logarithms. Including considerations from the K{sub L}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{gamma} direct emission amplitude, the authors obtain two consistent scenarios. In one scenario the long distance contributions from the one-loop terms are important, while in the other they are marginal. In both cases the counterterm is shown to be significant.

  14. Ichthyosporidium weissii n. sp. (Microsporidia) infecting the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Justin; Myers, Mark S; Tomanek, Lars; Cali, Ann; Takvorian, Peter M; Kent, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Gonadal infections by a novel microsporidium were discovered in 34% (13/38) of arrow gobies, Clevelandia ios, sampled over a 3-yr period from Morro Bay Marina in Morro Bay, California. Gonadal tumors had been reported in arrow gobies from this geographic area. The infected gonads, found primarily in females, typically appeared grossly as large, white-gray firm and lobulated masses. Histological examination revealed large, multilobate xenomas within the ovaries and no evidence of neoplasia. Typical of the genus Ichthyosporidium, the large xenomas were filled with developmental stages and pleomorphic spores. Wet mount preparations showed two general spore types: microspores with mean length of 6.2 (7.0-4.9, SD = 0.6, N = 20) μm and mean width of 4.3 (5.3-2.9, SD = 0.8) μm; and less numerous macrospores with mean length of 8.5 (10.1-7.1, SD = 1.0, N = 10) μm and mean width of 5.5 (6.2-4.8, SD = 0.5) μm. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated stages consistent with the genus and 35-50 turns of the polar filament. Small subunit rDNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the parasite from arrow gobies was most closely related to, but distinct from Ichthyosporidium sp. based on sequences available in GenBank. We conclude that this microsporidium represents a new species of Ichthyosporidium, the first species of this genus described from a member of the family Gobiidae and from the Pacific Ocean. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  15. In Situ Regeneration of Si-based ARROW-B Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Feng; Lin, Yen-Ting; Huang, Yang-Tung; Lu, Ming-Feng; Chen, Chyong-Hua

    Si-based antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide type B (ARROW-B) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors allow label-free high-sensitivity detection of biomolecular interactions in real time. The ARROW-B waveguide, which has a thick guiding layer, provides efficient coupling with a single-mode fiber. The Si-based ARROW-B SPR biosensors were fabricated by using the standard semiconductor fabrication processes with a single-step lithography. A fluid flow system was designed to transport samples or analytes. The waveguide consists of propagation and SPR sensing regions. The propagation regions in the front and rear of the SPR sensing region have a symmetric cladding structure to isolate them from environmental changes. A high-index O-ring is used to seal the liquid flow channel. The intensity interrogation method was used to characterize the sensors. The sensitivity of the biosensors was 3.0 × 10(3) µW/RIU (refractive index unit) with a resolution of 6.2 × 10(-5) RIU. An in situ regeneration process was designed to make the sensors reusable and eliminate re-alignment of the optical measurement system. The regeneration was realized using ammonia-hydrogen peroxide mixture solutions to remove molecules bound on the sensor surface, such as self-assembled 11-mercapto-1undecanoic acid and bovine serum albumin. SPR was used to monitor the regeneration processes. The experimental results show that the sensing response did not significantly change after the sensor was reused more than 10 times. In situ regenerations of the sensors were achieved.

  16. Theoretical evaluation of high-speed aerodynamics for arrow-wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the theoretical methods to calculate the high-speed aerodynamic characteristics of arrow-wing supersonic cruise configurations was studied. Included are correlations of theoretical predictions with wind-tunnel data at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 2.7, examples of the use of theoretical methods to extrapolate the wind-tunnel data to full-scale flight condition, and presentation of a typical supersonic data package for an advanced supersonic transport application. A brief description of the methods and their application is given.

  17. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  18. Analysis of trace elements in the giant panda and arrow bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nengming; Chen, Suqing; Chen, Jianxuan; Zhang, Dazhong; Feng, Wenhe

    1987-04-01

    Trace elements from the giant panda including hair, liver, kidney, ovary and testis, were determined by PIXE. Comparative studies of the elemental contents in hair, liver and kidney from epileptic and normal giant pandas were performed respectively. The differences in the elemental contents of leaf, stalk, and bamboo shoots from normal and withered arrows were determined. For this research work a Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a Si(Li) semiconductor spectrometer at the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Sichuan University were employed.

  19. Advanced structures technology applied to a supersonic cruise arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to a promising aerodynamic configuration was explored to investigate the improved payload range characteristics over the configuration postulated during the National SST Program. The results of an analytical study performed to determine the best structural approach for design of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft are highlighted. The data conducted under the auspices of the Structures Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, established firm technical bases from which further trend studies were conducted to quantitatively assess the benefits and feasibility of using advanced structures technology to arrive at a viable advanced supersonic cruise aircraft.

  20. Irreversibility and the Arrow of Time in a Quenched Quantum System.

    PubMed

    Batalhão, T B; Souza, A M; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Paternostro, M; Lutz, E; Serra, R M

    2015-11-06

    Irreversibility is one of the most intriguing concepts in physics. While microscopic physical laws are perfectly reversible, macroscopic average behavior has a preferred direction of time. According to the second law of thermodynamics, this arrow of time is associated with a positive mean entropy production. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance setup, we measure the nonequilibrium entropy produced in an isolated spin-1/2 system following fast quenches of an external magnetic field. We experimentally demonstrate that it is equal to the entropic distance, expressed by the Kullback-Leibler divergence, between a microscopic process and its time reversal. Our result addresses the concept of irreversibility from a microscopic quantum standpoint.

  1. Exploratory subsonic investigation of vortex-flap concept on arrow wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The drag reduction potential of a vortex flap concept, utilizing the thrust contribution of separation vortices maintained over leading edge flap surfaces, was explored in subsonic wind tunnel tests on a highly swept arrow wing configuration. Several flap geometries were tested in comparison with a previous study on the same model with leading edges drooped for attached flow. The most promising vortex flap arrangements produced drag reductions comparable with leading edge droop over a range of lift coefficients from 0.3 to 0.6 (untrimmed), and also indicated beneficial effects in the longitudinal and lateral static stability characteristics.

  2. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  3. Fcc r arrow bct phase transition in Th at extreme compressions: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, O. ); Soederlind, P. ); Wills, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The experimentally observed fcc{r arrow}bct crystallographic phase transition in Th, at {similar to}1 Mbar, is reproduced by means of full-potential, linear-muffin-tin-orbitals calculations. Both the calculated volume and pressure for which the transition occurs, agrees with the experimental data. The calculated pressure dependence of the {ital c}/{ital a} ratio of the bct structure is also in good agreement wtih experimental data. Calculations for La predict the fcc phase to be stable over the bct phase up to {similar to}7 Mbar.

  4. Transonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for three arrow-wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of arrow-wing body configurations consisting of flat, twisted, and cambered twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading and trailing edge control surface deflections, were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.05 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory to experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using state of the art attached flow methods. Conditions under which these theories are valid for these wings are presented.

  5. Supersonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for an arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.54 to 2.50 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using a state-of-the-art inviscid flow, constant-pressure-panel method. Emphasis was on conditions under which this theory is valid for both flat and twisted wings.

  6. Target asymmetry measurements of {gamma} p{r_arrow}{pi} {sup +}n with Phoenics at ELSA

    SciTech Connect

    Althoff, K.; Anton, G.; Arends, J.; Beulertz, W.; Bock, A.; Breuer, M.; Detemple, P.; Dutz, H.; Gehring, R.; Gemander, M.; Goertz, S.; Helbing, K.; Hey, J.; Kraemer, D.; Meyer, W.; Noeldeke, G.; Reicherz, G.; Thomas, A.; Zucht, B.

    1995-05-10

    The target asymmetry T of the reaction {gamma} p{r_arrow}{pi} {sup +}n has been measured with the Phoenics detector in combination with the Bonn frozen spin target at ELSA. For the first time the polarization observable T has been determined simultaneously over a large photon energy range (E{sub {gamma}}=220--800 MeV) and pion angles ({Theta}{sub {pi}}{sup m}=35{degree}--135{degree}) with a tagged photon facility. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. [Upsilon](1[ital S])[r arrow][gamma]+noninteracting particles

    SciTech Connect

    Balest, R.; Cho, K.; Ford, T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Salman, S.; Sapper, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Urish, M.M.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Gollin, G.; Ong, B.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Edwards, K.W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D.I.; Hyatt, E.R.F.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Ba

    1995-03-01

    We consider the decay of [Upsilon](1[ital S]) particles produced at CESR into a photon which is observed by the CLEO detector plus particles which are not seen. These could be real particles which fall outside of our acceptance, or particles which are noninteracting. We report the results of our search fo the process [Upsilon](1[ital S])[r arrow][gamma]+ unseen'' for photon energies [gt]1 GeV, obtaining limits for the case where unseen'' is either a single particle or a particle-antiparticle pair. Our upper limits represent the highest sensitivity measurements for such decays to date.

  8. Chiral power counting and pp {r_arrow} pp{pi}{sup 0} near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kolck, U.; Miller, G.A.

    1995-10-01

    The pp {r_arrow} pp{pi}{sup 0} reaction is studied near threshold using power counting arguments based on chiral perturbation theory with an explicit {Delta} degree of freedom. Important contributions include the so-called impulse term, rescattering via the {Delta} and rescattering via the (off-shell) seagull term responsible for s-wave pion-nucleon scattering. These contributions largely cancel so that their sum greatly underpredicts the total cross-section. Other mechanisms are also discussed. The inclusion of the previously proposed {sigma} meson exchange mechanism is not sufficient to resolve the discrepancy with experiment.

  9. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  10. Radiative corrections to the decays K{sub L}{sup 0} {r_arrow} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and K{sub L}{sup 0} {r_arrow} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, D.A.; Repko, W.W.

    1998-12-31

    The authors calculate the rates and lepton ({ell}) invariant mass distributions for decays of the form 0{sup {minus}+} {r_arrow} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup {minus}}{gamma}, which are important radiative corrections to the purely leptonic decays 0{sup {minus}+} {r_arrow} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup {minus}}. The approach uses the loop diagrams which arise by including the two photon intermediate state and they retain the imaginary parts of the loops--a radiative extension of the unitarity bound for the process. These results are compared with those obtained using a model in which the meson couples directly to the leptons.

  11. Contributions to the Dart versus Arrow Debate: New Data from Holocene Projectile Points from Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Mercedes; Araujo, Astolfo G M

    2015-01-01

    Lithic bifacial points are very common in the southern and southeastern regions of the Brazilian territory. Dated from Early to Late Holocene, these artifacts have not been studied in terms of their propulsion system. Given the characteristics of the bow and arrow compared to the atlatl and dart, there are important differences in the size and weight of arrowheads and dart points. Applying the techniques proposed by Shott (1997), Bradbury (1997), Fenenga (1953), Hughes (1998), and Hildebrandt and King (2012) to specimens recovered from eight sites dating from the early to the late Holocene, this work aims to present preliminary results to better understand the potential presence of darts and arrows in southeastern and southern Brazil. There was a variation in the results according to the application of different techniques. At least one set of points, dated from the Early Holocene, presented quite a high proportion of specimens classified as arrows, indicating the presence of points that could be used as arrowheads.

  12. Measurement of the B0 Lifetime with Partial Reconstruction of overline B o right arrow D *+rho-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, A.

    2002-03-01

    A sample of about 5500 overline B0 right arrow D (sup asterisk +) rho - and 700 overline B0 right arrow D(sup asterisk +) alpha -1 events is identified, using the technique of partial reconstruction, among 22.7 million B overline B pairs collected by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage ring. With these events, the B 0 lifetime is measured to be 1.616 plus or minus 0.064 plus or minus 0.075 ps. As the first time-dependent analysis conducted with partial reconstruction of overline B 0 right arrow D (sup asterisk +) rho -, this measurement serves as validation for the procedures required to measure sin(2beta + gamma) with this technique.

  13. Cross section and analyzing power of {rvec p}p{r_arrow}pn{pi}{sup +} near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Faeldt, G.; Wilkin, C.

    1997-10-01

    The cross section and analyzing power of the {rvec p}p{r_arrow}pn{pi}{sup +} reaction near threshold are estimated in terms of data obtained from the {rvec p}p{r_arrow}d{pi}{sup +} and pp{r_arrow}pp{pi}{sup 0} reactions. A simple final state interaction theory is developed which depends weakly upon the form of the pion-production operator and includes some Coulomb corrections. Within the uncertainties of the model and the input data, the approach reproduces well the measured energy dependence of the total cross section and the proton analyzing power at a fixed pion center-of-mass angle of 90{degree}, from threshold to T{sub p}=330 MeV. The variation of the differential cross section with pion angle is also very encouraging. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Determination of the {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital c} handedness using nonleptonic {Lambda}{sub {ital c}} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, B.; Koerner, J.G.; Kraemer, M.

    1994-03-01

    We consider possibilities to determine the handedness of {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital c} current transitions using semileptonic baryonic {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{sub {ital c}} transitions. We propose to analyze the longitudinal polarization of the daughter baryon {Lambda}{sub {ital c}} by using momentum-spin correlation measurements in the form of forward-backward (FB) asymmetry measures involving its nonleptonic decay products. We use an explicit form factor model to determine the longitudinal polarization of {Lambda}{sub {ital c}} in the semileptonic decay {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{sub {ital c}}+{ital l}{sup {minus}}+{bar {nu}}{sub {ital l}}. The mean longitudinal polarization of {Lambda}{sub {ital c}} is negative (positive) for left-chiral (right-chiral) {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital c} current transitions. The frame-dependent longitudinal polarization of {Lambda}{sub {ital c}} is large ({congruent}80%) in the {Lambda}{sub {ital b}} rest frame and somewhat smaller (30%--40%) in the lab frame when the {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}`s are produced on the {ital Z}{sup 0} peak. We suggest to use nonleptonic decay modes of {Lambda}{sub {ital c}} to analyze its polarization and thereby to determine the chirality of the {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital c} transition. Since {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}`s produced on the {ital Z}{sup 0} are expected to be polarized we discuss issues of the polarization transfer in {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{sub {ital c}} transitions. We also investigate the {ital p}{sub {perpendicular}}- and {ital p}-cut sensitivity of our predictions for the polarization of {Lambda}{sub {ital c}}.

  15. Language of Mechanisms: Exam Analysis Reveals Students' Strengths, Strategies, and Errors When Using the Electron-Pushing Formalism (Curved Arrows) in New Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Alison B.; Featherstone, Ryan B.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated students' successes, strategies, and common errors in their answers to questions that involved the electron-pushing (curved arrow) formalism (EPF), part of organic chemistry's language. We analyzed students' answers to two question types on midterms and final exams: (1) draw the electron-pushing arrows of a reaction step,…

  16. Language of Mechanisms: Exam Analysis Reveals Students' Strengths, Strategies, and Errors When Using the Electron-Pushing Formalism (Curved Arrows) in New Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Alison B.; Featherstone, Ryan B.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated students' successes, strategies, and common errors in their answers to questions that involved the electron-pushing (curved arrow) formalism (EPF), part of organic chemistry's language. We analyzed students' answers to two question types on midterms and final exams: (1) draw the electron-pushing arrows of a reaction step,…

  17. Detailed study of the T = 0, NN interaction via N-italic-arrow-rightP- scattering at 68 MEV

    SciTech Connect

    Henneck, R.; Campbell, J.; Gysin, C.; Hammans, M.; Lorenzon, W.; Pickar, M.A.; Sick, I.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Van den Brandt, B.; and others

    1988-11-20

    We report on first results for a measurement of the spin correlation parameter A/sub z//sub z/ in n-italic-arrow-rightp-arrow-right scattering at 68 MeV, which is highly sensitive to the mixing parameter epsilon/sub 1/. A phase shift analysis of these data, together with forthcoming results of our measurements of /sup d//sup sigma//sub d//sub ..cap omega../ and A/sub y/ at the same energy is expected to allow a determination of epsilon/sub 1/ to within /similar to/ +- 0.3/sup 0/.

  18. Resolving conflicting views: Gaze and arrow cues do not trigger rapid reflexive shifts of attention.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessica J; Gamble, Marissa L; Woldorff, Marty G

    2013-01-01

    It has become widely accepted that the direction of another individual's eye gaze induces rapid, automatic, attentional orienting, due to it being such a vital cue as to where in our environment we should attend. This automatic orienting has also been associated with the directional-arrow cues used in studies of spatial attention. Here, we present evidence that the response-time cueing effects reported for spatially non-predictive gaze and arrow cues are not the result of rapid, automatic shifts of attention. For both cue types, response-time effects were observed only for long-duration cue and target stimuli that overlapped temporally, were largest when the cues were presented simultaneously with the response-relevant target, and were driven by a slowing of responses for invalidly cued targets rather than speeding for validly cued ones. These results argue against automatic attention-orienting accounts and support a novel spatial-incongruency explanation for a whole class of rapid behavioral cueing effects.

  19. Exposing the cuing task: the case of gaze and arrow cues.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Dana A; Ristic, Jelena

    2015-05-01

    The prevailing theoretical accounts of social cognitive processes propose that attention is preferentially engaged by social information. However, empirical investigations report virtually indistinguishable attention effects for social (e.g., gaze) and nonsocial (e.g., arrow) stimuli when a cuing task is used. Here, we show that this discrepancy between theory and data reflects a difference in how the extraneous processes induced by the cuing task's parameters (i.e., tonic alertness and voluntary temporal preparation) modulate cue-specific attentional effects. Overall, we found that tonic alertness and voluntary temporal preparation interacted within the cuing task, resulting in underadditive magnitudes of spatial orienting and superadditive magnitudes of the foreperiod effect. However, those interactions differentially affected social and nonsocial attention. While typical rapid social orienting was resilient to changing task parameters, sustained social orienting was eliminated only when the contribution of both extraneous processes was reduced. In contrast, orienting elicited by nonsocial arrows grew in magnitude with the reduction of voluntary temporal preparation and was delayed by the joint reduction of tonic alertness and voluntary temporal preparation. Together, these data indicate that cue-specific attention effects are masked by task dynamics of the cuing paradigm and highlight a pivotal role of the cuing task parameters in both the measurement and the theoretical attribution of spatial attention effects.

  20. The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: effects of musical training, vividness, and mental control.

    PubMed

    Gelding, Rebecca W; Thompson, William Forde; Johnson, Blake W

    2015-01-01

    Musical imagery is a relatively unexplored area, partly because of deficiencies in existing experimental paradigms, which are often difficult, unreliable, or do not provide objective measures of performance. Here we describe a novel protocol, the Pitch Imagery Arrow Task (PIAT), which induces and trains pitch imagery in both musicians and non-musicians. Given a tonal context and an initial pitch sequence, arrows are displayed to elicit a scale-step sequence of imagined pitches, and participants indicate whether the final imagined tone matches an audible probe. It is a staircase design that accommodates individual differences in musical experience and imagery ability. This new protocol was used to investigate the roles that musical expertise, self-reported auditory vividness and mental control play in imagery performance. Performance on the task was significantly better for participants who employed a musical imagery strategy compared to participants who used an alternative cognitive strategy and positively correlated with scores on the Control subscale from the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale (BAIS). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Imagery performance accuracy was best predicted by a combination of strategy use and scores on the Vividness subscale of BAIS. These results confirm that competent performance on the PIAT requires active musical imagery and is very difficult to achieve using alternative cognitive strategies. Auditory vividness and mental control were more important than musical experience in the ability to perform manipulation of pitch imagery.

  1. Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of Desmoinesian (Pennsylvanian) brachiopods, Bird Spring Group, Arrow Canyon, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, D.L.; Langenheim, R.L. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The Bird Spring group is abundantly fossiliferous, appears free from hiatus, and is being considered for several Pennsylvanian stratotypes. Thus, its brachiopods are of widespread interest. Twenty-nine species and 18 genera occur in the Desmoinesian at Arrow Canyon. Twenty-one species are shared with both the Rocky Mountain and Midwest areas, and seven occur in Ohio. Orthotichia morganiana (Derby), previously recorded in the Itaituba Series, reinforces an association with faunas of the Amazon basin, as also indicated by an Atokan Brasilioproductus at Arrow Canyon. Microfacies 0 through 5 define 13 complete cycles from relatively deep to shallow-water deposition in the Bird Spring Desmoinesian. Only Orbiculoidea sp., Buxtonia sp., and Composita ovata, all adapted to soft substrates, occur in microfacies 0. Twelve species from microfacies 1, calcisiltite with as much as 30% calcarenite, lived in somewhat shallower water. There, productids dominate and are accompanied by Composita spp. and two alate spiriferids. Microfacies 2, calcisiltite with 30-50% calcarenite in a microcrystalline matrix from just below wave base, contains 24 brachiopod species. Spiriferids dominate productids, and the genera Rhipidomella, Orthotichia, Derbyia, Mesolobus, and Hustedia are restricted to this microfacies. Microfacies 3, grain-supported calcarenite in calcisiltite from just above wave base, yielded only Composita ovata, Neospirifer dunbari, and Punctospirifer kentuckensis. However, brachniopod bioclasts reportedly peak in microfacies 3. Microfacies 4 and 5, from shallower environments, lack brachiopods.

  2. The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: Effects of Musical Training, Vividness, and Mental Control

    PubMed Central

    Gelding, Rebecca W.; Thompson, William Forde; Johnson, Blake W.

    2015-01-01

    Musical imagery is a relatively unexplored area, partly because of deficiencies in existing experimental paradigms, which are often difficult, unreliable, or do not provide objective measures of performance. Here we describe a novel protocol, the Pitch Imagery Arrow Task (PIAT), which induces and trains pitch imagery in both musicians and non-musicians. Given a tonal context and an initial pitch sequence, arrows are displayed to elicit a scale-step sequence of imagined pitches, and participants indicate whether the final imagined tone matches an audible probe. It is a staircase design that accommodates individual differences in musical experience and imagery ability. This new protocol was used to investigate the roles that musical expertise, self-reported auditory vividness and mental control play in imagery performance. Performance on the task was significantly better for participants who employed a musical imagery strategy compared to participants who used an alternative cognitive strategy and positively correlated with scores on the Control subscale from the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale (BAIS). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Imagery performance accuracy was best predicted by a combination of strategy use and scores on the Vividness subscale of BAIS. These results confirm that competent performance on the PIAT requires active musical imagery and is very difficult to achieve using alternative cognitive strategies. Auditory vividness and mental control were more important than musical experience in the ability to perform manipulation of pitch imagery. PMID:25807078

  3. New ideas to improve searches for {mu}{sup +} {r_arrow} e{sup +}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.

    1997-11-01

    Searching for decays that change total lepton family number is an excellent method to explore potential physics beyond the Standard Model because those processes are predicted to be zero except when new physics is present. Essentially all extensions of the Standard Model that introduce new, heavy particles predict the existence of these rare decays, though the most probable channel is highly model dependent. Recently, the prejudice has grown within the physics community that supersymmetry is an extension that is likely to be related to nature. Barbieri, Hall, and Strumia show that rare decays are signatures for grand unified supersymmetry and calculate the rates for {mu}{sup +} {r_arrow} e{sup +}{gamma} and related processes for a wide range of parameters of these models. They conclude that {mu}{sup +} {r_arrow} e{sup +}{gamma} has the largest rate by more than two orders of magnitude, and it ranges between the current experimental limit and 10{sup {minus}14}. Hence, there is continuing interest in the community for an experiment that could have a sensitivity near 10{sup {minus}14}. Lessons are drawn from the experience of the MEGA experiment in searching for {mu}{sup +} to e{sup +}{gamma}. In light of that experience, some ideas are evaluated regarding new searches that might take place in the ERA of a source of low-energy muons associated with a muon collider.

  4. Structure of the thermodynamic arrow of time in classical and quantum theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, Kamil

    2017-05-01

    In this work we analyze the structure of the thermodynamic arrow of time, defined by transformations that leave the thermal equilibrium state unchanged, in classical (incoherent) and quantum (coherent) regimes. We note that in the infinite-temperature limit, the thermodynamic ordering of states in both regimes exhibits a lattice structure. This means that when energy does not matter and the only thermodynamic resource is given by information, the thermodynamic arrow of time has a very specific structure. Namely, for any two states at present there exists a unique state in the past consistent with them and with all possible joint pasts. Similarly, there also exists a unique state in the future consistent with those states and with all possible joint futures. We also show that the lattice structure in the classical regime is broken at finite temperatures, i.e., when energy is a relevant thermodynamic resource. Surprisingly, however, we prove that in the simplest quantum scenario of a two-dimensional system, this structure is preserved at finite temperatures. We provide the physical interpretation of these results by introducing and analyzing the history erasure process, and point out that quantum coherence may be a necessary resource for the existence of an optimal erasure process.

  5. Probing factorization in the color-suppressed decay [ital B][r arrow][psi](2[ital S])+[ital K]([ital K][sup *])

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, A.N.; Santra, A.B. )

    1995-02-01

    In order to probe the factorization hypothesis in the color-suppressed decays [ital B][r arrow][psi](2[ital S])+[ital K]([ital K][sup *]) we have studied three ratios [ital R][equivalent to][ital B]([ital B][r arrow][psi][ital K])/[ital B]([ital B][r arrow][psi](2[ital S])[ital K]), [ital R][prime][equivalent to][ital B]([ital B][r arrow][psi][ital K][sup *])/[ital B]([ital B][r arrow][psi](2[ital S])[ital K][sup *]), and [ital P][sub [ital L

  6. Bioaccumulation and food-chain analysis for evaluating ecological risks in terrestrial and wetland habitats: Availability-transfer factors (ATFs) in soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Bollman, M.; Callahan, C.; Gillette, C.; Nebeker, A.; Wilborn, D.

    1998-12-31

    As part of the ecological risk assessment process for terrestrial and wetland habitats, the evaluation of bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCCs) is frequently pursued through food-chain analysis with a subsequent comparison of daily doses to benchmark toxicity reference values, when available. Food-chain analysis has frequently been applied to the analysis of exposure to BCCs identified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs) in the ecological risk assessment process. Here, designed studies focused on wetland food-chains such as hydric soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian and terrestrial food-chains such as soil {r_arrow} plant {r_arrow} small mammal illustrate an approach for the derivation and validation of trophic transfer factors for metals considered as COPECs such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. The results clearly indicate that the transfer of chemicals between trophic levels is critical in the bioaccumulation process in wetland and terrestrial food-chains and is influenced by numerous interacting abiotic and biotic factors, including physicochemical properties of soil, and the role, if any, that the metal has in the receptor as a required trace element.

  7. Comparison of gunshot wounds and field-tipped arrow wounds using morphological criteria and chemical spot tests.

    PubMed

    Randall, B; Newby, P

    1989-05-01

    Arrow wounds represent an unusual class of wounds rarely seen by most death investigators. Although the edged, broadhead-tipped arrow produces a wound usually characteristic of archery/crossbow weapons, the plain, field-tipped arrow wound can be confused with gunshot injuries in those cases in which powder residue or firearm projectiles or fragments or both are not recovered. We present a case of a deer carcass with a wound of uncertain firearm or archery origin which initiated a comparison of firearm wounds and archery wounds on fresh road-killed deer. We found the following features to be valuable in the differentiation of gunshot wounds and field-tipped archery wounds: First, the majority of the gunshot wounds (but none of the arrow wounds) had identifiable, macroscopic, wipe-off material and chemically identifiable wipe-off residue by spot test. Second, the archery wound defects had very inconspicuous abrasion rings as compared to the often prominent abrasion rings of gunshot wounds. Third, the actual central defect in the archery wounds was more likely to be oblong or slit-like compared to the gunshot wound defects, which were more likely to be round.

  8. Gender and Spatial Ability and the Use of Specific Labels and Diagrammatic Arrows in a Micro-Level Chemistry Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, David A.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using both specific labels and diagrammatic arrows in the animation of salt dissolution. Four different versions of the animation served as treatments that were developed based upon principles of educational technology and cognitive psychology. The researchers studied the effects of spatial ability (high or…

  9. Recognition of Damaged Arrow-Road Markings by Visible Light Camera Sensor Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Vokhidov, Husan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kang, Jin Kyu; Hoang, Toan Minh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Automobile driver information as displayed on marked road signs indicates the state of the road, traffic conditions, proximity to schools, etc. These signs are important to insure the safety of the driver and pedestrians. They are also important input to the automated advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), installed in many automobiles. Over time, the arrow-road markings may be eroded or otherwise damaged by automobile contact, making it difficult for the driver to correctly identify the marking. Failure to properly identify an arrow-road marker creates a dangerous situation that may result in traffic accidents or pedestrian injury. Very little research exists that studies the problem of automated identification of damaged arrow-road marking painted on the road. In this study, we propose a method that uses a convolutional neural network (CNN) to recognize six types of arrow-road markings, possibly damaged, by visible light camera sensor. Experimental results with six databases of Road marking dataset, KITTI dataset, Málaga dataset 2009, Málaga urban dataset, Naver street view dataset, and Road/Lane detection evaluation 2013 dataset, show that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27999301

  10. Recognition of Damaged Arrow-Road Markings by Visible Light Camera Sensor Based on Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Vokhidov, Husan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kang, Jin Kyu; Hoang, Toan Minh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-12-16

    Automobile driver information as displayed on marked road signs indicates the state of the road, traffic conditions, proximity to schools, etc. These signs are important to insure the safety of the driver and pedestrians. They are also important input to the automated advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), installed in many automobiles. Over time, the arrow-road markings may be eroded or otherwise damaged by automobile contact, making it difficult for the driver to correctly identify the marking. Failure to properly identify an arrow-road marker creates a dangerous situation that may result in traffic accidents or pedestrian injury. Very little research exists that studies the problem of automated identification of damaged arrow-road marking painted on the road. In this study, we propose a method that uses a convolutional neural network (CNN) to recognize six types of arrow-road markings, possibly damaged, by visible light camera sensor. Experimental results with six databases of Road marking dataset, KITTI dataset, Málaga dataset 2009, Málaga urban dataset, Naver street view dataset, and Road/Lane detection evaluation 2013 dataset, show that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  11. Controlling Attention to Gaze and Arrows in Childhood: An fMRI Study of Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Shook, Devon; Kaplan, Lauren; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gaillard, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine functional anatomy of attention to social (eye gaze) and nonsocial (arrow) communicative stimuli in late childhood and in a disorder defined by atypical processing of social stimuli, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Children responded to a target word ("LEFT"/"RIGHT") in the context of a…

  12. New result on K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} from BNL E787

    SciTech Connect

    REDLINGER,G.

