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Sample records for arroyo pergamino provincia

  1. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.59 Arroyo Seco. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Seco.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Arroyo Seco viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.59 Arroyo Seco. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Seco.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Arroyo Seco viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.59 Arroyo Seco. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Seco.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Arroyo Seco viticultural area...

  4. ARROYO SECO ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Gabby, Peter N.

    1984-01-01

    Situated in the southwestern San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, California, the Arroyo Seco Roadless Area encompasses about 8 sq mi within the Angeles National Forest. On the basis of geologic mapping, a geochemical stream-sediment survey, and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects, the area has a probable resource potential for small gold occurrences in the southern part of the area. Sand, gravel, and stone suitable for construction materials are found in the roadless area. Because of their regional association with gold mineralization, the thin and poorly exposed mafic dikes in the Echo Granite, the Mount Lowe Granodiorite, and the Precambrian gneiss in and around the roadless area offer the most promising avenue for additional study of the resource potential of the area.

  5. 12. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO BRIDGE. NOTE VIADUCTS AND TUNNEL PORTAL AT REAR. LOOKING 234°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. The significance of sediment transport in arroyo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Arroyo widening dominates postincisional arroyo development, and the manner of widening is dependent on the grain size of bed material transported by the channel. When bed material is predominantly gravel, subaqueous bars that alternate from one side of the channel to the other form during high flows in initially narrow, often straight, arroyos. These alternate bars grow and become coarse-grained point bars. Moderate and low flows cannot rework these coarse bars, and the channel meanders around them. Arroyo walls opposite the bars are undercut and eroded. With progressive arroyo widening by erosion of cut banks, high-flow channel width increases, and depth decreases, reducing channel competence. Gravel is deposited in midchannel bars, point bars are reworked, and the channel becomes braided. As braiding becomes dominant, both arroyo walls are eroded. This conceptual model of coarse-grained arroyo development is based on observations of arroyo development through time using physical models and interpretation of the channel and arroyo morphology and sedimentology during a short period along the San Simon, San Pedro, and Santa Cruz Rivers in southeast Arizona. When bed material is predominantly sand, the channel pattern within initial arroyos is typically braided, and both arroyo walls are actively eroded. Alternate bars may form within single-thread, high-flow channels, but they are reworked during recessional flows, and the .low-flow channel is again braided. With progressive arroyo widening, fine sand, silt, and clay carried in suspension are deposited across a flood plain within the wide arroyo, causing the channel to meander. This fine-grained arroyo development model is based on observations of arroyo development through time using physical models and interpretation of the channel and arroyo morphology and sedimentology during a short period along the Rio Puerco, New Mexico. Experimental investigations using physical models in which incised channels were

  8. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT BACK. NOTE AVENUE 60 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO. DEBS PARK HILL AT CENTER IS LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS CA-265-13, CA265-14, AND CA-265-V-4. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  10. 8. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND NORTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND NORTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE SUPER ELEVATED CURVES AND GRADE SEPARATION OF NORTH AND SOUTHBOUND LANES. LOOKING 196"S. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  12. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.951 - Arroyo Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arroyo Colorado River. 117.951 Section 117.951 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.951 Arroyo Colorado River. The draw of...

  16. 40. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, ROAD VIEW DETAIL NEAR YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, ROAD VIEW DETAIL NEAR YORK BOULEVARD EXIT. NOTE SUPER ELEVATED CURVE WITH BANKING OF BOTH SIDES OF PARKWAY. NOTE GUARD WALL AND CURBING. NOTE PARALLEL SURFACE STREET (BRIDEWELL ST.). LOOKING 208°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... at the point of intersection of State Route 227 and Corbit Canyon Road in Arroyo Grande Township, the... 227 to the point where State Route 227 intersects with Printz Road in Poorman Canyon in the Santa... Noyes Road to its intersection with State Route 227 (at vertical control station “BM 452”) in the...

  19. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... at the point of intersection of State Route 227 and Corbit Canyon Road in Arroyo Grande Township, the... 227 to the point where State Route 227 intersects with Printz Road in Poorman Canyon in the Santa... Noyes Road to its intersection with State Route 227 (at vertical control station “BM 452”) in the...

  20. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... at the point of intersection of State Route 227 and Corbit Canyon Road in Arroyo Grande Township, the... 227 to the point where State Route 227 intersects with Printz Road in Poorman Canyon in the Santa... Noyes Road to its intersection with State Route 227 (at vertical control station “BM 452”) in the...

  1. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... at the point of intersection of State Route 227 and Corbit Canyon Road in Arroyo Grande Township, the... 227 to the point where State Route 227 intersects with Printz Road in Poorman Canyon in the Santa... Noyes Road to its intersection with State Route 227 (at vertical control station “BM 452”) in the...

  2. Chronostratigraphy of Kitchen Corral Wash, southern UT: Insights into Arroyo Aggradation and Entrenchment Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, W.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fluvial systems in the semiarid southwestern United States are sensitive to Holocene climate change, as partly evidenced by entrenched, steep-walled arroyo channels throughout the region. Kitchen Corral Wash (KCW), a tributary of the Paria River in southern Utah, has experienced both historic and prehistoric (Holocene) episodes of arroyo cutting and filling. During the most recent arroyo-cutting event (~1880-1920 AD), KCW and other regional drainages were entrenched up to 30m into their fine-grained alluvial fill, leaving former floodplains perched above new channel bottoms. Alluvial sediments preserved within the exposed arroyos walls record largely aggradational sequences interrupted by periods of incision. Although arroyo entrenchment and aggradation processes have been studied for over a century, exact causes of arroyo cutting are still not fully understood. Hereford (2002) argued that arroyo dynamics are climatically driven based on near-synchronous timing of entrenchment in drainages from southern Utah and the surrounding region. However, recent results from KCW and nearby drainages suggest a more complex pattern. While previous studies have attempted to constrain the timing of arroyo cut-fill events in KCW, poor age control has limited results. In order to better understand the timing of arroyo events, this study aims to update and improve the arroyo cut-fill chronology from KCW by using detailed alluvial stratigraphic descriptions and age control from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and AMS radiocarbon dating. Preliminary results are based on twelve study sites, each exposing a number of cut-fill cycles in the arroyo-wall stratigraphy, and suggest at least four arroyo cycles over the last 4 ka. Forthcoming AMS and OSL results will be used to test hypotheses related to climatic forcing of arroyo dynamics by comparing the chronology from KCW to regional chronologies.

  3. Corrective measures evaluation report for Tijeras Arroyo groundwater.

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Johnathan L; Orr, Brennon R.; Dettmers, Dana L.; Hall, Kevin A.; Howard, M. Hope

    2005-08-01

    This Corrective Measures Evaluation report was prepared as directed by a Compliance Order on Consent issued by the New Mexico Environment Department to document the process of selecting the preferred remedial alternative for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Supporting information includes background concerning the site conditions and potential receptors and an overview of work performed during the Corrective Measures Evaluation. The evaluation of remedial alternatives included identifying and describing four remedial alternatives, an overview of the evaluation criteria and approach, comparing remedial alternatives to the criteria, and selecting the preferred remedial alternative. As a result of the Corrective Measures Evaluation, monitored natural attenuation of the contaminants of concern (trichloroethene and nitrate) is the preferred remedial alternative for implementation as the corrective measure for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Design criteria to meet cleanup goals and objectives and the corrective measures implementation schedule for the preferred remedial alternative are also presented.

  4. Twentieth century arroyo changes in Chaco Culture National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.

    2002-01-01

    Chaco Wash arroyo channel changes in the 20th century have become a major concern of the National Park Service. Several archeologic and cultural sites are located in the Chaco Wash corridor; thus, increased erosional activity of Chaco Wash, such as channel incision and increased meandering, may affect these sites. Through field surveys, photogrammetric analyses, and reviews of existing reports and maps, arroyo changes at Chaco Culture National Historic Park were documented. Arroyo changes were documented for the inner active channel and the entire arroyo cross section. The inner channel of Chaco Wash evolved from a wide, braided channel in the 1930's to a narrower channel with a well-developed flood plain by the 1970's. From 1934 to 1973 the active channel narrowed an average of 26 meters, and from the 1970's to 2000 the channel narrowed an average of 9 meters. Overall from 1934 to 2000, the inner channel narrowed an average of 30 meters. From 1934 to 2000, the top of Chaco Wash widened at four cross sections, narrowed at one, and remained the same at another. The top of Chaco Wash widened at a rate of 0.4 meter per year from the 1970's to 2000 compared with 0.2 meter per year from 1934 to 1973. At 50-percent depth or halfway down the arroyo channel, four cross sections widened and two cross sections narrowed from 1934 to 2000. Rates of widening at 50-percent depth decreased from 0.2 meter per year from 1934 to 1973 to 0.1 meter per year from the 1970's to 2000. From 1934 to 2000, arroyo depth decreased at five of six cross sections and increased at one cross section. Arroyo depth between 1934 and 1973 decreased an average 1.4 meters from aggradation and between the 1970's and 2000 increased an average 0.4 meter from channel scour. From 1934 to 2000, arroyo cross-sectional area decreased at all six cross sections. Cross-sectional areas in Chaco Wash decreased from 1934 to 1973 as a result of sediment deposition and both decreased and increased from the 1970's to

