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Sample records for arroyo pergamino provincia

  1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. STONEY DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. STONEY DRIVE IS AT LEFT. LOOKING 220°SW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE BEGINNING OF SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT. LOOKING 264°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Drive Bridge, Milepost 30.30, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ROAD CUT AT ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ROAD CUT AT ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE IRRIGATION PIPE AND DRAINAGE WALL AT LEFT. LOOKING 56°NE - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Drive Bridge, Milepost 30.30, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. CHANNEL IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. CHANNEL IS BEHIND TREES AND BUSHES AT RIGHT AND LEFT. STONEY DRIVE PASSES UNDER PARKWAY. LOOKING 282°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 4. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND ARROYO SECO CHANNEL FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. HERITAGE PARK IN REAR. LOOKING 38°NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE LOCATED IN ARROYO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE LOCATED IN ARROYO SECO PARK, JUST SOUTH OF AVENUE 60 BRIDGE OVER THE ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. THIS BRIDGE WAS THE FIRST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGE ERECTED WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI WHEN IT WAS HOISTED INTO PLACE IN 1951. LOOKING 26°NNE - Arroyo Seco Channel Pedestrian Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco Channel south of Avenue 60, Arroyo Seco Park, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ROAD CUT IN SOUTH PASADENA. NOTE GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. LOOKING 56°NE - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Drive Bridge, Milepost 30.30, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE (WPA CONSTRUCTION 1938) OVER ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE (WPA CONSTRUCTION 1938) OVER ARROYO SECO CHANNEL NORTH OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. LOOKING 358°N - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING 126°SE - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE CONCRETE EMBANKMENT OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ON RIGHT. LOOKING 12°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN PASADENA AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND WALLIS ST. LOOKING 130° SE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. NOTE PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO AT LOWER RIGHT OF CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  14. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  15. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  16. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  17. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  18. 22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. NOTE PARALLEL SURFACE STREET AT LEFT AND AVENUE 43 BRIDGE AT RIGHT. LOOKING 342° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT BOTTOM. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY EXIT. CHAVEZ RAVINE ON LEFT. ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER LEFT REAR. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. LOOKING 238°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT AT ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM CARLOTA BOULEVARD. LOOKING 218°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE, ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 5. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE IS IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ACCESS ROAD AT CENTER REAR AND REFUGE LANE AT LEFT FOREGROUND. LOOKING 212"SSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 2. AVENUE 43 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AVENUE 43 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO WITH NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING 76°E. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 43 Bridge, Milepost 27.12, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 11. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM AVENUE 14 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM AVENUE 14 BRIDGE. SAN FERNANDO ROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 25° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 12. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO BRIDGE. NOTE VIADUCTS AND TUNNEL PORTAL AT REAR. LOOKING 234°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE CENTER ISLAND WITH PALM TREES. LOOKING 42°NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE CENTER ISLAND WITH PALM TREES. LOOKING 68°ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE CENTER ISLAND WITH PALM TREES. LOOKING 42°NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL FROM LOWER LEFT TO UPPER RIGHT. LOOKING NORTH - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL AT CENTER. HIGHWAY 101 AT BOTTOM. CAESAR CHAVEZ AVENUE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND INTERSTATE I-5 INTERCHANGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO DRAINAGE INTO LOS ANGELES RIVER AT BOTTOM CENTER. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 5. SITE OVERVIEW. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SITE OVERVIEW. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT RIGHT, INTERSTATE 1-5 AT CENTER, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT LEFT. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL PARALLEL TO PARKWAY. NOTE AVENUE 26 BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 30° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 8. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL TO RIGHT OF FREEWAY. RAILWAY BRIDGE IS SEEN IN DISTANCE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. The significance of sediment transport in arroyo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Arroyo widening dominates postincisional arroyo development, and the manner of widening is dependent on the grain size of bed material transported by the channel. When bed material is predominantly gravel, subaqueous bars that alternate from one side of the channel to the other form during high flows in initially narrow, often straight, arroyos. These alternate bars grow and become coarse-grained point bars. Moderate and low flows cannot rework these coarse bars, and the channel meanders around them. Arroyo walls opposite the bars are undercut and eroded. With progressive arroyo widening by erosion of cut banks, high-flow channel width increases, and depth decreases, reducing channel competence. Gravel is deposited in midchannel bars, point bars are reworked, and the channel becomes braided. As braiding becomes dominant, both arroyo walls are eroded. This conceptual model of coarse-grained arroyo development is based on observations of arroyo development through time using physical models and interpretation of the channel and arroyo morphology and sedimentology during a short period along the San Simon, San Pedro, and Santa Cruz Rivers in southeast Arizona. When bed material is predominantly sand, the channel pattern within initial arroyos is typically braided, and both arroyo walls are actively eroded. Alternate bars may form within single-thread, high-flow channels, but they are reworked during recessional flows, and the .low-flow channel is again braided. With progressive arroyo widening, fine sand, silt, and clay carried in suspension are deposited across a flood plain within the wide arroyo, causing the channel to meander. This fine-grained arroyo development model is based on observations of arroyo development through time using physical models and interpretation of the channel and arroyo morphology and sedimentology during a short period along the Rio Puerco, New Mexico. Experimental investigations using physical models in which incised channels were

  4. Electrical conductivity and depth of groundwater at the Pergamino zone (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) through vertical electrical soundings and geostatistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainato, Claudia; Galindo, Griselda; Pomposiello, Cristina; Malleville, Horacio; de Abelleyra, Diego; Losinno, B.

    2003-06-01

    In the humid Pampean region of Argentina, a rich agricultural zone, the periodic occurrence of droughts of different intensity is one of the most important factors in the variability of crop yield. Because complementary irrigation is a highly efficient resource to increase such yields, an understanding of groundwater resources is important. This knowledge is limited in topographically smooth zones by the absence of outcroppings and observation boreholes. Water conductivity is another limitation factor if the goal is to avoid soil degradation by irrigation and negative effects for animal and human consumption. The aquifers of the northeastern zone of the Buenos Aires province have been studied regionally, but information at the local scale is limited to sparse boreholes. In this work, a survey using vertical electrical soundings was carried out to determine the depth, thickness, and continuity of shallower aquifers. Both a mapping of the water table and the electrical conductivity distribution of free aquifers were achieved from well data and geophysical results using geostatistical techniques. Recharge areas of the aquifer were recognized as those areas with low conductivity and topographic highs. The discharge areas, mainly at the bed of the Pergamino River, have higher values of conductivity; two zones north and south of the city of Pergamino have conductivities greater than 2000 μS cm -1. Isolines of depth to the fresh-salty water interface showed different values over the Pergamino River, with some local maxima at the swamp zone and near Pergamino.

  5. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT BACK. NOTE AVENUE 60 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO. DEBS PARK HILL AT CENTER IS LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS CA-265-13, CA265-14, AND CA-265-V-4. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  7. 6. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE CHANGE IN ELEVATION OF SOUTHBOUND LANES TO MEET GRADE FOR ELYSIAN PARK ROAD CUT. INTERSTATE I-5 IN CENTER REAR. LOOKING 232°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING WALL AT RIGHT. RAILROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING 238°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 6. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE IS IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND, AND THE PIONEER BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 5. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. NOTE INTERSTATE I-5 OVERCROSSING AT CENTER REAR AND GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING 236°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 40. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, ROAD VIEW DETAIL NEAR YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, ROAD VIEW DETAIL NEAR YORK BOULEVARD EXIT. NOTE SUPER ELEVATED CURVE WITH BANKING OF BOTH SIDES OF PARKWAY. NOTE GUARD WALL AND CURBING. NOTE PARALLEL SURFACE STREET (BRIDEWELL ST.). LOOKING 208°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 2. AMADOR STREET OVERCROSSING SOUTHBOUND ARROYO SECO PARKWAY LANES. PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AMADOR STREET OVERCROSSING SOUTHBOUND ARROYO SECO PARKWAY LANES. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH PHOTOGRAPH CA-265-G-2-b. NOTE CONSTRUCTION FOR FREEWAY WIDENING OF HILL STREET EXIT. LOOKING 14°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 36. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: FREMONT AVENUE BRIDGE; AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE; AND FAIR OAKS AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE BIG CURVE AS PARKWAY ENDS IN PASADENA. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND LANES AT RIGHT REAR; AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER DISTANCE; PARK LANDS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 2°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 8. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND NORTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND NORTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE SUPER ELEVATED CURVES AND GRADE SEPARATION OF NORTH AND SOUTHBOUND LANES. LOOKING 196"S. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK. MARMION WAY/AVENUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK. MARMION WAY/AVENUE 64 BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND. YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 28° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 14. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND INTERSTATE I5 OVERCROSSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND INTERSTATE I-5 OVERCROSSING SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ROAD BRIDGE. LOOKING 10°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT INTERSTATE I5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT INTERSTATE I-5 INTERCHANGE AND LOS ANGELES RIVER OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Late Quaternary arroyo formation and climate change in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Michael R.; Vance Haynes, C.

    2001-05-01

    Arroyos, entrenched ephemeral streams that form in desert environments, first appeared in the arid and semiarid American Southwest after 8000 14C yr B.P. For at least 7 k.y. prior to that time, climate, vegetation, and groundwater conditions were not conducive for arroyo formation along the floors of desert valleys. After a hiatus in arroyo formation, the frequency of arroyo cutting and filling increased dramatically after 4000 14C yr B.P. The early Holocene arroyos and increased frequency of arroyo incision after 4000 14C yr B.P. are related to the establishment and changes in postglacial vegetation, climate, and groundwater conditions. As a result, arroyo sequences preserve a record of large-scale climate change and small-scale climatic perturbations that occurred during the Holocene. Human modification of valley flood plains is an additional factor that contributed to mid-nineteenth and early twentieth century arroyo cutting.

  6. 33. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT BOTTOM; MARMION WAY BRIDGE AT CENTER; PARK BOULEVARD BRIDGE AT REAR. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Ramos-Arroyo syndrome: confirmation of an entity.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Madeleine J; Cosgrove, Mike; Laws, David E; Pilz, Daniela T

    2011-10-01

    In 1987, Ramos-Arroyo et al. described a family with a previously unreported combination of features, which included corneal anesthesia, short stature, sensorineural deafness, learning difficulties, and a characteristic facial appearance. The family was reviewed in 2008 and additional features were noted. The name Ramos-Arroyo syndrome was proposed. The condition can be delineated by corneal anesthesia, absence of the peripapillary choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, unusual facial appearance, persistent ductus arteriosus, Hirschprung disease, short stature, and intellectual disability. No other patient has been described since. Here, we report on a 5-year-old girl with features consistent with Ramos-Arroyo syndrome. We propose an overlap of this condition with dysautonomia syndromes.

  8. Tucson's Santa Cruz River and the Arroyo Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, Julio Luis

    1990-01-01

    Between 1865 and 1915, arroyos developed in the southwestern United States across diverse hydrological, ecological and cultural settings. That they developed simultaneously has encouraged the search for a common cause --some phenomenon that was equally widespread and synchronous. There are few southwestern streams for which we have even a qualitative understanding of timelines and processes involved in initiation and extension of historic arroyos. Tucson's Santa Cruz River, often cited in the arroyo literature, offers a unique opportunity to chronicle the arroyo legacy and evaluate its causes. The present study reconstructs both the physical and cultural circumstances of channel entrenchment along the Santa Cruz River. Primary data include newspaper accounts, notes and plants of General Land Office surveys, eyewitness accounts, legal depositions, and repeat photography. On the Santa Cruz River, arroyo initiation and extension happened during relatively wet decades associated with frequent warm episodes in the tropical Pacific (El Nino conditions). Intensified El Nino activity during the period 1864-1891 may be symptomatic of long-term climatic change, perhaps indicative of global warming and destabilization of Pacific climate at the end of the Little Ice Age. During this period all but one of the years registering more than three days with rain exceeding 2.54 cm (1 in) in Tucson were El Nino events. The one exception was the summer of 1890, when the central equatorial Pacific was relatively cold but when prevailing low-surface pressures and low -level winds nevertheless steered tropical moisture from the west coast of Mexico into southern Arizona. In the twentieth century, catastrophic channel widening was caused by floods during El Nino events in 1905, 1915, 1977 and 1983. The Santa Cruz River arroyo formed when climatic conditions heightened the probabilities for occurrence of large floods in southern Arizona. Inadequate engineering of ditches that resulted in

  9. Arroyo Cut and Fill record from Kanab Creek, southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summa, M.; Rittenour, T.

    2008-12-01

    In the late 1880's, many river systems in the southwestern US incised and formed deep arroyos. This arroyo cutting left many historical settlements perched well above their water source. Kanab Creek is an excellent example of a mature arroyo, and has incised 30- 40 meters into its alluvium leaving behind fluvial terraces. This project is testing the hypothesis that cycles of incision and aggradation may be linked to changes in climate. River deposits were mapped at the 1:12000 scale for spatial reference, and stratigraphic columns of exposed terrace and basin fill sediments were described and interpreted. As a method for age control, quartz sand grains were analyzed using optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL). Preliminary OSL and previous radiocarbon results suggest at least 4 cycles of valley cutting and filling over the last 25k years. These 4 cycles are recorded in basin and terrace fill deposits, strath terraces, and as cut-fill relationships. One of the large valley filling events occurred between 14-7 ka. Initial results suggest that Kanab Creek is a dynamic fluvial system. Future comparison of this alluvial record to regional paleoclimate records may relate arroyo cut and fill cycles to changes in sediment supply, regional precipitation regime, and flood frequency.

  10. Chronostratigraphy of Kitchen Corral Wash, southern UT: Insights into Arroyo Aggradation and Entrenchment Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, W.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fluvial systems in the semiarid southwestern United States are sensitive to Holocene climate change, as partly evidenced by entrenched, steep-walled arroyo channels throughout the region. Kitchen Corral Wash (KCW), a tributary of the Paria River in southern Utah, has experienced both historic and prehistoric (Holocene) episodes of arroyo cutting and filling. During the most recent arroyo-cutting event (~1880-1920 AD), KCW and other regional drainages were entrenched up to 30m into their fine-grained alluvial fill, leaving former floodplains perched above new channel bottoms. Alluvial sediments preserved within the exposed arroyos walls record largely aggradational sequences interrupted by periods of incision. Although arroyo entrenchment and aggradation processes have been studied for over a century, exact causes of arroyo cutting are still not fully understood. Hereford (2002) argued that arroyo dynamics are climatically driven based on near-synchronous timing of entrenchment in drainages from southern Utah and the surrounding region. However, recent results from KCW and nearby drainages suggest a more complex pattern. While previous studies have attempted to constrain the timing of arroyo cut-fill events in KCW, poor age control has limited results. In order to better understand the timing of arroyo events, this study aims to update and improve the arroyo cut-fill chronology from KCW by using detailed alluvial stratigraphic descriptions and age control from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and AMS radiocarbon dating. Preliminary results are based on twelve study sites, each exposing a number of cut-fill cycles in the arroyo-wall stratigraphy, and suggest at least four arroyo cycles over the last 4 ka. Forthcoming AMS and OSL results will be used to test hypotheses related to climatic forcing of arroyo dynamics by comparing the chronology from KCW to regional chronologies.

  11. Corrective measures evaluation report for Tijeras Arroyo groundwater.

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Johnathan L; Orr, Brennon R.; Dettmers, Dana L.; Hall, Kevin A.; Howard, M. Hope

    2005-08-01

    This Corrective Measures Evaluation report was prepared as directed by a Compliance Order on Consent issued by the New Mexico Environment Department to document the process of selecting the preferred remedial alternative for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Supporting information includes background concerning the site conditions and potential receptors and an overview of work performed during the Corrective Measures Evaluation. The evaluation of remedial alternatives included identifying and describing four remedial alternatives, an overview of the evaluation criteria and approach, comparing remedial alternatives to the criteria, and selecting the preferred remedial alternative. As a result of the Corrective Measures Evaluation, monitored natural attenuation of the contaminants of concern (trichloroethene and nitrate) is the preferred remedial alternative for implementation as the corrective measure for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Design criteria to meet cleanup goals and objectives and the corrective measures implementation schedule for the preferred remedial alternative are also presented.

  12. Twentieth century arroyo changes in Chaco Culture National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.

    2002-01-01

    Chaco Wash arroyo channel changes in the 20th century have become a major concern of the National Park Service. Several archeologic and cultural sites are located in the Chaco Wash corridor; thus, increased erosional activity of Chaco Wash, such as channel incision and increased meandering, may affect these sites. Through field surveys, photogrammetric analyses, and reviews of existing reports and maps, arroyo changes at Chaco Culture National Historic Park were documented. Arroyo changes were documented for the inner active channel and the entire arroyo cross section. The inner channel of Chaco Wash evolved from a wide, braided channel in the 1930's to a narrower channel with a well-developed flood plain by the 1970's. From 1934 to 1973 the active channel narrowed an average of 26 meters, and from the 1970's to 2000 the channel narrowed an average of 9 meters. Overall from 1934 to 2000, the inner channel narrowed an average of 30 meters. From 1934 to 2000, the top of Chaco Wash widened at four cross sections, narrowed at one, and remained the same at another. The top of Chaco Wash widened at a rate of 0.4 meter per year from the 1970's to 2000 compared with 0.2 meter per year from 1934 to 1973. At 50-percent depth or halfway down the arroyo channel, four cross sections widened and two cross sections narrowed from 1934 to 2000. Rates of widening at 50-percent depth decreased from 0.2 meter per year from 1934 to 1973 to 0.1 meter per year from the 1970's to 2000. From 1934 to 2000, arroyo depth decreased at five of six cross sections and increased at one cross section. Arroyo depth between 1934 and 1973 decreased an average 1.4 meters from aggradation and between the 1970's and 2000 increased an average 0.4 meter from channel scour. From 1934 to 2000, arroyo cross-sectional area decreased at all six cross sections. Cross-sectional areas in Chaco Wash decreased from 1934 to 1973 as a result of sediment deposition and both decreased and increased from the 1970's to

  13. 76 FR 7245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating final revised critical habitat for the arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus, Bufo californicus). We are designating approximately 98,366 acres (ac) (39,807 hectares (ha)) of habitat in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego Counties, California, as critical habitat for the arroyo......

  14. 13. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK (APPROXIMATELY 34° ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK (APPROXIMATELY 34° 7' BY 118° 11' ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 240° WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND PARKWAY. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND PARKWAY. SEEN FROM DEBS PARK IN SAME CAMERA LOCATION AS CA-265-13. NOTE FREEWAY 134 AT DISTANT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING 318°NW - Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco Parkway at parkway milepost 29.03, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND AT&SF RAILROAD OVERCROSSING. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND AT&SF RAILROAD OVERCROSSING. NOTE GRADE CHANGE BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTHBOUND LANES IN SUPER-ELEVATED CURVE. LOOKING 56°NE - Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco Parkway at parkway milepost 29.03, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. DATE OF CHANNEL TRENCHING (ARROYO CUTTING) IN THE ARID SOUTHWEST.

    PubMed

    Bryan, K

    1925-10-16

    Of the writers known to have considered the problem, Hough alone has attempted to give a date for the whole area. He says that the process began with the active occupancy of the region by white men thirty years before the date of his address, or in 1875. However, the foregoing review of the existing evidence as to the date when trenching began in southwestern United States indicates that these changes were initiated at slightly different times in each stream and occupied a considerable period in their accomplishment. The change from aggradation and the building of flood plains to dissection and the formation of arroyos in many streams of southern Arizona can be confidently placed in the decade 1880 to 1890, although many tributary streams were not affected until the 90's and some are still undissected. The date in southern Utah, northern Arizona and southern Colorado is apparently earlier, and cutting probably began at some time after 1860. The evidence as to the Rio Puerco in north-central New Mexico is conflicting and needs review. The statements of the early explorers indicate that the arroyos were already well formed at the time of the American conquest in 1846 and 47.

  18. Mid-Late Holocene Arroyo Stratigraphy in Southern Utah; Balance between Climate Forcing and Geomorphic Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, K. E.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Historic arroyo entrenchment at the turn of the 20th century signified a rapid and widespread change in stream dynamics throughout much of the southwest U.S.A.. Arroyo walls along modern channels expose multiple unconformity-bound sediment packages that record mid-to-late Holocene arroyo cut-fill dynamics. Many of these different-aged periods of aggradation appear to have reached a similar tread height through time, suggesting that a 'geomorphic threshold' may partially control end-member stream grade and the timing of channel entrenchment. However, observations of near-synchronous regional cut-fill events support an alternative hypothesis that climate is a primary control of arroyo dynamics. In order to test the role of allogenic forcing versus autogenic processes on arroyo cut-fill dynamics, three datasets were constructed and analyzed from Johnson Wash (JW), a drainage containing a ~40 km long arroyo in the Grand Staircase region of the Colorado Plateau in south-central Utah. The chronostratigraphy of arroyo cut-fill events was reconstructed using a combination of field observations and age control from radiocarbon (n=57) and optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL; n=27) collected from 15 stratigraphic sections that bracket episodes of incision and characterize alluvial-fill packages. These data are compared to regional cut-fill chronologies from other arroyo systems. Temporal and spatial variability in catchment averaged erosion rates was quantified using terrestrial in-situ Beryllium-10 measured in quartz from alluvial and colluvial sediment samples (n=24) collected from the modern channel and paleo-arroyo walls located in JW and the adjacent upper Kanab Creek watershed. The third dataset consists of longitudinal profile concavities of the currently entrenched channel and the relict aggraded valley-fill surfaces and is used to identify systematic trends in aggraded versus entrenched channel forms.

  19. Infiltration and quality of water for two arroyo channels, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.

    1995-01-01

    Selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were studied to collect information about the amount and quality of infiltration through arroyo channels. Infiltration rate was calculated for selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo based on instantaneous streamflow-loss volumes, wetted channel area, and instantaneous evaporation rates measured during 1988-92. Infiltration rates at Grant Line Arroyo ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 foot per day, and at Tijeras Arroyo from 2.28 to 30 feet per day. The evaporation rate ranged from one-tenth of 1 percent to 2 percent of the infiltration rate. Infiltration rates differed with the location of the reach isolated for measurement and with the time of day of the infiltration-rate measurement. Differences in intrinsic permeability of the sediments may be the most important factor affecting spatial variations in infiltration. The most important factor affecting temporal variations in infiltration may be the temperature of the water and sediment where infiltration occurs. Annual evaporation rates were greatest over saturated stream sediments and ranged from 802 to 1,025 millimeters per year or from 31.57 to 40.35 inches per year. Annual evaporation rates were least over unsaturated, unvegetated soil and ranged from 174 to 291 millimeters per year or from 6.85 to 11.46 inches per year. Annual evapotranspiration rates over grasses or shrubs or both were about one-half the rates over saturated stream sediments. Rates were similar for Grant Line and Tijeras Arroyos. The land- surface vegetation, availability of water at the land surface, availability of energy to enable a change of state from water to vapor, existence of a vapor concentration gradient, and a turbulent atmosphere to carry the vapor away may be the factors that determine the amount of evaporation and evapotranspiration. Water in Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo met U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking

  20. Corrective measures evaluation work plan : Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater : revision 0.

    SciTech Connect

    Wymore, Ryan A.; Collins, Sue S.; Skelly, Michael Francis; Koelsch, Michael C.

    2004-12-01

    This document, which is prepared as directed by the Compliance Order on Consent (COOC) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department, outlines a process to evaluate remedial alternatives to identify a corrective measure for the Sandia National Laboratories Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG). The COOC provides guidance for implementation of a Corrective Measures Evaluation (CME) for TAG. This Work Plan documents an initial screening of remedial technologies and presents a list of possible remedial alternatives for those technologies that passed the screening. This Work Plan outlines the methods for evaluating these remedial alternatives and describes possible site-specific evaluation activities necessary to estimate remedy effectiveness and cost. These methods will be reported in the CME Report. This Work Plan outlines the CME Report, including key components and a description of the corrective measures process.

  1. Sediment dynamics through space and time in the lower Rio Puerco arroyo, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Vincent, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of riverine erosion and sediment transport can be episodic, spatially and temporally non-uniform, and strongly scale dependent. Identifying the events and processes that control these sediment dynamics requires precise measurements, but overcoming spatial and temporal variability requires observations over large distances and long times. Addressing this challenge, therefore, requires integration of data collection efforts at point, cross-section, reach, and whole-river scales. From the mid-1800s to about the 1930s, extreme high flows caused incision along the Rio Puerco, an ephemeral tributary of the Rio Grande located in semi-arid north-central New Mexico. The incision created an arroyo within the 1 to 2 km wide alluvial valley that by 1927 was an average of 118 m wide and 8.5 m deep. In the early 1900s, sediment transported from the Rio Puerco into the Rio Grande contributed to widespread flooding along the Rio Grande and concerns about filling of Elephant Butte Reservoir, located 100 km downstream. We reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution in a 55 km long segment of the lower Rio Puerco by combining data from 3 trenches excavated across the arroyo bottom with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, aerial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. We then examined changes through time since 1927 in arroyo width, depth, volume, morphology, and vegetation. A transition to filling after the 1930s involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. This strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. Our study reach demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. Since the 1970s, arroyo wall retreat has been mostly limited to locations

  2. Holocene Arroyo Records in Southern Utah: A balance between Climate Forcing and Geomorphic Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittenour, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Around the turn of the last century (~1880±30 AD) semi-arid river systems in southern Utah and throughout the southwest US began to incise into their fine-grained valley fills and form deep, vertical-walled arroyos (up to +30m). Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain this nearly instantaneous historical arroyo cutting event, ranging from poor-land use to climate change and intrinsic geomorphic processes. However, exposed stratigraphy along arroyo walls has revealed evidence for multiple Holocene cut-fill events, excluding human disturbance as a potential cause and suggesting cyclic or episodic forces at play. Recent compilation of fluvial chronologies from southern Utah and the surrounding region suggests two episodes of near synchronous arroyo cutting during the last millennia, evoking climate forcing (Hereford, 2002). However, updated and extended chronostratigraphic reconstructions suggest a more complex temporal and spatial pattern. Research goals are to better understand the balance between climate forcing and geomorphic thresholds in these dynamic arroyo systems. New AMS radiocarbon and single-grain OSL chronologies combined with detailed alluvial stratigraphy from four adjoining catchments in southern Utah are presented. Study catchments (Escalante River, Kitchen Corral Wash, Johnson Wash and Kanab Creek) are all characterized by steep topographic gradients, high sediment production from local bedrock, and high seasonality and inter-annual variability due to influences of ENSO and monsoonal precipitation. Results suggest up to six late Holocene arroyo cut-fill sequences, with up to three entrenchment events in the last millennia in some catchments. While historic arroyo incision was near synchronous in the study catchments (~1880-1909 AD), correlations between the number and timing of past entrenchment events is not clear, suggesting the importance of catchment-specific geomorphic thresholds. Climate-related changes in hydrology are also

  3. Interactions of Flow, Sediment Transport, and Vegetation in the Long-Term Evolution of Arroyos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perignon, M. C.; Griffin, E. R.; Tucker, G. E.; Friedman, J. M.; Overeem, I.

    2014-12-01

    Arroyos in the Southwestern United States have experienced multiple cut-and-fill cycles in the late Quaternary. Extensive studies fo the Lower Rio Puerco, New Mexico, USA, show that it has most recently progressed from an (1) unincised state with a broad floodplain in the mid 1800s, through a period of (2) incision, forming a deep gully with steep walls by the early 1900s, and to the (3) present-day stage of arroyo widening and filling. The arroyo cycle is driven by a combination of autogenic processes and external forcings, although the relative influence of each process is under debate. We use the morphodynamic model ANUGA to explore the influences of discharge, sediment transport, and vegetation on the geomorphic evolution of the Lower Rio Puerco through the arroyo cycle. The predictive power of the numerical model is first established by using it to hind-cast the morphologic evolution of a reach of the river during a large flood in 2006, and comparing the model predictions to real-world magnitudes and patterns of topographic change recorded for this event by multi-temporal airborne lidar. The morphodynamic model is then used to simulate the response of this stream to floods in the past. A comprehensive dataset of the topography and hydrology of the Lower Rio Puerco since the 1920s is used to reproduce the morphology of the arroyo at multiple points in time, and historical descriptions serve to extrapolate these into the 19th century. We test the sensitivity of the reconstructed landscapes to changes in peak discharge, sediment supply, and the distribution and characteristics of vegetation in order to determine the relative influence of each forcing in the evolution of the stream, and to understand how the interactions of different processes could drive its progression through the arroyo cycle.

  4. Nutrient resorption in shrubs growing by design, and by default in Chihuahuan Desert arroyos.

    PubMed

    Killingbeck, K; Whitford, W

    2001-08-01

    In the northern stretches of the Chihuahuan Desert, the margins of ephemeral stream channels called arroyos support a unique vegetation dominated by a guild of winter-deciduous shrubs. To explore the dynamics of nutrient conservation in this assemblage of arroyo shrubs, we measured nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency and proficiency in six species of shrubs growing in arroyos in southern New Mexico. Collectively, these six species were no more efficient or proficient at resorbing N and P from senescing leaves than shrubs growing in other environments. Resorption efficiency averaged 53% and 50% for N and P, respectively, and resorption proficiency averaged 0.80% and 0.06% for N and P, respectively. However, resorption varied significantly between species specifically restricted in their distribution to riparian habitats (obligate riparian species), and those that were not. The two obligate riparian species combined (Brickellia laciniata, Chilopsis linearis) were significantly more efficient and proficient at resorbing N than the non-obligate riparian species combined (Fallugia paradoxa, Flourensia cernua, Prosopis glandulosa, Rhus microphylla). Additionally, both Brickellia and Chilopsis were individually significantly more proficient at resorbing N than any of the other four species. The dichotomy in resorption between obligate riparian species and those that were not may have been the result of the interplay between hydrology, geomorphology, and biology. Because arroyos move in space as the movement of water erodes banks and changes channel location, some plants are found along arroyos only because the arroyos have moved to them. These plants (plants growing by default) may be less well adapted to arroyo margins than obligate riparian species (plants growing by design). Significant differences in resorption between obligate and non-obligate riparian species suggested that evolutionary history and habitat specificity may be added to the list of

  5. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  6. Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S

    2002-03-05

    Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

  7. Optical dating of arroyo-system deposits: Insights into cut-fill cycles in the southern Colorado piedmont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, L.; Tucker, G. E.; Stokes, S.

    2004-12-01

    Optical ages are presented from a range of small-scale arroyo systems found across Fort Carson and Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site in southern Colorado. Recent developments in both single-aliquot and single-grain techniques combined with more rigorous statistical methods for analysing paleodose estimates now mean that optical dating is able to provide much more accurate and precise constraints on the timing of major depositional changes in these fluvial systems. The arroyos of the region display distinct and multiple paleochannels along their side walls. Optical dating of infill deposits from within these paleochannels and from intervening alluvial fill units provides the first detailed and accurate chronology of past and present arroyo epicycle histories in the region. Resulting ages suggest that cut-fill behaviour has been active to varying degrees over much of the Holocene, particularly from the mid-Holocene onwards. Evidence also points towards a strongly episodic pattern of arroyo incision, separated by more protracted periods of stability and/or aggradation. Correlation of arroyo incision and subsequent infilling around the mid-Holocene Altithermal event in several paleochannel sequences from one arroyo system (the "Little Grand Canyon", Fort Carson) provides evidence for external climatic control on major Holocene cut-fill cycles in the region. Dating sequences from different locations within the same systems, and from different systems within the area, enables an intercomparison of arroyo epicycles at a multitude of spatial scales. The complex spatio-temporal dynamics emerging suggest that time-transgressive responses may be common both within and between the arroyos of this region. These findings imply either that basin response times to external forcing vary significantly with basin size, or that local-scale forcing mechanisms have been dominant controls on past arroyo dynamics in this region.

  8. Water-quality and ancillary data collected from the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo, Texas, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roussel, Meghan C.; Canova, Michael G.; Asquith, William H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    The Arroyo Colorado is in the lower Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas and extends from near Mission, Texas, eastward to the Laguna Madre estuarine and coastal marine system, which separates Padre Island from the Texas mainland. Streamflow in the Arroyo Colorado primarily is sustained by effluent from municipal wastewater-treatment plants along the stream banks. Since 1986, the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado from the port of Harlingen to the Laguna Madre has been designated by the State of Texas as an impaired water body because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Efforts to develop predictive water-quality models for the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado have been hampered by a lack of physical, biological, and biochemical data. Specifically, data on primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, sediment deposition rates, and the relations between these processes and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the stream have been inadequate to support water-quality modeling efforts. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a study in 2006 to collect data associated with primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the tidal segment (2201) of the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo. Specific objectives of the study were to (1) characterize water quality by measuring basic properties; (2) characterize the concentrations of carbon and nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and volatile suspended solids; (3) measure the seasonal differences of nutrient-dependent algal growth and algal production in the water column; (4) measure oxygen respiration or production rates; and (5) measure rates of sediment deposition.

  9. Effects of piping irrigation laterals on selenium and salt loads, Montrose Arroyo Basin, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Selenium and salinity are water-quality issues in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and the Uncompahgre River, exceed the State standard for selenium of 5 micrograms per liter. Remediation methods to reduce selenium and salt loading in the lower Gunnison River Basin were examined. A demonstration project in Montrose Arroyo, located in the Uncompahgre River Basin near Montrose, was done during 1998-2000 to determine the effects on selenium and salt loads in Montrose Arroyo from replacing 8.5 miles of open-ditch irrigation laterals with 7.5 miles of pipe. The participants in the project were the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program, the Uncompahgre Valley Water Users Association, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The placing of five laterals in pipe significantly decreased selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo. The selenium load at the outflow monitoring site was about 194 pounds per year less (28-percent decrease) in the period after the laterals were placed in pipe. More than 90 percent of the decrease in selenium load was attributed to a decrease in ground-water load. Salt loads also decreased because of the lateral project, but by a smaller percentage than the selenium loads. The salt load at the outflow site on Montrose Arroyo was about 1,980 tons per year less in the post-project period than in the pre-project period. All of the effects of the demonstration project on selenium and salt loads probably were not measured by this study because some of the lateral leakage that was eliminated had not necessarily discharged to Montrose Arroyo upstream from the monitoring sites. A greater decrease in selenium loads relative to salt loads may have been partially the result of decreases in selenium concentrations in ground water in some areas.

  10. Correction of locality records for the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) from the desert region of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ervin, Edward L.; Beaman, Kent R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    The recovery strategy for an endangered species requires accurate knowledge of its distribution and geographic range. Although the best available information is used when developing a recovery plan, uncertainty often remains in regard to a species actual geographic extent. The arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) occurs almost exclusively in coastal drainages, from Monterey County, California, south into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Through field reconnaissance and the study of preserved museum specimens we determined that the four reported populations of the arroyo toad from the Sonoran Desert region of Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial counties, California are in error. Two additional sites in the Sonoran Desert are discussed regarding the possibility that the arroyo toad occurs there. We recommend the continued scrutiny of arroyo toad records to maintain a high level of accuracy of its distribution and geographic extent.

  11. Stream bed temperature profiles as indicators of percolation characteristics beneath arroyos in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, Jim; Thomas, Carole L.

    1997-10-01

    Stream bed temperature profiles were monitored continuously during water year 1990 and 1991 (WY90 and 91) in two New Mexico arroyos, similar in their meteorological features and dissimilar in their hydrological features. Stream bed temperature profiles between depths of 30 and 300 cm were examined to determine whether temporal changes in temperature profiles represent accurate indicators of the timing, depth and duration of percolation in each stream bed. These results were compared with stream flow, air temperature, and precipitation records for WY90 and 91, to evaluate the effect of changing surface conditions on temperature profiles. Temperature profiles indicate a persistently high thermal gradient with depth beneath Grantline Arroyo, except during a semi-annual thermal reversal in spring and autumn. This typifies the thermal response of dry sediments with low thermal conductivities. High thermal gradients were disrupted only during infrequent stream flows, followed by rapid re-establishment of high gradients. The stream bed temperature at 300 cm was unresponsive to individual precipitation or stream flow during WY90 and 91. This thermal pattern provides strong evidence that most seepage into Grantline Arroyo failed to percolate at a sufficient rate to reach 300 cm before being returned to the atmosphere. A distinctly different thermal pattern was recorded beneath Tijeras Arroyo. Low thermal gradients between 30 and 300 cm and large diurnal variations in temperature, suggest that stream flow created continuous, advection-dominated heat transport for over 300 days, annually. Beneath Tijeras Arroyo, low thermal gradients were interrupted only briefly during periodic, dry summer conditions. Comparisons of stream flow records for WY90 and 91 with stream bed temperature profiles indicate that independent analysis of thermal patterns provides accurate estimates of the timing, depth and duration of percolation beneath both arroyos. Stream flow loss estimates indicate

  12. Stream bed temperature profiles as indicators of percolation characteristics beneath arroyos in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Thomas, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Stream bed temperature profiles were monitored continuously during water year 1990 and 1991 (WY90 and 91) in two New Mexico arroyos, similar in their meteorological features and dissimilar in their hydrological features. Stream bed temperature profiles between depths of 30 and 300 cm were examined to determine whether temporal changes in temperature profiles represent accurate indicators of the timing, depth and duration of percolation in each stream bed. These results were compared with stream flow, air temperature, and precipitation records for WY90 and 91, to evaluate the effect of changing surface conditions on temperature profiles. Temperature profiles indicate a persistently high thermal gradient with depth beneath Grantline Arroyo, except during a semi-annual thermal reversal in spring and autumn. This typifies the thermal response of dry sediments with low thermal conductivities. High thermal gradients were disrupted only during infrequent stream flows, followed by rapid re-establishment of high gradients. The stream bed temperature at 300 cm was unresponsive to individual precipitation or stream flow during WY90 and 91. This thermal pattern provides strong evidence that most seepage into Grantline Arroyo failed to percolate at a sufficient rate to reach 300 cm before being returned to the atmosphere. A distinctly different thermal pattern was recorded beneath Tijeras Arroyo. Low thermal gradients between 30 and 300 cm and large diurnal variations in temperature, suggest that stream flow created continuous, advection-dominated heat transport for over 300 days, annually. Beneath Tijeras Arroyo, low thermal gradients were interrupted only briefly during periodic, dry summer conditions. Comparisons of stream flow records for WY90 and 91 with stream bed temperature profiles indicate that independent analysis of thermal patterns provides accurate estimates of the timing, depth and duration of percolation beneath both arroyos. Stream flow loss estimates indicate

  13. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the drylands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, historical river channel incision (arroyo cutting) has led to the destruction of riparian ecological systems and cieñega wetlands in many locations. Along Silver Creek on the Arizona-Sonora border, the Cuenca Los Ojos Foundation has been installing rock gabions and concrete and earthen berms with a goal of slowing flash floods, raising groundwater levels, and refilling arroyo channels with sediment in an area that changed from a broad, perennially wet cieñega to a narrow sand- and gravel-dominated arroyo channel with an average depth of ~6 m. The engineering efforts hope to restore desert wetlands, regrow riparian vegetation, and promote sediment deposition along the arroyo floor. Hydrological modeling allows us to predict how rare flood events interact with the restoration efforts and may guide future approaches to dryland ecological restoration. This modeling is complemented by detailed topographic surveying and use of streamflow sensors to monitor hydrological processes in the restoration project. We evaluate the inundation associated with model 10-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year floods through the study area using FLO-2D and HEC-RAS modeling environments in order to evaluate the possibility of returning surface inundation to the former cieñega surface. According to HEC-RAS model predictions, given current channel configuration, it would require a 500-year flood to overtop the channel banks and reinundate the cieñega (now terrace) surface, though the 100-year flood may lead to limited terrace surface inundation. Based on our models, 10-year floods were ~2 m from overtopping the arroyo walls, 50-year floods came ~1.5 m from overtopping the arroyos, 100-year floods were ~1.2 m from overtopping, and 500- and 1,000-year floods at least partially inundated the cieñega surface. The current topography of Silver Creek does not allow for frequent flooding of the former cieñega; model predictions

  14. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Ground-Water Recharge at Abo Arroyo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Stonestrom, David A.; Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Abo Arroyo, an ephemeral tributary to the Rio Grande, rises in the largest upland catchment on the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB). The 30-kilometer reach of channel between the mountain front and its confluence with the Rio Grande is incised into basin-fill sediments and separated from the regional water table by an unsaturated zone that reaches 120 meters thick. The MRGB portion of the arroyo is dry except for brief flows generated by runoff from the upland catchment. Though brief, ephemeral flows provide a substantial fraction of ground-water recharge in the southeastern portion of the MRGB. Previous estimates of average annual recharge from Abo Arroyo range from 1.3 to 21 million cubic meters. The current study examined the timing, location, and amount of channel infiltration using streamflow data and environmental tracers during a four-year period (water years 1997?2000). A streamflow-gaging station (?gage?) was installed in a bedrock-controlled reach near the catchment outlet to provide high-frequency data on runoff entering the basin. Streamflow at the gage, an approximate bound on potential tributary recharge to the basin, ranged from 0.8 to 15 million cubic meters per year. Storm-generated runoff produced about 98 percent of the flow in the wettest year and 80 percent of the flow in the driest year. Nearly all flows that enter the MRGB arise from monsoonal storms in July through October. A newly developed streambed temperature method indicated the presence and duration of ephemeral flows downstream of the gage. During the monsoon season, abrupt downward shifts in streambed temperatures and suppressed diurnal ranges provided generally clear indications of flow. Streambed temperatures during winter showed that snowmelt is also effective in generating channel infiltration. Controlled infiltration experiments in dry arroyo sediments indicated that most ephemeral flow is lost to seepage before reaching the Rio Grande. Streambed temperature

  15. Final Report for the Arroyo Las Positas Maintenance Impact Study, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    van Hattem, M; Paterson, L

    2006-01-12

    In 2000, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Protection Department, in coordination with Plant Engineering (PE), began dredging sections of the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP) to alleviate concerns about flooding of sensitive facilities within the mainsite of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to reduce potential impacts on the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), LLNL proposed to dredge sections of the ALP in a ''checkerboard pattern'', resulting in a mosaic of open water habitat and vegetated sections (Figure 1). The Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan (Plan) was coordinated with both state and federal agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G), San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board (SFRWQCB), and the Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE). Water Discharge Requirements (WDRs) were issued for this project on December 30, 1999 (Order No. 99-086) by the SFRWQCB. Provision 19 of the WDRs outlined a five-year (2000 through 2004) Maintenance Impact Study (MIS) that LLNL began in coordination with dredging work that was conducted as part of the Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan. Provision 20 of these WDRs requires LLNL to submit a final report of the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for this project to the SFRWQCB. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for Arroyo Las Positas and meet the requirements of Provision 20. A description of the annual monitoring included in this Maintenance Impact Study is included in the methods section of this report. Initially the Plan called for dredging the entire length of the Arroyo Las Positas (approximately 6,981 linear feet) over a 5-year period to minimize temporal impacts on the California red-legged frog. Dredging occurred in 2000 ({approx}1,300 ft.), 2001 ({approx}800 ft.), and 2002 ({approx}1,200 ft.), which constituted approximately

  16. Unusual Recharge Processes near Arroyos of the Rio Grande Aquifer, El Paso/Juarez Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J.; Eastoe, C. J.; Druhan, J.

    2005-12-01

    The twin-cities of El Paso and Juarez share the water resources of the Hueco Bolson aquifer and overlying Rio Grande aquifer. Both aquifers span the international border between Mexico and the United States. Salinity in the Rio Grande aquifer varies widely, some parts of the shallow aquifer containing less than 1,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), other parts of the aquifer exceeding 5,000 mg/L TDS. One sizable part of the "Lower Valley" area, approximately 45 km below El Paso contains very dilute water near the outer edge of the floodplain. Historically it had been thought that the dilute waters in this location were derived from recharge from arroyos that drained proximal parts of the Hueco Bolson. Instead, our hydrogen and oxygen isotope data and carbon-14 data indicate that these dilute waters were derived from pre-dam infiltration of the Rio Grande. Relatively light and slightly evaporated pre-dam waters (-11.5 del O18) at the arroyos are also relatively young (60 to 90 percent modern carbon), tagging them as runoff waters from pre-dam snowmelt in Colorado. These isotopically light waters are found up to 110 meters beneath land surface. Prior to Rio Grande rectification and channelization of the mid-1930's, the Rio Grande flowed near the outer edge of the floodplain where these pre-dam, dilute waters are found at depth. Review of predevelopment drill stem tests indicated a permeable zone about 150 to 230 meters deep that had a lower hydraulic head than the overlying Rio Grande aquifer. The permeable zone acted as a predevelopment sink for flow that induced recharge from the Rio Grande and Rio Grande aquifer. Thus, we can account for local predevelopment recharge of the Rio Grande aquifer from infiltration of dilute water from the Rio Grande prior to the historic era of channel rectification, and not from recharge from flanking arroyos as had been postulated by previous researchers.

  17. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  18. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitrovich, M.J.; Gallegos, E.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Lovich, R.E.; Fisher, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  19. Managing the Arroyo Seco for Flood Prevention, Erosion Control, Waterway and Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Wang, C; Laurant, J

    2003-02-06

    One of the most important tasks for a site facility manager is to ensure that appropriate channel erosion controls are applied to on-site drainage channels. These erosion controls must minimize risks to the public and structures. Water and sediment loads commonly originate from off-site sources and many of the traditional reactionary measures (installing rip-rap or some other form of bed or bank armor) simply transfer or delay the problem. State and federal agency requirements further complicate the management solution. One case in point is the Arroyo Seco, an intermittent stream that runs along the southwest corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In 2001, LLNL contracted Questa Engineering Corporation to conduct hydraulic, geomorphic, and biological investigations and to prepare an alternatives and constraints analysis. From these investigations, LLNL has selected a water management plan that encompasses overall flood prevention, erosion control, and waterway and habitat restoration and enhancement elements. The most unique aspect of the Arroyo Seco management plan is its use of non-traditional and biotechnical techniques.

  20. Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hetch Hetchy Pump Station

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, L; Kato, T; Van Hattem, M

    2007-06-28

    The purpose of this biological assessment is to review the proposed Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project in sufficient detail to determine to what extent the proposed action may affect any of the threatened, endangered, proposed, or sensitive species and designated or proposed critical habitats listed below. In addition, the following information is provided to comply with statutory requirements to use the best scientific and commercial information available when assessing the risks posed to listed and/or proposed species and designated and/or proposed critical habitat by proposed federal actions. This biological assessment is prepared in accordance with legal requirements set forth under regulations implementing Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 402; 16 U.S.C 1536 (c)). It is our desire for the Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project to receive incidental take coverage for listed species and critical habitat within the greater project area by means of amending the previous formal Section 7 consultation (1-1-04-F-0086) conducted a few hundred meters downstream by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2002. All conservation measures, terms and conditions, and reporting requirements from the previous Biological Opinion (1-1-04-F-0086) have been adopted for this Biological Assessment and/or amendment.