    1999-06-21

    E787 at BNL has reported evidence for the rare decay K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, based on the observation of one candidate event. In this paper, we present the result of analyzing a new dataset of comparable sensitivity to the published result.

  13. Noncentral interactions in elastic scattering with arbitrary spins: The case of N{Delta}{r_arrow}N{Delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, G.; Vidya, M.S.; Prakash, M.M.

    1997-11-01

    The role of noncentral forces is brought out in elastic scattering involving particles with arbitrary spins using a formalism employing projection operator techniques. The particular case of N{Delta}{r_arrow}N{Delta} is considered explicitly. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Controlling Attention to Gaze and Arrows in Childhood: An fMRI Study of Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Shook, Devon; Kaplan, Lauren; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gaillard, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine functional anatomy of attention to social (eye gaze) and nonsocial (arrow) communicative stimuli in late childhood and in a disorder defined by atypical processing of social stimuli, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Children responded to a target word ("LEFT"/"RIGHT") in the context of a…

  15. Literature as Tool for Sustainable Development: A Comparative Literary Analysis of Achebe's "Arrow of God" and Tahir's "The Last Imam"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Abubakar Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at a theoretical comparative textual analysis of two novels; Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" (1964) and Ibrahim Tahir's "The Last Imam" (1984). The focus is on their similarities generally and roles played by the heroes in their different societies as political and religious leaders of the different societies and…

  16. Entanglement versus Stosszahlansatz: disappearance of the thermodynamic arrow in a high-correlation environment.

    PubMed

    Partovi, M Hossein

    2008-02-01

    The crucial role of ambient correlations in determining thermodynamic behavior is established. A class of entangled states of two macroscopic systems is constructed such that each component is in a state of thermal equilibrium at a given temperature, and when the two are allowed to interact heat can flow from the colder to the hotter system. A dilute gas model exhibiting this behavior is presented. This reversal of the thermodynamic arrow is a consequence of the entanglement between the two systems, a condition that is opposite to molecular chaos and shown to be unlikely in a low-entropy environment. By contrast, the second law is established by proving Clausius' inequality in a low-entropy environment. These general results strongly support the expectation, first expressed by Boltzmann and subsequently elaborated by others, that the second law is an emergent phenomenon which requires a low-entropy cosmological environment, one that can effectively function as an ideal information sink.

  17. Investigations of dynamical models of B r arrow. psi. / J K sub + sup *

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.F.L. )

    1992-03-01

    We investigate representative dynamical models of {ital B}{r arrow}{psi}/{ital J} K{sub +}{sup *} with an eye toward the suggestion of Kayser, Kuroda, Peccei, and Sanda and Lipkin that such modes may be used to reduce the required luminosity to observe {ital CP} violation in {ital B}-factory-type devices on the one hand and toward recent impending data from ARGUS which may be used to discriminate among such models, and to corroborate any conclusions from our analysis about such a reduction on the other hand. We find that all three of our relativistically invariant models give {ital CP}-even final-state dominance of this decay, in agreement with the initial reports from ARGUS. Further, the method of Lepage and Brodsky is consistent with the ARGUS observation of helicity 0 for the dominant {ital CP}-even final states.

  18. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  19. Effect of sweep angles on aerodynamic performance of double arrow wing - An analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Hybrid wing planforms are studied for adoption on supersonic transport and fighter aircraft. The free vortex sheet method is used to determine effects of the leading-edge sweep angles on the aerodynamic performance of a double arrow wing with a strake. Results show lift and drag increase with the increase of the inboard and outboard leading-edge sweep angles. However, the lift-to-drag ratio is little influenced by the changes in these sweep angles. Spanwise surface pressure distributions on the aft region are influenced by the inboard sweep angle while the outboard sweep angle has no effect on these pressures. Finally, the experimental data and predicted results are compared to show good agreement.

  20. Anti-malarials are anti-cancers and vice versa - one arrow two sparrows.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Chanakya Nath; Das, Sarita; Nayak, Anmada; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit

    2015-09-01

    Repurposing is the novel means of drug discovery in modern science due to its affordability, safety and availability. Here, we systematically discussed the efficacy and mode of action of multiple bioactive, synthetic compounds and their potential derivatives which are used to treat/prevent malaria and cancer. We have also discussed the detailed molecular pathway involved in anti-cancer potentiality of an anti-malarial drug and vice versa. Although the causative agents, pathophysiology and manifestation of both the diseases are different but special emphasis has been given on similar pathways governing disease manifestation and the drugs which act through deregulating those pathways. Finally, a future direction has been speculated to combat these two diseases by a single agent developed using nanotechnology. Extended combination and new formulation of existing drugs for one disease may lead to the discovery of drug for other diseases like an arrow for two sparrows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Scan path entropy and arrow plots: capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

    PubMed Central

    Hooge, Ignace; Camps, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures (1) “scan path entropy” to quantify gaze guidance and (2) the “arrow plot” to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50). The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements). Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place. PMID:24399993

  2. Evaluation of structural design concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach 2.7 arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near term start of design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low profile convex beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with boron polyimide composites. The fuselage shell consists of hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. A summary of the study effort is presented, and a discussion of the overall logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design are included.

  3. Titanium and advanced composite structures for a supersonic cruise arrow wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Hoy, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Structural design studies were made, based on current technology and on an estimate of technology to be available in the mid 1980's, to assess the relative merits of structural concepts and materials for an advanced arrow wing configuration cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to insure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, and define an efficient structural arrangement. Material and concept selection, detailed structural analysis, structural design and airplane mass analysis were completed based on current technology. Based on estimated future technology, structural sizing for strength and a preliminary assessment of the flutter of a strength designed composite structure were completed. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members.

  4. Effect of a simulated engine jet blowing above an arrow wing at Mach 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.; Hayes, C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of a gas jet simulating a turbojet engine exhaust blowing above a cambered and twisted arrow wing were investigated. Tests were conducted in the Langley 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at a Mach number of 2.0. Nozzle pressure ratios from 1 to 64 were tested with both helium and air used as jet gases. The tests were conducted at angles of attack from -2 deg to 8 deg at a Reynolds number of 9,840,000 per meter. Only the forces and moments on the wing were measured. Results of the investigation indicated that the jet blowing over the wing caused reductions in maximum lift-drag ratio of about 4 percent for helium and 6 percent for air at their respective design nozzle pressure ratios, relative to jet-off data. Moderate changes in the longitudinal, vertical, or angular positions of the jet relative to the wing had little effect on the wing aerodynamic characteristics.

  5. Asymmetric transport of light in arrow-shape photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahal, H.; AbdelMalek, F.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we report a design of an asymmetric light propagation based on the Photonic Crystal (PC) structure. The proposed PC is constructed of an arrow-shaped structure integrating different rows of air holes which offer more than 65% transmission in one direction and less than 1% in the opposite direction. The proposed PC is based on the use of two parallel PC waveguides with different air holes in a single platform. The design, optimization and performance of the PC waveguide devices are carried out by employing in-house accurate 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (2D FDTD) computational techniques. Our preliminary numerical simulation results show that complete asymmetric transmission can be achieved in the proposed single structure which would play a significant contribution on realization of high-volume nanoscale photonic integrated circuitry.

  6. The emergence of time's arrows and special science laws from physics.

    PubMed

    Loewer, Barry

    2012-02-06

    In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from 'top-down' emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do 'the arrows of time' emerge from microphysics? (ii) How do macroscopic special science laws and causation emerge from microphysics? Answering these questions is especially urgent for those, who like myself, think that a certain version of physicalism, which I call 'micro-physical completeness' (MC), is true. According to MC, there are fundamental dynamical laws that completely govern (deterministically or probabilistically), the evolution of all micro-physical events and there are no additional ontologically independent dynamical or causal special science laws. In other words, there is no ontologically independent 'top-down' causation. Of course, MC does not imply that physicists now or ever will know or propose the complete laws of physics. Or even if the complete laws were known we would know how special science properties and laws reduce to laws and properties of fundamental physics. Rather, MC is a contingent metaphysical claim about the laws of our world. After a discussion of the two questions, I will argue the key to showing how it is possible for the arrows of time and the special science laws to emerge from microphysics and a certain account of how thermodynamics is related to fundamental dynamical laws.

  7. Solid phase microextraction Arrow for the sampling of volatile amines in wastewater and atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Helin, Aku; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Schilling, Beat; Läubli, Thomas; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2015-12-24

    A new method is introduced for the sampling of volatile low molecular weight alkylamines in ambient air and wastewater by utilizing a novel SPME Arrow system, which contains a larger volume of sorbent compared to a standard SPME fiber. Parameters affecting the extraction, such as coating material, need for preconcentration, sample volume, pH, stirring rate, salt addition, extraction time and temperature were carefully optimized. In addition, analysis conditions, including desorption temperature and time as well as gas chromatographic parameters, were optimized. Compared to conventional SPME fiber, the SPME Arrow had better robustness and sensitivity. Average intermediate reproducibility of the method expressed as relative standard deviation was 12% for dimethylamine and 14% for trimethylamine, and their limit of quantification 10μg/L and 0.13μg/L respectively. Working range was from limits of quantification to 500μg/L for dimethylamine and to 130μg/L for trimethylamine. Several alkylamines were qualitatively analyzed in real samples, while target compounds dimethyl- and trimethylamines were quantified. The concentrations in influent and effluent wastewater samples were almost the same (∼80μg/L for dimethylamine, 120μg/L for trimethylamine) meaning that amines pass the water purification process unchanged or they are produced at the same rate as they are removed. For the air samples, preconcentration with phosphoric acid coated denuder was required and the concentration of trimethylamine was found to be around 1ng/m(3). The developed method was compared with optimized method based on conventional SPME and advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Results of the European clinical trial of Arrow CorAide left ventricular assist system.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Diyar; Arusoglu, Latif; Gazzoli, Fabrizio; Hetzer, Roland; Morshius, Michael; Alloni, Alessia; Viganò, Mario; Koerfer, Reiner; Golding, Leonard A R; El Banayosy, Aly

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and performance of the Arrow CorAide left ventricular assist system (LVAS) (Arrow International, Reading, PA, USA), a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device, as bridge to transplantation or recovery as well as destination therapy in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure. Twenty-one patients were implanted with the CorAide LVAS between February 2005 and February 2006 in a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized trial. Seventeen patients (81%) survived to >180 days or to transplantation. The cumulative time on device was 16.58 patient years (range 23-796 days, median 192 days). No intraoperative technical issues were observed at the time of implantation. Of the 21 implants, nine patients died on device, two were converted to other devices, and 10 were transplanted. Three patient deaths were attributed to pump polymer coating delamination. Postmortem device inspection determined delamination of the polymer coating on the pump's internal surface to be the cause of the late hemolysis and sudden fatal pump stops. No embolic or driveline infection event was recorded. The automatic flow control algorithm functioned reliably throughout the trial. Primary performance trial endpoint was achieved with 81% survival to 180 days or transplantation. Delamination of the polymer coating on the internal surface of the pump with resultant hemolysis and pump stops was the sole major device event in this trial. Elimination of the polymer coating and replacement with an amorphous carbon coating has resolved this in preclinical testing, prior to initiation of further clinical testing of this device. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Lift-Drag Ratios for an Arrow Wing With Bodies at Mach Number 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1959-01-01

    Force and moment characteristics, including lift-drag ratios, have been measured for bodies of circular and elliptic cross section alone and combined with a warped arrow wing. The test Mach number was 2.94, and the Reynolds number was 3.5 x 10(exp 6) (based on wing mean aerodynamic chord). The experimental results show that for equal volume the use of an elliptical body can result in a noticeably higher maximum lift-drag ratio than that obtained through use of a circular body. Methods for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics have been assessed by comparing computed with experimental results. Because of good agreement of the predictions with experiment, maximum lift-drag ratios have been computed for the arrow wing in combination with bodies of various sizes. These calculations have shown that, for an efficient wing-body combination, little loss in maximum lift-drag ratio results from considerable extension of afterbody length. For example, for a wing-body configuration having a maximum lift-drag ratio of about 7.1, a loss in maximum lift-drag ratio of less than 0.2 results from a 40-percent increase in body volume by extension of afterbody length. It also appears that with body length fixed, maximum lift-drag ratio decreases almost linearly with increase in body diameter. For a wing- body combination employing a body of circular cross section, a decrease in maximum lift-drag ratio from about 9.1 for zero body diameter to about 4.6 for a body diameter of 13.5 percent of the body length was computed.

  10. Soybean cultivars 'Williams 82' and 'Maple Arrow' produce both urea and ammonia during ureide degradation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Christopher D; Polacco, Joe C

    2004-04-01

    The ability of two soybean (Glycine max L. [Merrill]) cultivars, 'Williams 82' and 'Maple Arrow', which were reported to use different ureide degradation pathways, to degrade the ureides allantoin and allantoate was investigated. Protein fractions and total leaf homogenates from the fourth trifoliate leaves of both cultivars were examined for the ability to evolve either (14)CO(2) or [(14)C]urea from (14)C-labelled ureides in the presence of various inhibitors. (14)CO(2) evolution from [2,7-(14)C]allantoate was catalysed by 25-50% saturated ammonium sulphate fractions of both cultivars. This activity was inhibited by acetohydroxamate (AHA), which has been used to inhibit plant ureases, but not by phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD), a more specific urease inhibitor. Thus, in both cultivars, allantoate may be metabolized by allantoate amidohydrolase. This activity was sensitive to EDTA, consistent with previous reports demonstrating that allantoate amidohydrolase requires manganese for full activity. Total leaf homogenates of both cultivars evolved both (14)CO(2) and [(14)C]urea from [2,7-(14)C] (ureido carbon labelled) allantoin, not previously reported in either 'Williams 82' or in 'Maple Arrow'. In situ leaf degradation of (14)C-labelled allantoin confirmed that both urea and CO(2)/NH(3) are direct products of ureide degradation. Growth of plants in the presence of PPD under fixing and non-fixing conditions caused urea accumulation in both cultivars, but did not have a significant impact on total seed nitrogen. Urea levels were higher in N-fixing plants of both cultivars. Contrary to previous reports, no significant biochemical difference was found in the ability of these two cultivars to degrade ureides under the conditions used.

  11. The emergence of time's arrows and special science laws from physics

    PubMed Central

    Loewer, Barry

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from ‘top-down’ emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do ‘the arrows of time’ emerge from microphysics? (ii) How do macroscopic special science laws and causation emerge from microphysics? Answering these questions is especially urgent for those, who like myself, think that a certain version of physicalism, which I call ‘micro-physical completeness’ (MC), is true. According to MC, there are fundamental dynamical laws that completely govern (deterministically or probabilistically), the evolution of all micro-physical events and there are no additional ontologically independent dynamical or causal special science laws. In other words, there is no ontologically independent ‘top-down’ causation. Of course, MC does not imply that physicists now or ever will know or propose the complete laws of physics. Or even if the complete laws were known we would know how special science properties and laws reduce to laws and properties of fundamental physics. Rather, MC is a contingent metaphysical claim about the laws of our world. After a discussion of the two questions, I will argue the key to showing how it is possible for the arrows of time and the special science laws to emerge from microphysics and a certain account of how thermodynamics is related to fundamental dynamical laws. PMID:23386956

  12. Trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter in a sister and brother: Further delineation of the {open_quotes}trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter syndrome{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuuren-Bemelmans, C.C.; Leegte, B.; Hodenius, T.M.J.

    1995-07-31

    We report on a 22-year-old woman and her 21-year-old brother with mild mental retardation, long face, prominent forehead, retrognathia, and (relative) macrocephaly. At birth they were small for date, their length is now below the 10th centile. Chromosome analysis demonstrated a nearly pure trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter in both patients due to unbalanced segregation of a paternal reciprocal balanced translocation 46,XY,t(1;15) (q42;p11). This is the second report of a nearly pure trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter. When comparing the manifestations of our patients with those of other reported cases we conclude that the most characteristic clinical manifestations of this syndrome are macrocephaly, prominent forehead, micro/retrognathia, large fontanelle, intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth retardation, and mental retardation. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The mechanism of synthesis of a mixed-linkage (1{r{underscore}arrow}3), (1{r{underscore}arrow}4) {beta}-D-glucan in maize. Evidence for multiple sites of glucosyl transfer in the synthase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Buckeridge, M.S.; Vergara, C.E.; Carpita, N.C.

    1999-08-01

    The authors examined the mechanism of synthesis in vitro of (1{r{underscore}arrow}3), (1{r{underscore}arrow}4){Beta}-D-glucan ({Beta}-glucan), a growth-specific cell wall polysaccharide round in grasses and cereals. {beta}-Glucan is composed primarily of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units linked by single (1{r{underscore}arrow}3){beta}-linkages. The ratio of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units in the native polymer is strictly controlled at between 2 and 3 in all grasses, whereas the ratios of these units in {Beta}-glucan formed in vitro vary from 1.5 with 5 {micro}M UDP-glucose (GLc) to over 11 with 30 nM substrate. These results support a model in which three sites of glycosyl transfer occur within the synthase complex to produce the cellobiosyl-(1{r{underscore}arrow}3)-D-glucosyl units. The authors propose that failure to fill one of the sites results in the iterative addition of one or more cellobiosyl units to produce the longer cellodextrin units in the polymer. Variations in the UDP-Glc concentration in excised maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles did not result in wide variations in the ratios of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units in {beta}-glucan synthesized in vivo, indicating that other factors control delivery of UDP-Glc to the synthase. In maize sucrose synthase is enriched in Golgi membranes and plasma membranes and may be involved in the control of substrate delivery to {beta}-glucan synthase and cellulose synthase.

  14. Observation of the Decay {ital K}{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Sambamurti, A.; Stevens, A.; Strand, R.C.; Witzig, C.; Louis, W.C.; Akerib, D.S.; Ardebili, M.; Convery, M.; Ito, M.M.; Marlow, D.R.; McPherson, R.; Meyers, P.D.; Selen, M.A.; Shoemaker, F.C.; Smith, A.J.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Felawka, L.; Konaka, A.; Kuno, Y.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Poutissou, J.; Poutissou, R.; Roy, J.; Turcot, A.S.; Kitching, P.; Nakano, T.; Rozon, M.; Soluk, R.

    1997-12-01

    We have observed the rare decay K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} and measured the branching ratio {Gamma}(K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}) /{Gamma}(K{sup +} {r_arrow} all)=[5.0{plus_minus}0.4(stat){plus_minus} 0.7(syst){plus_minus}0.6(th)]{times}10{sup {minus}8}. We compare this result with predictions from chiral perturbation theory and estimates based on the decay K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Modified zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 as solid-phase microextraction Arrow coating for sampling of amines in wastewater and food samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hangzhen; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Gan, Ning; Sakeye, Motolani; Sarfraz, Jawad; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2017-02-24

    In this study, a novel solid phase microextration (SPME) Arrow was prepared for the sampling of volatile low molecular weight alkylamines (trimethylamine (TMA) and triethylamine (TEA)) in wastewater, salmon and mushroom samples before gas chromatographic separation with mass spectrometer as detector. Acidified zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (A-ZIF-8) was utilized as adsorbent and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as the adhesive. The custom SPME Arrow was fabricated via a physical adhesion: (1) ZIF-8 particles were suspended in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and PVC to form a homogeneous suspension, (2) a non-coated stainless steel SPME Arrow was dipped in the ZIF-8/PVC suspension for several times to obtain a uniform and thick coating, (3) the pore size of ZIF-8 was modified by headspace exposure to hydrochloric acid in order to increase the extraction efficiency for amines. The effect of ZIF-8 concentration in PVC solution, dipping cycles and aging temperature on extraction efficiency was investigated. In addition, sampling parameters such as NaCl concentration, sample volume, extraction time, potassium hydroxide concentration, desorption temperature and desorption time were optimized. The Arrow-to-Arrow reproducibilities (RSDs) for five ZIF-8 coated Arrows were 15.6% and 13.3% for TMA and TEA, respectively. The extraction with A-ZIF-8/PVC Arrow was highly reproducible for at least 130 cycles without noticeable decrease of performance (RSD<12.5%). Headspace SPME of 7.5mL sample solution with the fabricated ZIF-8 coated Arrow achieved linear ranges of 1-200ngmL(-1) for both TMA and TEA. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1ngmL(-1) for both TMA and TEA. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TMA and TEA in wastewater, salmon and mushroom samples giving satisfactory selectivity towards the studied amines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|’hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chaboo, Caroline S.; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San (“Bushmen”) arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called ‘click languages’ in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|’hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|’hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|’hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes. PMID:27006594

  17. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|'hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae).

    PubMed

    Chaboo, Caroline S; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|'hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|'hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|'hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes.

  18. Is the hypothesis about a low entropy initial state of the Universe necessary for explaining the arrow of time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghı, Nino

    2016-07-01

    According to statistical mechanics, microstates of an isolated physical system (say, a gas in a box) at time t0 in a given macrostate of less-than-maximal entropy typically evolve in such a way that the entropy at time t increases with |t -t0| in both time directions. In order to account for the observed entropy increase in only one time direction, the thermodynamic arrow of time, one usually appeals to the hypothesis that the initial state of the Universe was one of very low entropy. In certain recent models of cosmology, however, no hypothesis about the initial state of the Universe is invoked. We discuss how the emergence of a thermodynamic arrow of time in such models can nevertheless be compatible with the above-mentioned consequence of statistical mechanics, appearances to the contrary notwithstanding.

  19. Exploratory investigation of a spanwise blowing concept for tip-stall control on cranked-arrow wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.

    1992-01-01

    A novel blowing concept aimed at controlling the tip-panel stall of 'cranked-arrow' type wings was experimentally investigated. A spanwise-directed jet sheet tangential to the upper surface, blown from a chordwise slot located at the crank, interacts obliquely with the external flow to generate a powerful and highly controllable vortex, substantially covering the tip panel. The incremental suction due to this jet vortex, coupled with its flow stabilization effect improves the tip-panel maximum lift and stall characteristics, leading to pitch-up alleviation and lateral control augmentation. Low-speed wind tunnel flow visualizations, pressure measurements and force/moment results are presented validating the flow-control concept and illustrating its potential on a generic crank-arrow wing model.

  20. The Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) and its Extension to the International Community as CAWAPI: Objectives and Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Obara, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the F-16XL-1 aircraft, its role in the High Speed Research (HSR) program and how it was morphed into the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP). Various flight, wind-tunnel and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data sets were generated during the CAWAP. These unique and open flight datasets for surface pressures, boundary-layer profiles and skin-friction distributions, along with surface flow data, are described and sample data comparisons given. This is followed by a description of how the project became internationalized to be known as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) and is concluded by an introduction to the results of a 5-year CFD predictive study of data.

  1. The Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) and its Extension to the International Community as CAWAPI: Objectives and Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Obara, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the F-16XL-1 aircraft, its role in the High Speed Research (HSR) program and how it was morphed into the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP). Various flight, wind-tunnel and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data sets were generated during the CAWAP. These unique and open flight datasets for surface pressures, boundary-layer profiles and skin-friction distributions, along with surface flow data, are described and sample data comparisons given. This is followed by a description of how the project became internationalized to be known as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) and is concluded by an introduction to the results of a 5-year CFD predictive study of data.

  2. PAL SPME Arrow--evaluation of a novel solid-phase microextraction device for freely dissolved PAHs in water.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Andreas; Jochmann, Maik A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-01-01

    After more than 25 years, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has gained widespread acceptance as a well-automatable and flexible microextraction technique, while its instrumental basis remained mostly unchanged. The novel PAL (Prep And Load solution) SPME Arrow combines the advantages of SPME with the benefits of extraction techniques providing larger sorption phase volumes such as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). It thereby avoids the inherent drawbacks of both techniques such as limitations in method automation in the case of SBSE, as well as the small sorption phase volumes and the lacking fiber robustness of classical SPME fibers. This new design is based on a robust stainless steel backbone, carrying, the screw connection to the PAL sampler, the enlarged sorption phase, and an arrow-shaped tip for conservative penetration of septa (hence the name). An outer capillary encloses this phase apart from enrichment and desorption processes and rests against the tip during transfer and penetrations, resulting in a homogeneously closed device. Here, we present an evaluation and a comparison of the novel PAL SPME Arrow with classical SPME fibers, extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes, from the freely dissolved fraction in lab water and groundwater via direct immersion using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as common sorption phase material. Limits of detection, repeatabilities, and extraction yields were determined for the PAL SPME Arrow and compared to data of classical SPME fibers and SBSE bars. Results indicate a significant benefit in extraction efficiency due to the larger sorption phase volume. It is accompanied by faultless mechanical robustness and thus better reliability, especially in case of prolonged, unattended, and automated operation. As an exemplary application, the water-soluble fraction of PAHs and derivatives in a roofing felt sample was quantified.

  3. Directional random laser source consisting of a HC-ARROW reservoir connected to channels for spectroscopic analysis in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Jorge, K C; Alvarado, M A; Melo, E G; Carreño, M N P; Alayo, M I; Wetter, N U

    2016-07-10

    Light sources are used in optofluidic devices for real-time system control and quantitative analysis of important process parameters. In this work, we present a random laser source using a hollow-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (HC-ARROW) containing the gain media inside a reservoir to reduce dye bleaching, which is connected to microchannel waveguides to increase beam directionality. The device is pumped externally and emits a highly coherent and collimated laser beam.

  4. b {r_arrow} sl{sup +}l{sup {minus}} in the left-right symmetric model

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1997-05-01

    We begin to analyze and contrast the predictions for the decay b {r_arrow} sl{sup +}l{sup {minus}} in the Left-Right Symmetric Model (LMR) with those of the Standard Model (SM). In particular, we show that the forward-backward asymmetry of the lepton spectrum can be used to distinguish the SM from the simplest manifestation of the LRM.

  5. Terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 3 [46,XX,del(3)(q27{r_arrow}qter)

    SciTech Connect

    Chitayat, D.; Babul, R.; Silver, M.M.

    1996-01-02

    We report on a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 3[46,XX,del(3)(q27{r_arrow}qter)] in a female newborn infant who died 45 hours after delivery and had multiple congenital abnormalities including bilateral anophthalmia, congenital heart disease, and abnormal genitalia. The findings are compared to those of four previously reported cases with terminal de (3q). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Observation of the Decay {ital K}{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{gamma}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kitching, P.; Nakano, T.; Rozon, M.; Soluk, R.; Adler, S.; Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Sambamurti, A.; Stevens, A.; Strand, R.C.; Witzig, C.; Louis, W.C.; Akerib, D.S.; Ardebili, M.; Convery, M.; Ito, M.M.; Marlow, D.R.; McPherson, R.A.; Meyers, P.D.; Selen, M.A.; Shoemaker, F.C.; Smith, A.J.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Felawka, L.; Konaka, A.; Kuno, Y.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Poutissou, J.; Poutissou, R.; Roy, J.; Turcot, A.S.

    1997-11-01

    The first observation of the decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}{gamma} is reported. A total of 31 events was observed with an estimated background of 5.1{plus_minus}3.3 events in the {pi}{sup +} momentum range from 100 to 180 MeV/{ital c}. The corresponding partial branching ratio, B(K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}{gamma} ,100 MeV/c{lt}P{sub {pi}{sup +} }{lt}180 MeV/c) , is [6.0{plus_minus}1.5(stat){plus_minus}0.7 (syst)]{times}10{sup {minus}7} . No K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}{gamma} decay was observed in the {pi}{sup +} momentum region greater than 215 MeV/{ital c}. The observed {pi}{sup +} momentum spectrum is compared with the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Ethogram analysis reveals new body patterning behavior of the tropical arrow squid Doryteuthis plei off the São Paulo Coast.

    PubMed

    Postuma, Felippe A; Gasalla, Maria A

    2015-10-01

    Squids can express several body patterns, aided by a variety of visual signals that are produced by chromatophore organs. However, for several squid species, body patterning behavior during reproductive activity is still not completely understood. For example, what are the specific patterning changes and other visual signals, how do they appear, and how long do they last? To test the hypothesis that distinct chromatic components appear at different durations on the skin of the tropical arrow squid Doryteuthis plei in the Southern Hemisphere, we identified and described its body patterning behavior. Specimen squids were obtained from off the South Brazil Bight, near the coast of the São Paulo shelf. Animals were maintained and monitored in circular tanks for 62 d over six observation periods, from 2011 through 2013. An ethogram was constructed showing 19 chromatic, 5 locomotor, and 12 postural components, or body patterns, associated with reproductive behavior. New chromatic components (i.e., those not yet reported in the North Atlantic D. plei species), particularly those linked to female sexual maturity, were observed. A postural component, the "J-Posture," linked to defenses and alarm, also was noted. The average time spent for "light" components was 32 s. The corresponding "dark" components had an average duration of 28 s. Females displayed the chromatic components related to calm behavior longer than males. However, males appeared to be more dedicated to disputes over resources, and used rapid, miscellaneous visual signaling. In conclusion, new basic types of body patterns are described for D. plei. The repertoire of chromatic components reported in the ethogram is, to our knowledge, the first record for D. plei of the Southern Hemisphere. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  8. Threshold responses of Blackside Dace (Chrosomus cumberlandensis) and Kentucky Arrow Darter (Etheostoma spilotum) to stream conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Floyd, Michael; Compton, Michael; McDonald, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Chrosomus cumberlandensis (Blackside Dace [BSD]) and Etheostoma spilotum (Kentucky Arrow Darter [KAD]) are fish species of conservation concern due to their fragmented distributions, their low population sizes, and threats from anthropogenic stressors in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the relationship between fish abundance and stream conductivity, an index of environmental quality and potential physiological stressor. We modeled occurrence and abundance of KAD in the upper Kentucky River basin (208 samples) and BSD in the upper Cumberland River basin (294 samples) for sites sampled between 2003 and 2013. Segmented regression indicated a conductivity change-point for BSD abundance at 343 μS/cm (95% CI: 123–563 μS/cm) and for KAD abundance at 261 μS/cm (95% CI: 151–370 μS/cm). In both cases, abundances were negligible above estimated conductivity change-points. Post-hoc randomizations accounted for variance in estimated change points due to unequal sample sizes across the conductivity gradients. Boosted regression-tree analysis indicated stronger effects of conductivity than other natural and anthropogenic factors known to influence stream fishes. Boosted regression trees further indicated threshold responses of BSD and KAD occurrence to conductivity gradients in support of segmented regression results. We suggest that the observed conductivity relationship may indicate energetic limitations for insectivorous fishes due to changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community composition.