  5. 13. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK (APPROXIMATELY 34° ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK (APPROXIMATELY 34° 7' BY 118° 11' ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 240° WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Mid-Late Holocene Arroyo Stratigraphy in Southern Utah; Balance between Climate Forcing and Geomorphic Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, K. E.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Historic arroyo entrenchment at the turn of the 20th century signified a rapid and widespread change in stream dynamics throughout much of the southwest U.S.A.. Arroyo walls along modern channels expose multiple unconformity-bound sediment packages that record mid-to-late Holocene arroyo cut-fill dynamics. Many of these different-aged periods of aggradation appear to have reached a similar tread height through time, suggesting that a 'geomorphic threshold' may partially control end-member stream grade and the timing of channel entrenchment. However, observations of near-synchronous regional cut-fill events support an alternative hypothesis that climate is a primary control of arroyo dynamics. In order to test the role of allogenic forcing versus autogenic processes on arroyo cut-fill dynamics, three datasets were constructed and analyzed from Johnson Wash (JW), a drainage containing a ~40 km long arroyo in the Grand Staircase region of the Colorado Plateau in south-central Utah. The chronostratigraphy of arroyo cut-fill events was reconstructed using a combination of field observations and age control from radiocarbon (n=57) and optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL; n=27) collected from 15 stratigraphic sections that bracket episodes of incision and characterize alluvial-fill packages. These data are compared to regional cut-fill chronologies from other arroyo systems. Temporal and spatial variability in catchment averaged erosion rates was quantified using terrestrial in-situ Beryllium-10 measured in quartz from alluvial and colluvial sediment samples (n=24) collected from the modern channel and paleo-arroyo walls located in JW and the adjacent upper Kanab Creek watershed. The third dataset consists of longitudinal profile concavities of the currently entrenched channel and the relict aggraded valley-fill surfaces and is used to identify systematic trends in aggraded versus entrenched channel forms.

  7. Infiltration and quality of water for two arroyo channels, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.

    1995-01-01

    Selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were studied to collect information about the amount and quality of infiltration through arroyo channels. Infiltration rate was calculated for selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo based on instantaneous streamflow-loss volumes, wetted channel area, and instantaneous evaporation rates measured during 1988-92. Infiltration rates at Grant Line Arroyo ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 foot per day, and at Tijeras Arroyo from 2.28 to 30 feet per day. The evaporation rate ranged from one-tenth of 1 percent to 2 percent of the infiltration rate. Infiltration rates differed with the location of the reach isolated for measurement and with the time of day of the infiltration-rate measurement. Differences in intrinsic permeability of the sediments may be the most important factor affecting spatial variations in infiltration. The most important factor affecting temporal variations in infiltration may be the temperature of the water and sediment where infiltration occurs. Annual evaporation rates were greatest over saturated stream sediments and ranged from 802 to 1,025 millimeters per year or from 31.57 to 40.35 inches per year. Annual evaporation rates were least over unsaturated, unvegetated soil and ranged from 174 to 291 millimeters per year or from 6.85 to 11.46 inches per year. Annual evapotranspiration rates over grasses or shrubs or both were about one-half the rates over saturated stream sediments. Rates were similar for Grant Line and Tijeras Arroyos. The land- surface vegetation, availability of water at the land surface, availability of energy to enable a change of state from water to vapor, existence of a vapor concentration gradient, and a turbulent atmosphere to carry the vapor away may be the factors that determine the amount of evaporation and evapotranspiration. Water in Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo met U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking

  8. Corrective measures evaluation work plan : Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater : revision 0.

    SciTech Connect

    Wymore, Ryan A.; Collins, Sue S.; Skelly, Michael Francis; Koelsch, Michael C.

    2004-12-01

    This document, which is prepared as directed by the Compliance Order on Consent (COOC) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department, outlines a process to evaluate remedial alternatives to identify a corrective measure for the Sandia National Laboratories Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG). The COOC provides guidance for implementation of a Corrective Measures Evaluation (CME) for TAG. This Work Plan documents an initial screening of remedial technologies and presents a list of possible remedial alternatives for those technologies that passed the screening. This Work Plan outlines the methods for evaluating these remedial alternatives and describes possible site-specific evaluation activities necessary to estimate remedy effectiveness and cost. These methods will be reported in the CME Report. This Work Plan outlines the CME Report, including key components and a description of the corrective measures process.

  9. Sediment dynamics through space and time in the lower Rio Puerco arroyo, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Vincent, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of riverine erosion and sediment transport can be episodic, spatially and temporally non-uniform, and strongly scale dependent. Identifying the events and processes that control these sediment dynamics requires precise measurements, but overcoming spatial and temporal variability requires observations over large distances and long times. Addressing this challenge, therefore, requires integration of data collection efforts at point, cross-section, reach, and whole-river scales. From the mid-1800s to about the 1930s, extreme high flows caused incision along the Rio Puerco, an ephemeral tributary of the Rio Grande located in semi-arid north-central New Mexico. The incision created an arroyo within the 1 to 2 km wide alluvial valley that by 1927 was an average of 118 m wide and 8.5 m deep. In the early 1900s, sediment transported from the Rio Puerco into the Rio Grande contributed to widespread flooding along the Rio Grande and concerns about filling of Elephant Butte Reservoir, located 100 km downstream. We reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution in a 55 km long segment of the lower Rio Puerco by combining data from 3 trenches excavated across the arroyo bottom with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, aerial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. We then examined changes through time since 1927 in arroyo width, depth, volume, morphology, and vegetation. A transition to filling after the 1930s involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. This strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. Our study reach demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. Since the 1970s, arroyo wall retreat has been mostly limited to locations

  10. Holocene Arroyo Records in Southern Utah: A balance between Climate Forcing and Geomorphic Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittenour, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Around the turn of the last century (~1880±30 AD) semi-arid river systems in southern Utah and throughout the southwest US began to incise into their fine-grained valley fills and form deep, vertical-walled arroyos (up to +30m). Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain this nearly instantaneous historical arroyo cutting event, ranging from poor-land use to climate change and intrinsic geomorphic processes. However, exposed stratigraphy along arroyo walls has revealed evidence for multiple Holocene cut-fill events, excluding human disturbance as a potential cause and suggesting cyclic or episodic forces at play. Recent compilation of fluvial chronologies from southern Utah and the surrounding region suggests two episodes of near synchronous arroyo cutting during the last millennia, evoking climate forcing (Hereford, 2002). However, updated and extended chronostratigraphic reconstructions suggest a more complex temporal and spatial pattern. Research goals are to better understand the balance between climate forcing and geomorphic thresholds in these dynamic arroyo systems. New AMS radiocarbon and single-grain OSL chronologies combined with detailed alluvial stratigraphy from four adjoining catchments in southern Utah are presented. Study catchments (Escalante River, Kitchen Corral Wash, Johnson Wash and Kanab Creek) are all characterized by steep topographic gradients, high sediment production from local bedrock, and high seasonality and inter-annual variability due to influences of ENSO and monsoonal precipitation. Results suggest up to six late Holocene arroyo cut-fill sequences, with up to three entrenchment events in the last millennia in some catchments. While historic arroyo incision was near synchronous in the study catchments (~1880-1909 AD), correlations between the number and timing of past entrenchment events is not clear, suggesting the importance of catchment-specific geomorphic thresholds. Climate-related changes in hydrology are also

  11. The Connection Between Sediment Supply and Paired Strath Terrace Formation at Arroyo Seco, CA, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnegan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although wide, longitudinally traceable, paired strath terraces in river canyons are frequently argued to reflect periods of higher sediment supply, there is no consensus on how changes in sediment supply translate into dramatic changes in valley morphology. Here, quantitative analysis of LiDAR data is combined with field observations in Arroyo Seco, in the Santa Lucia Range of Central California, to develop a conceptual model for paired bedrock terrace formation and its connection to sediment supply. The most recently formed bedrock terrace in Arroyo Seco grades onto a prominent alluvial fan surface, suggesting that planation of straths in Arroyo Seco occurs as downstream alluvial fans aggrade. This aggradation apparently buffers Arroyo Seco's bedrock channel from base level fall on the Reliz Canyon Fault, which separates the bedrock and alluvial sections of the river. Notably, despite the fact that bedrock terraces grade smoothly onto alluvial fan surfaces, the deep aggradation of sediment downstream is not seen upstream in bedrock channel sections. Gravel on straths is typically only 0.5-1 m thick. Instead, excess gravel appears to be accommodated by the lateral planation of the wide strath itself. LiDAR evidence suggests that strath planation is associated with braiding, which is often triggered by increases in sediment supply. Given the high lateral mobility of braided streams and the extremely fractured (and hence easily detached) mudstone valley walls along Arroyo Seco, braiding provides a simple connection between sediment supply and lateral planation in Arroyo Seco. In Arroyo Seco, fan incision (under decreased sediment supply) should exhume a bedrock step whose height represents the accumulated fault slip during fan aggradation. The upstream propagation of this exhumed step as a knickpoint provides a simple mechanism to connect drops in sediment supply to rapid vertical incision, valley narrowing and strath terrace formation. Long profile data for Arroyo

  12. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  13. Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S

    2002-03-05

    Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

  14. 75 FR 37358 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... FR 52612), including the changes to and considerations regarding proposed revised critical habitat in... critical habitat designation (74 FR 52612)). (16) Whether the conservation needs of the arroyo toad can be... regarding current practices and any regulatory changes that likely may occur if we designate...