  1. Cardiovascular Surgery Residency Program: Training Coronary Anastomosis Using the Arroyo Simulator and UNIFESP Models

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Miguel Angel; Gomes, Walter José; Bras, Ademir Massarico; de Araújo, Thiago Cavalcante Vila Nova; Mota, André Lupp; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Coutinho, Rafael Viana dos S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. METHODS First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. RESULTS The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. CONCLUSION 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art. PMID:26735604

  2. Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Many arroyos that formed by incision more than a century ago in the southwestern United States are currently filling with sediment. This reversal of processes is important because it causes changes in riparian ecology, erosion hazards, ground water recharge, and sediment supply to downstream. Along the Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in New Mexico, we examined the geometry and facies of channel and floodplain stratigraphy exposed in trenches, used high-resolution dating of the sedimentary beds, and used photographs and other historical evidence to investigate the processes of aggradation in naturally leveed channels within arroyos. Prior to the onset of aggradation, the streambeds were composed of sand and had low relief, and arroyo walls retreated rapidly due to stream undermining. Aggradation began with the formation of sand levees at the margins of the streambeds, followed by formation of newer levees increasingly closer to the thalweg. These levees coincide with rows of woody shrubs (tamarisk and willow), plants that germinated in moist sand along the high-water marks of moderate flows, and survived because subsequent periods lacked flows large enough to remove them. Flow entering a row of woody shrubs decelerates, promoting deposition of suspended sand. Stream flows in this setting are always turbid but do not have the rheology of debris flows. The rows of shrubs probably are a requirement for initial formation of sand levees on low relief streambeds in this setting. As new levees formed closer to the thalweg the channel effectively narrowed, and smaller discharges overtopped the levees adjacent to the channel. Those closer levees accumulated sand most rapidly, leaving the suspended sand concentration depleted by the time water reached more distant ones. All levees aggraded vertically. As the main channel narrowed it acquired a roughly trapezoidal-shape (Top Width/Depth ~ 9 to 5) with banks inclined close to the angle of repose. In addition, sediment deposited on

  3. Natural host relationships and genetic diversity of Whitewater Arroyo virus in southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Fulhorst, Charles F; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Carroll, Darin S; Charrel, Remi N; Bradley, Robert D

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to refine our knowledge of the natural host relationships of Whitewater Arroyo (WWA) virus. Two hundred eight rodents, representing nine species, were captured in July 1999 on the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area in southern Texas and tested for evidence of arenavirus infection. Antibody to an arenavirus was found in seven (21.9%) of 32 southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) and none of 168 other rodents. Infectious WWA virus was isolated from four antibody-positive southern plains woodrats, one of 25 antibody-negative southern plains woodrats, and none of 176 other rodents. Collectively, the results indicate that the southern plains woodrat is a principal host of WWA virus in southern Texas. Analyses of viral gene sequence data revealed substantial genetic diversity among WWA virus strains isolated from the woodrats, suggesting that multiple variants of the virus can coexist in a single woodrat species in a small geographic area.

  4. Simulation of flow and water quality of the Arroyo Colorado, Texas, 1989-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Miranda, Roger M.

    2002-01-01

    A model parameter set for use with the Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN watershed model was developed to simulate flow and water quality for selected properties and constituents for the Arroyo Colorado from the city of Mission to the Laguna Madre, Texas. The model simulates flow, selected water-quality properties, and constituent concentrations. The model can be used to estimate a total maximum daily load for selected properties and constituents in the Arroyo Colorado. The model was calibrated and tested for flow with data measured during 1989–99 at three streamflow-gaging stations. The errors for total flow volume ranged from -0.1 to 29.0 percent, and the errors for total storm volume ranged from -15.6 to 8.4 percent. The model was calibrated and tested for water quality for seven properties and constituents with 1989–99 data. The model was calibrated sequentially for suspended sediment, water temperature, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and orthophosphate. The simulated concentrations of the selected properties and constituents generally matched the measured concentrations available for the calibration and testing periods. The model was used to simulate total point- and nonpoint-source loads for selected properties and constituents for 1989–99 for urban, natural, and agricultural land-use types. About one-third to one-half of the biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient loads are from urban point and nonpoint sources, although only 13 percent of the total land use in the basin is urban.

  5. Llano Grande Lake bottom sediments; a chronicle of water-quality changes in the Arroyo Colorado, South Texas, 1989-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara June; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    The Arroyo Colorado, an ancient channel of the Rio Grande, extends 90 miles from Mission, Tex., to the Laguna Madre. The Arroyo Colorado flows through areas of intense agricultural cultivation and through important habitat for migrating birds and other wildlife, including several wildlife sanctuaries and refuges. The above-tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado is included in the State of Texas 2000 Clean Water Act 303(d)1 list in part because of elevated concentrations of the hydrophobic legacy pollutants DDE (a DDT breakdown product), chlordane, and toxaphene in fish tissue. This report addresses three questions: Do legacy pollutants (organochlorine compounds, major and trace elements) occur in the Arroyo Colorado at present and at what concentrations?How has the occurrence of selected legacy pollutants in the Arroyo Colorado changed over time?Are current concentrations of legacy pollutants in bottom sediments at levels of concern for the health of aquatic biota?To answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected and analyzed a sediment core from Llano Grande Lake on the Arroyo Colorado (fig. 1). Sediment cores can be used to reconstruct historical trends in concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants (Eisenreich and others, 1989; Van Metre and others, 1997, 2000). The lake is part of the Rio Grande delta drainage system (fig. 1). The lake is 6 miles long and has a maximum width of 600 feet.

  6. Quaternary geologic map of the north-central part of the Salinas River Valley and Arroyo Seco, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Arroyo Seco, a perennial drainage in the central Coast Range of California, records a sequence of strath terraces. These terraces preserve an erosional and depositional history, controlled by both climate change and regional tectonics. These deposits have been mapped and correlated on the basis of field investigations, digital terrain analysis, stream gradient profiles, evaluation of published regional soil maps, and satellite imagery. Seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans have been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The OSL and IRSL dates on seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans in Arroyo Seco are approximately >120 ka, >65 ka, 51–46 ka, 36–35 ka, 9 ka, and 2–1 ka. These dates generally fall within the range of ages reported from many well-dated marine terraces on the California coast that are formed during sea-level high stands. Tectonic movements, consistently upward, result in a constantly and slowly emerging coastline, however, the regional effects of climate change and resulting eustatic sea-level rises are interpreted as the driving mechanism for erosion and aggradation in Arroyo Seco.

  7. Rates of sediment supply to arroyos from upland erosion determined using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Nichols, Kyle K.; Pavich, Milan; Caffee, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    Using 10Be and 26Al measured in sediment and bedrock, we quantify rates of upland erosion and sediment supply to a small basin in northwestern New Mexico. This and many other similar basins in the southwestern United States have been affected by cycles of arroyo incision and backfilling several times in the past few millennia. The sediment generation (275 ± 65 g m−2 yr−1) and bedrock equivalent lowering rates (102 ± 24 m myr−1) we determine are sufficient to support at least three arroyo cycles in the past 3,000 years, consistent with rates calculated from a physical sediment budget within the basin and regional rates determined using other techniques. Nuclide concentrations measured in different sediment sources and reservoirs suggest that the arroyo is a good spatial and temporal integrator of sediment and associated nuclide concentrations from throughout the basin, that the basin is in steady-state, and that nuclide concentration is independent of sediment grain size. Differences between nuclide concentrations measured in sediment sources and reservoirs reflect sediment residence times and indicate that subcolluvial bedrock weathering on hillslopes supplies more sediment to the basin than erosion of exposed bedrock.

  8. Rates of Sediment Supply to Arroyos from Upland Erosion Determined Using in Situ Produced Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Nichols, Kyle K.; Pavich, Milan; Caffee, Marc

    2001-03-01

    Using 10Be and 26Al measured in sediment and bedrock, we quantify rates of upland erosion and sediment supply to a small basin in northwestern New Mexico. This and many other similar basins in the southwestern United States have been affected by cycles of arroyo incision and backfilling several times in the past few millennia. The sediment generation (275 ± 65 g m-2 yr-1) and bedrock equivalent lowering rates (102 ± 24 m myr-1) we determine are sufficient to support at least three arroyo cycles in the past 3,000 years, consistent with rates calculated from a physical sediment budget within the basin and regional rates determined using other techniques. Nuclide concentrations measured in different sediment sources and reservoirs suggest that the arroyo is a good spatial and temporal integrator of sediment and associated nuclide concentrations from throughout the basin, that the basin is in steady-state, and that nuclide concentration is independent of sediment grain size. Differences between nuclide concentrations measured in sediment sources and reservoirs reflect sediment residence times and indicate that subcolluvial bedrock weathering on hillslopes supplies more sediment to the basin than erosion of exposed bedrock.

  9. Sediment discharge in the Upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California, during the 1968-73 water years were analyzed to determine total sediment discharge at four stations in the basins. Water discharge and total sediment discharge at these stations, representative of the 1943-72 period, were estimated from long-term flow data for nearby gaging stations and water-sediment discharge relations determined for the 1968-73 water years. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station occurs during a few days each year. The quantity of sediment transported in a single day often accounts for more than 40 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Estimated sediment discharge for the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins during the 1943-72 water years averaged 53,000 tons and 23,000 tons per year. Long-term sediment deposition in Lopez Reservoir, which is in the southern part of the upper Arroyo Grande basin, was estimated to be 35 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads

  11. Adaptive Optics: Arroyo Simulation Tool and Deformable Mirror Actuation Using Golay Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lint, Adam S.

    2005-01-01

    The Arroyo C++ libraries, written by Caltech post-doc student Matthew Britton, have the ability to simulate optical systems and atmospheric signal interference. This program was chosen for use in an end-to-end simulation model of a laser communication system because it is freely distributed and has the ability to be controlled by a remote system or "smart agent." Proposed operation of this program by a smart agent has been demonstrated, and the results show it to be a suitable simulation tool. Deformable mirrors, as a part of modern adaptive optics systems, may contain thousands of tiny, independently controlled actuators used to modify the shape of the mirror. Each actuator is connected to two wires, creating a cumbersome and expensive device. Recently, an alternative actuation method that uses gas-filled tubes known as Golay cells has been explored. Golay cells, operated by infrared lasers instead of electricity, would replace the actuator system thereby creating a more compact deformable mirror. The operation of Golay cells and their ability to move a deformable mirror in excess of the required 20 microns has been demonstrated. Experimentation has shown them to be extremely sensitive to pressure and temperature, making them ideal for use in a controlled environment.

  12. Arroyo channel head evolution in a flash-flood-dominated discontinuous ephemeral stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Johnson, Joel P.L.; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2014-01-01

    We study whether arroyo channel head retreat in dryland discontinuous ephemeral streams is driven by surface runoff, seepage erosion, mass wasting, or some combination of these hydrogeomorphic processes. We monitored precipitation, overland flow, soil moisture, and headcut migration over several seasonal cycles at two adjacent rangeland channel heads in southern Arizona. Erosion occurred by headward retreat of vertical to overhanging faces, driven dominantly by surface runoff. No evidence exists for erosion caused by shallow-groundwater–related processes, even though similar theater-headed morphologies are sometimes attributed to seepage erosion by emerging groundwater. At our field site, vertical variation in soil shear strength influenced the persistence of the characteristic theater-head form. The dominant processes of erosion included removal of grains and soil aggregates during even very shallow (1–3 cm) overland flow events by runoff on vertical to overhanging channel headwalls, plunge-pool erosion during higher-discharge runoff events, immediate postrunoff wet mass wasting, and minor intra-event dry mass wasting on soil tension fractures developing subparallel to the headwall. Multiple stepwise linear regression indicates that the migration rate is most strongly correlated with flow duration and total precipitation and is poorly correlated with peak flow depth or time-integrated flow depth. The studied channel heads migrated upslope with a self-similar morphologic form under a wide range of hydrological conditions, and the most powerful flash floods were not always responsible for the largest changes in landscape form in this environment. 

  13. The influence of sediment supply on arroyo cut-fill dynamics: a preliminary dataset of catchment averaged erosion rates calculated from in-situ 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, K. E.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Widespread and near-synchronous post-settlement stream entrenchment (arroyo cutting) in the southwest US stimulated research addressing forcing mechanisms and necessary geomorphic and climate conditions leading to episodic evacuations of valley-fill alluvium. Arroyos are an end-member channel form associated with ephemeral streams entrenched into cohesive, fine-grained, valley-fill. Historic arroyo entrenchment exposed 5-30 m of unconformity-bound packages of different aged Holocene alluvium. Chronostratigraphic reconstructions indicate that during the mid-late Holocene these systems underwent multiple periods of rapid episodic entrenchment followed by slow re-aggradation. Previous and ongoing work has developed alluvial chronostratigraphies of Kanab Creek, Johnson Wash, and surrounding streams in southern UT using a combination of stratigraphic relationships, radiocarbon, and single-grain OSL dating. This research investigates the role of allogenic forcing (climate change) and autogenic processes on cut-fill dynamics. This study tests if temporal or spatial variations in sediment supply have influenced the timing and location of arroyo aggradation and entrenchment. We measured in-situ 10-Be in quartz from alluvial and colluvial sediment in Kanab Creek and Johnson Wash to quantify catchment-average erosion rates. Samples were collected from modern channels throughout the watershed and from dated alluvial packages preserved in arroyo walls. Results quantify spatial and temporal variability in sediment supply throughout the two watersheds as a function of lithology, slope, elevation, contribution of sediment stored in valley-fill, and time. Moreover, 10-Be results from dated Holocene alluvium will be used to evaluate if climate change has influenced sediment supply and arroyo cut-fill dynamics.

  14. Mercury dispersal to arroyo and coastal sediments from abandoned copper mine operations, el Boléo, Baja California.

    PubMed

    Kot, Fyodor; Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Mirlean, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for mercury dispersal in an arid coastal region of central Baja California (Mexico) suggests that abandoned copper mining operations are a noticeable source of mercury in the environment. There is a generally elevated level of mercury in alluvium of arroyos throughout the mining district (0.14-0.18 mg kg(-1)). In the first several dozen meters surrounding two of the biggest mines, mercury levels range from 0.26 to 3.16 mg kg(-1), forming a halo of anomalously high concentrations. The coastal marine sediments, particularly those close to the copper smelter in the town of Santa Rosalía, also display some mercury enrichment.

  15. Performance of building materials under load stresses: the case of Arroyo Meaques Bridge in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencías, David; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Laura

    2015-04-01

    In most masonry structures analyzed by limit state models, it is not possible to determine where thrust lines are located or stress fields are defined. This is because very small modifications of the geometry can modify considerably a stress situation. Moreover, structural safety of this kind of construction is mainly established by equilibrium, and structural analysis is based on this premise. However, from the point of view of a stress model, the thrust line can be approximately positioned (either graphically or by analytical methods) only from a geometrical description and material properties and, therefore, determine the amount of stresses that masonry undergoes. This research tries to provide the relationship between geometry and thrust line analysis, applied to the 17th century Arroyo Meaques Bridge. This is a brick and stone bridge, located at the southwest edge of Casa de Campo in Madrid (Spain) and it actually sets up the limit of the municipality of Madrid. The bridge was designed by architect Francesco Sabatini as a part of a set of improvements of Madrid city center. Starting from a geometrical surveying and photogrammetric restitution, a 3-dimension CAD model is performed, in which all geometrical conditions are collected. At the same time, elastic properties, compactness and strength of bricks were determined by means of non-destructive techniques, such as Schmidt hammer and ultrasound pulse velocity. All this information is uploaded to a GIS and 2D maps are generated. Brick physical properties were compared to previously done thrust line analysis to understand the relationship between maximum stresses and brick performance. This technique may be a starting point for more specific analysis, once possible failure mechanisms are identified and can be a very simple method to identify how it can affect any geometrical changes. Research funded by Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914, CEI Moncloa (UPM, UCM, CSIC) through a PICATA contract and the foundation

  16. Diamonds from the iridium-rich K-T boundary layer at Arroyo el Mimbral, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, R. M.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.; Langenhorst, F.; Montanari, A.

    1997-11-01

    Diamonds, up to 30 μm in size, were found in the iridium-rich layer from the K-T boundary site at Arroyo El Mimbral and the spherule bed from Arroyo El Peñon, northeastern Mexico. Stepped heating experiments indicate two or more isotopically distinct diamond components with carbon isotopic compositions characteristic of a mixture of carbon sources. The diamonds' crystal form is cubic—not the hexagonal polymorph of diamond, lonsdaleite, which has been used previously to infer formation due to shock transformation of graphite. The size, crystallography, and mineralogic associations of K-T diamonds are similar to those of impact-produced diamonds from the Ries crater in Germany where both shock transformation of graphite and a mode of formation by condensation from a vapor plume have been inferred. The discovery of impact-produced diamonds in association with high Ir contents for these sediments supports their impact origin, K-T age, and the inference that their source was from the buried impact crater of Chicxulub on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

  17. "War on Terror" Is a Curative: Recontextualization and Political Myth-Making in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's 2002-2004 State of the Nation Addresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navera, Gene Segarra

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the State of the Nation addresses (SONA) delivered by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) from 2002-2004, during which time she actively invoked the need to engage in the U.S. government-led "global war on terror." It specifically investigates how these presidential speeches recontextualized the…

  18. Recent formation of arroyos in the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Mark A.

    2001-05-01

    In the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota, the channels of ephemeral streams are incised 2 to 10 m or more into mid-to-late Holocene alluvium. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing and cause(s) of the most recent episodes of fluvial incision and to develop a process-response model that illustrates the formation and evolution of arroyos in this region. The purpose was to distinguish natural from anthropogenic changes to the landscape and to discriminate allogenic from autogenic causes of incision, thereby gaining a greater sense of how steep, relatively small, ephemeral streams evolve. Dendrochronologic and dendrogeomorphic analyses of riparian cottonwoods provide an inexpensive, high-resolution dating method to constrain the time of incision, thereby permitting determination of the cause(s) of incision by evaluating environmental conditions prior to and at the onset of fluvial incision. An examination of seven small (10 to 100 km 2) drainage basins indicated ephemeral streams have undergone a four-stage cycle of change within the past 200 years, comprising (i) an initial period of relative geomorphic stability with pedogenesis on the flood plain and low rates of lateral channel migration, (ii) a period of channel incision with subsequent widening of the flood plain through lateral corrasion along middle and upstream reaches, (iii) a concomitant period of aggradation along downstream reaches and, finally, (iv) a period of downstream incision. Dendrochronologic data and dendrogeomorphic relations indicate there have been three distinct periods of fluvial incision in the past 200 years. The first period of incision began in the 1860s and 1870s prior to the onset of European settlement and intensive grazing by domesticated cattle in the area. This period of incision occurred along the middle reaches of all seven of the streams examined and coincided with a severe, protracted drought, suggesting an allogenic cause. The second

  19. Recent formation of arroyos in the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota, the channels of ephemeral streams are incised 2 to 10 m or more into mid-to-late Holocene alluvium. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing and cause(s) of the most recent episodes of fluvial incision and to develop a process-response model that illustrates the formation and evolution of arroyos in this region. The purpose was to distinguish natural from anthropogenic changes to the landscape and to discriminate allogenic from autogenic causes of incision, thereby gaining a greater sense of how steep, relatively small, ephemeral streams evolve. Dendrochronologic and dendrogeomorphic analyses of riparian cottonwoods provide an inexpensive, high-resolution dating method to constrain the time of incision, thereby permitting determination of the cause(s) of incision by evaluating environmental conditions prior to and at the onset of fluvial incision. An examination of seven small (10 to 100 km2) drainage basins indicated ephemeral streams have undergone a four-stage cycle of change within the past 200 years, comprising(i) an initial period of relative geomorphic stability with pedogenesis on the flood plain and low rates of lateral channel migration, (ii) a period of channel incision with subsequent widening of the flood plain through lateral corrasion along middle and upstream reaches, (iii) a concomitant period of aggradation along downstream reaches and, finally, (iv) a period of downstream incision. Dendrochronologic data and dendrogeomorphic relations indicate there have been three distinct periods of fluvial incision in the past 200 years. The first period of incision began in the 1860s and 1870s prior to the onset of European settlement and intensive grazing by domesticated cattle in the area. This period of incision occurred along the middle reaches of all seven of the streams examined and coincided with a severe, protracted drought, suggesting an allogenic cause. The second period

  20. Well Construction Details, Groundwater Elevations, and Figures for the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Area at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Copland, John R.

    2017-01-01

    This Sandia National Laboratories / New Mexico (SNL/NM) submittal contains groundwater information that the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has requested. The USGS will use the information to assist Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in its ongoing groundwater studies. The information in this submittal contains well-construction details and groundwater-elevation data for monitoring wells that SNL/NM has installed. Relevant well-construction data from other government agencies are also summarized. This submittal contains four data tables and three figures. Information in the tables has been used by SNL/NM to prepare groundwater compliance reports that have previously incorporated the three figures. The figures depict the potentiometric surface for the Perched Groundwater System, the potentiometric surface for the Regional Aquifer, and a Conceptual Site Model for the vicinity of Tijeras Arroyo in the northern portion of KAFB.

  1. Reconciling Holocene Alluvial Records in Buckskin Wash, Utah--Where do Arroyo Cycles end and Paleofloods Begin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. E.; Pederson, J.; Rittenour, T.

    2008-12-01

    Drainages that undergo arroyo cut-and-fill cycles clearly change their grade over time, probably in response to climatic forcing. Reconstructions of this behavior are usually based on alluvial records found in broad alluvial valleys. Conversely, paleoflood hydrologists have constructed flood records by studying slackwater deposits preserved in nearby bedrock canyons, typically assuming a constant grade over millennial timescales. These contrasting approaches to interpreting alluvium from a single drainage must be reconciled, as many drainages feature both reach types along their length. This OSL/radiocarbon-based chronostratigraphic investigation has the goal of linking these alluvial records in Buckskin Wash, a major tributary of the Paria River, south-central Utah, where a broad alluvial reach drains into a severely constricted slot canyon. We are testing the hypothesis that the same floods that cut arroyos in the alluvial reach are preserved as depositional packages in the constricted reach downstream. OSL dating in this setting is challenging, partly due to the partial bleaching of sand grains during transport. However, initial results indicate that fine-grained alluvium stored within the unconstricted reach consists of aggradational packages as old as late Pleistocene--much older than previously thought. Conversely, the constricted-reach sediments are latest Holocene in age. Sedimentology also appears to be controlled by reach geometry. The upstream alluvial reach is a complex series of interfingering tributary and mainstem facies; heavily bioturbated and penetrated by a series of filled paleochannels. Depositional units in the slot canyon are thicker, less bioturbated, and instead preserve mostly high-stage mainstem floods. Observations from the modern wash suggest that the grade of the constricted reach is not static over millennial timescales. Ongoing work includes hydraulic modeling to identify a transition zone between the two end-member geomorphic

  2. Channel and hillslope processes revisited in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.; Emmett, William W.; Leopold, Luna Bergere

    2005-01-01

    Detailed documentation of geomorphic changes in the landscape of more than a few years is rarely possible. Channel cross sections, channel profiles, sediment deposition behind dams, and hillslope-erosion plots, originally benchmarked within several watersheds outside Santa Fe, New Mexico, in the 1950’s and 1960’s, for a 1966 report that documented processes and rates of arid-region sediment production and deposition, were resurveyed in the mid-1990’s. Many of the original study sites were relocated and surveyed in the mid-1990’s to determine subsequent channel and hillslope changes and to determine whether trends of channel and hillslope aggradation and degradation that were evident in the 1950’s and 1960’s have continued. In general, the net change in channel geometry has been small over the last 30–40 years. The average change in cross-sectional area of 32 resurveyed cross sections was erosion of 0.27 square meter, which equates to a 4-percent increase in cross-sectional area. The average net change in thalweg elevation for 51 resurveyed cross sections was degradation of 0.04 meter. Unpublished data (1964–68) from the scour chains showed that 371 chains had an average scour of 0.14 ± 0.14 meter and that 372 chains showed an average fill of 0.13 + 0.11 meter. Scour, found in the original study (1958–64) to be proportional to the square root of discharge, was confirmed with the addition of unpublished data (1964–68). The observed channel changes have no consistent trend, compared either to results observed in the original 1966 study or to distance from the watershed divide. The conclusion drawn in the original study was that most channels were aggrading; the resurvey showed that aggradation did not continue.An increase in housing and population in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed since the 1950’s has led to more roads. Channel degradation is most noticeable at road crossings. The greatest degradation of the main channel Arroyo de los

  3. Assessing the Impacts of Climate and Land Use Change on Streamflow and Nutrient Loading in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed in Southern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osidele, O.; Sun, A.; Green, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of the Second National Climate Assessment reported in 2009, the U.S. Global Change Research Program projects temperatures in southern Texas will increase 5 to 8° F by the end of the 21st century, with larger changes occurring under scenarios of higher greenhouse gas emissions. Temperature increases in summer are projected to be larger than in winter. Although drier conditions are expected in the region, sea-level rise, extreme rainfall events, and associated storm surges are projected to occur more frequently because of the likely increase in intensity of hurricanes and tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico. The range of possible responses to climate change is attributable to a combination of characteristics at global, regional, and local scales. The risk of flooding and catastrophic infrastructure damage due to global climate phenomena has been incorporated into local climate adaptation plans for many low-lying areas and communities in the Gulf Coast region of southern Texas. However, because this region is dominated by irrigated agriculture and the population is projected to double by 2050, it is important to examine how climate change will affect water resources and environmental quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential hydrologic and water quality impacts of projected climate change, land use change, and population change scenarios in the headwaters of the Arroyo Colorado. The results of this work will provide content for a web-based, collaborative geospatial decision support system being developed to support environmental management in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed. Presently, land use in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed is more than 50 percent agricultural and almost 25 percent residential with varying levels of urbanization. As a result, flow in the Arroyo Colorado is sustained primarily by discharge from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, irrigation return flows, and urban storm runoff. In this study

  4. Potential-Field and Seismic Reflection/Refraction Studies of the Eagle Rock and Raymond Faults in Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Catchings, R. D.; Goldman, M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    In August 2007, we acquired high-resolution gravity and seismic reflection and refraction data across the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults in the Arroyo Seco, located in Pasadena and South Pasadena, California. The studies were conducted to aid in understanding the seismic hazards of these faults in this urban setting, specifically to detect and determine the location of all faults passing through the area and to characterize their dip and possible structural connections. Gravity data were collected along a single ~3-km-long profile, with stations spaced every 25-m close to the fault traces and at greater intervals away from the fault traces. Gravity station elevations from Real-Time Kinematic GPS solutions, along with careful accounting for the gravity effects of the adjacent concrete drainage channel and of the walls of the arroyo, allow for the calculation of gravity anomalies that reflect sub-surface density contrasts across the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults. Seismic reflection and refraction data, including both P-wave and S-wave records, were collected along two profiles, a northern one crossing the Eagle Rock fault with a length of 1200 m, and a southern one crossing the Raymond fault with a length of 450 m. The seismic profiles coincided with the longer gravity profile along the floor of the Arroyo Seco. Seismic sources included Betsy-Seisgun shots, accelerated weight drops, and repeated sledge hammer impacts, and receivers were geophones spaced at a 5-m interval. S-waves were generated and recorded at a subset of sites on each of the seismic lines. Seismic reflection and refraction images indicate that both the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults are comprised of multiple, steeply-dipping fault strands. P- and S-wave seismic tomography of the uppermost 50-100 m show velocity variations that can be converted to likely density variations, which can in turn be subtracted from the density variation needed by the gravity anomaly analysis. This process of stripping off

  5. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  6. Neural network prediction of carbonate lithofacies from well logs, Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields, Southwest Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the Hugoton Embayment of southwestern Kansas, St. Louis Limestone reservoirs have relatively low recovery efficiencies, attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the oolitic deposits. This study establishes quantitative relationships between digital well logs and core description data, and applies these relationships in a probabilistic sense to predict lithofacies in 90 uncored wells across the Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. In 10 wells, a single hidden-layer neural network based on digital well logs and core described lithofacies of the limestone depositional texture was used to train and establish a non-linear relationship between lithofacies assignments from detailed core descriptions and selected log curves. Neural network models were optimized by selecting six predictor variables and automated cross-validation with neural network parameters and then used to predict lithofacies on the whole data set of the 2023 half-foot intervals from the 10 cored wells with the selected network size of 35 and a damping parameter of 0.01. Predicted lithofacies results compared to actual lithofacies displays absolute accuracies of 70.37-90.82%. Incorporating adjoining lithofacies, within-one lithofacies improves accuracy slightly (93.72%). Digital logs from uncored wells were batch processed to predict lithofacies and probabilities related to each lithofacies at half-foot resolution corresponding to log units. The results were used to construct interpolated cross-sections and useful depositional patterns of St. Louis lithofacies were illustrated, e.g., the concentration of oolitic deposits (including lithofacies 5 and 6) along local highs and the relative dominance of quartz-rich carbonate grainstone (lithofacies 1) in the zones A and B of the St. Louis Limestone. Neural network techniques are applicable to other complex reservoirs, in which facies geometry and distribution are the key factors controlling heterogeneity and distribution of rock properties. Future work

  7. The Use of Streambed Temperature Profiles to Estimate the Depth, Duration, and Rate of Percolation Beneath Arroyos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, Jim; Thomas, Carole L.

    1996-12-01

    Temporal variations in a streambed temperature profile between 30 and 300 cm beneath Tijeras Arroyo, New Mexico, were analyzed at 30-min intervals for 1990 to estimate the depth, duration, and rate of percolation during streamflows. The depth of percolation was clearly documented by the rapid response of the streambed temperature profile to streamflows. Results indicate that the streambed possessed small thermal gradients with significant diurnal variations from late November to late May, indicating that ephemeral streamflows created continuous, advection-dominated heat transport to depths below 300 cm during this period. Timing and duration of percolation suggested by temporal variations in the temperature profile were verified by comparison with measured streamflow records for the study reach over 1990. Percolation rates were estimated using a technique based on the travel time of the daily maximum temperature into the streambed. Percolation rates were compared with streambed seepage rates determined from measurements of streamflow loss, stream surface area, and stream evaporative loss for the entire study reach. Travel time estimates of streambed percolation rates ranged from 9 to 40 cm/hr, while streamflow estimates of streambed seepage rates ranged from 6 to 26 cm/hr during the study period. Discrepancies between streambed percolation and seepage rates may be caused by differences in the areal extent of measurements for percolation versus seepages rates. In summary, the depth, timing, and duration of streamflow-induced percolation were well documented by temporal variations in a single streambed temperature profile, while rates of percolation based on the temperature profile were about double the seepage rates based on streamflow records for the entire study reach.

  8. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the lower Pliocene Arroyo Piedras section (Tubará - Colombia): Implications for the Magdalena River - paleodelta’s dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinares, C. E.; Martinez, J. I.; Fiorini, F.; Escobar, J.; Jaramillo, C.

    2012-11-01

    The Magdalena river transports one of the largest load of sediments per basin area in the world. Its delta position has changed several times over the Neogene. The Arroyo Piedras Section (169 m) in northern Colombia, contains part of the record of the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene evolution of the Magdalena paleodelta. The section was described and sampled for sedimentological and micropaleontological analyses. Based on lithofacies and benthic foraminifera content, the section was divided in three segments, and the upper segment was dated as Early Pliocene using planktonic foraminifera. The lower segment suggests siliciclastic sedimentation in a proximal prodelta/delta plain transitional environment. The intermediate segment suggests sedimentation in a lagoon and/or coastal swamp environment, whereas the upper segment is interpreted as the result of a transgression and subsequent deposition at the foreshore/upper shoreface environment, with a considerable decrease of terrigenous input. The decrease of sediment delivery to the delta produced by permanent El Niño-like conditions coupled with autocyclic processes could explain the transgressive pattern observed in the Arroyo de Piedras section during the Early Pliocene.

  9. Arroyo el Mimbral, Mexico, K/T unit: Origin as debris flow/turbidite, not a tsunami deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohor, Bruce F.; Betterton, William J.

    1993-03-01

    Coarse, spherule-bearing, elastic units have been discovered at 10 marine sites that span the K/T boundary in northeastern Mexico. We examined one of the best exposed sites in Arroyo el Mimbral, northwest of Tampico. The Mimbral outcrop displays a layered elastic unit up to 3 m thick enclosed by marly limestones of the Mendez (Latest Maastrichian) and Velasco (Earliest Danian) Formations. At its thickest point, this channelized elastic unit is comprised of 3 subunits: (1) a basal, poorly-sorted, ungraded calcareous spherule bed 1 m thick containing relict impact glass and shocked mineral grains, (2) a massive set of laminated calcite-cemented sandstones up to 2 m thick with plant debris at its base, (3) capped by a thin (up to 20 cm) set of rippled sandstone layers separated by silty mudstone drapes containing a small (921 pg/g) iridium anomaly. This tripartite elastic unit is conformably overlain by marls of the Velasco Formation. We also visited the La Lajilla site east of Ciudad Victoria; its stratigraphy is similar to Mimbral's, but its elastic beds are thinner and less extensive laterally. The Mimbral elastic unit has been interpreted previously as being deposited by a megawave or tsunami produced by an asteroid impact on nearby Yucatan (Chicxulub crater). However, a presumed 400-m paleodepth of water at the Mimbral site, channeling of the spherule subunit into the underlying Mendez Formation marls, and the overtopping of the basal, spherule-bearing subunit by the laminated sandstone subunit, all suggest a combined debris flow/turbidite origin for this elastic unit similar to that proposed for Upper Pleistocene sand/silt beds occurring elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. In this latter model, the sediment source region for the elastic unit is the lower continental shelf and slope escarpment. For the K/T unit at Mimbral, we propose that thick ejecta blanket deposits composed mostly of spherules were rapidly loaded onto the lower shelf and slope from an impact

  10. Arroyo el Mimbral, Mexico, K/T unit: Origin as debris flow/turbidite, not a tsunami deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, Bruce F.; Betterton, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Coarse, spherule-bearing, elastic units have been discovered at 10 marine sites that span the K/T boundary in northeastern Mexico. We examined one of the best exposed sites in Arroyo el Mimbral, northwest of Tampico. The Mimbral outcrop displays a layered elastic unit up to 3 m thick enclosed by marly limestones of the Mendez (Latest Maastrichian) and Velasco (Earliest Danian) Formations. At its thickest point, this channelized elastic unit is comprised of 3 subunits: (1) a basal, poorly-sorted, ungraded calcareous spherule bed 1 m thick containing relict impact glass and shocked mineral grains, (2) a massive set of laminated calcite-cemented sandstones up to 2 m thick with plant debris at its base, (3) capped by a thin (up to 20 cm) set of rippled sandstone layers separated by silty mudstone drapes containing a small (921 pg/g) iridium anomaly. This tripartite elastic unit is conformably overlain by marls of the Velasco Formation. We also visited the La Lajilla site east of Ciudad Victoria; its stratigraphy is similar to Mimbral's, but its elastic beds are thinner and less extensive laterally. The Mimbral elastic unit has been interpreted previously as being deposited by a megawave or tsunami produced by an asteroid impact on nearby Yucatan (Chicxulub crater). However, a presumed 400-m paleodepth of water at the Mimbral site, channeling of the spherule subunit into the underlying Mendez Formation marls, and the overtopping of the basal, spherule-bearing subunit by the laminated sandstone subunit, all suggest a combined debris flow/turbidite origin for this elastic unit similar to that proposed for Upper Pleistocene sand/silt beds occurring elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. In this latter model, the sediment source region for the elastic unit is the lower continental shelf and slope escarpment. For the K/T unit at Mimbral, we propose that thick ejecta blanket deposits composed mostly of spherules were rapidly loaded onto the lower shelf and slope from an impact

  11. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  12. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones

    PubMed Central

    Fariña, Richard A.; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human–megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  13. Using cosmogenic nuclides to contrast rates of erosion and sediment yield in a semi-arid, arroyo-dominated landscape, Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierman, P.R.; Reuter, J.M.; Pavich, M.; Gellis, A.C.; Caffee, M.W.; Larsen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of in-situ-produced 10Be and 26Al in 52 fluvial sediment samples shows that millennial-scale rates of erosion vary widely (7 to 366 m Ma-1) through the lithologically and topographically complex Rio Puerco Basin of northern New Mexico. Using isotopic analysis of both headwater and downstream samples, we determined that the semi-arid, Rio Puerco Basin is eroding, on average, about 100 m Ma-1. This rapid rate of erosion is consistent with estimates made using other techniques and is likely to result from a combination of easily eroded lithologies, sparse vegetation, and monsoon-dominated rainfall. Data from 331 stream water samples collected by the US Geological Survey between 1960 and 1995 are consistent with basin-wide, average chemical denudation rates of only about 1??4 m Ma-1; thus, the erosion rates we calculate may be considered rates of sediment generation because physical weathering accounts for almost 99 per cent of mass loss. The isotopic data reveal that sediment is generally well mixed downstream with the area-weighted average sediment generation rate for 16 headwater samples (234 ton km-2 a-1 for basin area 170 to 1169 km2) matching well that estimated from a single sample collected far downstream (238 ton km-2 a-1, basin area = 14 225 km2). A series of 15 samples, collected from an arroyo wall and representing deposition through the late Holocene, indicates that 10Be concentration in sediment delivered by the fluvial system has not changed appreciably over the last 1200 years despite at least two cycles of arroyo cutting and filling. Other samples (n = 21) were collected along the drainage network. Rio Puerco erosion rates scale directly with a variety of metrics describing vegetation, precipitation, and rock erodibility. Using the headwater basins for calibration, the erosion rates for both the downstream samples and also the data set as a whole, are best modelled by considering a combination of relief and vegetation metrics, both of which co

  14. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-07

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America.

  15. Rand Arroyo Center 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    maxi - mize the use of its resources. The program provides objective, high-quality expertise and analysis developed over many years of focused and...available is based on the assumption of 33 AC three-battalion BCTs in the force in scal year 2017 . Number of large WMD sites that can be cleared

  16. Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene Arroyo Diablo and Borrego Formations in the Borrego Badlands, western Salton Trough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    We report results obtained from a stratigraphic and paleomagnetic study of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Borrego Badlands, E of Borrego Springs, CA. The Borrego Badlands are bordered by dextral strike slip faults of the San Jacinto fault zone (Clark fault to the NE, Coyote Creek fault to the SW), and is also cut by several NE-striking sinistral faults (linked antithetically to the Coyote Creek and Clark faults), the largest of which is the Inspiration Point fault. Our work focuses on deposits of the Palm Spring Group, including Pliocene fluvial/deltaic sandstones of the Arroyo Diablo Formation and Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine mudstones of the Borrego Formation. We collected a suite of 54 paleomagnetic sample sites from a 2500 m thick section of the Borrego Badlands (3rd Wash, Hills of the Moon Wash, and Rainbow Wash), from the upper part of the Arroyo Diablo Formation to the contact between the Borrego Formation and overlying Ocotillo Formation. This section is correlated to the upper Borrego and Ocotillo formations in Beckman Wash, located NW of here on the NW side of the Inspiration Point fault, allowing us to use the previous magnetostratigraphy of Lutz et al (2006) as a tie point for this section. Sample sites were spaced at 15 to 100 m, and 5 to 8 samples were collected from each site. Samples were thermally demagnetized using steps from 80 to 690 C, and two magnetization components were observed from 53 of the sites. A total of 49 sites had well-defined second-removed components and site mean directions that were robust (k>10). The combined mean of these 49 sites is D = 35, I = 41, α95 = 7.5. We identify 8 polarity zones in this section, ranging from near the base of the Gauss magnetochron to the upper part of the Matuyama chron, including the Mammoth, Kaena, and Olduvai subchrons. The contact between the Arroyo Diablo and Borrego formations is estimated to be ~2.9 Ma. Sediment-accumulation rates are relatively rapid and vary between 0.7 and 1

  17. Can erosion control structures in large dryland arroyo channels lead to resilient riparian and cienega restoration? Observations from LiDAR, monitoring and modeling at Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The use of erosion control structures to mitigate or even reverse erosion and to restore ecological function along dryland channels (arroyos and gullies) has led to a long list of both successful and failed restoration efforts. We propose that successful implementation of "engineering" approaches to fluvial restoration that include in-channel control structures require either a quantitative approach to design (by scientists and engineers), or intimate on-the-ground knowledge, local observation, and a commitment to adapt and maintain restoration efforts in response to landscape change (by local land managers), or both. We further propose that the biophysical interactions among engineering, sedimentation, flood hydrology and vegetation reestablishment are what determine resilience to destructive extreme events that commonly cause erosion control structure failure. Our insights come from comprehensive monitoring of a remarkable experiment underway at Ranch San Bernardino, Sonora, MX. At this site, private landowners are working to restore ecosystem function to riparian corridors and former cieñega wetlands using cessation of grazing; vegetation planting; upland grass restoration; large scale rock gabions (up to 100 m wide) to encourage local sediment deposition and water storage; and large earthen berms (up to 900 m wide) with cement spillways that form reservoirs that fill rapidly with water and sediment. Well-planned and managed erosion control structures have been used elsewhere successfully in smaller gully networks, but we are unaware of a comparable attempt to use gabions and berms for the sole purpose of ecological restoration along >10 km of arroyo channels draining watersheds on the order of ~400 km2 and larger. We present an approach to monitoring the efficacy of arroyo channel restoration using terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, remote sensing, streamflow monitoring, shallow groundwater monitoring, hydrological modeling and field observation. Our methods

  18. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  19. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization and evaluation of two arroyos for managed aquifer recharge by surface infiltration in the Pojoaque River Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2014–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Cordova, Jeffrey; Teeple, Andrew; Payne, Jason; Carruth, Rob

    2017-02-22

    In order to provide long-term storage of diverted surface water from the Rio Grande as part of the Aamodt water rights settlement, managed aquifer recharge by surface infiltration in Pojoaque River Basin arroyos was proposed as an option. The initial hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of two arroyos located within the Pojoaque River Basin was performed in 2014 and 2015 in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the potential suitability of these two arroyos as sites for managed aquifer recharge through surface infiltration.The selected reaches were high-gradient (average 3.0–3.5 percent) braided channels filled with unconsolidated sand and gravel-sized deposits that were generally 30–50 feet thick. Saturation was not observed in the unconsolidated channel sands in four subsurface borings but was found at 7–60 feet below the contact between the unconsolidated channel sands and the bedrock. The poorly to well-cemented alluvial deposits that make up the bedrock underlying the unconsolidated channel material is the Tesuque Formation. The individual beds of the Tesuque Formation are reported to be highly heterogeneous and anisotropic, and the bedrock at the site was observed to have variable moisture and large changes in lithology. Surface electrical-resistivity geophysical survey methods showed a sharp contrast between the electrically resistive unconsolidated channel sands and the highly conductive bedrock; however, because of the high conductivity, the resistivity methods were not able to image the water table or preferential flow paths (if they existed) in the bedrock.Infiltration rates measured by double-ring and bulk infiltration tests on a variety of channel morphologies in the study reaches were extremely large (9.7–94.5 feet per day), indicating that the channels could potentially accommodate as much as 6.6 cubic feet per second of applied water without generating surface runoff out of the reach; however, the small volume

  20. Annual Report 2011 (RAND Arroyo Center)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    and development center conduct a study of lightening body armor. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology selected...wall, in the words of one U.S. com- mander, became a “terrorist magnet .” U.S. forces fought from a position of advantage and defeated the JAM assaults

  1. Annual Report 2010 (Rand Arroyo Center)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. This electronic document was made available from www.rand.org as a public service of the...suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis...force consumed by the pressing demands of two overseas contingen- cies. Of perhaps greatest concern is the enduring effect on the all-volunteer force

  2. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  3. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  4. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  5. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  6. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  7. RAND Arroyo Center Annual Report 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    The doctoral program is available through the Pardee RAND Graduate School, a separate unit of the RAND Corporation; Army officers enrolled as...Major Mathew Guerrie (standing) and Matt Lewis and Aimee Bower (seated). 2 6 r e s e A r c h A g e n D A To accomplish its mission, the program

  8. TENDENCIA DE LA TUBERCULOSIS EN LA REGIÓN SANITARIA V DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, AÑOS 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    CHIRICO, CRISTINA; SANJURJO, MYRIAM; IRIBARREN, SARAH; APPENDINO, ANDREA; ZERBINI, ELSA; ETCHEVARRIA, MIRTA

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis (TB) en la Región Sanitaria V (RSV), provincia de Buenos Aires. El estudio de tendencia permitió conocer un valor promedio de las variaciones de la tasa de incidencia (TI), calculadas por regresión lineal simple y expresadas como variación anual promedio (VAP). Se analizaron el número de casos notificados y TI por 100 000 habitantes de todas las formas de TB, los casos de TB pulmonar (TBP) y TBP confirmados por bacteriología, total casos por grupos de edad: 0 – 14; 15 – 29 y mayores de 64 años, entre el 1° de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. La declinación de la TI fue menor al 5% para todas las formas de TB e inferior en las TBP confirmadas bacteriológicamente. Los casos de TBP y TI más elevadas, se concentraron en el grupo de 15 a 29 años, con tendencia estable o ligeramente ascendente de la TI en la TBP bacilífera. El mismo comportamiento presentaron los casos de TBP infantil con confirmación bacteriológica. La mayor velocidad de descenso en la TI de la TBP se produjo en este grupo de edad, mientras que en mayores de 64 años, el descenso fue sostenido en el tiempo. La TB persiste como un riesgo de salud en la RSV, con casos en edades jóvenes, por lo que sigue siendo necesario fortalecer el control de la TB en esta región. PMID:26117604

  9. 75 FR 37358 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... regarding current practices and any regulatory changes that likely may occur if we designate proposed... from adverse modification or destruction of critical habitat. In practice, situations with a Federal... of private land owned by the Newhall Land and Farming Company (Newhall LFC). Newhall LFC...

  10. Chemical quality of sediment cores from the Laguna Madre, Laguna Atascosa and Arroyo Colorado, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Many contaminants introduced into the environment by human activities are hydrophobic, meaning they are relatively insoluble in water and, thus, are associated primarily with sediments. These contaminants include the organochlorine pesticides DOT and chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial facilities and urban areas, and heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and zinc. Understanding the occurrence of these contaminants in the environment requires sampling the sediments where the contaminants might be detected.

  11. Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  12. National Biocontainment Training Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    the goals of this unique biocontainment engineering training program. NBTC trainers continued the instruction by travelling to Pergamino , Argentina...their certificates of completion from Grimaldo and GNL Director Dr. Jim LeDuc. When NBTC trainers travelled to Pergamino in May 2012, they...engineering instructional portions of the training program at the Pergamino laboratory. 9  Mr. Grimaldo was invited to become a member of the

  13. National Biocontainment Training Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    was offered on site in the INEVH biocontainment laboratories in Pergamino , Argentina. By providing training on site in their own familiar laboratory...collaboration with the INEVH Laboratory in Pergamino , to expand outreach to other government laboratories doing infectious disease research that...laboratory continued the training/collaboration with the INEVH laboratory in Pergamino for the startup of their newly constructed BSL3 Laboratory (Mr

  14. Evaluation of Background Concentrations of Contaminants in an Unusual Desert Arroyo Near a Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cell - 12260

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, Richard P.; Morrison, Stan J.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages 27 sites that have groundwater containing uranium concentrations above background levels. The distal portions of the plumes merge into background groundwater that can have 50 μg/L or more uranium. Distinguishing background from site-related uranium is often problematic, but it is critical to determining if remediation is warranted, establishing appropriate remediation goals, and evaluating disposal cell performance. In particular, groundwater at disposal cells located on the upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale may have relatively high background concentrations of uranium. Elevated concentrations of nitrate, selenium, and sulfate accompany the uranium. LM used geologic analogs and uranium isotopic signatures to distinguish background groundwater from groundwater contaminated by a former uranium processing site. The same suite of contaminants is present in groundwater near former uranium processing sites and in groundwater seeps emanating from the Mancos Shale over a broad area. The concentrations of these contaminants in Many Devils Wash, located near LM's Shiprock disposal cell, are similar to those in samples collected from many Mancos seeps, including two analog sites that are 8 to 11 km from the disposal cell. Samples collected from Many Devils Wash and the analog sites have high AR values (about 2.0)-in contrast, groundwater samples collected near the tailings disposal cell have AR values near 1.0. These chemical signatures raise questions about the origin of the contamination seeping into Many Devils Wash. (authors)

  15. 75 FR 21659 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties,...

  16. 75 FR 77662 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties,...