  9. Scavenging interactions between the arrow tooth eel Synaphobranchus kaupii and the Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A J; Fujii, T; Bagley, P M; Priede, I G

    2011-07-01

    A scavenging interaction between the arrow tooth eel Synaphobranchus kaupii and the Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis, both ubiquitous components of fish assemblages at bathyal depths, was observed. Using a baited camera between 1297 and 2453 m in the eastern Atlantic Ocean continental slope, it was shown that despite consistently rapid arrival times of S. kaupii (<5 min), their feeding bouts (indicated by acute peak in numbers) did not take place until shortly after C. coelolepis arrived and removed the exterior surface of the bait (skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis carcass). Change in the numbers of S. kaupii was hence dependent on the arrival of a more powerful scavenger throughout the study site, and at the deeper stations where the population of C. coelolepis declined, S. kaupii was observed to be present but waited for >2 h before feeding, thus contradicting conventional scavenging assumptions in the presence of a food fall. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. ARGX-87: Accident Response Group Exercise, 1987: A Broken Arrow mini exercise. [Training

    SciTech Connect

    Schuld, E.P.; Cruff, D.F.

    1987-07-01

    A Broken Arrow mini exercise dubbed ''Accident Response Group Exercise - 1987'' (ARGX-87) was conducted on June 1, 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL). The exercise started at 0445 PDT with a call from the Department of Energy (DOE) - EOC in Washington, DC, to the Albuquerque Operations (AL - ) - EOC. AL, in turn, called the Laboratory off-hour emergency number (Fire Dispatcher), who called the Laboratory Emergency Duty Officer (LEDO). The LEDO then contacted the Accident Response Group (ARG) Senior Scientific Advisor. Calls were placed to assemble appropriate members of the ARG in the ALERT Center. No phone number for SNLL was available at the Albuquerque Operations EOC, so a controller injected a message to SNLL to get them involved in the exercise. The messages received at the Laboratory identified the Air Force line item weapon system involved in the accident and the accident location. As people arrived at the ALERT Center they began discussing the details of the accident. They also started working the deployment logistics and other issues. Travel arrangements for the HOT SPOT equipment and ARG personnel were made for immediate deployment to the accident site in North Dakota. The exercise was terminated at 0840 as planned. While certain procedural deficiencies were noted, the exercise was considered a valuable learning experience. The results and observations from this experience will be used to refine the operating procedures and the training program.

  11. Supersonic Aerodynamic Design Improvements of an Arrow-Wing HSCT Configuration Using Nonlinear Point Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Eric R.; Hager, James O.; Agrawal, Shreekant

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the supersonic nonlinear point design optimization efforts at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace under the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The baseline for these optimization efforts has been the M2.4-7A configuration which represents an arrow-wing technology for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Optimization work on this configuration began in early 1994 and continued into 1996. Initial work focused on optimization of the wing camber and twist on a wing/body configuration and reductions of 3.5 drag counts (Euler) were realized. The next phase of the optimization effort included fuselage camber along with the wing and a drag reduction of 5.0 counts was achieved. Including the effects of the nacelles and diverters into the optimization problem became the next focus where a reduction of 6.6 counts (Euler W/B/N/D) was eventually realized. The final two phases of the effort included a large set of constraints designed to make the final optimized configuration more realistic and they were successful albeit with a loss of performance.

  12. Supersonic Aerodynamic Design Improvements of an Arrow-Wing HSCT Configuration Using Nonlinear Point Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Eric R.; Hager, James O.; Agrawal, Shreekant

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the supersonic nonlinear point design optimization efforts at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace under the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The baseline for these optimization efforts has been the M2.4-7A configuration which represents an arrow-wing technology for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Optimization work on this configuration began in early 1994 and continued into 1996. Initial work focused on optimization of the wing camber and twist on a wing/body configuration and reductions of 3.5 drag counts (Euler) were realized. The next phase of the optimization effort included fuselage camber along with the wing and a drag reduction of 5.0 counts was achieved. Including the effects of the nacelles and diverters into the optimization problem became the next focus where a reduction of 6.6 counts (Euler W/B/N/D) was eventually realized. The final two phases of the effort included a large set of constraints designed to make the final optimized configuration more realistic and they were successful albeit with a loss of performance.

  13. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept, untwisted uncambered arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Kjelgaard, S. O.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to provide a detailed study of wing pressure distributions and forces and moments acting on a highly swept arrow-wing model at low Mach numbers (0.25). A limited investigation of the effect of spoilers at several locations was also conducted. Analysis of the pressure data shows that for the configuration with undeflected leading edges, vortex separation occurs on the outboard wing panel for angles of attack on the order of only 3 deg, whereas conventional leading-edge separation occurs at a nondimensional semispan station of 0.654 for the same incidence angle. The pressure data further show that vortex separation exists at wing stations more inboard for angles of attack on the order of 7 deg and that these vortices move inboard and forward with increasing angle of attack. The force and moment data show the expected nonlinear increments in lift and pitching moment and the increased drag associated with the vortex separation. The pressure data and corresponding force and moment data confirm that deflecting the entire wing leading edge uniformly to 30 deg is effective in forestalling the onset of flow separation to angles of attack greater than 8.6 deg; however, the inboard portion of the leading edge is overdeflected. The investigation further identifies the contribution of the trailing-edge flap deflection to the leading-edge upwash fields.

  14. Phase Space Approach for S2 arrow S0 internal conversion in the benzene molecule.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallush, Shimshon; Segev, Bilha; Sergeev, Alexei; Heller, Eric J.

    2000-06-01

    The theoretical problem of finding propensity rules for the partition of energy between competing vibrations in a radiationless vibronic relaxation transition, is converted by the phase-space method of [1,2] to the simple mathematical problem of finding a maximum for a simple function under a constraint. The function is the Wigner function of the initial state and the constraint is energy conservation, defining an accepting energy surface in phase space. We apply this phase space method for finding propensity rules for vibronic transitions when the Frack-Condon factors are exponentially small to the classical example of the benzene molecule. We extend the method to forbidden transitions and include in the analysis non-harmonic force-field effects. Using the phase space analysis, we explain the non-classical behavior of the S_2arrow S0 relaxation of the benzene. Given the energy gap, reasonable displacements and recently calculated force fields [3] we show that almost all the energy must go to C-H stretching. Non-harmonic effects increase in this case the transition rate but do not change the partition of energy between the accepting vibrational modes. [1] E.J. Heller and D. Beck, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 350 (1993). [2] B. Segev and E.J. Heller, Journal of Chemical Physics, 112, 4004-4013 (2000). [3] A. Miani, E. Cane, P. Palmieri, A. Trombetti,N.C. Handy, J. Chem. Phys., 112, 248-259 (2000).

  15. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  16. The Potential Landscape of Genetic Circuits Imposes the Arrow of Time in Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Xu, Li; Wang, Erkang; Huang, Sui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Differentiation from a multipotent stem or progenitor state to a mature cell is an essentially irreversible process. The associated changes in gene expression patterns exhibit time-directionality. This “arrow of time” in the collective change of gene expression across multiple stable gene expression patterns (attractors) is not explained by the regulated activation, the suppression of individual genes which are bidirectional molecular processes, or by the standard dynamical models of the underlying gene circuit which only account for local stability of attractors. To capture the global dynamics of this nonequilibrium system and gain insight in the time-asymmetry of state transitions, we computed the quasipotential landscape of the stochastic dynamics of a canonical gene circuit that governs branching cell fate commitment. The potential landscape reveals the global dynamics and permits the calculation of potential barriers between cell phenotypes imposed by the circuit architecture. The generic asymmetry of barrier heights indicates that the transition from the uncommitted multipotent state to differentiated states is inherently unidirectional. The model agrees with observations and predicts the extreme conditions for reprogramming cells back to the undifferentiated state. PMID:20655830

  17. Two-photon excitation of the 4[ital f][sup 1][r arrow]5[ital d][sup 1] transitions of Ce[sup 3+] in LuPO[sub 4] and YPO[sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sytsma, J.; Piehler, D.; Edelstein, N.M. ); Boatner, L.A.; Abraham, M.M. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of the 4[ital f][sup 1][r arrow]5[ital d][sup 1] transitions of Ce[sup 3+] in LuPO[sub 4] and YPO[sub 4] have been investigated. For Ce[sup 3+] in LuPO[sub 4], transitions to four out of the five 5[ital d][sup 1] levels are observed as zero-phonon lines. The symmetry properties of the levels were obtained from the polarization dependence of the TPE signals. Measurements on Ce[sup 3+] in YPO[sub 4] support the given assignments. Although a crystal-field fit yields a satisfactory rms energy deviation, an unrealistic value of the spin-orbit coupling parameter, [zeta][sub 5[ital d

  18. Experimental Investigation of a Point Design Optimized Arrow Wing HSCT Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Sundaram, P.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Cheung, S.; Arslan, A. E.; Martin, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    The M2.4-7A Arrow Wing HSCT configuration was optimized for straight and level cruise at a Mach number of 2.4 and a lift coefficient of 0.10. A quasi-Newton optimization scheme maximized the lift-to-drag ratio (by minimizing drag-to-lift) using Euler solutions from FL067 to estimate the lift and drag forces. A 1.675% wind-tunnel model of the Opt5 HSCT configuration was built to validate the design methodology. Experimental data gathered at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) section #2 facility verified CFL3D Euler and Navier-Stokes predictions of the Opt5 performance at the design point. In turn, CFL3D confirmed the improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio obtained during the optimization, thus validating the design procedure. A data base at off-design conditions was obtained during three wind-tunnel tests. The entry into NASA Langley UPWT section #2 obtained data at a free stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.55 as well as the design Mach number, M(sub infinity)=2.4. Data from a Mach number range of 1.8 to 2.4 was taken at UPWT section #1. Transonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, M(sub infinity)=0.6 to 1.2, was gathered at the NASA Langley 16 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). In addition to good agreement between CFD and experimental data, highlights from the wind-tunnel tests include a trip dot study suggesting a linear relationship between trip dot drag and Mach number, an aeroelastic study that measured the outboard wing deflection and twist, and a flap scheduling study that identifies the possibility of only one leading-edge and trailing-edge flap setting for transonic cruise and another for low supersonic acceleration.

  19. Experimental Investigation of a Point Design Optimized Arrow Wing HSCT Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Sundaram, P.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Cheung, S.; Arslan, A. E.; Martin, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    The M2.4-7A Arrow Wing HSCT configuration was optimized for straight and level cruise at a Mach number of 2.4 and a lift coefficient of 0.10. A quasi-Newton optimization scheme maximized the lift-to-drag ratio (by minimizing drag-to-lift) using Euler solutions from FL067 to estimate the lift and drag forces. A 1.675% wind-tunnel model of the Opt5 HSCT configuration was built to validate the design methodology. Experimental data gathered at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) section #2 facility verified CFL3D Euler and Navier-Stokes predictions of the Opt5 performance at the design point. In turn, CFL3D confirmed the improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio obtained during the optimization, thus validating the design procedure. A data base at off-design conditions was obtained during three wind-tunnel tests. The entry into NASA Langley UPWT section #2 obtained data at a free stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.55 as well as the design Mach number, M(sub infinity)=2.4. Data from a Mach number range of 1.8 to 2.4 was taken at UPWT section #1. Transonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, M(sub infinity)=0.6 to 1.2, was gathered at the NASA Langley 16 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). In addition to good agreement between CFD and experimental data, highlights from the wind-tunnel tests include a trip dot study suggesting a linear relationship between trip dot drag and Mach number, an aeroelastic study that measured the outboard wing deflection and twist, and a flap scheduling study that identifies the possibility of only one leading-edge and trailing-edge flap setting for transonic cruise and another for low supersonic acceleration.

  20. [Fatal head injury caused by a crossbow arrow with unusually preserved posttraumatic volitional activity - case report].

    PubMed

    Řehulka, Hynek; Čechová, Eva; Mottlová, Jitka; Valenta, Martin; Mareška, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The authors deal with a case of suicidal attempt resulting in a fatal head injury. A young man shot himself with a serially produced mechanical sports crossbow. The young man with a critical intracranial injury, a penetration, was nevertheless capable of basic locomotive activity, as well as of coherent communication with another people present at the scene. The critically injured patient was transported from the scene directly to medical centre where he subsequently underwent a neurologic surgery. On the eight day after the incident he died in the hospital as a result of sustained wounds. During the autopsy, a penetrating arrow-shot wound head injury was certified, occurring in the right and left temple area. Signs of a complex decompressive craniectomy were established too. The shooting channel was generally horizontally oriented, extending from the right to the left side, from behind in a 10 up to 15 degrees angle to the frontal plane, penetrating the brain from the right temple lobe and the frontal lobe, thereby pervading also frontal horns of lateral ventricles, and from the left afflicting the frontal lobe on the left side of the brain. In the course of the shooting channel, brain contusion occurred, accompanied by intraventricular haemorrhage. In addition, a heavy cerebral oedema, multiple secondary malacias, Durett haemorrhages and extensive thrombosis of cerebral sinuses were stated. In the course of police investigation, based mainly on the information given by the wounded man right after he had been found at the scene, it was revealed that another person might have been involved. The forensic autopsy, the investigation of the Police and the subsequent criminalist-ballistics expert investigation, supported by a series of experimental substitutive target shots, didnt, however, decidedly prove that any other culprit had been involved.

  1. Contribution of the direct decay {phi} {r{underscore}arrow} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{gamma} to the process e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {r{underscore}arrow} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{gamma} at DAPHINE

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, K.

    2000-01-11

    The potential of DAPHINE to explore direct radiative decay {phi} {r{underscore}arrow} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{gamma} is studied in detail. Predictions of different theoretical models for this decay are compared. The authors find that it should be possible to discriminate between these models at DAPHINE in one year, even assuming a relatively low luminosity L = 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1}. The influence of the decay {phi} {r{underscore}arrow} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{gamma} on the measurement of total cross section {phi}(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {r{underscore}arrow} hadrons) by tagging a photon in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {r{underscore}arrow} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{gamma} is also discussed.

  2. Observation of CN [ital A][r arrow][ital X] and [ital B][r arrow][ital X] emissions in gas-phase collisions of fast O([sup 3][ital P]) atoms with HCN

    SciTech Connect

    Orient, O.J.; Chutjian, A.; Martus, K.E. ); Murad, E. )

    1993-07-01

    Optical emissions in single-collision reactions of fast (5--25-eV translational energy) O([sup 3][ital P]) atoms with HCN have been measured in a crossed-beam geometry. The emissions were observed in the wavelength range 345--430 and 550--825 nm, and were identified as the CN([ital B] [sup 2][Sigma][sup +][r arrow][ital X] [sup 2][Sigma][sup +]) and CN([ital A] [sup 2][Pi][sub [ital i

  3. Measurement of the small-signal gain and saturation intensity of a XeF discharge laser

    SciTech Connect

    Parvin, Parviz; Zaeferani, Mohammad, S.; Sadigh, Rassoul; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos

    1997-02-01

    An optical oscillator-amplifier series driven by a Blumlein discharge has been fabricated and optimized for measuring the small-signal gain and saturation intensity of a XeF(B{r_arrow}X) laser at 352 nm. Pressure dependence of the gain and the saturation property of the laser have been investigated. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  4. A prospective view of the impact of prime validity on response speed and selection in the arrow classification task with free choice trials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jason R; Lupker, Stephen J

    2010-02-01

    Bodner and Masson (2001, 2003, 2004) demonstrated that masked priming effects in many cognitive tasks become larger when the proportion of related trials increases (prime validity effects). Those authors claimed that these effects are due to participants' recruiting prime information to aid target processing when it is useful to do so (e.g., there are a large number of related trials-the memory recruitment account). Bodner and Mulji (in press) recently reported similar effects in an arrow classification task with free choice trials. In the present research, we examined whether the memory recruitment account can adequately explain prime validity effects in that task. In this experiment, participants classified arrow direction (i.e., left-right) and responded to free choice stimuli (i.e., two-sided arrows that allow either a left or right response) following arrow primes when the prime-target relationship for the arrow target trials was always congruent, always incongruent, or unpredictive. Prime validity effects for the either-way targets emerged with both 77- and 165-msec prime-target intervals. The results in the unpredictive conditions, however, suggest that those effects were due to the impact of automatic response biases initially created by the prime, which participants attempt to suppress when it is advantageous to do so.

  5. The arrow-tipped loop is a marker of radiculomedullary vein thrombosis linked to the anti-reflux mechanism--angiographic anatomy and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gailloud, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes that the "arrow-tipped" loop or anastomosis classically described as an anatomic variant represents in fact a pathological phenomenon resulting from the partial thrombosis of a radiculomedullary vein (RMV) with a duplicated origin (double-rooted RMVs). The arrow-tip loop concept proposed in this report is illustrated with angiographic observations of patients with underlying pathologies of the spinal venous system, three cases of spinal arteriovenous fistulas, and one case of spinal venous insufficiency. In each clinical case, the presence of arrow-tip loops was associated with diffuse alteration of the perimedullary venous system, including the lack of detectable RMVs. The angiographic appearance of the arrow-tip loops suggested partially thrombosed double-rooted RMVs, with rootlets originating either from the anterior or posterior spinal veins, or from both. While a thrombosed single-rooted RMV typically becomes anatomically and angiographically undetectable, double-rooted MRVs keep a flowing proximal segment made of their two rootlets of origin. This residual proximal segment takes the appearance of an arrow-tip loop, which therefore be seen as an indicator of spinal venous thrombosis.

  6. Cross section for the process. pi. sup +. pi minus. r arrow. pi0. pi0. in the c. m. s. energy region 0. 55 lt M lt 2 GeV from the reaction. pi. sup minus p r arrow. pi0. pi0. n at 39. 1 GeV/ c

    SciTech Connect

    Apokin, V.D.; Arestov, Y.I.; Belikov, N.I.; Borisov, N.S.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Grachev, O.A.; Derevshchikov, A.A.; Kazarinov, Y.M.; Liburg, M.Y.; Matafonov, V.N.; and others

    1989-02-01

    The total cross section for the process {pi}{sup +}{pi{minus}}{r arrow}{pi0}{pi0} in the dipion mass region 0.55{lt}{ital M}{lt}2.0 GeV is determined from the peripheral transitions {pi}{sup {minus}}{r arrow}{pi0}{pi0} in carbon and propanediol targets at an initial {pi}{sup {minus}}-meson momentum 39.1 GeV/{ital c}.

  7. A comparison of arrow, trapezoidal and M wing concepts using a Mach 2 supersonic cruise transport mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Glenn L.; Tice, David C.; Marcum, Don C., Jr.; Seidel, Jonathan A.

    1991-01-01

    The present analytic study of the potential performance of SST configurations radically differing from arrow-winged designs in lifting surface planform geometry gives attention to trapezoidal-wing and M-wing configurations; the trapezoidal wing is used as the baseline in the performance comparisons. The design mission was all-supersonic (Mach 2), carrying 248 passengers over a 5500 nautical-mile range. Design constraints encompassed approach speed, TO&L field length, and engine-out second-segment climb and missed-approach performance. Techniques for improving these configurations are discussed.

  8. A comparison of arrow, trapezoidal and M wing concepts using a Mach 2 supersonic cruise transport mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Glenn L.; Tice, David C.; Marcum, Don C., Jr.; Seidel, Jonathan A.

    1991-01-01

    The present analytic study of the potential performance of SST configurations radically differing from arrow-winged designs in lifting surface planform geometry gives attention to trapezoidal-wing and M-wing configurations; the trapezoidal wing is used as the baseline in the performance comparisons. The design mission was all-supersonic (Mach 2), carrying 248 passengers over a 5500 nautical-mile range. Design constraints encompassed approach speed, TO&L field length, and engine-out second-segment climb and missed-approach performance. Techniques for improving these configurations are discussed.

  9. CHARGE association in a child with de novo inverted duplication (14) (q22{r_arrow}q24.3)

    SciTech Connect

    North, K.N.; Wu, Bai Lin; Cao, B.N.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 4-{1/2} year old girl with apparent CHARGE association who had a de novo inverted duplication (14) (q22{r_arrow}24.3), iris colobomas, ventricular septal defect, soft tissue choanal atresia, intellectual impairment, growth retardation, sensorineural deafness, apparently low set ears, and upslanting palpebral fissures. Family history was unremarkable and parental chromosomes were normal. Similarities between this and previously reported cases of 14q duplication suggest that a locus for a gene or genes causing some of the anomalies of CHARGE association may reside in the region 14q22 to 24.3. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Histochemical demonstration of a rhodopsin-like substance in the eye of the arrow-worm, Spadella schizoptera (Chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Yoshida, M

    1988-01-01

    The presumed photoreceptive region of the arrow-worms of the species Sagitta crassa and Spadella schizoptera consists of perforated lamellae which are unique as the photoreceptive structure. The existence of a visual pigment in this region was demonstrated by a histofluorescent technique using Spadella schizoptera, whose presumed photoreceptive region was much larger than in Sagitta crassa. A specific fluorescence, indicative of the presence of retinal-based proteins, appeared only in the perforated lamellar region. The result suggests that the perforated lamellae contain a rhodopsin-like substance and could be the primary photoreceptive site.

  11. The 5 f r arrow 6 d absorption spectrum of Pa sup 4+ /Cs sub 2 ZrCl sub 6

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, N.; Kot, W.K. ); Krupa, J. )

    1992-01-01

    The 5{ital f}{sup 1}{r arrow}6{ital d}{sup 1} absorption spectrum of {sup 231}Pa{sup 4+} diluted in a single crystal of Cs{sub 2}ZrCl{sub 6} has been measured at 4.2 K. Three bands corresponding to the 6{ital d}({Gamma}{sub 8{ital g}}, {Gamma}{sub 7{ital g}}, and {Gamma}{sup {prime}}{sub 8{ital g}} ) levels are assigned. Extensive vibronic structure has been observed for the lowest 5{ital f}{r arrow}6{ital d} transition and this structure is compared to that recently reported for the 6{ital d}{sup 1}{r arrow}5{ital f}{sup 1} emission spectra in the same system.

  12. Arrow diagram theory for non-orthogonal electronic groups: the continued fractions method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Kantorovich, Lev

    2009-11-25

    The group function theory by Tolpygo and McWeeny is a useful tool in treating quantum systems that can be represented as a set of localized electronic groups (e.g. atoms, molecules or bonds). It provides a general means of taking into account intra-correlation effects inside the groups without assuming that the interaction between the groups is weak. For non-orthogonal group functions the arrow diagram (AD) technique provides a convenient procedure for calculating matrix elements [Formula: see text] of arbitrary symmetrical operators [Formula: see text] which are needed, for example, for calculating the total energy of the system or its electron density. The total wavefunction of the system [Formula: see text] is represented as an antisymmetrized product of non-orthogonal electron group functions Φ(I) of each group I in the system. However, application of the AD theory to extended (e.g. infinite) systems (such as biological molecules or crystals) is not straightforward, since the calculation of the mean value of an operator requires that each term of the diagram expansion be divided by the normalization integral S = ⟨Ψ|Ψ⟩ which is given by an AD expansion as well. In our previous work, we cast the mean value [Formula: see text] of a symmetrical operator [Formula: see text] in the form of an AD expansion which is a linear combination of linked (connected) ADs multiplied by numerical pre-factors. To obtain the pre-factors, a method based on power series expansion with respect to overlap was developed and tested for a simple 1D Hartree-Fock (HF) ring model. In the present paper this method is first tested on a 2D HF model, and we find that the power series expansion for the pre-factors converges extremely slowly to the exact solution. Instead, we suggest another, more powerful, method based on a continued fraction expansion of the pre-factors that approaches the exact solution much faster. The method is illustrated on the calculation of the electron density

  13. From arrow poison to herbal medicine--the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological significance of Cissampelos (Menispermaceae).

    PubMed

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2014-09-11

    Cissampelos species have a rich history of traditional use, being used for both therapeutic and toxic properties. It is traditionally applied therapeutically in a diverse range of conditions and diseases including asthma, cough, fever, arthritis, obesity, dysentery, snakebite, jaundice and heart, blood pressure and skin-related problems. Conversely, it was traditionally included in preparations of curare applied as arrow poison during hunting to cause death of animals by asphyxiation. This review unites the ethnobotanical knowledge on Cissampelos with the phytochemistry and pharmacological activity which has been explored thus far. In addition, it identifies knowledge gaps and suggests further research opportunities. The available electronic literature on the genus Cissampelos was collected using database searches including Scopus, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, etc. The searches were limited to peer-reviewed English journals with the exception of books and a few articles in foreign languages which were included. The literature revealed that pharmacological activity including analgesic and antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, bronchodilator, immunomodulatory, memory-enhancing, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-ulcer, anticancer, anti-oxidant, cardiovascular, muscle-relaxant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antifertility, and antivenom activity have been confirmed in vitro and/or in vivo for various Cissampelos species. Cissampelos pareira L. and Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. are the most explored species of this genus and the smallest number of studies have been conducted on Cissampelos laxiflora Moldenke and Cissampelos tenuipes Engl. Many alkaloids isolated from Cissampelos such as warifteine, methylwarifteine, berberine, hayatin and hayatidin showed promising anti-allergic, immunosuppressive, antidepressant, anticancer, vasodilatory and muscle-relaxant activities. The plants of

  14. Use of Glucose Rate of Change Arrows to Adjust Insulin Therapy Among Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Who Use Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pettus, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study was performed to understand and to compare differences in utilization of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the rate of change (ROC) arrow to adjust insulin therapy among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), comparing those treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) with those treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Research Design and Methods: We surveyed 222 T1D individuals who regularly used real-time CGM to obtain information about general CGM use and response to glucose ROC arrows in managing their diabetes. Results: The survey was completed by 222 T1D individuals. Respondents included CSII (n = 166) and MDI (n = 56) users. MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages (from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL) in response to increasing glucose (one ROC arrow up: rising 2–3 mg/dL/min): +120% and +108%, respectively (P = 0.13). MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages in response to rapidly increasing glucose (two arrows up: rising >3 mg/dL/min): +146% and +138%, respectively (P = 0.72). When correcting from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL, MDI respondents reported larger correction dosage reductions than CSII respondents in response to decreasing glucose (one ROC down arrow: decreasing 2–3 mg/dL/min) and rapidly decreasing glucose (two ROC down arrows: decreasing >3 mg/dL/min): −50% versus −37%, respectively (P = 0.024) and −52% versus 38%, respectively (P = 0.034). Similar between-group differences were observed in mealtime dosage adjustments. Conclusions: CGM users often rely on ROC information when determining insulin doses and tend to make larger changes than current recommendations suggest regardless of insulin delivery method. PMID:26784128

  15. Attention Orienting in Response to Non-conscious Hierarchical Arrows: Individuals with Higher Autistic Traits Differ in Their Global/Local Bias

    PubMed Central

    Laycock, Robin; Chan, Daniel; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2017-01-01

    One aspect of the social communication impairments that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced use of often subtle non-verbal social cues. People with ASD, and those with self-reported sub-threshold autistic traits, also show impairments in rapid visual processing of stimuli unrelated to social or emotional properties. Hence, this study sought to investigate whether perceptually non-conscious visual processing is related to autistic traits. A neurotypical sample of thirty young adults completed the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire and a Posner-like attention cueing task. Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) was employed to render incongruous hierarchical arrow cues perceptually invisible prior to consciously presented targets. This was achieved via a 10 Hz masking stimulus presented to the dominant eye that suppressed information presented to the non-dominant eye. Non-conscious arrows consisted of local arrow elements pointing in one direction, and forming a global arrow shape pointing in the opposite direction. On each trial, the cue provided either a valid or invalid cue for the spatial location of the subsequent target, depending on which level (global or local) received privileged attention. A significant autism-trait group by global cue validity interaction indicated a difference in the extent of non-conscious local/global cueing between groups. Simple effect analyses revealed that whilst participants with lower autistic traits showed a global arrow cueing effect, those with higher autistic traits demonstrated a small local arrow cueing effect. These results suggest that non-conscious processing biases in local/global attention may be related to individual differences in autistic traits. PMID:28149288

  16. Search for Proton Decay via {ital p} {r_arrow} {ital e}{sup +}{ital {pi}}{sup 0} in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shiozawa, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Ota, M.; Sakurai, N.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Kearns, E.; Messier, M.D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.; Takemori, D.; Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Haines, T.J.; Blaufuss, E.; and others

    1998-10-01

    We have searched for proton decay via p{r_arrow}e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} using data from a 25.5 kton{center_dot}yr exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. We find no candidate events with an expected background induced by atmospheric neutrinos of 0.1thinspthinspevents. From these data, we set a lower limit on the partial lifetime of the proton {tau}/B{sub p{r_arrow}e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}} to be 1.6{times}10{sup 33} years at a 90{percent} confidence level. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  17. Boom Softening and Nacelle Integration on an Arrow-Wing High-Speed Civil Transport Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    point of view, this concept was unacceptable from several practical and structural considerations. Preliminary wind-tunnel pressure signature data from the LB-16 wind-tunnel model, which had the engine nacelles mounted under the wings (the usual location), indicated that the application of the Langley nacelle-integration method had been only partially successful in the reduction of the nacelle-volume with nacelle-wing interference-lift pressure disturbances. So, "boom softening" had to also address the task of successful integration of the engine nacelles, with the engines in the required under-the-wing location. Unless this problem was solved, low-sonic-boom and low-drag modifications to the wing planform, the airfoil shape, and the fuselage longitudinal area distribution could be nullified if the nacelle disturbances added increments to the nose-shock strengths that were removed through component tailoring. In this paper, an arrow-wing boom-softened HSC7 concept which incorporated modifications to a baseline McDonnell Douglas concept is discussed. The analysis of the concept's characteristics will include estimates of weight, center of gravity, takeoff field length, mission range, and predictions of its ground-level sonic-boom pressure signature. Additional modifications which enhanced the softened-boom performance of this concept are also described as well as estimates of the performance penalties induced by these modifications.