  15. Effects of piping irrigation laterals on selenium and salt loads, Montrose Arroyo Basin, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Selenium and salinity are water-quality issues in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and the Uncompahgre River, exceed the State standard for selenium of 5 micrograms per liter. Remediation methods to reduce selenium and salt loading in the lower Gunnison River Basin were examined. A demonstration project in Montrose Arroyo, located in the Uncompahgre River Basin near Montrose, was done during 1998-2000 to determine the effects on selenium and salt loads in Montrose Arroyo from replacing 8.5 miles of open-ditch irrigation laterals with 7.5 miles of pipe. The participants in the project were the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program, the Uncompahgre Valley Water Users Association, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The placing of five laterals in pipe significantly decreased selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo. The selenium load at the outflow monitoring site was about 194 pounds per year less (28-percent decrease) in the period after the laterals were placed in pipe. More than 90 percent of the decrease in selenium load was attributed to a decrease in ground-water load. Salt loads also decreased because of the lateral project, but by a smaller percentage than the selenium loads. The salt load at the outflow site on Montrose Arroyo was about 1,980 tons per year less in the post-project period than in the pre-project period. All of the effects of the demonstration project on selenium and salt loads probably were not measured by this study because some of the lateral leakage that was eliminated had not necessarily discharged to Montrose Arroyo upstream from the monitoring sites. A greater decrease in selenium loads relative to salt loads may have been partially the result of decreases in selenium concentrations in ground water in some areas.

  16. Water-quality and ancillary data collected from the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo, Texas, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roussel, Meghan C.; Canova, Michael G.; Asquith, William H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    The Arroyo Colorado is in the lower Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas and extends from near Mission, Texas, eastward to the Laguna Madre estuarine and coastal marine system, which separates Padre Island from the Texas mainland. Streamflow in the Arroyo Colorado primarily is sustained by effluent from municipal wastewater-treatment plants along the stream banks. Since 1986, the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado from the port of Harlingen to the Laguna Madre has been designated by the State of Texas as an impaired water body because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Efforts to develop predictive water-quality models for the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado have been hampered by a lack of physical, biological, and biochemical data. Specifically, data on primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, sediment deposition rates, and the relations between these processes and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the stream have been inadequate to support water-quality modeling efforts. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a study in 2006 to collect data associated with primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the tidal segment (2201) of the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo. Specific objectives of the study were to (1) characterize water quality by measuring basic properties; (2) characterize the concentrations of carbon and nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and volatile suspended solids; (3) measure the seasonal differences of nutrient-dependent algal growth and algal production in the water column; (4) measure oxygen respiration or production rates; and (5) measure rates of sediment deposition.

  17. Correction of locality records for the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) from the desert region of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ervin, Edward L.; Beaman, Kent R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    The recovery strategy for an endangered species requires accurate knowledge of its distribution and geographic range. Although the best available information is used when developing a recovery plan, uncertainty often remains in regard to a species actual geographic extent. The arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) occurs almost exclusively in coastal drainages, from Monterey County, California, south into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Through field reconnaissance and the study of preserved museum specimens we determined that the four reported populations of the arroyo toad from the Sonoran Desert region of Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial counties, California are in error. Two additional sites in the Sonoran Desert are discussed regarding the possibility that the arroyo toad occurs there. We recommend the continued scrutiny of arroyo toad records to maintain a high level of accuracy of its distribution and geographic extent.

  18. Stream bed temperature profiles as indicators of percolation characteristics beneath arroyos in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Thomas, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Stream bed temperature profiles were monitored continuously during water year 1990 and 1991 (WY90 and 91) in two New Mexico arroyos, similar in their meteorological features and dissimilar in their hydrological features. Stream bed temperature profiles between depths of 30 and 300 cm were examined to determine whether temporal changes in temperature profiles represent accurate indicators of the timing, depth and duration of percolation in each stream bed. These results were compared with stream flow, air temperature, and precipitation records for WY90 and 91, to evaluate the effect of changing surface conditions on temperature profiles. Temperature profiles indicate a persistently high thermal gradient with depth beneath Grantline Arroyo, except during a semi-annual thermal reversal in spring and autumn. This typifies the thermal response of dry sediments with low thermal conductivities. High thermal gradients were disrupted only during infrequent stream flows, followed by rapid re-establishment of high gradients. The stream bed temperature at 300 cm was unresponsive to individual precipitation or stream flow during WY90 and 91. This thermal pattern provides strong evidence that most seepage into Grantline Arroyo failed to percolate at a sufficient rate to reach 300 cm before being returned to the atmosphere. A distinctly different thermal pattern was recorded beneath Tijeras Arroyo. Low thermal gradients between 30 and 300 cm and large diurnal variations in temperature, suggest that stream flow created continuous, advection-dominated heat transport for over 300 days, annually. Beneath Tijeras Arroyo, low thermal gradients were interrupted only briefly during periodic, dry summer conditions. Comparisons of stream flow records for WY90 and 91 with stream bed temperature profiles indicate that independent analysis of thermal patterns provides accurate estimates of the timing, depth and duration of percolation beneath both arroyos. Stream flow loss estimates indicate

  19. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the drylands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, historical river channel incision (arroyo cutting) has led to the destruction of riparian ecological systems and cieñega wetlands in many locations. Along Silver Creek on the Arizona-Sonora border, the Cuenca Los Ojos Foundation has been installing rock gabions and concrete and earthen berms with a goal of slowing flash floods, raising groundwater levels, and refilling arroyo channels with sediment in an area that changed from a broad, perennially wet cieñega to a narrow sand- and gravel-dominated arroyo channel with an average depth of ~6 m. The engineering efforts hope to restore desert wetlands, regrow riparian vegetation, and promote sediment deposition along the arroyo floor. Hydrological modeling allows us to predict how rare flood events interact with the restoration efforts and may guide future approaches to dryland ecological restoration. This modeling is complemented by detailed topographic surveying and use of streamflow sensors to monitor hydrological processes in the restoration project. We evaluate the inundation associated with model 10-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year floods through the study area using FLO-2D and HEC-RAS modeling environments in order to evaluate the possibility of returning surface inundation to the former cieñega surface. According to HEC-RAS model predictions, given current channel configuration, it would require a 500-year flood to overtop the channel banks and reinundate the cieñega (now terrace) surface, though the 100-year flood may lead to limited terrace surface inundation. Based on our models, 10-year floods were ~2 m from overtopping the arroyo walls, 50-year floods came ~1.5 m from overtopping the arroyos, 100-year floods were ~1.2 m from overtopping, and 500- and 1,000-year floods at least partially inundated the cieñega surface. The current topography of Silver Creek does not allow for frequent flooding of the former cieñega; model predictions

  20. Final Report for the Arroyo Las Positas Maintenance Impact Study, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    van Hattem, M; Paterson, L

    2006-01-12

    In 2000, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Protection Department, in coordination with Plant Engineering (PE), began dredging sections of the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP) to alleviate concerns about flooding of sensitive facilities within the mainsite of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to reduce potential impacts on the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), LLNL proposed to dredge sections of the ALP in a ''checkerboard pattern'', resulting in a mosaic of open water habitat and vegetated sections (Figure 1). The Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan (Plan) was coordinated with both state and federal agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G), San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board (SFRWQCB), and the Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE). Water Discharge Requirements (WDRs) were issued for this project on December 30, 1999 (Order No. 99-086) by the SFRWQCB. Provision 19 of the WDRs outlined a five-year (2000 through 2004) Maintenance Impact Study (MIS) that LLNL began in coordination with dredging work that was conducted as part of the Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan. Provision 20 of these WDRs requires LLNL to submit a final report of the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for this project to the SFRWQCB. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for Arroyo Las Positas and meet the requirements of Provision 20. A description of the annual monitoring included in this Maintenance Impact Study is included in the methods section of this report. Initially the Plan called for dredging the entire length of the Arroyo Las Positas (approximately 6,981 linear feet) over a 5-year period to minimize temporal impacts on the California red-legged frog. Dredging occurred in 2000 ({approx}1,300 ft.), 2001 ({approx}800 ft.), and 2002 ({approx}1,200 ft.), which constituted approximately