  17. Characterization of streamflow, salinity, and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Rodney J.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use was characterized for 1992, 2002, and 2009 for site MA3. The common land-use change in the MA3 subwatershed was a conversion from previously irrigated agricultural land to urban land use. The MA3 subwatershed had 124 acres of irrigated land use converted to urban land use and 27.1 acres of unirrigated desert converted to urban land use from 1992 to 2009. Consistent with findings in previous land-use change reports, salinity and dissolved-selenium loading at site MA3 showed significant decreases as irrigated land was converted to urban land use.

  18. Water resources data, California, water year 2004, volume 2. Pacific Slope basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon state line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, M.D.; Pope, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Freeman, L.A.; Brockner, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations, stage and content records for 8 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 8 stations, and water-quality records for 36 streamflow-gaging stations and 4 water-quality partial-record stations. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 1 miscellaneous-measurement station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2000, Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.; Friebel, M.F.; Freeman, L.A.; Smithson, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 121 gaging stations, gage-height records for 10 stations, stage and contents for 6 lakes and reservoirs, and water quality for 34 stations. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 32 miscellaneous-measurement stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 2, Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smithson, J.R.; Webster, M.D.; Pope, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Freeman, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations, stage and content records for 8 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 6 stations, and water-quality records for 43 streamflow-gaging stations and 5 water-quality partial-record stations. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 1 miscellaneous-measurement station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2001, Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Freeman, L.A.; Smithson, J.R.; Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.; Pope, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 128 gaging stations, stage and contents for 6 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 8 stations, water quality for 43 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 8 miscellaneous-measurement stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 2, Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, L.A.; Smithson, J.R.; Webster, M.D.; Pope, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 133 gaging stations, stage and contents for 8 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 6 stations, water quality for 43 streamflow-gaging stations and 5 partial-record stations. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 5 miscellaneous-measurement stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1994. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, Wendell Y.

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 113 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station, and 2 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents for 9 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 22 streamflow-gaging stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  4. The City’s Many Faces: Proceedings of the RAND Arroyo-MCWL-J8 UWG Urban Operations Conference, April 13-14 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Vaccine JWARS Joint Warfare System JWCA Joint Warfighting Capabilities Assessment JWFC Joint Warfighting Center KEO Kinetic Energy Ordnance LA Los Angeles...overhead C2, combined with real-time, three-dimensional intelli- gence fusion, allows the JFC to effectively operate inside the adver - sary’s decision and...information, physical, and psychological isolation over our adver - sary-and, thereby, helping shape his perceptions/behavior and limit his options at

  5. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1993. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 119 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 6 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 31 streamflow-gaging stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  6. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1995. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1995 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 111 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station; and 2 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents for 6 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 1 station; and water-quality records for 22 streamflow-gaging stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  7. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1992. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 124 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 32 stream flow-gaging stations and 1 water-quality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  8. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 130 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement sites; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 41 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water. quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 127 gaging stations, stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoir and water quality for 32 stations. Also included is 1 low-flow partial-record station and 22 waterquality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the u.s. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  10. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.; Markham, K.L.; Trujillo, L.F.; Shelton, W.F.; Grillo, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 133 gaging stations; stage and contents for 9 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 34 stations. Also included are 3 low-flow partial-record stations and 1 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  11. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line Except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.; Markham, K.L.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water. quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 123 gaging stations; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 29 stations. Also included are 1 partial-record station and 24 water-quality partial-record stations, These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line Except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 123 gaging stations; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 38 stations. Also included is l low-flow partial-record station and 22 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.; Markham, K.L.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Grillo, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage and contents for 11 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 32 stations. Also included are 4 partial-record stations and 24 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for. California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 125 streamflow-gaging stations and 1 low-flow partial-record station; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 4 stations; and water-quality records for 29 streamflow-gaging stations and 10 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Lightening Body Armor: Arroyo Support to the Army Response to Section 125 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND...which the plate is designed to defend, the more the plate weighs. Special Operations Forces use a suite of plates that includes a swimmer plate...Announcements (BAAs, DARPA “challenges,” and other R&D fund- ing mechanisms should be used; (c) also important to motivate the contractors to incorporate

  16. HAMILTON BUNGALOW (LEFT) AND BUNGALOW NO. 3 (RIGHT) FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAMILTON BUNGALOW (LEFT) AND BUNGALOW NO. 3 (RIGHT) FROM THE ROOF OF THE VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL. THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE IS VISIBLE IN THE REAR - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 78 FR 68444 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Logistics, Inc. (NVO), 1670 Alvardo Street, Suite 1, San Leandro, CA 94577, Officers: Lilibeth O. Arroyo, President (QI), Rafael H. Arroyo, Vice President, Application Type: New NVO License. Beagle Shipping...

  19. 10. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 5 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 5 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 5 SHOWS ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 43 BRIDGE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING 334° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 11. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE ARROYO SECO. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE, THE ARROYO CHANNEL, AND THE LOWER PORTION OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 4 SHOWS ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN FOREGROUND AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CENTER. LOOKING 316° NW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 27 CFR 9.98 - Monterey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beginning point is found on the “Sycamore Flat” U.S.G.S. 7.5 minute map at the junction of Arroyo Seco Road... also the beginning point for the Arroyo Seco viticultural area.) (2) The boundary proceeds directly... Arroyo Seco viticultural areas share the same boundary lines.) (82) Then south along the...

  3. 77 FR 9200 - Los Padres National Forest: California; Environmental Impact Statement for the Removal of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... federally listed arroyo toad, California red-legged frog, and steelhead trout. The purpose of this project... as arroyo toad (F-E), California red-legged frog (F-T), southwestern pond turtle (R5-S), two-striped... species: To avoid trampling of arroyo toads and California red- legged frogs, a qualified biologist...

  4. Constraining the Paleogene of South America: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimate proxy records from Cerro Bayo (Provincia de Salta, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Records of rapid climatic and ecological shifts in the past are crucial for understanding global systems and for predicting future impacts of climate change. Transient and broad scale hyperthermal events during the Paleogene, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), have been studied extensively through both marine records and a significant terrestrial record from North America. Despite this, little evidence exists from the climatic and ecological histories of other major landmasses, which limits the effectiveness of global climate response predictions. Here we present an integrated paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the early Paleogene from a site in central South America (Cerro Bayo, Argentina), including a new magnetostratigraphic age model, pedological and sedimentological interpretation, whole rock geochemical climate proxies, isotopic environmental proxies, and microfloral assemblages. Cerro Bayo is a 235-meter terrestrial section that exposes the Tunal, Mealla, and Maiz Gordo Formations, and based on magnetostratigraphic interpolation spans roughly 58—50 Mya, including both the PETM and EECO events. These formations are composed primarily of reddish sandstone and siltstone, much of which exhibits features characteristic of a moderate degree of pedogenesis (i.e., Inceptisols and Alfisols). High-resolution climate proxies derived from paleosol geochemical compositions highlight rapid increases in mean annual temperature (>5°C) and precipitation (>300 mm yr-1) during the PETM, as well as more gradual increasing temperature and precipitation trends leading up to the EECO. Carbon isotope stratigraphy through the section also indicates a sizable negative excursion (~4‰) during the PETM, and generally positive isotopic trends during the early Eocene. Phytolith biostratigraphy also details changes in local vegetation composition during climatic events that corresponds to similar patterns seen in terrestrial records from North America. Based on this integrated record from central South America it is likely that temperate latitudes in both hemispheres experienced similar magnitude and expression of climatic and ecological changes as a result of hyperthermal events (PETM, EECO) in the early Paleogene.

  5. 3. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 3 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER IN FOREGROUND WITH ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING. LOOKING 76° ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 4. VIEW SHOWING TWO SPANS NEAR CENTER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING TWO SPANS NEAR CENTER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH. THE SMALLER PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN BELOW THE MAIN BRIDGE, AND THE NEW PIONEER BRIDGE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. THE ARROYO CHANNEL, CONSTRUCTED BY THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION DURING THE 1930s, IS VISIBLE ALONG THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Evaluating Innovative Leader Development in the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ciples for both course content and how the course is taught. RAND Arroyo Center evaluated AWALP (using data from 104 students enrolled in three...AWALP curriculum and delivery. The RAND Arroyo Cen- ter team also provided a set of instruments and protocols to foster ongoing assessment and...efforts by the U.S. Army’s Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) to train adaptability, the RAND Arroyo Center team proposed two options for

  8. 9. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA265W10 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA-265-W-10 OF YORK BOULEVARD ACCESS ROAD FOR SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE BRIDWELL STREET AT CENTER PARALLEL TO PARKWAY. LOOKING 24°NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 10. PART 2 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA265W9 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PART 2 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA-265-W-9 OF YORK BOULEVARD ACCESS ROAD FOR SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE SMALL ISLAND FOR EXIT AND ENTRANCE LANES. LOOKING 70°ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 9. VIEW OF BRIDGE NEAR CENTER SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BRIDGE NEAR CENTER SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE IS BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, THE PIONEER BRIDGE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 6. PART 3 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PART 3 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-4 AND CA-265-J-5 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ENTERING LOS ANGELES RIVER UNDER RAILROAD TRESTLE AT RIGHT. LOOKING 268°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 10. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THIS VIEW IS EAST OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE, WITH THE PIONEER BRIDGE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 8. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. LOOKING 290° WNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 78 FR 45555 - Notice of Establishment of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...: Nominations must be received by August 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: Send nominations to Mr. Bryan Arroyo, Assistant.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Bryan Arroyo, Designated Federal Officer, International Affairs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203;...

  15. The Army’s Local Economic Effects: Appendix B, Volume II: Mississippi Through Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Office asked the RAND Arroyo Center to provide an empirical understanding of how Army spending affects communities and states. This report presents...findings from RAND Arroyo Center research on the economic activity supported by Army spending at the local level.

  16. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE AND PART OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, SEEN FROM THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Stream capture and piracy recorded by provenance in fluvial fan strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikesell, Leslie R.; Weissmann, Gary S.; Karachewski, John A.

    2010-03-01

    Stream capture and piracy in tectonically active regions have been described in geomorphic systems worldwide; however, few studies show the influence stream capture has on the rock record. We present an analysis of fluvial fan stratigraphy that developed as a result of multiple stream capture events, building a complex stratigraphic succession beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California. The LLNL site is located in the southeast portion of the tectonically active Livermore Basin, a transpressional basin in the California Coast Ranges. Geomorphic evidence for this stream capture include: (1) the Arroyo Seco enters the basin from the south through an uplifted fault block, (2) south of this fault block lies an abandoned Arroyo Seco fluvial fan, (3) north of the fault block, in the Livermore Basin, Arroyo Seco built a 7-km 2 fluvial fan, apparently forcing the Arroyo Las Positas, a smaller stream that enters the basin from the east, northward around the Arroyo Seco fan, and (4) a knickpoint exists near the point of capture on Arroyo Seco. Stratigraphic evidence reflecting this shift in the Arroyo Seco position into the Livermore Basin was evaluated through a provenance study of 215 gravel units from 34 boreholes spaced evenly over the 2.6 km 2 LLNL site. The Arroyo Seco derives its sediment from both the Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Assemblage and the Altamont Hills (which are comprised of Mesozoic Great Valley Group and Tertiary continental sediments). The Arroyo Las Positas drains only the Altamont Hills and thus lacks the Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts. The origin of the individual gravel units was determined by the percentage of Franciscan Assemblage indicator pebbles (red chert, green chert and blueschist) in the samples. Through this analysis, we determined that high-percentage Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts were present below a depth of approximately 35 m below the surface, low-percentage Franciscan Assemblage

  18. Caracterización astronómica del sitio Cordón Macón en la provincia de Salta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzi, V.; Vrech, R.; Ferreiro, D.; García Lambas, D.; Solinas, M.; Muriel, H.; Viramonte, J.; Sarazin, M.; Recabarren, P.

    We present the results of measurements on astronomical site characterisa- tion in the north-west of Argentina in the period May 2008 to July 2009. The Macón site was originaly selected for testing the posibility of a large astronomical facility by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Initial measurements were performed at the west edge of de the mountain (ESO site) but later, the location of the site was changed 400 m to the north-east (U-Site) because in the original place the shape of the mountain induced an aceleration of the wind. The winds in the U-Site are significantly reduced while seeing remains in the same range of values. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Erosion, storage, and transport of sediment in two subbasins of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Pavich, M.J.; Ellwein, A.L.; Aby, S.; Clark, I.; Wieczorek, M.E.; Viger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Arroyos in the American Southwest proceed through cut-and-fill cycles that operate at centennial to millennial time scales. The geomorphic community has put much effort into understanding the causes of arroyo cutting in the late Quaternary and in the modern record (late 1800s), while little effort has gone into understanding how arroyos fill and the sources of this fill. Here, we successfully develop a geographic information system (GIS)-modeled sediment budget that is based on detailed field measurements of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition. Field measurements were made in two arroyo basins draining different lithologies and undergoing different land disturbance (Volcano Hill Wash, 9.30 km2; Arroyo Chavez, 2.11 km2) over a 3 yr period. Both basins have incised channels that formed in response to the late nineteenth-century incision of the Rio Puerco. Large volumes of sediment were generated during arroyo incision, equal to more than 100 yr of the current annual total sediment load (bed load + suspended load) in each basin. Downstream reaches in both arroyos are presently aggrading, and the main source of the sediment is from channel erosion in upstream reaches and first- and second-order tributaries. The sediment budget shows that channel erosion is the largest source of sediment in the current stage of the arroyo cycle: 98% and 80% of the sediment exported out of Volcano Hill Wash and Arroyo Chavez, respectively. The geomorphic surface most affected by arroyo incision and one of the most important sediment sources is the valley alluvium, where channel erosion, gullying, soil piping, and grazing all occur. Erosion rates calculated for the entire Volcano Hill Wash (-0.26 mm/yr) and Arroyo Chavez (-0.53 mm/yr) basins are higher than the modeled upland erosion rates in each basin, reflecting the large contributions from channel erosion. Erosion rates in each basin are affected by a combination of land disturbance (grazing) and lithology

  20. Processes of paleoarroyo aggradation in Kanab Creek, southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, K. F.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many alluvial valleys in the southwest United States have experienced repeated periods of arroyo entrenchment and re-aggradation during the Holocene. Previous research suggests arroyo dynamics were regionally synchronous, implying that climate fluctuations are the dominant drivers. However, intrinsic reach- or catchment-specific geomorphic thresholds to entrenchment are also hypothesized to partially control the timing of arroyo processes. This study focuses on the Holocene alluvial history of three entrenched reaches of Kanab Creek, southern Utah, to explore these competing hypotheses. Episodes of prehistoric arroyo cutting and filling are reconstructed by recognition of buttress unconformable contacts in the arroyo-wall stratigraphy and age control derived from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating. A combined dataset of 47 OSL and 47 radiocarbon ages is produced, and results indicate at least five periods of aggradation occurred since ~6.0 ka, each interrupted by an episode of arroyo entrenchment. Comparison of this record to recently completed chronologies from arroyo systems in the region indicates near-synchronous arroyo processes over the last ~1.5 ka; however, beyond 1.5 ka correlations are less clear. Broadly contemporaneous alluviation suggests a climatic driver, and comparison to paleoclimate records suggests that arroyo entrenchment events may be driven by transitions from periods of multi-year drought to wetter periods. However, the detailed alluvial chronology indicates that the initiation of aggradation is transient, with each period of paleoarroyo aggradation beginning downstream and propagating upstream, which suggests that potentially regionally synchronous, climate-driven events may not appear as such in the stratigraphic record.

  1. 2. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 2 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER AND FIGUEROA STREET BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND; INTERSTATE I-5 AT CENTER; AND ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT RIGHT. LOOKING 30° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer and date unknown. 'FLUME NO. 9, 'GAGE CANAL SYSTEM,' RIVERSIDE, CAL.' VIEW OF FLUME OVER TEQUESQUITE ARROYO. - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  3. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    family Salix lasiolepis arroyo willow Salix gooddingii black willow Scrophulariaceae - Figwort family *Bellardia trixago bellardia Castilleja exerta...canadensis blue toadflax Mimulus aurantiacus sticky monkey flower Scrophularia californica coast figwort Tripbysaria pusilla dwarf orthocarpus

  4. 78 FR 15041 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Miles City Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... (No Action); Alternative B emphasizes soil, water, air, vegetation, wildlife, and cultural resource... Divide (7,921 acres), Bug Creek (3,837 acres), Hell Creek (19,373 acres), and Sand Arroyo (9,052...

  5. 7. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 2 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT LEFT REAR AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; INTERSTATE 1-5 AT REAR CENTER; AVENUE 26 BRIDGE AT RIGHT CENTER. LOOKING 260° W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 4. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-3. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 4 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER. LOOKING 140° SE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. A System Description of the Cocaine Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Air Force, Contract F49620-91-C-0003 and by RAND’s Drug Policy Research Center . Ubru7 of Comgm Caftbal in PWbkadm Dats Childa. Michae T. A symu...Policy Research Center Arroyo Cente Projt AIR FORCE Drug Policy Reerh Cener Approvedforpubic m1mme; dibbuionuAnr•@d iwi Preface This report describes and...processing, through international transportation, to domestic distribution and consumption. This work was originally conducted under RANEYs Arroyo Center

  8. Understanding Commanders’ Information Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Acquisition. Arroyo Center work is performed under contract MDA903-86-C-0059. The Arroyo Center is housed in RAND’s Army Research Division. The RAND...feedback. We found this feedback to be present in well- functioning command posts but short-circuited in command posts that were under stress. We...logistics; in another, all of those items were subsumed under the single (and highly ranked) piece of information termed "assets available (operable by

  9. Measuring and Managing Army Supply Chain Risk: A Quantitative Approach by Item Number and Commercial Entity Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    sponsored by AMC-G3/4 and conducted within the RAND Arroyo Center’s Military Logistics Program. RAND Arroyo Center , part of the RAND Corporation, is...a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the United States Army. The Project Unique Identification Code (PUIC) for the...operations, the Army’s demand for spare parts is expected to decrease. However, the amount of the decrease is uncertain, as are the parts and

  10. The American Armies: 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    implications of these changes for national sovereignty, identity, and security. Additionally, the study considers how proposed military reductions will...funded research and development center (FFRDC) for studies and analysis operated by RAND. The Arroyo Center provides the Army with objective, independent...chaired by the Vice Chief of Staff and by the Assistant Secretary for Research, Development, and Acquisition. Arroyo Center work is performed under

  11. Depths of channels in the area of the San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    During December 1977 and January 1978 about 280 measurements were made of the depths of channels (arroyos) more than 6 feet deep in the San Juan Basin area. More than half of the measurements were made at sites where channel depths had been previously measured Between 1964 and 1969. Some channels in the western part of the basin had Been re-measured in 1969 and in 1971. The principal areas Being dissected by arroyos are near highlands along the margins of the Basin and in uplands in the northeastern part of the Basin. The most severe dissection by arroyos and the deepest arroyos--commonly Between 40 and 60 feet deep--are in the southeastern part of the Basin. Dissection By arroyos is least in the central part of the Basin near the Chaco River where most arroyos are less than 10 feet deep. Elsewhere, moderate dissection predominates with most arroyos Between 12 and 40 feet deep. Comparison of measurements made from 1964-71 with those made in 1977-78 shows that more channels in the western San Juan Basin were filling than were downcutting. Downcutting or filling was generally less than 2 feet. About two-fifths of the sites measured showed less than half a foot of downcutting or filling. Maximum downcutting was 4 feet along the Rio San Jose in the southeastern part of the basin. Maximum filling of 7 feet was along the Chaco River at the Chaco Canyon National Monument. Along ii other streams elsewhere in the western part of the basin, channels were filled 3 to 4.5 feet. The few measurements made in the southeastern San Juan Basin indicate that since 1964 downcutting has predominated over filling. Large floods during the summer of 1977 caused some change in channel depths in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Some of the channels appeared to have been filled during the years prior to the cutting that occurred from the 1977 floods. At other places, flood flows aggraded (filled) channels. The rate of erosion and arroyo formation in the entire San Juan Basin is

  12. Prospective evaluation of a two-week course of intravenous antibiotics in intravenous drug addicts with infective endocarditis. Grupo de Estudio de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Provincia de Cádiz.

    PubMed

    Torres-Tortosa, M; de Cueto, M; Vergara, A; Sánchez-Porto, A; Pérez-Guzmán, E; González-Serrano, M; Canueto, J

    1994-07-01

    In a prospective study, a two-week course of antibiotics (cloxacillin 2 g/4 h plus amikacin 7.5 mg/kg/12 h) was evaluated in the therapy of right-sided infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users (IVDU). All IVDU admitted to hospital during the study period who fulfilled the strict criteria for diagnosis of infective endocarditis were analysed. A subgroup of patients with right-sided endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus who had a good prognosis were selected as being eligible for the two-week course of treatment. In a total of 139 episodes of infective endocarditis in IVDU, 72 (51.8%) cases were eligible for the two-week treatment. Of this group, 67 were cured, 4 needed prolongation of treatment to cure the infection and 1 died in hospital of respiratory distress syndrome on day 10 of treatment. In patients not eligible for the two-week treatment, the mortality was higher (24.2% versus 0.7%; p = 0.00015). Drug toxicity in the treated group was low. It can be concluded that administration of cloxacillin and amikacin parenterally for 14 consecutive days was successful in the therapy of right-sided endocarditis in IVDU.

  13. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is presented. Finally, after describing ecological values of the salt marsh, the effect of the seawater pouring programme on aquifer piezometry and salinity is studied, assessing the possibility of applying this pilot scheme to other scenarios.

  14. Diversity Among Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Family Arenaviridae) Naturally Associated with the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula) in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Haynie, Michelle L.; Abbott, Ken D.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated that arenaviruses naturally associated with white-throated woodrats in central Arizona are phylogenetically closely related to the Whitewater Arroyo virus prototype strain AV 9310135, which originally was isolated from a white-throated woodrat captured in northwestern New Mexico. Pairwise comparisons of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequences revealed extensive diversity among arenaviruses isolated from white-throated woodrats captured in different counties in central Arizona and extensive diversity between these viruses and Whitewater Arroyo virus strain AV 9310135. It was concluded that the viruses isolated from the white-throated woodrats captured in Arizona represent 2 novel species (Big Brushy Tank virus and Tonto Creek virus) and that these species should be included with Whitewater Arroyo virus in a species complex within the Tacaribe serocomplex (family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus). PMID:18454597

  15. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    , suggérant ainsi que la description par le modèle des relations rivière-nappe est correcte. Resumen Se ha utilizado el modelo MODFLOW, del Servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos, para simular el flujo de agua subterránea en la cuenca del arroyo del Azul, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objeto de evaluar el modelo hidrogeológico conceptual. Los niveles hidráulicos simulados ajustan satisfactoriamente con los niveles observados. Los resultados de la simulación indican que: (1) la recarga no es uniforme, sino que puede caracterizarse con tres zonas en las que sus valores decrecen en la medida en que decrece la pendiente, que guarda similitud con la distribución de suelos y características geomorfológicas y (2) la evapotranspiración sería mayor que la estimada en estudios previos, en los que se utilizó el método de Thornthwaite-Mather. La evapotranspiración estimada mediante la presente simulación concuerda con resultados de varios estudios independientes en la región. Respecto de la relación acuífero-río, existe un muy buen ajuste entre los aportes del acuífero al río simulados y los valores históricos de caudal base.

  16. 1. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-2 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 1 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER IN FOREGROUND; INTERSTATE I-5 AT CENTER; AND METRO LINK RAILYARD CENTER AT REAR. LOOKING 344° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-7 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL (APPROXIMATELY 34° 5' BY 118° 12'30" ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). PART 1 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT RIGHT REAR (LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS NOS. 265-1 TO CA-265-5) AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES IS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 234° SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Normal Human Astrocyte Instructions for Initiation of Cultures from Cryopreserved Cells and Subculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Cryopreserved Cells and Subculture David W. Kahler Carmen M. Arroyo October 2004 20060126 067 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited U.S. Army...Subculture 5b. GRANT NUMBER Sic. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62384 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Kahler , D.W, and Arroyo, C.M. TC2 So. TASK NUMBER St... Kahler a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE UNLINMITED 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 18 co*e 410-436-5100

  19. Evaluacion de los recursos potenciales del petroleo y gas, en Centro y Suramerica [Evaluation of potential petroleum and gas resources in Central and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    El Servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos (USGS, por sus siglas en inglés) completó recientemente un estudio evaluativo de recursos potenciales de petróleo y gas en 130 provincias de petróleo seleccionadas en diferentes partes del mundo (USGS, 2000). De estas 130 provincias, 23 se encuentran en Suramérica, Centroamérica, y la región del Caribe (fig. 1). El estudio comprendió desde las provincias de petróleo establecidas con un largo historial de producción, como la Cuenca de Maracaibo, hasta las provincias fronterizas de poca o ninguna producción, como la Cuenca de Guyana-Suriname. No todas las provincias con historial de producción o con potencial de producción fueron evaluadas en el Estudio Evaluativo USGS 2000. Al presente, el USGS está evaluando muchas de las provincias restantes de petróleo y gas, en Centro y Suramérica. En cada provincia hemos (1) definido geológicamente el total de los sistemas de petróleo, (2) definido las unidades evaluadas que forman parte de todos los sistemas de petróleo, y (3) evaluado el volumen potencial de petróleo y gas convencional en cada unidad evaluada. Definimos un total de 26 sistemas de petróleo y 55 unidades evaluadas en las 23 provincias

  20. 75 FR 68375 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    .... Arroyo, Bryan Ashe, Daniel M. Baker, Karen D. Bean, Michael J. Beck, Richard T. Birdwell, Stephanie E..., Michael R. Sobeck, Eileen Sonderman, Debra E. Stevenson, Katherine H. Stith, E. Melodee Taylor, Ione L. Taylor, Willie R. Thomas, Pilar M. Thorsen, Kimberley A. Triebsch, George F. Tsosie, Paul H. Tubbs,...

  1. 4. PART 1 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PART 1 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-5 AND CA-265-J-6 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. NOTE TUNNEL NO.1 NORTH PORTAL AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 268°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 5. PART 2 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PART 2 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-4 AND CA-265-J-6 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING 308°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 3. REAR OF NORTH PORTAL TUNNEL NO.4. PART 1 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR OF NORTH PORTAL TUNNEL NO.4. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH PHOTOGRAPH CA-265-G-2-b. NOTE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR FREEWAY WIDENING OF HILL STREET EXIT. LOOKING 2°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Improving the Army Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES) The Planning Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 the Army asked that RAND Arroyo Center assist in the reengineering of The Army Plan (TAP). The Army also reinstituted strategic planning and...the product was the Army Strategic Planning Guidance (ASPG), which provides strategic guidance to TAP. Planning and programming in the Army are

  5. Protracted People’s War in the Philippines: A Persistent Communist Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    work together to increase production.”16 With the media publishing accounts of alleged presidential misdeeds, President Arroyo has become mired ...after the election, GMA had won 40 percent of the vote, with her leading opponent ( Fernando Poe, Jr.) trailing with 36.5 percent. “The chaotic

  6. Effects of Soldiers' Deployment on Children's Academic Performance and Behavioral Health. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Amy; Chandra, Anita; Martin, Laurie T.; Setodji, Claude Messan; Hallmark, Bryan W.; Campbell, Nancy F.; Hawkins, Stacy; Grady, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Long and frequent deployments, with short dwell times in between, have placed stresses on Army children and families already challenged by frequent moves and parental absences. RAND Arroyo Center was asked by the Army to examine the effects of parental deployments on children's academic performance as well as their emotional and behavioral…

  7. Informed Questions Paper: Philippine Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Encyclopedia Britannica Online . "Philippines." Janet Matthew Information Service. Quest Economics Database. 2002. "Philippines: Arroyo...Guia. "Philippine Political System." ii "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . iii Gabriella Montinolo, "Parties and Accountability in the...34 STRATFOR Report. Apr 4, 2002. xi "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . xii Luie Tito F. Guia. "Philippine Political System"

  8. Security Cooperation Organizations in the Country Team: Options for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    documents for commercial use. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please see RAND Permissions. Limited Electronic Distribution Rights This...findings. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure that they meet high standards for re- search quality and objectivity. ARROYO CENTER...Military Contacts program EIPC Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities ELN National Liberation Army (Colombia) ESAF El Salvadoran Armed

  9. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17, Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Orthotropic Shells," NACA Tech. Note No. ASME, JZ, pp 1031-1036 (1970). 1833 (Mar 1949). 18. Seide, P., Small Elastic Deformations 7. Hencky, A., " Uber die...Arroyo National Physical Lab., New Delhi-110012, New Mexico State Univ. India "Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics," Trans. Inst. Mech. E., A (1), pp 53

  10. An Archaeological Survey of Certain Lands Adjacent to the Galisteo Dam, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-12

    small arroyo, and coyote gourd (Cucurbita sp.) is present on the terrace where it meets the south channel of f J. t -21- the Galisteo. In the last of...into hymenoides) early autumn Coyote gourd Fruits, seeds Summer primarily (Cucurbita sp.) Navaho tea Flowers, (Thelesperma sp.) leaves (for tea)i Summer

  11. 76 FR 56271 - Notice of Release From Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Livermore Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... airport land in order to acquire a parcel of equal size that is currently privately-owned. This exchange... release airport land. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to rule and invites... of airport land north of the Arroyo Las Positas so that it can be exchanged for a portion of...

  12. Visual Astrometry Observations of the Binary Star Beta Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S. Jananne; Berlin, Kyle; Cardoza, Clare; Jordano, Chris; Waymire, Tatum; Shore, Doug; Baxter, John; Johnson, Robert; Carro, Joseph; Genet, Russell M.

    2012-04-01

    Students from Arroyo Grande High School and Cuesta College observed the separation and position angle of the binary star Beta Lyrae (WDS 18501+3322 ). The separation and position angle were found to be 46.7 arc seconds and 149.6° respectively. These values compared favorably to past observations.

  13. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ROAD. NOTE THAT GLOBE OF LAMP FIXTURE APPEARS TO HAVE MELTED. LOOKING 206°SSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT AND NORTHBOUND ONRAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT AND NORTHBOUND ON-RAMP FROM SAN FERNANDO ROAD. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS CA-265-J-7. LOOKING 7°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 77 FR 32922 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... altissimum), Lane Mountain milk-vetch (Astragalus jaegerianus), Modoc sucker (Catostomus microps), and Santa..., arroyo toad, Indian Knob mountainbalm, Lane Mountain milk-vetch, or Santa Cruz cypress, contact Diane... Mountain milk-vetch, Modoc sucker, and Santa Cruz cypress from governmental agencies, Native...

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    former Category 2 species, black-flowered figwort and Kellogg’s horkelia, occur in the coastal sage scrub community and are known to occur near SLC-3...Horkelia spp. Blackberry Robus ursinas Willow Family Salicaceae Arroyo willow Salix lasiolepis Figwort Family Scrophulariaceae

  17. A History of the Los Angeles District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1898-1965

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Arroyo drainage area, and along Julian Wash. About 40 miles southeast of Phoenix, the District completed in November 1960 the Whitlow Ranch Reservoir...Luis, California. By Porter-Urquhart- McCreary -O’Brien, Consulting Engineers, 1958. 370 Review Report for Navigation, Port San Luis (San Luis Obispo

  18. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer unknown, October 1916. FORMER 'VICTORIA BRIDGE' (HOWE DECK TRUSS SUPPORTED BY TRESTLE) LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING STREETCAR AND THATCH-ROOFED, CANTILEVERED PEDESTRIAN PLATFORM - Victoria Bridge, Spanning Tequesquite Arroyo, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  19. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  20. 12. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO.1, SOUTH PORTAL.SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO.1, SOUTH PORTAL.SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH PORTAL OF TUNNEL NO. 2. LOOKING 140N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 8. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO. 2, SOUTH PORTAL SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO. 2, SOUTH PORTAL SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH PORTAL OF TUNNEL NO. 3. LOOKING 12°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Pablo J; Porta, Atilio A; Ronco, Alicia E

    2008-11-01

    Levels of glyphosate were determined in water, soil and sediment samples from a transgenic soybean cultivation area located near to tributaries streams of the Pergamino-Arrecifes system in the north of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Field work took into account both the pesticide application and the rains occurring after applications. The pesticide was analysed by HPLC-UV detection, previous derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). In addition, SoilFug multimedia model was used to analyse the environmental distribution of the pesticides. In the field, levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg/L, while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg/Kg. Temporal variation of glyphosate levels depended directly on the time of application and the rain events. The results obtained from the application of the model are in accordance with the values found in the field.

  3. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  4. Analysis of hantavirus genetic diversity in Argentina: S segment-derived phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bohlman, Marlene C; Morzunov, Sergey P; Meissner, John; Taylor, Mary Beth; Ishibashi, Kimiko; Rowe, Joan; Levis, Silvana; Enria, Delia; St Jeor, Stephen C

    2002-04-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for the complete S genome segments of the six distinct hantavirus genotypes from Argentina and for two cell culture-isolated Andes virus strains from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, although divergent from each other, all Argentinian hantavirus genotypes group together and form a novel phylogenetic clade with the Andes virus. The previously characterized South American hantaviruses Laguna Negra virus and Rio Mamore virus make up another clade that originates from the same ancestral node as the Argentinian/Chilean viruses. Within the clade of Argentinian/Chilean viruses, three subclades can be defined, although the branching order is somewhat obscure. These are made of (i) "Lechiguanas-like" virus genotypes, (ii) Maciel virus and Pergamino virus genotypes, and (iii) strains of the Andes virus. Two hantavirus genotypes from Brazil, Araraquara and Castello dos Sonhos, were found to group with Maciel virus and Andes virus, respectively. The nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequence variability among the members of the Argentinian/Chilean clade does not exceed 5.8%. It is especially low (3.5%) among oryzomyine species-associated virus genotypes, suggesting recent divergence from the common ancestor. Interestingly, the Maciel and Pergamino viruses fit well with the rest of the clade although their hosts are akodontine rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that under conditions in which potential hosts display a high level of genetic diversity and are sympatric, host switching may play a prominent role in establishing hantavirus genetic diversity. However, cospeciation still remains the dominant factor in the evolution of hantaviruses.

  5. Lower Rio Puerco geospatial data, 1935 - 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Eleanor R.

    2016-01-01

    A long-term study of the geomorphic history of the lower Rio Puerco arroyo in north-central New Mexico included the collection of high-precision (Real-time kinematic) GPS survey data (2002, 2007, 2010, and 2014), registration and rectification of historical aerial photographs (1935, 1950s, 1970s, and 1996), an aerial LiDAR survey (2005) with collection of digital imagery, and acquisition of post-flood (2006) satellite imagery. The Rio Puerco is a single-thread, meandering stream inset within an arroyo located in semiarid north-central New Mexico. The study reach extent is from the confluence with the Rio San Jose 67 km downvalley to the Rio Puerco streamgage near Bernardo, NM. Arroyo and channel geomorphic features in 1935, 1950s, 1970s, 1996, 2005, and 2006 were mapped from imagery and are provided here as shapefiles. Features mapped for the purpose of assessing spatial and temporal geomorphic change include tops of the arroyo walls, edges of the arroyo bottom, tops of the channel banks, channel centerline, arroyo centerline, and canopy coverage. All of these data are provided here except for the November and December 2006 high-resolution Quickbird II satellite imagery (DigitalGlobe, Inc.), which is proprietary and, therefore, cannot be served here. Publications:Griffin, E.R., Kean, J.W., Vincent, K.R., Smith, J.D., and Friedman, J.M., 2005, Modeling effects of bank friction and woody bank vegetation on channel flow and boundary shear stress in the Rio Puerco, New Mexico, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, F04023. doi: 10.1029/2005JF000322Vincent, K.R., Friedman, J.M., and Griffin, E.R., 2009, Erosional consequence of saltcedar control, Environmental Management, 44, 218-227. doi: 10.1007/s00267-009-9314-8Griffin, E.R., Smith, J.D., Friedman, J.M., and Vincent, K.R., 2010, Progression of streambank erosion during a large flood, Rio Puerco arroyo, New Mexico, Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 – July 1, 2010, 12

  6. Discontinuous ephemeral streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, William B.

    1997-07-01

    Many ephemeral streams in western North America flowed over smooth valley floors before transformation from shallow discontinuous channels into deep arroyos. These inherently unstable streams of semiarid regions are sensitive to short-term climatic changes, and to human impacts, because hillslopes supply abundant sediment to infrequent large streamflow events. Discontinuous ephemeral streams appear to be constantly changing as they alternate between two primary modes of operation; either aggradation or degradation may become dominant. Attainment of equilibrium conditions is brief. Disequilibrium is promoted by channel entrenchment that causes the fall of local base level, and by deposition of channel fans that causes the rise of local base level. These opposing base-level processes in adjacent reaches are maintained by self-enhancing feedback mechanisms. The threshold between erosion and deposition is crossed when aggradational or degradational reaches shift upstream or downstream. Extension of entrenched reaches into channel fans tends to create continuous arroyos. Upvalley migration of fan apexes tends to create depositional valley floors with few stream channels. Less than 100 years is required for arroyo cutting, but more than 500 years is required for complete aggradation of entrenched stream channels and valley floors. Discontinuous ephemeral streams have a repetitive sequence of streamflow characteristics that is as distinctive as sequences of meander bends or braided gravel bars in perennial rivers. The sequence changes from degradation to aggradation — headcuts concentrate sheetflow, a single trunk channel conveys flow to the apex of a channel fan, braided distributary channels end in an area of diverging sheetflow, and converging sheetflow drains to headcuts. The sequence is repeated at intervals ranging from 15 m for small streams to more than 10 km for large streams. Lithologic controls on the response of discontinuous ephemeral streams include: (1

  7. Contaminant Flushing From An Urban Fringe Watershed: Insight Into Hydrologic and Soil Dynamics During the Wet Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, C. J.; Barco, O. J.; Hogue, T. S.

    2009-12-01

    Much attention has been given recently to alterations of the hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic affects and the coupled impact on watershed geochemical characteristics. Of particular concern has been the study of chemical constituent mobilization due to hydrologic processes and the resultant impact on stream water quality. However, our understanding of constituent flushing in response to hydrological conditions remains rather vague, particularly at the timescale of a single hydrological event. This study builds on previous work by focusing on the timescale of individual hydrological events to better understand the temporal behavior of chemical constituents in the undeveloped, upper reach of the Arroyo Seco watershed. This watershed, located on the northeastern (windward) edge of the Los Angeles basin in the San Gabriel Mountains, has high rates of deposition originating from the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Utilizing high-frequency measurements of stream water during rainfall events, this study aims to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of hydrological events in the stream water chemical dynamics. In addition, a soil survey was conducted in the riparian zone of the Arroyo Seco basin to evaluate geochemical profiles. Stream water chemical composition in the upper Arroyo Seco watershed exhibited high variability on the hydrological event time scale. Of the four solutes measured, nitrate was the only constituent which behaved consistently throughout the study period, exhibiting hydrologically enhanced behavior during every storm event. Fluoride, chloride, and sulfate exhibited hydrologically enhanced behavior for the first few storm events of the 2009 water year, then switched to dilution behavior late in the rain season. Results suggest these constituents collect extensively in the watershed during the dry season. A first flush mechanism then mobilizes the constituents from the atmosphere and basin surface and transports them to surface waters during

  8. Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Armstrong, Lori R.; Childs, James E.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Khabbaz, Rima; Peters, C.J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Rodents are the principal hosts of Sin Nombre virus, 4 other hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America, and the 3 North American arenaviruses. Serum samples from 757 persons who had worked with rodents in North America and handled neotomine or sigmodontine rodents were tested for antibodies against Sin Nombre virus, Whitewater Arroyo virus, Guanarito virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Antibodies against Sin Nombre virus were found in 4 persons, against Whitewater Arroyo virus or Guanarito virus in 2 persons, and against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in none. These results suggest that risk for infection with hantaviruses or arenaviruses usually is low in persons whose occupations entail close physical contact with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in North America. PMID:17553266

  9. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Precipitation, Streamflow, Suspended-Sediment Loads and Yields, and Land-Condition Trend Analysis at the U.S. Army Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado, 1983 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, M.R.; Dupree, J.; Kuzmiak, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, began an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in precipitation, streamflow, suspended-sediment loads and yields, changes in land condition, effects of the tributaries on the Purgatoire River and the possible relation of effects from military training to hydrology and land conditions that have occurred at Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS) from 1983 through 2007. Data were collected for precipitation (19 stations) and streamflow and sediment load (5 tributary and 2 main-stem Purgatoire River stations) during 1983 through 2007 for various time periods. The five tributary stations were Van Bremer Arroyo near Model, Taylor Arroyo below Rock Crossing, Lockwood Canyon Creek near Thatcher, Red Rock Canyon Creek at the mouth, and Bent Canyon Creek at the mouth. In addition, data were collected at two Purgatoire River stations: Purgatoire River near Thatcher and Purgatoire River at Rock Crossing.

  10. Antibodies to Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Family Arenaviridae, Genus Arenavirus) in Cricetid Rodents from New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Barragán-Gomez, Artemio; Hanson, John Delton; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Arellano, Elizabeth; González-Cózatl, Francisco X.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco; Rogers, Duke S.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Blood samples from 4893 cricetid rodents were tested for antibody (immunoglobulin G) to Whitewater Arroyo virus and Amaparí virus to extend our knowledge of the natural host range and geographical distribution of Tacaribe serocomplex viruses in North America. Antibodies to arenaviruses were found in northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), oryzomys (Oryzomys spp.), deermice (Megadontomys nelsoni and Peromyscus spp.), harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.), and cotton rats (Sigmodon spp.) captured in New Mexico, Texas, or Mexico. Comparison of endpoint antibody titers to Whitewater Arroyo virus and Amaparí virus in individual blood samples indicated that the Tacaribe complex viruses enzootic in Texas and Mexico are antigenically diverse. PMID:20795917

  11. Watershed Fire Regime Effects On Particulate Organic Carbon Composition in Oregon and California Coast Range Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J. C.; Padgett, J. S.; Pasternack, G. B.; Gray, A. B.; Watson, E. B.; Warrick, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fire causes major changes to organic carbon, converting biological organic materials to pyrogenic-derived organic carbon (Py-OC), including black carbon. Wildfire also dramatically affects hydrological and erosion processes within watersheds, potentially increasing the erosion and discharge of Py-OC as particulate organic carbon (POC). We hypothesize that the proportion of the POC being discharged as Py-OC will be affected by the watershed’s fire regime, increasing with annual proportion of the watershed burned. During the 2008 and 2009 water years, suspended sediment samples were collected from the Alsea, Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Arroyo Seco Rivers draining the Coast Ranges of Oregon and California. Events and discharges of various magnitudes were captured in this sample set. This sample set also included suspended sediment collected from the Arroyo Seco River after a 2008 wildfire burned through a large portion of its watershed. Fine (<63 μm) and coarse (>63 μm) particulate material was analyzed for OC and N. We used cupric oxide oxidation to determine the contribution of Py-OC and unburned organic matter to the POC load of these rivers. The area weighted mean fire return interval decreases from the Douglas fir dominated forests in the Alsea River watershed in the north to the chaparral dominated Arroyo Seco River watershed in the south (Alsea > Umpqua > Eel > Salinas > Arroyo Seco). This translated into an increase in the proportion of each watershed burned from north to south. With the increase in annual proportion of watershed burned we found that the Py-OC content of coarse and fine POC increased from north to south. These results suggest that fire plays an important role in delivering POC to long-term carbon sinks in the coastal and ocean environment.

  12. Oligosarcus amome (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the río Uruguay basin, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Almirón, Adriana; Casciotta, Jorge; Piálek, Lubomír; Doubnerová, Klára; Říčan, Oldřich

    2015-02-05

    Oligosarcus amome is described from tributaries of the arroyo Yabotí-Guazú, río Uruguay basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. This new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of two conspicuous series of teeth on premaxilla bearing pentacuspidate teeth in the outer series. Oligosarcus amome is the sister taxon of all remaining analyzed species of the genus excepting O. itau. 

  13. Modern sediment yield compared to geologic rates of sediment production in a semi-arid basin, New Mexico: Assessing the human impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Pavich, M.J.; Bierman, P.R.; Clapp, E.M.; Ellevein, A.; Aby, S.

    2004-01-01

    In the semi-arid Arroyo Chavez basin of New Mexico, a 2.28 km2 sub-basin of the Rio Puerco, we contrasted short-term rates (3 years) of sediment yield measured with sediment traps and dams with long-term, geologic rates (???10 000 years) of sediment production measured using 10Be. Examination of erosion rates at different time-scales provides the opportunity to contrast the human impact on erosion with background or geologic rates of sediment production. Arroyo Chavez is grazed and we were interested in whether differences in erosion rates observed at the two time-scales are due to grazing. The geologic rate of sediment production, 0-27 kg m-2 a -1 is similar to the modern sediment yields measured for geomorphic surfaces including colluvial slopes, gently sloping hillslopes, and the mesa top which ranged from 0.12 to 1.03 kg m -2 a-1. The differences between modern sediment yield and geologic rates of sediment production were most noticeable for the alluvial valley floor, which had modern sediment yields as high as 3.35 kg m-2 a-1. The hydraulic state of the arroyo determines whether the alluvial valley floor is aggrading or degrading. Arroyo Chavez is incised and the alluvial valley floor is gullied and piped and is a source of sediment. The alluvial valley floor is also the portion of the basin most modified by human disturbance including grazing and gas pipeline activity, both of which serve to increase erosion rates. ?? 2004 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  14. Monitoring the sensitivity of active gully erosion to individual runoff events and seasonal soil moisture changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. P.; Delong, S.; Whipple, K. X.

    2010-12-01

    One method for quantitatively predicting landscape sensitivity to changes in climate is to measure rates of landscape change (i.e., local erosion and deposition) over timescales of weather, and then to use these data to develop models that scale specific surface processes up to climate timescales. In order to implement this approach, we have quantified relations between hydrology and soil headwall erosion at two gully headwalls in a discontinuous arroyo network formed on predominantly Pleistocene alluvial fan surfaces near Oracle, Arizona. The field site is a semiarid rangeland, with low relief overall but deep and active arroyo incision. Since June 2008 we have intensively monitored rainfall, soil moisture, hillslope overland flow and channel discharge at 1-2 minute intervals, using more than 50 sensors. In addition, we have measured soil erosion and headwall retreat in these arroyos, using multiple complementary techniques including ground-based LiDAR, RTK GPS surveys, and time-lapse field photography. These photographs have been taken in stereo, and we are currently using photogrammetric techniques to measure erosion at hourly timescales over this two-year monitoring interval. We find that landscape sensitivity to weather is complex and arguably counterintuitive: erosion occurs due not only to intense runoff events during the summer monsoon season, but also due to mass wasting and headwall collapse from soil wetting and drying, which is more active during the wetter and cooler winter months. Plunge pool erosion at the headcut base maintains headwalls at approximately vertical, and the efficiency of plunge pool erosion is greatly enhanced by the soil surface wet-dry weathering. Therefore, our preliminary data suggest that the intensity of individual runoff events need not be the dominant control on arroyo incision rates. It remains to be seen if these observations and interpretations are applicable to other environments with active gully erosion, but which have

  15. Soil Development Over Mud-rich Rocks Produces Landscape-scale Erosional Instabilities in the Northern Gabilan Mesa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, S. A.; Miguel, F.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Whether landscapes respond to climatic and tectonic perturbations through steady, continuous adjustment or by short-lived, transiently unstable acceleration of erosion rates is fundamental to understanding landscape dynamics and the impact that land-use change may have on watershed sediment budgets. We document the geomorphic response of catchments in the Northern Gabilan Mesa (NGM), where it appears that over geomorphic timescales, well-developed soils may provide more resistance to incision than the mudstones from which they were derived. While measures of tensile strength reveal that intact mudstone is stronger than overlying soils, slaking removes the internal strength of these mudstones. This produces materials in the critical zone that are weaker than the overlying soils. This local configuration appears to impact large-scale landscape dynamics in the NGM, in that once the cohesive soils are locally removed, gullies that incise into the underlying, weaker slaked rock undermine the cohesive soil mantle and propagate headward as a series of arroyos predominantly hosted on south-facing slopes. These arroyos are more frequent in landscapes underlain by shallow marine mudstones and sandstones than sandstones and conglomerates. On the walls of arroyos, the development of relief and the exposure of rapidly disintegrating bedrock is accompanied by the dominance of transport by granular flows. Finally, arroyos often extend farther upslope than do channels without bedrock exposures, ultimately causing an increase in drainage density. Therefore in a situation where cohesive soils overlie a zone of weaker weathered material, incision through the cohesive layer represents a threshold that initiates a transient wave of incision that rapidly undermines and removes large volumes of bedrock and soil. This conceptual model is affirmed by simple one-dimensional geomorphic models that explore the conditions under which such features may be produced.