  18. Boom Softening and Nacelle Integration on an Arrow-Wing High-Speed Civil Transport Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    point of view, this concept was unacceptable from several practical and structural considerations. Preliminary wind-tunnel pressure signature data from the LB-16 wind-tunnel model, which had the engine nacelles mounted under the wings (the usual location), indicated that the application of the Langley nacelle-integration method had been only partially successful in the reduction of the nacelle-volume with nacelle-wing interference-lift pressure disturbances. So, "boom softening" had to also address the task of successful integration of the engine nacelles, with the engines in the required under-the-wing location. Unless this problem was solved, low-sonic-boom and low-drag modifications to the wing planform, the airfoil shape, and the fuselage longitudinal area distribution could be nullified if the nacelle disturbances added increments to the nose-shock strengths that were removed through component tailoring. In this paper, an arrow-wing boom-softened HSC7 concept which incorporated modifications to a baseline McDonnell Douglas concept is discussed. The analysis of the concept's characteristics will include estimates of weight, center of gravity, takeoff field length, mission range, and predictions of its ground-level sonic-boom pressure signature. Additional modifications which enhanced the softened-boom performance of this concept are also described as well as estimates of the performance penalties induced by these modifications.

  19. Polarization observables in {rvec p}p{r_arrow}pK{rvec Y} reactions at 2.9 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Arvieux, J.; Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R. |; Bland, L.C.; Bossolasco, S.; Brochard, F.; Bussa, M.P.; Falomkin, I.V.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Garfagnini, R.; Gill, D.R.; Grasso, A.; Jacobs, W.W.; Lyascenko, V.I.; Maggiora, A.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Serdyuk, V.; Tosello, F.; Travkin, V.I.; Vigdor, S.E.; Zalikanov, B.; Zosi, G.

    1995-07-15

    A program of exclusive measurements involving spin observables for {rvec p}p{r_arrow}pK{rvec Y} is nearing production phase. A brief description of the apparatus and its present status is given with emphasis on simulations relevant to the extraction of polarization components of {Lambda} and@ m{rvec j}{sup 0}.

  20. CSMP Mathematics for the Intermediate Grades Part IV, Teacher's Guide. The Languages of Strings and Arrows. Geometry and Measurement. Probability and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    This guide represents the final experimental version of a pilot project which was conducted in the United States between 1973 and 1976. The ideas and the manner of presentation are based on the works of Georges and Frederique Papy. They are recognized for having introduced colored arrow drawings ("papygrams") and models of our numeration…

  1. CSMP Mathematics for the Upper Primary Grades Part I, Teacher's Guide. The Languages of Strings and Arrows. Geometry and Measurement. Workbooks. Final Experimental Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    This guide represents the final experimental version of a pilot project conducted in the Unites States between 1973 and 1976. The ideas and manner of presentation are based on the works of Georges and Frederique Papy. They are recognized as having introduced colored arrow drawings ("papygrams") and models of our numeration system (the…

  2. 78 FR 21345 - In the Matter of: Liem Duc Huynh, a/k/a Duc Huynh, 2905 South Elm, Broken Arrow, OK 74012; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Arrow, OK 74012; Order Denying Export Privileges On April 17, 2012, in the U.S. District Court, Central District of California, Liem Duc Huynh (``Huynh'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export... aiding and abetting and willfully exporting Generation 3 Night Vision Goggles, defense articles listed...

  3. A Method for Writing Open-Ended Curved Arrow Notation Questions for Multiple-Choice Exams and Electronic-Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Suzanne M.; Straumanis, Andrei R.

    2009-01-01

    A critical stage in the process of developing a conceptual understanding of organic chemistry is learning to use curved arrow notation. From this stems the ability to predict reaction products and mechanisms beyond the realm of memorization. Since evaluation (i.e., testing) is known to be a key driver of student learning, it follows that a new…

  4. Test Plan for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO), ARROW-PAK Packaging, Docket 95-40-7A, Type A Container

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-10-23

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance testing to be followed for qualification of the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, ARROW-PAK, for use as a Type A Packaging. The packaging configuration being tested is intended for transportation of radioactive solids, Form No. 1, Form No. 2, and Form No. 3.

  5. Upper limit on the decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}e{sup +}{nu}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Atiya, M.S.; Chiang, I.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.S.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Littenberg, L.S.; Sambamurti, A.; Stevens, A.; Strand, R.C.; Witzig, C.; Louis, W.C.; Akerib, D.S.; Ardebili, M.; Convery, M.; Ito, M.M.; Marlow, D.R.; McPherson, R.; Meyers, P.D.; Selen, M.A.; Shoemaker, F.C.; Smith, A.J.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Felawka, L.; Konaka, A.; Kuno, Y.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Poutissou, R. Poutissou, J.; Roy, J.; Turcot, A.S.; Kitching, P.; Nakano, T.; Rozon, M.; Soluk, R.

    1998-07-01

    An upper limit on the branching ratio for the decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}e{sup +}{nu}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} is set at 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}7} at a 90{percent} confidence level, consistent with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. CSMP Mathematics for the Upper Primary Grades Part I, Teacher's Guide. The Languages of Strings and Arrows. Geometry and Measurement. Workbooks. Final Experimental Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    This guide represents the final experimental version of a pilot project conducted in the Unites States between 1973 and 1976. The ideas and manner of presentation are based on the works of Georges and Frederique Papy. They are recognized as having introduced colored arrow drawings ("papygrams") and models of our numeration system (the…

  7. CSMP Mathematics for the Intermediate Grades Part IV, Teacher's Guide. The Languages of Strings and Arrows. Geometry and Measurement. Probability and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    This guide represents the final experimental version of a pilot project which was conducted in the United States between 1973 and 1976. The ideas and the manner of presentation are based on the works of Georges and Frederique Papy. They are recognized for having introduced colored arrow drawings ("papygrams") and models of our numeration…

  8. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  9. A Method for Writing Open-Ended Curved Arrow Notation Questions for Multiple-Choice Exams and Electronic-Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Suzanne M.; Straumanis, Andrei R.

    2009-01-01

    A critical stage in the process of developing a conceptual understanding of organic chemistry is learning to use curved arrow notation. From this stems the ability to predict reaction products and mechanisms beyond the realm of memorization. Since evaluation (i.e., testing) is known to be a key driver of student learning, it follows that a new…

  10. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  11. Pressure data for four analytically defined arrow wings in supersonic flow. [Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to provide experimental data for comparison with newly developed finite difference methods for computing supersonic flows over aircraft configurations, wind tunnel tests were conducted on four arrow wing models. The models were machined under numeric control to precisely duplicate analytically defined shapes. They were heavily instrumented with pressure orifices at several cross sections ahead of and in the region where there is a gap between the body and the wing trailing edge. The test Mach numbers were 2.36, 2.96, and 4.63. Tabulated pressure data for the complete test series are presented along with selected oil flow photographs. Comparisons of some preliminary numerical results at zero angle of attack show good to excellent agreement with the experimental pressure distributions.

  12. Nonadiabatic theory of atomic line broadening: Redistribution calculations for Sr(/sup 1/Preverse arrow /sup 1/S)+Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Julienne, P.S.; Mies, F.H.

    1986-11-01

    The close-coupled theory of collisions in a radiation field is used to calculate the absorption profile for the Sr /sup 1/Preverse arrow/sup 1/S resonance line broadened by collisions with Ar. The calculations predict the polarization ratios of Sr /sup 1/P fluorescence following line wing excitation by either linear or circular polarized light. Ab initio calculations were used to obtain the ground and excited SrAr molecular-potential curves, which were adjusted to give improved agreement with experiment. The radiative-scattering theory gives a unified description of the absorption coefficient and polarization redistribution from the small detuning impact limit region to the far spectral wings. The cross sections for elastic and inelastic depolarizing collisions of Sr /sup 1/P/sub 1/+Ar were also calculated. The calculated absorption coefficient, impact-broadening rate, linear- and circular-polarization ratios, and depolarization rate coefficients are for the most part in good agreement with experiment.

  13. Evidence for a founder effect for the IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T mutation in the Fanconi anemia gene FACC in a Jewish population

    SciTech Connect

    Verlander, P.C.; Kaporis, A.G.; Qian, L.

    1994-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder defined by hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C(FACC) has been cloned. Two common mutations, IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG, and several rare mutations have recently been reported in affected individuals. We now report the development of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) assays for rapid, non-radioactive detection of these known mutations in FACC. Primer pairs specific for variant sequences were designed, with the 3{prime} terminal base of one primer matching the variant base. PCR products are separated by electrophoresis on 2.5% agarose gels; mutations are indicated by the presence of a band of a specific size. These ARMS assays can be multiplexed to allow screening for all known mutations in two PCR reactions. We have used these assays for detection of FACC mutations in affected individuals in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR), and for carrier detection FACC families. IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is the only FACC mutation found in Jewish FA patients and their families, of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic ancestry. This mutation was not found in any affected individual of non-Jewish origin. In addition, DNA samples from 1596 healthy Jewish individuals primarily of Ashkenazi ancestry were supplied to us by Dor Yeshorim. These samples, ascertained for carrier screening for Tay Sachs, cystic fibrosis, and other genetic diseases with a high frequency in the religious Jewish community served by this organization, were tested for both IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG mutations; seventeen IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T are of Sephardic Jewish ancestry. We hypothesize that IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is a very old mutation, predating the divergence of the Ashkenazi and Sephardic populations. Haplotype analysis with microsatellite markers is in progress.

  14. Analysis and Inverse Design of the HSR Arrow Wing Configuration with Fuselage, Wing, and Flow Through Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    The design process for developing the natural flow wing design on the HSR arrow wing configuration utilized several design tools and analysis methods. Initial fuselage/wing designs were generated with inviscid analysis and optimization methods in conjunction with the natural flow wing design philosophy. A number of designs were generated, satisfying different system constraints. Of the three natural flow wing designs developed, the NFWAc2 configuration is the design which satisfies the constraints utilized by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) in developing a series of optimized configurations; a wind tunnel model of the MDA designed OPT5 configuration was constructed and tested. The present paper is concerned with the viscous analysis and inverse design of the arrow wing configurations, including the effects of the installed diverters/nacelles. Analyses were conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes flow solver for overset grids. Inverse designs were conducted with OVERDISC, which couples OVERFLOW with the CDISC inverse design method. An initial system of overset grids was generated for the OPT5 configuration with installed diverters/nacelles. An automated regridding process was then developed to use the OPT5 component grids to create grids for the natural flow wing designs. The inverse design process was initiated using the NFWAc2 configuration as a starting point, eventually culminating in the NFWAc4 design-for which a wind tunnel model was constructed. Due to the time constraints on the design effort, initial analyses and designs were conducted with a fairly coarse grid; subsequent analyses have been conducted on a refined system of grids. Comparisons of the computational results to experiment are provided at the end of this paper.

  15. Analysis and Inverse Design of the HSR Arrow Wing Configuration with Fuselage, Wing, and Flow Through Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    The design process for developing the natural flow wing design on the HSR arrow wing configuration utilized several design tools and analysis methods. Initial fuselage/wing designs were generated with inviscid analysis and optimization methods in conjunction with the natural flow wing design philosophy. A number of designs were generated, satisfying different system constraints. Of the three natural flow wing designs developed, the NFWAc2 configuration is the design which satisfies the constraints utilized by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) in developing a series of optimized configurations; a wind tunnel model of the MDA designed OPT5 configuration was constructed and tested. The present paper is concerned with the viscous analysis and inverse design of the arrow wing configurations, including the effects of the installed diverters/nacelles. Analyses were conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes flow solver for overset grids. Inverse designs were conducted with OVERDISC, which couples OVERFLOW with the CDISC inverse design method. An initial system of overset grids was generated for the OPT5 configuration with installed diverters/nacelles. An automated regridding process was then developed to use the OPT5 component grids to create grids for the natural flow wing designs. The inverse design process was initiated using the NFWAc2 configuration as a starting point, eventually culminating in the NFWAc4 design-for which a wind tunnel model was constructed. Due to the time constraints on the design effort, initial analyses and designs were conducted with a fairly coarse grid; subsequent analyses have been conducted on a refined system of grids. Comparisons of the computational results to experiment are provided at the end of this paper.

  16. Venetoclax Adds a New Arrow Targeting Relapsed CLL to the Quiver.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kerry A; Byrd, John C

    2016-01-11

    Inhibitors of B cell receptor signaling substantially changed the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia as the first targeted agents to enter routine clinical practice. A recent paper by Roberts and colleagues describes an additional therapeutic target by reporting encouraging clinical results with venetoclax, an inhibitor of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2.

  17. Final evaluation report for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, ARROW-PAK packaging, Docket 95-40-7A, Type A container

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the ARROW-PAK packaging. The ARROW-PAK packaging system consists of Marlex M-8000 Driscopipe (Series 8000 [gas] or Series 8600 [industrial]) resin pipe, manufactured by Phillips-Driscopipe, Inc., and is sealed with two dome-shaped end caps manufactured from the same materials. The patented sealing process involves the use of electrical energy to heat opposing faces of the pipe and end caps, and hydraulic rams to press the heated surfaces together. This fusion process produces a homogeneous bonding of the end cap to the pipe. The packaging may be used with or without the two internal plywood spacers. This packaging was evaluated and tested in October 1995. The packaging configuration described in this report is designed to ship Type A quantities of solid radioactive materials, Form No. 1, Form No. 2, and Form No. 3.

  18. Percutaneous Venous Thrombectomy Using the Arrow-Trerotola Percutaneous Thrombolytic Device (PTD) with Temporary Caval Filtration: In Vitro Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Wildberger, Joachim Ernst Haage, Patrick; Bovelander, Jan; Pfeffer, Joachim; Weiss, Claudia; Vorwerk, Dierk; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Guenther, Rolf W.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the size and quantity of downstream emboli after thrombectomy using the Arrow-Trerotola Percutaneous Thrombolytic Device (PTD) with or without temporary filtration for extensive iliofemoral and iliocaval thrombi in an in vitro flow model. Methods. Iliocaval thrombi were simulated by clotted bovine blood in a flow model (semilucent silicone tubings, diameter 12-16 mm). Five experimental set-ups were performed 10 times each; thrombus particles and distribution were measured in the effluent. First, after retrograde insertion, mechanical thrombectomy was performed using the PTD alone. Then a modified self-expanding tulip-shaped temporary vena cava stent filter was inserted additionally at the beginning of each declotting procedure and removed immediately after the intervention without any manipulation within or at the filter itself. In a third step, the filter was filled with thrombus only. Here, two experiments were performed: Careful closure within the flow circuit without any additional fragmentation procedure and running the PTD within the filter lumen, respectively. In the final set-up, mechanical thrombectomy was performed within the thrombus-filled tubing as well as in the filter lumen. The latter was closed at the end of the procedure and both devices were removed from the flow circuit. Results. Running the PTD in the flow circuit without filter protection led to a fragmentation of 67.9% ({+-}7.14%) of the clot into particles {<=}500 {mu}m; restoration of flow was established in all cases. Additional placement of the filter safely allowed maceration of 82.9% ({+-}5.59%) of the thrombus. Controlled closure of the thrombus-filled filter within the flow circuit without additional mechanical treatment broke up 75.2% ({+-}10.49%), while additional mechanical thrombectomy by running the PTD within the occluded filter led to dissolution of 90.4% ({+-}3.99%) of the initial clot. In the final set-up, an overall fragmentation rate of 99.6% ({+-}0

  19. Atomic sulfur: Frequency measurement of the J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition at 56.3 microns by laser magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John M.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Zink, Lyndon R.

    1994-01-01

    The J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition in atomic sulfur (S I) in its ground (3)P state has been detected in the laboratory by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance. The fine-structure interval has been measured accurately as 5,322,492.9 +/- 2.8 MHz which corresponds to a wavelength of 56.325572 +/- 0.000030 micrometers.

  20. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Quantum measurements, the phenomenon of life, and time arrow: three great problems of physics (in Ginzburg's terminology) and their interrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensky, Mikhail B.

    2007-04-01

    Relations existing among "the three great problems" of physics (as enumerated by Ginzburg) — interpretation of quantum mechanics, the time arrow, and reductionism (reducing the phenomenon of life to physics) — are discussed and shown to substantially depend on how the first of them is solved, i.e., which interpretation of quantum mechanics is adopted. The Copenhagen interpretation, the Everett ('many-words') interpretation, and Extended Everett Concept proposed by the author are considered.

  1. ( D , D sub s sup + ) r arrow VV decays in two models: An SU(3)-symmetry model and a factorization model, with final-state interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, A.N.; Verma, R.C. . Theoretical Physics Institute University of Alberta, Edmonton . Department of Physics); Sinha, N. )

    1991-02-01

    We have studied all decays of the kind ({ital D},{ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}){r arrow}{ital VV} in two models: an SU(3)-symmetry model with nonet symmetry and a factorization model, and the inclusion of final-state-interaction phases. We show that the factorization model makes predictions in agreement with data, with fewer free parameters. Detailed predictions for all decay modes are made and the two models contrasted.

  2. The decay. tau. sup minus r arrow K sup minus K sup +. pi. sup minus. nu. sub. tau. and the. nu. sub. tau. mass

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Cadenas, J.J. ); Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Pich, A. Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Valencia, Burjasot )

    1990-11-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on the effective chiral Lagrangian to describe the decay {tau}{sup {minus}}{r arrow}{ital K}{sup {minus}}{ital K}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{nu}{sub {tau}}. Using our model we study the possible limits on the {nu}{sub {tau}} mass that can be achieved by a high-statistics, high-precision experiment taking data close to the {tau}-pair production threshold.

  3. Prediction of accidents at full green and green arrow traffic lights in Switzerland with the aid of configuration-specific features.

    PubMed

    Hubacher, Markus; Allenbach, Roland

    2004-09-01

    In this study it was endeavored to predict full green and green arrow accidents at traffic lights, using configuration-specific features. This was done using the statistical method known as Poisson regression. A total of 45 sets of traffic lights (criteria: in an urban area, with four approach roads) with 178 approach roads were investigated (the data from two approach roads was unable to be used). Configuration-specific features were surveyed on all approach roads (characteristics of traffic lanes, road signs, traffic lights, etc.), traffic monitored and accidents (full green and green arrow) recorded over a period of 5 consecutive years. It was demonstrated that only between 23 and 34% of variance could be explained with the models predicting both types of accidents. In green arrow accidents, the approach road topography was found to be the major contributory factor to an accident: if the approach road slopes downwards, the risk of a green arrow accident is approximately five and a half times greater (relative risk, RR = 5.56) than on a level or upward sloping approach road. With full green accidents, obstructed vision plays the major role: where vision can be obstructed by vehicles turning off, the accident risk is eight times greater (RR = 8.08) than where no comparable obstructed vision is possible. From the study it emerges that technical features of traffic lights are not able to control a driver's actions in such a way as to eradicate error. Other factors, in particular the personal characteristics of the driver (age, sex, etc.) and accident circumstances (lighting, road conditions, etc.), are likely to make an important contribution to explaining how an accident occurs. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Study of the f{sub 0}(1500)/f{sub 2}(1565) production in the exclusive annihilation {bar n}p{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} in flight

    SciTech Connect

    The OBELIX Collaboration

    1998-01-01

    The spin-parity analysis of the {bar n}p{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} exclusive reaction in flight is presented. The main aim is to study the ({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}) invariant mass spectrum in the region around 1500 MeV. The analysis was performed with a Breit-Wigner parametrization for all the resonant states and, for the scalar sector in the mass region below 1.2 GeV, by means of a K-matrix-like treatment. It clearly shows the need for two states, a scalar one (0{sup ++}) with mass and width (1522{plus_minus}25) MeV and (108{plus_minus}33) MeV, and a tensorial one (2{sup ++}) with mass (1575{plus_minus}18) MeV and width (119{plus_minus}24) MeV, respectively. In addition, the analysis requires the presence of a scalar state at (1280{plus_minus}55) MeV, (323{plus_minus}13) MeV broad, and of a second vectorial one, in addition to the {rho}{sup 0}(770) signal, with mass and width (1348{plus_minus}33) MeV and (275{plus_minus}10) MeV, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Spin-transfer measurements of the {pi}{rvec d}{r_arrow}{rvec p}p reaction at energies spanning the {Delta} resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Feltham, A. |; Jones, G.; Olszewski, R.; Pavan, M.; Sevior, M.; Trelle, R.P.; Weber, P.; Lolos, G.J.; Mathie, E.L.; Papandreou, Z.; Rui, R.; Gill, D.; Healey, D.; Ottewell, D.; Sheffer, G.; Smith, G.R.; Sossi, V.; Wait, G.; Walden, P.

    1997-01-01

    The first spin-transfer experiment performed for the {pi}{rvec d}{r_arrow}{rvec p}p reaction is described. Three spin-transfer parameters for this {pi}-absorption process were determined, K{sub LS}{sup a}, K{sub SS}{sup a}, and K{sub NN}{sup a}, which correspond to the {pi}-production parameters, K{sub SL}{sup p}, K{sub SS}{sup p}, and K{sub NN}{sup p}, of the time-reversed {rvec p}p{r_arrow}{rvec d}{pi} process. Each observable was measured at a single angle for a number of energies spanning the {Delta} resonance of this system. The results are compared with the predictions of published partial wave amplitude fits which are primarily based on existing data for the time-reversed pp{r_arrow}d{pi} reaction, and also with the predictions of two current theories. The failure of these theories to describe the fundamental features of the data clearly demonstrates the need for further theoretical work in this area. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. The Meniscus Arrow® as a fixation device for the treatment of mallet fractures: results of 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Fenne L M; Derks, Rosalie; Wouters, Diederick B

    2014-12-01

    The treatment of mallet fractures is a controversial and challenging problem. Generally, mallet fractures are treated conservatively except those involving more than one third of the base of the distal phalanx. Many different surgical fixation techniques have been published. This paper describes a new fixation procedure using ultimate bioresorbable meniscal fixation nails (Meniscus Arrows®). Mallet fractures in 50 digits of 49 patients were fixed with this nail in an outpatient surgical procedure, mostly under local (Oberst-block) anaesthesia. The average operation time was 21 min. According to the Crawford criteria, patient outcome was graded as excellent in 48 %, good in 22 %, and fair in 28 %. In one patient, the outcome was graded as poor, but the fracture was in a pre-existent arthritic joint. All fractures were consolidated without recurrent dislocation. Complications included one wound infection, which was successfully treated with antibiotics and without further consequences. No nail deformities occurred. Two times, the nail spontaneously and gradually dislocated during intensive use of the hand after, respectively, 3 and 6 months and could easily be removed under local anaesthesia without any functional sequelae. The bioresorbable meniscal nail fixation technique provides a fast and successful surgical treatment for mallet fractures with a minimum of adverse events.

  7. Effects of angle of attack and vertical fin on transonic flutter characteristics of an arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Ricketts, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental transonic flutter results are presented for a simplified 1/50 size, aspect ratio 1.77, wind tunnel model of an arrow wing design. Flutter results are presented for two configurations; namely, one with and one without a ventral fin mounted at the 0.694 semispan station. Results are presented for both configurations trimmed to zero lift and in a lifting condition at angles of attack up to 4 deg. The results show that the flutter characteristics of both configurations are similar to those usually observed. Increasing angle of attack reduces the flutter dynamic pressure by a small amount (about 13 percent maximum) for both configurations. The addition of the fin to the basic wing increases the flutter dynamic pressure. Calculated results for both configurations in the nonlifting condition obtained by using subsonic doublet lattice unsteady aerodynamic theory correlate reasonably well with the experimental results. Calculated results for the basic wing obtained by using subsonic kernal function unsteady aerodynamic theory did not agree as well with the experimental data.

  8. The {ital d}{searrow}{ital p}{r_arrow}{sup 3}He{pi}{sup 0} reaction near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Nikulin, V.N.; Boudard, A.; Clajus, M.; Fabbro, B.; Garcon, M.; Kessler, R.S.; Lytkin, L.K.; Mayer, B.; Nefkens, B.M.; Plouin, F.; Poitou, J.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; van Oers, W.T.; White, D.; Wilkin, C.

    1996-10-01

    Angular distributions for the differential cross section and three deuteron analyzing powers {ital iT}{sub 11}, {ital T}{sub 20}, and {ital T}{sub 22} of the reaction {ital d}{searrow}{ital p}{r_arrow}{sup 3}He{pi}{sup 0} have been measured over the whole angular domain at 20 energies close to threshold (0.03{lt}{ital T}{sub {pi}}{sup c.m.}{lt}10.2 MeV). The differential cross section and tensor analyzing power {ital T}{sub 20} both show strong variation in energy and angle due to interference between {ital S}- and {ital P}-wave pion production, whereas {ital iT}{sub 11} and {ital T}{sub 22} remain consistent with zero over the whole experimental range. All the data at different energies and angles fall on universal curves when plotted as functions of the single variable {ital p}{sub {pi}}cos{Theta}, evaluated in the c.m. The broad features of the results are in line with theoretical expectations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Channelopathies, painful neuropathy, and diabetes: which way does the causal arrow point?

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a major global health problem, is commonly associated with painful peripheral neuropathy, which can substantially erode quality of life. Despite its clinical importance, the pathophysiology of painful diabetic neuropathy is incompletely understood. It has traditionally been thought that diabetes may cause neuropathy in patients with appropriate genetic makeup. Here, we propose a hypothesis whereby painful neuropathy is not a complication of diabetes, but rather occurs as a result of mutations that, in parallel, confer vulnerability to injury in pancreatic β cells and pain-signaling dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We suggest that mutations of sodium channel NaV1.7, which is present in both cell types, may increase susceptibility for development of diabetes via β cell injury and produce painful neuropathy via a distinct effect on DRG neurons.

  10. Qualitative signals of new physics in B{anti B} mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.P.

    2000-02-10

    It is expected that, within the next three years, the determination of the CKM matrix elements with the least theoretical uncertainty will arise from the measurements of CP violation in B{sub d} {r{underscore}arrow} J/{psi}K{sub s} decays and from B{sub s}--anti-B{sub s} mixing. If there is significant new physics in B{anti B} mixing, then those experiments will not yield the correct values for the CKM matrix elements. As a result, a qualitative signal of new physics may appear in the CP violation of decays like B{sub d} {r{underscore}arrow} pi{sup +}pi{sup {minus}}.

  11. New redox-related arrows in the arsenal of cardiac disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jonathan A; Paolocci, Nazareno

    2014-11-10

    While great strides have been made to improve the poor prognosis with cardiac disease, heart failure in particular, cardiac affections still remain the most prevalent, difficult-to-treat, and costly human pathologies in the western world. At rest, the heart produces a significant oxidative environment inside diverse cell compartments, due to its high-energy demand. Cardiac cells have an exquisite control system to deal with this constant redox stress. However, persistent hemodynamic alterations can compromise these mechanisms, fueling further myocardial redox imbalance and dysfunction. Still, this would be a one-sided and incomplete view, because the physiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) should be considered as well. Indeed, ROS are multipurpose agents, serving signaling and cell defense tasks too, and, similar to antioxidants, these functions can be highly compartmentalized within the cell. The present Forum was designed to collect cutting-edge research concerning when and how to effectively counter excessive oxidative burden to preserve cardiac structure and/or to improve function, under conditions of ordinary or extraordinary stress. Another major objective was to unravel old and new intersections between different myocardial processes by which ROS may act as "on" or "off" switches, and in doing so, dictating function, always with an eye on possible, immediate therapeutic applications, as suggested by the title of the Forum itself, that is, Cardiac Therapeutics.

  12. The incidence and management of inability to advance Arrow FlexTip Plus epidural catheters in obstetric patients.

    PubMed

    Sviggum, H P; Farber, M K

    2014-05-01

    Difficulty advancing epidural catheters is troublesome to obstetric anesthesiologists. Flexible epidural catheters have been shown to reduce paresthesiae and intravascular catheter placement in parturients, but the cause of inability to advance these catheters past the epidural needle tip remains undefined. Specifically, its incidence and effective management strategies have not been described. All labor epidural catheters were recorded for a 22-week period. Difficulty advancing the epidural catheter was defined as an inability to advance the catheter beyond the needle tip after obtaining loss of resistance. Anesthesiologists completed a survey when difficulty advancing a catheter occurred. A total of 2148 epidural catheter placements were performed. There were 97 cases of an inability to advance the epidural catheter (4.5%, 95% CI 3.7 to 5.5%). This occurred in 4.2% of combined spinal-epidural and 4.6% of epidural placements (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.62). On a 0 to 10scale, the median [IQR] provider confidence in loss of resistance was 9 [8, 10]. A total of 230 corrective maneuvers were performed, using nine distinct approaches. The incidence of accidental dural puncture was 3.1% if an inability to advance occurred (n=97) compared to 1.2% for other placements (n=2051, P=0.12). Inability to advance Arrow FlexTip Plus® epidural catheters was relatively common (4.5%) and occurred despite confidence in obtaining loss of resistance. Injecting saline may be corrective and appears to have little disadvantage. However, removing the needle and performing a new placement was the most successful corrective maneuver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterogeneous reaction HOCl + HBr {r_arrow} BrCl + H{sub 2}O on ice films

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, L.; Chu, L.T.