  1. Holocene landscape change, anthropogenic land-use change and arroyo formation on southwestern Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroy, R.; Bookhagen, B.; Chadwick, O.; Howarth, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we untangle the relative importance of climatic, tectonic, and anthropogenic drivers as triggers of arroyo formation and geomorphic change for a small watershed on southwestern Santa Cruz Island, off the central California coast. Within the Pozo watershed, historic arroyo incision occurred contemporaneously with arroyo incision across many of the world's dryland regions. Unlike many of these other sites, Pozo contains a dateable record that allows quantification of aggradation rates from the mid-to-late Holocene to the 20th century. Basin-wide environmental changes were assessed using a combination of cosmogenic radionuclide inventories, midden and marine-shell deposits, relict soil properties, airborne and ground-based lidar data, ranching artifacts, and historic written records. Shortly after the introduction of grazing animals in the mid-nineteenth century, localized aggradation rates on the Pozo floodplain increased by two orders of magnitude from 0.4 mm/yr to ~25 mm/yr. Accelerated aggradation was followed by arroyo formation ca. 1878 and rapid expansion of the incipient gully network, the lateral extent of which has been largely maintained since 1929. Basin-averaged erosion rates from cosmogenic radionuclide measurements indicate that pre-settlement rates were <0.08 mm/yr, while lidar-derived measurements of historic gully erosion produce estimates almost two orders of magnitude higher (~4 mm/yr). Measurements since 2005 indicate that the active channel of the Pozo basin is aggrading. We argue that accelerated aggradation due to overgrazing set the stage for arroyo formation in Pozo watershed between 1875 and 1886. This period coincides with an unusually large rainstorm event in 1878 that further facilitated arroyo formation.

  2. Unusual Recharge Processes near Arroyos of the Rio Grande Aquifer, El Paso/Juarez Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J.; Eastoe, C. J.; Druhan, J.

    2005-12-01

    The twin-cities of El Paso and Juarez share the water resources of the Hueco Bolson aquifer and overlying Rio Grande aquifer. Both aquifers span the international border between Mexico and the United States. Salinity in the Rio Grande aquifer varies widely, some parts of the shallow aquifer containing less than 1,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), other parts of the aquifer exceeding 5,000 mg/L TDS. One sizable part of the "Lower Valley" area, approximately 45 km below El Paso contains very dilute water near the outer edge of the floodplain. Historically it had been thought that the dilute waters in this location were derived from recharge from arroyos that drained proximal parts of the Hueco Bolson. Instead, our hydrogen and oxygen isotope data and carbon-14 data indicate that these dilute waters were derived from pre-dam infiltration of the Rio Grande. Relatively light and slightly evaporated pre-dam waters (-11.5 del O18) at the arroyos are also relatively young (60 to 90 percent modern carbon), tagging them as runoff waters from pre-dam snowmelt in Colorado. These isotopically light waters are found up to 110 meters beneath land surface. Prior to Rio Grande rectification and channelization of the mid-1930's, the Rio Grande flowed near the outer edge of the floodplain where these pre-dam, dilute waters are found at depth. Review of predevelopment drill stem tests indicated a permeable zone about 150 to 230 meters deep that had a lower hydraulic head than the overlying Rio Grande aquifer. The permeable zone acted as a predevelopment sink for flow that induced recharge from the Rio Grande and Rio Grande aquifer. Thus, we can account for local predevelopment recharge of the Rio Grande aquifer from infiltration of dilute water from the Rio Grande prior to the historic era of channel rectification, and not from recharge from flanking arroyos as had been postulated by previous researchers.

  3. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitrovich, M.J.; Gallegos, E.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Lovich, R.E.; Fisher, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  4. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  5. Managing the Arroyo Seco for Flood Prevention, Erosion Control, Waterway and Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Wang, C; Laurant, J

    2003-02-06

    One of the most important tasks for a site facility manager is to ensure that appropriate channel erosion controls are applied to on-site drainage channels. These erosion controls must minimize risks to the public and structures. Water and sediment loads commonly originate from off-site sources and many of the traditional reactionary measures (installing rip-rap or some other form of bed or bank armor) simply transfer or delay the problem. State and federal agency requirements further complicate the management solution. One case in point is the Arroyo Seco, an intermittent stream that runs along the southwest corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In 2001, LLNL contracted Questa Engineering Corporation to conduct hydraulic, geomorphic, and biological investigations and to prepare an alternatives and constraints analysis. From these investigations, LLNL has selected a water management plan that encompasses overall flood prevention, erosion control, and waterway and habitat restoration and enhancement elements. The most unique aspect of the Arroyo Seco management plan is its use of non-traditional and biotechnical techniques.

  6. Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hetch Hetchy Pump Station

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, L; Kato, T; Van Hattem, M

    2007-06-28

    The purpose of this biological assessment is to review the proposed Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project in sufficient detail to determine to what extent the proposed action may affect any of the threatened, endangered, proposed, or sensitive species and designated or proposed critical habitats listed below. In addition, the following information is provided to comply with statutory requirements to use the best scientific and commercial information available when assessing the risks posed to listed and/or proposed species and designated and/or proposed critical habitat by proposed federal actions. This biological assessment is prepared in accordance with legal requirements set forth under regulations implementing Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 402; 16 U.S.C 1536 (c)). It is our desire for the Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project to receive incidental take coverage for listed species and critical habitat within the greater project area by means of amending the previous formal Section 7 consultation (1-1-04-F-0086) conducted a few hundred meters downstream by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2002. All conservation measures, terms and conditions, and reporting requirements from the previous Biological Opinion (1-1-04-F-0086) have been adopted for this Biological Assessment and/or amendment.

  7. Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Many arroyos that formed by incision more than a century ago in the southwestern United States are currently filling with sediment. This reversal of processes is important because it causes changes in riparian ecology, erosion hazards, ground water recharge, and sediment supply to downstream. Along the Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in New Mexico, we examined the geometry and facies of channel and floodplain stratigraphy exposed in trenches, used high-resolution dating of the sedimentary beds, and used photographs and other historical evidence to investigate the processes of aggradation in naturally leveed channels within arroyos. Prior to the onset of aggradation, the streambeds were composed of sand and had low relief, and arroyo walls retreated rapidly due to stream undermining. Aggradation began with the formation of sand levees at the margins of the streambeds, followed by formation of newer levees increasingly closer to the thalweg. These levees coincide with rows of woody shrubs (tamarisk and willow), plants that germinated in moist sand along the high-water marks of moderate flows, and survived because subsequent periods lacked flows large enough to remove them. Flow entering a row of woody shrubs decelerates, promoting deposition of suspended sand. Stream flows in this setting are always turbid but do not have the rheology of debris flows. The rows of shrubs probably are a requirement for initial formation of sand levees on low relief streambeds in this setting. As new levees formed closer to the thalweg the channel effectively narrowed, and smaller discharges overtopped the levees adjacent to the channel. Those closer levees accumulated sand most rapidly, leaving the suspended sand concentration depleted by the time water reached more distant ones. All levees aggraded vertically. As the main channel narrowed it acquired a roughly trapezoidal-shape (Top Width/Depth ~ 9 to 5) with banks inclined close to the angle of repose. In addition, sediment deposited on

  8. Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian Abo and Yeso Formation, Carizzo Arroyo, Lucero Uplift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, M. S.; Geissman, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    We report paleomagnetic data from Lower Permian hematite-cemented sandstones and siltstones from Carrizo Arroyo, on the eastern edge of the Lucero uplift along the west-side of the middle Rio Grande rift, to test the hypothesis that the rift margins have accommodated extensional strain via vertical axis rotation. In addition, we present a revised interpretation of the structural setting and deformation history of the area, were late-Tertiary transtensional stresses have produced the majority of the structures in the area. The paleomagnetic data are discussed in the context of this hypothesis. In the Rio Grande rift area, a mid-Cenozoic and younger extensional feature defining the eastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, relatively little work has been done to assess the magnitude and sense of vertical axis rotations of fault-bounded crustal blocks within and at the margins of the plateau. A growing body of evidence shows that the Colorado Plateau has experienced some degree of vertical axis rotation and some magnitude of northward translation, although the magnitudes of the rotation and translation have been subject to considerable debate. Eight to ten oriented samples from 50 sites have been fully demagnetized with all sites yielding interpretable results: 41 sites from three sections in the Lower Permian Abo Formation, and 9 sites in the Meseta Blanca Member of the overlying Yeso Formation. In most cases, progressive thermal demagnetization resulted in a nearly univectorial decay of the magnetization to the origin that is well grouped at the site level. After correcting for modest dip of strata, the 50 sites in Carrizo Arroyo yield an estimate group mean (D = 162.1°, I = -4.1°, α95 = 6.8°, k = 10.18). Overall, the data from this part of the west side of the rift are discordant, in a clockwise since, with Early Permian (about D = 140°, I = -2.0°) and mid-Permian (about D = 145°, I = -4.0°) expected directions. We interpret the paleomagnetic data from

  9. Simulation of flow and water quality of the Arroyo Colorado, Texas, 1989-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Miranda, Roger M.