  16. Perspectives on the Battle of Wanat: Challenges Facing Small Unit Operations in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) RAND Corporation,Arroyo Center,1776 Main Street, P.O. Box...post QDR Quadrennial Defense Review RPG rocket-propelled grenade TOW tube-launched, optically tracked, wire command-link xii Perspectives on the...coordinated rocket-propelled grenades ( RPGs ), small arms and heavy machine gun fire, and mortar barrages to inflict heavy casualties on the outpost

  17. A Comparison of the Astrometric Precision and Accuracy of Double Star Observations with Two Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Pablo; Fishbein, Amos E.; Hyland, Michael W.; Kight, Cheyne L.; Lopez, Hairold; Navarro, Tanya; Rosas, Carlos A.; Schachter, Aubrey E.; Summers, Molly A.; Weise, Eric D.; Hoffman, Megan A.; Mires, Robert C.; Johnson, Jolyon M.; Genet, Russell M.; White, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Using a manual Meade 6" Newtonian telescope and a computerized Meade 10" Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, students from Arroyo Grande High School measured the well-known separation and position angle of the bright visual double star Albireo. The precision and accuracy of the observations from the two telescopes were compared to each other and to published values of Albireo taken as the standard. It was hypothesized that the larger, computerized telescope would be both more precise and more accurate.

  18. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Tension in the South China Sea: Why the Philippines is Challenging China’s Improved Military Might

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    bases agreement that had been signed by Manila and Washington. After the Senate voted down the agreement and ash from the volcanic eruption of Mount...passing a defense modernization bill, but the Asian financial crisis prevented the government from actually modernizing. During the Estrada and Arroyo...because it simply did not have the military resources to do so. The slow passage and implementation of 7898 prevented the Philippines from upgrading its

  20. Integrating Multiple Distribution Models to Guide Conservation Efforts of an Endangered Toad.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Michael L; Fisher, Robert N; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species' ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species' current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  1. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  2. Proposed Closure of Myrtle Beach AFB, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Boardman Richard H. Arroyo Mrs. F. Boardman Myron H. Asato Thomas G. Bock Eugene Askenasy Kathleen Bolger Patricia A. Atchley Carol J. Borges Ray D...Howard R. Moote Rachel E. Perea Sarah S. More Helena J. Perez Julia E. Morelos, Jr. Frank Petta, Jr. Jose Martinez Moreno Caren Pettitt Raul T. Moreno...Oberto Phil Rice C-17 Patricia V. Richardson Enrique G. Serna Candy Richichi Luis E. Serrano Paul S. Richman Wally Sevits Lucille E. Ricks Cindi Shanas

  3. A Phenomenological Model for Circadian and Sleep Allostatic Modulation of Plasma Cortisol Concentration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    RJ, Ortega-Soto H, Huerto-Delgadillo L, Camacho- Arroyo I, Roldán-Roldán G, Tamarkin L. The effect of total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin and...A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol concentration David Thorsley,1 Rachel Leproult,2,3 Karine...2012 Thorsley D, Leproult R, Spiegel K, Reifman J. A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol

  4. Using Field Data to Improve Authorized Stockage List Push Packages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    List RBS Readiness Based Sparing RO Requisition Objective ROP Reorder Point SAP Systems Applications and Products SESAME Selective Stockage for...provisioning. 15Visual SESAME is a PC-based software application of SESAME . SESAME is an Army inventory model developed and supported by Army Materiel...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) RAND Corporation,Arroyo Center,1776 Main Street, PO Box 2138,Santa Monica,CA,90407

  5. Making the Connection: Beneficial Collaboration Between Army Installations and Energy Utility Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Constructed in the 1960s, the Fort Knox Disney Barracks Area consists of 38 build- ings with more than 800,000 square feet. After 40 years, the buildings...long-term supply are increasing in the United States and with them the demand for ways to reduce energy consumption and to get more energy from...Installation Management, RAND Arroyo Center researched ways that the Army could improve collaboration with utility companies to reduce energy consumption and

  6. U.S. and Soviet Relations with Argentina: Obstacles and Opportunities for the U. S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    upheaval. Couicquetiytt, fluich More uncertainty surrounds the conclusions that were drawn in this research. The case study reported here examined the...821711 and Development Center for studies and analysis operated by The RAND Corporation. Thw Arroyo Center provides the Army with objective. ind.pendent...2138 Telephone: (213) 393-4411 mmmnn mue m iniIi__’__’ SUMMARY ARGENTINA’S POSITION BETWEEN THE SUPERPOWERS Argentina is a nation that merits the

  7. Political Dynamics and Security in the Arabian Peninsula Through the 1990s,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    229 16 Project AI FORCE Ampy Centr %SO QO * U94 7 21 039 ! wI !7 The research described in this report was sponsored jointly by the United States Air... analysis . Publications of RAND do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of the sponsors of RAND research. Published 1993 by RAND 1700 Main...Army Project AIR FORCE Arroyo Center Approved for public release; distribution unlimited - £ Mmm mI4$$ im~ * ____ __ _ _ _L_____ i2 PREFACE This report

  8. Terrestrial habitat use by pacific pond turtles in a Mediterranean climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, G.B.; Scott, N.J.; Murphey, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Pacific pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) is a widespread aquatic turtle in the Pacific states, yet relatively little is known about its ecology. We radio-tracked 34 individuals during an 8 year period in 4 small coastal creeks in central California to determine their use of terrestrial upland habitats. Most of our turtles left the drying arroyos during late summer and returned after winter floods. Turtles spent an average of 111 days at these land refuges, which were located in woodland and coastal sage scrub habitats an average of 50 m from arroyos. Most gravid females left the creeks during June to oviposit in sunny upland habitats with low vegetation structure, such as grazed pastures. Nest sites were an average of 28 m from creeks. Terrestrial basking sites averaged 4.5 m from streams, but were only used for a few days. We believe the use of terrestrial upland sites was related to the Mediterranean climate and the resulting unique hydrodynamics of the small coastal arroyos (dry in summer and flooding in winter).

  9. Ephemeral-stream processes: Implications for studies of quaternary valley fills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Peter C.; Schumm, Stanley A.

    1981-01-01

    Three unstable ephemeral-stream channels (arroyos), which drain source areas that have high sediment yields ranging from predominantly sand (Arroyo Calabasas) to a mixture of sand, silt, and clay (Sand Creek) to largely silt and clay (Sage Creek), were resurveyed to provide data on the rates and mechanics of erosion and sedimentation processes during periods ranging from 14 to 22 yr. Channel morphology changed significantly. Erosion occurred through nickpoint recession and bank collapse, but erosional reaches are separated by aggrading or stable-channel reaches. In general, sediment that is eroded, as the nickpoint recedes upstream, is trapped in the widened channel downstream. In this manner sediment is transported episodically out of these basins during a series of cut-and-fill cycles. The manner by which the channels aggrade and the morphology of the aggraded stable channels are controlled by the sediment type. The wide and shallow channel of Arroyo Calabasas is filled by vertical accretion of sand-size sediment. The narrow and deep channels of Sage Creek and Sand Creek are created by the lateral accretion of cohesive fine-grained sediment. The channel modification and the cut-and-fill episodes are dependent on high sediment yields, and therefore they are independent of subtle climatic shifts. Cut-and-fill deposits that have been created in this manner should not be equivalent in age from basin to basin, and therefore channel trenching and filling in the semiarid western United States during the Holocene need not be synchronous.

  10. The use of Streambed Temperature to Characterize the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Ephemeral Streamflow in the Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, A. E.; Stewart, A. E.; Stonestrom, D.; Constantz, J.; Freyberg, D.

    2001-12-01

    Estimates of streamflow patterns in ephemeral channels are important in predicting the upper limits of potential recharge throughout the American Southwest. Quantitative information on the frequency and duration of ephemeral stream flows is often prohibitively difficult to obtain. Conventional streamgaging techniques and analysis tools are frequently unsuccessful in these stream channels, due to the flashy nature of the streamflows. In contrast, temperature has proven to be an inexpensive, robust parameter to measure in the field. The presence or absence of streamflow within the channel may be identified by studying the diurnal signal recorded at both the streambed surface and at depth because the presence of streamflow significantly alters these diurnal temperature patterns. Longitudinal arrays of single channel recording thermistors were installed in three dry streambed channels in the American Southwest; Abo Arroyo and Isleta Arroyo, New Mexico, and the Amargosa River, Nevada, to determine the utility of the technique. Results show that a variety of analysis methods are necessary to interpret the thermal records. A suite of techniques have been developed to better understand the data and to determine the presence or absence of streamflow at given locations within the arroyos. The most promising techniques include time series analysis of multiple thermal records, and comparisons of short term thermal variance to average variances.

  11. Channel evolution and hydrologic variations in the Colorado River basin: Factors influencing sediment and salt loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, Allen; Hereford, Richard; Schumm, S. A.; Hayes, B. R.

    1991-05-01

    Suspended-sediment and dissolved-solid (salt) loads decreased after the early 1940s in the Colorado Plateau portion of the Colorado River basin, although discharge of major rivers — the Colorado, Green and San Juan — did not change significantly. This decline followed a period of high sediment yield caused by arroyo cutting. Reduced sediment loads have previously been explained by a change in sediment sampling procedures or changes in climate, land-use and conservation practices. More recent work has revealed that both decreased sediment production and sediment storage in channels of tributary basins produced the decline of sediment and salt loads. Sediment production and sediment storage are important components of incised-channel evolution, which involves sequential channel deepening, widening and finally floodplain formation. Accordingly, the widespread arroyo incision of the late nineteenth century resulted initially in high sediment loads. Since then, loads have decreased as incised channels (arroyos) have stabilized and begun to aggrade. However, during the 1940s, a period of low peak discharges permitted vegetational colonization of the valley floors, which further reduced sediment loads and promoted channel stabilization. This explanation is supported by experimental studies and field observations. Both geomorphic and hydrologic factors contributed to sediment storage and decreased sediment and salt loads in the upper Colorado River basin.

  12. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, V.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  13. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features, and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 multispectral images have been used, without additional data, to prepare three maps at 1:1 million scale of the 18,000 sq. mi. project area: (1) modern (post-1890 A. D.) arroyos and channels; (2) types of stream channels; and (3) potential erodibility of soils; surficial deposits, and bedrock. Also completed was the collection and compilation of ground truth geologic, soil, and hydrologic data. Field studies to obtain ground control for the photointerpretive mapping include: (1) measurements, at many sites, of the depth, width, and channel characteristics of arroyos and gullies, and cross profiles of stream channels, flood plains, and Holocene terraces; and (2) stratigraphic measurements of the Holocene alluvial deposits. Significant conclusions from these extensive stratigraphic studies are: Slow deposition of sediment was the dominant process on stream lowlands throughout the project area for at least 2000 years prior to 1890 A.D. The deposition was broken by only two relatively brief and minor erosional episodes of regional importance, when channels no more than a third of the depth of modern channels were cut. The modern erosion has produced within about 80 years substantially more and larger arroyos than any erosion episode during the last 2000 years, and the end is not in sight.

  14. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features, and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.; Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The red MSS band 5 gives the sharpest definition of modern arroyos. On the best images, modern arroy0s can be distinguished as narrow as 150 to 200 feet in reaches where their contrast with adjacent areas is only moderate, and as narrow as 60 to 75 feet where their contrast is high. Both the red and infrared bands show differences is soils and vegetation. In the late fall and winter imagery, band 7 generally is the most useful for mapping the areas of the more erodible soils. A map at 1:1,000,000 scale has been prepared that shows all the arroyos within the 17,000 square mile study area that have been identified from ERTS-1 images. Also, from U-2 color infrared airphotos, a 1:125,000 scale map has been made of a 50 mile reach along San Simon Wash, in southeastern Arizona. This map shows not only the arroyo channels and narrow flood plains that have developed since 1890, but also areas within a few miles of the wash that are severely guilled, severely sheet-eroded, and moderately sheet-eroded. Two important effects of the third largest recorded flood of the upper Gila River also have been determined from the ERTS-1 images. The inundated area is best displayed on band 7, and the areas of severe sand/gravel erosion/deposition show best on band 5.

  15. Low-flow water-quality and discharge data for lined channels in Northeast Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1990 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, R.L.; McBreen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The water resources of the Albuquerque metropolitan area are under increasing scrutiny by Federal and State regulators. Because of a lack of available low-flow data for use in addressing potential water-quality problems, a project was established to collect low-flow water-quality and discharge data. The project was initiated under a current cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority. This report summarizes hydrologic data for that project collected between October 31, 1990, and September 3, 1994, at three sites in the lined channel network in northeast Albuquerque. The data collection network consisted of three sampling sites on Campus Wash, Embudo Arroyo, and the North Floodway Channel. The sites on Campus Wash and the North Floodway Channel were established at existing continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations; the Embudo Arroyo site was established at the site of an abandoned streamflow-gaging station. Data presented include site descriptions, instantaneous stream discharges measured at the time of sampling, and the results of the chemical analyses of the water-quality samples.

  16. Structural reinterpretation of the Ajo mining district, Pima County, Arizona, based on paleomagnetic and geochronologic studies.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Ajo mining district of southern Arizona is divided into two main structural blocks by the Gibson Arroyo fault. The eastern Camelback Mountain block contains the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary porphyry copper deposit which has been previously thought to be associated with the displaced apex of a large intrusion exposed by deeper erosion in the western Cardigan Peak block. However, unpublished U-Pb data support a mid-Tertiary age for the western intrusion. The following sequence of mid-Tertiary events in the district are indicated: 1) emplacement of the western intrusion, 2) movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault, 3) unroofing and perhaps tilting of the pluton approx 70o to the south along with the Camelback Mountain block, 4) syntectonic depositions of the Locomotive Fanglomerate and the Ajo Volcanics, 5) continued uplift and tilting to the south totaling 40o to 60o, 6) intrusion of the youngest dikes with attendant alteration and remagnetization of the host rocks, and 7) minor (?) oblique movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault.-from Authors

  17. Characterization of selenium in the lower Gunnison River basin, Colorado, 1988-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    Selenium concentrations in certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and lower Uncompahgre River, have exceeded the Colorado water-quality standard of 5 micrograms per liter for selenium. A task force was formed in 1998 that consists of various government agencies, private irrigation companies, and local residents to address the selenium concerns in the lower Gunnison River Basin. The task force, working with the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, needed more detailed information on selenium loading in the basin to develop viable alternatives for remediating selenium in the lower Gunnison River Basin. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected selenium data for tributaries of the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork of the Gunnison and in the North Fork Basin. The largest selenium load in a tributary stream was in the Uncompahgre River, which accounted for about 38 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River at Whitewater. The North Fork of the Gunnison River accounted for about 7 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River. Two tributaries east of Delta, Sunflower Drain and Bonafide Ditch, consist primarily of irrigation return flows and were other major selenium sources to the Gunnison River. Some tributaries in the lower North Fork Basin had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except for several streams draining the Uncompahgre Plateau, many tributaries to the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except during occasional rain and snowmelt events, selenium loading from nonirrigated desert areas was minimal. Detailed characterization studies were done in 1999-2000 on Cedar Creek and Loutzenhizer Arroyo, which contribute the largest tributary selenium loads to the Uncompahgre River. Selenium concentrations in Cedar Creek downstream from Miguel Road ranged from 12 to 28 micrograms per

  18. Lithologically influenced geomorphic responses to Holocene climatic changes in the Southern Colorado Plateau, Arizona: A soil-geomorphic and ecologic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Leslie D.; McAuliffe, Joseph R.

    1997-07-01

    The semiarid landscape occupied by the Navajo and Hopi peoples on the Colorado Plateau in northeastern Arizona in the southwestern United States is characterized by an extensive network of deeply incised arroyos. Since the early 20th century, many researchers have proposed that the recent formation of arroyos in this region and also many attributes of modern vegetation communities were caused directly by overgrazing of vegetation by domestic livestock of the Navajo. Other researchers, however, have proposed other causes for such features, such as climatic change. We believe that the landforms, soils and vegetation of a small area located on Antelope Mesa in this region, underlain by the highly erodible materials of the Miocene Bidahochi Formation, may have been more sensitive to minor climatic changes of the Holocene than landscapes of massive Mesozoic sandstones that dominate the Colorado Plateau. In the Antelope Mesa area, the presence of actively filling channels rather than arroyos in the upper parts of many drainage basins and associated soils and ecologic patterns indicate that the aggradation (1) was initiated in downstream reaches and within the past two centuries, (2) may be linked to recently accelerated slope erosion, and (3) is unrelated to past or ongoing grazing. This suggests the ongoing aggradation may be related to recent minor climatic changes. Geochronologic and soil-geomorphic evidence indicate that the most recent cycle of arroyo incision and filling may be a small-scale analogue for larger-magnitude, older cycles that produced regionally recognizable, paired terraces that are attributable to previous Holocene climate changes. We propose that climatic change, and more specifically, increases in precipitation, caused an acceleration in the erosion of the steep, typically minimally vegetated slopes of the Bidahochi Formation. The beginning of the 'Neoglacial Period' (ca. 2-3 ka), effects of which are documented by other proxy records in this

  19. Characterizing Ecosystem and Watershed Response to Atmospheric Loading at the Urban Fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, V.; Lopez, S.; Hogue, T.; Rademacher, L.

    2006-12-01

    The southern California region, although highly urbanized and densely populated, is also characterized by steep mountain ranges with extensive forests and diverse ecosystems. Growing population pressure in the region has forced continuing development at the urban fringe. The large mountain systems situated on the windward side of the Los Angeles basin experience high atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates from various urban pollutants. Arroyo Seco, a watershed located on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles basin, is no exception to this trend. The present study uses hydrologic and geochemical data to assess current watershed dynamics and ecosystem responses to the impacts of regional urbanization. The Arroyo Seco stream runs through a deeply incised canyon originating in the San Gabriel Mountains and draining into the Los Angeles River. The current riparian habitat, which comprises only 15 percent of the total land cover within the watershed, contains over 705 species of plants and animals. We focused our studies on the upper reaches of the basin (~18 square miles), which remains undeveloped and consists primarily of chaparral and evergreen forests. This portion of the watershed has an average watershed slope of approximately 6 percent and relatively porous soils. However, estimated runoff ratio from the existing USGS gage and local precipitation gages indicates fairly high runoff (discharge/precipitation ratio of 0.29). Weekly stream samples have been collected over a several year period and analyzed for standard geochemical constituents and stable isotopes to assess deposition impacts on ecosystem function and overall watershed behavior. Stable isotopes of water measured in the weekly Arroyo Seco stream samples deviate from the global meteoric water line (GMWL), particularly during summer months. High evaporative rates in the summer may be responsible for the distinct summer pattern and overall deviation from the GMWL of stream isotope values. An

  20. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue

  1. Detection of different South American hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-12-02

    Hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Old World, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)/Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS), in the New World. Serological methods are the most common approach used for laboratory diagnosis of HCPS, however theses methods do not allow the characterization of viral genotypes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by hantaviruses, enabling detection of few target sequence copies in the sample. However, most studies proposed methods of PCR with species-specific primers. This study developed a simple and reliable diagnostic system by RT-PCR for different hantavirus detection. Using new primers set, we evaluated human and rodent hantavirus positive samples of various regions from Brazil. Besides, we performed computational analyzes to evaluate the detection of other South American hantaviruses. The diagnostic system by PCR proved to be a sensible and simple assay, allowing amplification of Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Laguna Negra virus, Rio Mamore virus and Jabora virus, beyond of the possibility of the detecting Andes, Anajatuba, Bermejo, Choclo, Cano Delgadito, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran, Pergamino and Rio Mearim viruses. The primers sets designed in this study can detect hantaviruses from almost all known genetics lineages in Brazil and from others South America countries and also increases the possibility to detect new hantaviruses. These primers could easily be used both in diagnosis of suspected hantavirus infections in humans and also in studies with animals reservoirs.

  2. Phylogenetic and geographical relationships of hantavirus strains in eastern and western Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yong Kyu; Milligan, Brook; Owen, Robert D; Goodin, Douglas G; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2006-12-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of several potential rodent reservoirs of hantaviruses in western (Holochilus chacarius) and eastern Paraguay (Akodon montensis, Oligoryzomys chacoensis, and O. nigripes). Comparisons of the hantavirus S- and M-segments amplified from these four rodents revealed significant differences from each another and from other South American hantaviruses. The ALP strain from the semiarid Chaco ecoregion clustered with Leguna Negra and Rio Mamore (LN/RM), whereas the BMJ-NEB strain from the more humid lower Chaco ecoregion formed a clade with Oran and Bermejo. The other two strains, AAI and IP37/38, were distinct from known hantaviruses. With respect to the S-segment sequence, AAI from eastern Paraguay formed a clade with ALP/LN/RM, but its M-segment clustered with Pergamino and Maciel, suggesting a possible reassortment. AAI was found in areas experiencing rapid land cover fragmentation and change within the Interior Atlantic Forest. IP37/38 did not show any strong association with any of the known hantavirus strains.

  3. Identification of the first strain of swine hepatitis E virus in South America and prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Munné, María S; Vladimirsky, Sara; Otegui, Lucio; Castro, Raúl; Brajterman, Leonardo; Soto, Sonia; Guarnera, Eduardo; Molina, Viviana; Monfellano, Marcela; Schlauder, George G; González, Jorge E

    2006-12-01

    In Argentina, a country considered non-endemic for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, serologic evidence of HEV infection has been observed in different human population groups. In other countries, a high degree of genetic relatedness has been observed between human and swine HEV genotype 3 sequences, suggesting zoonosis as one probable route of infection. This is the first identification of swine HEV in South America. HEV RNA was detected and sequenced in the ORF 1 and ORF 2 regions from swine fecal samples from a herd located in Pergamino, in the province of Buenos Aires. These strains all group into genotype 3 and exhibit a close relationship to two novel HEV variants previously identified in Argentina from sporadic acute cases of non-A to -C hepatitis in humans. In addition, using a modified commercial ELISA, the presence of anti-HEV antibodies was surveyed in five provinces across the country and all five showed a prevalence of HEV antibodies, ranging from 4% to 58%. The results suggest that swine could be an important reservoir for virus transmission in Argentina as has been suggested for other non-endemic areas. The Argentine human strains and swine strain described in this article seem to be closely related to a human Austrian strain, suggesting a potential European origin of HEV infection in these cases.

  4. Molecular diversity of ecologically distinct Mal de Río Cuarto virus isolates based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) and genome sequence analysis of segments 1, 7, 9 and 10.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Pecci, M P; Conci, L R; Truol, G; Nagata, T; Kanematsu, S; Laguna, I G; Oliveira, E; Resende, R O

    2007-01-01

    Viruses of the species Mal de Río Cuarto virus (genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae) cause significant economic losses in maize in Argentina. Genetic changes in the virus genome leading to better adaptation to diverse ecological conditions were postulated that would account for the increasing MRCV variability. The genomic differences between MRCV isolates from four ecologically different areas (Río Cuarto, RC; Pergamino, P; Jesús María, JM; and Tafí del Valle, TV) were studied. RT-PCR-amplified fragments comprising four genomic segments (Seg1, Seg7, Seg9 and Seg10) of MRCV isolates were compared by RFLPs and nucleotide sequences. The segments were chosen based on the proteins they encode: RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, proteins putatively associated with tubular structures and viroplasm and the major outer capsid protein, respectively. Genetic comparison suggested that JM and TV isolates were genetically similar, but RC and P were different. Therefore, they were clustered in three genetic groups (JM = TV, RC and P). Together, nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of the genomic segments were often above 96%. Seg1 was more variable (viral polymerase), whereas Seg7 (putative tubular structure) was the most conserved. Phylogeny analysis showed that MRCV isolates could be clustered in 'mountain area' and 'high production area' groups according to their geographical occurrence.

  5. A semiparametric multivariate and multisite weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apipattanavis, Somkiat; Podestá, Guillermo; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Katz, Richard W.

    2007-11-01

    We propose a semiparametric multivariate weather generator with greater ability to reproduce the historical statistics, especially the wet and dry spells. The proposed approach has two steps: (1) a Markov Chain for generating the precipitation state (i.e., no rain, rain, or heavy rain), and (2) a k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) bootstrap resampler for generating the multivariate weather variables. The Markov Chain captures the spell statistics while the k-NN bootstrap captures the distributional and lag-dependence statistics of the weather variables. Traditional k-NN generators tend to under-simulate the wet and dry spells that are keys to watershed and agricultural modeling for water planning and management; hence the motivation for this research. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach and its improvement over the traditional k-NN approach through an application to daily weather data from Pergamino in the Pampas region of Argentina. We show the applicability of the proposed framework in simulating weather scenarios conditional on the seasonal climate forecast and also at multiple sites in the Pampas region.

  6. Hantavirus ecology in rodent populations in three protected areas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vadell, M V; Bellomo, C; San Martín, A; Padula, P; Gómez Villafañe, I

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we identified hantavirus genotypes and their reservoirs and evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of the virus in rodent population in three protected areas of Argentina over 3 years (2007-2010). A total of 837 rodents were captured with an effort of 22 117 trap-nights. We detected the genotype Lechiguanas in Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens and Pergamino in Akodon azarae. There was no correlation between seroprevalence and trap success of the host. The proportion of seropositive males was significantly higher than the proportion of seropositive females. The total length of seropositives was higher than that of seronegatives in each host species. Seropositive individuals were observed in warm months and not in cold months, which suggests an infection cycle. This investigation confirms that protected areas of central east Argentina are places with a variety of sylvan rodents species associated with different hantavirus genotypes where reservoirs are numerically dominant. Although there was more than one known reservoir of hantavirus, only one species had antibodies in each area. This can be explained because the transmission of the virus does need not only the presence of a rodent species but also a threshold density. Longevity of even a small proportion of the host population in cold months may provide a trans-seasonal mechanism for virus persistence. The seroprevalence detected was higher than the one found before in rodent populations of Argentina, and this explains the appearance of human cases in two of these three areas.

  7. A longitudinal study of hantavirus infection in three sympatric reservoir species in agroecosystems on the Argentine Pampa.

    PubMed

    Mills, James N; Schmidt, Karina; Ellis, Barbara A; Calderón, Gladys; Enría, Delia A; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of antibody reactive with Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV) was evaluated from rodents captured over 31 months (March 1988 to September 1990) from six mark-recapture grids on the central Argentine Pampa. The most frequently infected rodents were: Akodon azarae (31/459), Necromys benefactus (8/141), and Oligoryzomys flavescens (10/281), which are known hosts of Pergamino, Maciel, and Lechiguanas hantaviruses, respectively. Relative population density and antibody prevalence varied seasonally and from year to year, population densities were highest in fall and prevalences were highest in spring. A positive association between antibody prevalence and body weight corroborated findings from other studies suggesting that hantaviruses are maintained in reservoir populations by horizontal transmission. In two of three host species, transmission was more frequent among male than among female mice. We found no evidence for a detrimental effect of hantavirus infection on host body weight, growth, longevity, movement, or reproductive preparedness. This analysis, based on cryopreserved specimens, represents the earliest conducted longitudinal, mark-recapture study of the dynamics of infection of autochthonous American hantaviruses in their sigmodontine host populations.

  8. Phylogenetic and Geographical relationships of Hantavirus Strains in Eastern and Western Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yong-Kyu; Milligan, Brook; Owen, Robert D.; Goodin, Douglas G.; Jonsson, Colleen B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of several potential rodent reservoirs of hantaviruses in western (Holochilus chacarius) and eastern Paraguay (Akodon montensis, Oligoryzomys chacoensis, and O. nigripes). Comparisons of the hantavirus S- and M-segments amplified from these four rodents revealed significant differences from each another and from other South American hantaviruses. The ALP strain from the semiarid Chaco ecoregion clustered with Leguna Negra and Rio Mamore (LN/RM), whereas the BMJ-ÑEB strain from the more humid lower Chaco ecoregion formed a clade with Oran and Bermejo. The other two strains, AAI and IP37/38, were distinct from known hantaviruses. With respect to the S-segment sequence, AAI from eastern Paraguay formed a clade with ALP/LN/RM, but its M-segment clustered with Pergamino and Maciel, suggesting a possible reassortment. AAI was found in areas experiencing rapid land cover fragmentation and change within the Interior Atlantic Forest. IP37/38 did not show any strong association with any of the known hantavirus strains. PMID:17172380

  9. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks from wildlife hosts, a response to Norris et al.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Grover, Abha; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Medina, Raul F; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; de León, Adalberto A Pérez

    2015-02-27

    In a recent Letter to the Editor, Norris et al. questioned the validity of some of our data reported by Feria-Arroyo et al. The main issue investigated by us was the potential impact of climate change on the probable distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region. As an ancillary issue, an analysis of sequence data for the intergenic spacer of Borrelia burgdorferi was conducted. In the present letter, we provide further evidence supporting our original results, and advocate that extensive study of the population genetics of B. burgdorferi is needed in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region.

  10. Developing a Repeatable Methodology to Calculate Retrograde Planning Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) RAND Corporation,Arroyo Center,1776 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138,Santa Monica,CA,90407-2138 8. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S

  11. The AIROPA software package: milestones for testing general relativity in the strong gravity regime with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzel, Gunther; Lu, Jessica R.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Martinez, Gregory D.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Britton, Matthew; Sitarski, Breann N.; Do, Tuan; Campbell, Randall D.; Service, Maxwell; Matthews, Keith; Morris, Mark R.; Becklin, E. E.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Doppmann, Greg; Neyman, Chris; Lyke, James; Kassis, Marc; Rizzi, Luca; Lilley, Scott; Rampy, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    General relativity can be tested in the strong gravity regime by monitoring stars orbiting the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center with adaptive optics. However, the limiting source of uncertainty is the spatial PSF variability due to atmospheric anisoplanatism and instrumental aberrations. The Galactic Center Group at UCLA has completed a project developing algorithms to predict PSF variability for Keck AO images. We have created a new software package (AIROPA), based on modified versions of StarFinder and Arroyo, that takes atmospheric turbulence profiles, instrumental aberration maps, and images as inputs and delivers improved photometry and astrometry on crowded fields. This software package will be made publicly available soon.

  12. Understanding why a Ground Combat Vehicle that Carries Nine Dismounts is Important to the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Bruce J . Held, Mark A. Lorell, James T. Quinlivan, Chad C. Serena RAND Arroyo Center/Force Development and Technology Program Prepared for the United...Kmiecik and MAJ Eric Mendoza of the U.S. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence. Not only did they request this quick-turn look at the some of the issues...size and organization of the squad, based on the lessons of the war.17 In addition, an extensive 1955 study published by MG J . C. Fry called Assault

  13. Geotechnical Data Inventory, Southern California Coastal Zone, Cape San Martin (Monterey County) to Mexican Border.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    storm of 1983 caused $1.5 million dollars of damage to the Morro Bay breakwaters, along with $600,000 in damage to the Port San Luis breakwater. 1.16...sediments to the beach (San Luis Obispo Creek, Pismo Creek and Arroyo Grande Creek). Major drainage control feature: Lopez Lake 1-Santa Maria Adequate Only...control feature(s): Vial, and Skinner Lakes. 3-San Luis Rey River Adequate 790,00 cu. Moderate sized coastal yds./yr. mountain drainage. Ref: 137B

  14. San Nicolas Island Barge Landing Site Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    Marine Terraces. Pleistocene Erosion o’ Arroyos (Glacial) 500,000 to 2.000,000 Pliocene Cenozoic 13.000,000 Miocene - Island Uplift 25,000,000...The diver route was from a point 100 yards offshore in towards the beach. "The divers swam into and over a reef about 50 yards off the beach with a...2-ft cover of water; it would be uncovered at LLW. Shoaling effect of waves make it evident. Bearing of the reef was on course 2100 to the shack on

  15. KT boundary impact glasses from the Gulf of Mexico region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub impact crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.

  16. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...″ N./122°4′18″ W.); Arroyo Corte Madera del Presidio (37°53′43″ N./122°31′48″ W.); Black John Slough (38°8′12″ N./122°33′42″ W.); Black John Slough (38°7′59″ N./122°32′54″ W.); Carneros Creek (38°13′52....); Joe Ney Slough (43°20′12″ N./124°17′39″ W.); John B Creek (43°16′59″ N./124°18′27″ W.); Kentuck...

  17. The SDF1-CXCR4 Axis Functions through p38-MAPK Signaling to Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Dugan, C.B., Collins-Burow, B.M., Zhu, Y., Salvo, V.A., Lopez , G.N., Kushner, P.J., Curiel, T.J., McLachlan, J.A., Burow, M.E. The P38 MAPK...Longo, N., Baleux, F., Muijen, G.N.P., Sanchez - Mateos, P., Arroyo, A.G., Teixido, J. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1α Promotes Melanoma Call Invasion...Rhodes, Yun Zhu, Virgilio A. Salvo, Steven Elliott, Lori Guillot, Juan P. Fonseca, John A. McLachlan, Brian Barnett, Barbara S. Beckman, Tyler J

  18. The SDF1-CXCR4 Axis Functions through p38-MAPK Signaling to Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Simpson E.N., Weldon, C.B., Elliott, S., Melnik, L.I., Dugan, C.B., Collins-Burow, B.M., Zhu, Y., Salvo, V.A., Lopez , G.N., Kushner, P.J., Curiel, T.J...2004). 31. Bartolome, R.A., Galvez, B.G., Longo, N., Baleux, F., Muijen, G.N.P., Sanchez - Mateos, P., Arroyo, A.G., Teixido, J. Stromal Cell-Derived...Shannon Muir, Lyndsay Vanhoy-Rhodes, Yun Zhu, Virgilio A. Salvo, Steven Elliott, Lori Guillot, Juan P. Fonseca, John A. McLachlan, Brian Barnett

  19. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. I. Bragado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, R. A.; Milesi, G. E.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station, settled in the city of Bragado, Provincia de Buenos Aires, in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work thus ended a discussion about the Plaza San Martin. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Elevated DDE and toxaphene residues in fishes and birds reflect local contamination in the lower Rio Grande valley Texas USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Kennedy, H.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Ribick, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A potential organochlorine pesticide problem was identified near Mission, Texas, by the National Park Monitoring Program. Fish samples from this site have consistently contained elevated levels of DDE since 1968. Surveys were made in 1976, 1978, and 1979 to determine the extent of organochlorine pesticide contamination in fishes and birds of the area. Freshwater fishes of Arroyo Colorado, a major waterway traversing the lower Rio Grande Valley, were highly contaminated with DDE and toxaphene residues compared to samples from other areas in the Valley; both DDE and toxaphene ranged up to 31.5 ppm wet wt in whole-fish composite samples. Median DDE residues in fish-eating bird carcasses from this area ranged up to 34 ppm wet wt, and 81 ppm in individual specimens. The levels of contaminants detected in fishes and birds were within, or above, the range producing adverse effects in certain species. The major sources of contamination to the Arroyo Colorado system likely stem from past and present use of persistent pesticides on surrounding croplands, and possibly from an abandoned pesticide plant at Mission, Texas.

  1. Elevated DDE and toxaphene residues in fishes and birds reflect local contamination in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Kennedy, H.D.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Ribick, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A potential organochlorine pesticide problem was identified near Mission, Texas, by the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. Fish samples from this site have consistently contained elevated levels of DDE since 1968. Surveys were made in 1976, 1978, and 1979 to determine the extent of organochlorine pesticide contamination in fishes and birds of the area. Freshwater fishes of the Arroyo Colorado, a major waterway traversing the lower Rio Grande Valley, were highly contaminated with DDE and toxaphene residues compared to samples from other areas in the Valley; both DDE and toxaphene ranged up to 31.5 ppm wet weight in whole-fish composite samples. In addition, median DDE residues in fish-eating bird carcasses from this area ranged up to 34 ppm wet weight, and 81 ppm in individual specimens. The levels of contaminants detected in fishes and birds were within, or above, the range producing adverse effects in certain species. The major sources of contamination to the Arroyo Colorado system likely stem from past and present use of persistent pesticides on surrounding croplands, and possibly from an abandoned pesticide plant at Mission, Texas.

  2. Alluvial plains and earthquake recurrence at the Coalinga anticline

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, A.B. ); Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T ); Payen, L.A. ); Atwater, B.F.; Trumm, D.A.; Tinsley, J.C. III; Stein, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Having approached 0.5 m during the May 2 earthquake, the uplift of Quaternary deposits on the Coalinga anticline may provide evidence of the average repeat time of similar earthquakes during the recent geologic past. Stein and King (1984) estimated the average late Quaternary repeat time to be 500 to 1,500 yr from the degree of folding in the upper Pliocene and Pleistocene Tulare Formation; in addition, they estimated the average Holocene repeat time to be at least 200 to 600 yr on the basis of an alluvial-plain profile near Los Gatos Creek, whose arroyo extends across the Coalinga anticline from the synclinal Pleasant Valley into the synclinal San Joaquin Valley. In this chapter, the authors estimate an average repeat time from the stratigraphy of Holocene alluvium exposed in the walls of that arroyo. Largely deposited overbank, this alluvium reveals the approximate configuration of former alluvial plains whose present configuration over the anticline should reflect the rate of anticlinal growth. Resulting constraints on the Holocene uplift rate, though made uncertain by possible differences in the initial configuration of the alluvial plains, suggest an average repeat time of at least 200 to 1,000 yr for major (M = 6-7) Coalinga-area earthquakes during the late Holocene.

  3. Assessment of gully-control structures in the Rio Nutria watershed, Zuni reservation, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.; Cheama, Andres; Laahty, Vanissa; Lalio, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    During the latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, a major cycle of erosion, arroyo cutting, and gullying occurred in the southwestern United States. Since this erosion cycle began, many projects to control erosion, such as the Civilian Conservation Corps projects in the 1930s, were initiated. However, in the Southwestern United States few studies have documented the effect of these structures in reducing erosion or their effect on gully systems. As part of a watershed rehabilitation project on the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico, 47 structures made either of earth or rocks and 23 rock and brush structures were assessed. Sixty percent of the 47 earth or rock structures have breached and relative to dam height, 65 percent of 47 structures are more than 50 percent silted. Of the 23 rock and brush structures, 22 percent have breached or are close to breaching. Reasons for breaching of all structural types may be piping, scour immediately below the structures, large runoff and large drainage area, poor maintenance, headcutting, and active arroyo deepening and widening. In most cases, documentation does not exist on structure design, the specific purpose for a structure, or when these structures were built.

  4. Carbon mineralization in the southern Sonoran Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Silvia; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Búrquez, Alberto; García-Oliva, Felipe

    2001-12-01

    We measured carbon mineralization in four different desert habitats (Arroyos, Hillsides, Canopies-Plains and Open-Plains) and the separate effect of litter addition from annual and perennial plants on soil microbial respiration using two laboratory soil incubation experiments. The differences in total aboveground phytomass among habitats correlates with soil nutrient content, soil particulate organic matter (POM) and consequently, C mineralization. The Arroyos habitat with the highest perennial plant phytomass and litter production, had the highest soil nutrient content, soil POM and C mineralization. Litter from annual plants had twice the P concentration than litter from the perennials, but only half the N concentration. Soil microbial respiration was higher with annual plant litter than with perennial plant litter in the Hillsides and Canopies-Plains, suggesting that microbial activity in both habitats was improved by litter with a higher C quality. In contrast, in the poorest habitat, the Open-Plains, the better response to the addition of perennial plant litter suggests that microbial activity may have been constrained by N input.

  5. Late Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy of Whitewater Draw, Arizona: Implications for regional correlation of fluvial deposits in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Michael R.

    1985-10-01

    The alluvial history of Whitewater Draw, an arroyo in the Sulphur Springs Valley, southeastern Arizona, is characterized by numerous degradational and aggradational events. Shifts in climate appear to be responsible for the major changes in depositional environments recognized in Whitewater Draw over the past 15 000 yr. However, the degradation and aggradation documented during apparently stable climatic periods were primarily controlled by geomorphic parameters. Comparison between the alluvial records of arroyos in the adjacent upper San Pedro Valley and Whitewater Draw shows that periods of degradation and aggradation were out of phase in number, character, and timing. These differences indicate that the fluvial systems in the Sulphur Springs Valley and the San Pedro Valley responded differently to external climate shifts and that both systems were influenced by local geomorphic parameters. This demonstrates that regional correlation of late Quaternary deposits from one valley to the next should not be attempted without absolute temporal control and that intervalley correlations must take into consideration the complexity of fluvial processes.

  6. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  7. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    PubMed

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

  8. Geographical distribution of arsenic in sediments within the Rio Conchos Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Melida; Alarcón-Herrera, M. Teresa; Camacho, Lucy M.

    2009-04-01

    Arsenic (As) content of sediments from the Rio Conchos and Rio San Pedro in northern Mexico were measured to determine if this toxic metalloid had accumulated to unsafe levels to humans and aquatic life. The spatial distribution of As in each of the six clusters of river and arroyo sediments was analyzed to determine variations with respect to background levels and to infer about potential As sources and sinks. In the northern part of the study area, background concentrations varied little throughout the area and concentrations in river sediments were close to background levels. In the southern part, however, the content of As in arroyo sediment contained a wider range of values and anomalous concentrations. The latter could be traced in part to the presence of mine tailings. As concentrations were below the limit in all studied river stretches and thus do not pose an immediate threat to the river environment, but As content in reservoir sediments exceeded the guideline values. Reservoirs seem to act as a sink for As, warranting closer observation and monitoring.

  9. Channel-changing processes on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Lateral channel change on the mainly ephemeral Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, causes damage and has spawned costly efforts to control bank erosion. Aerial photographs, historical data, and field observations are used to document the history of channel change since 1936. Variability in the nature and degree of channel change over time and space is shown. Three major channel change processes are: (1) migration by bank erosion during meander migration or initiation; (2) avulsion by overbank flooding and flood plain incision; (3) widening by erosion of low, cohesionless banks during floods and arroyo widening by undercutting and mass wasting of deeply incised vertical walls. The first process generally is a product of low to moderate flows or waning high flows; the others result mainly from higher flows, though sensitive arroyo walls may erode during relatively low flows. Channel morphology, bank resistance, and hydrology are factors determining the dominant channel-changing process on a particular reach of the river. Present river morphology reflects high flows since the 1960's.

  10. Population Dynamics of an Insect Herbivore over 32 Years are Driven by Precipitation and Host-Plant Effects: Testing Model Predictions.

    PubMed

    Price, Peter W; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    The interaction between the arroyo willow, Salix lasiolepis Bentham, and its specialist herbivore, the arroyo willow stem-galling sawfly, Euura lasiolepis Smith (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), was studied for 32 yr in Flagstaff, AZ, emphasizing a mechanistic understanding of insect population dynamics. Long-term weather records were evaluated to provide a climatic context for this study. Previously, predictive models of sawfly dynamics were developed from estimates of sawfly gall density made between 1981 and 2002; one model each for drier and wetter sites. Predictor variables in these models included winter precipitation and the Palmer Drought Severity Index, which impact the willow growth, with strong bottom-up effects on sawflies. We now evaluate original model predictions of sawfly population dynamics using new data (from 2003-2012). Additionally, willow resources were evaluated in 1986 and in 2012, using as criteria clone area, shoot density, and shoot length. The dry site model accounted for 40% of gall population density variation between 2003 and 2012 (69% over the 32 yr), providing strong support for the bottom-up, mechanistic hypothesis that water supply to willow hosts impacts sawfly populations. The current drying trend stressed willow clones: in drier sites, willow resources declined and gall density decreased by 98%. The wet site model accounted for 23% of variation in gall population density between 2003 and 2012 (48% over 30 yr), consistent with less water limitation. Nonetheless, gall populations were reduced by 72%.

  11. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Olga V; Cueto, Gerardo R; Cavia, Regino; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel E; Bilenca, David N; Edelstein, Alexis; Martínez, Paula; Miguel, Sergio; Bellomo, Carla; Hodara, Karina; Padula, Paula J; Busch, María

    2003-09-01

    We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND) virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+) results and two individuals with ELISA (-). Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests that human

  12. Statistical Downscaling of Seasonal Forecasts and Climate Change Scenarios using Generalized Linear Modeling Approach for Stochastic Weather Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Katz, R. W.; Rajagopalan, B.; Podesta, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate forecasts and climate change scenarios are typically provided in the form of monthly or seasonally aggregated totals or means. But time series of daily weather (e.g., precipitation amount, minimum and maximum temperature) are commonly required for use in agricultural decision-making. Stochastic weather generators constitute one technique to temporally downscale such climate information. The recently introduced approach for stochastic weather generators, based generalized linear modeling (GLM), is convenient for this purpose, especially with covariates to account for seasonality and teleconnections (e.g., with the El Niño phenomenon). Yet one important limitation of stochastic weather generators is a marked tendency to underestimate the observed interannual variance of seasonally aggregated variables. To reduce this “overdispersion” phenomenon, we incorporate time series of seasonal total precipitation and seasonal mean minimum and maximum temperature in the GLM weather generator as covariates. These seasonal time series are smoothed using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS) to avoid introducing underdispersion. Because the aggregate variables appear explicitly in the weather generator, downscaling to daily sequences can be readily implemented. The proposed method is applied to time series of daily weather at Pergamino and Pilar in the Argentine Pampas. Seasonal precipitation and temperature forecasts produced by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) are used as prototypes. In conjunction with the GLM weather generator, a resampling scheme is used to translate the uncertainty in the seasonal forecasts (the IRI format only specifies probabilities for three categories: below normal, near normal, and above normal) into the corresponding uncertainty for the daily weather statistics. The method is able to generate potentially useful shifts in the probability distributions of seasonally aggregated precipitation and

  13. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture.