    1999-02-11

    Heterogeneous reactions on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are critical to an understanding of the annual appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole. The heterogeneous reaction HOCl + HBr(s) {r_arrow} BrCl + H{sub 2}O(s) on the ice surface at 189 and 220 K has been investigated in a flow reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. Pseudo first-order decay of HOCl over the HBr-treated ice surfaces has been determined under the condition of P{sub HOCl} < P{sub HBr}. For the HBr partial pressure in the range of 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Torr, the reaction probability ({gamma}{sub g}) was determined in the range of 0.06 to 0.38 at 189 K. The reaction probability is in the range of 0.01 to 0.07 at 220 K for HBr partial pressure from 7.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Torr. The reaction probability was found to be strongly dependent on the ice surface temperature. The reaction probability is higher at the lower temperature than that at the warmer temperature and a mechanistic explanation is provided. The true reaction probabilities ({gamma}{sub t}) of the reaction were calculated using a pore diffusion model. The kinetic analysis indicates that the heterogeneous reaction of HOCl + HBr may follow the Eley-Rideal type of mechanism. Also, the heat of uptake of HOCl on ice was determined to be about {minus}8.5 {+-} 2 kcal/mol.

  14. Penguin operators in nonresonant B{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}M{bar M}{pi}{sup {minus}}(M={pi}{sup {minus}},K{sup {minus}},K{sup 0}) decays

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfer, S. |; Oakes, R.J.; Pham, T.N.

    1999-09-01

    We investigate the contributions coming from the penguin operators in the nonresonant B{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}M{bar M}{pi}{sup {minus}}(M={pi}{sup {minus}},K{sup {minus}},K{sup 0}) decays. The effective Wilson coefficients of the strong penguin operators O{sub 4} and O{sub 6} are found to be relatively larger than those for other penguin operators. We calculate the contributions arising from the O{sub 4} and O{sub 6} operators in the nonresonant decays B{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}M{bar M}{pi}{sup {minus}}(M={pi}{sup {minus}},K{sup {minus}},{bar K}{sup 0}) using a model combining heavy quark symmetry and the chiral symmetry, developed previously. We find that the CKM-forbidden nonresonant B{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup {minus}} decay occurs through the strong penguin operators. These penguin contributions affect the branching ratios for B{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}M{bar M}{pi}{sup {minus}}(M={pi}{sup {minus}},K{sup {minus}}) by only a few percent. The branching ratio for B{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup {minus}} is estimated to be of the order 10{sup {minus}6}. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Similarities and differences between interference from stimulus position and from direction of an arrow: behavioral and event-related potential measures.

    PubMed

    Cespón, J; Galdo-Álvarez, S; Díaz, F

    2013-11-01

    Studies with stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) tasks used the stimulus position (SRC-p) and/or the direction indicated by a central arrow (SRC-d) as irrelevant dimensions. Despite behavioral differences revealed by the distributional analysis (DA), both interferences were established at similar loci on the basis of modulations in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and P3b components. Consequently, similar underlying mechanisms were proposed for both interferences. However, comparison of motor processes associated with each task is problematical because each involves different components. In addition, previous studies have frequently used different proportions of trials between conditions, which complicate interpretation of the results because the stimulus probability may modulate P3b. Taking these problems into account, the present study investigated the effects of interference in SRC-p and SRC-d tasks, in which the participants responded to the color of a stimulus while ignoring the position and the direction indicated by a central arrow, respectively. The interference was greater in the SRC-p than in the SRC-d task. The DA showed that stimulus position affected the performance more quickly than the direction of the arrow. The P3b latency was longer and the P3b amplitude was smaller when stimulus position was incompatible. However, no differences in P3b were found in the SRC-d task. Moreover, both types of interference affected response-related processes (LRP-r) similarly. Therefore, the stimulus position and the direction indicated by the stimulus may share a common locus of interference (response execution), but only stimulus position affects P3b component, which constitutes a link between stimulus evaluation and the response selection. © 2013.

  16. Spectral functions of the one-dimensional Hubbard model in the U{r_arrow}+{infinity} limit: How to use the factorized wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Penc, K.; Hallberg, K.; Mila, F.; Shiba, H.

    1997-06-01

    We give the details of the calculation of the spectral functions of the one-dimensional Hubbard model using the spin-charge factorized wave function for several versions of the U{r_arrow}+{infinity} limit. The spectral functions are expressed as a convolution of charge and spin dynamical correlation functions. A procedure to evaluate these correlation functions very accurately for large systems is developed, and analytical results are presented for the low-energy region. These results are fully consistent with the conformal field theory. We also propose a direct method of extracting the exponents from the matrix elements in more general cases. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Dorsal median lipectomy (the arrow technique): A new approach for the treatment of the circumferential truncal skin and fatty tissue excess.

    PubMed

    Almousawi, H S; Assaf, N; Herlin, C; Alharbi, M; Michel, G; Sinna, R; Dast, S

    2017-08-01

    The increase in the number of patients who undergo massive weight loss surgery has led to an increasing number of patients who complain of circumferential abdominal skin and soft tissue excess. Currently, the only surgical option to treat soft tissue excess is vertical median abdominal lipectomy (fleur-de-lys technique). However, many patients are reluctant to undergo this surgery because of the position of the scar. We presented a new surgical approach to manage circumferential excess - dorsal median lipectomy (arrow technique) - in which the dorsal scar is well-tolerated by patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of wing leading-edge deflection on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Weston, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wing leading-edge deflection effects on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing configuration were determined. Static force tests were conducted in a V/STOL tunnel at a Reynolds number of about 2.5 x 1 million for an angle-of-attack range from -10 deg to 17 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -5 deg to 5 deg. Limited flow visualization studies were also conducted in order to provide a qualitative assessment of leading-edge upwash characteristics.

  19. Signal voter

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Roy L.

    1981-01-01

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals, each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  20. Signal voter

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.L.

    1981-04-28

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals , each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  1. Chiral perturbation theory for K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay in the continuum and on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Golterman, M.F.; Leung, K.C.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper we use one-loop chiral perturbation theory in order to compare lattice computations of the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude with the experimental value. This makes it possible to investigate three systematic effects that plague lattice computations: quenching, finite-volume effects, and the fact that lattice computations have been done at unphysical values of the quark masses and pion external momenta (only this latter effect shows up at the tree level). We apply our results to the most recent lattice computation and find that all three effects are substantial. We conclude that one-loop corrections in chiral perturbation theory help in explaining the discrepancy between lattice results and the real-world value. We also reexamine B{sub K}, which is closely related to the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude by chiral symmetry. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficient for SAMPL5 drug-like compounds with the QMPFF3 and ARROW polarizable force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Ganesh; Kurnikov, Igor; Fain, Boris; Leontyev, Igor; Illarionov, Alexey; Butin, Oleg; Olevanov, Michael; Pereyaslavets, Leonid

    2016-11-01

    We present the performance of blind predictions of water—cyclohexane distribution coefficients for 53 drug-like compounds in the SAMPL5 challenge by three methods currently in use within our group. Two of them utilize QMPFF3 and ARROW, polarizable force-fields of varying complexity, and the third uses the General Amber Force-Field (GAFF). The polarizable FF's are implemented in an in-house MD package, Arbalest. We find that when we had time to parametrize the functional groups with care (batch 0), the polarizable force-fields outperformed the non-polarizable one. Conversely, on the full set of 53 compounds, GAFF performed better than both QMPFF3 and ARROW. We also describe the torsion-restrain method we used to improve sampling of molecular conformational space and thus the overall accuracy of prediction. The SAMPL5 challenge highlighted several drawbacks of our force-fields, such as our significant systematic over-estimation of hydrophobic interactions, specifically for alkanes and aromatic rings.

  3. Prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficient for SAMPL5 drug-like compounds with the QMPFF3 and ARROW polarizable force fields.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ganesh; Kurnikov, Igor; Fain, Boris; Leontyev, Igor; Illarionov, Alexey; Butin, Oleg; Olevanov, Michael; Pereyaslavets, Leonid

    2016-11-01

    We present the performance of blind predictions of water-cyclohexane distribution coefficients for 53 drug-like compounds in the SAMPL5 challenge by three methods currently in use within our group. Two of them utilize QMPFF3 and ARROW, polarizable force-fields of varying complexity, and the third uses the General Amber Force-Field (GAFF). The polarizable FF's are implemented in an in-house MD package, Arbalest. We find that when we had time to parametrize the functional groups with care (batch 0), the polarizable force-fields outperformed the non-polarizable one. Conversely, on the full set of 53 compounds, GAFF performed better than both QMPFF3 and ARROW. We also describe the torsion-restrain method we used to improve sampling of molecular conformational space and thus the overall accuracy of prediction. The SAMPL5 challenge highlighted several drawbacks of our force-fields, such as our significant systematic over-estimation of hydrophobic interactions, specifically for alkanes and aromatic rings.

  4. Measurement of the branching fraction of D{sub s} inclusive semileptonic decay D{sub s}{sup +}{r_arrow}e{sup +}X

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.; Chai, Z.W.; Chen, G.P.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, S.M.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.B.; Chen, Y.Q.; Cheng, B.S.; Cui, X.Z.; Ding, H.L.; Du, Z.Z.; Fan, X.L.; Fang, J.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gu, J.H.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Gu, Y.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; He, J.; He, J.T.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.L.; Hu, Q.H.; Hu, T.; Hu, X.Q.; Huang, X.P.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jiang, C.H.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Kang, S.H.; Ke, Z.J.; Lai, Y.F.; Lan, H.B.; Lang, P.F.; Li, J.; Li, P.Q.; Li, R.B.; Li, W.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.H.; Li, X.N.; Lin, S.Z.; Lu, F.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.A.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, J.Y.; Luo, S.Q.; Luo, Y.; Ma, A.M.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Qi, N.D.; Qiu, J.F.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, F.; Sun, H.S.; Sun, S.J.; Tan, Y.P.; Tang, S.Q.; Tong, G.L.; Wang, F.; Wang, J.F.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wei, C.L.; Wu, Y.G.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xie, P.P.; Xiong, W.J.; Xu, D.Z.; Xu, G.F.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, W.; Yang, X.F.; Ye, M.H.; Ye, S.Z.; Yi, K.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, Z.Q.; Yu, Z.T.; Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q.J.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, X.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, W.R.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.; Bardon, O.; Cowan, R.F.; Fero, M.; Blum, I.; Gratton, P.; Izen, J.M.; Kim, B.K.; Lou, X.C.; Lowery, B.; Standifird, J.; and others

    1997-10-01

    The absolute inclusive semileptonic branching fraction of the D{sub s} meson has been measured based on 22.3 pb{sup {minus}1} of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collision data collected with the Beijing Spectrometer at {radical} (s) =4.03GeV. At this energy, the D{sub s} are produced in pairs: e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup {minus}}. We reconstructed 171{plus_minus}21{plus_minus}15 D{sub s} events in five hadronic decay modes. In the recoil system of these events, several D{sub s} inclusive semileptonic decays were observed and the branching fraction is estimated to be B(D{sub s}{sup +}{r_arrow}e{sup +}X)=(7.7{sub {minus}4.3{minus}2.1}{sup +5.7+2.4}){percent}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Detailed study of the incoherent {mu}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}e{sup {minus}} conversion rate: Elimination of spurious contaminations from the 1{sup {minus}} contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, J.; Faessler, A.; Kosmas, T.S.

    1997-11-01

    The incoherent matrix elements of the exotic ({mu}{sup {minus}},e{sup {minus}}) conversion in nuclei process are studied in detail for a set of nuclei throughout the periodic table in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation (RPA). The contaminations, usually inserted in the 1{sup {minus}} RPA excitation modes (the most important incoherent {mu}{r_arrow}e conversion channel), are removed by explicitly constructing the purely spurious center-of-mass state. We found that mostly the lowest-lying 1{sub 1}{sup {minus}} state is affected by the use of non-self-consistent single-particle energies and a truncated model space in the RPA. To a good approximation we can regard this state as fully spurious and treat the other states as the physical ones. The elimination of the spuriousness requires a different renormalization of the interaction. This allows us to reproduce the excitation spectrum, needed to calculate reliably the incoherent matrix elements of the {mu}{r_arrow}e process, with realistic forces (Bonn potential) which cannot be achieved with the contaminated wave functions. We focus on the investigation of the incoherent rate of {sup 48}Ti, from which the best upper limit for the flavor number violation has been extracted, and {sup 208}Pb, which is currently used in the SINDRUM II experiment at PSI. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Elevated total plasma homocysteine and 667C{r_arrow}T mutation of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in thrombotic vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    De Franchis, R.; Sebastio, G.; Andria, G.

    1996-07-01

    Moderate elevation of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been reported as an independent risk factor for thrombotic vascular disease, a well-known multifactorial disorder. Possible genetic causes of elevated tHcy include defects of the sulfur-containing amino acids metabolism due to deficiencies of cystathionine {Beta}-synthase, of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and of the enzymes of cobalamin metabolism. An impaired activity of MTHFR due to a thermolabile form of the enzyme has been observed in {le}28% of hyperhomocysteinemic patients with premature vascular disease. More recently, the molecular basis of such enzymatic thermolability has been related to a common mutation of the MTHFR gene, causing a C-to-T substitution at nt 677 (677C{r_arrow}T). This mutation was found in 38% of unselected chromosomes from 57 French Canadian individuals. The homozygous state for the mutation was present in 12% of these subjects and correlated with significantly elevated tHcy. Preliminary evidence indicates that the frequency of homozygotes for the 677C{r_arrow}T mutation may vary significantly in populations from different geographic areas. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Supercruiser Arrow HS-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Paul; Kao, Edward; Abobo, Joey B.; Collins, Todd A.; Ma, Leong; Murad, Adnan; Naran, Hitesh; Nguyen, Thuan P.; Nuon, Timithy I.; Thomas, Dimitri D.

    1992-01-01

    Technology in aeronautics has advanced dramatically since the last design of a production High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. Newly projected requirements call for a new High Speed Civil Transport aircraft with a range of approximately 550 nm and at least 275 passenger capacity. The aircraft must be affordable and marketable. The new HSCT must be able to sustain long-duration flights and to absorb the abuse of daily operation. The new aircraft must be safe and simple to fly and require a minimum amount of maintenance. This aircraft must meet FAA certification criteria of FAR Part 25 and environmental constraints. Several design configurations were examined and two designs were selected for further investigation. The first design employs the delta planform wings and conventional empennage layout. The other design uses a swing wing layout and conventional empennage. Other engineering challenges, including materials and propulsion are also discussed. At a cruise flight speed between Mach 2.2 and Mach 3.0, no current generation of materials can endure the thermal loading of supersonic flight and satisfy the stringent weight requirements. A new generation of lightweight composite materials must be developed for the HSCT. With the enforcement of stage 3 noise restrictions, these new engines must be able to propel the aircraft and satisfy the noise limit. The engine with the most promise is the variable cycle engine. At low subsonic speeds the engine operates like a turbofan engine, providing the most efficient performance. At higher speeds the variable cycle engine operates as a turbojet power plant. The two large engine manufacturers, General Electric and Pratt & Whitney in the United States, are combining forces to make the variable cycle engine a reality.

  8. Introduction: Subduction's sharpest arrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, John C.

    In the center of the 6000-km reach of Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska subduction is arguably Earth's most remarkable subduction cusp. The Kamchatka-Aleutian junction is a sharp arrowhead mounted on the shaft of the Emperor Seamount Chain. This collection of papers provides context, definition, and suggestions for the origin of the junction, but a comprehensive understanding remains elusive, in part because of the newness of international collaborations. Necessary cross-border syntheses have been impeded by the adversarial international relations that characterized the 20th century. For much of this period, Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands were part of the Soviet Union, a mostly closed country. The entire region was swept by World War II, abundant remnants of which are wrecked ships and planes, unexploded ordnance, and Rommel stakes.

  9. A C {r_arrow} T transition at nucleotide 592 accounts for the most frequent mutation of G6PD gene in Taiwanese aboriginal Ami tribe: detection by mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.P.; Sun, W.; Chang, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest known enzymopathy in Taiwan. It is estimated to affect 3% of our population, and its molecular defects have been characterized recently. There are 9 point mutations identified with a C {r_arrow} T substitution at nucleotide (nt) 592 in exon VI, the least frequently seen (0.8%) of all mutations. To characterize mutations of the G6PD gene in the Ami people, the most populous of Taiwanese minorities, we studied 21 G6PD-deficient Ami infants and their family members. Natural and amplification-created restriction sites were generated by PCR technique with 10 pairs of primers applied for the screening. By studying the first 7 cases, we found an identical C {r_arrow} T transition at nt 592. MS-PCR was then designed to rapidly detect the nt 592 mutation. As a result, 17 infants are disclosed as having the C {r_arrow} T transition at nt 592, and 2 have a G {r_arrow} T substitution at nt 1376, which were finally verified to be derived from a Chinese Min-Nan ancestor. The genetic defect of the remaining 2 infants remains unidentified. This study has shown that MS-PCR is a feasible and highly sensitive technique for screening mutation carriers in pooled DNA samples. The homogeneity of the nt 592 mutation in the Ami people has proved to be a good indicator for anthropological research.

  10. A simple recipe for setting up the flux equations of cyclic and linear reaction schemes of ion transport with a high number of states: The arrow scheme.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ulf-Peter; Rauh, Oliver; Schroeder, Indra

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of flux equations or current-voltage relationships in reaction kinetic models with a high number of states can be very cumbersome. Here, a recipe based on an arrow scheme is presented, which yields a straightforward access to the minimum form of the flux equations and the occupation probability of the involved states in cyclic and linear reaction schemes. This is extremely simple for cyclic schemes without branches. If branches are involved, the effort of setting up the equations is a little bit higher. However, also here a straightforward recipe making use of so-called reserve factors is provided for implementing the branches into the cyclic scheme, thus enabling also a simple treatment of such cases.

  11. Theoretical and experimental pressure distributions for a 71.2 degree swept arrow-wing configuration at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, P. J.; Manro, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test of an arrow-wing body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control-surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 2.50 to provide an experimental data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art and newly developed attached- and separated-flow methods. Conditions were delineated under which these theories provide accurate basic and incremental aeroelastic loads predictions. Current state-of-the-art linear and nonlinear attached-flow methods were adequate only at small-angle-of-attack cruise conditions. Of the several separated-vortex methods evaluated, only the one utilizing a combination of linear source and quadratically varying doublet panels showed promise of yielding accurate loads distributions at moderate to large angles of attack.

  12. Transverse single spin asymmetries of pi(O) at high x(F) in p up arrow plus p collisions with the PHENIX detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu M.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2012-01-09

    Using the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC), which covers 3.1 < |{eta}| < 3.7, the PHENIX detector at RHIC has measured large transverse single spin asymmetries A{sub N} for single inclusive high x{sub F} {pi}{sup 0}'s in transversely polarized proton collisions. We will present the measured asymmetries from two different collision energies, one at {radical}s = 200 GeV with an integrated luminosity of {approx} 5.2 pb{sup -1} and the other at {radical}s = 62 GeV with {approx} 20 nb{sup -1}. The relatively large values for the asymmetries make these measurements interesting for decoupling the various effects which have been proposed to generate transverse asymmetries in p{up_arrow} + p collisions, and may eventually lead to a greater understanding of the internal angular momentum structure of the proton.

  13. Low-speed wind-tunnel study of the high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a cranked-arrow-wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.

    1984-01-01

    The low-speed, high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a fighter configuration incorporating a cranked arrow wing were investigated in the Langley 30- by 60-foot tunnel as part of a NASA/General Dynamics cooperative research program to investigate the application of advanced wing designs to combat aircraft. Tests were conducted on a baseline configuration and on several modified configurations. The results show that the baseline configuration exhibited a high level of maximum lift but displayed undesirable longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics at high angles of attack. Various wing modifications were made which improved the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the configuration at high angles of attack. However, most of the modifications were detrimental to maximum lift.

  14. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics from wind-tunnel tests of a large-scale advanced arrow-wing supersonic-cruise transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Tests have been conducted to extend the existing low speed aerodynamic data base of advanced supersonic-cruise arrow wing configurations. Principle configuration variables included wing leading-edge flap deflection, wing trailing-edge flap deflection, horizontal tail effectiveness, and fuselage forebody strakes. A limited investigation was also conducted to determine the low speed aerodynamic effects due to slotted training-edge flaps. Results of this investigation demonstrate that deflecting the wing leading-edge flaps downward to suppress the wing apex vortices provides improved static longitudinal stability; however, it also results in significantly reduced static directional stability. The use of a selected fuselage forebody strakes is found to be effective in increasing the level of positive static directional stability. Drooping the fuselage nose, which is required for low-speed pilot vision, significantly improves the later-directional trim characteristics.

  15. A simple recipe for setting up the flux equations of cyclic and linear reaction schemes of ion transport with a high number of states: The arrow scheme

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulf-Peter; Rauh, Oliver; Schroeder, Indra

    2016-01-01

    abstract The calculation of flux equations or current-voltage relationships in reaction kinetic models with a high number of states can be very cumbersome. Here, a recipe based on an arrow scheme is presented, which yields a straightforward access to the minimum form of the flux equations and the occupation probability of the involved states in cyclic and linear reaction schemes. This is extremely simple for cyclic schemes without branches. If branches are involved, the effort of setting up the equations is a little bit higher. However, also here a straightforward recipe making use of so-called reserve factors is provided for implementing the branches into the cyclic scheme, thus enabling also a simple treatment of such cases. PMID:26646356

  16. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a large scale blended arrow advanced supersonic transport model having variable cycle engines and vectoring exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlett, L. P.; Shivers, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in a full-scale tunnel to determine the performance and static stability and control characteristics of a large-scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport configuration incorporating variable-cycle engines and vectoring exhaust nozzles. Configuration variables tested included: (1) engine mode (cruise or low-speed), (2) engine exit nozzle deflection, (3) leading-edge flap geometry, and (4) trailing-edge flap deflection. Test variables included values of C sub micron from 0 to 0.38, values of angle of attack from -10 degrees to 30 degrees, values of angle of sideslip, from -5 degrees to 5 degrees, and values of Reynolds number, from 3.5 million to 6.8 million.

  17. Reduced dimensionality diatom--diatom reactive scattering: Application to a model H sub 2 +A sub 2 r arrow H+HA sub 2 reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Q.; Bowman, J.M. )

    1990-01-15

    We apply a recently formulated quantum theory of diatom--diatom reactions (Q. Sun and J. M. Bowman, Int. J. Quant. Chem., Quant. Chem. Symp. {bold 23}, 9 (1989)) to a model collinear H{sub 2}+A{sub 2}{r arrow}H+HA{sub 2} reaction, where A has the mass of a hydrogen atom. The theory assumes one diatom bond is nonreactive, and the reactive scattering Hamiltonian is written in terms of hyperspherical and cylindrical coordinates. The potential-energy surface used is the PK2 H+H{sub 2} surface augmented by a harmonic degree of freedom describing the nonreactive A{sub 2}. Details of the formulation and solution of the coupled-channel equations are given, along with convergence tests, and a discussion of the new state-to-state transition probabilities. In particular, the partial quenching of the well-known collinear H+H{sub 2} resonances is noted.

  18. Absolute becoming, relational becoming and the arrow of time: Some non-conventional remarks on the relationship between physics and metaphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorato, Mauro

    The literature on the compatibility between the time of our experience-characterized by passage or becoming-and time as is represented within spacetime theories has been affected by a persistent failure to get a clear grasp of the notion of becoming, both in its relation to an ontology of events "spread" in a four-dimensional manifold, and in relation to temporally asymmetric physical processes. In the first part of my paper I try to remedy this situation by offering what I consider a clear and faithful explication of becoming, valid independently of the particular spacetime setting in which we operate. Along the way, I will show why the metaphysical debate between the so-called "presentists" and "eternalists" is completely irrelevant to the question of becoming, as the debate itself is generated by a failure to distinguish between a tensed and a tenseless sense of "existence". After a much needed distinction between absolute and relational becoming, I then show in what sense classical (non-quantum) spacetime physics presupposes both types of becoming, for the simple reason that spacetime physics presupposes an ontology of (timelike-separated) events. As a consequence, not only does it turn out that using physics to try to provide empirical evidence for the existence of becoming amounts to putting the cart before the horses, but also that the order imposed by "the arrow of becoming" is more fundamental than any other physical arrow of time, despite the fact that becoming cannot be used to explain why entropy grows, or retarded electromagnetic radiation prevails versus advanced radiation.

  19. Curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms: from electron localization function (ELF) analysis to valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) inspired interpretation.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Juan; Berski, Sławomir; Silvi, Bernard

    2016-07-07

    Probing the electron density transfers during a chemical reaction can provide important insights, making possible to understand and control chemical reactions. This aim has required extensions of the relationships between the traditional chemical concepts and the quantum mechanical ones. The present work examines the detailed chemical insights that have been generated through 100 years of work worldwide on G. N. Lewis's ground breaking paper on The Atom and the Molecule (Lewis, G. N. The Atom and the Molecule, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1916, 38, 762-785), with a focus on how the determination of reaction mechanisms can be reached applying the bonding evolution theory (BET), emphasizing how curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms and how the Lewis structure can be recovered. BET that combines the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool providing insight into molecular mechanisms of chemical rearrangements. In agreement with physical laws and quantum theoretical insights, BET can be considered as an appropriate tool to tackle chemical reactivity with a wide range of possible applications. Likewise, the present approach retrieves the classical curly arrows used to describe the rearrangements of chemical bonds for a given reaction mechanism, providing detailed physical grounds for this type of representation. The ideas underlying the valence-shell-electron pair-repulsion (VSEPR) model applied to non-equilibrium geometries provide simple chemical explanations of density transfers. For a given geometry around a central atom, the arrangement of the electronic domain may comply or not with the VSEPR rules according with the valence shell population of the considered atom. A deformation yields arrangements which are either VSEPR defective (at least a domain is missing to match the VSEPR arrangement corresponding to the geometry of the ligands), VSEPR compliant

  20. The expanding clinical phenotype of the tRNA{sup Leu(UUR)} A{r_arrow}G mutation at np 3243 of mitochondrial DNA: Diabetic embryopathy associated with mitochondrial cytopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenbaum, A.; Chitayat, D.; Robinson, B.; MacGregor, D.; Myint, T.

    1996-04-24

    We describe a family which demonstrates and expands the extreme clinical variability now known to be associated with the A{r_arrow}G transition at nucleotide position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA. The propositus presented at birth with clinical manifestations consistent with diabetic embryopathy including anal atresia, caudal dysgenesis, and multicystic dysplastic kidneys. His co-twin was normal at birth, but at 3 months of life, presented with intractable seizures later associated with developmental delay. The twins` mother developed diabetes mellitus type I at the age of 20 years and gastrointestinal problems at 22 years. Since age 19 years, the maternal aunt has had recurrent strokes, seizures, mental deterioration and deafness, later diagnosed as MELAS syndrome due to the tRNA{sup Leu(UUR)} A{r_arrow}G mutation. A maternal uncle had diabetes mellitus type I, deafness, and normal intellect, and died at 35 years after recurrent strokes. This pedigree expands the known clinical phenotype associated with tRNA{sup Leu(UUR)} A{r_arrow}G mutation and raises the possibility that, in some cases, diabetic embryopathy may be due to a mitochondrial cytopathy that affects both the mother`s pancreas (and results in diabetes mellitus and the metabolic dysfunction associated with it) and the embryonic/fetal and placental tissues which make the embryo more vulnerable to this insult. 33 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  2. A theorem proving the irreversibility of the biological arrow of time, based on fixed points in the brain as a compact, Δ-complete topological space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounias, Michel

    2000-05-01

    A physical space can exist as a collection of closed topologies in the intersections of abstract topological subspaces provided with non-equal dimensions. Furthermore, the ordered sequence of mappings of one to another intersection provides an arrow of time which is shared by all connected systems of closed, involving those of the brain type with other types (i.e., physical objects of all categories). The topology of closed spaces associates fixed points of the Brouwer's type with fixed points of the Banach's type. The former are specific of each closed and the latter drive the information from the outside space to mental images inside a closed, through mappings of Jordan's points. The set of fixed points thus provides the properties of both perception and self in living organisms. Conditions for existence of various kinds of Banach's type fixed points are fulfilled by the mathematical brain, since it is both a discrete finite structure, thus a compact topological space, and provided with a set distance (Δ), thus Δ-complete. Finally, since (i) iterates in a sequence of mappings include at least a surjective component and (ii) not identical (if even existing) fixed points would be generated by the non-surjective property which would characterize reciprocal mappings, in either metric or nonmetric setting, the reversion of biological time would break the direct link of the self with perception functions. Thus, while time could be reversible for physics, it is perceived as irreversible for biology, although physical and biological objects share a common space.

  3. A Coupled-Cluster Study of XON (X=H, F, Cl), and the XON (left and right arrow) XNO Transition States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The XON molecules (X=H, F, and Cl) have been studied using the singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), in conjunction with a double polarized triple-zeta basis set. The equilibrium geometries, dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities have been predicted. The X-O bond distance is shown to be abnormally long for X=F and Cl, and this is attributed to the degree of ionic bonding and the stability of NO(+). Based on Mulliken population analyses, it is shown that there is a significant degree of X(-), ON(+) ionic bonding character for FON and ClON, whereas for HON the ionic character is reduced and best described as H(+), NO(-). The stability of the XON molecule relative to the XNO isomer is shown to increase in the order HONarrow) XNO transition states are also investigated. FON and ClON possess the lowest barrier heights to isomerization (7.2 plus or minus 1.0 kcal/mol at 0 K), but these are sufficiently large to suggest that isomerization should not be rapid at low temperatures.