    2002-01-01

    A model parameter set for use with the Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN watershed model was developed to simulate flow and water quality for selected properties and constituents for the Arroyo Colorado from the city of Mission to the Laguna Madre, Texas. The model simulates flow, selected water-quality properties, and constituent concentrations. The model can be used to estimate a total maximum daily load for selected properties and constituents in the Arroyo Colorado. The model was calibrated and tested for flow with data measured during 1989?99 at three streamflow-gaging stations. The errors for total flow volume ranged from -0.1 to 29.0 percent, and the errors for total storm volume ranged from -15.6 to 8.4 percent. The model was calibrated and tested for water quality for seven properties and constituents with 1989?99 data. The model was calibrated sequentially for suspended sediment, water temperature, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and orthophosphate. The simulated concentrations of the selected properties and constituents generally matched the measured concentrations available for the calibration and testing periods. The model was used to simulate total point- and nonpoint-source loads for selected properties and constituents for 1989?99 for urban, natural, and agricultural land-use types. About one-third to one-half of the biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient loads are from urban point and nonpoint sources, although only 13 percent of the total land use in the basin is urban.

  10. Quaternary geologic map of the north-central part of the Salinas River Valley and Arroyo Seco, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Arroyo Seco, a perennial drainage in the central Coast Range of California, records a sequence of strath terraces. These terraces preserve an erosional and depositional history, controlled by both climate change and regional tectonics. These deposits have been mapped and correlated on the basis of field investigations, digital terrain analysis, stream gradient profiles, evaluation of published regional soil maps, and satellite imagery. Seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans have been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The OSL and IRSL dates on seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans in Arroyo Seco are approximately >120 ka, >65 ka, 51–46 ka, 36–35 ka, 9 ka, and 2–1 ka. These dates generally fall within the range of ages reported from many well-dated marine terraces on the California coast that are formed during sea-level high stands. Tectonic movements, consistently upward, result in a constantly and slowly emerging coastline, however, the regional effects of climate change and resulting eustatic sea-level rises are interpreted as the driving mechanism for erosion and aggradation in Arroyo Seco.

  11. Rates of sediment supply to arroyos from upland erosion determined using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Nichols, Kyle K.; Pavich, Milan; Caffee, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    Using 10Be and 26Al measured in sediment and bedrock, we quantify rates of upland erosion and sediment supply to a small basin in northwestern New Mexico. This and many other similar basins in the southwestern United States have been affected by cycles of arroyo incision and backfilling several times in the past few millennia. The sediment generation (275 ± 65 g m−2 yr−1) and bedrock equivalent lowering rates (102 ± 24 m myr−1) we determine are sufficient to support at least three arroyo cycles in the past 3,000 years, consistent with rates calculated from a physical sediment budget within the basin and regional rates determined using other techniques. Nuclide concentrations measured in different sediment sources and reservoirs suggest that the arroyo is a good spatial and temporal integrator of sediment and associated nuclide concentrations from throughout the basin, that the basin is in steady-state, and that nuclide concentration is independent of sediment grain size. Differences between nuclide concentrations measured in sediment sources and reservoirs reflect sediment residence times and indicate that subcolluvial bedrock weathering on hillslopes supplies more sediment to the basin than erosion of exposed bedrock.

  12. Sediment discharge in the Upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California, during the 1968-73 water years were analyzed to determine total sediment discharge at four stations in the basins. Water discharge and total sediment discharge at these stations, representative of the 1943-72 period, were estimated from long-term flow data for nearby gaging stations and water-sediment discharge relations determined for the 1968-73 water years. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station occurs during a few days each year. The quantity of sediment transported in a single day often accounts for more than 40 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Estimated sediment discharge for the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins during the 1943-72 water years averaged 53,000 tons and 23,000 tons per year. Long-term sediment deposition in Lopez Reservoir, which is in the southern part of the upper Arroyo Grande basin, was estimated to be 35 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Shallow Structure of the Eagle Rock and Raymond Faults in Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Catchings, R. D.; Goldman, M.; Fuis, G.

    2012-12-01

    To understand the location, dip, and possible structural connection of the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults in Pasadena and South Pasadena, California, we acquired and analyzed high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction data, as well as gravity observations, along the floor of the Arroyo Seco. The studies were conducted to aid in understanding the seismic hazards of these faults in this urban setting. Seismic reflection and refraction data, including both P-wave and S-wave records, were collected along two profiles, a 1.2-km-long northern profile crossing the Eagle Rock fault, and a 450-m-long southern profile crossing the Raymond fault. Seismic sources were Betsy-Seisgun shots, accelerated weight drops, and repeated sledge-hammer impacts, which were recorded on multi-channel seismograph systems connected to vertical- and horizontal-component geophones spaced at a 5-m interval. Gravity data were collected along a single ~3-km-long profile coincident with and extending beyond and between the two seismic profiles, with stations spaced every 25-m near the fault traces and at greater intervals farther from the fault traces. We carefully accounted for the gravity effects of the adjacent concrete drainage channel and of the walls of the arroyo, to generate gravity anomalies that reflect sub-surface density contrasts across the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults. Seismic reflection image quality is compromised by the highly-deformed Miocene strata offset by these faults. However, reflection and especially refraction results indicate that both the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults consist of multiple, steeply-north-dipping fault strands. P- and S-wave seismic tomography results of the uppermost 50-100 m yield velocity variations that can be converted to probable density variations, and thus be included in the gravity anomaly analysis. The gravity anomalies predicted from the velocity variations account for less than one-third of the anomalies observed across the faults

  14. Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads

  15. Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads

  16. Origin of zoning within dedolomite and calcitized gypsum of the Mississippian Arroyo Penasco Group

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mississippian Arroyo Penasco Group carbonates are the oldest Paleozoic rocks present in north-central New Mexico. These supratidal to shallow,subtidal sediments exhibit complex diagenetic fabrics produced by periods of pre-Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure. Both extensive recrystallization of the Espiritu Santo carbonates and brecciation of the overlying Macho Member of the Tererro Formation resulted from an extended period of Mississippian subaerial exposure of broad, low-relief tidal flats. Cathodoluminescent petrography indicates that the recrystallized limestones consist of calcite pseudomorphs of dolomite and gypsum. Dedolomite and calcitized gypsum crystals, with /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios of -2 to +1.5% PDB, range from highly zoned to uniformly luminescent. Electron microprobe analyses reveals variable Mn and Fe contents across the pseudomorphs which are responsible for differences in observed luminosity. These features are interpreted to reflect a period of subaerial exposure after deposition of Macho Member sediments, which caused dissolution of gypsum and dolomite by sulfate and Mg depleted meteoric fluids and produced the collapse breccia. Preservation of zoning within some pseudomorphs required simultaneous dissolution of gypsum and dolomite and precipitation of calcite. C-isotope data indicates a meteoric to mixed phreatic origin for pore fluids which precipitated calcite; repetitive zoning within dolomite and gypsum pseudomorphs is indicative of interactions between marine and meteoric phreatic fluids in the intertidal environment.

  17. Anastomosing channels and arroyo development on the Nogoa River, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, B. L.; Brizga, S. O.

    1993-05-01

    It is widely accepted that European settlement in Australia has had a major impact on river channels. For many parts of Australia records are available which permit the history of channel changes to be reconstructed over most of the post-settlement period. In this paper the history of changes on part of the Nogoa River in Central Queensland is described from the first European contact until the present. The river channel at this site has changed from an anastomosing pattern to a single large channel (arroyo). There is evidence to suggest that such changes have occurred also in the past but an unusual feature of the present incision phase is that incision is synchronous throughout the region. This may have been triggered by the introduction of cattle which naturally congregate in the moister valley bottoms in this otherwise dry environment. The changes observed here reflect those reported for the semiarid regions of the USA. A linking factor appears to be hydrological behaviour characterised by high levels of variability in the annual flood series, which appears to render such streams more sensitive to disturbance than those with less variable flood behaviour.