  14. Changes in Fire Activity and Geomorphic Processes During the Early Neoglacial in Southern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, J. D.; Meyer, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Sacramento Mountains contain numerous small alluvial fans produced by low-order tributaries in ponderosa pine dominated mixed-conifer forests. Arroyos up to 12 m deep in the main valleys expose a 9000 year record of geomorphic change within these fans. Identification and dating of fire-related fan deposits allows us to examine the changing importance of fire-related geomorphic processes through time, and assess the role of climate change in modulating wildfire activity. Data from the middle Rio Peñasco valley show that prior to 4500 cal yr BP fans are dominated by poorly sorted facies containing large clasts and abundant charcoal, typical of fire-related debris-flow deposits. After 4500 BP, charcoal is less common and sediments are finer-grained with features indicative of gradual aggradation and cumulic soil development. Although tree-ring fire-scar studies indicate a low-severity surface- fire regime during the 400 yrs prior to Euro-American settlement, we have identified several fire-related debris- flow deposits dating to the late Holocene that indicate high-severity fires. Fire-related deposits, however, account for a much smaller volume of sediment than prior to 4500 BP. Although the early part of the record is less complete, decreased fire-related sedimentation prior to 6000 BP is also suggested. Increased fire-related sedimentation 6000-4500 BP indicates that fire regimes were significantly different during the middle Holocene, when many paleoclimate records from the region indicate a generally warmer climate. Most recently, deep arroyos, which predate recent severe fires, have formed along the main valley. The lack of comparable paleochannels in the stratigraphic record suggests that these arroyos are the unprecedented result of postsettlement land-use changes. The distinct decrease in fire-related sedimentation after 4500 BP corresponds to a shift towards cooler and wetter conditions at a number of sites in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico

  15. A field guide for the assessment of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by

  16. Influence of diurnal variations in stream temperature on streamflow loss and groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, Jim; Thomas, Carole L.; Zellweger, Gary W.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate that for losing reaches with significant diurnal variations in stream temperature, the effect of stream temperature on streambed seepage is a major factor contributing to reduced afternoon streamflows. An explanation is based on the effect of stream temperature on the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed, which can be expected to double in the 0° to 25°C temperature range. Results are presented for field experiments in which stream discharge and temperature were continuously measured for several days over losing reaches at St. Kevin Gulch, Colorado, and Tijeras Arroyo, New Mexico. At St. Kevin Gulch in July 1991, the diurnal stream temperature in the 160-m study reach ranged from about 4° to 18°C, discharges ranged from 10 to 18 L/s, and streamflow loss in the study reach ranged from 2.7 to 3.7 L/s. On the basis of measured stream temperature variations, the predicted change in conductivity was about 38%; the measured change in stream loss was about 26%, suggesting that streambed temperature varied less than the stream temperature. At Tijeras Arroyo in May 1992, diurnal stream temperature in the 655-m study reach ranged from about 10° to 25°C and discharge ranged from 25 to 55 L/s. Streamflow loss was converted to infiltration rates by factoring in the changing stream reach surface area and streamflow losses due to evaporation rates as measured in a hemispherical evaporation chamber. Infiltration rates ranged from about 0.7 to 2.0 m/d, depending on time and location. Based on measured stream temperature variations, the predicted change in conductivity was 29%; the measured change in infiltration was also about 27%. This suggests that high infiltration rates cause rapid convection of heat to the streambed. Evapotranspiration losses were estimated for the reach and adjacent flood plain within the arroyo. On the basis of these estimates, only about 5% of flow loss was consumed via stream evaporation and stream-side evapotranspiration

  17. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12–14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of − 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago

  18. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-09-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12-14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of - 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago, followed by

  19. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. II. Bahía Blanca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, G. E.; Vázquez, R. A.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station; settled in the city of Bahia Blanca; Provincia de Buenos Aires; in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work sets the geographical coordinates of the station and clears up some confusion about its true location. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Use of a byproduct of magnesium oxide production to precipitate phosphorus and nitrogen as struvite from wastewater treatment liquors.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Miguel; Colmenarejo, Manuel Fco; Barrera, Jesús; García, Gema; García, Elia; Bustos, Angel

    2004-01-28

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to recover phosphorus and nitrogen from sewage in the form of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O), a potential fertilizer. Nitrogen and phosphate were recovered from a filtrate of digested sludge dewatered at the Arroyo del Soto Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) (Madrid, Spain). A byproduct of the Spanish magnesite mining and MgO production industry was used as the magnesium source. The precipitating performance of this byproduct was compared to that of conventional chemical reagents such as pure MgO. The precipitates obtained were subjected to chemical, light microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The findings indicate the precipitate recovered using this byproduct contains several minerals with a predominance of struvite. Optimal purity ( approximately 80% struvite) was achieved using the sieved <0.04 mm grain size fraction of the byproduct at doses corresponding to a molar Mg:P ratio of 1.6.

  1. Field based analysis of sediment entrainment in two high gradient streams located in Alpine and Andine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Luca; Uyttendaele, Geertrui Paula; Iroumé, Andrés; Lenzi, Mario Aristide

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of critical thresholds for bedload transport based on field measurements conducted in two small, high gradient streams: the Rio Cordon (Italian Alps) and the Tres Arroyos (Chilean Andes). The threshold of incipient motion was identified by using marked particles displacement and both flood and flow competence approaches. The findings are expressed in terms of Shields parameter, dimensionless discharge, and specific stream power, and are used to identify the effects of relative grain size, relative depth, and bedform resistance. Overall, particle entrainment tends to be size selective, rather than exhibiting equal mobility, and the high values of dimensionless critical shear stress observed at both study sites confirm the additional roughness effects of step-pool morphologies that are very effective in reducing the bed shear stress and causing an apparent increase in critical shear stress.

  2. Geologic map of the Bernalillo NW quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koning, Daniel J.; Personius, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    The Bernalillo NW quadrangle is located in the northern part of the Albuquerque basin, which is the largest basin or graben within the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle is underlain by poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks of the Santa Fe Group. These rocks are best exposed in the southwestern part of the quadrangle in the Rincones de Zia, a badland topography cut by northward-flowing tributary arroyos of the Jemez River. The Jemez River flows through the northern half of the quadrangle; extensive fluvial and eolian deposits cover bedrock units along the river. The structural fabric of the quadrangle is dominated by dozens of generally north striking, east and west-dipping normal faults and minor folds associated with the Neogene Rio Grande rift.

  3. The California Storm of January 1862

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Wayne N.

    1996-09-01

    The greatest storm in the written history of California struck the region in the winter of 1861-1862. The unusual weather began on Christmas Eve, 1861, and persisted for some 45 days as a series of middle-latitude cyclones made landfall along the California coast. Episodes of very cold and very warm temperatures occurred both during the storm and in the spring of 1862 as meridional flow prevailed. Heavy precipitation swelled the Santa Ana River to more than triple the highest estimated discharge in this century. High water levels in coastal streams between Los Angeles and San Diego persisted into the spring. Lakes were created in the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert. Arroyos were cut. Sediments from the flood may be preserved in offshore basins.

  4. Provenance of the Pendales Fm in the Sinu-San Jacinto Basin of Colombia's Caribbean margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, A.; Schonwalder, D.; Jaramillo, J.; Martens, U.

    2009-12-01

    Petrography of the Pendales Formation at Arroyo Henequén (Atlantico) revealed that conglomeratic lithoarenites and polymictic conglomerates contain detrital quartz, potassium feldspars, plagioclase, serpentinite, chert, epidote, tourmaline, actinolite and volcanic rock fragments. This composition indicates provenance from two sources, one mainly composed of ocean floor materials, and another composed of granites. Twenty U-Pb ages of detrital zircon form a single population ranging 80-65 Ma. This age is interpreted to reflect the time of magmatism of the granitic source. Taking into account paleogeographic reconstructions, the most likely source was the Leeward Antilles Arc. We propose that Pendales Formation was derived from a recycled orogen uplifted by the Pre-Andean orogeny during the Middle Eocene.

  5. Measurement and interpretation of strain in the syntectonic Solı´s de Mataojo Granitic Complex, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Heimann, Adriana; Miranda, Sara

    2001-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Solı´s de Mataojo Granitic Complex is an intrusive body, elongate north-south, emplaced in the Sarandı´ del Yı´-Arroyo Solı´s Grande Shear Zone. In the present work, a quantification of the magmatic strain has been made by analysis of fabric, enclave geometry and minor structures. Structural evidence indicates that deformation began in the magmatic state and continued through the sub-solidus stage. The observed distribution of magmatic foliations and lineations, the fabric, the geometry of the enclaves and the late to post-magmatic structures, are related to a non-coaxial flattening regime that took place after the emplacement, and late in the magmatic history. These structures reveal that magmatic strain involved a shortening of the order of 80% with a simple shear component ( γ) between 3 and 4.5. The solid-state deformation records an additional mean γ of 2.7.

  6. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    This report evaluates the chemistry of seep water occurring in three desert drainages near Shiprock, New Mexico: Many Devils Wash, Salt Creek Wash, and Eagle Nest Arroyo. Through the use of geochemical plotting tools and multivariate statistical analysis techniques, analytical results of samples collected from the three drainages are compared with the groundwater chemistry at a former uranium mill in the Shiprock area (the Shiprock site), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The objective of this study was to determine, based on the water chemistry of the samples, if statistically significant patterns or groupings are apparent between the sample populations and, if so, whether there are any reasonable explanations for those groupings.

  7. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  8. Foraging habits of Alouatta palliata mexicana in three forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Norberto; Cristobal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Dias, Pedro Américo D; Vea, Joaquim J; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    The activity patterns and diet of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) were studied in 3 forest fragments in south-eastern Mexico: Playa Escondida (PLA), Agaltepec Island (AGA) and Arroyo Liza (LIZ). Intersite differences offered the opportunity to investigate the foraging adaptations of howler monkeys in response to population and habitat size. In the largest fragment (PLA), the howlers' diet was based on high-quality items (fruit and young leaves). In AGA, where the density of howlers was the highest, their diet was mostly folivorous with a marked exploitation of uncommon food items such as vines, lianas, shrubs and herbs. The dietary differences in AGA were accompanied by more time spent travelling and less time spent resting. Although LIZ was the smallest fragment and had a high howler density, the small group size and the use of energy-minimizing strategies (less time spent travelling and more time spent resting) probably allowed howlers to maintain a frugivorous diet.

  9. Native fish population and habitat study, Santa Ana River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Collection of additional data on the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) and the Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) has been identified as a needed task to support development of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The ability to monitor population abundance and understanding the habitats used by species are important when developing such plans. The Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) is listed as a threatened species under federal legislation and is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). The Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). Both species are present in the Santa Ana River watershed in the area being evaluated for establishment of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The HCP is a collaborative effort involving the water resource agencies of the Santa Ana River Watershed, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and other government agencies and stakeholder organizations. The goals of the HCP are to: 1) enable the water resource agencies to provide a reliable water supply for human uses; 2) conserve and maintain natural rivers and streams that provide habitat for a diversity of unique and rare species; and 3) maintain recreational opportunities for activities such as hiking, fishing, and wildlife viewing, provided by the protection of these habitats and the river systems they depend on. The HCP will specify how species and their habitats will be protected and managed in the future and will provide the incidental take permits needed by the water resource agencies under the federal and State endangered species acts to maintain, operate, and improve their water resource infrastructure. Although the Santa Ana Sucker has been the subject of

  10. Preliminary Geophysical Characterization of a CO2-Driven Geyser in the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Jensen, K. J.; Kelly, C.; Ryan, J. C.; Ferriz, H.; Kanjorski, N.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D. K.; Pellerin, L.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) a preliminary geophysical investigation was conducted in the vicinity of a cold CO2-driven geyser located at Chimayó, NM, along the eastern margin of the Rio Grand Rift. This geyser is of interest as a possible analog for CO2 leakage from deep saline-aquifer carbon sequestration projects. Observed water chemistry variations can be explained by mixing of a CO2-rich, high salinity brine rising into, and mixing with a shallow freshwater aquifer. Several large, basin bounding faults and numerous smaller normal faults cut the area of the well and may constitute the necessary conduit for the deep water. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the subsurface properties at the Chimayó geyser as well as regional structures that may influence groundwater flow in the area. Shallow transient electromagnetic (TEM) data and capactively-coupled resistivity (CCR) data were acquired in close proximity to the geyser. The CCR shows a near-surface resistive feature, possibly hematite-cemented Tesuque formation sediment, in close proximity to the geyser. A shallow, highly conductive layer delineated through modeling of the TEM data is postulated to be a fluid consistent with high levels of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) content. The well is located almost directly on the Roberts fault, which is antithetic to the basin bounding Chimayó fault 1.5 km to the east. Previously published hydrogeochemical studies associate this fault with high CO2 and TDS water along its strike. Deeper sounding TEM and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired along the Alamo Arroyo, 3 km to the southwest of the well. The Kelley Federal #1 Well located in this arroyo provides deep stratigraphic control to Pennsylvanian carbonate basement at 740 m. Tesuque formation conglomeritic alluvial fan deposits occur between 230 and 708 m and are overlain by finer grained basin floor deposits. The deep, coarse grained unit is thought to be a good

  11. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Loreto and part of the San Janier quadrangles, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, Hugh

    1988-01-01

    The Loreto area of Baja California Sur, Mexico, contains a diverse association of igneous, sedimentary, and metasedimentary rocks exposed in the foothills and arroyos between the Sierra La Giganta and Gulf of California. The Loreto area was selected for this study to examine the possible relation of the marine rocks to the opening of the Gulf of California, and to determine the stratigraphic and structural relations between basement rocks composed of granitic and prebatholithic rocks and overlying Tertiary (mainly Miocene) sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and by a sequence of Pliocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks. The Pliocene marine rocks lie in a structural depression informally called here, the Loreto embayment. This geologic map and report stem from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico that was initiated in 1982.

  12. Use of isotopic data to evaluate recharge and geologic controls on the movement of ground water in Las Posas Valley, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Martin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Injection, storage, and recovery of imported water is planned for aquifers underlying Las Posas Valley. To evaluate sources of ground-water recharge and the age of the water (time since recharge), and to identify barriers to ground-water flow prior to the injection of imported water, samples from wells and surface sources were collected and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition. The delta oxygen- 18 and delta deuterium composition in almost 50 samples from 32 wells ranged from -6.0 to -7.9 per mil, and -40 to -60 per mil, respectively; and in 13 samples of surface water at 6 sites the composition ranged from -6.2 to -9.4 per mil, and -42 to -71 per mil, respectively. Water from wells in the upper aquifer system near Arroyo Simi and Arroyo Las Posas (different reaches of the same stream) was isotopi cally lighter than water from other wells sampled and was similar in isotopic composition to water in the stream. Water in the stream is a mixture of local water and imported water from northern California that was discharged to the stream as treated municipal wastewater. Water from wells near the stream contained tritium and, therefore, was recharged less than 50 years ago. Water from wells in other parts of the valley was isotopically heavier, did not contain tritium, and, therefore, was recharged more than 50 years ago. Interpreted carbon-14 ages for water from wells along a flow path through the valley ranged from at least 800 to more than 8,000 years before present. There were large differences in the chemistry, isotopic composition, and interpreted age of water from wells between the eastern and western parts of Las Posas Valley. These changes are consistent with geologic and hydrologic data that suggest the presence of a barrier to ground-water flow between east and west Las Posas Valley.

  13. Threshold-dominated fluvial styles in an arid-zone mud-aggregate river: The uplands of Fowlers Creek, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakelin-King, Gresley A.; Webb, John A.

    2007-03-01

    Fowlers Creek is a mud-aggregate fluvial system. Floodplain muds dominate the river's deposits and consist of silt, fine to very fine quartzose sand, and clay. Up to ˜ 80% of the silts and clays are bound into sand- and silt-sized aggregates and comprise a substantial component (> 42%) of the floodplain muds. Mud-aggregate sediments behave like sands during transport, and as a result, muds can be deposited under conditions of greater flow velocity than would otherwise be the case. Newly deposited floodplain muds are loose and easily entrained, but older floodplain muds are cohesive, and the distribution of modern and older floodplain muds influences erosion patterns across Fowlers Creek. In the lower order streams of the Fowlers Creek uplands, alternate reaches of shallow rectangular channels and unchannelled floodplains collectively form discontinuous ephemeral streams. These landform sequences consist of gullies, coalescing downstream to arroyos, which terminate in distributary intermediate floodouts. At Fowlers Creek, floodouts are preferentially located at tributary junctions, reflecting their origin during very large floods. At floodouts, low slope and high vegetation density promote sheetflow infiltration and landform stability. Their efficiency in retaining runoff make floodouts drought refugia; they are an important ecological element in this arid area. The higher order channel of the mid-uplands is a mobile, low-sinuosity, single-thread arroyo, incised into wide muddy unstable floodplains. Fluvial processes are dominated by episodic flood-driven channel avulsion, and variability in stream energy and boundary resistance contributes to a non-equilibrium fluvial style. Frequent reach-scale channel relocation is accompanied by the burial of the abandoned channel in floodplain muds and both erosion and aggradation in downstream floodplains.

  14. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  15. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  16. Strain accommodated by brittle failure in adjacent units of the Monterey Formation, U.S.A.: scale effects and evidence for uniform displacement boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Michael R.; Engelder, Terry

    1995-09-01

    Extensional strain accommodated by brittle deformation was measured in adjacent mudstone and dolostone units at Arroyo Burro beach, California. The dolostone failed in effective tension whereas the mudstone failed in shear, both in response to the same extensional tectonic event. In the mudstone unit initial bed-length and fault-displacement methods document extensional strains of 6.6% ± 0.3% and 6.0% ± 0.3%, respectively. Upon adjusting the displacement estimates according to theoretical fault displacement population analysis, the corrected strain becomes 9.7% ± 0.3% for the mudstone. Measurements of vein apertures in the dolostone document extensional strain that varies according to scale, with outcrop vein scanlines indicating a strain of 3.4% ± 0.1%, and thin-section scanlines yielding a strain of 5.8% ± 0.2. Applying theoretical fault displacement population analysis to vein apertures in dolostone shows that small veins below the detection limit of outcrop surveys contribute significantly to fracture-related strain within the dolostone. This difference in extensional strain may arise because veins measured in outcrop extend across the entire bed height and thus are controlled by the dolostone mechanical layer thickness, whereas microscopic veins measured in thin-section terminate without regard to a bounding layer. The corrected dolostone strain becomes 10.2% ± 1.0%, matching the revised strain calculated in the adjacent mudstone unit and indicating uniform displacement boundary conditions for the two markedly different lithologies. The ~10% extensional strain at Arroyo Burro indicates significant strike-parallel (NW-SE) extension accommodated by brittle failure during development of the western Transverse Ranges fold and thrust belt.

  17. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0-8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Patillas, Puerto Rico, March 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2010-01-01

    Lago Patillas is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin, in the municipality of Patillas in southern Puerto Rico, about 3 kilometers north of the town of Patillas and about 8 kilometers northeast of the town of Arroyo (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1914 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico along the towns of Arroyo, Guayama, Patillas, and Salinas. Irrigation releases are made through the outlet works into the Patillas Irrigation Canal that extends 32.2 kilometers from the Patillas dam to Rio Salinas. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill with a structural height of 44.80 meters, a top width of 4.57 meters, a base width of 190.49 meters, and a crest length of 325.21 meters. The spillway structure is physically separated from the earthfill dam, has an elevation of 58.21 meters above mean sea level, and has three radial arm gates (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin. The reservoir has a drainage area of 66.3 square kilometers. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez and others (1999). During March 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PREPA conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Patillas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 bathymetric survey data with previous 1997 data. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since April 1997.

  19. Papers Selected for Presentation at the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (16th) Held at Buenos Aires, Argentina on 2-9 June 1982. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    improvement of health status and environment conditions of rural and marginal city population, giving particular attention to the children . c. The...of sand in each year and in the process sandblasted the young emerging crops. In many cases the crops were totally destroyed and reseeding was...F. M. die; IIASU I , Y. BRITO MAT~S, B3. B. de; FUCK , R. A. Provincias Lstrul tura is Bras ili iras . In: S 1MPOS1O DI: GLOLOC IA DO NORD:s’ril, 7

  20. [Prevalence of rhinitis and asthma respiratory symptoms in Spanish working population].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teófila; Prieto-Andrés, Luis; López-González, Angel Arturo; Pérez-Francés, Carmen; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, M Victoria; Santamaría-Navarro, Cristina; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en salud laboral interesa conocer la prevalencia de los síntomas respiratorios relacionados con la rinitis y el asma en trabajadores españoles y sus variaciones por factores demográficos y laborales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue interrelacionar los síntomas respiratorios de vías altas y bajas. MÉTODOS: se solicitó a 2603 trabajadores de distintos sectores y provincias españolas contestar una encuesta que fue supervisada por un médico del trabajo.

  1. Estimation of Depth and Attenuation of Earthquakes in Bolivia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    New York. Richter, C.F., 1958. Elementary Seismology. Freeman, San Francisco. Rodríguez, R. and A. Vega, 1976a. El terremoto del 12 de mayo de 1972...motion. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 65, 139-162. Vega, A.J., 1994. El gran terremoto profundo del día 9 de junio de 1994 en el norte de la República de...Bolivia. Revista Geofísica, Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia 40, 39-55. Vega, A., 1997. Terremoto en Cumujo, Provincia Atahuallpa de Oruro

  2. Hurricane effects on the coastline from Cabo San Lucas Bay, Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava-Sanchez, Enrique; Navarro-Lozano, Octavio; Murillo-Jimenez, Janette; Godinez-Orta, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    Cabo San Lucas, located on the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, is on the track of two to five hurricanes per year. Thus the purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of hurricanes on the stability of the coastline of San Lucas Bay. We apply GIS for determining inland geomorphology and conducted bathymetric surveys for the marine area. Results from previous sedimentological researches of fluvial, littoral and shallow marine environments were reanalyzed to determine the sedimentary processes responsible for the stability of the coastline. Also, we were monitoring beach profiles in the bay and also other beaches from the tip of the peninsula from 1997 to 2004 and recorded the effects of Hurricane Juliette in 2001 (category 3 in the Saffir-Simpson scale), which left an accumulative precipitation of 850 mm and formed waves of 8 m in height during the four days of maximum impact. We found out that inland and marine geomorphology, as well as littoral and alluvial sediment transport play a major role to keep the coastline relatively stable for at least the last 3,000 years. Geomorphology of the drainage basin is steep favoring the formation of flash floods that feed an alluvial fan to finally discharge sediments to the San Lucas Bay where a temporal fan-delta is developed during catastrophic rains. Marine morphology is dominated by the San Lucas submarine canyon, located on the southern half of the bay, whose canyon head is just at the foot of the beach (4 to 6 m in depth). On the northern half, there is a narrow submarine terrace with a break 40 m deep, covered mostly by fluvial sediments. At the littoral, there is only one dune ridge which is almost continuous and only cut by the arroyo. The dune ridge was dated at two levels; at the bottom, just above Pleistocene fluvial sediments and at the top, giving dates of 3200 and 800 years respectively. These dates are interpreted as an evidence for the stability of the dune ridge. The sand from the beach

  3. Abundance and Morphological Effects of Large Woody Debris in Forested Basins of Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Southern Andes mountain range represents an ideal location for studying large woody debris (LWD) in streams draining forested basins thanks to the presence of both pristine and managed woodland, and to the general low level of human alteration of stream corridors. However, no published investigations have been performed so far in such a large region. The investigated sites of this research are three basins (9-13 km2 drainage area, third-order channels) covered by Nothofagus forests: two of them are located in the Southern Chilean Andes (the Tres Arroyos in the Malalcahuello National Reserve and the Rio Toro within the Malleco Natural Reserve) and one basin lies in the Argentinean Tierra del Fuego (the Buena Esperanza basin, near the city of Ushuaia). Measured LWD were all wood pieces larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length, both in the active channel and in the adjacent active floodplain. Pieces forming log jams were all measured and the geometrical dimensions of jams were taken. Jam type was defined based on Abbe and Montgomery (2003) classification. Sediment stored behind log-steps and valley jams was evaluated approximating the sediment accumulated to a solid wedge whose geometrical dimensions were measured. Additional information relative to each LWD piece were recorded during the field survey: type (log, rootwad, log with rootwads attached), orientation to flow, origin (floated, bank erosion, landslide, natural mortality, harvest residuals) and position (log-step, in-channel, channel-bridging, channel margins, bankfull edge). In the Tres Arroyos, the average LWD volume stored within the bankfull channel is 710 m3 ha-1. The average number of pieces is 1,004 per hectare of bankfull channel area. Log-steps represent about 22% of all steps, whereas the elevation loss due to LWD (log-steps and valley jams) results in 27% loss of the total stream potential energy. About 1,600 m3 of sediment (assuming a porosity of 20%) is stored in the main channel

  4. Large wood storage, longitudinal distribution and mobility in channel segments of four mountain rivers, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroume, A.; Mao, L.; Andreoli, A.; Ulloa, H.

    2013-12-01

    In Chile, besides an anecdotal reference to in-stream wood by Vidal Gormaz (1875), the first report on LW is the one by Andreoli et al. (2007). Since then, more abundant research has developed, focusing mainly on morphologic and hydraulic functions (Comiti et al., 2008; Mao et al., 2008, 2010; Iroumé at al., 2010, 2011; Ulloa et al., 2011), and also on the ecology of low order channels (Vera et al., 2012). Large wood storage, longitudinal distribution and mobility have been studied for several periods in channel segments of four mountain catchments (Pichún, El Toro, Tres Arroyos and Vuelta de Zorra) in southern Chile. The surveyed segments were divided into individual reaches, and the length of each reach was calculated using a laser distance meter and mean individual reach bankfull width and depth were obtained by averaging measurements in cross-sections. All wood pieces found within the bankfull channel more than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length were measured and their position was referenced to natural elements and to numbered wooden stakes indicating every reach limit. Several of these wood elements were tagged to study LW mobilization. A 1.54 km-long segment divided into 17 individual reaches was first surveyed in the Tres Arroyos during March-April 2005, and then re-surveyed in November 2008 when the study segment was extended to a total length of 2.07 km with the addition of 5 new individual reaches. Pichún, El Toro and Vuelta de Zorra were first surveyed from November 2008 to February 2009. The length of the channel segments is 1.0 (12 reaches), 2.2 (17 reaches) and 1.56 km (16 reaches) for Pichún, El Toro and Vuelta de Zorra, respectively. These segments have been re-surveyed after every winter rainy season to study LW recruitment and mobility. Using the area of the bankfull channel as reference, total LW volume was 54 m3/ha in Pichún, 202 m3/ha in El Toro, 1449 m3/ha for Tres Arroyos and 109 m3/ha for Vuelta de Zorra. The LW travel distance and

  5. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  6. Comparison of Terrestrial LiDAR and Erosion Pin Networks for Bank Geometry Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, J. D.; Wawrzyniec, T. F.; Stormont, J.; Coonrod, J.

    2007-12-01

    Erosion pins and repeat surveys are valuable tools for measuring geomorphic change where airborne remote sensing platforms do not provide the required accuracy or are impractical. Recent advances in automated systems, e.g. the Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin system, permit the collection of high temporal resolution data, however, these systems do not address the inherently low spatial resolution of erosion pin networks and high spatial resolution digital terrain models (DTM) are time consuming to produce with standard surveying equipment. In contrast, Terrestrial LiDAR systems (TLS) enable the rapid generation of DTMs that routinely contain several thousand data points per m2 without disturbing the target area. We describe the use of TLS to monitor changes in bank geometry along an 800 m reach of the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, NM with comparison to data from an erosion pin network along the same reach. On 31 July 2006, shortly after the inception of our monitoring campaign, a thunderstorm produced flows out of the Calabacillas Arroyo that deposited over 10,000 m3 of sediment into the main stem of the Rio Grande within the study area. These deposits reduced the width of the Rio Grande by half and buried nearly all of the erosion pins downstream of the arroyo. Rio Grande and Calabacillas flows continued to rework these deposits since that time. This sediment pulse exceeded the measurement capacity of the erosion pin network and it only registered a large event, followed along part of the reach by a return to near pre-event conditions months latter. In contrast, the cm scale pre- and post-event DTMs produced by TLS document local changes in geometry and enable volumetric estimates of sediment gain and loss. These are minimum estimates, however, as the DTMs only include sediments exposed by low flows at the time of the scans. Furthermore, as with all resurvey techniques, the temporal resolution of the TLS time series is limited by the frequency with which the site could

  7. Hydrology and Channel Head Erosion in a Semiarid Discontinuous Ephemeral Stream Network near Oracle, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delong, S. B.; Johnson, J. P.; Whipple, K. X.; Post, D. F.; Malmon, D.; Chu, D.; Hellerstein, J.; Klues, K.; Levis, P.; Rossi, M. W.; Martin, R.

    2008-12-01

    We present results from monitoring of hydrology and erosion at channel heads in a discontinuous ephemeral stream system in southeastern Arizona rangelands. At this field site, alluvial headwalls ~1 m high mark the transition from unchannelized valleys to actively incising arroyos. The headwalls are vertical to overhanging in cross-section and amphitheater-shaped in planform. The local landscape is made up of well- consolidated clay-rich soil and sediment. Possible processes involved in headwall retreat include groundwater sapping, plunge-pool erosion, and soil tension-fracturing. To evaluate the relative efficacy of such processes and to test and refine models of incision and headcut migration rate, we deployed 40+ sensors at and immediately upstream and downstream of channel headwalls. Wired sensors and a datalogger recorded precipitation, overland flow, channel discharge, and soil moisture at a one minute interval. Additionally, a custom wireless sensor network with cellular telemetry was developed and deployed to measure shallow overland flow. At our field site, overland flow can occur from less than one centimeter of precipitation. We tracked landscape erosion through a combination of time-lapse photography, repeat RTK GPS and terrestrial LiDAR surveys. Over the monitoring period, headwalls retreated 10s of cm during several flow events. When the sediment becomes saturated (e.g., from flow down headwall faces and standing water in plunge pools), it has an order-of-magnitude lower shear strength than when dry. Erosion and retreat of channel heads appear to occur by a combination of erosive flow down saturated channel headwalls, plunge-pool erosion at high flows, and mass wasting along vertical tension cracks between runoff events. The amphitheater form is largely due to plunge-pool undercutting and vertical differences in soil material properties, particularly clay content. Though shallow groundwater sapping is widely thought to lead to amphitheater

  8. Late Quaternary Offset of Alluvial Fan Surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, A.; Burgette, R. J.; Scharer, K. M.; Midttun, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierra Madre fault (SMF) is an east-west trending reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. The ~140 km long SMF is separated into four segments, we focus on the multi-stranded, ~60 km long Central Sierra Madre fault (CSMF; W118.3-W117.7) as it lacks a well-characterized long-term geologic slip rate. We combine 1-m lidar DEM with geologic and geomorphic mapping to correlate alluvial fan surfaces along strike and across the fault strands in order to derive fault slip rates that cross the CSMF. We have refined mapping on two sets of terraces described by Crook et al. (1987) and references therein: a flight of Q3 surfaces (after nomenclature of Crook et al., 1987; McFadden, 1982) in Arroyo Seco with distinct terraces ~30 m, ~40 m, ~50 m, and ~55 m above the modern stream and in Pickens Canyon divided a Q3 and Q2 surface, with heights that are ~35 m and ~25 m above the modern stream respectively. Relative degree of clast weathering and soil development is consistent with geomorphic relationships; for example, hues of 7.5 YR to 10 YR are typical of Q3, while hues of 10 YR to 2.5 Y are typical of Q2. A scarp in the Q3 surface at Arroyo Seco has a vertical offset of ~16 m and a scarp in the Q3 at Pickens Canyon has a vertical offset of ~14 m, while the Q2 surface is not faulted. Our Quaternary dating strategy is focused on dating suites of terraces offset along CSMF scarps in order to provide broader stratigraphic context for the cosmogenic radionuclide and luminescence dating. We will present (pending) cosmogenic radionuclide depth profiles from the Q3 surfaces. A better-constrained slip rate for the CSMF will improve earthquake hazard assessment for the Los Angeles area and help clarify the tectonic role of the SMF in the broader plate boundary system. Additionally, the fan chronology will provide information about the timing of alluvial fan aggradation and incision in the western Transverse Ranges.

  9. Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 Station fire in Los Angeles County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed for postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 drainage basins within the burned area and to generate maps of areas that may be inundated along the San Gabriel mountain front by the estimated volume of material. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as combined functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 1-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a 12-hour-duration, 2-year recurrence storm. Debris-flow inundation areas are mapped for scenarios where all sediment-retention basins are empty and where the basins are all completely full. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire. Tributary basins that drain into Pacoima Canyon, Big Tujunga Canyon, Arroyo Seco, West Fork of the San Gabriel River, and Devils Canyon were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, the potential to produce debris flows with volumes greater than 100,000 m3, and the highest Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking in response to both storms. The predicted high probability and large magnitude of the response to such short-recurrence storms indicates the potential for significant debris-flow impacts to any buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and downstream from the burned area. These areas will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 m3, and high

  10. Human and Host Species Transferrin Receptor 1 Use by North American Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Min; Fofana, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT At least five New World (NW) arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fevers in South America. These pathogenic clade B viruses, as well as nonpathogenic arenaviruses of the same clade, use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) of their host species to enter cells. Pathogenic viruses are distinguished from closely related nonpathogenic ones by their additional ability to utilize human TfR1 (hTfR1). Here, we investigate the receptor usage of North American arenaviruses, whose entry proteins share greatest similarity with those of the clade B viruses. We show that all six North American arenaviruses investigated utilize host species TfR1 orthologs and present evidence consistent with arenavirus-mediated selection pressure on the TfR1 of the North American arenavirus host species. Notably, one of these viruses, AV96010151, closely related to the prototype Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV), entered cells using hTfR1, consistent with a role for a WWAV-like virus in three fatal human infections whose causative agent has not been identified. In addition, modest changes were sufficient to convert hTfR1 into a functional receptor for most of these viruses, suggesting that a minor alteration in virus entry protein may allow these viruses to use hTfR1. Our data establish TfR1 as a cellular receptor for North American arenaviruses, highlight an “arms race” between these viruses and their host species, support the association of North American arenavirus with fatal human infections, and suggest that these viruses have a higher potential to emerge and cause human diseases than has previously been appreciated. IMPORTANCE hTfR1 use is a key determinant for a NW arenavirus to cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans. All known pathogenic NW arenaviruses are transmitted in South America by their host rodents. North American arenaviruses are generally considered nonpathogenic, but some of these viruses have been tentatively implicated in human fatalities. We show that these North American

  11. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in rock magnetic properties are responsible for the many linear, short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are spatially associated with faults that cut Neogene basin sediments in the Rio Grande rift, including the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of the Santa Fe Group and prerift Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks document large variations of magnetic properties juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault. Mean volume magnetic susceptibilities generally increase upsection through eight map units: from 1.7 to 2.2E-4 in the prerift Eocene and Cretaceous rocks to 9.9E-4-1.2E-3 in three members of the Miocene Zia Formation of the Santa Fe Group to 1.5E-3-3.5E-3 in three members of the Miocene-Pleistocene Arroyo Ojito Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Rock magnetic measurements and petrography indicate that the amount of detrital magnetite and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite within the Santa Fe Group sediments are the predominant controls of their magnetic property variations. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size within the members of the Arroyo Ojito Formation (deposited in fluvial environments) but within members of the Zia Formation (deposited in mostly eolian environments) reaches highest values in fine to medium sands. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite is spatially associated with calcite cementation in the Santa Fe Group. Both oxidation and cementation probably reflect past flow of groundwater through permeable zones. Magnetic models for geologic cross sections that incorporate mean magnetic susceptibilities for the different stratigraphic units mimic the aeromagnetic profiles across the San Ysidro fault and demonstrate that the stratigraphic level of dominant magnetic contrast changes with

  12. The church, the state and women's bodies in the context of religious fundamentalism in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Austria, Carolina S

    2004-11-01

    After almost 500 years of Spanish colonial rule, Canon law and laws of Spanish origin continue to dominate Philippine family, civil and penal law. Most if not all of these laws place serious limitations on the realisation of women's sexual and reproductive rights. Since 2002, the current president, Gloria Mocapagal Arroyo, has increasingly substituted church dogma for state policy, i.e. revoking the reproductive health and family planning policies of her predecessor, rejecting all modern contraceptive methods as forms of abortion, limiting government support for family planning to providing natural methods to married couples, and restricting access to emergency contraception. This article reflects on which advocacy methods will best serve the goals of sexual and reproductive rights when conservative church interests dominate state policy, as is currently the case in the Philippines. Religious fundamentalists, at one and the some time, argue for religious accommodation of their views by the state on the grounds of religious freedom but refuse to entertain, let alone accommodate, a plurality of views on women's sexuality. Thus, it is not enough to base a case in support of sexual and reproductive rights on the separation of church and state since, even though the State claims it is secular, it still manages to impose restrictions and control over women's bodies.

  13. Isostatic gravity map of the Point Sur 30 x 60 quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.T.; Morin, R.L.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a regional effort to investigate the tectonics and water resources of the central Coast Range. This map serves as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults in the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after removing variations caused by instrument drift, earth-tides, latitude, elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure), as expressed by the isostatic anomaly, reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust, which in turn can be related to rock type. Steep gradients in the isostatic gravity field often indicate lithologic or structural boundaries. Gravity highs reflect the Mesozoic granitic and Franciscan Complex basement rocks that comprise both the northwest-trending Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges, whereas gravity lows in Salinas Valley and the offshore basins reflect the thick accumulations of low-density alluvial and marine sediment. Gravity lows also occur where there are thick deposits of low-density Monterey Formation in the hills southeast of Arroyo Seco (>2 km, Marion, 1986). Within the map area, isostatic residual gravity values range from approximately -60 mGal offshore in the northern part of the Sur basin to approximately 22 mGal in the Santa Lucia Range.

  14. Trace elements and organic compounds associated with riverbed sediments in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin, Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) was mandated by the Texas Clean Rivers Act (Senate Bill 818) to assess water quality of rivers in Texas. Recent efforts to collect information for the assessment of water quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin have involved Federal agencies on both sides of the 1,248-mile U.S.-Mexico border?U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Secretaria de Desarollo Social (Secretary for Social Development, Mexico), National Water Commission of Mexico, and International Boundary and Water Commission?as well as State and local agencies in a spirit of international cooperation. Substantial efforts have been made to gather data needed to determine the quality of water and ecological status of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, especially at sites along the border (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to assess selected historical data of trace elements and organic compounds in riverbed sediments of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, and of the Pecos River and the Arroyo Colorado in Texas.

  15. A Multivalent and Cross-Protective Vaccine Strategy against Arenaviruses Associated with Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kotturi, Maya F.; Botten, Jason; Sidney, John; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Giancola, Lori; Maybeno, Matt; Babin, Josie; Oseroff, Carla; Pasquetto, Valerie; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Peters, Bjoern; Ting, Joey; Do, Danh; Vang, Lo; Alexander, Jeff; Grey, Howard; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Sette, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Arenaviruses are the causative pathogens of severe hemorrhagic fever and aseptic meningitis in humans, for which no licensed vaccines are currently available. Pathogen heterogeneity within the Arenaviridae family poses a significant challenge for vaccine development. The main hypothesis we tested in the present study was whether it is possible to design a universal vaccine strategy capable of inducing simultaneous HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against 7 pathogenic arenaviruses (including the lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Lassa, Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Whitewater Arroyo viruses), either through the identification of widely conserved epitopes, or by the identification of a collection of epitopes derived from multiple arenavirus species. By inoculating HLA transgenic mice with a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) expressing the different arenavirus proteins, we identified 10 HLA-A02 and 10 HLA-A03-restricted epitopes that are naturally processed in human antigen-presenting cells. For some of these epitopes we were able to demonstrate cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses, further increasing the coverage afforded by the epitope set against each different arenavirus species. Importantly, we showed that immunization of HLA transgenic mice with an epitope cocktail generated simultaneous CD8+ T cell responses against all 7 arenaviruses, and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, the set of identified epitopes allows broad, non-ethnically biased coverage of all 7 viral species targeted by our studies. PMID:20019801

  16. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-02-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes.

  17. Stable isotopes of nitrogen in plants of contaminated soils and sediments by an abandoned gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, O. F.; Sanchez, A.; Marmolejo, A. J.; Magallanes, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    Mining industry is an economic activity which generates high ecological impact. In the mining district "El Triunfo", the concentration of potential toxic elements (PTE: As, Cd, Hg, Sb) have exceeded 50 times allowable limits. Nowadays, environmental pollution levels can be evaluated through the use of stable isotopes of N. For this, isotopic analysis of nitrogen and concentrations of metals and metalloids were considered in the area where plants are exposed (Prosopis spp., Parkinsonia spp. and Salicornia spp.) Polluted sediments were collected over 48 km of the Las Gallinas-El Hondo-El Carrizal arroyo. PTE concentrations, with a previous acidic digestion (HF, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were determined by ICP-MS. As and Sb were determined by NAA. For N isotopes, obtained samples were grounded to fine powder in an agate mortar with an acetone rinse between samples then analyzed by an EA-IRMS. Results showed that plants growing on the tailings decreased their δ15N proportionally to the metal concentration in the area.

  18. New light on the endemic South American pachyrukhine Paedotherium Burmeister, 1888 (Notoungulata, Hegetotheriidae): Taphonomic and paleohistological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Garrone, Mariana C.; Montalvo, Claudia I.

    2017-01-01

    Paedotherium is a small notoungulate endemic of South America, very abundant in the Neogene assemblages of the Argentine Pampas. Numerous specimens of this taxon were recovered in the Arroyo Chasicó Formation (Late Miocene), following a strict control of their stratigraphic provenance. In this context, a detail taphonomic and paleohistological study were performed, and the results obtained were compared with the information of other Neogene assemblages of Argentina previously studied, in order to interpret the relevance of this taxon in the biocoenosis and taphocoenosis corresponding to this lapse. Before burial, specimens were affected by diverse biostratinomic processes, according to the particular characteristics of each preservational context. After burial, the specimens were modified by the same fossil-diagenetic processes. Similar patterns of preservation were identified in specimens of Paedotherium recovered in other Neogene fluvial deposits of the Argentine Pampas. Based on the bone microstructure, it was possible to differentiate juvenile and adult individuals belonging to different Neogene species of Paedotherium. The mandibles of this taxon maintained the same ontogenetic growth strategy throughout the Late Cenozoic. This work provides novel data on paleoecological and paleobiological features of this taxon.

  19. Coeval Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Carl C., III; Grajales-Nishimura, Jose M.; Montanari, Alessandro; Margolis, Stanley V.; Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Renne, Paul; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Maurrasse, Florentin J.-M. R.; Curtis, Garniss H.

    1992-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  20. Uranium-series ages of marine terraces, La Paz Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sirkin, L.; Szabo, B. J.; Padilla, G.A.; Pedrin, S.A.; Diaz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of coral samples from raised marine terrace deposits between 1.5 and 10 m above sea level in the La Paz Peninsula area, Baja California Sur, yielded ages between 123 ka and 138 ka that are in agreement with previously reported results. The stratigraphy and ages of marine units near the El Coyote Arroyo indicate the presence of two high stands of the sea during the last interglacial or oxygen isotope substage 5e at about 140 ka and 123 ka. Accepting 5 m for the sea level during the last interglacial transgression, we calculate average uplift rates for the marine terraces of about ???70 mm/ka and 40 mm/ka. These slow rates of uplift indicate a relative stability of the La Paz peninsula area for the past 140 000 years. In contrast, areas of Baja California affected by major faultf experienced higher rates of uplift. Rockwell et al. (1987) reported vertical uplift rates of 180 to 300 mm/ka at Punta Banda within the Aqua Blanea fault zone in northern Baja California. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences.

  2. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  3. Preliminary geologic map of the Simi 7.5' quadrangle, Southern California, a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Campbell, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Simi Quadrangle covers an area of about 62 square miles in southern Ventura County. The Santa Clara River Valley occupies the northwestern corner of the quadrangle. Mountainous terrain of South Mountain and Oak Ridge characterizes the northern and central area. Elevation within the quadrangle ranges from about 250 feet along the arroyo bottoms to over 2200 feet. Steep, highly dissected slopes form much of the boundary of the area. In the southeast, Little Simi Valley, drained by Arroyo Simi/Arroyo Las Posas, separates the southern flank of Oak Ridge from the Las Posas Hills. The Las Posas upland area, a broad elevated region that slopes gently to the south, separates the South Mountain-Oak Ridge highlands from the Las Posas-Camarillo Hills between Little Simi Valley on the east and the Oxnard Plain on the west. This relatively low-lying area is also referred to as the Las Posas Valley. Numerous north-south-trending drainages cut South Mountain and Oak Ridge creating steep narrow canyons on north-facing slopes and wide flat-bottomed canyons with incised streams on south-facing slopes. A network of residential streets and ranch and oilfield roads that traverse the area from U.S. Highway 101 and State Highways 118, 23, and 126 provides access to the area. Current land use includes citrus and avocado orchards, oil well drilling and production, sand and gravel quarries, decorative-rock quarries, cattle grazing, suburban residential development, and golf courses. The oldest geologic unit mapped in the Simi Quadrangle is the upper Eocene to lower Miocene Sespe Formation. The Sespe Formation consists of alluvial fan and floodplain deposits of interbedded pebble-cobble conglomerate, massive to thick-bedded sandstone, and thin-bedded siltstone and claystone. In the northern part of the map area, Sespe Formation is overlain by and interfingers with the upper Oligocene to lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation that is composed of transitional and marine sandstone, siltstone, and

  4. New Lakes in the Egyptian Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four lakes formed recently in southern Egypt in an area that was previously desert. Fed by unusually high levels of rainfall and water overflowing from the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, the first lake appeared in 1998. The Aswan's overflowing waters are channeled through an arroyo into a reservoir, as expected, but as the high rains have continued, so has the overflow. Consequently, the reservoir has grown in size and three more lakes have formed. Authorities in Egypt estimate that, together, the lakes now hold about 700 billion cubic feet of water--one quarter the Nile's total water supply. Scientist don't know whether or not the lakes will remain, or will dry up within a few years. In this true-color image acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on October 10, 2000, the lakes are the areas of dark pixels located about 50 km west of Lake Nasser. Image by Robert Simmon Reto Stockli, and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC

  5. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Gustavo G.; Gutiérrez, María A.; Blasi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America. PMID:27683248

  6. Remote sensing and hydrologic modeling of arid watersheds: A scale analysis: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this multiyear research effort is to model long-term (10/sup 2/--10/sup 4/ yrs), cut and fill cycles in arid region fluvial systems (arroyos). Historic and geologic (late Quaternary) data bases indicate that arid region fluvial systems have oscillated between periods of pronounced aggradation and degradation. This cyclic behavior has affected both water and sediment discharge from arid watersheds as well as ecosystem habitats along hillslopes and valley bottoms. One of the primary causes that has been proposed for this cyclic activity is climatic change for gradual (glacial-interglacial) and catastrophic (volcanic eruptions, el Nino) rates of climatic change on a global scale. The immediate goal of this multiyear research effort is to modify existing numeric hydrologic models (SPUR, KINEROS) which utilize as input multilayered, co-registered remotely sensed data for the prediction of surface hydrology and sediment erosion, transport and deposition in arid region watersheds. It is hypothesized that different types of co-registered, remotely sensed data including digital elevation data sets (DEDS), multispectral scanner (TM, SPOT), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) can be used in conjunction with limited ground truth data to predict values of input parameters for numeric watershed hydrology models and thus to compute watershed hydrologic and sedimentologic characteristics.

  7. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A.; Rodríguez-Morata, Clara; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Rubiales, Juan M.; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a total of 287 increment cores from 178 disturbed Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) which yielded indications on 212 growth disturbances related to past flash flood impact. In combination with local archives, meteorological data, annual forest management records and highly-resolved terrestrial data (i.e., LiDAR data and aerial imagery), the dendrogeomorphic time series allowed dating 25 flash floods over the last three centuries, with a major event leaving an intense geomorphic footprint throughout the catchment in 1936. The analysis of meteorological records suggests that the rainfall thresholds of flash floods vary with the seasonality of events. Dated flash floods in the 20th century were primarily related with synoptic troughs owing to the arrival of air masses from north and west on the Iberian Peninsula during negative indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The results of this study contribute considerably to a better understanding of hazards related with hydrogeomorphic processes in central Spain in general and in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park in particular.