  4. Meaurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic region from the reaction {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e')

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yawei

    2013-10-01

    A measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry has been performed using the quasi-elastic {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e') reaction with a vertically polarized {sup 3}He target at Q{sup 2} values of 0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 GeV{sup 2}. This asymmetry vanishes under the one photon exchange assumption. But the interference between two-photon exchange and one-photon exchange gives rise to an imaginary amplitude, so that a non-zero A{sub y} is allowed. The experiment, conducted in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory in 2009, used two independent spectrometers to simultaneously measure the target single-spin asymmetry. Using the effective polarization approximation, the neutron single-spin asymmetries were extracted from the measured {sup 3}He asymmetries. The measurement is to establish a non-vanishing A{sub y}. Non-zero asymmetries were observed at all Q{sup 2} points, and the overall precision is an order of magnitude improved over the existing proton data. The data provide new constraints on Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) models and new information on the dynamics of the two-photon exchange process.

  5. Assignment of human potassium channel gene KCNA4 (Kv1. 4, PCN2) to chromosome 11q13. 4 [r arrow] q14. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Philipson, L.H.; Bell, G.I. ); Eddy, R.L.; Shows, T.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Both electrically excitable and nonexcitable tissues express voltage-sensitive K[sup +] channels. Since the original isolation of the Drosophila Shaker gene encoding voltage-sensitive K[sub +] channels, five additional related gene families have been described: the Shal, Shab, and Shaw families and the K-eag and Slo genes. A seventh family of slowly activating K[sup +] channels, minK of IsK, is structurally unrelated to the others. Seven human genes related to the Shaker subfamily have been described. We recently described the cloning of a fast-inactivating human voltage-gated K[sup +] channel, PCN2. Here we report the mapping of the gene encoding PNC2, designated KNCA4, to chromosome 11 by analyzing its segregation in a panel of reduced human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. In situ hybridization to prometaphase chromoxomes localized KCNA4 to the long arm of chromosome 11 in the region of bands q13.4 [r arrow] q14.1.

  6. Subsonic pressure distributions near a wing-fin juncture on a supersonic arrow-wing configuration with wing-mounted vertical fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, J. K.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A generic supersonic arrow-wing configuration has been extensively studied to develop a consistent experimental data base to aid in verifying analytical prediction methods. One of the wing configurations studied was a twisted and cambered wing with wing-mounted vertical fins and trailing-edge flaps. The pressure data obtained on that configuration was limited in the wing-fin juncture region, and no pressures were obtained on the fin itself. However, detailed data in the juncture region and on the fin are essential to check out the analytical prediction methods. Therefore, the model was modified to provide details of the juncture pressure field as well as pressures on the fin. The results of this experimental investigation showed that the addition of a fin helped improve the wing pressure distribution outboard of the fin. Deflection of the trailing-edge flap did not adversely affect this trend. The pressure distributions on the vertical fin were generally affected more by change in angle of attack than by flap deflection. The spanwise pressure distribution on the fin itself indicated a load reversal with angle of attack.

  7. De novo partial duplication 7(q11.2{r_arrow}q21.2) in a dysmorphic, developmentally retarded boy

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Pinsky, L.; Teebi, A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving chromosome 7q are rare; we report a case of partial duplication 7q. The propositus was born at 34 weeks by cesarian section, decided because of oligohydramnios, severe intrauterine growth retardation and fetal immobility. At birth, the baby was under the 5th percentile for height, weight and head circumference and had dysmorphic features, including slight asymmetry of the face, bilateral epicanthus, hypoplastic nasal bridge, short globular nose, asymmetrical dysplastic ears, fifth finger clinodactyly, short second and fifth toe. Ultrasound examination showed atrial and ventricular septal defects. At 18 months, the child had a fracture of the femur, secondary to a minor trauma; skeletal X-rays showed generalized osteoporosis and normal healing. The karyotype with GTG-banding showed a de novo partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 7 (46,XX,dup(7)(q11.23{r_arrow}q21.2)). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a painting probe specific for chromosome 7 confirmed the intra-chromosomal rearrangement. The patient`s phenotype and his chromosomal abnormality do not match the previously reported cases of partial trisomy 7q. This case confirms the importance of FISH for the delineation of the chromosomal inbalance in structural chromosomal aberrations.

  8. Search for B_c^± arrow J/ψ μ^± X Decays in pbarp Collisions at √s=1.8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prem

    1997-04-01

    The B_c^± meson, a bound state of charm and bottom quarks, is expected to have several narrow mass states below the B--D open flavor threshold. We describe a search for the weak decays of the B_c^± produced in a 110 pb-1 sample of √s= 1.8 TeV proton-antiproton collisions in the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A high branching ratio of B_c^± to J/ψ decays permits an effective trigger on these events. The search is conducted through the decay B_c^± arrow J/ψ μ^± X. Supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-FG02-91ER40646. We thank the Fermilab staff and the technical staffs of the participating institutions for their vital contributions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation.

  9. The prediction of pressure distributions on an arrow-wing configuration including the effect of camber, twist, and a wing fin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, P. J.; Manro, M. E.; Kulfan, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of an arrow wing body configuration consisting of flat, twisted, and cambered twisted wings were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 2.50 to provide an experimental data base for comparison with theoretical methods. A variety of leading and trailing edge control surface deflections were included in these tests, and in addition, the cambered twisted wing was tested with an outboard vertical fin to determine its effect on wing and control surface loads. Theory experiment comparisons show that current state of the art linear and nonlinear attached flow methods were adequate at small angles of attack typical of cruise conditions. The incremental effects of outboard fin, wing twist, and wing camber are most accurately predicted by the advanced panel method PANAIR. Results of the advanced panel separated flow method, obtained with an early version of the program, show promise that accurate detailed pressure predictions may soon be possible for an aeroelasticity deformed wing at high angles of attack.

  10. Quantum state-to-state reaction probabilities for the H+H{sub 2}O{r_arrow}H{sub 2}+OH reaction in six dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.H.; Light, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    A time-dependent wave packet method has been employed to calculate the state-to-state reaction probability for the H+H{sub 2}O(0,0,0){r_arrow}H{sub 2}({ital v}{sub 1},{ital j}{sub 1})+OH({ital v}{sub 2},{ital j}{sub 2}) reaction for {ital J}=0 and initial nonrotating H{sub 2}O on the modified Schatz{endash}Elgersman potential energy surface in full six dimensions (6D). Starting from a wave packet for an atom{endash}triatom asymptotic state in atom{endash}triatom Jacobi coordinates, we transfer the wave packet to diatom{endash}diatom Jacobi coordinates after the wave packet moves into the interaction region. Propagation is then carried out in the diatom{endash}diatom Jacobi coordinates until the reaction flux measured in the diatom{endash}diatom asymptotic region is converged. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Enhancement of ARROW Photonic Device Performance via Thermal Annealing of PECVD-based SiO2 Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Parks, J W; Wall, T A; Cai, H; Hawkins, A R; Schmidt, H

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based optofluidic devices are very attractive for applications in biophotonics and chemical sensing. Understanding and controlling the properties of their dielectric waveguides is critical for the performance of these chips. We report that thermal annealing of PECVD-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) ridge waveguides results in considerable improvements to optical transmission and particle detection. There are two fundamental changes that yield higher optical transmission: (1) propagation loss in solid-core waveguides is reduced by over 70%, and (2) coupling efficiencies between solid- and liquid-core waveguides are optimized. The combined effects result in improved optical chip transmission by a factor of 100-1000 times. These improvements are shown to arise from the elimination of a high-index layer at the surface of the SiO2 caused by water absorption into the porous oxide. The effects of this layer on optical transmission and mode confinement are shown to be reversible by alternating subjection of waveguides to water and subsequent low temperature annealing. Finally, we show that annealing improves detection of fluorescent analytes in optofluidic chips with a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 166x and a particle detection efficiency improvement of 94%.

  12. Ibrutinib, idelalisib and obinutuzumab for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: three new arrows aiming at the target.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Fortunato; Gentile, Massimo; Seymour, John F; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been sustained and dramatic improvements in the therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Until 1990, therapy for CLL was based on alkylating agents, chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, which did not impact meaningfully on overall survival. The more recent therapeutic regimens, built on combination chemoimmunotherapy, achieve complete responses in 40-50% of cases. However, these regimens are limited in their applicability mostly to the treatment of younger and physically fit patients due to their associated toxicity. Furthermore, since disease progression and drug resistance are considered inevitable, CLL remains incurable. Fortunately, significant progress in the understanding of CLL biology has enabled the development of new molecular drugs targeting the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, such as ibrutinib and idelalisib, which have shown impressive results in patients with relapsed/refractory disease or with TP53 mutation/deletion. Furthermore, obinutuzumab, a type II anti-CD20 antibody, which results in direct cell death and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, also has proven efficacy when used in combination with chlorambucil in previously untreated and unfit patients. All these three new drugs have recently received FDA approval for the treatment of CLL. This review focuses on the role of ibrutinib, idelalisib and obinutuzumab in therapy of CLL.

  13. The antibiotic resistance arrow of time: efflux pump induction is a general first step in the evolution of mycobacterial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Schmalstieg, Aurelia M; Srivastava, Shashikant; Belkaya, Serkan; Deshpande, Devyani; Meek, Claudia; Leff, Richard; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesize that low-level efflux pump expression is the first step in the development of high-level drug resistance in mycobacteria. We performed 28-day azithromycin dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies in our hollow-fiber model of disseminated Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex. Both microbial kill and resistance emergence were most closely linked to the within-macrophage area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Quantitative PCR revealed that subtherapeutic azithromycin exposures over 3 days led to a 56-fold increase in expression of MAV_3306, which encodes a putative ABC transporter, and MAV_1406, which encodes a putative major facilitator superfamily pump, in M. avium. By day 7, a subpopulation of M. avium with low-level resistance was encountered and exhibited the classic inverted U curve versus AUC/MIC ratios. The resistance was abolished by an efflux pump inhibitor. While the maximal microbial kill started to decrease after day 7, a population with high-level azithromycin resistance appeared at day 28. This resistance could not be reversed by efflux pump inhibitors. Orthologs of pumps encoded by MAV_3306 and MAV_1406 were identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium abscessus, and Mycobacterium ulcerans. All had highly conserved protein secondary structures. We propose that induction of several efflux pumps is the first step in a general pathway to drug resistance that eventually leads to high-level chromosomal-mutation-related resistance in mycobacteria as ordered events in an "antibiotic resistance arrow of time."

  14. Wnt signaling is required for long-term memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ying; Yu, Dinghui; Busto, Germain U.; Wilson, Curtis; Davis, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNA interference approach. Interfering with β-catenin expression in the adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, rescued with expression of a wild-type β-catenin transgene, and correlated with a disruption of a cellular long-term memory trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt co-receptor, also impaired long-term memory. Wingless expression in wild type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after long-term memory conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in the adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory, collectively indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory. PMID:24035392

  15. Effect of leading-edge contour and vertical-tail configuration on the low-speed stability characteristics of a supersonic transport model having a highly-swept arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, V. E.

    1978-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was made on a highly-swept arrow-wing model to determine the effect of wing leading-edge contour and vertical-tail configuration on the aerodynamic characteristics in pitch and sideslip. The investigation was made with the trailing-edge flaps deflected over a range of angles of attack from 8 deg to 32 deg. The tests were made at a Mach number of 0.13, which corresponds to a Reynolds number of about 3,000,000 based on the wing reference chord.

  16. QED based on self-energy: The relativistic 2 S sub 1/2 r arrow 1 S sub 1/2 +1. gamma. decay rates of hydrogenlike atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Barut, A.O.; Salamin, Y.I. )

    1991-03-01

    Within the framework of the recently advanced formulation of QED based on self-energy, we calculate the relativistic rates of the 2{ital S}{sub 1/2}{r arrow}1{ital S}{sub 1/2}+1{gamma} transition in the hydrogen isoelectronic sequence for values of {ital Z} ranging between 1 and 92. We compare our results with those of Johnson (Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1123 (1972)) and Parpia and Johnson (Phys. Rev. A 26, 1142 (1982)), analytically and numerically. Although the two approaches are quite different, the formulas for decay rates are shown to be equivalent.

  17. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities, Self-Broadening and Self-Shift Coefficients for the X(sup 1) Sigma(+) V=3 (left arrow) V=0 Band (C-12)(O-16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, R.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    The rotationless transition moment squared for the x(sup 1) sigma (sup +) v=3 (left arrow) v=0 band of CO is measured to be the absolute value of R (sub 3-0) squared = 1.7127(25)x 10(exp -7) Debye squared. This value is about 8.6 percent smaller than the value assumed for HITRAN 2000. The Herman-Wallis intensity factor of this band is F=1+0.01168(11)m+0.0001065(79)m squared. The determination of self-broadening coefficients is improved with the inclusion of line narrowing; self-shifts are also reported.

  18. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a 1/10-scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration designed for cruise at Mach 2.2. [Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    The low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were investigated in tests conducted at a Reynolds number of 4.19 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord, with an angle of attack range from - 6 deg to 23 deg and sideslip angle range from -15 deg to 20 deg. The effects of segmented leading-edge flaps, slotted trailing-edge flaps, horizontal and vertical tails, and ailerons and spoilers were determined. Extensive pressure data and flow visualization pictures with non-intrusive fluorescent mini-tufts were obtained.

  19. Regulation of Wingless signaling by the CKI family in Drosophila limb development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Jia, Jianhang; Wang, Bing; Amanai, Kazuhito; Wharton, Keith A.; Jiang, Jin

    2007-01-01

    Summary The Wingless (Wg)/Wnt signaling pathway regulates a myriad of developmental processes and its malfunction leads to human disorders including cancer. Recent studies suggest that casein kinase I (CKI) family members play pivotal roles in the Wg/Wnt pathway. However, genetic evidence for the involvement of CKI family members in physiological Wg/Wnt signaling events is lacking. In addition, there are conflicting reports regarding whether a given CKI family member functions as a positive or negative regulator of the pathway. Here we examine the roles of seven CKI family members in Wg signaling during Drosophila limb development. We find that increased CKIε stimulates whereas dominant negative or a null CKIε mutation inhibits Wg signaling. In contrast, inactivation of CKIα by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to ectopic Wg signaling. Interestingly, hypomorphic CKIε mutations synergize with CKIα RNAi to induce ectopic Wg signaling, revealing a negative role for CKIε. Conversely, CKIα RNAi enhances the loss-of-Wg phenotypes caused by CKIε null mutation, suggesting a positive role for CKIα. While none of the other five CKI isoforms can substitute for CKIα in its inhibitory role in the Wg pathway, several CKI isoforms including CG12147 exhibit a positive role based on overexpression. Moreover, loss of Gilgamesh (Gish)/CKIγ attenuates Wg signaling activity. Finally, we provide evidence that several CKI isoforms including CKIα and Gish/CKIγ can phosphorylate the Wg co-receptor Arrow (Arr), which may account, at least in part, for their positive roles in the Wg pathway. PMID:16987508

  20. Regulation of wingless signaling by the CKI family in Drosophila limb development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jia, Jianhang; Wang, Bing; Amanai, Kazuhito; Wharton, Keith A; Jiang, Jin

    2006-11-01

    The Wingless (Wg)/Wnt signaling pathway regulates a myriad of developmental processes and its malfunction leads to human disorders including cancer. Recent studies suggest that casein kinase I (CKI) family members play pivotal roles in the Wg/Wnt pathway. However, genetic evidence for the involvement of CKI family members in physiological Wg/Wnt signaling events is lacking. In addition, there are conflicting reports regarding whether a given CKI family member functions as a positive or negative regulator of the pathway. Here we examine the roles of seven CKI family members in Wg signaling during Drosophila limb development. We find that increased CKIepsilon stimulates whereas dominant-negative or a null CKIepsilon mutation inhibits Wg signaling. In contrast, inactivation of CKIalpha by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to ectopic Wg signaling. Interestingly, hypomorphic CKIepsilon mutations synergize with CKIalpha RNAi to induce ectopic Wg signaling, revealing a negative role for CKIepsilon. Conversely, CKIalpha RNAi enhances the loss-of-Wg phenotypes caused by CKIepsilon null mutation, suggesting a positive role for CKIalpha. While none of the other five CKI isoforms can substitute for CKIalpha in its inhibitory role in the Wg pathway, several CKI isoforms including CG12147 exhibit a positive role based on overexpression. Moreover, loss of Gilgamesh (Gish)/CKIgamma attenuates Wg signaling activity. Finally, we provide evidence that several CKI isoforms including CKIalpha and Gish/CKIgamma can phosphorylate the Wg coreceptor Arrow (Arr), which may account, at least in part, for their positive roles in the Wg pathway.

  1. Casein kinase 1 gamma couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gary; Wu, Wei; Shen, Jinlong; Bilic, Josipa; Fenger, Ursula; Stannek, Peter; Glinka, Andrei; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-12-08

    Signalling by Wnt proteins (Wingless in Drosophila) has diverse roles during embryonic development and in adults, and is implicated in human diseases, including cancer. LDL-receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5 and LRP6; Arrow in Drosophila) are key receptors required for transmission of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in metazoa. Although the role of these receptors in Wnt signalling is well established, their coupling with the cytoplasmic signalling apparatus remains poorly defined. Using a protein modification screen for regulators of LRP6, we describe the identification of Xenopus Casein kinase 1 gamma (CK1gamma), a membrane-bound member of the CK1 family. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments show that CK1gamma is both necessary and sufficient to transduce LRP6 signalling in vertebrates and Drosophila cells. In Xenopus embryos, CK1gamma is required during anterio-posterior patterning to promote posteriorizing Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. CK1gamma is associated with LRP6, which has multiple, modular CK1 phosphorylation sites. Wnt treatment induces the rapid CK1gamma-mediated phosphorylation of these sites within LRP6, which, in turn, promotes the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that couples Wnt receptor activation to the cytoplasmic signal transduction apparatus.

  2. Temporal patterns of induction and recovery of biomarker transcriptional responses to 4-Nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol in the estuarine arrow goby, Clevelandia ios.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kaitlin M; Lema, Sean C

    2017-05-01

    Several estuaries along the Pacific Ocean coast of North America were identified recently as having elevated 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in sediments and biota, raising concerns about reproductive impacts for wildlife given 4-NP's established estrogenic activity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Here we characterize 4-NP mediated induction and recovery of estrogen-sensitive gene transcripts in the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios), an intertidal fish abundant in estuarine mud flats on the west coast of North America. Male gobies were exposed to waterborne 4-NP at 10 μg/L or 100 μg/L for 20 days followed by a 20 day depuration period. Additional males were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2; 50 ng/L). 4-NP at 100 μg/L elevated hepatic mRNAs encoding vitellogenins A (vtgA) and C (vtgC) and choriogenin L (chgL) within 72 h, and choriogenin H minor (chgHm) within 12 days. Hepatic mRNAs encoding estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) were also elevated after 12 days of 4-NP exposure, but returned to pre-exposure levels at 20 days even under continuing 4-NP treatment. 4-NP did not alter mRNA levels of estrogen receptor gamma (esr2a) in the liver, or of esr1, esr2a, and cytochrome P450 aromatase B (cyp19a1b) in the brain. The temporal pattern of initial induction for hepatic vtgA, vtgC, and chgL transcripts by 4-NP mirrored the pattern by E2, while chgHm and esr1 mRNA induction by 4-NP lagged 2-11 days behind the responses of these transcripts to E2. These findings establish 4-NP concentration- and time-dependent induction patterns of choriogenin and vitellogenin transcription following exposure to environmentally relevant 4-NP concentrations, while concurrently demonstrating tissue-specific induction patterns for esr1 by estrogenic compounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1513-1529, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Low-Drag Aircraft Configuration having an Arrow Wing of Aspect Ratio 1.86 and a Body of Fineness Ratio 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Warren, Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A free-flight rocket-propelled-model investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 1.2 to 1.9 to determine the longitudinal and lateral aero-dynamic characteristics of a low-drag aircraft configuration. The model consisted of an aspect-ratio -1.86 arrow wing with 67.5 deg. leading-edge sweep and NACA 65A004 airfoil section and a triangular vertical tail with 60 deg. sweep and NACA 65A003 section in combination with a body of fineness ratio 20. Aerodynamic data in pitch, yaw, and roll were obtained from transient motions induced by small pulse rockets firing at intervals in the pitch and yaw directions. From the results of this brief aerodynamic investigation, it is observed that very slender body shapes can provide increased volumetric capacity with little or no increase in zero-lift drag and that body fineness ratios of the order of 20 should be considered in the design of long-range supersonic aircraft. The zero-lift drag and the drag-due-to-lift parameter of the test configuration varied linearly with Mach number. The maximum lift-drag ratio was 7.0 at a Mach number of 1.25 and decreased slightly to a value of 6.6 at a Mach number of 1.81. The optimum lift coefficient, normal-force-curve slope, lateral-force-curve slope, static stability in pitch and yaw, time to damp to one-half amplitude in pitch and yaw, the sum of the rotary damping derivatives in pitch and also in yaw, and the static rolling derivatives all decreased with an increase in Mach number. Values of certain rolling derivatives were obtained by application of the least-squares method to the differential equation of rolling motion. A comparison of the experimental and calculated total rolling-moment-coefficient variation during transient oscillations of the model indicated good agreement when the damping-in-roll contribution was included with the static rolling-moment terms.

  4. Predicting the intensity mapping signal for multi-J CO lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham; Sternberg, Amiel E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity mapping signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star formation rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR−M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, we predict a mean CO(1-0) brightness temperature ranging from ∼ 0.6 μK at z = 6 to ∼ 0.03 μK at z = 10 with brightness temperature fluctuations of Δ{sub CO}{sup 2} ∼ 0.1 and 0.005 μK respectively, at k = 0.1 Mpc{sup −1}. In this model, the CO emission signal remains strong for higher rotational levels at z = 6, with ( T{sub CO} ) ∼ 0.3 and 0.05 μK for the CO J = 6arrow5 and CO J = 10arrow9 transitions respectively. Including the effects of CO photodissociation in these molecular clouds, especially at low metallicities, results in the overall reduction in the amplitude of the CO signal, with the low- and high-J lines weakening by 2–20% and 10–45%, respectively, over the redshift range 4 < z < 10.

  5. Electroweak and strong penguin diagrams in {ital B}{sup {plus_minus},0}{r_arrow}{pi}{pi}, {pi}{ital K}, and {ital K{bar K}} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.; Palmer, W.F.

    1995-12-01

    We calculate {ital CP}-violating rates and asymmetry parameters in charged and neutral {ital B}{r_arrow}{pi}{pi}, {pi}{ital K}, and {ital {bar K}K} decays arising from the interference of tree and penguin (strong and electroweak) amplitudes with different strong and CKM phases. The perturbative strong (electroweak) phases develop at order {alpha}{sub {ital s}} ({alpha}{sub em}) from absorptive parts of one-loop matrix elements of the next-to-leading (leading) logarithm corrected effective Hamiltonian. The BSW model is used to estimate the hadronic matrix elements. Based on this model, we find that the effect of strong phases and penguin diagrams is substantial in most channels, drastic in many. However, a measurement of the time dependence parameter {ital a}{sub {epsilon}+{epsilon}{prime}} in the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} channel is only influenced at the 20% level by the complication of the penguin diagrams. Recent flavor sum rules developed for {ital B}{sup 0,{plus_minus}}{r_arrow}{pi}{pi}, {pi}{ital K}, {ital K{bar K}} amplitudes are tested in this model. Some are well satisfied, others badly violated, when electroweak penguin diagrams are included.

  6. The language of the arrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    I think and hope that most experienced physics and astronomy teachers would agree that teaching is both a science and a creative art. There is a way to creatively introduce vectors into introductory astronomy that lets students learn some basic, but fundamental, physics and at the same time demonstrates that mathematics need not be a barrier in a science course. The approach is entirely graphical in that it is based on the geometric properties of vectors and is implemented by drawing diagrams. Despite the simplicity, it allows astronomy students to experience genuine physics reasoning at about the same level of a conceptual physics course (and possibly a higher level).

  7. The evolution of novel animal signals: silk decorations as a model system.

    PubMed

    Walter, André; Elgar, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    Contemporary animal signals may derive from an elaboration of existing forms or novel non-signalling traits. Unravelling the evolution of the latter is challenging because experiments investigating the maintenance of the signal may provide little insight into its early evolution. The web decorations, or stabilimenta of some orb web spiders represent an intriguing model system to investigate novel animal signals. For over 100 years, biologists have struggled to explain why spiders decorate their webs with additional threads of silk, producing a conspicuous signal on a construction whose function is to entangle unsuspecting prey. The numerous explanations for the maintenance of this behaviour starkly contrast with the absence of a plausible explanation for its evolutionary origin. Our review highlights the difficulties in resolving both the evolution and maintenance of animal signalling, and inferring the causative arrow-even from experimental studies. Drawing on recent research that focuses on physiological processes, we provide a model of the evolutionary progression of web-decorating behaviour. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, David M.

    The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

  9. Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    ORGANIZATION Univ of Minnesota (f*fto U. S. Army Research Office 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (Wiy Stat, and ZIP Code...Minneapolis, MN 55455 P. 0. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Sa. NAME Of FUNDING ISPONSORING Sb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...PROJECT ITASK jWORK UNIT Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 EMNTO.I NO NO CESOIO 11. TITLE (Incudt Security Classifiratio") Signal Processing of, he auth

  10. LED traffic lights: New technology signals major energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, D.

    1994-12-31

    Using light-emitting diode technology to replace incandescent lamps in traffic signals promises energy savings upwards of 60 percent for each of the estimated quarter of a million controlled intersections in the United States. LED units use only 9 to 25 watts instead of the 67 to 150 watts used by each incandescent lamp. Though their first cost is relatively high, energy savings result in paybacks of 1 to 5 years. LED retrofit kits are available for red signal disks and arrows, and installations in several states have proven successful, although minor improvements are addressing concerns about varying light output and controller circuitry. Retrofitting green lamps is not yet feasible, because color standards of the Institute of Traffic Engineers cannot be met with existing LED technology. Yellow lamps have such low duty factors (they`re on only 3 percent of the time) that retrofitting with LED signals is not cost-effective. LEDs last much longer than incandescents, allowing municipalities to not only reduce their electricity bills, but to save on maintenance costs as well. As further incentive, some utilities are beginning to implement rebate programs for LED traffic signal retrofits. Full approval of LED units is still awaited from the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE), the standard-setting body for traffic safety devices. Local and state governments ultimately decide what specifications to require for traffic lights, and the growing body of successful field experience with LEDs appears to be raising their comfort level with the technology. The California Department of Transportation is developing an LED traffic light specification, and two California utilities, Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric, have provided rebates for some pilot installations.

  11. Urothelial Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The urothelium, which lines the inner surface of the renal pelvis, the ureters, and the urinary bladder, not only forms a high-resistance barrier to ion, solute and water flux, and pathogens, but also functions as an integral part of a sensory web which receives, amplifies, and transmits information about its external milieu. Urothelial cells have the ability to sense changes in their extracellular environment, and respond to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli by releasing various factors such as ATP, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine. They express a variety of receptors and ion channels, including P2X3 purinergic receptors, nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and TRP channels, which all have been implicated in urothelial-neuronal interactions, and involved in signals that via components in the underlying lamina propria, such as interstitial cells, can be amplified and conveyed to nerves, detrusor muscle cells, and ultimately the central nervous system. The specialized anatomy of the urothelium and underlying structures, and the possible communication mechanisms from urothelial cells to various cell types within the bladder wall are described. Changes in the urothelium/lamina propria (“mucosa”) produced by different bladder disorders are discussed, as well as the mucosa as a target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23589830

  12. Transonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for an arrow-wing configuration. Volume 1: Experimental data report, base configuration and effects of wing twist and leading-edge configuration. [wind tunnel tests, aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.; Manning, K. J. R.; Hallstaff, T. H.; Rogers, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.1 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art attached and separated flow methods. The purpose of these comparisons was to delineate conditions under which these theories are valid for both flat and twisted wings and to explore the use of empirical methods to correct the theoretical methods where theory is deficient.

  13. Experimental search for the neutrino decay {nu}{sub 3}{r_arrow}{nu}{sub {ital j}}+{ital e}{sup +}+{ital e}{sup {minus}} and limits on neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hagner, C.; Altmann, M.; Feilitzsch, F.v.; Oberauer, L.; Declais, Y.; Kajfasz, E.

    1995-08-01

    An experiment searching for the neutrino decay {nu}{sub 3}{r_arrow}{nu}{sub {ital j}}+{ital e}{sup +}+{ital e}{sup {minus}} has been performed at the nuclear power reactor of Bugey. The experimental setup and the data analysis are presented. No evidence for this decay has been found and stringent limits on the coupling {vert_bar}{ital U}{sub {ital e}3}{vert_bar}{sup 2} of a massive neutrino in the range of 1 MeV to 10 MeV to an electron are derived. Consequences for the existence of a massive {nu}{sub {tau}} are briefly discussed in the context of astrophysical and cosmological arguments.