  18. Arroyo channel head evolution in a flash-flood-dominated discontinuous ephemeral stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Johnson, Joel P.L.; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2014-01-01

    We study whether arroyo channel head retreat in dryland discontinuous ephemeral streams is driven by surface runoff, seepage erosion, mass wasting, or some combination of these hydrogeomorphic processes. We monitored precipitation, overland flow, soil moisture, and headcut migration over several seasonal cycles at two adjacent rangeland channel heads in southern Arizona. Erosion occurred by headward retreat of vertical to overhanging faces, driven dominantly by surface runoff. No evidence exists for erosion caused by shallow-groundwater–related processes, even though similar theater-headed morphologies are sometimes attributed to seepage erosion by emerging groundwater. At our field site, vertical variation in soil shear strength influenced the persistence of the characteristic theater-head form. The dominant processes of erosion included removal of grains and soil aggregates during even very shallow (1–3 cm) overland flow events by runoff on vertical to overhanging channel headwalls, plunge-pool erosion during higher-discharge runoff events, immediate postrunoff wet mass wasting, and minor intra-event dry mass wasting on soil tension fractures developing subparallel to the headwall. Multiple stepwise linear regression indicates that the migration rate is most strongly correlated with flow duration and total precipitation and is poorly correlated with peak flow depth or time-integrated flow depth. The studied channel heads migrated upslope with a self-similar morphologic form under a wide range of hydrological conditions, and the most powerful flash floods were not always responsible for the largest changes in landscape form in this environment. 

  19. Adaptive Optics: Arroyo Simulation Tool and Deformable Mirror Actuation Using Golay Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lint, Adam S.

    2005-01-01

    The Arroyo C++ libraries, written by Caltech post-doc student Matthew Britton, have the ability to simulate optical systems and atmospheric signal interference. This program was chosen for use in an end-to-end simulation model of a laser communication system because it is freely distributed and has the ability to be controlled by a remote system or "smart agent." Proposed operation of this program by a smart agent has been demonstrated, and the results show it to be a suitable simulation tool. Deformable mirrors, as a part of modern adaptive optics systems, may contain thousands of tiny, independently controlled actuators used to modify the shape of the mirror. Each actuator is connected to two wires, creating a cumbersome and expensive device. Recently, an alternative actuation method that uses gas-filled tubes known as Golay cells has been explored. Golay cells, operated by infrared lasers instead of electricity, would replace the actuator system thereby creating a more compact deformable mirror. The operation of Golay cells and their ability to move a deformable mirror in excess of the required 20 microns has been demonstrated. Experimentation has shown them to be extremely sensitive to pressure and temperature, making them ideal for use in a controlled environment.

  20. Mercury dispersal to arroyo and coastal sediments from abandoned copper mine operations, el Boléo, Baja California.

    PubMed

    Kot, Fyodor; Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Mirlean, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for mercury dispersal in an arid coastal region of central Baja California (Mexico) suggests that abandoned copper mining operations are a noticeable source of mercury in the environment. There is a generally elevated level of mercury in alluvium of arroyos throughout the mining district (0.14-0.18 mg kg(-1)). In the first several dozen meters surrounding two of the biggest mines, mercury levels range from 0.26 to 3.16 mg kg(-1), forming a halo of anomalously high concentrations. The coastal marine sediments, particularly those close to the copper smelter in the town of Santa Rosalía, also display some mercury enrichment. PMID:18800200

  1. Mercury dispersal to arroyo and coastal sediments from abandoned copper mine operations, el Boléo, Baja California.

    PubMed

    Kot, Fyodor; Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Mirlean, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for mercury dispersal in an arid coastal region of central Baja California (Mexico) suggests that abandoned copper mining operations are a noticeable source of mercury in the environment. There is a generally elevated level of mercury in alluvium of arroyos throughout the mining district (0.14-0.18 mg kg(-1)). In the first several dozen meters surrounding two of the biggest mines, mercury levels range from 0.26 to 3.16 mg kg(-1), forming a halo of anomalously high concentrations. The coastal marine sediments, particularly those close to the copper smelter in the town of Santa Rosalía, also display some mercury enrichment.

  2. Performance of building materials under load stresses: the case of Arroyo Meaques Bridge in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencías, David; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Laura

    2015-04-01

    In most masonry structures analyzed by limit state models, it is not possible to determine where thrust lines are located or stress fields are defined. This is because very small modifications of the geometry can modify considerably a stress situation. Moreover, structural safety of this kind of construction is mainly established by equilibrium, and structural analysis is based on this premise. However, from the point of view of a stress model, the thrust line can be approximately positioned (either graphically or by analytical methods) only from a geometrical description and material properties and, therefore, determine the amount of stresses that masonry undergoes. This research tries to provide the relationship between geometry and thrust line analysis, applied to the 17th century Arroyo Meaques Bridge. This is a brick and stone bridge, located at the southwest edge of Casa de Campo in Madrid (Spain) and it actually sets up the limit of the municipality of Madrid. The bridge was designed by architect Francesco Sabatini as a part of a set of improvements of Madrid city center. Starting from a geometrical surveying and photogrammetric restitution, a 3-dimension CAD model is performed, in which all geometrical conditions are collected. At the same time, elastic properties, compactness and strength of bricks were determined by means of non-destructive techniques, such as Schmidt hammer and ultrasound pulse velocity. All this information is uploaded to a GIS and 2D maps are generated. Brick physical properties were compared to previously done thrust line analysis to understand the relationship between maximum stresses and brick performance. This technique may be a starting point for more specific analysis, once possible failure mechanisms are identified and can be a very simple method to identify how it can affect any geometrical changes. Research funded by Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914, CEI Moncloa (UPM, UCM, CSIC) through a PICATA contract and the foundation

  3. "War on Terror" Is a Curative: Recontextualization and Political Myth-Making in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's 2002-2004 State of the Nation Addresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navera, Gene Segarra

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the State of the Nation addresses (SONA) delivered by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) from 2002-2004, during which time she actively invoked the need to engage in the U.S. government-led "global war on terror." It specifically investigates how these presidential speeches recontextualized the war on…

  4. Recent formation of arroyos in the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota, the channels of ephemeral streams are incised 2 to 10 m or more into mid-to-late Holocene alluvium. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing and cause(s) of the most recent episodes of fluvial incision and to develop a process-response model that illustrates the formation and evolution of arroyos in this region. The purpose was to distinguish natural from anthropogenic changes to the landscape and to discriminate allogenic from autogenic causes of incision, thereby gaining a greater sense of how steep, relatively small, ephemeral streams evolve. Dendrochronologic and dendrogeomorphic analyses of riparian cottonwoods provide an inexpensive, high-resolution dating method to constrain the time of incision, thereby permitting determination of the cause(s) of incision by evaluating environmental conditions prior to and at the onset of fluvial incision. An examination of seven small (10 to 100 km2) drainage basins indicated ephemeral streams have undergone a four-stage cycle of change within the past 200 years, comprising(i) an initial period of relative geomorphic stability with pedogenesis on the flood plain and low rates of lateral channel migration, (ii) a period of channel incision with subsequent widening of the flood plain through lateral corrasion along middle and upstream reaches, (iii) a concomitant period of aggradation along downstream reaches and, finally, (iv) a period of downstream incision. Dendrochronologic data and dendrogeomorphic relations indicate there have been three distinct periods of fluvial incision in the past 200 years. The first period of incision began in the 1860s and 1870s prior to the onset of European settlement and intensive grazing by domesticated cattle in the area. This period of incision occurred along the middle reaches of all seven of the streams examined and coincided with a severe, protracted drought, suggesting an allogenic cause. The second period

  5. Channel and hillslope processes revisited in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.; Emmett, William W.; Leopold, Luna B.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the original study sites were relocated and surveyed in the mid-1990's to determine subsequent channel and hillslope changes and to determine whether trends of channel and hillslope aggradation and degradation that were evident in the 1950's and 1960's have continued. In general, the net change in channel geometry has been small over the last 30n40 years. The average change in cross-sectional area of 32 resurveyed cross sections was erosion of 0.27 square meter, which equates to a 4-percent increase in cross-sectional area. The average net change in thalweg elevation for 51 resurveyed cross sections was degradation of 0.04 meter. Unpublished data (1964n68) from the scour chains showed that 371 chains had an average scour of 0.14 (+/-) 0.14 meter and that 372 chains showed an average fill of 0.13 + 0.11 meter. Scour, found in the original study (1958n64) to be proportional to the square root of discharge, was confirmed with the addition of unpublished data (1964?68). The observed channel changes have no consistent trend, compared either to results observed in the original 1966 study or to distance from the watershed divide. The conclusion drawn in the original study was that most channels were aggrading; the resurvey showed that aggradation did not continue. An increase in housing and population in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed since the 1950's has led to more roads. Channel degradation is most noticeable at road crossings. The greatest degradation of the main channel Arroyo de los Frijoles, 1.53 meters, and the greatest aggradation, 0.38 meter, occur downstream and upstream, respectively, from a culvert in a dirt road. Periods of high average annual rainfall intensity reported for Santa Fe for 1853?80 immediately preceded late 19th century arroyo incision, and another period of high-intensity rainfall began in 1967. This may indicate that climatic factors are again favorable for arroyo incision in this part of New Mexico; data from this resurvey