  8. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  9. Surface ages and rates of erosion at the Calico Archaeological Site in the Mojave Desert, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Davis, Teresa; Caffee, Marc W.; Budinger, Fred; Nash, David

    2011-01-01

    Erosion rates and surface exposure ages were determined at the Calico Archaeological Site in the Calico Hills of the Mojave Desert, California, using 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) methods. The Calico Hills are composed of Miocene lacustrine deposits of the Barstow Formation and fanglomerates/debris flows of the Pleistocene Yermo Deposits. These deposits are highly denuded and dissected by arroyos that have surfaces armored with chert. Surface erosion rates based on cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in stream sediments range from 19 to 39 m/Ma, with an average of 30.5 ± 6.2 m/Ma. Surface boulders have 10Be TCN ages that range from 27 ka to 198 ka, reflecting significant erosion of the Calico Hills. The oldest boulder age (197 ± 20 ka) places a minimum limit on the age of Yermo deposits. Depth profile ages at four locations within the study area have minimum ages that range from 31 to 84 ka and erosion rate-corrected surface exposure ages ranging from 43 to 139 ka. These surface exposure ages support the view that the surfaces in Yermo deposits formed during the Late Pleistocene to latest Middle Pleistocene. This chronology has important implications for interpreting the context of possible artifacts/geofacts at the site that might provide evidence for early human occupation of North America, and for reconstructing paleoenvironment change and landscape evolution in the region.

  10. Seismic-related variations in the chemical and isotopic composition of thermal springs near Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Yuri A.; Ramirez-Guzman, Alejandro; Bernard, Ruben; Cienfuegos, Edith; Morales, Pedro

    2005-07-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of waters from 4 thermal springs of the Guerrero Pacific coast, the most seismically active area in Mexico, were performed weekly during a period of 1.5 years (October 2002-March 2004). Within the same time interval more than 200 earthquakes with 3.8 <= M <= 5.3 occurred in the area. The data display several anomalies in Cl-, SO42-, δD and δ18O, always immediately after an event, with a relaxation time of 3-4 weeks. The responses occurred only to earthquakes with the estimated epicenters very close to the location of a spring. These results indicate that: 1) at least for earthquakes with M < 5.3 within the Guerrero ``seismic gap'' there were no precursors in the chemical (ionic) and isotopic composition of thermal waters (on a weekly basis); 2) two groups of springs near Acapulco, Dos Arroyos and Paso Real, are sensitive to seismic activity and therefore further monitoring of these springs may help to unravel the mechanisms of the ``hydro-seismo-interaction'' in the area.

  11. Rainfall-runoff in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area: Measurements, analyses and comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, C.E.; Ward, T.J.; Kelly, T.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years like many other cities in the Southwestern United States. While the US population grew by 37% between the 1970 and 2000 censuses, the growth for Albuquerque was 83%. More people mean more development and increased problems of managing runoff from urbanizing watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Albuquerque Arroyo Metropolitan Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA) and the City of Albuquerque has maintained a rainfall-runoff data collection program since 1976. The data from measured precipitation events can be used to verify hydrologic modeling. In this presentation, data from a representative gaged watershed is analyzed and discussed to set the overall framework for the rainfall-runoff process in the Albuquerque area. Of particular interest are the basic relationships between rainfall and watershed runoff response and an analysis of curve numbers as an indicator of runoff function. In urbanized areas, four land treatment types (natural, irrigated lawns, compacted soil, and impervious) are used to define surface infiltration conditions. Rainfall and runoff gage data are used to compare curve number (CN) and initial abstraction/uniform infiltration (IA/INF) techniques in an Albuquerque watershed. The IA/INF method appears to produce superior results over the CN method for the measured rainfall events.

  12. Continuous multi-criteria methods for crop and soil conservation planning on La Colacha (Río Cuarto, Province of Córdoba, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Cisneros, J. M.; Laguna, F. V.; Aguado, P. L.; Cantero, J. J.; Andina, D.; Sánchez, E.

    2012-08-01

    Agro-areas of Arroyos Menores (La Colacha) west and south of Río Cuarto (Prov. of Córdoba, Argentina) basins are very fertile but have high soil loses. Extreme rain events, inundations and other severe erosions forming gullies demand urgently actions in this area to avoid soil degradation and erosion supporting good levels of agro production. The authors first improved hydrologic data on La Colacha, evaluated the systems of soil uses and actions that could be recommended considering the relevant aspects of the study area and applied decision support systems (DSS) with mathematic tools for planning of defences and uses of soils in these areas. These were conducted here using multi-criteria models, in multi-criteria decision making (MCDM); first of discrete MCDM to chose among global types of use of soils, and then of continuous MCDM to evaluate and optimize combined actions, including repartition of soil use and the necessary levels of works for soil conservation and for hydraulic management to conserve against erosion these basins. Relatively global solutions for La Colacha area have been defined and were optimised by Linear Programming in Goal Programming forms that are presented as Weighted or Lexicographic Goal Programming and as Compromise Programming. The decision methods used are described, indicating algorithms used, and examples for some representative scenarios on La Colacha area are given.

  13. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  14. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  15. Leaf litter decomposition in a southern Sonoran Desert ecosystem, northwestern Mexico: Effects of habitat and litter quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Núñez, Silvia; Búrquez, Alberto

    2007-11-01

    Leaf litter decomposition of dominant woody perennial species in the three most common habitats of the southern Sonoran Desert was studied using the litter-bag method. Our objective was to assess the influence of litter quality on decomposition rates in three contrasting desert environments. The hypotheses were: (1) decomposition rates within the same litter type are faster in more mesic habitats, (2) decomposition rates are lower in higher lignin content or lower nutrient quality substrates, and (3) species-rich substrates enhance decomposition rates. For all litter types and habitats, a rapid loss of mass occurred during the summer rains at the start of the experiment, but total loss within the same litter type differed significantly among habitats. Decay rates were not higher in the more mesic habitat, but in the dry plains where solar irradiance and termite activity were highest. While termite activity was less important in the arroyos and absent in the hillsides habitats, proliferation of fungal mycelium in these sites was much higher than in the plains, suggesting that biotic and abiotic factors act both independently of litter richness. Lignin content seems to be an important factor controlling the loss of litter, because decay rates were inversely related to litter initial lignin content in all three habitats. Leaf litter diversity did not enhance rates of decomposition. The leaf litter mixture had k-values similar to the most recalcitrant monospecific litter in all three habitats, indicating a neutral or even antagonistic role of species-specific compounds in decomposition rates.

  16. Pinacate-gran Desierto Region, Mexico: SIR-A Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P.; Greeley, R.; Mchone, J.; Asmerom, Y.; Barnett, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radar images (SIR-A) from the Columbia space shuttle were used to assess the radar returns of terrain shaped by volcanic, aeolian, and fluvial processes in northwest Sonora. Field studies and photointerpretation show that sand dunes are poorly imaged by SIR-A, in contrast to SEASAT, evidently a consequence of the greater SIR-A incidence angle; star dunes are visible only as small bright spots representing merging arms at dune apices which may act as corner reflectors. Desert grasses and bushes (approx. 2 m high) have little effect on radar brightness. Only larger trees with woody trunks approx. 0.5 m across are effective radar reflectors; their presence contributes to radar bright zones along some arroyos. The radar brightness of lava flows decreases with surface roughness and presence of mantling windblown sediments and weathering products; however, old uplifted (faulted) flows are of equal brightness to fresh, unmantled aa flows. Maar craters display circular patterns of varying radar brightness which represent a combination of geometry, slope, and distribution of surface materials. Some radar bright rings in the Pinacates resemble craters on radar but are observed to be playas encircled by trees.

  17. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams.

  18. Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, A; Peraza-Herrera, G; Moo-Llanes, D A; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Berzunza-Cruz, M; Becker-Fauser, I; Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2016-09-01

    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed.

  19. 87Sr/86Sr sourcing of ponderosa pine used in Anasazi great house construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Amanda C.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Dean, Jeffery S.; Stein, John

    2005-01-01

    Previous analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios shows that 10th through 12th century Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, and (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) beams from the crest of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south. Here, we extend 87Sr/86Sr analysis to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) prevalent in the architectural timber at three of the Chacoan great houses (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo). Like the architectural spruce and fir, much of the ponderosa matches the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of living trees in the Chuska Mountains. Many of the architectural ponderosa, however, have similar ratios to living trees in the La Plata and San Juan Mountains to the north and Lobo Mesa/Hosta Butte to the south. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house or time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources. The multiple and distant sources for food and timber, now based on hundreds of isotopic values from modern and archeological samples, confirm conventional wisdom about the geographic scope of the larger Chacoan system. The complexity of this procurement warns against simple generalizations based on just one species, a single class of botanical artifact, or a few isotopic values.

  20. Influence of mechanical stratigraphy and kinematics on fault scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Michael R.; G´rrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Bai, Taixu; Wacker, Michael A.; Collinsworth, Kevin B.; Behl, Richard J.

    1997-02-01

    In order to document effects of mechanical anisotropy, fault geometry, and structural style on displacement-length ( D-L) scaling relations, we investigated fault dimensions in the lithologically heterogeneous Monterey Formation exposed along Arroyo Burro Beach, California. The faults, which range in length from several centimeters to several meters, group into two populations: small faults confined to individual mudstone beds, and larger faults that displace multiple beds and often merge into bedding plane detachments. Whereas a linear correlation exists between displacement and length for small faults, displacement across large faults is independent of length. We attribute this deviation from scale-invariance to a combination of geologic factors that influence fault growth once faults extend beyond the confines of mudstone beds. Propagation of large faults across higher moduli opal-CT porcellanite leads to a reduction in DL, as does the development of drag folds. Further scatter in DL occurs when fault tips splay as they approach detachments. Large faults eventually merge into bedding plane detachments, which originally formed due to flexural slip folding. Extremely high DL ratios are recorded for these merged faults as they accommodate block rotation within a simple shear zone. Thus, both mechanical stratigraphy and the temporal evolution of fault systems can lead to a breakdown in fault scaling relations thought to characterize isolated fault growth in a homogeneous medium.

  1. Last glacial maximum environments in northwestern Patagonia revealed by fossil small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammone, Mauro N.; Hajduk, Adan; Arias, Pablo; Teta, Pablo; Lacey, Eileen A.; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Comparisons of historical and modern assemblages of mammals can yield important insights into patterns and processes of environmental change. Here, we present the first analyses of small mammal assemblages present in northern Patagonia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Using remains obtained from owl pellets excavated from an archeological cave site (Arroyo Corral I, levels VII-V, carbon dates of 22,400-21,530 cal yr BP), we generate estimates of the minimum number of individuals for all species detected; these estimates, in turn are used to determine relative species abundances. Comparisons of these data with similar analyses of small mammal remains obtained from a second archeological site (ACoII, levels IV-V, carbon dates of 10,010-9220 cal yr BP) as well as from modern owl pellets reveal pronounced changes in relative species abundance since the LGM. In particular, Euneomys chinchilloides and Ctenomys sociabilis - the predominant species during the LGM - declined markedly, suggesting a change from open, bare habitat punctuated by patches of wet meadows and shrubs to the more densely vegetated mosaic of ecotone habitats found in this region today. These data provide important new insights into the environmental changes that have occurred in northern Patagonia over the last 20,000 years.

  2. Seasonal Variability of Particulate Organic Matter in a Mountain Stream in Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollá, Salvador; Robles, Santiago; Casado, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the influence of environmental characteristics of the Mediterranean climate on seasonal variability of particulate organic matter abundance in a mountain stream. Coarse and fine fractions of both suspended and benthic particulate organic matter were determined on 14 occasions between February 1998 and November 1999 in a second-order Mediterranean stream in Central Spain (Arroyo Mediano). Temporal variability of suspended organic matter followed a seasonal pattern, attributed to litter-fall inputs, instream processing, and the hydrological regime. Suspended organic matter (SOM) and its seasonal variability fall well within the range reported for streams in temperate non-Mediterranean deciduous forest. However, we found no seasonal trend in benthic organic matter (BOM) storage, and it seems that the amount of BOM remained fairly constant throughout the year. Reach retention (evaluated as the ratio between BOM and SOM per m2) was higher in summer during reduced stream flow, mainly due to coarse particulate organic matter storage. These observations do not differ from those reported for other headwater streams in temperate forested biomes, from which we conclude that there was no evidence of a Mediterranean influence on particulate organic matter dynamics in the Mediano stream, nor probably in other headwater Mediterranean streams.

  3. Channel change on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Cruz River, an ephemeral river that drains 8,581 square miles in southeastern Arizona, has a long history of channel instability. Since the late 19th century, lateral channel erosion has caused extensive property damage, particularly in Pima County. During the flood of 1983, about $100 million damage was caused in the Tucson area alone; most damage resulted from bank erosion on the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. The nature, magni- tude, location, and frequency of channel change on the Santa Cruz River were highly variable in time and space from 1936 through 1986 along a 70-mile reach in Pima County, Arizona. Four mechanisms of lateral channel change--channel migration, avulsion and meander cutoff, channel widening, and arroyo widening--were identified on the Santa Cruz River. The dominant mechanism in a reach depends on channel morphology and flood magnitude. The dominant vertical change has been degradation. The timing and magnitude of channel change at a particular location are controlled primarily by hydroclimatic factors such as magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of precipitation and floods. The location of channel change and its magnitude in response to a given discharge are controlled largely by topographic, geologic, hydraulic, and artificial factors. Although much of the present morphology of the Santa Cruz River is the result of recent large floods, a direct link between hydroclimatic con- ditions and channel change is not always evident because resistance of the channel to erosion varies with time. (USGS)

  4. Ground-water recharge near Santa Fe, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recharge to the basin-fill aquifer near Santa Fe, New Mexico, was investigated using chloride mass-balance methods. Chloride concentrations in water in the unsaturated zone indicate no recharge in areas where runoff and flooding do not occur. The mass of chloride stored in the upper part of the unsaturated zone in these areas would take about 6,000 to 8,000 years to accumulate, assuming the present (1989) chloride fluxes. Chloride concen- trations in water in the unsaturated zone beneath arroyo channels indicate that recharge does occur in these areas; chloride concentrations in this recharge water at two sites ranged from 40 to 60 milligrams per liter. Estimates of mountain-front recharge using a chloride balance in drainage basins are about 2,320 acre-feet per year in the Santa Fe River drainage, 690 acre-feet per year in the Rio Tesuque drainage, and 830 acre-feet per year in the Anoyo Hondo drainage. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that little summer precipitation recharges the ground-water system and that winter precipitation results in most of the recharge water. Most hydrogen and oxygen isotope data for ground water in the area coincide with the local meteoric water line on a graph showing the relation between oxygen and hydrogen in ground water. This indicates that, on the basis of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of ground water and precipi- tation, evaporation of recharge water or ground water does not occur.

  5. A water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 1; South county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Hord, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation made of rainfall, surface water, groundwater, and water quality monitoring networks in Salinas River basin in southern Monterey County, California, proposed all long-term rain gages be continued for extending short-term records and suggested the installation of two additional recording gages. Eight new storage rain gages were suggested at midaltitudes of east and west sides of Salinas Valley where few data are available. The evaluation revealed some short-term gaging stations could be discontinued because of good regression relations between them and the long-term stations Arroyo Seco near Soledad. Of 16 stations selected for the proposed network, 4 are new recording stations, 6 are new nonrecording streamflow and water quality sampling sites, 5 are existing stations, and the last is a station operated from 1969 to 1976; also included are water quality sampling stations on Lakes Nacimiento and San Antonio. The proposed groundwater network was developed from information on geology, geohydrology, and groundwater quality, high priority objectives for groundwater network, and consideration for providing good areal coverage of levels and water quality. Of 145 sites selected, 86 are existing monitoring wells. (USGS)

  6. Survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates and amphibians at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, USA: An evaluation of selected factors affecting species richness in ephemeral pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral aquatic habitats in Wupatki National Monument vary from naturally formed pools in arroyos over 5000 years old, to constructed catchment basins with ages estimated at 60-1000+ years old, and borrow pits and stock ponds 30-60 years old. The different ages of these pools provide different histories of colonization by amphibians and aquatic invertebrates, especially temporary pool specialists such as spadefoot toads and branchiopod crustaceans. Ten pools of five different origins and ages were surveyed in August and/or September 1997 for aquatic organisms; a total of 13 surveys were conducted. Twenty-two taxa were found, with the number of species in a pool during any survey ranging from one to 10. Species composition of the communities changed from one sampling date to the next within individual pools. Community structure is an amalgam of species with different dispersal mechanisms that are influenced by different pool characteristics. Age appears to have little effect overall, but may have influenced branchiopod presence/absence. Distance to permanent water, frequency of disturbance, and current pool size were correlated with presence/absence of some species.

  7. Elk reintroductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig D.

    1998-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk are native to northcentral New Mexico, including the Jemez Mountains, whereas a different subspecies, Merriam’s elk, inhabited southern New Mexico, east-central Arizona, and the Mexican border region (Hall 1981). Merriam’s elk went extinct around 1900 in New Mexico, and native Rocky Mountain elk were extirpated by 1909 (Findley et al. 1975). Although elk were known to early inhabitants of the Jemez Mountains (Fig. 1), elk remains are seldom found in archaeological sites there. Indeed, two of three known elk remains from the Jemez Mountains (Table) came from archaeological sites dating to the late 1880’s, while the third is represented by a single bone tool dated at A.D. 1390 to 1520. This scarcity of elk in archaeological remains suggests that only small, local elk populations were present between A.D. 1150 and A.D. 1600. Elk numbers may have been suppressed by the many ancestral Pueblo people who inhabited the area, as suggested for nearby Arroyo Hondo by Lang and Harris (1984) and for the intermountain West by Kay (1994). The gray wolf, the most important natural predator of elk in the Jemez Mountains, was extirpated from the area by the 1940’s (Findley et al. 1975). Hunting has reduced local populations of another elk predator, the mountain lion (Allen 1989).

  8. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The chief results during the reporting period were three 1:1,000,000 scale maps made from one ERTS-1 frame (1085-17330, 16 October 1972) showing: (1) the three most important types of materials in terms of the modern erosion problem: the readily erodible soils, gravel piedmonts and basin-fill areas, and consolidated rocks; (2) alluvial fans (dissected and relatively undissected); and (3) (as an additional bonus) linear structural features. Eight key areas (small parts of the whole study area) were selected for detailed study, and mapping was started in two of them, by interpretation of ultrahigh (U-2 and RB-57) airphotos, supplemented by field studies. In these areas detailed mapping was done not only on the modern erosion phenomena (arroyos, gullies, modern flood plains and terraces, and areas of sheet erosion and deposition), but also other features pertinent to the erosion problem, such as slope-local relief, landforms rock units, soil particle size and erodibility, and classes of vegetative cover.

  9. Public health assessment for Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA), Pasadena, Los Angeles County, California, Region 9: CERCLIS number CA9800013030. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-05

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located in Pasadena, California, northeast of Interstate 210. As a result of former site activities, chemicals, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOC) and perchlorate (a component of solid rocket fuel), used at JPL have been released to soil and groundwater. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted site visits in 1997 to assess the potential for public health hazards. During these visits, ATSDR identified two pathways where people could potentially be exposed to site-related contaminants: (1) exposure to contaminated groundwater and (2) exposure to contaminated soil. ATSDR also identified the following primary community concerns: (1) future groundwater and drinking water quality and (2) increased incidence of Hodgkin`s disease. ATSDR determined that VOC-contaminated groundwater does not present a past, present, or future public health to JPL employees or nearby residents. ATSDR also determined that exposure, if any, to contaminated soils associated with the JPL site and in the Arroyo Secco near the JPL boundary is unlikely to cause either short-term or long-term adverse health effects to employees and the public.

  10. Diversity among Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Family Arenaviridae) Associated with the Southern Plains Woodrat (Neotoma micropus)

    PubMed Central

    Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Mauldin, Matthew R.; Bradley, Robert D.; Fulhorst, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    The southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) is the principal host of Catarina virus in southern Texas and a natural host of other North American Tacaribe serocomplex viruses. The objectives of this study were to increase our knowledge of the genetic diversity among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses associated with N. micropus and to define better the natural host relationships of these viruses. Pairwise comparisons of complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences and complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences revealed a high level of genetic diversity among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses associated with N. micropus in western Oklahoma, southern New Mexico, and northern and southern Texas. Collectively, the results of Bayesian analyses of nucleotide sequences and pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences confirmed that the arenaviruses associated with N. micropus in Oklahoma and New Mexico should be included in the Whitewater Arroyo species complex, and indicated that that the arenaviruses associated with N. micropus in northern Texas are strains of a novel arenaviral species – tentatively named “Middle Pease River virus”. Together, the results of assays for arenavirus and assays for anti-arenavirus antibody in 54 southern plains woodrats and 325 other rodents captured at 2 localities suggested that the southern plains woodrat is the principal host of Middle Pease River virus in northern Texas. PMID:24161346

  11. An appraisal of surface-water quality in the Alameda Creek Basin, California, October 1974-June 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopp, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Areal and seasonal variations in the quality of surface water in the Alameda Creek basin, California., from 1974 to 1979 were analyzed to determine the effects of wastewater discharges and imported water releases. Statistically significant differences were found among mean values of constituents in streamflow below the treated wastewater discharge points, imported water released from the South Bay Aqueduct, and the combined outflow at Alameda Creek near Niles. During periods before and after the drought of 1976-1977, concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, and total nitrate varied inversely with water discharge. From 1974 to 1976, decreases in nutrient values coincided with increased in imported water releases. Values of physical properties and chemical constituents decreased during the spring and summer of 1976. During the second winter of the drought, imported water was decreased, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and total nitrate increased dramatically in the water at Alameda Creek near Niles. At the upstream tributary, Arroyo de la Laguna, increased chemical property and constituent values during 1976 and 1977 were attributed to decreased natural flow, hence the greater contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Concentrations of several constituents exceeded limits set by the State water-quality objectives for the basin. With the return to normal flow levels in 1978-79, some concentrations returned to predrought levels. (USGS)

  12. Effects of the catastrophic flood of December 1966, north rim area, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Aldridge, B.N.; Euler, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Precipitation from the unusual storm of December 1966 was concentrated on highlands in northern Arizona, southwestern Utah , southern Nevada, and south-central California and caused widely scattered major floods in the four States. In Arizona the largest amount of precipitation was in the north rim area of eastern Grand Canyon, where about 14 inches was measured. The largest flows occurred along Bright Angel Creek and the MilK Creek-Dragon Creek part of the Crystal Creek drainage basin. The maximum effects of the flood were along Milk Creek-Dragon Creek, where a mudflow caused extensive channel modification. Floods that occurred in the Bright Angel and Crystal Creek basins have a recurrence interval of only once in several centuries. The streamflow that resulted from the storm on the Kaibab Plateau caused considerable local scouring and deepening of channels, including some renewed arroyo cutting. The most catastrophic effects of the 1966 floods were caused by two mudflows that extended from the edge of the Kaibab Plateau along Dragon Creek in the Crystal Creek basin and Lava Creek in the Chuar Creek basin to the Colorado River. More than 10 other large mudflows occurred in Nankoweap, Kwagunt, Crystal, and Shinumo Creek basins. About 80 large debris slides left conspicuous scars in the amphitheaters at the heads of the side gorges, and at least 10 small slides occurred on the Kaibab Plateau. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Environmental Restoration Operations Consolidated Quarterly Report: July-September 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2017-01-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during the July, August, and September 2016 quarterly reporting period. The Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM are listed in Table I-1. Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2 summarize the work completed during this quarter. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities. Field activities are conducted at the three groundwater AOCs (Burn Site Groundwater [BSG AOC], Technical Area [TA]-V Groundwater [TAVG AOC], and Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater [TAG AOC]). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a certificate of completion and the sites are in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502 are in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities are deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these three sites are active mission facilities. These three active sites are located in TA-III.

  14. Presence of Oxyodontherium (Macraucheniidae, Litopterna) in the Río Quinto Formation, San Luis (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, Esperanza; Chiesa, Jorge; Ojeda, Guillermo

    2008-03-01

    This paper deals with the new mammal remains from the Río Quinto Formation, found at the Arroyo La Petra locality (San Luis, Argentina). They consist of an incomplete skull and two mandibular fragments of a macraucheniid, both with milk dentition and M1/m1 erupting, corresponding to a very young individual. Morfometrical characteristics of the specimens allow their identification as Oxyodontherium zeballosi and provide the first cranial data for this species. The holotype of this species is considered a juvenile individual. We maintain a conservative position in maintaining O. zeballosi as a valid species though based on juvenile specimens. However, a full systematic revision of the Family Macraucheniidae is needed to verify the validity and phylogenetic relationships of the taxa included in it. The identification of O. zeballosi indicates a late Miocene age for the fossiliferous level, which implies a cronoestratigraphic extension of the Río Quinto Formation, thus far considered as Pliocene in age. In addition, the presence of Oxyodontherium in San Luis Province increases the geographical distribution of this macrauchenid, whose record previously was limited to Miocene outcrops of the Paraná River (Entre Ríos Province). Its presence in the Mio-Pliocene beds of Uruguay is very doubtful because it is based on a metapodial.

  15. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  16. Precipitation and Surface-Runoff Sampling in the Arid Regions - New Lysimeter Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qudah, O. M.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    In order to measure the chemical characteristics of runoff water which has entered the sediments beneath ephemeral streams, Surface Runoff Samplers (SRS's) were designed. SRS represent a modification to the lysimeter. SRS's were designed to provide a stronger collection surface, more efficient connections for sample collection and to measure particularly the first flush of runoff. In addition, Infiltration characteristics, which are predominantly influenced by soil properties, were considered in the SRS design. Advantages of SRS design are: easy to assemble, requires minimum maintenance once installed, and total cost is relatively low. The limitations include: manual pumping is required and SRS must be checked on a regular schedule and pumped when full (depending on rain frequency and intensity). The design and emplacement of 56 SRS’s at 28 separate locations in the main arroyos around the Amargosa Desert region is explained and provides a look at initial data collection. It is our belief that long term data collection of this type will help us to better understand processes controlling groundwater recharge and thus the sustainable yield of groundwater in Nye County.

  17. Hydrologic data for the Puerco River basin, western New Mexico, October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Robert Louis; Rankin, Dale R.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected during October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992, in the Puerco River Basin, Western New Mexico, are summarized. The effects of uranium mining and a 1979 tailings pond spill, in combination with naturally occurring and potentially hazardous trace elements, have created a concern that surface water and ground water in the Puerco River Basin may be unsafe for irrigation, livestock watering, and domestic use; therefore, a data collection network was established to monitor the suitability of the water resources in the Puerco River Basin. The data collection network consisted of one streamflow-gaging station, three water-well dusters, and nine streambed sites. The network is located along a reach of the Puerco River beginning near the confluence of the Puerco River and Pipeline Arroyo and ending approximately 9 miles upstream from the New Mexico-Arizona State line. Data tabulated and presented include mean daily discharge, ground-water hydrographs, water quality, and sediment chemistry and particle-size distribution.

  18. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  19. Co-occurrence of mylodontid sloths and insights on their potential distributions during the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Luciano; Fariña, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) for the last interglacial (LIG), the global last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene climatic optimum (HCO) were generated for three extinct South American Pleistocene mylodontid giant sloths, Glossotherium robustum, Lestodon armatus and Mylodon darwinii. They are recorded co-occurring in some localities including Arroyo del Vizcaíno site (AdV) in Uruguay. Co-occurrence records were studied based on the overlap of their generated areas of potential distributions, and compared with the available biome reconstructions of South America during the LGM to analyze their distribution patterns, ecological requirements and possible interactions between them. Our results suggest that these sloths could have co-existed mainly in the Chaco-Paraná Basin and the plains in the Río de la Plata area. Areas of high suitability were observed for submerged parts of the continental shelf that were exposed during the LGM showing an overall increase in potential habitat compared to the LIG and HCO. This suggests that there was a drastic reduction in total available areas of preferred habitat at the end of the Pleistocene. The co-occurrence of these sloths at the AdV site suggests the presence of vegetation indicative of mainly open, cold to temperate habitats but with mixed patches typical of humid climates.

  20. Water-quality conditions and an evaluation of ground- and surface-water sampling programs in the Livermore-Amador Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, S.K.; Cascos, P.V.; Glass, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A program to monitor the ground- and surface water quality in the Livermore-Amador Valley has been operated since 1976. As of 1982, this monitoring network consisted of approximately 130 wells, about 100 of which were constructed specifically for this program, and 9 surface water stations. Increased demand on the groundwater for municipal and industrial water supply in the past has caused a decline in water levels and a gradual buildup of salts from natural surface-water recharge and land disposal of treated wastewater from waste treatment plants. Results of this study identify the salt buildup to be the major problem with the groundwater quality. Established water quality objectives for dissolved solids are exceeded in 52 of 130 wells. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate are also in excess of basin objectives and health standards. Water quality in both surface and groundwater is highly variable areally. Magnesium to calcium magnesium bicarbonate groundwater are found in the areas where most of the high volume municipal wells are located. Large areas of sodium bicarbonate water occur in the northern part of the valley. Except for two stations on Arroyo Las Positas which has sodium chloride water, surface water is mixed-cation bicarbonate water. (USGS)

  1. Elevation changes in the central transverse ranges near Ventura, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan-Banks, J. M.; Castle, R.O.; Ziony, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Profiles of elevation changes developed from repeated levelings in the east-trending Transverse Ranges near Ventura, California, reveal three general types of vertical movements: 1. (1) broadly defined regional tilting; 2. (2) sharply defined differential movements across recently active faults; and 3. (3) differential subsidence centering on producing oil fields. Down-to-the-southeast tilting is evident in profiles along the coast this sense of movement, however, is the inverse of that that may have prevailed during late Pleistocene time. Profiles along lines extending north and northwest from Ventura show prominent inflections formed by up-to-the-north differential movements that coincide roughly with the Red Mountain fault; this fault is a north-dipping reverse fault that displaces a Holocene(?) soil zone and along which scarps and sag ponds are preserved. A similar inflection coincides with the Padre Juan fault; post-Pleistocene activity on the Padre Juan, however, is uniquely indicated by the geodetic data. Contemporary integrity of the structural block extending northward from the Red Mountain fault is suggested by the apparent absence of differential movements across the Munson Creek, Tule Creek, Santa Ynez, and Arroyo Parida faults since at least 1934. Subsidence is recognized over both the Ventura and Rincon oil fields; although maximum subsidence has not been recorded in either case, 277 mm of differential subsidence was measured within the Ventura field between 1934 and 1968. ?? 1975.

  2. [Study on the nutritional risk of autonomous non-institutionalized adult elder people].

    PubMed

    Montejano Lozoya, Raimunda; Ferrer Diego, Rosa Ma; Clemente Marín, Gonzalo; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Valorar el estado nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados, en centros sociales, mediante la escala MNA y analizar su distribución según las variables sociodemográficas: sexo, edad, estado civil, convivencia, estudios y ámbito rural o urbano. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 660 adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados en centros sociales de la provincia de Valencia. Los sujetos fueron evaluados en 12 centros sociales seleccionados mediante un muestreo estratificado por bloques. Los criterios de inclusión en el estudio fueron: tener 65 años o más, vivir en el domicilio, tener autonomía funcional, residir más de un año en la provincia de Valencia, acudir periódicamente a centros sociales y querer colaborar. Se usó el MNA para la valoración nutricional. Resultados: De los 660 sujetos incluidos en el estudio, el 48,33% son hombres y el 51,6% mujeres, la edad media es de 74,3 ± 6,57 años. El 23,3% de los encuestados presenta riesgo de malnutrición. El odds de prevalencia del riesgo de malnutrición es mayor en: mujeres respecto a hombres (OR = 1,43), personas ≥?85 años respecto al grupo de 65-69 años (OR = 2,27), personas viudas respecto a casadas o con pareja estable (OR = 1,82) y en personas sin estudios respecto a las que disponen de algún nivel de estudios (OR = 1,73). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de riesgo nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados en centros sociales de la provincia de Valencia alcanza a una de cada cuatro personas, siendo más elevada en personas viudas (en su mayor parte mujeres mayores, que viven solas) y en personas sin estudios.

  3. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  4. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889).

  5. The Observatory-Camping: a place of posible apprenticeship to the education and popularization of the Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, H. D.; Gastaud, C.; Pattini, N.; Aquilano, R.

    The development of Astronomy in the Educations area presents limitations as: poor equipment, trouble in managing space and time, difficulty to make experiences. The sky contaminations in the city, because of the luminosity, make the astronomical observation just impossible. But, the formal education has a wonderful media for the Astronomy: camping; this activity is very close to physical education. The proposal is the transformation of camping in "observatory-camping", to introduce astronomical concepts by the exploration of the sky. The methodology for this job is the observation of the sky by the eyes, first, and then making use of binoculars and a telescope, far from urban centres. Finally, this experience has place in the Planta de Campamentos N° 7502 (Máximo Paz, Santa Fe), which belongs to Ministerio de Educación de la Provincia de Santa Fe. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Redescription of Gyropus parvus (Ewing, 1924) (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) from tucos-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys ) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C

    2010-02-01

    A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described.

  7. ORIBATID MITE INFESTATION IN THE STORED CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Li, Chaopin

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: investigar el estado reproductivo de los ácaros oribátidos y sus rasgos biológicos en el almacenamiento de medicinas a base de hierbas chinas tradicionales. Métodos: sesenta y tres tipos de medicinas a base de hierbas chinas tradicionales extraídas de raíces y tallos almacenadas fueron recopilados en Huainan City, en la provincia de Anhui. Los ácaros fueron aislados por Shakesieve y Tullgren, y su identificación y recuento se realizó mediante microscopio de luz. Resultados: trece de cada 63 muestras estaban infestadas por los ácaros oribátidos, lo que supone un 21,67% (13/60). Un total de 11 especies de ácaros oribátidos, pertenecientes a 6 familias, fueron encontrados en las 13 muestras, y las especies más abundantes fueron: Scheloribates laevigatus (36,19%), Scheloribates latipes (28,35%) y Trhypochthpnius japonicus (19,72%). El promedio de densidad reproductiva de los ácaros oribátidos fue de alrededor de 4,51 individuos/g; el índice de riqueza de especies, el índice de diversidad y la uniformidad del índice de especies fue 1,14, 1,581 y 0,212, respectivamente. Conclusión: se detectó la presencia de ácaros oribátidos en las hierbas medicinales chinas almacenadas de Huainan City, en la provincia de Anhui, China, lo que sugiere que la técnica convencional de almacenamiento y procesamiento debe mejorarse a fin de garantizar la calidad y la seguridad de los medicamentos a base de hierbas.

  8. [PREVALENCE OF THINNESS, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG 4-TO-6-YEAR-OLD SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN IN 2013; SITUATION IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT].

    PubMed

    González García, Alberto; Álvarez Bueno, Celia; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Sánchez López, Mairena; Solera Martínez, Montserrat; Díez Fernández, Ana; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    Introducción y objetivos: tanto el exceso de peso como la delgadez se relacionan con diversos problemas de salud que pueden continuar hasta la edad adulta. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron estimar la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 4-6 años de las provincias de Cuenca y Ciudad Real (España), mediante criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y comparar estas cifras con otros estudios europeos. Métodos: estudio observacional-transversal que incluyó a 1.585 escolares realizado en septiembre de 2013. Las mediciones de peso y talla fueron realizadas por enfermeras entrenadas y mediante procedimientos estandarizados. El estatus ponderal se definió según los criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: según criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad, la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 20,51%, 11,84% y 8,58%, respectivamente; y del 3,97%, 13,92% y 10,79% cuando se utilizaron los criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo ni provincia para ninguna categoría de estatus ponderal. Para ambos criterios, la prevalencia de delgadez fue menor a medida que aumentaba la edad, mientras que la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue mayor. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de exceso de peso podría haber tocado techo en España, aunque continúa siendo un importante problema de salud pública. El aumento de la prevalencia de bajo peso debería ocupar un lugar relevante en las intervenciones de salud pública.

  9. [Fingolimod: effectiveness and safety in routine clinical practice. An observational, retrospective, multi-centre study in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Mallada, J; Perez-Carmona, N; Berenguer-Ruiz, L; Sanchez-Perez, R; Martin-Gonzalez, R; Sola-Martinez, D; Mola, S; Lopez-Arlandis, J M; Vela-Yebra, R; Gabaldon-Torres, L; Freire-Alvarez, E; Garcia-Escriva, A; Sempere, A P

    2016-09-05

    Introduccion. Los estudios postautorizacion son importantes para confirmar si los resultados de los ensayos clinicos se reproducen en la practica clinica habitual. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del fingolimod en la practica clinica en la provincia de Alicante. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio multicentrico retrospectivo de pacientes con esclerosis multiple remitente tratados con fingolimod. Se recogen las caracteristicas demograficas, clinicas y farmacologicas. Se describe la efectividad del farmaco –tasa anualizada de brotes (TAB) y porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes– al año y a los dos años de tratamiento en relacion con el año previo y datos de efectos secundarios. Resultados. Se incluyo a 89 pacientes. El tratamiento previo fue inmunomodulador (interferon beta o acetato de glatiramero) en 54 pacientes y natalizumab en 32. Cincuenta pacientes cambiaron por fracaso con el inmunomodulador y 31 por serologia positiva del virus JC (VJC+). La TAB global disminuyo el 67,3% el primer año (p < 0,0001) y el 84,1% el segundo (p = 0,0078). Disminuyo en los pacientes con fracaso del inmunomodulador (el 85,6% el primer año, p < 0,0001; el 88,9% el segundo año, p = 0,0039) y aumento de forma no significativa en los pacientes VJC+ en el primer año. El porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes en la poblacion global aumento del 32,6 al 68,1% en el primer año (p < 0,0019) y al 82,6% en el segundo (p = 0,0215). Este aumento no se observo en los pacientes VJC+. Trece pacientes tuvieron efectos secundarios, que obligaron a la retirada del farmaco en dos de ellos. Conclusion. En la practica clinica de la provincia de Alicante, el fingolimod mostro una efectividad y una seguridad ligeramente superiores a las de los ensayos clinicos.

  10. State of malnutrition in cuban hospitals; a needed update.

    PubMed

    Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Justificación: El Estudio Cubano de Desnutricion Hospitalaria, conducido en el bienio 1999 – 2001 con 1,905 pacientes atendidos en 12 hospitales de 6 provincias del pais, revelo una tasa de desnutricion hospitalaria del 41.2%. Transcurrida una decada de aquella indagacion, se impone la actualizacion de este estimado. Objetivo: Actualizar el estado de la desnutricion hospitalaria en Cuba. Material y método: La presencia de desnutricion en 1,664 pacientes ingresados en 12 hospitales de 8 provincias del pais entre Marzo del 2012 y Marzo del 2014 se documento mediante la Encuesta Subjetiva Global (ESG). El estado de los procesos hospitalarios de cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales se evaluo con la Encuesta de Nutricion Hospitalaria (ENH). Resultados: La tasa corriente de desnutricion hospitalaria fue del 36.9% (Δ = +4.3%; p < 0.05). Las tasas de completamiento de los ejercicios hospitalarios de evaluacion nutricional y de uso de terapias de replecion nutricional fueron superiores. Conclusiones: Transcurridos 10 anos de la primera edicion del Estudio ELAN CUBA, se aprecian modestos avances en la identificacion y el tratamiento de la desnutricion en los hospitales en Cuba. Se percibe que la formacion e insercion de nutricionistas verticalizados en la actuacion hospitalaria haya contribuido al cambio observado. Asimismo, la actividad de la Sociedad Cubana de Nutricion Clinica y Metabolismo en el avance de las disciplinas de la terapia nutricional, la nutricion artificial y el metabolismo puede haber servido para un mejor reconocimiento del problema de salud representado por la desnutricion hospitalaria.

  11. The role of fluvial geomorphic analysis and historical ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of historical ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of historical watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between historical ecology and modern geomorphic analysis as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider

  12. Urban development under extreme hydrologic and weather conditions for El Paso-Juarez: Recommendations resulting from hydrologic modeling, GIS, and remote sensing analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    During the 2006 El Paso-Juarez flood there were many concerns regarding the capability of the existing stormwater system to handle 50- and 100-year flood events in El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico area. Moreover in 2008, a considerable wet year from the normal 223 mm of annual precipitation for El Paso demonstrated that the area could very well received large amounts of precipitation at localized areas in short periods of time, representing a great flood threat to residents living in areas prone to flood. Some climate change projections for the area are exactly what had occurred over the last two decades; an increased number of torrential rainstorms over smaller concentrated pieces of land separated by longer years of drought between rainstorms. This study consisted in three projects focused on three critical regions within the El Paso-Juarez area that were greatly affected by the 2006 Flood. The goal was to identify if natural arroyos or the existent built stormwater system, could properly managed the projected precipitation patterns. The three projects described in this dissertation touch on the following points: (a) the importance of a reliable precipitation model that could accurately describes precipitation patterns in the region under extreme drought and wet climates conditions; (b) differences in land use/land cover characteristics as factors promoting or disrupting the possibility for flooding, and (c) limitations and capabilities of existent stormwater systems and natural arroyos as means to control flooding. Conclusions and recommendations are shown below, which apply not only to each particular project, but also to all study areas and similar areas in the El Paso-Juarez region. Urbanization can improve or worsen a pre-existing natural stormwater system if built under its required capacity. Such capacity should be calculated considering extreme weather conditions, based on a denser network of precipitation stations to capture the various microclimates

  13. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading from Surface Water and Groundwater to Sweitzer Lake, Colorado, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. Sweitzer Lake was placed on the State 303(d) list as impaired with respect to dissolved selenium. In Colorado, the Water Quality Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is required to develop total maximum daily loads of selenium for the 303(d) list segments. The U.S. Geological survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading from surface water and ground water to Sweitzer Lake to support the total maximum daily loads development process. Surface-water and groundwater data were collected to quantify selenium concentrations and loads to Sweitzer Lake from October 2006 to October 2007. These data were used to determine the amount of selenium load (pounds annually) that would need to be reduced for the contributing sources (surface water and groundwater) to meet the State chronic aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium, herein referred to as 'a load reduction.' Selenium concentration data were also compared to the State acute aquatic-life standard of 18.4 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium. Both surface-water and groundwater-quality samples collected during this study were found to exceed the chronic standard. Surface-water quantity and quality data were collected at Garnet Canal Diversion and Diversion Drain. Groundwater flux data were collected at 10 seepage-meter sires in Sweitzer Lake, and groundwater-quality data were collected at a groundwater seep and inferred from a January 2007 sample collected at Garnet Canal Diversion. Selenium concentrations and loads were greater at Garnet Canal Diversion than those observed at Diversion Drain. Approximately one-third of Garnet Canal Diversion-s Streamflow originates from Loutzenhizer Arroyo. Selenium concentrations observed during previous studies at Loutzenhizer Arroyo indicate high

  14. Effects of Varying Shrub Density on Erosion and Deposition During a Large Flood, Rio Puerco, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Vincent, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    A large flood in August 2006 following saltcedar control efforts along a 12-km segment of the Rio Puerco provided an opportunity to measure the effects of varying shrub density on down-valley flood flow and sediment transport. Post-flood field observations in two 3-km long arroyo segments, one in the sprayed reach and one downstream from the sprayed reach, indicate the density and distribution of woody vegetation had a substantial effect on locations and magnitudes of sediment erosion and deposition. In the reach sprayed with herbicide three years before the flood, in which dense woody stems covered only about 30% of the pre-flood (2005) floodplain, average channel width increased by 63% during the flood. Downstream from the sprayed reach, where both pre-and post-flood shrubs covered 50% of the floodplain, erosion was limited to sites where flood flow through sharp bends undercut the arroyo wall. Flow and suspended sediment transport were computed for two 500-m-long floodplain segments, one in the sprayed reach and one downstream from the sprayed reach. Large volumes of fine-grain sediment (fine to very fine sand and silt) were available for transport during the flood in both reaches. In the reach sprayed with herbicide, dense canopy (dominantly saltcedar; Tamarix spp.) remained only within 10-m-wide linear bands oriented along the present or former channel and in isolated, small shrubs scattered about the floodplain. Downstream from the sprayed reach, adjacent shrub bands were closely spaced, with canopies touching in many areas. Mature saltcedar along the Rio Puerco have rigid, dense stems more than 2 m high, whereas floodplain flow depths during the August 2006 event were on the order of 1 m. Drag on the stems was computed using the average stem density (average stem diameter divided by average stem spacing squared) determined from a large number of measurements along the Rio Puerco, 0.35 m-1 (Friedman and others, unpublished data, 2004). Computations of flow

  15. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Thousand Oaks 7.5' Quadrangle, Southern California: A Digital Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Campbell, Russell H.

    1995-01-01

    Thousand Oaks is located in Arroyo Conejo, a region spanning both southeastern Ventura County and extreme northwest Los Angeles County in southern California. It was discovered in 1542 by Spanish explorer Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo and eventually became part of the Spanish Rancho El Conejo land grant (conejo means 'rabbit' in Spanish, of which there are many in the area). It is located in the Santa Monica Mountains in the northwestern part of the greater Los Angeles area. The area is bordered by the San Fernando Valley and the city of Los Angeles to the east, Simi Hills to the north, Las Posas Hills and the Santa Rosa Valley to the northwest, Conejo Mountain (also known as Conejo Hills) and Oxnard Plain to the west, and the Santa Monica Mountains and Malibu to the southwest. The geology of the surrounding Santa Monica Mountains is dominated by a sequence of Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These include the Tertiary Modelo Formation and the upper part of the Topanga Formation, other minor Tertiary rocks, and Miocene volcanic and intrusive rocks of the Conejo Formation. The basement units within the Santa Monica Mountains are a series of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Conejo Formation underlies much of the surrounding watersheds. The younger Tertiary sedimentary Modelo and Upper Topanga Formations flank the Conejo to the north and south. On the north slope of the Santa Monica Mountains where the Arroyo Conejo and Thousand Oaks are located, the Tertiary formations are gently folded. The south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains is structurally dominated by the Malibu Coast Fault that runs along the foot of the mountains. This fault, and associated structures, creates a complex geologic setting on the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains. The active nature of the Malibu Coast fault and associated structures accounts for the steep and rugged coastal topography. The most widely exposed rock units in the area are the Plio

  16. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Rio Grande and its U.S. tributaries: Spatial and temporal trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Dethloff, G.M.; Bartish, T.M.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites on rivers of the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998 to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Rio Grande and on the Arroyo Colorado and Pecos River in Texas (TX), New Mexico (NM), and Colorado. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were the targeted species. Fish were examined in the field for internal and external visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Whole fish from each station were composited by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods, and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from lower RGB stations contained greater concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by a general gradient of residue concentrations and biomarker responses. A minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted in fish from the upper RGB. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 ??g/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from the Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM, a condition documented in previous studies. Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations were greatest in fish from sites in the central RGB; Se concentrations in fish from the Pecos River at Red Bluff Lake, TX and from the Rio Grande at Langtry, TX and Amistad International Reservoir, TX exceeded published

  17. Assessment of Longitudinal Variability in Channel Geometry and Bed Gradient Over an 81-km Reach of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, E. R.; Vincent, K. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Kean, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Beginning in the 1880's, the Rio Puerco, New Mexico incised an arroyo more than 300 km long, 10 m deep, and 200 m wide. Downstream sections of the arroyo have been aggrading since the 1930s, but the relative influences of climatic fluctuations, exotic species invasion, and land management are unclear. As part of an effort to model flow and sediment transport for the lower 81 kilometers (50 miles) of the Rio Puerco, we measured the longitudinal profile and channel cross-sections, and we derived channel information from a sequence of large-scale aerial photographs. Large-scale (1:5,000) aerial photographs of the 81-km reach were merged in a GIS dataset, and channel top width and radius of curvature were determined for a dense set of points along the channel centerline. Average bankfull width in bends is only slightly greater than the average width in straight reaches, and the variability in width is also slightly greater in bends. Changes in reach-averaged channel top width in relatively straight reaches were found to be related to specific geomorphic features affecting bed gradient, including a recent bend cutoff and the mouth of a major tributary. The observed changes in width lead to subdivision of the river into four internally consistent reaches. A longitudinal thalweg profile was measured using a differential GPS to survey points every 40 m along the entire 81-km reach. About 2,000 points were measured with vertical and horizontal accuracy within 3 cm. Forty-nine channel cross-sections were also surveyed in both bends and straight reaches, distributed over the length of the system. Frequency relations for channel widths measured from photographs and in the field indicate the field measurements constitute a representative sample of the channel. Photographic widths can be used to predict reach-averaged channel geometry after removing a small bias in width determined from the photographs. High water marks (silt lines) for three recent flows were traced the entire

  18. Field guide to Cretaceous-tertiary boundary sections in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Gerta; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Adatte, Thierry; Macleod, Norman; Lowe, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This guide was prepared for the field trip to the KT elastic sequence of northeastern Mexico, 5-8 February 1994, in conjunction with the Conference on New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, held in Houston, Texas. The four-day excursion offers an invaluable opportunity to visit three key outcrops: Arroyo El Mimbral, La Lajilla, and El Pinon. These and other outcrops of this sequence have recently been interpreted as tsunami deposits produced by the meteorite impact event that produced the 200 to 300-km Chicxulub basin in Yucatan, and distributed ejecta around the world approximately 65 m.y. ago that today is recorded as a thin clay layer found at the K/T boundary. The impact tsunami interpretation for these rocks has not gone unchallenged, and others examining the outcrops arrive at quite different conclusions: not tsunami deposits but turbidites; not KT at all but 'upper Cretaceous.' Indeed, it is in hopes of resolving this debate through field discussion, outcrop evaluation, and sampling that led the organizers of the conference to sanction this field trip. This field guide provides participants with background information on the KT clastic sequence outcrops and is divided into two sections. The first section provides regional and logistical context for the outcrops and a description of the clastic sequence. The second section presents three representative interpretations of the outcrops by their advocates. There is clearly no way that these models can be reconciled and so two, if not all three, must be fundamentally wrong. Readers of this guide should keep in mind that many basic outcrop observations that these models are based upon remain unresolved. While great measures were taken to ensure that the information in the description section was as objective as possible, many observations are rooted in interpretations and the emphasis placed on certain observations depends to some degree upon the perspective of the author.