  14. Identification and molecular confirmation of a small chromosome 10q duplication [dir dup(10)(q24.2 {r_arrow}q24.3)] inherited from a mother mosiac for the abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Tonk, V.; Schneider, N.R.; Schultz, R.A.; Delgado, M.R.; Mao, Jen-i

    1996-01-02

    We describe a family in which two siblings exhibited developmental delay, reduced muscle tone and mild muscle weakness. Cytogenetic evaluation demonstrated that both children had a tandem duplication of a small portion of the long arm of chromosome 10 [46,XX or XY, dir dup(10)(q24.2{r_arrow}q24.3)], inherited from their clinically normal mother, who was found to be mosaic for the duplicated chromosome 10. Fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches, including total chromosome painting and the use of regional specific cosmid probes, were used to confirm the chromosome 10q origin of the duplicated material. This is the smallest confirmed duplication of this portion of chromosome 10 reported to date. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a one-tenth-scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. [conducted in Langley full-scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemore, H. C.; Parett, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/10 scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. Tests were made for the clean configuration and a high-lift configuration with several combinations of leading- and trailing-edge flaps deflected for providing improved lift and longitudinal stability in the landing and takeoff modes. The tests were conducted for a range of angles of attack from about -6 deg to 30 deg, sideslip angles from -5 deg to 10 deg, and for Reynolds numbers from 6.78 x 1,000,000 to 13.85 x 1,000,000 corresponding to test velocities of 41 knots to 85 knots, respectively.

  16. Constraints on the gluon Sivers distribution via transverse single spin asymmetries at midrapidity in p{sup {up_arrow}}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}X processes at BNL RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmino, M.; D'Alesio, U.; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the recent RHIC data on the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) A{sub N}, measured in p{sup {up_arrow}}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}X processes at midrapidity by the PHENIX Collaboration. The measurement is consistent with a vanishing SSA. We analyze this experimental information within a hard scattering approach based on a generalized QCD factorization scheme, with unintegrated, transverse momentum dependent (TMD), parton distribution and fragmentation functions. It turns out that, in the kinematical region of the data, only the gluon Sivers effect could give a large contribution to A{sub N}; its vanishing value is thus an indication about the possible size of the gluon Sivers function (GSF). Approximate upper limits on its magnitude are derived. Additional constraints obtained combining available parameterizations of the quark Sivers function and the Burkardt sum rule (BSR) for the Sivers distributions are also discussed.

  17. Analytical results for O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}tt{sup {up_arrow}} up to a given gluon energy cut

    SciTech Connect

    Groote, S.; Koerner, J. G.

    2009-08-01

    We determine the O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to polarized top quark pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations with a specified gluon energy cut. We write down fully analytical results for the unpolarized and polarized O({alpha}{sub s}) cross sections e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}tt(G) and e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}tt{sup {up_arrow}}(G) including their polar orientation dependence relative to the beam direction. In the soft-gluon limit we recover the usual factorizing form known from the soft-gluon approximation. In the limit when the gluon energy cut takes its maximum value we recover the totally inclusive unpolarized and polarized cross sections calculated previously. We provide some numerical results on the cutoff dependence of the various polarized and unpolarized cross sections and discuss how the exact results numerically differ from the approximate soft-gluon results.

  18. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale advanced arrow wing supersonic transport configuration with engines mounted above the wing for upper-surface blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, J. P.; Mclemore, H. C.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Langley full scale tunnel was used to investigate the low speed stability and control of an advanced arrow wing supersonic transport with engines mounted above the wing for upper-surface blowing. Tests were made over an angle of attack range of -10 to 32 deg, slideslip angles of + or -5 deg and a Reynolds number ranging from 3.53 million to 7.33 million (referenced to mean aerodynamic chord of the wing). Configuration variables included trailing-edge flap deflection, engine jet nozzle angle, engine thrust coefficient, engine out operation, and asymmetrical trailing-edge BLC for providing roll trim. Downwash measurements at the tail were obtained for different thrust coefficients, tail heights, and at two fuselage stations.

  19. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J.; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand–receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand–receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts. PMID:25236598

  20. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts.

  1. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, E.W.; Simms, R.

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  2. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Edward W.; Simms, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  3. Signal transfer within a cultured asymmetric cortical neuron circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Takuya; Shimba, Kenta; Takayama, Yuzo; Takeuchi, Akimasa; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Simplified neuronal circuits are required for investigating information representation in nervous systems and for validating theoretical neural network models. Here, we developed patterned neuronal circuits using micro fabricated devices, comprising a micro-well array bonded to a microelectrode-array substrate. Approach. The micro-well array consisted of micrometre-scale wells connected by tunnels, all contained within a silicone slab called a micro-chamber. The design of the micro-chamber confined somata to the wells and allowed axons to grow through the tunnels bidirectionally but with a designed, unidirectional bias. We guided axons into the point of the arrow structure where one of the two tunnel entrances is located, making that the preferred direction. Main results. When rat cortical neurons were cultured in the wells, their axons grew through the tunnels and connected to neurons in adjoining wells. Unidirectional burst transfers and other asymmetric signal-propagation phenomena were observed via the substrate-embedded electrodes. Seventy-nine percent of burst transfers were in the forward direction. We also observed rapid propagation of activity from sites of local electrical stimulation, and significant effects of inhibitory synapse blockade on bursting activity. Significance. These results suggest that this simple, substrate-controlled neuronal circuit can be applied to develop in vitro models of the function of cortical microcircuits or deep neural networks, better to elucidate the laws governing the dynamics of neuronal networks.

  4. Wingless signaling and the control of cell shape in Drosophila wing imaginal discs.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Thomas J; Dahmann, Christian

    2009-10-01

    The control of cell morphology is important for shaping animals during development. Here we address the role of the Wnt/Wingless signal transduction pathway and two of its target genes, vestigial and shotgun (encoding E-cadherin), in controlling the columnar shape of Drosophila wing disc cells. We show that clones of cells mutant for arrow (encoding an essential component of the Wingless signal transduction pathway), vestigial or shotgun undergo profound cell shape changes and are extruded towards the basal side of the epithelium. Compartment-wide expression of a dominant-negative form of the Wingless transducer T-cell factor (TCF/Pangolin), or double-stranded RNA targeting vestigial or shotgun, leads to abnormally short cells throughout this region, indicating that these genes act cell autonomously to maintain normal columnar cell shape. Conversely, overexpression of Wingless, a constitutively-active form of the Wingless transducer beta-catenin/Armadillo, or Vestigial, results in precocious cell elongation. Co-expression of Vestigial partially suppresses the abnormal cell shape induced by dominant-negative TCF. We conclude that Wingless signal transduction plays a cell-autonomous role in promoting and maintaining the columnar shape of wing disc cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that Wingless controls cell shape, in part, through maintaining vestigial expression.

  5. Signal processor for processing ultrasonic receiver signals

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1980-01-01

    A signal processor is provided which uses an analog integrating circuit in conjunction with a set of digital counters controlled by a precision clock for sampling timing to provide an improved presentation of an ultrasonic transmitter/receiver signal. The signal is sampled relative to the transmitter trigger signal timing at precise times, the selected number of samples are integrated and the integrated samples are transferred and held for recording on a strip chart recorder or converted to digital form for storage. By integrating multiple samples taken at precisely the same time with respect to the trigger for the ultrasonic transmitter, random noise, which is contained in the ultrasonic receiver signal, is reduced relative to the desired useful signal.

  6. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer–resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism. PMID:24068354

  7. Retroactive Signaling in Short Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sepulchre, Jacques-Alexandre; Merajver, Sofía D.; Ventura, Alejandra C.

    2012-01-01

    In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles. PMID:22848403

  8. Measurement of the angular distribution of the electron from W {r_arrow} e = {nu} decay, in p pbar at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV, as function of P{sub T}{sup W}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The goal of this work is to study the behavior of the angular distribution of the electron from the decay of the W boson in a specific rest frame of the W, the Collins-Soper frame. More specifically, the parameter {alpha}{sub 2} from the expression d{sigma}/d(P{sub T}{sup W}){sup 2} d cos {theta}* = k(1 + {alpha}{sub 2} cos {theta}* + {alpha}{sup 2}(cos {theta}*){sup 2}), corresponding to the distribution of cos {theta}* in the Collins-Soper frame, was measured. The experimental value of {alpha}P{sub 2} was compared with the predictions made by E. Mirkes [11] who included the radiative QCD perturbations in the weak-interaction B{sub boson} {r_arrow} lepton + lepton. This experimental value was extracted for the first time using knowledge about how the radiative QCD perturbations will modify the predictions given by the Electro-Weak process only.

  9. The {ital T}{sub 1}({ital n}{pi}{asterisk}){l_arrow}{ital S}{sub 0} laser induced phosphorescence excitation spectrum of acetaldehyde in a supersonic free jet: Torsion and wagging potentials in the lowest triplet state

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Lim, E.C.; Munoz-Caro, C.; Nino, A.; Judge, R.H.; Moule, D.C.

    1996-08-01

    The laser induced {ital T}{sub 1}({ital n}{pi}{asterisk}){l_arrow}{ital S}{sub 0} phosphorescence excitation spectrum of jet-cooled acetaldehyde has been observed for the first time with a rotating slit nozzle excitation system. The vibronic origins were fitted to a set of levels that were obtained from a Hamiltonian that employed flexible torsion-wagging large amplitude coordinates. The potential surface extracted from the fitting procedure yielded barriers to torsion and inversion of 609.68 and 869.02 cm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Minima in the potential hypersurface at {theta}=61.7{degree} and {alpha}=42.2{degree} defined the equilibrium positions for the torsion and wagging coordinates. A comparison to the corresponding {ital S}{sub 1}-state parameters showed that the torsion barrier (in cm{sup {minus}1}) does not greatly change, {ital S}{sub 1}/{ital T}{sub 1}=710.8/609.7, whereas the barrier height for the wagging-inversion barrier increases dramatically, 574.4/869.0. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Multidimensional signal processing for ultrasonic signal classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Ramuhalli, P.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S.

    2001-04-01

    Neural network based signal classification systems are being used increasingly in the analysis of large volumes of data obtained in NDE applications. One example is in the interpretation on ultrasonic signals obtained from inspection of welds where signals can be due to porosity, slag, lack of fusion and cracks in the weld region. Standard techniques rely on differences in individual A-scans to classify the signals. This paper proposes an ultrasonic signal classification technique based on the information in a group of signals and examining the statistical characteristics of the signals. The method was 2-dimensional signal processing algorithms to analyze the information in B- and B'-scan images. In this paper, 2-dimensional transform based coefficients of the images are used as features and a multilayer perceptron is used to classify them. These results are then combined to get the final classification for the inspected region. Results of applying the technique to data obtained from the inspection of welds are presented.

  11. ERK Signals: Scaffolding Scaffolds?

    PubMed Central

    Casar, Berta; Crespo, Piero

    2016-01-01

    ERK1/2 MAP Kinases become activated in response to multiple intra- and extra-cellular stimuli through a signaling module composed of sequential tiers of cytoplasmic kinases. Scaffold proteins regulate ERK signals by connecting the different components of the module into a multi-enzymatic complex by which signal amplitude and duration are fine-tuned, and also provide signal fidelity by isolating this complex from external interferences. In addition, scaffold proteins play a central role as spatial regulators of ERKs signals. In this respect, depending on the subcellular localization from which the activating signals emanate, defined scaffolds specify which substrates are amenable to be phosphorylated. Recent evidence has unveiled direct interactions among different scaffold protein species. These scaffold-scaffold macro-complexes could constitute an additional level of regulation for ERK signals and may serve as nodes for the integration of incoming signals and the subsequent diversification of the outgoing signals with respect to substrate engagement. PMID:27303664

  12. WNT-1 Signaling in Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    segment polarity gene whose mutant phenotype resembles that of the wingless (Drosophila Wnt-1) mutation (3). arrow encodes a transmembrane receptor...and function ofSpemann’s organizer. Annu. Rev. C Drv. of those caused by mutations in individual Wnt genes . Further- Biaol 13, 611-667 (1997). more, we... mutations of multiple Wnt genes [31]. In the 0.5 nM and thus is significantly higher than Wnt-Fz bind- Xenopus embryo, inhibition of LRP6 function

  13. Signaling in myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Myxobacteria use soluble and cell-contact signals during their starvation-induced formation of fruiting bodies. These signals coordinate developmental gene expression with the cell movements that build fruiting bodies. Early in development, the quorum-sensing A-signal in Myxococcus xanthus helps to assess starvation and induce the first stage of aggregation. Later, the morphogenetic C-signal helps to pattern cell movement and shape the fruiting body. C-signal is a 17-kDa cell surface protein that signals by contact between the ends of two cells. The number of C-signal molecules per cell rises 100-fold from the beginning of fruiting body development to the end, when spores are formed. Traveling waves, streams, and sporulation have increasing thresholds for C-signal activity, and this progression ensures that spores form inside fruiting bodies.

  14. Signal sciences workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing.

  15. Staggered Costas signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Avraham; Levanon, Nadav

    1986-11-01

    A radar signal, based on coherent processing of a train of staggered Costas (1984) bursts is based on a minimum number of collocation of their individual ambiguity function sidelobe peaks. The resulting ambiguity function combines qualities of both 'thumbtack' and 'bed of nails' signals. Comparison with linear-FM, V-FM, and complementary phase coded signals is given, as well as comparison with hybrid signals consisting of both phase and frequency coding.

  16. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling. PMID:27807442

  17. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    SciTech Connect

    Lager, Darrell; Azevado, Stephen

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible and are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.

  18. Spectral Line Parameters Including Temperature Dependences of Self- and Air-Broadening in the 2 (left arrow) 0 Band of CO at 2.3 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Predoi-Cross, A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependences of pressure-broadened half-width and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with accurate positions and intensities have been determined for transitions in the 2<--0 band of C-12 O-16 from analyzing high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra recorded with two different Fourier transform spectrometers. A total of 28 spectra, 16 self-broadened and 12 air-broadened, recorded using high- purity (greater than or equal to 99.5% C-12-enriched) CO samples and CO diluted with dry air(research grade) at different temperatures and pressures, were analyzed simultaneously to maximize the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. The sample temperatures ranged from 150 to 298K and the total pressures varied between 5 and 700 Torr. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting technique was used to adjust the rovibrational constants (G, B, D, etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis coefficients), rather than determining individual line positions and intensities. Self-and air-broadened Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents, self- and air-pressure-induced shift coefficients, their temperature dependences, self- and air-line mixing coefficients, their temperature dependences and speed dependence have been retrieved from the analysis. Speed-dependent line shapes with line mixing employing off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism were needed to minimize the fit residuals. This study presents a precise and complete set of spectral line parameters that consistently reproduce the spectrum of carbon monoxide over terrestrial atmospheric conditions.

  19. Spectral Line Parameters Including Temperature Dependences of Self- and Air-Broadening in the 2 (left arrow) 0 Band of CO at 2.3 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Predoi-Cross, A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependences of pressure-broadened half-width and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with accurate positions and intensities have been determined for transitions in the 2<--0 band of C-12 O-16 from analyzing high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra recorded with two different Fourier transform spectrometers. A total of 28 spectra, 16 self-broadened and 12 air-broadened, recorded using high- purity (greater than or equal to 99.5% C-12-enriched) CO samples and CO diluted with dry air(research grade) at different temperatures and pressures, were analyzed simultaneously to maximize the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. The sample temperatures ranged from 150 to 298K and the total pressures varied between 5 and 700 Torr. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting technique was used to adjust the rovibrational constants (G, B, D, etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis coefficients), rather than determining individual line positions and intensities. Self-and air-broadened Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents, self- and air-pressure-induced shift coefficients, their temperature dependences, self- and air-line mixing coefficients, their temperature dependences and speed dependence have been retrieved from the analysis. Speed-dependent line shapes with line mixing employing off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism were needed to minimize the fit residuals. This study presents a precise and complete set of spectral line parameters that consistently reproduce the spectrum of carbon monoxide over terrestrial atmospheric conditions.

  20. Activation of macrophages by linear (1right-arrow3)-beta-D-glucans. Impliations for the recognition of fungi by innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Keiko; Muta, Tatsushi; Yamazaki, Soh; Takeshige, Koichiro

    2002-09-27

    Although (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans, which are one of major fungal cell wall components, are known to activate invertebrate innate immune systems, their activities on mammalian cells remain elusive. Here, we report their activities on mouse macrophages. Among the various (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans, curdlan, a linear (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan, although not branched beta-glucans, exhibits significant activity to stimulate nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages. The activity of curdlan is dramatically enhanced by pretreatment with sodium hydroxide or dimethyl sulfoxide, which disrupts multiple-stranded helices of (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans, and is dose-dependently inhibited by a (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan-binding protein and by laminarioligosaccharides with (1-->3)-beta-d-glucosidic linkages. Intriguingly, the activity of curdlan is also augmented by incubation with zymolyase, which releases (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans with a single helical structure from the glucan-networks assembled by multiple-stranded helices. The activation of macrophages culminates in the production of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Furthermore, a dominant-negative mutant of MyD88, an adaptor protein mediating signaling through the Toll-like receptor/inerleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR) domain, inhibits the activation of macrophages by curdlan. These results strongly suggest that macrophages respond to linear (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans, possibly released from fungal cell walls, via a receptor(s) harboring the TIR domain, such as a Toll-like receptor, to induce inflammatory reactions.

  1. Satellite signaling at synapses

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor-Giles, Kate M.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Neural function requires effective communication between neurons and their targets at synapses. Thus, proper formation, growth and plasticity of synapses are critical to behavior. A retrograde (muscle to neuron) BMP signal is required to promote synaptic growth, homeostasis and stability at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs).1-4 We recently demonstrated that this signal constitutes an instructive signal that sculpts synaptic growth in a graded manner and uncovered a presynaptic endocytic mechanism that modulates BMP signaling levels. In the absence of this regulation, excessive BMP signaling results in overgrown NMJs with a proliferation of ectopic boutons.5 PMID:20798607

  2. A G {r_arrow} A transition at position IVS-11 +1 of the HEX A {alpha}-chain gene in a non-Ashkenazic Mexican Tay-Sachs infant

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, S.R.P.; Gwon, S.; DeGasperi, R.

    1994-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is an autosomal recessive storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, {beta}-N-acetylhexosaminidase A (Hex A), a heteropolymer composed of two polypeptides, {alpha} and {beta}. Mutations in the {alpha}-chain gene render the enzyme defective, resulting in the accumulation of g{sub m2} ganglioside in the nervous system. Deficiency of Hex A was detected in a non-Ashkenazic girl of Mexican origin indicating infantile onset of TSD. Molecular investigation of the {alpha}-chain gene excluded the typical Ashkenazic 4 bp insertion in the exon 11 and the intron 12 splice-junction mutations by Hae III and Dde I restriction analysis, respectively. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis showed a different pattern in the sample where exon 11 and flanking regions were amplified in the patient DNA as compared to the migration of control DNA. Sequencing of PCR amplified genomic DNA containing exon 11 and flanking intronic regions showed a single base substitution (G {r_arrow} A) at position IVS-11 +1. This mutation creates a recognition site for the restriction enzyme Mbo II. Digestion of exon 11 and flanking regions with Mbo II demonstrated homozygosity of the patient for this mutation and heterozygosity in the mother. mRNA from cultured fibroblasts obtained from a normal control and from the propositus was reverse transcribed. The cDNAs coding for Hex A {alpha}-chain were amplified in four overlapping fragments. In the patient sample it was not possible to amplify the fragment containing the exon 11/intron 11 junction, indicating that this mutation alters normal RNA processing of the Hex A pre-mRNA resulting in the deficiency of Hex A activity.

  3. Acoustic Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  4. Neuronal signaling through endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Segal, Rosalind A

    2014-02-01

    The distinctive morphology of neurons, with complex dendritic arbors and extensive axons, presents spatial challenges for intracellular signal transduction. The endosomal system provides mechanisms that enable signaling molecules initiated by extracellular cues to be trafficked throughout the expanse of the neuron, allowing intracellular signals to be sustained over long distances. Therefore endosomes are critical for many aspects of neuronal signaling that regulate cell survival, axonal growth and guidance, dendritic branching, and cell migration. An intriguing characteristic of neuronal signal transduction is that endosomal trafficking enables physiological responses that vary based on the subcellular location of signal initiation. In this review, we will discuss the specialized mechanisms and the functional significance of endosomal signaling in neurons, both during normal development and in disease.

  5. Neuronal Signaling through Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cosker, Katharina E.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    The distinctive morphology of neurons, with complex dendritic arbors and extensive axons, presents spatial challenges for intracellular signal transduction. The endosomal system provides mechanisms that enable signaling molecules initiated by extracellular cues to be trafficked throughout the expanse of the neuron, allowing intracellular signals to be sustained over long distances. Therefore endosomes are critical for many aspects of neuronal signaling that regulate cell survival, axonal growth and guidance, dendritic branching, and cell migration. An intriguing characteristic of neuronal signal transduction is that endosomal trafficking enables physiological responses that vary based on the subcellular location of signal initiation. In this review, we will discuss the specialized mechanisms and the functional significance of endosomal signaling in neurons, both during normal development and in disease. PMID:24492712

  6. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D

    2014-02-01

    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies.

  7. Telephone multiline signaling using common signal pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, R. R.; Toole, P. C.; Belt, J. L.; Leininger, D. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An operator can rapidly and automatically produce coded electrical signals by manipulating mechanical thumb wheel switches so as to instruct a service center to connect any number of telephone lines to the console thus enabling the operator to listen and/or talk over several lines simultaneously. The system includes an on-site console having several mechanically operated thumb wheel switches to which the desired lines to be connected can be dialed in. Electrical coded signals are fed to a number of banks of line AND gates representing units, tens and hundreds, a group of channel gates, and a command gate. These signals are gated out in a controlled manner to an encoder which generates tones that are transmitted over a single line to a communication service center.

  8. Quantitation of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Krauss, S; Brand, M D

    2000-12-01

    Conventional qualitative approaches to signal transduction provide powerful ways to explore the architecture and function of signaling pathways. However, at the level of the complete system, they do not fully depict the interactions between signaling and metabolic pathways and fail to give a manageable overview of the complexity that is often a feature of cellular signal transduction. Here, we introduce a quantitative experimental approach to signal transduction that helps to overcome these difficulties. We present a quantitative analysis of signal transduction during early mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes, with steady-state respiration rate as a convenient marker of metabolic stimulation. First, by inhibiting various key signaling pathways, we measure their relative importance in regulating respiration. About 80% of the input signal is conveyed via identifiable routes: 50% through pathways sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C and MAP kinase and 30% through pathways sensitive to an inhibitor of calcineurin. Second, we quantify how each of these pathways differentially stimulates functional units of reactions that produce and consume a key intermediate in respiration: the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both the PKC and calcineurin routes stimulate consumption more strongly than production, whereas the unidentified signaling routes stimulate production more than consumption, leading to no change in membrane potential despite increased respiration rate. The approach allows a quantitative description of the relative importance of signal transduction pathways and the routes by which they activate a specific cellular process. It should be widely applicable.

  9. Wnt signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, T; Rindtorff, N; Boutros, M

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the key cascades regulating development and stemness, and has also been tightly associated with cancer. The role of Wnt signaling in carcinogenesis has most prominently been described for colorectal cancer, but aberrant Wnt signaling is observed in many more cancer entities. Here, we review current insights into novel components of Wnt pathways and describe their impact on cancer development. Furthermore, we highlight expanding functions of Wnt signaling for both solid and liquid tumors. We also describe current findings how Wnt signaling affects maintenance of cancer stem cells, metastasis and immune control. Finally, we provide an overview of current strategies to antagonize Wnt signaling in cancer and challenges that are associated with such approaches. PMID:27617575

  10. [Growth hormone signaling pathways].

    PubMed

    Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.

  11. Optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses several optical configurations used for signal processing. Electronic-to-optical transducers are outlined, noting fixed window transducers and moving window acousto-optic transducers. Folded spectrum techniques are considered, with reference to wideband RF signal analysis, fetal electroencephalogram analysis, engine vibration analysis, signal buried in noise, and spatial filtering. Various methods for radar signal processing are described, such as phased-array antennas, the optical processing of phased-array data, pulsed Doppler and FM radar systems, a multichannel one-dimensional optical correlator, correlations with long coded waveforms, and Doppler signal processing. Means for noncoherent optical signal processing are noted, including an optical correlator for speech recognition and a noncoherent optical correlator.

  12. Optical Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-28

    compatible with the laser cation in the on-line inspection of products such as source. Thus, if the laser wavelength is z850 nm, hypodermic needles ...content for cw signals, short pulse signals, and evolving pulse signals - - the most difficult ones to analyze. We performed an extensive analysis on a...agreer.nt with the theory , and support our claims concerning the high performance level of our acousto-optir. architecture. We recognized the opportunity to

  13. Signaling Mechanisms for Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Chun-Lin; Iijima, Miho

    2011-01-01

    Cells recognize external chemical gradients and translate these environmental cues into amplified intracellular signaling that results in elongated cell shape, actin polymerization toward the leading edge, and movement along the gradient. Mechanisms underlying chemotaxis are conserved evolutionarily from Dictyostelium amoeba to mammalian neutrophils. Recent studies have uncovered several parallel intracellular signaling pathways that crosstalk in chemotaxing cells. Here, we review these signaling mechanisms in Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:21585354

  14. Danger signals in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Slit-Robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Blockus, Heike; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Slits are secreted proteins that bind to Roundabout (Robo) receptors. Slit-Robo signaling is best known for mediating axon repulsion in the developing nervous system. However, in recent years the functional repertoire of Slits and Robo has expanded tremendously and Slit-Robo signaling has been linked to roles in neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression among other processes. Likewise, our mechanistic understanding of Slit-Robo signaling has progressed enormously. Here, we summarize new insights into Slit-Robo evolutionary and system-dependent diversity, receptor-ligand interactions, signaling crosstalk and receptor activation.

  16. Reviews Toy: Air swimmers Book: Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Book: Physics Experiments for your Bag Book: Quantum Physics for Poets Equipment: SEP colour wheel kit Equipment: SEP colour mixing kit Software: USB DrDAQ App: iHandy Level Equipment: Photonics Explorer kit Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Air swimmers Helium balloon swims like a fish Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Ballistics book hits the spot Physics Experiments for your Bag Handy experiments for your lessons Quantum Physics for Poets Book shows the economic importance of physics SEP colour wheel kit Wheels investigate colour theory SEP colour mixing kit Cheap colour mixing kit uses red, green and blue LEDs iHandy Level iPhone app superbly measures angles Photonics Explorer kit Free optics kit given to schools WORTH A LOOK DrDAQ DrDAQ software gets an upgrade WEB WATCH Websites show range of physics

  17. Signaling by Gasotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Asif K.; Gadalla, Moataz M.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide is well established as a major signaling molecule. Evidence is accumulating that carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide also are physiologic mediators in the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. This Review focuses on mechanisms whereby they signal by binding to metal centers in metalloproteins, such as in guanylyl cyclase, or modifying sulfhydryl groups in protein targets. PMID:19401594

  18. MBA Quality Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Randall S.

    1998-01-01

    A study identified quality signals for master's programs in business administration (MBAs). Traditional scholarly oriented academic signals are apparently not valued as such by external customer groups. MBA academic quality appears to be a multidimensional construct, with subdimensions of real-worldness; placement; student satisfaction; and…

  19. Geophysical Signal Recognition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    quite helpful in the magnetosphere. Detecting a particular in earthquake prediction . However pattern recog- micropulsation event can provide a diagnosis...bio- In su..a.iry, application of pattern recognition to medical signals, progress in geophysical signal earthquake prediction is in its infancy

  20. MBA Quality Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Randall S.

    1998-01-01

    A study identified quality signals for master's programs in business administration (MBAs). Traditional scholarly oriented academic signals are apparently not valued as such by external customer groups. MBA academic quality appears to be a multidimensional construct, with subdimensions of real-worldness; placement; student satisfaction; and…

  1. Adaptive signal processor

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  2. Segregation and manifestations of the mtDNA tRNA[sup Lys] A[r arrow]G[sup (8344)] mutation of myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, N.G.; Tulinius, M.H.; Holme, E.; Oldfors, A.; Andersen, O.; Wahlstroem, J. ); Aasly, J. )

    1992-12-01

    The authors have studied the segregation and manifestations of the tRNA[sup Lys] A[r arrow]G[sup (8344)] mutation of mtDNA. Three unrelated patients with myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome were investigated, along with 30 of their maternal relatives. Mutated mtDNA was not always found in the offspring of women carrying the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation. Four women had 10%-33% of mutated mtDNA in lymphocytes, and no mutated mtDNA was found in 7 of their 14 investigated children. The presence of mutated mtDNA was excluded at a level of 3:1,000. Five women had a proportion of 43%-73% mutated mtDNA in lymphocytes, and mutated mtDNA was found in all their 12 investigated children. This suggests that the risk for transmission of mutated mtDNA to the offspring increases if high levels are present in the mother and that, above a threshold level of 35%-40%, it is very likely that transmission will occur to all children. The three patients with MERRF syndrone had, in muscle, both 94%-96% mutated mtDNA and biochemical and histochemical evidence of a respiratory-chain dysfunction. Four relatives had a proportion of 61%-92% mutated mtDNA in muscle, and biochemical measurements showed a normal respiratory-chain function in muscle in all cases. These findings suggest that >92% of mtDNA with the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation in muscle is required to cause a respiratory-chain dysfunction that can be detected by biochemical methods. There was a positive correlation between the levels of mtDNA with the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation in lymphocytes and the levels in muscle, in all nine investigated cases. The levels of mutated mtDNA were higher in muscle than in lymphocytes in all cases. 30 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Jasmonate signalling: a copycat of auxin signalling?