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Climate and Land Use Change on Streamflow and Nutrient Loading in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed in Southern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osidele, O.; Sun, A.; Green, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of the Second National Climate Assessment reported in 2009, the U.S. Global Change Research Program projects temperatures in southern Texas will increase 5 to 8° F by the end of the 21st century, with larger changes occurring under scenarios of higher greenhouse gas emissions. Temperature increases in summer are projected to be larger than in winter. Although drier conditions are expected in the region, sea-level rise, extreme rainfall events, and associated storm surges are projected to occur more frequently because of the likely increase in intensity of hurricanes and tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico. The range of possible responses to climate change is attributable to a combination of characteristics at global, regional, and local scales. The risk of flooding and catastrophic infrastructure damage due to global climate phenomena has been incorporated into local climate adaptation plans for many low-lying areas and communities in the Gulf Coast region of southern Texas. However, because this region is dominated by irrigated agriculture and the population is projected to double by 2050, it is important to examine how climate change will affect water resources and environmental quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential hydrologic and water quality impacts of projected climate change, land use change, and population change scenarios in the headwaters of the Arroyo Colorado. The results of this work will provide content for a web-based, collaborative geospatial decision support system being developed to support environmental management in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed. Presently, land use in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed is more than 50 percent agricultural and almost 25 percent residential with varying levels of urbanization. As a result, flow in the Arroyo Colorado is sustained primarily by discharge from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, irrigation return flows, and urban storm runoff. In this study

  7. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  8. Neural network prediction of carbonate lithofacies from well logs, Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields, Southwest Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the Hugoton Embayment of southwestern Kansas, St. Louis Limestone reservoirs have relatively low recovery efficiencies, attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the oolitic deposits. This study establishes quantitative relationships between digital well logs and core description data, and applies these relationships in a probabilistic sense to predict lithofacies in 90 uncored wells across the Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. In 10 wells, a single hidden-layer neural network based on digital well logs and core described lithofacies of the limestone depositional texture was used to train and establish a non-linear relationship between lithofacies assignments from detailed core descriptions and selected log curves. Neural network models were optimized by selecting six predictor variables and automated cross-validation with neural network parameters and then used to predict lithofacies on the whole data set of the 2023 half-foot intervals from the 10 cored wells with the selected network size of 35 and a damping parameter of 0.01. Predicted lithofacies results compared to actual lithofacies displays absolute accuracies of 70.37-90.82%. Incorporating adjoining lithofacies, within-one lithofacies improves accuracy slightly (93.72%). Digital logs from uncored wells were batch processed to predict lithofacies and probabilities related to each lithofacies at half-foot resolution corresponding to log units. The results were used to construct interpolated cross-sections and useful depositional patterns of St. Louis lithofacies were illustrated, e.g., the concentration of oolitic deposits (including lithofacies 5 and 6) along local highs and the relative dominance of quartz-rich carbonate grainstone (lithofacies 1) in the zones A and B of the St. Louis Limestone. Neural network techniques are applicable to other complex reservoirs, in which facies geometry and distribution are the key factors controlling heterogeneity and distribution of rock properties. Future work

  9. The use of streambed temperature profiles to estimate the depth, duration, and rate of percolation beneath arroyos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Temporal variations in a streambed temperature profile between 30 and 300 cm beneath Tijeras Arroyo, New Mexico, were analyzed at 30-min intervals for 1990 to estimate the depth, duration, and rate of percolation during streamflows. The depth of percolation was clearly documented by the rapid response of the streambed temperature profile to streamflows. Results indicate that the streambed possessed small thermal gradients with significant diurnal variations from late November to late May, indicating that ephemeral streamflows created continuous, advection-dominated beat transport to depths below 300 cm during this period. Timing and duration of percolation suggested by temporal variations in the temperature profile were verified by comparison with measured streamflow records for the study reach over 1990. Percolation rates were estimated using a technique based on the travel time of the daily maximum temperature into the streambed. Percolation rates were compared with streambed seepage rates determined from measurements of streamflow loss, stream surface area, and stream evaporative loss for the entire study reach. Travel time estimates of streambed percolation rates ranged from 9 to 40 cm/hr, while streamflow estimates of streambed seepage rates ranged from 6 to 26 cm/hr during the study period. Discrepancies between streambed percolation and seepage rates may be caused by differences in the areal extent of measurements for percolation versus seepages rates. In summary, the depth, timing, and duration of streamflow- induced percolation were well documented by temporal variations in a single streambed temperature profile, while rates of percolation based on the temperature profile were about double the seepage rates based on streamflow records for the entire study reach.

  10. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the lower Pliocene Arroyo Piedras section (Tubará - Colombia): Implications for the Magdalena River - paleodelta’s dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinares, C. E.; Martinez, J. I.; Fiorini, F.; Escobar, J.; Jaramillo, C.

    2012-11-01

    The Magdalena river transports one of the largest load of sediments per basin area in the world. Its delta position has changed several times over the Neogene. The Arroyo Piedras Section (169 m) in northern Colombia, contains part of the record of the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene evolution of the Magdalena paleodelta. The section was described and sampled for sedimentological and micropaleontological analyses. Based on lithofacies and benthic foraminifera content, the section was divided in three segments, and the upper segment was dated as Early Pliocene using planktonic foraminifera. The lower segment suggests siliciclastic sedimentation in a proximal prodelta/delta plain transitional environment. The intermediate segment suggests sedimentation in a lagoon and/or coastal swamp environment, whereas the upper segment is interpreted as the result of a transgression and subsequent deposition at the foreshore/upper shoreface environment, with a considerable decrease of terrigenous input. The decrease of sediment delivery to the delta produced by permanent El Niño-like conditions coupled with autocyclic processes could explain the transgressive pattern observed in the Arroyo de Piedras section during the Early Pliocene.

  11. Arroyo el Mimbral, Mexico, K/T unit: Origin as debris flow/turbidite, not a tsunami deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, Bruce F.; Betterton, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Coarse, spherule-bearing, elastic units have been discovered at 10 marine sites that span the K/T boundary in northeastern Mexico. We examined one of the best exposed sites in Arroyo el Mimbral, northwest of Tampico. The Mimbral outcrop displays a layered elastic unit up to 3 m thick enclosed by marly limestones of the Mendez (Latest Maastrichian) and Velasco (Earliest Danian) Formations. At its thickest point, this channelized elastic unit is comprised of 3 subunits: (1) a basal, poorly-sorted, ungraded calcareous spherule bed 1 m thick containing relict impact glass and shocked mineral grains, (2) a massive set of laminated calcite-cemented sandstones up to 2 m thick with plant debris at its base, (3) capped by a thin (up to 20 cm) set of rippled sandstone layers separated by silty mudstone drapes containing a small (921 pg/g) iridium anomaly. This tripartite elastic unit is conformably overlain by marls of the Velasco Formation. We also visited the La Lajilla site east of Ciudad Victoria; its stratigraphy is similar to Mimbral's, but its elastic beds are thinner and less extensive laterally. The Mimbral elastic unit has been interpreted previously as being deposited by a megawave or tsunami produced by an asteroid impact on nearby Yucatan (Chicxulub crater). However, a presumed 400-m paleodepth of water at the Mimbral site, channeling of the spherule subunit into the underlying Mendez Formation marls, and the overtopping of the basal, spherule-bearing subunit by the laminated sandstone subunit, all suggest a combined debris flow/turbidite origin for this elastic unit similar to that proposed for Upper Pleistocene sand/silt beds occurring elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. In this latter model, the sediment source region for the elastic unit is the lower continental shelf and slope escarpment. For the K/T unit at Mimbral, we propose that thick ejecta blanket deposits composed mostly of spherules were rapidly loaded onto the lower shelf and slope from an impact

  12. Late Quaternary large-scale rotational slides induced by river incision: The Arroyo de Gor area (Guadix basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azañón, José M.; Azor, Antonio; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Carrillo, José M.