  19. An investigation on generalization ability of artificial neural networks and M5 model tree in modeling reference evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Kilic, Yasin

    2016-11-01

    The generalization ability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and M5 model tree (M5Tree) in modeling reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) is investigated in this study. Daily climatic data, average temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity from six different stations operated by California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) located in two different regions of the USA were used in the applications. King-City Oasis Rd., Arroyo Seco, and Salinas North stations are located in San Joaquin region, and San Luis Obispo, Santa Monica, and Santa Barbara stations are located in the Southern region. In the first part of the study, the ANN and M5Tree models were used for estimating ET 0 of six stations and results were compared with the empirical methods. The ANN and M5Tree models were found to be better than the empirical models. In the second part of the study, the ANN and M5Tree models obtained from one station were tested using the data from the other two stations for each region. ANN models performed better than the CIMIS Penman, Hargreaves, Ritchie, and Turc models in two stations while the M5Tree models generally showed better accuracy than the corresponding empirical models in all stations. In the third part of the study, the ANN and M5Tree models were calibrated using three stations located in San Joaquin region and tested using the data from the other three stations located in the Southern region. Four-input ANN and M5Tree models performed better than the CIMIS Penman in only one station while the two-input ANN models were found to be better than the Hargreaves, Ritchie, and Turc models in two stations.

  20. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hart, Dirk

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  1. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  2. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, J.; Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N. H.; Alvarez, W.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  3. A multivalent vaccination strategy for the prevention of Old World arenavirus infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Botten, Jason; Whitton, J Lindsay; Barrowman, Polly; Sidney, John; Whitmire, Jason K; Alexander, Jeff; Kotturi, Maya F; Sette, Alessandro; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Arenaviruses cause severe human disease ranging from aseptic meningitis following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection to hemorrhagic fever syndromes following infection with Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Lassa virus (LASV), Machupo virus (MACV), Sabia virus (SABV), or Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Cellular immunity, chiefly the CD8(+) T-cell response, plays a critical role in providing protective immunity following infection with the Old World arenaviruses LASV and LCMV. In the current study, we evaluated whether HLA class I-restricted epitopes that are cross-reactive among pathogenic arenaviruses could be identified for the purpose of developing an epitope-based vaccination approach that would cross-protect against multiple arenaviruses. We were able to identify a panel of HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from the same region of the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) of LASV (GPC spanning residues 441 to 449 [GPC(441-449)]), LCMV (GPC(447-455)), JUNV (GPC(429-437)), MACV (GPC(444-452)), GTOV (GPC(427-435)), and WWAV (GPC(428-436)) that displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-A*0201 and were recognized by CD8(+) T cells in a cross-reactive manner following LCMV infection or peptide immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Immunization of HLA-A*0201 mice with the Old World peptide LASV GPC(441-449) or LCMV GPC(447-455) induced high-avidity CD8(+) T-cell responses that were able to kill syngeneic target cells pulsed with either LASV GPC(441-449) or LCMV GPC(447-455) in vivo and provided significant protection against viral challenge with LCMV. Through this study, we have demonstrated that HLA class I-restricted, cross-reactive epitopes exist among diverse arenaviruses and that individual epitopes can be utilized as effective vaccine determinants for multiple pathogenic arenaviruses.

  4. Sources of groundwater nitrate revealed using residence time and isotope methods

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K B; Ekwurzel, B; Esser, B K; Hudson, G B; Moran, J E

    2004-10-07

    Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, CA, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, {delta}{sup 15}N values greater than 10{per_thousand} indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low-nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations up to 53 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1}. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos increases the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. The low {delta}{sup 15}N value (3.1{per_thousand}) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer. In addition to these anthropogenic sources, natural nitrate background levels between 15 and 20 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1} are found in deep wells with residence times greater than 50 years.

  5. Using dendrogeomorphological and hydraulic methods for peak discharge estimation of flash flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Eguibar, Miguel Angel; María Bodoque, Jose; Díez-Herrero, Andrés.; Gutierrez, Ignacio; Stoffel, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The study of processes such as flash floods in ungauged mountain basins often requires the combination of different techniques enabling numerical models to be developed in order to understand the processes. In this study, we have focused on the use of detailed topography obtained with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and dendrogeomorphological evidences to reconstruct the peak discharge of an remarkable event that took place on December 18th 1997, in the stream Arroyo Cabrera (Gredos Mountain Range, Spanish Central System). The methodology was carried out on a river reach characterized for presenting a hydraulic jump on stable bed-rock and numerous scarred trees caused by the impact of rocks and woody debris during the event. Along a 500 m stretch, a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was built with an average precision of 5 mm based on more than 4 million points taken using a TLS. Subsequently, both topographic and dendrogeomorphological data were included in bidimensional hydraulic models.In addition, we propose a methodology to define scenarios based on the deviation between the PSI and the results of hydraulic model that allows convergence in the estimation of flow. The results obtained from the methodology developed allow the magnitude of the event studied concerning the transported flow of an unknown flash flood event. We also discuss the use of PSI from trees to future paleoflood studies. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages derived from each case provides useful information for producing future flash flood hazard maps in ungauged catchments, with exposed goods of great vulnerability. Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scan, Dendrogeomorphology, Digital Elevation Model, ungauged basins, Spanish Central System.

  6. Effect of spatial variability on solute velocity and dispersion in two soils of the Argentinian Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, José; Domenech, Marisa; Castro Franco, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Predicting how solutes move through the unsaturated zone is essential to determine the potential risk of groundwater contamination (Costa et al., 1994). The estimation of the spatial variability of solute transport parameters, such as velocity and dispersion, enables a more accurate understanding of transport processes. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) has been used to characterize the spatial behavior of soil properties. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of soil transport parameters at field scale using ECa measurements. ECa measurements of 42 ha (Tres Arroyos) and 50 ha (Balcarce) farms were collected for the top 0-30 cm (ECa(s)) soil using the Veris® 3100. ECa maps were generated using geostatistical interpolation techniques. From these maps, three general areas were delineated, named high, medium, and low ECa zones. At each zone, three sub samples were collected. Soil samples were taken at 0-30 cm. Clay content and organic matter (OM) was analyzed. The transport assay was performed in the laboratory using undisturbed soil columns, under controlled conditions of T ° (22 ° C).Br- determinations were performed with a specific Br- electrode. The breakthrough curves were fitted using the model CXTFIT 2.1 (Toride et al., 1999) to estimate the transport parameters Velocity (V) and Dispersion (D). In this study we found no statistical significant differences for V and D between treatments. Also, there were no differences in V and D between sites. The average V and D value was 9.3 cm h-1 and 357.5 cm2 h-2, respectively. Despite finding statistically significant differences between treatments for the other measured physical and chemical properties, in our work it was not possible to detect the spatial variability of solute transport parameters.

  7. Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Robert H.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2006-04-01

    Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

  8. Composition and provenance of Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial sediments of the eastern Andean piedmont between 33 and 34° S (Mendoza Province, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, A.; Blasi, A.; Zárate, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Andean cordillera, and its piedmont in the central western Argentina, has been long considered as one of the main source areas of detritus for the Chaco-Pampean plain sand dune fields and loess/loess-like deposits of central Argentina. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the composition of the late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial deposits of the Andes cordillera piedmont, from 33° to 34° S. The results are interpreted in the context of the regional geology, tectonic setting of the study area and its implications in the continent-wide perspective of modern alluvial sands proposed by Potter (1994). Sampling was conducted at the alluvial stratigraphic sequences of four study sites along three Andean piedmont arroyos; modal mineralogy in the very fine sand fraction (3 phi to 4 phi) was determined using standard petrographic microscope methods. Q:F:LF average compositions indicate that the Late Pleistocene-Holocene very fine-grained alluvial sands of the Cordillera Frontal piedmont reflects the modern lithic arenites of the Argentine Association reported by Potter (1994). The results show two geologically distinct sources in the catchment areas, volcaniclastic and metamorphic rocks. High concentrations of mica and volcanic glass are likely related to particle morphologies and to the deposition sedimentary environment recorded in the alluvial sequences—floodplains. The overabundance of micas over the volcanic glass in the mid-late Holocene alluvial sequence indicates the drainage of a metamorphic area at the expense of other lithological sources. Source areas are located mainly in the Frontal cordillera, and to a lesser extent, in the piedmont Tertiary deposits, another likely source for the analyzed Quaternary alluvial sediments. The mineralogical signature of the late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial sequences is in agreement with the composition of the southern Pampean sand mantles, loess and loess-like deposits mainly formed by a volcanic mineral

  9. Removing hexavalent chromium from subsurface waters with anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Some subsurface waters at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is also present in the ground water; however, the source of the Cr(VI) may be natural. The Cr(VI) still must be treated if brought to the surface because its concentration exceeds discharge standards. We are planning facilities for removing the VOCs and Cr(VI) to a level below the discharge standards. The planned treatment includes the following steps: (1) Pumping the water to the surface facility. (2) Purging the VOCs with air and absorbing them on activated carbon. The VOCs in LLNL`s subsurface waters are primarily chlorinated organic solvents, such as dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}). Contamination levels range from tens to thousands of parts per billion. (3) Filtering the water. (4) Passing the water through anion-exchange resin to remove the Cr. The Cr in LLNL subsurface waters occurs almost entirely as Cr(VI), which exists as the chromate anion, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, at environmental pH. Cr levels range from tens to hundreds of parts per billion. (5) Discharging the treated water into the local arroyos. The relevant discharge criteria are 5 ppb total VOCs, 11 ppb Cr(VI), and pH between 6.5 and 8.5, inclusive. This report describes laboratory experiments undertaken to learn how the proposed treatment facility can be expected to operate. The laboratory results are expected to supply vendors with the detailed performance specifications needed to prepare bids on the Cr removal portion of the treatment facility. The treatment facility is expected to process 60 gallons per minute (gpm) of water by stripping VOCs with 720 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of air and removing Cr(VI) with 60 ft{sup 3} of resin.

  10. Constraining Glacial Runoff Contributions to Water Resources in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia using Environmental Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Z.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Warming temperatures in recent decades have contributed to substantial reductions in glaciers in many mountain regions around the globe, including the South American Andes. Melting of these glaciers taps water resources accumulated in past climates, and the diminishing ice marks a decrease in a nonrenewable water source that begs the question: how will future water supplies be impacted by climate change. Water resource management and climate adaptation efforts can be informed by knowledge of the extent to which glaciers contribute to seasonal streamflows, but remote locations and scant monitoring often limit this quantification. In Bolivia, more than two million people draw water from watersheds fed, in part, by glaciers. The amount to which these glaciers contribute to the water supply, however, is not well constrained. We apply elemental and isotopic tracers in an end-member mixing model to quantify glacial runoff contributions to local water supplies. We present oxygen and deuterium isotopes and major anion concentrations (sulfate and chloride) of shallow groundwater, streams, reservoirs, small arroyos, and glacial runoff. Isotopic and anion mixing models suggest between 45-67% of the water measured in high altitude streams originated from within the glacial footprint during the 2011 wet season, while glacial runoff contributed about 42-53% of the water in reservoirs in the 2012 dry season. Data also show that shallow groundwater is connected to glacial-fed streams. Any future decrease in glacial runoff may contribute to a reduction in surface water supplies and lower groundwater levels downstream, perhaps below the depth of hand-dug wells common in rural communities.

  11. Preferential flow in fissured sediments in desert soils related to radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, B.R.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas was examined to determine if these features act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with sediment derived from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams, and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the near-surface fissured sediments were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm/yr. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive to spatial variability in soil texture and the corresponding hydraulic parameters. The results from this study suggest that sediments in the fissured area act as preferred pathways in the shallow subsurface because surface runoff is concentrated in the fissures and because underlying fractures and cavities provide avenues for moisture and solute transport.

  12. The restructuring of the Environmental Restoration Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.

    1995-09-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) has supported this country through 50 years of research and development primarily in the area of nuclear weapons and energy. As a result of the Laboratory`s activities, contamination of the environment occurred. The cleanup of contaminated areas and the prevention of further contamination has become an important part of the Laboratory`s new mission: the reduction of the nuclear danger. The cleanup of the Laboratory is somewhat unique. It is a very large site. It includes 43 square miles of Laboratory land that will continue to be in industrial use or under institutional control for decades or centuries to come. It also includes about 25 square miles of former Laboratory land that has been converted to residential use, the Los Alamos townsite. The unusual topography and hydrogeology of the site was shaped during the last million years through the eruption of a huge volcano and the ensuing erosion of the tuff-basalt plateau into 19 canyons and associated finger-like mesas. During the early phase of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, 2,100 sites were identified as potential release sites. Sites range from a few hundred square feet to a few acres in area. Contamination depths range from a few to 100 feet. Typical contaminants are chemicals, heavy metals, radioactive constituents, and high explosives. Of greatest concern are surface contamination, migration of the contaminants along the surface into creeks and arroyos of the canyons and ultimately into the Rio Grande, and migration through the earth into the drinking water aquifers.

  13. Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Leake, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

  14. The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences - CIIMCA 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remolina-Millán, Aduljay; Hernández-Arroyo, Emil

    2014-06-01

    The organizing committee of The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences - CIIMCA 2013 - are pleased to present CIIMCA-2013: the first international conference focused on subjects of materials science, mechanical engineering and renewable energy organized by Mechanical Engineering Faculty of the ''Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana'' in Bucaramanga, Colombia. This conference aims to be a place to produce discussions on whole topics of the congress, between the scientists of Colombia and the world. We strongly believe that knowledge is fundamental to the development of our countries. For that reason this multidisciplinary conference is looking forward to integrate engineering, agricultural science and nanoscience and nanotechnology to produce a synergy of this area of knowledge and to achieve scientific and technological developments. Agriculture is a very important topic for our conference; in Colombia, agricultural science needs more attention from the scientific community and the government. In the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering we are beginning to work on these issues to produce knowledge and improve the conditions in our country. The CIIMCA conference is a great opportunity to create interpersonal relationships and networks between scientists around the world. The interaction between scientists is very important in the process of the construction of knowledge. The general chairman encourages and invites you to make friends, relationships and participate strongly in the symposia and all program activities. PhD Aduljay Remolina-Millán Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress - CIIMCA Msc Emil Hernández-Arroyo Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress - CIIMCA Conference photograph Conference photograph 'Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana seccional Bucaramanga' host of the first International Mechanical Engineering and

  15. Chronostratigraphy of Holocene alluvium in eastern Grand Canyon: Correlatable terraces or local paleoflood sequences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tainer, E. M.; Pederson, J. L.; Rittenour, T. M.; O'Brien, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the nature of Colorado River deposits in Grand Canyon will help reveal how the river responds to changes in its Colorado Plateau tributaries and Rocky Mountain headwaters. This study focuses on Holocene alluvial deposits associated with archaeological sites excavated near Ninemile Draw in Glen Canyon and at Tanner Bar in eastern Grand Canyon. We are testing two previously-developed models of deposition. Hereford (1996) suggested that Holocene alluvial deposits in Grand Canyon are a series of inset aggradational packages that correlate to valley fills and arroyo cutting cycles identified in tributaries on the Colorado Plateau, and they should be laterally correlatable throughout the river corridor. An alternate hypothesis is that the alluvial packages record paleoflood sequences along the Colorado River with no change in river grade during the Holocene. In this model, deposition is preserved more randomly and varies by location because of differences in local hydrologic geometry. Three detailed stratigraphic columns of terrace deposits and several stratigraphic panels of archaeological trenches with facies interpretations have been used to reconstruct a high-resolution alluvial history of these locations. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating methods were used at both locations with consistent results. At both sites, stratigraphy includes multiple depositional facies of both mainstem and locally-source material. Deposits consist of several sequences bound by unconformities. Ninemile Draw stratigraphy indicates three such sequences. At Tanner Bar, ages spanning the entire Holocene also reveal at least two distinct periods of deposition. Overall, the alluvium is composed of at least six discrete alluvial packages located at overlapping heights above river level throughout the canyon. Therefore, ages of the deposits cannot be distinguished by terrace level. The two oldest packages dated are early to middle Holocene, older than any

  16. 87Sr/86Sr sourcing of ponderosa pine used in Anasazi great house construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, A.C.; Betancourt, J.L.; Quade, Jay; Patchett, P.J.; Dean, J.S.; Stein, J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios shows that 10th through 12th century Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, and (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) beams from the crest of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south. Here, we extend 87Sr/86Sr analysis to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) prevalent in the architectural timber at three of the Chacoan great houses (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo). Like the architectural spruce and fir, much of the ponderosa matches the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of living trees in the Chuska Mountains. Many of the architectural ponderosa, however, have similar ratios to living trees in the La Plata and San Juan Mountains to the north and Lobo Mesa/Hosta Butte to the south. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house or time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources. The multiple and distant sources for food and timber, now based on hundreds of isotopic values from modern and archeological samples, confirm conventional wisdom about the geographic scope of the larger Chacoan system. The complexity of this procurement warns against simple generalizations based on just one species, a single class of botanical artifact, or a few isotopic values. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mobilization of selenium from the Mancos Shale and associated soils in the lower Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Mills, Taylor J.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Keith, Gabrielle; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates processes controlling mobilization of selenium in the lower part of the Uncompahgre River Basin in western Colorado. Selenium occurs naturally in the underlying Mancos Shale and is leached to groundwater and surface water by limited natural runoff, agricultural and domestic irrigation, and leakage from irrigation canals. Soil and sediment samples from the study area were tested using sequential extractions to identify the forms of selenium present in solid phases. Selenium speciation was characterized for nonirrigated and irrigated soils from an agricultural site and sediments from a wetland formed by a leaking canal. In nonirrigated areas, selenium was present in highly soluble sodium salts and gypsum. In irrigated soils, soluble forms of selenium were depleted and most selenium was associated with organic matter that was stable under near-surface weathering conditions. Laboratory leaching experiments and geochemical modeling confirm that selenium primarily is released to groundwater and surface water by dissolution of highly soluble selenium-bearing salts and gypsum present in soils and bedrock. Rates of selenium dissolution determined from column leachate experiments indicate that selenium is released most rapidly when water is applied to previously nonirrigated soils and sediment. High concentrations of extractable nitrate also were found in nonirrigated soils and bedrock that appear to be partially derived from weathered organic matter from the shale rather than from agricultural sources. Once selenium is mobilized, dissolved nitrate derived from natural sources appears to inhibit the reduction of dissolved selenium leading to elevated concentrations of selenium in groundwater. A conceptual model of selenium weathering is presented and used to explain seasonal variations in the surface-water chemistry of Loutzenhizer Arroyo, a major tributary contributor of selenium to the lower Uncompahgre River.

  18. Evaluation of the potential end use of oils produced by the ROPE copyright process from California tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1989-12-01

    The oil products produced by the rope process from Process Development Unit (PDU) run SPR-111 were evaluated for potential end use. This run was a five-day test using Arroyo Grande tar sand from California as the feed to the PDU. The distillate from knockout {number sign}2 was hydrotreated to produce a series of process intermediates. One of the intermediates was evaluated as a feedstock for the production of transportation fuels. The heavy product oil was distilled to produce a residue that was evaluated as an asphalt. Analysis of a selected process intermediate shows that it is not suitable for the production of gasoline or for use as a gasoline-blending feedstock. The process intermediate was not suitable for the production of aviation turbine fuels because of a high concentration of alkanes. However, the presence of alkanes does make the oil valuable as a feedstock for the production of diesel fuel. The heavy oil product as received from the PDU is not suitable for the production of an asphaltic material because it contains a large amount of very fine solid material. However, after filtration and distillation, the application of ASTM D-3381 specification tests to the +410{degree}C residue shows that all of the requirements are met except for the trichloroethylene solubility requirement. This value is below specification because a small amount of mineral matter was not removed during the filtrations process. Also, the residue had a very high aging index. Results from successive freeze-thaw cycling also show that the residue is comparable to petroleum asphalts when it is coated on the same appropriate aggregate. 14 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Theresa Sinicrope; Nguyen, Kim-Chi; Nguyen, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm’s effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the palm on a riparian invertebrate community in June 2011 by comparing the faunal and environmental variables associated with palm and willow canopies, trunks and ground beneath each species. The palm invertebrate community had lower abundance and diversity, fewer taxa feeding on the host (e.g., specialized hemipterans), and more taxa likely using only the plant’s physical structure (e.g., web-builders, oak moths, willow hemipterans). There were no observed effects on the ground-dwelling fauna. Faunal differences were due to the physical and trophic changes associated with palm presence, namely increased canopy density, unpalatable leaves, trunk rugosity, and litter accumulations. Palm presence and resulting community shifts may have further ecosystem-level effects through alteration of physical properties, food, and structural resources. These results were consistent with a recent study of invasive palm effects on desert spring arthropods, illustrating that effects may be relatively generalizable. Since spread of the palm is largely localized, but effects are dramatic where it does occur, we recommend combining our results with several further investigations in order to prioritize management decisions. PMID:22879991

  20. Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

    2013-12-01

    Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire.

  1. Evaluating dryland ecological and river restoration using repeat LiDAR and hydrological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, W. M.; DeLong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in the collection of multitemporal, high-resolution topographic data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have done a great deal to increase our ability to quantify the details of landscape change. Both Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) can be used to easily assess how Earth surface processes affect landscape form to a level of precision that was previously more difficult to attain. A comprehensive approach using ALSM, TLS-TLS comparison, and hydrological monitoring is being used to assess the effectiveness of a large scale ecological and river restoration effort by the Cuenca los Ojos Foundation at San Bernardino Ranch near Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. In the study area, historical arroyo cutting and changes in land use led to the abandonment of a ciénega wetland and resulted in widespread ecological destruction. The current land managers have employed engineering methods in order to restore stream and ciénega ecology, including the installation of large rock gabions, earthen berms, and concrete spillways along channels. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the use of dam and gabion structures leads to stream aggradation, flash flood dampening, and ultimately, increased available water and reestablishment of historic wetland plant and animal communities. We present results from LiDAR change detection that includes 2007-2011 ALSM to TLS change, and several 2011-2012 TLS-TLS comparisons. We also present results from streamflow monitoring, field observation, and monitoring of shallow groundwater and soil moisture conditions. Preliminary results show that channel aggradation occurs rapidly upstream of engineered structures. However, the apparent dampening of sediment transport by the structures leads to less aggradation and even incision immediately downstream of structures. Peak flood flows are decreased by the reservoirs formed behind large earthen berms. After several years of water retention

  2. Geostatistical three-dimensional modeling of oolite shoals, St. Louis Limestone, southwest Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    In the Hugoton embayment of southwestern Kansas, reservoirs composed of relatively thin (<4 m; <13.1 ft) oolitic deposits within the St. Louis Limestone have produced more than 300 million bbl of oil. The geometry and distribution of oolitic deposits control the heterogeneity of the reservoirs, resulting in exploration challenges and relatively low recovery. Geostatistical three-dimensional (3-D) models were constructed to quantify the geometry and spatial distribution of oolitic reservoirs, and the continuity of flow units within Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. Lithofacies in uncored wells were predicted from digital logs using a neural network. The tilting effect from the Laramide orogeny was removed to construct restored structural surfaces at the time of deposition. Well data and structural maps were integrated to build 3-D models of oolitic reservoirs using stochastic simulations with geometry data. Three-dimensional models provide insights into the distribution, the external and internal geometry of oolitic deposits, and the sedimentologic processes that generated reservoir intervals. The structural highs and general structural trend had a significant impact on the distribution and orientation of the oolitic complexes. The depositional pattern and connectivity analysis suggest an overall aggradation of shallow-marine deposits during pulses of relative sea level rise followed by deepening near the top of the St. Louis Limestone. Cemented oolitic deposits were modeled as barriers and baffles and tend to concentrate at the edge of oolitic complexes. Spatial distribution of porous oolitic deposits controls the internal geometry of rock properties. Integrated geostatistical modeling methods can be applicable to other complex carbonate or siliciclastic reservoirs in shallow-marine settings. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Tomographic PIV: principles and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarano, F.

    2013-01-01

    A survey is given of the major developments in three-dimensional velocity field measurements using the tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The appearance of tomo-PIV dates back seven years from the present review (Elsinga et al 2005a 6th Int. Symp. PIV (Pasadena, CA)) and this approach has rapidly spread as a versatile, robust and accurate technique to investigate three-dimensional flows (Arroyo and Hinsch 2008 Topics in Applied Physics vol 112 ed A Schröder and C E Willert (Berlin: Springer) pp 127-54) and turbulence physics in particular. A considerable number of applications have been achieved over a wide range of flow problems, which requires the current status and capabilities of tomographic PIV to be reviewed. The fundamental aspects of the technique are discussed beginning from hardware considerations for volume illumination, imaging systems, their configurations and system calibration. The data processing aspects are of uppermost importance: image pre-processing, 3D object reconstruction and particle motion analysis are presented with their fundamental aspects along with the most advanced approaches. Reconstruction and cross-correlation algorithms, attaining higher measurement precision, spatial resolution or higher computational efficiency, are also discussed. The exploitation of 3D and time-resolved (4D) tomographic PIV data includes the evaluation of flow field pressure on the basis of the flow governing equation. The discussion also covers a-posteriori error analysis techniques. The most relevant applications of tomo-PIV in fluid mechanics are surveyed, covering experiments in air and water flows. In measurements in flow regimes from low-speed to supersonic, most emphasis is given to the complex 3D organization of turbulent coherent structures.

  4. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California

    PubMed Central

    Holston, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters.

  6. The effects of fire-flood events on the sediment yield of a coastal California watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, J. A.; Hatten, J. A.; Gray, A. B.; Watson, E. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire can dramatically alter the physical and geochemical conditions of the landscape and modify rates of runoff and erosion. The occurrence of two large wildfires in the Arroyo Seco watershed (293 km2) of California along with water and sediment sampling before and after both fires provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the watershed-scale effects of wildfire on water, sediment and carbon fluxes. Here we show that the effects of the two wildfires differed markedly. The 1977 Marble Cone wildfire was followed by an exceptionally wet winter, which resulted in concentrations and fluxes of both fine and coarse suspended sediment that were approximately 35-fold greater than average (sediment yield during the 1977-78 water year was 11,000 t/km2/yr). We suggest that this kind of fire-flood event has a recurrence interval that is greater than 1000 yr. In contrast, the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire was followed by a drier than normal year, and although suspended-sediment fluxes and concentrations were significantly elevated compared to those expected during unburned conditions, the sediment yield during 2008-09 water year was less than 1/100th of the previous fire (90 t/km2/yr). We suggest that these differences resulted from the presence and lack of, respectively, precipitation-enhanced erosion processes, such as rilling and mass movements. These concepts are explored further using a stochastic model of sediment yield, which suggests that the long-term effects of wildfire are greater suspended-sediment fluxes and exceptionally rare fire-flood events (~1000-yr recurrence) such as observed in 1977-78 that export suspended sediment at rates at least an order-of-magnitude greater than would be expected without wildfire.

  7. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California.

    PubMed

    Holston, Kevin C

    2005-12-22

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  8. Erosion assessment at the Petroglyph National Monument area, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    Areas of the Petroglyph National Monument, specifically those located along the West Mesa escarpment, are being affected by erosion and gullying. A reconnaissance along the 17-mile-long escarpment identified 50 gullies. The gullies were given a qualitative ranking of Class I, least erosion, to Class IV, highest erosion. Of the 50 gullies identified, 21 were assigned Class I, 22 to Class II, 6 to Class III, and 1 to Class IV. Although the gullies may not be a direct threat to petroglyphs, the effects of gullying may have a greater effect on the aesthetics of the monument and the residences located downgradient from a gully. Most of the gullies were found along the northern part of the escarpment. This area, which is more developed than the southern areas of the escarpment, contains many dirt roads and nonpaved foot and bicycle paths. These features channel surface runoff and increase erosion. Thirty of the 50 gullies were noted as being connected to the runoff from dirt roads. High-intensity storms during the summer of 1991 may have caused or increased gullying. Analyses of these storms indicate recurrence intervals of rainfall of no more than 2 years. Indirect measurements of peak discharge in La Boca Negra Arroyo after the August 22, 1991, storm indicate that this runoff event may have a frequency of no more than 10 years. Regional frequency reports on rainfall and data collected at the rain gages indicate that gullying and erosion that occurred during the summer of 1991 were not a result of infrequent rainfall or runoff events.

  9. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Sewage Samples to Determine Oral Polio Vaccine Circulation Duration and Mutation After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738

  10. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán.

  11. Supplement analysis for Greenville Gate access to Kirschbaum Field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program proposes to provide additional access to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area. This additional access would alleviate traffic congestion at the East Gate entrance to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from Greenville Road during periods of heavy construction for the NIF. The new access would be located along the northeastern boundary of LLNL, about 305 m (1,000 ft) north of the East Gate entrance. The access road would extend from Greenville Road to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area and would traverse an existing storm water drainage channel. Two culverts, side by side, and a compacted road base would be installed across the channel. The security fence that runs parallel to Greenville Road would be modified to accommodate this new entrance and a vehicle gate would be installed at the entrance of Kirschbaum Field. The exiting shoulder along Greenville Road would be converted into a new turn lane for trucks entering the new gate. This analysis evaluates the impacts of constructing the Kirschbaum Field bridge and access gate at a different location than was analyzed in the NIF Project specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and the Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. Issues of concern addressed in this supplement analysis include potential impacts to wetlands downstream of the access bridge, potential impacts to the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) listed as threatened on the federal listing pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1974, and potential impacts on the 100-yr floodplain along the Arroyo Las Positas.

  12. Modern sedimentation patterns in Laguna de Medina, Southern Spain, derived from lake surface and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van ´t Hoff, Jasmijn; Schröder, Tabea; Reicherter, Klaus; Held, Peter; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014 and March 2015, a 25.66 m long sediment core (Co1313) was retrieved from the centre of Laguna de Medina, a small endorheic salt lake in Cádiz, SW Spain. This record covers the last 9.000 years, thus providing an unique archive for Holocene climatic and environmental changes with extraordinary high temporal resolution. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analysed on the sediment core, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and its catchment under known environmental conditions were investigated on a set of 46 lake sediment surface samples and 32 soil surface sediment samples from the lake and the close surroundings, respectively. These samples were analysed for bulk mineralogy (XRD), chemical composition (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (TS) contents (elemental analyser). Based on the mineralogical, geochemical and granulometrical data, the lake can be divided into four zones. The northern shore is characterized by particularly high quartz contents and coarse grain sizes. This reflects input from ancient terraces of the Guadalete River that are exposed in that area. The southern shore is characterised by high calcite contents due to sediment supply from the Cretaceous ´Capas rojaś, a series of Subbetic deep-water marl- and limestones. The southeastern and to a lesser extend the northwestern shores show particularly high dolomite contents, reflecting the Triassic dolomites outcroping in the southeastern catchment. The southeastern shore furthermore is also influenced by strong terrestrial input of the Triassic Keuper facies from the most important inlet, Arroyo Fuente Bermeja, as reflected by high contents of Ti, K, Al, Fe, Rb in the lake sediments. The last zone comprises only a small part of the western shore and is characterized by a relatively high gypsum amount. This does not reflect the geology in the catchment

  13. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Burton, C.A.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the structure of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages and their associations with environmental variables at 17 sites on streams of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin in Southern California. All assemblages exhibited strong differences between highly urbanized sites in the valley and the least-impacted sites at the transition between the valley and undeveloped mountains. Results within the urbanized area differed among taxa. Periphyton assemblages were dominated by diatoms (>75% of total taxa). Periphyton assemblages within the urbanized area were not associated with any of the measured environmental variables, suggesting that structure of urban periphyton assemblages might be highly dependent on colonization dynamics. The number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) taxa included in macroinvertebrate assemblages ranged from 0 to 6 at urbanized sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages had significant correlations with several environmental variables within the urban area, suggesting that stream size and permanence were important determinants of distribution among the species able to survive conditions in urban streams. Only 4 of 16 fish species collected were native to the drainage. Fish assemblages of urbanized sites included two native species, arroyo chub Gila orcuttii and Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae, at sites that were intermediate in coefficient of variation of bank-full width, depth, bed substrate, and water temperature. Alien species dominated urbanized sites with lesser or greater values for these variables. These results suggest that urban streams can be structured to enhance populations of native fishes. Continued study of urban streams in the Santa Ana River basin and elsewhere will contribute to the basic understanding of ecological principles and help preserve the maximum ecological value of streams in highly urbanized areas.

  14. Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

  15. Paleoearthquake recurrence on the East Paradise fault zone, metropolitan Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon

    2000-01-01

    A fortuitous exposure of the East Paradise fault zone near Arroyo de las Calabacillas has helped us determine a post-middle Pleistocene history for a long-forgotten Quaternary fault in the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Mapping of two exposures of the fault zone allowed us to measure a total vertical offset of 2.75 m across middle Pleistocene fluvial and eolian deposits and to estimate individual surface-faulting events of about 1, 0.5, and 1.25 m. These measurements and several thermoluminescence ages allow us to calculate a long-term average slip rate of 0.01 ± 0.001 mm/yr and date two surface-faulting events to 208 ± 25 ka and 75 ± 7 ka. The youngest event probably occurred in the late Pleistocene, sometime after 75 ± 7 ka. These data yield a single recurrence interval of 133 ± 26 ka and an average recurrence interval of 90 ± 10 ka. However, recurrence intervals are highly variable because the two youngest events occurred in less than 75 ka. Offsets of 0.5-1.25 m and a fault length of 13-20 km indicate that surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes on the East Paradise fault zone had probable Ms or Mw magnitudes of 6.8-7.0. Although recurrence intervals are long on the East Paradise fault zone, these data are significant because they represent some of the first published slip rate, paleoearthquake magnitude, and recurrence information for any of the numerous Quaternary faults in the rapidly growing Albuquerque-Rio Rancho metropolitan area.

  16. Field guide to Cretaceous-tertiary boundary sections in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gerta; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Adatte, Thierry; MacLeod, Norman; Lowe, Donald R.

    This guide was prepared for the field trip to the KT elastic sequence of northeastern Mexico, 5-8 February 1994, in conjunction with the Conference on New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, held in Houston, Texas. The four-day excursion offers an invaluable opportunity to visit three key outcrops: Arroyo El Mimbral, La Lajilla, and El Pinon. These and other outcrops of this sequence have recently been interpreted as tsunami deposits produced by the meteorite impact event that produced the 200 to 300-km Chicxulub basin in Yucatan, and distributed ejecta around the world approximately 65 m.y. ago that today is recorded as a thin clay layer found at the K/T boundary. The impact tsunami interpretation for these rocks has not gone unchallenged, and others examining the outcrops arrive at quite different conclusions: not tsunami deposits but turbidites; not KT at all but 'upper Cretaceous.' Indeed, it is in hopes of resolving this debate through field discussion, outcrop evaluation, and sampling that led the organizers of the conference to sanction this field trip. This field guide provides participants with background information on the KT clastic sequence outcrops and is divided into two sections. The first section provides regional and logistical context for the outcrops and a description of the clastic sequence. The second section presents three representative interpretations of the outcrops by their advocates. There is clearly no way that these models can be reconciled and so two, if not all three, must be fundamentally wrong. Readers of this guide should keep in mind that many basic outcrop observations that these models are based upon remain unresolved. While great measures were taken to ensure that the information in the description section was as objective as possible, many observations are rooted in interpretations and the emphasis placed on certain observations depends to some degree upon the perspective of the author.

  17. Geoarchaeological investigations at the Winger site: A Late Paleoindian bison bonebed in Southwestern Kansas, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandel, R.D.; Hofman, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Winger site is a deeply buried Late Paleoindian bison bonebed in a playa basin on the High Plains of midcontinental North America. The site is one of few stratified, Late Paleoindian bison kills recorded in the region. The bonebed is exposed in the bank of an intermittent stream that cut into the edge of the playa basin. Avocational archaeologists excavated a small portion of the exposed bonebed in the early 1970s and reported flakes in association with the skeletal remains. Limited reinvestigations of the site were undertaken in 2001, and a monthlong excavation was conducted in 2002 to assess the stratigraphy, geochronology, and archaeology. The bonebed is 35 ni long in a buried soil developed in fine-grained basin fill overlain by early Holocene alluvium (arroyo fill). Recent alluvium overlies a soil developed in the early Holocene alluvium, and modern deposits of eolian sand 2 to to < 35 cm thick mantle the site area. Artifacts found at the site include two Allen points and a flake tool discovered in the bone bed, and a biface and Allen point fragment in disturbed bonebed deposits. Excavation of 9 m2 of the bone bed revealed some fully articulated skeletons, and taphonomic observations suggest some of the bison collapsed while standing in a playa or pond margin setting. The remains of at least six bison are represented in the excavated sample from 2002, but many more animals are represented in the bonebed. A 14C age of ca. 9000 yr B.P. was determined on collagen from bison rib fragments. This age is consistent with the diagnostic artifacts found at Winger. ?? 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Peltephilidae and Mesotheriidae (Mammalia) from late Miocene strata of Northern Chilean Andes, Caragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Moreno, Karen; Bobe, René; Carrano, Matthew T.; García, Marcelo; Corgne, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Until now, only one Cenozoic fossil mammal from the Chilean Precordillera (Arica and Parinacota Region) has been reported, Caraguatypotherium munozi (Mesotheriidae: Notoungulata). In this study, we describe a fourth specimen of C. munozi and a new armadillo species, Epipeltephilus caraguensis (Peltephilidae: Cingulata), both collected from a new site closer to the fossiliferous outcrops of the Caragua area (Serravallian - Tortonian). E. caraguensis differs from other members of the family in having: two sulci in the articular surface of the mobile osteoderm; having a tubular, rough and raised anterior edge; a conspicuous transverse depression; and four widely spaced foramina. This taxon represents the youngest known peltephilid from intermediate latitudes and indicates a wide geographic distribution (Patagonia to Central Andes) of the family just prior to its extinction. The new mesothere specimen is 19% larger than previous records. The revision of the dental features of C. munozi allowed the identification of an ambiguous trait in its original diagnosis, i.e. an enamel fracture was misinterpreted with the presence of a posterior sulcus on the talonid of the m3, suggesting that further taxonomic and systematic revision for the Caragua mesothere is necessary. Although the fossil record from the Caragua area is still scarce, mesotheriines seem to be abundant at this latitude, just as has been observed at several early to late Miocene sites such as Chucal (Chile), Cerdas and Nazareno (Bolivia), as well as in southern regions such as Arroyo Chasicó and Mendoza (Argentina). The presence of a new peltephilid species in Caragua sustains the hypothesis of provincialism during the Miocene in intermediate latitudes. Our findings also provide further support for probable faunal movements between intermediate and higher latitudes rather than to lower ones.

  19. Eleventh workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Counsil, J.R.

    1986-01-23

    The Eleventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 21-23, 1986. The attendance was up compared to previous years, with 144 registered participants. Ten foreign countries were represented: Canada, England, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and Turkey. There were 38 technical presentations at the Workshop which are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Six technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published and one presentation is not published. In addition to these 45 technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by J. E. Mock from the Department of Energy. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Jim Combs of Geothermal Resources International, Inc. We thank him for his presentation on GEO geothermal developments at The Geysers. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the Workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, E. Iglesias, A. Moench, S. Prestwich, and K. Pruess. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank J.W. Cook, J.R. Hartford, M.C. King, A.E. Osugi, P. Pettit, J. Arroyo, J. Thorne, and T.A. Ramey for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Eleventh Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract DE-AS03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. January 1986 H.J. Ramey, Jr. P. Kruger R.N. Horne W.E. Brigham F.G. Miller J.R. Counsil

  20. Can Access to Data Prevent Army Suicides?

    PubMed Central

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Kelly, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade, the U.S. Army has invested significant resources in its efforts to prevent suicide and respond to a well-documented increase in suicides among active-duty soldiers. Among the efforts under way is a program to develop an information system that provides leaders with data on individual- and unit-level suicide risk factors and could serve as the basis for prevention and intervention activities. One shortfall of this approach is the lack of guidance on how Army leaders should interpret and use this information. To address this gap, RAND Arroyo Center convened a group of experts to reach consensus on recommended actions for leaders who are informed that an individual soldier exhibits a risk factor for suicide or that their unit exhibits an atypically high prevalence of suicide risk factors or a concerning trend of suicidality. The experts generally agreed that information on suicide risk indicators could be useful to unit leaders if they also received guidance on appropriate actions from behavioral health providers—and central to any response is the need to keep information about individual soldiers confidential. At the unit level, data on atypically high-risk behaviors should prompt a “root cause” analysis to discern whether the heightened prevalence is a reflection of actual behaviors or can be explained by other factors. The experts concluded that unit-level suicide trend data have limited utility for leader action because suicide is a relatively rare event and because individuals assigned to a unit change over time. The results of the exercise led to several recommendations on the use of data in response planning for Army leaders and directions for future research. PMID:28083441

  1. Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.

    2004-12-01

    A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

  2. The effects of wildfire on the sediment yield of a coastal California watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Hatten, J.A.; Pasternack, G.B.; Gray, A.B.; Goni, M.A.; Wheatcroft, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of two wildfires separated by 31 yr in the chaparral-dominated Arroyo Seco watershed (293 km) of California provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of wildfire on suspended-sediment yield. Here, we compile discharge and suspended-sediment sampling data from before and after the fires and show that the effects of the postfire responses differed markedly. The 1977 Marble Cone wildfire was followed by an exceptionally wet winter, which resulted in concentrations and fluxes of both fine and coarse suspended sediment that were ˜35 times greater than average (sediment yield during the 1978 water year was 11,000 t/km2/yr). We suggest that the combined 1977–1978 fire and flood had a recurrence interval of greater than 1000 yr. In contrast, the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire was followed by a drier than normal year, and although suspended-sediment fluxes and concentrations were significantly elevated compared to those expected for unburned conditions, the sediment yield during the 2009 water year was less than 1% of the post–Marble Cone wildfire yield. After the first postfire winters, sediment concentrations and yield decreased with time toward prefire relationships and continued to have significant rainfall dependence. We hypothesize that the differences in sediment yield were related to precipitation-enhanced hillslope erosion processes, such as rilling and mass movements. The millennial-scale effects of wildfire on sediment yield were explored further using Monte Carlo simulations, and these analyses suggest that infrequent wildfires followed by floods increase long-term suspended-sediment fluxes markedly. Thus, we suggest that the current approach of estimating sediment yield from sediment rating curves and discharge data—without including periodic perturbations from wildfires—may grossly underestimate actual sediment yields.

  3. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    utilized Santa Barbara coastal zone, including Arroyo Burro Beach Park, Leadbetter Beach, East Beach, and “Butterfly Beach.” There are ongoing coastal erosion problems associated with both development and natural processes; between 1933–1934 and 1998, cliff erosion in the map area occurred at rates of about 0.1 to 1 m/yr, the largest amount (63 m) occurring at Arroyo Burro in the western part of the map area. In addition, development of the Santa Barbara Harbor, which began in 1928, lead to shoaling west of the harbor as the initial breakwater trapped sand, as well as to coastal erosion east of the harbor. Since 1959, annual harbor dredging has mitigated at least some of the downcoast erosion problems. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Drift rates have been estimated to be about 400,000 tons/yr at Santa Barbara Harbor. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) San Ysidro Creek, Oak Creek, Montecito Creek, Sycamore Creek, Mission Creek, Arroyo Burro, and Atascadero Creek. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 40 to 50 km southeast of Santa Barbara, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.4° to 0.8°) so that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are about 45 m in the east and about 75 m in the west. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north

  4. PubMed

    De Abajo Larriba, Ana Beatriz; Díaz Rodríguez, Ángel; González-Gallego, Javier; Peleteiro Cobo, Beatriz; Capón Álvarez, Jessica; Mahmoud Atoui, Omar; Méndez Rodríguez, Enrique; De Abajo Olea, Serafín; Lumbreras González, Víctor; Minniti, Caterina

    2016-09-20

    Objetivos: estimar las actividades preventivas que realizan los pacientes diagnosticados de enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) en la provincia de León.Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, transversal, multicéntrico (30 centros de salud de la provincia de León). Incluyó pacientes mayores de 35 años diagnosticados y tratados de EPOC. Variables a estudio: edad, sexo, hábitat, datos antropométricos, tabaquismo, estado nutricional, ejercicio físico, vacunación antigripal, vacunación, antineumocócica (VNP23 y VNC13), fenotipo, gravedad, reagudizaciones y hospitalizaciones. Los resultados se expresan con sus IC al 95,5%.Resultados: se incluyeron 833 pacientes, el 85,8% varones, edad media: 64,69 años (53,66-75,61) y 20,65 años (4,47-36,8) de evolución de la EPOC. El 86,67% (80,30-93,30) tenían antecedentes de tabaquismo (n = 722), de 35,26 años de evolución (17,87-52,64), consumían 28,36 paquetes al año (9,60-46,86), p < 0,001, siendo el 58% fumadores severos. En fumadores activos (n = 288) la intervención más efectiva fue terapia cognitivo-conductual más vareniclina, con abstinencias del 29,86%. En total dejaron de fumar el 51,05% (49,49-52,70) de los pacientes con EPOC, p < 0,001. El 73,67% (71,78-75,65) realizaba ejercicio prescrito, el 88,76% (84,82-90,7) realizaba dieta equilibrada, el 89,7% (87,8-91,8) estaba vacunado frente a la gripe, siendo esta más frecuente en los mayores de 65 años y hospitalizados, p < 0,001. El 9,61% (7,7-11,6) de los no vacunados tuvo reagudizaciones que requirieron ingreso hospitalario, p < 0,001. La tasa de vacunación con VNP23 fue del 52,8% (49,3-56,4) vs.4,97% (3,0-6,61) de VNC13, p < 0,05.Conclusiones: las actividades preventivas en los pacientes con EPOC se realizan de forma óptima en nuestro entorno, superior a la media nacional, aunque se deben lograr mayores tasas de cobertura de vacunación frente al neumococo.