    PubMed

    Pérez, A Cuéllar; Goossens, A

    2013-12-01

    Plant hormones regulate almost all aspects of plant growth and development. The past decade has provided breakthrough discoveries in phytohormone sensing and signal transduction, and highlighted the striking mechanistic similarities between the auxin and jasmonate (JA) signalling pathways. Perception of auxin and JA involves the formation of co-receptor complexes in which hormone-specific E3-ubiquitin ligases of the SKP1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) type interact with specific repressor proteins. Across the plant kingdom, the Aux/IAA and the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins correspond to the auxin- and JA-specific repressors, respectively. In the absence of the hormones, these repressors form a complex with transcription factors (TFs) specific for both pathways. They also recruit several proteins, among which the general co-repressor TOPLESS, and thereby prevent the TFs from activating gene expression. The hormone-mediated interaction between the SCF and the repressors targets the latter for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation, which, in turn, releases the TFs to allow modulating hormone-dependent gene expression. In this review, we describe the similarities and differences in the auxin and JA signalling cascades with respect to the protein families and the protein domains involved in the formation of the pathway-specific complexes.

  4. Deblurring Signal Network Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kamps, Dominic; Dehmelt, Leif

    2017-09-15

    To orchestrate the function and development of multicellular organisms, cells integrate intra- and extracellular information. This information is processed via signal networks in space and time, steering dynamic changes in cellular structure and function. Defects in those signal networks can lead to developmental disorders or cancer. However, experimental analysis of signal networks is challenging as their state changes dynamically and differs between individual cells. Thus, causal relationships between network components are blurred if lysates from large cell populations are analyzed. To directly study causal relationships, perturbations that target specific components have to be combined with measurements of cellular responses within individual cells. However, using standard single-cell techniques, the number of signal activities that can be monitored simultaneously is limited. Furthermore, diffusion of signal network components limits the spatial precision of perturbations, which blurs the analysis of spatiotemporal processing in signal networks. Hybrid strategies based on optogenetics, surface patterning, chemical tools, and protein design can overcome those limitations and thereby sharpen our view into the dynamic spatiotemporal state of signal networks and enable unique insights into the mechanisms that control cellular function in space and time.

  5. Bioacoustic Signal Classification in Cat Auditory Cortex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    octaves) corresponds to a ripple density of 0.5]. Most formant spacings in human vowels are in the range of 0.6 to 1 ripple/octave with the majority below 3...in percentage per decibels (% dB: lO0% corresponds thresholds are indicated by open arrows. The transition point (see to the firing rate at the...regression function (percentage decibels : Fig. I. dient. The dorsoventral extent of the mapping was car- dashed lines) was taken as measure of the

  6. Plant Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Atienza, Juliana; Van Ingelgem, Carl; Roef, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the cyclic nucleotides 3′,5′-cyclic adenyl monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) in plants is now generally accepted. In addition, cAMP and cGMP have been implicated in the regulation of important plant processes such as stomatal functioning, monovalent and divalent cation fluxes, chloroplast development, gibberellic acid signalling, pathogen response and gene transcription. However, very little is known regarding the components of cyclic nucleotide signalling in plants. In this addendum, the evidence for specific mechanisms of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling is evaluated and discussed. PMID:19704553

  7. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Without doubt, the electrical signaling is costly, and the possible co-existence of such type of signals and photosynthesis in plant cell is discussed. PMID:21558815

  8. Aestivation: signaling and hypometabolism.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B; Storey, Janet M

    2012-05-01

    Aestivation is a survival strategy used by many vertebrates and invertebrates to endure arid environmental conditions. Key features of aestivation include strong metabolic rate suppression, strategies to retain body water, conservation of energy and body fuel reserves, altered nitrogen metabolism, and mechanisms to preserve and stabilize organs, cells and macromolecules over many weeks or months of dormancy. Cell signaling is crucial to achieving both a hypometabolic state and reorganizing multiple metabolic pathways to optimize long-term viability during aestivation. This commentary examines the current knowledge about cell signaling pathways that participate in regulating aestivation, including signaling cascades mediated by the AMP-activated kinase, Akt, ERK, and FoxO1.

  9. Probability, arrow of time and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciagaluppi, Guido

    This paper relates both to the metaphysics of probability and to the physics of time asymmetry. Using the formalism of decoherent histories, it investigates whether intuitions about intrinsic time directedness that are often associated with probability can be justified in the context of no-collapse approaches to quantum mechanics. The standard (two-vector) approach to time symmetry in the decoherent histories literature is criticised, and an alternative approach is proposed, based on two decoherence conditions ('forwards' and 'backwards') within the one-vector formalism. In turn, considerations of forwards and backwards decoherence and of decoherence and recoherence suggest that a time-directed interpretation of probabilities, if adopted, should be both contingent and perspectival.

  10. Complexity and the Arrow of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineweaver, Charles H.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Ruse, Michael

    2013-08-01

    1. What is complexity? Is it increasing? Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies and Michael Ruse; 2. Directionality principles from cancer to cosmology Paul C. W. Davies; 3. A simple treatment of complexity: cosmological entropic boundary conditions on increasing complexity Charles H. Lineweaver; 4. Using complexity science to search for unity in the natural sciences Eric J. Chaisson; 5. On the spontaneous generation of complexity in the universe Seth Lloyd; 6. Emergent spatiotemporal complexity in field theory Marcelo Gleiser; 7. Life: the final frontier for complexity? Simon Conway Morris; 8. Evolution beyond Newton, Darwin, and entailing law: the origin of complexity in the evolving biosphere Stuart A. Kauffman; 9. Emergent order in processes: the interplay of complexity, robustness, correlation, and hierarchy in the biosphere D. Eric Smith; 10. The inferential evolution of biological complexity: forgetting nature by learning to nurture David C. Krakauer; 11. Information width: a way for the second law to increase complexity David Wolpert; 12. Wrestling with biological complexity: from Darwin to Dawkins Michael Ruse; 13. The role of generative entrenchment and robustness in the evolution of complexity William C. Wimsatt; 14. On the plurality of complexity-producing mechanisms Philip Clayton; Index.

  11. Episensitization: Defying Time’s Arrow

    PubMed Central

    Oronsky, Bryan T.; Oronsky, Arnold L.; Lybeck, Michelle; Oronsky, Neil C.; Scicinski, Jan J.; Carter, Corey; Day, Regina M.; Rodriguez Orengo, Jose F.; Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Fanger, Gary F.; Reid, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer is driven by complex genetic and epigenetic changes that result in aberrant and uncontrolled cellular growth. Epigenetic changes, in particular, are implicated in the silencing or activation of key genes that control cellular growth and apoptosis and contribute to transformative potential. The purpose of this review is to define and assess the treatment strategy of “episensitization,” or the ability to sensitize cancer cells to subsequent therapy by resetting the epigenetic infrastructure of the tumor. One important facet is resensitization by epigenetic mechanisms, which goes against the norm, i.e., challenges the long-held doctrine in oncology that the reuse of previously tried and failed therapies is a clinically pointless endeavor. Thus, episensitization is a hybrid term, which covers recent clinically relevant observations and refers to the epigenomic mechanism of resensitization. Among the many formidable challenges in the treatment of cancer, the most inevitable is the development of acquired therapeutic resistance. Here, we present the basic principles behind episensitization and highlight the evidence suggesting that epigenetically mediated histone hypoacetylation and DNA hypermethylation events may reverse clinical drug resistance. The potential reversibility of epigenetic changes and the microenvironmental impact of epigenetic control on gene expression may mediate a return to a baseline state of treatment susceptibility. Episensitization is a novel and highly practical management strategy both to prevent the practice of permanent treatment discontinuation with the occurrence of resistance, which rapidly exhausts remaining options in the pharmaceutical armamentarium and to significantly extend patient survival. Accordingly, this review highlights several epigenetic agents including decitabine, vorinostat, entinostat, 5-azacitidine, oncolytic viruses, and RRx-001. PMID:26125013

  12. Beyond Bows and Arrows. Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Intergovernmental Personnel Programs.

    In spite of their visible prominence and influence on almost every aspect of our society, American Indians remain the least understood group of people. To acquaint symposium participants with the American Indian and to produce greater understanding, this resource manual documents the historical treatment and present status of Indians. Presented…

  13. GNSS Ocean Reflected Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean reflected signals from the GNSS satellites (received at low-Earth orbiting satellites, airplanes and fixed mountain locations) describe the ocean surface mean height, waves, roughness, spectral reflectivity and emissivity. The estimated accuracy of the average surface height is of the order of 10 cm for smooth conditions. Thus global observations could be an important new contribution to long-term variations of the ocean mean height as well as the monitoring of ocean mesoscale eddies, which result in sea-height changes much larger than the accuracy of the GNSS technique for reflected signals. The ocean reflected signals can be divided into two set of measurements, 1) high elevation measurements (equal to low incidence angles) and 2) low elevation grazing angle measurements. For the first type the ocean reflection cross-section has a limited extent. The reflected signal is coherent with smaller errors due to ocean waves, sampling rate and the internal processing method of the receiver. For low elevations, the signal reveals the incoherent scatter process at the reflection zone. To quantify the potential of the GNSS signals for determining spectral reflectivity at low elevations, we present ocean reflection GPS measurements from the Haleakala Summit on Maui, Hawaii, revealing the spectral characteristics of both the direct satellite signal and the ocean reflected signal for low elevation angles. The characteristics of the reflected signal depend on the scattering properties of the sea surface and the footprint of the reflection zone. While the footprint size and shape in turn depends on the signal incidence angle, the ocean mean tilt, and the relative velocities of transmitter and receiver to the reflection point. Thus the scattering properties of the sea surface are related to the sea surface roughness. We present the spectral properties of the signals as received by a high precision GPS instrument, simultaneously in both phase-locked mode and open-loop raw

  14. Peptide signaling in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Hayakawa, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Peptides play a number of crucial roles as signaling molecules in metazoans. In order to elaborate a more complete picture of the roles played by peptides in a single organism, we launched the "Hydra Peptide Project". For this project, we used Hydra magnipapillata, a species belonging to Cnidaria, one of the most basal metazoan phyla, and using a peptidomic approach, we systematically identified a number of peptide signaling molecules, their encoding genes and their functions. In this article, we report the peptides isolated from Hydra and other cnidarians, as well as their synthesis, processing and release from the cells to the target. Possible peptide signaling pathways are overviewed and finally we discuss the evolution of the peptide signaling system.

  15. Signal processing in SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullers, D. K.; Linscott, I. R.; Oliver, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is believed that the Galaxy might contain ten billion potential life sites. In view of the physical inaccessibility of extraterrestrial life on account of the vast distances involved, a logical first step in a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) appears to be an attempt to detect signals already being radiated. The characteristics of the signals to be expected are discussed together with the search strategy of a NASA program. It is pointed out that all presently planned searches will use existing radio-astronomy antennas. If no extraterrestrial intelligence signals are discovered, society will have to decide whether SETI justifies a dedicated facility of much greater collecting area. Attention is given to a multichannel spectrum analyzer, CW signal detection, pulse detection, the pattern detector, and details of SETI system operation.

  16. Nucleotide signalling during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Idzko, Marco; Ferrari, Davide; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions are associated with the extracellular release of nucleotides, particularly ATP. In the extracellular compartment, ATP predominantly functions as a signalling molecule through the activation of purinergic P2 receptors. Metabotropic P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled, whereas ionotropic P2X receptors are ATP-gated ion channels. Here we discuss how signalling events through P2 receptors alter the outcomes of inflammatory or infectious diseases. Recent studies implicate a role for P2X/P2Ysignalling in mounting appropriate inflammatory responses critical for host defence against invading pathogens or tumours. Conversely, P2X/P2Y signalling can promote chronic inflammation during ischaemia and reperfusion injury, inflammatory bowel disease or acute and chronic diseases of the lungs. Although nucleotide signalling has been used clinically in patients before, research indicates an expanding field of opportunities for specifically targeting individual P2 receptors for the treatment of inflammatory or infectious diseases. PMID:24828189

  17. Audio signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    System provides automatic volume control for an audio amplifier or a voice communication system without introducing noise surges during pauses in the input, and without losing the initial signal when the input resumes.

  18. Signals from the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  19. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockroft, Scott L.

    2017-05-01

    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  20. Quantifying Ubiquitin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ordureau, Alban; Münch, Christian; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin (UB)-driven signaling systems permeate biology, and are often integrated with other types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), most notably phosphorylation. Flux through such pathways is typically dictated by the fractional stoichiometry of distinct regulatory modifications and protein assemblies as well as the spatial organization of pathway components. Yet, we rarely understand the dynamics and stoichiometry of rate-limiting intermediates along a reaction trajectory. Here, we review how quantitative proteomic tools and enrichment strategies are being used to quantify UB-dependent signaling systems, and to integrate UB signaling with regulatory phosphorylation events. A key regulatory feature of ubiquitylation is that the identity of UB chain linkage types can control downstream processes. We also describe how proteomic and enzymological tools can be used to identify and quantify UB chain synthesis and linkage preferences. The emergence of sophisticated quantitative proteomic approaches will set a new standard for elucidating biochemical mechanisms of UB-driven signaling systems. PMID:26000850

  1. Signals from the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  2. Signal processing in SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullers, D. K.; Linscott, I. R.; Oliver, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is believed that the Galaxy might contain ten billion potential life sites. In view of the physical inaccessibility of extraterrestrial life on account of the vast distances involved, a logical first step in a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) appears to be an attempt to detect signals already being radiated. The characteristics of the signals to be expected are discussed together with the search strategy of a NASA program. It is pointed out that all presently planned searches will use existing radio-astronomy antennas. If no extraterrestrial intelligence signals are discovered, society will have to decide whether SETI justifies a dedicated facility of much greater collecting area. Attention is given to a multichannel spectrum analyzer, CW signal detection, pulse detection, the pattern detector, and details of SETI system operation.

  3. Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-31

    8217 \\..\\ We let k be the ratio of the time base of the reference\\ \\ . signal to that of the received signal. PAU~ ~; II .~** We could analyze this case for an...decreases. The central to the approximation usually stated in optics texts. lobe of the pattern just covers the region II :s I when k We claimed...Reference Waveforms for Heterodyne Spectrum Analyzers K We previously developed the use of a distributed local oscillator, generated by a reference wavefront

  4. Dissecting DR3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Pobezinskaya, Yelena L; Liu, Zhenggang; Choksi, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Receptor signaling can be evaluated in multiple ways, including analysis of phosphorylation of downstream molecules and analysis of proteins that are recruited to the receptor upon ligand binding. Majority of studies on the mechanism of DR3 signaling were performed using overexpression systems that can often lead to artifacts. In this chapter we describe how to analyze DR3 downstream events with most attention being paid to endogenous immunoprecipitation.

  5. Wnt signaling and osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in understanding basic bone biology and the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of osteoporosis, over the last 20 years, have dramatically altered the management of this disease. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight the seminal role of Wnt signaling in bone homeostasis and disease and the emergence of novel osteoporosis therapies by targeting Wnt signaling with drugs. PMID:24815296

  6. Signal-light nomogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, J. I.; Edgerton, C. F.; Duntley, S. Q.

    1975-01-01

    A nomogram is presented for predicting the sighting range for white, steady-burning signal lights. The theoretical and experimental bases are explained and instructions are provided for its use for a variety of practical problems concerning the visibility of signal lights. The nomogram is appropriate for slant path as well as horizontal sightings, and the gain of range achieved by utilizing binoculars can be predicted by use of it.

  7. Digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, A. V.; Baggeroer, A. B.; Lim, J. S.; Musicus, B. R.; Mook, D. R.; Duckworth, G. L.; Bordley, T. E.; Curtis, S. R.; Deadrick, D. S.; Dove, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Signal and image processing research projects are described. Topics include: (1) modeling underwater acoustic propagation; (2) image restoration; (3) signal reconstruction; (4) speech enhancement; (5) pitch detection; (6) spectral analysis; (7) speech synthesis; (8) speech enhancement; (9) autoregressive spectral estimation; (10) knowledge based array processing; (11) speech analysis; (12) estimating the degree of coronary stenosis with image processing; (13) automatic target detection; and (14) video conferencing.

  8. Redox signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  9. Cytokinin signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ildoo; Sheen, Jen; Müller, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Despite long-standing observations on diverse cytokinin actions, the discovery path to cytokinin signaling mechanisms was tortuous. Unyielding to conventional genetic screens, experimental innovations were paramount in unraveling the core cytokinin signaling circuitry, which employs a large repertoire of genes with overlapping and specific functions. The canonical two-component transcription circuitry involves His kinases that perceive cytokinin and initiate signaling, as well as His-to-Asp phosphorelay proteins that transfer phosphoryl groups to response regulators, transcriptional activators, or repressors. Recent advances have revealed the complex physiological functions of cytokinins, including interactions with auxin and other signal transduction pathways. This review begins by outlining the historical path to cytokinin discovery and then elucidates the diverse cytokinin functions and key signaling components. Highlights focus on the integration of cytokinin signaling components into regulatory networks in specific contexts, ranging from molecular, cellular, and developmental regulations in the embryo, root apical meristem, shoot apical meristem, stem and root vasculature, and nodule organogenesis to organismal responses underlying immunity, stress tolerance, and senescence.

  10. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  11. Calcium signaling and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kass, G E; Orrenius, S

    1999-01-01

    The divalent calcium cation Ca(2+) is used as a major signaling molecule during cell signal transduction to regulate energy output, cellular metabolism, and phenotype. The basis to the signaling role of Ca(2+) is an intricate network of cellular channels and transporters that allow a low resting concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol of the cell ([Ca(2+)]i) but that are also coupled to major dynamic and rapidly exchanging stores. This enables extracellular signals from hormones and growth factors to be transduced as [Ca(2+)]i spikes that are amplitude and frequency encoded. There is considerable evidence that a number of toxic environmental chemicals target these Ca(2+) signaling processes, alter them, and induce cell death by apoptosis. Two major pathways for apoptosis will be considered. The first one involves Ca(2+)-mediated expression of ligands that bind to and activate death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1). In the second pathway, Ca(2+) has a direct toxic effect and its primary targets include the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mitochondria may respond to an apoptotic Ca(2+) signal by the selective release of cytochrome c or through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and opening of an inner mitochondrial membrane pore. Toxic agents such as the environmental pollutant tributyltin or the natural plant product thapsigargin, which deplete the ER Ca(2+) stores, will induce as a direct result of this effect the opening of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels and an ER stress response. In contrast, under some conditions, Ca(2+) signals may be cytoprotective and antagonize the apoptotic machinery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10229704

  12. Purinergic signalling and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey; Novak, Ivana

    2013-09-01

    The pancreas is an organ with a central role in nutrient breakdown, nutrient sensing and release of hormones regulating whole body nutrient homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the balance is broken-cells can be starving in the midst of plenty. There are indications that the incidence of diabetes type 1 and 2, and possibly pancreatogenic diabetes, is rising globally. Events leading to insulin secretion and action are complex, but there is emerging evidence that intracellular nucleotides and nucleotides are not only important as intracellular energy molecules but also as extracellular signalling molecules in purinergic signalling cascades. This signalling takes place at the level of the pancreas, where the close apposition of various cells-endocrine, exocrine, stromal and immune cells-contributes to the integrated function. Following an introduction to diabetes, the pancreas and purinergic signalling, we will focus on the role of purinergic signalling and its changes associated with diabetes in the pancreas and selected tissues/organ systems affected by hyperglycaemia and other stress molecules of diabetes. Since this is the first review of this kind, a comprehensive historical angle is taken, and common and divergent roles of receptors for nucleotides and nucleosides in different organ systems will be given. This integrated picture will aid our understanding of the challenges of the potential and currently used drugs targeted to specific organ/cells or disorders associated with diabetes.

  13. ICA-Based Imagined Conceptual Words Classification on EEG Signals.

    PubMed

    Imani, Ehsan; Pourmohammad, Ali; Bagheri, Mahsa; Mobasheri, Vida

    2017-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been used for detecting and removing the eye artifacts conventionally. However, in this research, it was used not only for detecting the eye artifacts, but also for detecting the brain-produced signals of two conceptual danger and information category words. In this cross-sectional research, electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded using Micromed and 19-channel helmet devices in unipolar mode, wherein Cz electrode was selected as the reference electrode. In the first part of this research, the statistical community test case included four men and four women, who were 25-30 years old. In the designed task, three groups of traffic signs were considered, in which two groups referred to the concept of danger, and the third one referred to the concept of information. In the second part, the three volunteers, two men and one woman, who had the best results, were chosen from among eight participants. In the second designed task, direction arrows (up, down, left, and right) were used. For the 2/8 volunteers in the rest times, very high-power alpha waves were observed from the back of the head; however, in the thinking times, they were different. According to this result, alpha waves for changing the task from thinking to rest condition took at least 3 s for the two volunteers, and it was at most 5 s until they went to the absolute rest condition. For the 7/8 volunteers, the danger and information signals were well classified; these differences for the 5/8 volunteers were observed in the right hemisphere, and, for the other three volunteers, the differences were observed in the left hemisphere. For the second task, simulations showed that the best classification accuracies resulted when the time window was 2.5 s. In addition, it also showed that the features of the autoregressive (AR)-15 model coefficients were the best choices for extracting the features. For all the states of neural network except hardlim discriminator

  14. Separation of Climate Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Fodor, I

    2002-11-13

    Understanding changes in global climate is a challenging scientific problem. Simulated and observed data include signals from many sources, and untangling their respective effects is difficult. In order to make meaningful comparisons between different models, and to understand human effects on global climate, we need to isolate the effects of different sources. Recent eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo volcanoes coincided with large El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which complicates the separation of their contributions on global temperatures. Current approaches for separating volcano and ENSO signals in global mean data involve parametric models and iterative techniques [3]. We investigate alternative methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) [2] and independent component analysis (ICA) [1]. Our goal is to determine if such techniques can automatically identify the signals corresponding to the different sources, without relying on parametric models.

  15. Integrin signaling in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finney, Alexandra C; Stokes, Karen Y; Pattillo, Christopher B; Orr, A Wayne

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic lipid-driven inflammatory disease affecting large arteries, represents the primary cause of cardiovascular disease in the world. The local remodeling of the vessel intima during atherosclerosis involves the modulation of vascular cell phenotype, alteration of cell migration and proliferation, and propagation of local extracellular matrix remodeling. All of these responses represent targets of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. As such, alterations in integrin signaling affect multiple aspects of atherosclerosis, from the earliest induction of inflammation to the development of advanced fibrotic plaques. Integrin signaling has been shown to regulate endothelial phenotype, facilitate leukocyte homing, affect leukocyte function, and drive smooth muscle fibroproliferative remodeling. In addition, integrin signaling in platelets contributes to the thrombotic complications that typically drive the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we examine the current literature on integrin regulation of atherosclerotic plaque development and the suitability of integrins as potential therapeutic targets to limit cardiovascular disease and its complications.

  16. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  17. Updating dopamine reward signals

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily driven by reward, and to some extent risk, whereas punishment and salience have only limited activating effects when appropriate controls are respected. The signal is homogeneous in terms of time course but heterogeneous in many other aspects. It is essential for synaptic plasticity and a range of behavioural learning situations. PMID:23267662

  18. Plant TOR signaling components

    PubMed Central

    John, Florian; Roffler, Stefan; Wicker, Thomas; Ringli, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Cell growth is a process that needs to be tightly regulated. Cells must be able to sense environmental factors like nutrient abundance, the energy level or stress signals and coordinate growth accordingly. The Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway is a major controller of growth-related processes in all eukaryotes. If environmental conditions are favorable, the TOR pathway promotes cell and organ growth and restrains catabolic processes like autophagy. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of the TOR kinase and acts as a potent inhibitor of TOR signaling. As a consequence, interfering with TOR signaling has a strong impact on plant development. This review summarizes the progress in the understanding of the biological significance and the functional analysis of the TOR pathway in plants. PMID:22057328

  19. Endocytosis, Signaling, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; von Zastrow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The endocytic network comprises a vast and intricate system of membrane-delimited cell entry and cargo sorting routes running between biochemically and functionally distinct intracellular compartments. The endocytic network caters to the organization and redistribution of diverse subcellular components, and mediates appropriate shuttling and processing of materials acquired from neighboring cells or the extracellular milieu. Such trafficking logistics, despite their importance, represent only one facet of endocytic function. The endocytic network also plays a key role in organizing, mediating, and regulating cellular signal transduction events. Conversely, cellular signaling processes tightly control the endocytic pathway at different steps. The present article provides a perspective on the intimate relationships that exist between particular endocytic and cellular signaling processes in mammalian cells, within the context of understanding the impact of this nexus on integrated physiology. PMID:25085911

  20. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  1. TOR signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Noninvasive vital signal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zenan; Chee, Jonny; Chua, Kok Poo; Chen, ZhouDe

    2010-05-01

    Vital signals of patients, such as heart rate, temperature and movement are crucial to monitor patients in hospital. Current heart rate measurement is obtained by using Electrocardiograph, which normally applies electrodes to the patient's body. As electrodes are extremely uncomfortable to ware and hinder patient's movement, a non-invasive vital signal-monitoring device will be a better solution. Similar to Electrocardiograph, the device detects the voltage difference across the heart by using concept of capacitance, which can be obtained by two conductive fiber sewing on the bed sheet. Simultaneous temperature reading can also be detected by using surface mounted temperature sensor. This paper will mainly focus on the heart rate monitoring.

  3. Physiological Signal Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a Physiological Signal Conditioner (PSC) for monitoring of astronauts in the ISS Human Research Facility. The PSC is battery powered and worn by the crew. The Engineering Development Unit (PSC EDU) and the form-and-fit PSC Tooling Model will be displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. Results of a recent advanced PSC-2 feasibility study will be presented. The presentation will stimulate discussion of the functional capabilities of a wireless, crew worn Physiological Signal Conditioner. Application of advanced technology to meet the conflicting demands of size, power, and functional capability will be of interest.

  4. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  5. Multichannel signal enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed adaptive filter is formulated for the signal processing problem where desired a priori signal information is not available. The formulation generates a least squares problem which enables the filter output to be calculated directly from an input data matrix. In one embodiment, a folded processor array enables bidirectional data flow to solve the recursive problem by back substitution without global communications. In another embodiment, a balanced processor array solves the recursive problem by forward elimination through the array. In a particular application to magnetoencephalography, the mixed adaptive filter enables an evoked response to an auditory stimulus to be identified from only a single trial.

  6. Array signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haykin, S.; Justice, J.H.; Owsley, N.L.; Yen, J.L.; Kak, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first book to be devoted completely to array signal processing, a subject that has become increasingly important in recent years. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, which is introductory, reviews some basic concepts in wave propagation. The remaining five chapters deal with the theory and applications of array signal processing in (a) exploration seismology, (b) passive sonar, (c) radar, (d) radio astronomy, and (e) tomographic imaging. The various chapters of the book are self-contained. The book is written by a team of five active researchers, who are specialists in the individual fields covered by the pertinent chapters.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1422 - Signals-hand signal chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signals-hand signal chart. 1926.1422 Section 1926.1422 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction § 1926.1422 Signals—hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the...

  11. Contextual signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Laura J; Anastasaki, Corina; Chen, Ran; Toonen, Joseph A; Williams, Sidney B; Gutmann, David H

    2016-10-01

    The formation and maintenance of an organism are highly dependent on the orderly control of cell growth, differentiation, death, and migration. These processes are tightly regulated by signaling cascades in which a limited number of molecules dictate these cellular events. While these signaling pathways are highly conserved across species and cell types, the functional outcomes that result from their engagement are specified by the context in which they are activated. Using the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome as an illustrative platform, we discuss how NF1/RAS signaling can create functional diversity at multiple levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, and genetic/genomic). As such, the ability of related molecules (e.g., K-RAS, H-RAS) to activate distinct effectors, as well as cell type- and tissue-specific differences in molecular composition and effector engagement, generate numerous unique functional effects. These variations, coupled with a multitude of extracellular cues and genomic/genetic changes that each modify the innate signaling properties of the cell, enable precise control of cellular physiology in both health and disease. Understanding these contextual influences is important when trying to dissect the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of cancer relevant to molecularly-targeted therapeutics.

  12. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  13. Signal processing in SETI.

    PubMed

    Cullers, D K; Linscott, I R; Oliver, B M

    1985-11-01

    The development of a multi-channel spectrum analyzer (MCSA) for the SETI program is described. The spectrum analyzer is designed for both all-sky surveys and targeted searches. The mechanisms of the MCSA are explained and a diagram is provided. Detection of continuous wave signals, pulses, and patterns is examined.

  14. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  15. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  16. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  17. Multipath signal model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghais, A. F.; Wachsman, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development and use of mathematical models of signals received through the multipath environmental of a TDRS-to-user spacecraft link and vice versa are discussed. The TDRS (tracking and data relay satellite) will be in synchronous orbit. The user spacecraft will be in a low altitude orbit between 200 and 4000 km.

  18. Chondrodysplasias and TGFβ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Carine; Cormier-Daire, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Human chondrodysplasias are a group of conditions that affect the cartilage. This review is focused on the involvement of transforming growth factor-β signaling in a group of chondrodysplasias, entitled acromelic dysplasia, characterized by short stature, short hands and restricted joint mobility. PMID:25798233

  19. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  20. Auxin signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) controls growth and developmental responses throughout the life of a plant. A combination of molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches has identified several key components involved in auxin signal transduction. Rapid auxin responses in the nucleus include transcriptional activation of auxin-regulated genes and degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. The nuclear auxin receptor is an integral component of the protein degradation machinery. Although auxin signalling in the nucleus appears to be short and simple, recent studies indicate that there is a high degree of diversity and complexity, largely due to the existence of multigene families for each of the major molecular components. Current studies are attempting to identify interacting partners among these families, and to define the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions. Future goals are to determine the levels of regulation of the key components of the transcriptional complex, to identify higher-order complexes and to integrate this pathway with other auxin signal transduction pathways, such as the pathway that is activated by auxin binding to a different receptor at the outer surface of the plasma membrane. In this case, auxin binding triggers a signal cascade that affects a number of rapid cytoplasmic responses. Details of this pathway are currently under investigation. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.