  5. PREVALENCE OF DISORDERED EATING ATTITUDES AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN WUHU, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiegen; Lu, Mi; Tian, Li; Lu, Wei; Meng, Fanxiang; Chen, Changang; Tang, Tianmiao; He, Lianping; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: el proposito de este estudio es evaluar la situación actual de trastornos alimenticios y sus factores relacionados entre los estudiantes universitarios de la provincia de Anhui, y proporcionar una base para la intervención sanitaria. Métodos: este es un estudio transversal. En el estudio se incluyeron estudiantes universitarios a los que se les realizaron exámenes de salud rutinarios y que completaron cuestionarios que consisten en información general y sobre las actitudes alimentarias: test-26 (EAT-26). Según el test EAT-26, una puntuación de 20 o mayor indica que el sujeto presenta trastornos alimentarios. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el software de SPSS13.0. Resultados: en el estudio se incluyeron un total de 1.328 estudiantes de una universidad de Wuhu (469 hombres y 859 mujeres). En nuestro estudio, la proporción de trastornos alimentarios de hombres y mujeres y el total de estudiantes fueron 5,3%, 4,0%, 4,5%, respectivamente. La proporción de trastornos alimentarios entre los estudiantes cuya familia poseía unos ingresos anuales < 10.000 RMB, 10.000-30.000 RMB, 30.000-60.000 RMB y > 60.000 fueron 4,2%, un 3,9%, 4.3% y 6,9%, respectivamente. Un hallazgo interesante es que los estudiantes son más propensos a padecer trastornos alimentarios si sus padres tienen más educación. Conclusiones: nuestra investigación revela que la situación actual respecto a trastornos alimentarios en la provincia de Anhui es relativamente baja. El nivel de educación de los padres puede ser relacionado con las actitudes de los estudiantes universitarios. Es esencial aumentar la conciencia y la comprensión de los trastornos de la alimentación y sus factores de riesgo asociados con respecto a los estudiantes universitarios cuyos padres tienen una educación superior.

  6. PubMed

    De Abajo Larriba, Ana Beatriz; Méndez Rodríguez, Enrique; González-Gallego, Javier; Capón Álvarez, Jessica; Díaz Rodríguez, Ángel; Peleteiro Cobo, Beatriz; Mahmoud Atoui, Omar; De Abajo Olea, Serafín; Martínez de Mandojana Hernández, Juan; Lumbreras González, Víctor

    2016-11-29

    Objetivos: estimar el porcentaje de pacientes con EPOC adiestrados en la consulta para el manejo de inhaladores en la provincia de León.Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, transversal, multicéntrico (30 centros de salud de la provincia de León). Incluyó pacientes mayores de 35 años diagnosticados y tratados de EPOC. Variables a estudio: edad, sexo, hábitat, datos antropométricos, estado nutricional, tabaquismo, espirometría postboroncodilatadora, disnea (mMRC), reagudizaciones, gravedad (Índice Bodex), hospitalizaciones, tratamiento, seguimiento y caracterización del fenotipo (GesEOPC 2014). Los resultados se expresan con sus IC al 95,5%.Resultados: se incluyeron 833 pacientes, el 85,8% varones, con edad media de 64,69 (53,66-75,61) años y 20,65 (4,47-36,8) años evolución de la EPOC. Empleaban 1,88 (1,64-2,16) dispositivos inhaladores de media, p = 0,006, (57% de forma correcta, 23% regular y el 20% incorrecta). El 20,9% no recibieron adiestramiento para usar inhaladores frente al 79,1% adiestrados, p < 0,001, (9,4% por neumólogos, 20,3% enfermeras y 43,5% médicos familia, p = 0,002). Los pacientes bien adiestrados realizan mejor el tratamiento, en el 60,60% (58,91-62,29), p = 0,002. No hubo diferencias significativas en el adiestramiento por tabaquismo, gravedad, ingresos hospitalarios, ni calidad de vida, obteniendo una reducción significativa del número de agudizaciones, siendo de 1,59 (1,12-2,15) reagudizaciones medias en el grupo adiestrado frente a 3,29 (2,50-4,11) en los no adiestrados, p = 0,002.Conclusiones: el nivel de adiestramiento en el uso de inhaladores en los pacientes con EPOC es insuficiente en nuestro medio. La mejor formación de los profesionales y la simplificación de los dispositivos contribuirán a que un mayor número de pacientes realicen el tratamiento de forma adecuada.

  7. [Nutrition-related risk factors in autonomous non-institutionalized adult elderly people].

    PubMed

    Montejano Lozoya, A Raimunda; Ferrer Diego, Rosa M; Clemente Marín, Gonzalo; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves; Sanjuan Quiles, Angela; Ferrer Ferrándiz, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    Objetivos: Determinar factores asociados al riesgo nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos no institucionalizados. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 660 adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados. Los participantes fueron evaluados en 12 centros sociales (provincia de Valencia) seleccionados mediante un muestreo estratificado por bloques. Criterios de inclusión: tener 65 años o más, vivir en el domicilio, poseer autonomía funcional, residir más de un año en la provincia de Valencia, acudir periódicamente a los centros sociales y colaborar voluntariamente en el estudio. Se usa el MNA para la valoración nutricional y se recogen factores asociados al estado nutricional en una encuesta adhoc. Resultados: De los 660 sujetos estudiados, el 48,33% son hombres y el 51,67% mujeres, la edad media es de 74,3±6,57 años. El 23,33% presentan riesgo de malnutrición. Los factores independientes asociados al riesgo de malnutrición, con el odds de prevalencia ajustada, son: no poseer estudios (OR=2,29), sentir soledad (OR=2,34), mantener dietas controladas (OR=0,55), un apetito escaso (OR=2,56), número de fracciones en la ingesta diaria (OR=0,66), sufrir xerostomía (OR=1,72), tener dificultades para deglutir (OR=2,30), el número de enfermedades crónicas (OR=1,38) y haber sufrido enfermedades agudas en el último año (OR=2,03). Un incremento en el IMC se asocia a un buen estado nutricional (OR=0,85). Estos factores nos han permitido clasificar correctamente a un 80% de los pacientes encuestados. Conclusiones: Tener numerosas enfermedades crónicas, haber sufrido enfermedades agudas recientes, mantener dietas sin control, sufrir xerostomía y dificultad para deglutir, comer pocas veces al día y con escaso apetito, sentirse solo y no tener estudios son factores que, permiten predecir el riesgo de malnutrición en los adultos mayores.

  8. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain; Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortes Castell, E; Rizo-Baeza, M M; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Rizo-Baeza, J; Gil Guillén, V

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: La edad materna es una variable preponderante en el análisis epidemiológico del nacimiento prematuro. Los estudios muestran que en las edades extremas de la vida materna hay un riesgo de nacimiento prematuro que genera una tasa elevada de morbilidad neonatal. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de las edades extremas de mujeres residentes en la provincia de Albacete sobre de nacimientos prematuros. Método: Se realizó un estudio explicativo, retrospectivo de casos-control durante el periodo de 1 de enero de 2008 a 31 de diciembre de 2011. El estudio se basó en la revisión de los registros de recién nacidos del Centro de Cribado Neonatal de la provincia de Alicante. Se incluyeron todos los recién nacidos pretérmino, es decir, entre las semanas 22 y 36 de gestación (5.295 de 78.391 recién nacidos, lo que representa un 6,75% de prematuridad), y una muestra aleatoria de los nacimientos con más de 37 semanas de gestación (grupo control). Se estudió la edad materna como variable independiente y la prematuridad como variable dependiente. Resultados: El estudio muestra claramente un mayor riesgo de prematuridad entre las madres adolescentes en comparación con el siguiente grupo más cercano en edad, lo que se confirmó por una distribución significativamente distinta con el test Chi cuadrado (p < 0,0001) con una OD para los grandes prematuros de 2,41 (1,51-3,24) y de 1,71 (1,32-2,19) para los prematuros. Esta probabilidad también fue mayor en madres con edades de más de 40 años con una OD de 1,86 (1,39-2,48) y de 1,66 (1,44- 1,91) para recién nacidos grandes prematuros y prematuros, respectivamente. Discusión: Los resultados muestran claramente que las madres adolescentes y las más mayores tienen mayor riesgo de hijos prematuros o con bajo peso al nacimiento, lo que motiva la necesidad de establecer intervenciones educacionales para disminuir el problema, a partir de los resultados de esta investigación.

  9. PubMed

    Martínez Carrión, José Miguel; Cámara, Antonio D; Pérez-Castroviejo, Pedro María

    2016-12-12

    Objetivo: analizar la geografía del estado nutricional en España y su evolución entre mediados del siglo xixy comienzos del siglo xx, etapa previa a la transición nutricional con alta prevalencia de malnutrición.Métodos: se utilizan datos antropométricos agregados (promedios provinciales de estatura) del reclutamiento militar en 1858 y 1913, así como promedios provinciales de estatura y peso procedentes de una revisión realizada entre 119.571 soldados en 1903-1906. Con estos datos se elaboran cartografía y estadísticos descriptivos.Resultados: los parámetros antropométricos de los españoles se situaban entre los valores de complexión más bajos de Europa antes de la transición nutricional. Entre 1858 y 1913, la altura media creció solo 1,43 cm. En ese periodo hubo cambios significativos en la geografía antropométrica marcados por la configuración de una polaridad nutricional a las puertas de la I Guerra Mundial: las provincias del centro y del sur de país exhiben mayor incidencia de la malnutrición crónica que las provincias del arco Noreste, que disfrutan de ventaja relativa en términos nutricionales.Conclusión:las desigualdades territoriales que configuraron una geografía polarizada del estado nutricional en España pueden asociarse en parte a los cambios ambientales del periodo, caracterizados por el inicio de la modernización y la industrialización y, asimismo, por la privación derivada de las crisis agrarias, las enfermedades y el relativo atraso tecnológico. Se destaca la relevancia de la historia antropométrica para el estudio de los niveles de vida en poblaciones del pasado y del proceso de transición nutricional.

  10. PubMed

    De Abajo Larriba, Ana Beatriz; Méndez Rodríguez, Enrique; González-Gallego, Javier; Capón Álvarez, Jessica; Díaz Rodríguez, Ángel; Peleteiro Cobo, Beatriz; Mahmoud Atoui, Omar; De Abajo Olea, Serafín; Lumbreras González, Víctor; Martínez de Mandojana Hernández, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de los fenotipos de enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) en la provincia de León.Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, transversal, multicéntrico (30 centros de salud de la provincia de León). Incluyó pacientes mayores de 35 años diagnosticados y tratados de EPOC. Variables a estudio: edad, sexo, hábitat, datos antropométricos, tabaquismo, espirometría posbroncodilatadora, disnea (mMRC), reagudizaciones, gravedad (índice Bodex), hospitalizaciones, tratamiento, seguimiento y caracterización del fenotipo (GesEOPC 2014). Los resultados se expresan con sus IC al 95,5%.Resultados: se incluyeron 833 pacientes, el 85,8% varones, edad media: 64,69 (53,66-75,61) años y 20,65 (4,47-36,8) años de evolución de la EPOC. El 86,67% (80,30-93,30) habían fumado. Prevalencia de fenotipos: 58,8% (55,2-61,9) no agudizador, 13,6% (11,3-16,3) FMEA, 10,8% (8,8-13,3) agudizador con enfisema y 16,7% (14,2-19,3) agudizador con bronquitis crónica, p < 0,05. En el fenotipo no reagudizador predominan las formas leves y son controlados por médicos de familia. En los agudizadores predominan las formas graves y el seguimiento es compartido por médicos de familia y neumólogos. Las reagudizaciones son más frecuentes en los fenotipos agudizadores con bronquitis crónica (40%), con enfisema (27%) y FMEA (23%), p = 0,004. Los fenotipos agudizadores con bronquitis crónica tienen una media de 6 reagudizaciones, 4 ingresos y 4 fármacos prescritos/año. Los fenotipos agudizadores con enfisema 5,7 reagudizaciones, 2,8 ingresos y 3,1 fármacos prescritos/año. Los FMEA 5 reagudizaciones, 1 ingreso y 2,6 fármacos prescritos/año, p < 0,001.Conclusiones: los fenotipos clínicos se postulan como dianas terapéuticas y pronósticas. Conocer su prevalencia permitirá una planificación terapéutica personalizada y mejor reasignación de recursos para el control y seguimiento de la EPOC.

  11. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  12. Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

    Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion

  13. The Strontium Fingerprint and Footprint: Using 87Sr/86Sr to Find the Sources and Range of Architectural Timber Acquisition of Great House Construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Reynolds, A. C.; Quade, J.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the spatial and temporal patterns of timber acquisition by great house builders in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios from annually-dated, architectural logs in 10^{th} to 12^{th} century structures are compared to the 87Sr/86Sr of modern tree stands from the surrounding mountains. Although not a stable isotope system, the long half-life of the 87Sr parent (87Rb, t1/2 = 48.8 Ga) yields a stable isotope system on the timescales used to determine the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. The small mass difference among strontium's isotopes eliminates measurable biologic or kinetic fractionation at earth surface conditions. Strontium tracer studies, however, do require distinct end-member ratios to be feasible. Strontium isotopes, alone or in combination with other isotopes, provide a simple way to study and trace the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. Over the 150 km-wide Chaco Basin, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern trees range from 0.7055 to 0.7192. 87Sr/86Sr ratios from this and other studies show that during great house construction Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away in all directions. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) architectural beams from the high crests of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south, and (3) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the low slopes of the La Platas and San Juan Mountains to the north, the San Pedro Mountains to the east, the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains and nearby mesas. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo) or by time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources from the beginning of large scale construction in or around Chaco Canyon. This is contrary to the view that

  14. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  15. Alkaline magmatism in the Amambay area, NE Paraguay: The Cerro Sarambí complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Velázquez, V. F.; Azzone, R. G.; Paula, G. S.

    2011-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in the northeastern region of Paraguay (Amambay Province) is represented by stocks, plugs, dikes, and dike swarms emplaced into Carboniferous to Triassic-Jurassic sediments and Precambrian rocks. This magmatism is tectonically related to the Ponta Porã Arch, a NE-trending structural feature, and has the Cerro Sarambí and Cerro Chiriguelo carbonatite complexes as its most significant expressions. Other alkaline occurrences found in the area are the Cerro Guazú and the small bodies of Cerro Apuá, Arroyo Gasory, Cerro Jhú, Cerro Tayay, and Cerro Teyú. The alkaline rocks comprise ultramafic-mafic, syenitic, and carbonatitic petrographic associations in addition to lithologies of variable composition and texture occurring as dikes; fenites are described in both carbonatite complexes. Alkali feldspar and clinopyroxene, ranging from diopside to aegirine, are the most abundant minerals, with feldspathoids (nepheline, analcime), biotite, and subordinate Ti-rich garnet; minor constituents are Fe-Ti oxides and cancrinite as the main alteration product from nepheline. Chemically, the Amambay silicate rocks are potassic to highly potassic and have miaskitic affinity, with the non-cumulate intrusive types concentrated mainly in the saturated to undersaturated areas in silica syenitic fields. Fine-grained rocks are also of syenitic affiliation or represent more mafic varieties. The carbonatitic rocks consist dominantly of calciocarbonatites. Variation diagrams plotting major and trace elements vs. SiO 2 concentration for the Cerro Sarambí rocks show positive correlations for Al 2O 3, K 2O, and Rb, and negative ones for TiO 2, MgO, Fe 2O 3, CaO, P 2O 5, and Sr, indicating that fractional crystallization played an important role in the formation of the complex. Incompatible elements normalized to primitive mantle display positive spikes for Rb, La, Pb, Sr, and Sm, and negative for Nb-Ta, P, and Ti, as these negative anomalies are

  16. Developing a geomorphic approach for ranking watersheds for rehabilitation, Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Cheama, A.; Lalio, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of past erosion problems on the Zuni Indian Reservation in western New Mexico, the US Congress in 1990 authorized the Zuni Tribe to begin a program for watershed rehabilitation. This paper describes an approach to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation for the Zuni Reservation. The approach was based on data collected during a 3-year study on geomorphic and anthropogenic characteristics of the Rio Nutria Watershed, including data on (i) arroyo cross-sectional changes, (ii) erosion-control structures, and (iii) sheetwash erosion. Results of this 3-year study indicated that 61 of 85 channel cross-sections aggraded and channels with lower width-to-depth ratios eroded. Results on assessment of erosion-control structures, some dating back to the 1930's, indicated that 60% of earthen dams and 22% of rock-and-brush structures were breached or flanked in the Rio Nutria Watershed. Sheetwash erosion measured on five land-cover sites (sagebrush, pasture, chained pin??on and juniper, unchained pin??on and juniper, and ponderosa pine) indicated chained pin??on and juniper sites and pasture sites had the highest volume-weighted sediment concentrations of 13,000 and 9970 ppm, respectively. Based on interpretations of the 3-year study in the Rio Nutria Watershed, a two-stage approach was developed to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation on the Zuni Reservation. In the first stage, the reservation was divided into eight major watersheds, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. In the second stage, the watershed with the most potential for erosion was divided into sub-basins, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. Quantitative and qualitative information on physical and anthropogenic factors were used at each stage to rank the watersheds. Quantitative physical data included headcut density, percentage of bare ground, percentage of chained area, channel width-to-depth ratio, change in

  17. Characterization and evaluation of channel and hillslope erosion on the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Like many areas of the southwestern United States, the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, has high rates of erosion, ranging from 95 to greater than 1,430 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. Erosion on the Zuni Indian Reservation includes channel erosion (arroyo incision and channel widening) and hillslope (sheetwash) erosion. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 3-year (1992-95) study on channel erosion and hillslope erosion in the portion of the Rio Nutria watershed that drains entirely within the Zuni Indian Reservation. Results of the study can be used by the Zuni Tribe to develop a plan for watershed rehabilitation. Channel changes, gully growth, headcuts, and changes in dirt roads over time were examined to characterize and evaluate channel erosion in the Rio Nutria watershed. Channel cross-sectional changes included width, depth, width-to-depth ratio, area, and geometry. Relative rates of gully growth, headcuts, and changes in dirt roads over time were examined using aerial photographs. Results of resurveys conducted between 1992 and 1994 of 85 channel cross sections indicated aggradation of 72 percent of cross sections in three subbasins of the Rio Nutria watershed. Forty-eight percent of resurveyed cross sections showed an increase in cross-sectional area and erosion; nine of these are in tributaries. Some channels (43 percent) aggraded and increased in cross-sectional area. This increase in cross- sectional area is due mostly to widening. Channel widening is a more pervasive form of erosion than channel scour on the Zuni Indian Reservation. The tops of channels widened in 67 percent and the bottoms of channels widened in 44 percent of resurveyed cross sections. Narrow, deep triangular channels are more erosive than rectangular cross sections. Five land-cover types--three sites on mixed-grass pasture, two sites on sites on unchained pi?on and juniper, one site on sagebrush, one site on ponderosa pine, and two sites on chained pi?on and juniper

  18. Toward Integrated DoD Biosurveillance: Assessment and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melinda; Fisher, Gail; Stevens, Clare

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the 2012 National Strategy for Biosurveillance, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) asked the Department of Defense (DoD) to review its biosurveillance programs, prioritize missions and desired outcomes, evaluate how DoD programs contribute to these, and assess the appropriateness and stability of the department's funding system for biosurveillance. DoD sought external analytic support through the RAND Arroyo Center. In response to the questions posed by OMB request, this study finds the following: (1) Current DoD biosurveillance supports three strategic missions. Based mostly on existing statute, the highest-priority mission is force health protection, followed by biological weapons defense and global health security. (2) Guidance issued by the White House on June 27, 2013, specified priorities for planning fiscal year 2015 budgets; it includes an explicit global health security priority, which strengthens the case for this as a key DoD biosurveillance strategic mission. (3) DoD biosurveillance also supports four desired outcomes: early warning and early detection, situational awareness, better decision making at all levels, and forecast of impacts. (4) Programs and measures that address priority missions-force health protection in particular-and desired outcomes should be prioritized over those that do not do so. (5) More near-real-time analysis and better internal and external integration could enhance the performance and value of the biosurveillance enterprise. (6) Improvements are needed in key enablers, including explicit doctrine/policy, efficient organization and governance, and increased staffing and improved facilities for the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC). (7) AFHSC has requested additional funding to fully implement its current responsibilities under the 2012 Memorandum of Understanding between the Assistant Secretaries of Defense for Health Affairs and for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense Programs

  19. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-11-18

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, {delta}{sup 15}N values greater than 10{per_thousand} indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1}. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low {delta}{sup 15}N value (3.1{per_thousand}) in this location implicates synthetic

  20. Was all that Los Angeles River flood control concrete necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzert, W. C.; Regalado, S. S.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    In 1938, heavy rains over the Los Angeles Basin resulted in widespread and costly flooding of the Los Angeles River floodplain. In response to the resultant damage, 51 miles of the River was concreted from the San Fernando Valley to the Pacific Ocean. Today proposals to modify the river to capture more water and to restore it to a more natural state have been approved. Through comparison of rainfall data, we test whether channelization can adequately handle the extreme flooding events occurring since 1938. Between February 27th to March 3rd 1938, two major storms resulted in 14.1 inches of rain in Pasadena, CA leading to the flooding of the Los Angeles River, 115 fatalities, the destruction of 5,601 buildings, and to $627 million (2011 dollars) in damages. Downtown Los Angeles averages 15 inches of precipitation a year, while the San Gabriel Mountains, where most of the Los Angeles River watershed rainfall is collected, typically receive more than 40 inches of rain annually. Eight record storms, each with rainfall totals over 11 inches, since the 1938 flood could have created devastating deluges were it not for channelization. Presently, at full stage the channelized Los Angeles River can accommodate a discharge of 129,000 cfs. During the 1938 flood event the discharge peaked at 68,000 cfs above Arroyo Seco and 79,000 cfs below Firestone Blvd. A similar storm event today would have led to increased discharge due to urbanization. Since 1938, the greatest discharge recorded at the same stations was 52,200 and 74,400 cfs during the February 16th 1980 storm. Although damage was substantial during this storm, river channelization prevented fatalities and much damage. To date, the channelization of the Los Angeles River has been successful in flood control. However, our research shows that southern California precipitation is becoming more intense which may result in increased flooding. Any future modifications to the river must be prepared to handle the extreme flooding

  1. Moisture and solute flux along preferred pathways characterized by fissured sediments in desert soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.

    1992-06-01

    Evaluation of preferred flow pathways is critical for waste disposal. These pathways reduce the effectiveness of thick desert soils in attenuating contaminants by short-circuiting flow through the unsaturated zone. Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas, U.S.A., was examined to determine if these sediments act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with loose sediment washed in from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the fissured sediments (80-105 gm -3) were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems (2000-6000 gm -3) because chloride is leached in the vicinity of the fissures. Minimum estimates of the moisture flux from chloride data ranged from 1 to 8 mm yr -1 in the fissured sediments and were up to 350 times greater than those calculated for ephemeral stream and interstream settings. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm yr -1. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive

  2. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of

  3. Tectonic repetitions of the Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation in the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Geometry, kinematics and structural implications for Andean building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turienzo, M.; Sánchez, N.; Dimieri, L.; Lebinson, F.; Araujo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Neuquén Basin, developed in a retroarc setting in the central-west of Argentina, contains more than 6000 m of Mesozoic marine and continental sedimentary rocks. These rocks were deformed during the Andean orogeny leading to several thick and thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts. The Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation is composed by a thick marine succession predominantly of black shales in which highlights a thin fluvial-aeolian sandy interval named Avilé Member. The Avilé Member, one of the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Neuquén Basin, constitutes an excellent structural marker. At the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, the strong mechanical anisotropy given by the contrasting lithology of the Avilé Member within the Agrio Formation favored the location of detachments along the shales and ramps affecting the sandstones during the Andean compression. Detailed field mapping at the Chacay Melehue area allowed us to recognize tectonic repetitions of the Avilé Member, which form imbrications in the simplest case whereas in other places constitute a more complex combination of imbrications, including fault-bend folding that duplicates stratigraphic sequences and fault-propagation folding that deforms more intensely the duplicated units. Along three structural cross-sections we illustrate the geometry of these tectonic repetitions of the Agrio Formation, which in the northern area have an eastward-vergence and in the central and southern regions show a clear westward-vergence. A tear fault along the arroyo Chacay Melehue could explain this vergence change. Forward modeling of the structures at the central cross-section, where a backthrust system produced imbrication, duplication and folding of the Agrio Formation, allows us to propose a balanced kinematic reconstruction of this complex structure and to compare the features produced at different stages of the deformation sequence with field observations. Our kinematic interpretation shows that the

  4. A postglacial chronology for some alluvial valleys in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Miller, John P.

    1954-01-01

    .Knowledge of Recent physiographic history of the area is the basis of determining the relative ages of some gully features. Certain vertical-walled channels or arroyos that might appear to be attributable to postsettlement grazing or other man-induced influences are shown to be Recent but pre-Columbian in age. Such differentiation in age of erosion features is necessary for proper understanding of present-day soil erosion problems.

  5. Data and understanding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; White, Gilbert F.

    1956-01-01

    -finding. But it appears that an indefinite expansion of the collection of routine measurements would still leave something lacking. I draw the distinction between measurement data and understanding; between the collection of facts and knowledge of processes and interrelationships. Although we have a wealth of data, our understanding of the semi-arid environment is poor.Understanding the physical and biologic processes operating in an environment is important for living in and with the land. As an example, let us look briefly at the interrelation of the water and sediment in ephemeral streams, and the problem of valley trenching or arroyo cutting.

  6. Process-Based Model for Computation of Erosion and Deposition on Shrub-Protected Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, J. W.; Smith, J.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of erosion and deposition rates on riverbanks requires a detailed knowledge of the near-bank boundary shear stress field. Riverbanks typically are irregular in planiform geometry owing to the presence of vegetation on them, and the effects of vegetation-caused bank irregularity in reducing flow in the neighborhood of the toes of banks must be taken into account in calculating the appropriate boundary shear stress fields. Form drag on roots, stems, and branches of shrubs and trees that protrude into the flow must be carefully evaluated. Methods for calculating the boundary shear stress and sediment transport fields on and near vegetated banks have been developed over the past several years. More recently, the direct effects of roots, stems, and branches in reducing the shear stresses on banks have been investigated in conjunction with research on arroyo channels having nearly trapezoidal cross sections and banks covered with sandbar willow and tamarisk. A model for computing flow and sediment transport in such channels is presented and then used to demonstrate the relative importance of the various environmental factors and their interactions. The primary environmental factors include (1) the cross-sectional geometry of the flow, which controls the structure of the cross-sectional distribution of the streamwise-averaged boundary shear stress, (2) the micro topography of the bed and banks, which determines the local ratio of streamwise-averaged boundary shear stress to skin friction and, thus, the cross-sectional structure of the sediment transport field in the channel, and (3) the bed-sediment size distribution, which controls the importance of density stratification in the flow and, thereby, the vertical structure of the velocity field. The model demonstrates that woody vegetation on sloping banks affects the flow in several ways. First, it forces the high velocity core toward the center of the channel, increasing the streamwise-averaged boundary

  7. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.

    2003-12-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. Even though the seismicity varied significantly, the regional crustal conditions appear to be roughly uniform. In some areas like Arroyo Seco, in the Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by

  8. A revised burial dose estimation procedure for optical dating of youngand modern-age sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L.J.; Roberts, R.G.; Galbraith, R.F.; DeLong, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of genuinely zero-age or near-zero-age grains in modern-age and very young samples poses a problem for many existing burial dose estimation procedures used in optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating. This difficulty currently necessitates consideration of relatively simplistic and statistically inferior age models. In this study, we investigate the potential for using modified versions of the statistical age models of Galbraith et??al. [Galbraith, R.F., Roberts, R.G., Laslett, G.M., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia: Part I, experimental design and statistical models. Archaeometry 41, 339-364.] to provide reliable equivalent dose (De) estimates for young and modern-age samples that display negative, zero or near-zero De estimates. For this purpose, we have revised the original versions of the central and minimum age models, which are based on log-transformed De values, so that they can be applied to un-logged De estimates and their associated absolute standard errors. The suitability of these 'un-logged' age models is tested using a series of known-age fluvial samples deposited within two arroyo systems from the American Southwest. The un-logged age models provide accurate burial doses and final OSL ages for roughly three-quarters of the total number of samples considered in this study. Sensitivity tests reveal that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models are capable of producing accurate burial dose estimates for modern-age and very young (<350??yr) fluvial samples that contain (i) more than 20% of well-bleached grains in their De distributions, or (ii) smaller sub-populations of well-bleached grains for which the De values are known with high precision. Our results indicate that the original (log-transformed) versions of the central and minimum age models are still preferable for most routine dating applications

  9. Evidence for dextral transtensional development of the Rio Grande rift, from the Bear Mountains and the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, S.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Dextral faulting of late Eocene age associated with latest Laramide deformation has been noted for some time along the margins of, and adjacent to, the Rio Grande rift (RGr) in central NM. Recent mapping of the Hell's Mesa (HM) fault zone in the Bear Mountains and of the Comanche/Santa Fe fault zone along the western margin of the RGr at the Lucero uplift has constrained dextral deformation to extend into the Miocene, at least, and possibly into the Pliocene. The HM fault zone forms the eastern margin of the Mulligan Gulch graben between the Bear and Gallinas Mountains to the west. The main ridge of the Bear Mountains is structurally down-dropped by the HM fault and is part of the graben. This ridge is a topographic high, composed of interbedded rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and basaltic andesite flows of the Oligocene to early Miocene Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, faulted against Eocene sediments of the Baca Formation, and Eocene to early Oligocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Datil Group. The western margin of the RGr in the Albuquerque basin along the Lucero uplift, defined by the Comanche fault zone is structurally continuous with portions of the HM fault zone that make a right overstep through the down-dropped Navajo gap area at the southwest corner of the basin. The Comanche fault zone shows dextral-oblique shear geometry along an anastomosing zone of faulting up to 1 km wide. This zone has been intruded by hypabyssal basaltic rocks that have yielded a whole-rock K-Ar date of 27.1 Ma. In the Carrizo Arroyo (CA) area, slickenside lineations on these dikes show a strong dextral component of movement similar to that of the HM zone. The Santa Fe fault is a reverse fault for some distance north of CA. Motion on this fault has disrupted coarse sediments that contain clasts of the ca. 4.0 Ma Carrizo Mesa basalt. These observations are interpreted to indicate that dextral deformation has persisted at least through the earliest stage of extension.

  10. Geospatial Data Fusion and Multigroup Decision Support for Surface Water Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.; Green, R. T.; Xie, H.

    2010-12-01

    Social networking and social media have gained significant popularity and brought fundamental changes to many facets of our everyday life. With the ever-increasing adoption of GPS-enabled gadgets and technology, location-based content is likely to play a central role in social networking sites. While location-based content is not new to the geoscience community, where geographic information systems (GIS) are extensively used, the delivery of useful geospatial data to targeted user groups for decision support is new. Decision makers and modelers ought to make more effective use of the new web-based tools to expand the scope of environmental awareness education, public outreach, and stakeholder interaction. Environmental decision processes are often rife with uncertainty and controversy, requiring integration of multiple sources of information and compromises between diverse interests. Fusing of multisource, multiscale environmental data for multigroup decision support is a challenging task. Toward this goal, a multigroup decision support platform should strive to achieve transparency, impartiality, and timely synthesis of information. The latter criterion often constitutes a major technical bottleneck to traditional GIS-based media, featuring large file or image sizes and requiring special processing before web deployment. Many tools and design patterns have appeared in recent years to ease the situation somewhat. In this project, we explore the use of Web 2.0 technologies for “pushing” location-based content to multigroups involved in surface water quality management and decision making. In particular, our granular bottom-up approach facilitates effective delivery of information to most relevant user groups. Our location-based content includes in-situ and remotely sensed data disseminated by NASA and other national and local agencies. Our project is demonstrated for managing the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program in the Arroyo Colorado coastal river basin

  11. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  12. Geomorphological Characterization of Atenquique Basin in the Eastern Sector of the Volcan-Nevado-Colima, Jalisco, Mexico, As an Input to the Risk Assessment of Debris Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Pena, S.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Atenquique river basin drains the eastern sector of the Volcanic Complex (VC) Volcan-Nevado de Colima, located on the border of the states of Jalisco and Colima. To use the digital geomorphological analysis 1:50000 scale mapping provided by INEGI and Landsat images, manipulating it in ArcGIS 10.2 developing the DEM that was the basis for morphometric characterization. The results show that the basin is divided into five sub-basins, with the main Atenquique (SAT) and Arroyo Seco (SAS), calculating the compactness coefficient (Kc) and the coefficient of sinuosity indicate that SAT is the most prone to floods due to straight and slightly sinuous channels. However, the density of dissection shows a more developed drainage network on the SAT, with slopes up to 84° and 600 m deep. The drainage basin has its source at an altitude of 4260 m and its mouth is in the Tuxpan River at 1040 m, which has a relative height of 2800 m; has a funnel-shaped elongated west-east, its outstanding average in the sector are Mountain 44° and 10° the piedmont. The SAT has a total area of 81.8 km2, with a dendritic river network, where the first order streams reach an 82.99%, and second order streams are the 13.4% of the total, these values show that most of the slopes of the basin have incipient development valleys and steep slopes. The basin has had 3 debris flows in recent 58 years; these are formed by large volumes of rock and mud that covered the town of Atenquique and paper mill located at the mouth of the Tuxpan River, caused deaths and significant economic damage. Its genesis is associated with the end of the summer rainy season, so he also worked in the hydrological analysis in order to determine the volume of runoff in the basin. The results of this work are used as input for the determining the risk levels in the study area, and may also be used by the municipality of Tuxpan, in order to define policies to manage risk and reduce future risks to the industrial town of

  13. Lineaments of the Southern High Plains: possible indicators of recent faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, T.; Oluwole, O.; Gurrola, H.

    2011-12-01

    Through the analysis of topographic data, a number of parallel lineaments trending approximately N37°E across the Southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas have been identified. Although some of these lineaments appear to serve as drainage, they trend roughly perpendicular to the down slope direction of the SHP and they cross larger streams in the region. The source of formation of these lineaments is not known, however they appear across the entire Southern High Plains. It seems these features are easily recognized in the Southern High Plains where erosion and deposition is dominated by wind processes. Further north where erosion is more dominated by fluvial processes they are not easily recognized. Analysis of the orientation of brakes in river channels, find a strong orientation parallel to the observed lineaments. A single lineament can be tens of kilometers in length, and can continue well over a hundred kilometers as a set of en echelon lineaments. The length of these features suggests regional faulting in the subsurface to a significant depth. In the southern most part of the high plains there appears to be additional lineaments in the downstream direction perpendicular to the above mentioned lineaments. To determine the source of this linearity, we focus on a portion of two lineaments in Northern Hockley County, Texas that are approximately 2.5 km apart. The particular lineaments appear to have created an almost perpendicular bend in a significant ephemeral stream, causing the drainage and the incision of a deep arroyo to flow nearly perpendicular to the trend of the Southern High Plains. Subsequent gravity profiles show approximately a half a mGal gravity anomaly across each of these lineaments. The short wavelength of these gravity anomalies requires that the source (or at least part of it) be from a shallow structure; however, the small density contrasts common for the shallow sediments in the area cannot account for the entire 0.5 mGal difference in gravity

  14. The high osmotic response and cell wall integrity pathways cooperate to regulate transcriptional responses to zymolyase-induced cell wall stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, Jose M; Bermejo, Clara; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2009-04-17

    The adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to situations in which cell wall integrity is seriously compromised mainly involves the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, in a recent work ( Bermejo, C., Rodriguez, E., García, R., Rodríguez-Peña, J. M., Rodríguez de la Concepción, M. L., Rivas, C., Arias, P., Nombela, C., Posas, F., and Arroyo, J. (2008) Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 1113-1124 ) we have demonstrated the co-participation of the high osmotic response (HOG) pathway to ensure yeast survival to cell wall stress mediated by zymolyase, which hydrolyzes the beta-1,3 glucan network. Here we have characterized the role of both pathways in the regulation of the overall yeast transcriptional responses to zymolyase treatment using whole genome expression profiling. A main group of yeast genes is dependent on both MAPKs, Slt2 and Hog1, for their induction. The transcriptional activation of these genes depends on the MAPKKK Bck1, the transcription factor Rlm1, and elements of the sho1 branch of the HOG pathway, but not on the sensors of the CWI pathway. A second group of genes is dependent on Slt2 but not Hog1 or Pbs2. However, the induction of these genes is dependent on upstream elements of the HOG pathway such as Sho1, Ste50, and Ste11, in accordance with a sequential activation of the HOG and CWI pathways. Zymolyase also promotes an osmotic-like transcriptional response with the activation of a group of genes dependent on elements of the Sho1 branch of HOG pathway but not on Slt2, with the induction of many of them dependent on Msn2/4. Additionally, in the absence of Hog1, zymolyase induces an alternative response related to mating and filamentation as a consequence of the cross-talk between these pathways and the HOG pathway. Finally, in the absence of Slt2, zymolyase increases the induction of genes associated with osmotic adaptation with respect to the wild type, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the CWI pathway over the HOG pathway. These studies clearly

  15. The rain-triggered Atenquique volcaniclastic debris flow of October 16, 1955 at Nevado de Colima Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo, R.; Macías, J. L.; Sarocchi, D.; Bursik, M.; Rupp, B.

    2008-06-01

    On October 16, 1955, at 10:45 a.m. (local time), after three days of intense rain (140 mm) that was twice the monthly average precipitation, a devastating flood surge formed a volcaniclastic debris flow on the eastern slopes of Nevado de Colima Volcano. Nearly simultaneous flood surges formed in the Arroyo Seco, Los Platanos, and Dos Volcanes ravines that coalesced with the larger flow in the Atenquique ravine. At each confluence with a tributary, the flow was diluted. The texture and structure of the preserved 1955 deposits near high water marks indicate that the downstream flow was mainly in the lower range of debris flow concentration (60% sediment concentration by weight). Downstream the tributaries, the flood encountered a ˜ 0.06 × 10 6 m 3 water reservoir that failed, significantly increasing the surge volume. Additional entrained sediment also increased the flow volume. Downstream, the flood wave reached the town of Atenquique as an 8-9 m catastrophic wave causing the death of more than 23 people, the partial destruction of the town, and losses of ˜ 13,000,000 pesos (˜ 1 million US dollars today) to a paper mill and company facilities. According to eyewitness accounts the flood wave had a peak discharge that lasted ca. 10 to 15 minutes at Atenquique. Deposits at the site and the high-water marks observed from photographs of the town's church indicate that sediment concentration was ca. 60 wt.%. The flood continued for about 1 km to its junction with the Tuxpan River where it was diluted by mixing with normal flood flow. The deposits covered an area of ˜ 1.2 km 2 and had a minimum volume of ˜ 3.2 × 10 6 m 3. The main deposit consists of a single unit, averaging 4 m in thickness, with weak textural variations that suggest surging within the flood wave. The deposit is heterolithologic and consists of boulders set in a matrix of sand-size sediment, with polymodal or bimodal distributions and normal grading varying with distance from source. The town of

  16. Satellite-Based Investigations of the Transition from an Oceanic to Continental Transform Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Meghan

    1998-01-01

    Detailed characterization of neotectonics evolution of the Valle de San Felipe and Arroyo Grande regions in northern Baja California. Reoccupied GEOMEX GPS sites, and occupied a regional GPS (Global Positioning System) network. The Baja California peninsula in Mexico offers a unique setting for studying the kinematic evolution of a complex, active strike-slip/rift plate boundary. We are currently conducting remote sensing, geologic, and geodetic studies of this boundary. The combined data sets will yield instantaneous and time integrated views of its evolution. This proposal solicits renewed funding from NASA to support remote sensing and geologic studies. During the late Cenozoic, Baja California has been the locus of changing fault geometry that has accommodated components of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific plates. Contemporary slip between the two plates occurs in a broad zone that encompasses much of southern California and the Baja California Peninsula. The transfer of slip across this zone in southern California is relatively well understood. South of the border, the geometry and role of specific faults and structural provinces in transferring plate margin deformation across the peninsula is enigmatic. Results We use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery of the Baja California Peninsula to identify recent and active faults, and then conduct field studies that characterize the temporal and spatial structural evolution of the plate margin. These data address questions concerning the neotectonic development of the Gulf of California, the Baja California Peninsula, and their role in evolution of the post-Miocene Pacific - North American plate boundary. Moreover, these studies provide constraints on the geometry of active faults, allowing more exact understanding of the results of ongoing NASA-supported geodetic experiments. In addition, anticipated publication of the TM scenes will provide a widely available geological data base for relatively

  17. Simulated effects of ground-water management alternatives for the Salinas Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional digital groundwater flow model was developed to analyze the geohydrology of the groundwater basin in the Salinas Valley. The model was calibrated for steady-state and transient simulations by comparing simulated with measured or estimated inflows, outflows, and water levels for 1970-81. Preliminary estimates of hydraulic properties and some inflows and outflows were adjusted during model calibration. The simulated mean annual water budget for the basin was 559,500 acre-ft/yr each of outflow and inflow. Inflow components consisted of Salinas River recharge (38.3%), percolation of irrigation water (34.0%), small stream and Arroyo Seco recharge (20.9%), seawater intrusion (3.4%), and other sources (3.4%). Outflow components consisted of agricultural pumpage (91.5%), municipal pumpage (4.0%), and riparian phreatophyte evapotranspiration (4.5%). For the steady-state calibration, 70% of the simulated water levels were within 9 ft of measured water levels for 1970-81. A sensitivity analysis determined the overall stability of the model results. The model input variable that probably contributes most to the uncertainty of the results is the quantity of groundwater recharge contributed by irrigation-return flow to the unconfined aquifer. A 15% change in the estimate of this variable causes an 11% change in the simulated river-seepage rate and a 6% change in the simulated seawater intrusion rate. The calibrated model was used to investigate several water resources management alternatives. Projected pumpage increase at a rate of 1%/yr for 20 yr caused declines in mean annual water levels of 10 to 20 ft in some areas and an increase in seawater intrusion from 18,900 to 23 ,600 acre-ft/yr. Pumpage decreases in the coastal area decreased seawater intrusion more effectively than pumpage decreases farther inland. When pumpage was decreased uniformly throughout the valley, the decrease in seawater intrusion was only one-fourteenth the decrease in pumpage

  18. A possible role for Clostridium difficile in the etiology of calf enteritis.

    PubMed

    Hammitt, Melissa C; Bueschel, Dawn M; Keel, M Kevin; Glock, Robert D; Cuneo, Peder; DeYoung, Donald W; Reggiardo, Carlos; Trinh, Hien T; Songer, J Glenn

    2008-03-18

    Clostridium difficile was investigated as a possible cause of enteritis in calves. The organism and its toxins (TcdA and TcdB), respectively, were found in 25.3% and 22.9% of stool samples from diarrheic calves. Culture positive samples were more likely than culture negative samples to be toxin positive. However, toxin positive stools were more common among nondiarrheic calves, but diarrheic calves were nearly twice as likely to be culture positive. Ribotype 078 was dominant among isolates. Salmonella sp. was isolated from both diarrheic and nondiarrheic calves, but large numbers of E. coli were found more commonly in diarrheic calves than in nondiarrheic animals. Prevalence rates for coronavirus and Cryptosporidium sp. were substantially higher in nondiarrheic calves than in diarrheic, but rates of detection of rotavirus and Giardia sp. were more nearly equal between groups. Lesions in naturally infected calves included superficial mucosal erosion with associated fibrinous exudates. Neutrophils and eosinophils infiltrated lamina propria. Large Gram-positive rods morphologically compatible with C. difficile were abundant in the colonic lumen and the organism was isolated by bacteriologic culture. Toxins were found throughout the colon. Purified toxins A and B (individually and conjointly) caused comparable lesions, as well as fluid accumulation, in ligated intestinal loops. Our findings are in substantial agreement with those of others [Rodriguez-Palacios, A., Stampfli, H.R., Duffield, T., Peregrine, A.S., Trotz-Williams, L.A., Arroyo, L.G., Brazier, J.S., Weese, J.S., 2006. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in calves, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 1730-1736; Porter, M.C., Reggiardo, C., Bueschel, D.M., Keel, M.K., Songer, J.G., 2002. Association of Clostridium difficile with bovine neonatal diarrhea. Proc. 45th Ann. Mtg. Amer. Assoc. Vet. Lab. Diagn., St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.] and add strength to a working hypothesis that C. difficile infection and the

  19. A Groundwater flow Model of the Colorado River Delta to Support Riparian Habitat Restoration in Northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddock, T.; Feirstein, E.; Baird, K. J.; Ajami, H.

    2007-05-01

    Quantification of groundwater flow dynamics and of the interactions among groundwater, surface water, and riparian vegetation, represent key components in the development of a balanced restoration plan for functional riparian ecosystems. A groundwater model was developed using MODFLOW 2000 to support of riparian restoration along the Colorado River Delta (Mexico: Baja California, Sonora). The Colorado River is widely recognized as one of the most modified and allocated rivers in the United States. For over 50 years flows into the Delta were severely reduced by the requirements of an emergent American West. However, subsequent to discharge pulses associated with the filling of Lake Powell, and the increased precipitation that accompanied ENSO cycles, a semblance of a native riparian habitat has been observed in the Delta since the 1980's (Zamora- Arroyo et al. 2001). The Delta and the riparian ecosystems of the region have since become the focus of a substantial body of multidisciplinary research. The research goal is to understand water table dynamics with particular attention to stream-aquifer interactions and groundwater behavior in the root zone. Groundwater reliant transpiration requirements were quantified for a set of dominant native riparian species using the Riparian ET (RIP-ET) package, an improved MODFLOW evapotranspiration (ET) module. RIP-ET simulates ET using a set of eco-physiologically based curves that more accurately represents individual plant species, reflects habitat complexity, and deals spatially with plant and water table distribution. When used in conjunction with a GIS based postprocessor (RIP-GIS.net), RIP-ET provides the basis for mapping groundwater conditions as they relate to user-specified plant groups. This explicit link between groundwater and plant sustainability is a driver to restoration design and allows for scenario modeling of various hydrologic conditions. Groundwater requirements determined in this research will be used by

  20. High spatial resolution geochemistry and textural characteristics of 'microtektite' glass spherules in proximal Cretaceous-Paleogene sections: Insights into glass alteration patterns and precursor melt lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belza, Joke; Goderis, Steven; Smit, Jan; Vanhaecke, Frank; Baert, Kitty; Terryn, Herman; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we have conducted spatially resolved trace element analysis on fresh, unaltered microtektite glasses linked to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary Chicxulub crater and on their surrounding alteration phases. This unique approach offers the opportunity to study in situ and at high spatial resolution both the mixing of different target lithologies and the variation of the major and trace element budget during the alteration process. In addition, two-dimensional element distribution maps reveal important geochemical information beyond the capabilities of single spot laser drilling. Glasses from two localities in opposite quadrants from the source crater were studied. At the Beloc locality (Haiti), the glass population is dominated by the presence of yellow high-Ca glass and black andesitic glass formed by admixture of carbonate/dolomite/anhydrite platform lithologies with crystalline basement. These glasses alter according to the well-established hydration-palagonitization model postulated for mafic volcanic glasses. REEs become progressively leached from the glass to below the detection limit for the applied spot size, while immobile Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta passively accumulate in the process exhibiting both inter-element ratios and absolute concentrations similar to those for the original glass. In contrast, The Arroyo El Mimbral locality (NE Mexico) is characterized by abundant green glass fragments high in Si, Al and alkalis, and low in Mg, Ca, Fe. Low Si black glass is less abundant though similar in composition to the black glass variety at Beloc. The alteration pattern of high-Si, Al green glass at the Mimbral locality is more complex, including numerous competing reaction processes (ion-exchange, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral precipitation) generally controlled by the pH and composition of the surrounding fluid. All green, high-Si, Al glasses are hydrated and