    2005-07-01

    The Arroyo de Gor is a highly incised stream (up to 200 m) that has eroded into the Pliocene-Pleistocene infill of the Guadix basin in the Betic cordillera (SE Spain). This paper concentrates on a particular reach of this stream, namely the Cenascuras-Gorafe reach, where abundant inactive rotational slides can be recognized on both hillslopes of the canyon-shaped valley. The rotational slides have surface areas of 5-15 ha and volumes of mobilized material of 5-15 Hm 3. These rotational slides can be recognized by their main scarps, which are still well featured at both margins of the valley, as well as by the counter hillslope rotation of the strata in their bodies. The surfaces of rupture are concave, their width being greater than their length, i.e. the landslides are elongated in a direction perpendicular to the landsliding displacement and parallel to the stream. At depth, the surfaces of rupture developed on fine-grained sediments (mostly clays) underlying the conglomerates and sands affected by the rotational slides. The clays at the surface of rupture are smectite-rich and show several features produced by the landsliding, such as striations and sigmoidal-shaped structures. The Cenascuras-Gorafe canyon has been developed by a combination of entrenchment, fracturing and landsliding. Initial deep entrenchment of the stream is attributed to a base-level lowering related to the capture of the former endorheic basin by the Gualdalquivir river in the late Pleistocene. This river incision created a canyon with subvertical unstable walls, which due to gravitational instability would give way to vertical open tension cracks some distance from the canyon edge. The tension cracks would end at depths equal to the base of the canyon, which also coincides with the contact between the conglomerates and the underlying clays. The rotational slides are thought to have occurred during heavy rains by a combination of piping, which would have lengthened the tension cracks, and

  13. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  14. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones

    PubMed Central

    Fariña, Richard A.; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human–megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  15. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America.

  16. Using cosmogenic nuclides to contrast rates of erosion and sediment yield in a semi-arid, arroyo-dominated landscape, Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierman, P.R.; Reuter, J.M.; Pavich, M.; Gellis, A.C.; Caffee, M.W.; Larsen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of in-situ-produced 10Be and 26Al in 52 fluvial sediment samples shows that millennial-scale rates of erosion vary widely (7 to 366 m Ma-1) through the lithologically and topographically complex Rio Puerco Basin of northern New Mexico. Using isotopic analysis of both headwater and downstream samples, we determined that the semi-arid, Rio Puerco Basin is eroding, on average, about 100 m Ma-1. This rapid rate of erosion is consistent with estimates made using other techniques and is likely to result from a combination of easily eroded lithologies, sparse vegetation, and monsoon-dominated rainfall. Data from 331 stream water samples collected by the US Geological Survey between 1960 and 1995 are consistent with basin-wide, average chemical denudation rates of only about 1??4 m Ma-1; thus, the erosion rates we calculate may be considered rates of sediment generation because physical weathering accounts for almost 99 per cent of mass loss. The isotopic data reveal that sediment is generally well mixed downstream with the area-weighted average sediment generation rate for 16 headwater samples (234 ton km-2 a-1 for basin area 170 to 1169 km2) matching well that estimated from a single sample collected far downstream (238 ton km-2 a-1, basin area = 14 225 km2). A series of 15 samples, collected from an arroyo wall and representing deposition through the late Holocene, indicates that 10Be concentration in sediment delivered by the fluvial system has not changed appreciably over the last 1200 years despite at least two cycles of arroyo cutting and filling. Other samples (n = 21) were collected along the drainage network. Rio Puerco erosion rates scale directly with a variety of metrics describing vegetation, precipitation, and rock erodibility. Using the headwater basins for calibration, the erosion rates for both the downstream samples and also the data set as a whole, are best modelled by considering a combination of relief and vegetation metrics, both of which co

  17. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  18. Migration of As, Hg, Pb, and Zn in arroyo sediments from a semiarid coastal system influenced by the abandoned gold mining district at El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Sánchez-Martínez, Martha Alicia; Romero-Guadarrama, Juan Armando; Sánchez-González, Alberto; Magallanes-Ordóñez, Víctor René

    2011-08-01

    Extensive waste deposits (tailings) and ash from the ignition oven of the abandoned gold mine of mining district El Triunfo (MD-ET) in Baja California Sur, Mexico have released trace elements into the sediments of the Hondo-Las Gallinas-El Carrizal arroyo, which connects to the Pacific Ocean through an evaporitic basin. Migration of these elements through the arroyo is mainly caused by winds or tropical hurricanes that occur sporadically during the summer and cause the otherwise dry arroyo to overflow. To evaluate the concentration and distribution of the elements As, Hg, Pb, and Zn along the 48 km arroyo, surface sediments were collected from 26 sites, ranging from close to the MD-ET to the mouth of the arroyo at the Pacific Ocean. Concentrations in tailings and ash were for As 8890 and 505 000 mg kg(-1); for Hg 0.336 and 54.9 mg kg(-1); for Pb 92,700 and 19,300 mg kg(-1); and for Zn 49,600 and 1380 mg kg(-1). The average of the Normalized Enrichment Factor (Av-NEF) in surface sediments, calculated using background levels, indicates that the sediments are severely contaminated with As and Zn (Av-NEF = 22), Pb (Av-NEF = 24) and with a moderate contamination of Hg (Av-NEF = 7.5). The anthropogenic influence of those elements is reflected in the arroyo sediments as far as 18 km away from the MD-ET, whereas the samples closest to the discharge into the Pacific Ocean show a natural to moderate enrichment for As and Zn and low or no enrichment for Hg and Pb. A principal components analysis identified four principal components that explained 90% of the total variance. Factor 1 was characterized by a high positive contribution of the anthropogenic source elements, especially As, Pb, and Zn (37%), whereas Factor 2 was strongly correlated with the oxy-hydroxides of Fe and Mn (27%). Factor 3 was correlated with Li (16%) and Factor 4 with Al (10%), which indicates more than one source of lithogenic composition, though they played a minor role in the distribution of the

  19. Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene Arroyo Diablo and Borrego Formations in the Borrego Badlands, western Salton Trough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    We report results obtained from a stratigraphic and paleomagnetic study of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Borrego Badlands, E of Borrego Springs, CA. The Borrego Badlands are bordered by dextral strike slip faults of the San Jacinto fault zone (Clark fault to the NE, Coyote Creek fault to the SW), and is also cut by several NE-striking sinistral faults (linked antithetically to the Coyote Creek and Clark faults), the largest of which is the Inspiration Point fault. Our work focuses on deposits of the Palm Spring Group, including Pliocene fluvial/deltaic sandstones of the Arroyo Diablo Formation and Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine mudstones of the Borrego Formation. We collected a suite of 54 paleomagnetic sample sites from a 2500 m thick section of the Borrego Badlands (3rd Wash, Hills of the Moon Wash, and Rainbow Wash), from the upper part of the Arroyo Diablo Formation to the contact between the Borrego Formation and overlying Ocotillo Formation. This section is correlated to the upper Borrego and Ocotillo formations in Beckman Wash, located NW of here on the NW side of the Inspiration Point fault, allowing us to use the previous magnetostratigraphy of Lutz et al (2006) as a tie point for this section. Sample sites were spaced at 15 to 100 m, and 5 to 8 samples were collected from each site. Samples were thermally demagnetized using steps from 80 to 690 C, and two magnetization components were observed from 53 of the sites. A total of 49 sites had well-defined second-removed components and site mean directions that were robust (k>10). The combined mean of these 49 sites is D = 35, I = 41, α95 = 7.5. We identify 8 polarity zones in this section, ranging from near the base of the Gauss magnetochron to the upper part of the Matuyama chron, including the Mammoth, Kaena, and Olduvai subchrons. The contact between the Arroyo Diablo and Borrego formations is estimated to be ~2.9 Ma. Sediment-accumulation rates are relatively rapid and vary between 0.7 and 1

  20. Can erosion control structures in large dryland arroyo channels lead to resilient riparian and cienega restoration? Observations from LiDAR, monitoring and modeling at Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The use of erosion control structures to mitigate or even reverse erosion and to restore ecological function along dryland channels (arroyos and gullies) has led to a long list of both successful and failed restoration efforts. We propose that successful implementation of "engineering" approaches to fluvial restoration that include in-channel control structures require either a quantitative approach to design (by scientists and engineers), or intimate on-the-ground knowledge, local observation, and a commitment to adapt and maintain restoration efforts in response to landscape change (by local land managers), or both. We further propose that the biophysical interactions among engineering, sedimentation, flood hydrology and vegetation reestablishment are what determine resilience to destructive extreme events that commonly cause erosion control structure failure. Our insights come from comprehensive monitoring of a remarkable experiment underway at Ranch San Bernardino, Sonora, MX. At this site, private landowners are working to restore ecosystem function to riparian corridors and former cieñega wetlands using cessation of grazing; vegetation planting; upland grass restoration; large scale rock gabions (up to 100 m wide) to encourage local sediment deposition and water storage; and large earthen berms (up to 900 m wide) with cement spillways that form reservoirs that fill rapidly with water and sediment. Well-planned and managed erosion control structures have been used elsewhere successfully in smaller gully networks, but we are unaware of a comparable attempt to use gabions and berms for the sole purpose of ecological restoration along >10 km of arroyo channels draining watersheds on the order of ~400 km2 and larger. We present an approach to monitoring the efficacy of arroyo channel restoration using terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, remote sensing, streamflow monitoring, shallow groundwater monitoring, hydrological modeling and field observation. Our methods

  1. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  2. Environmental and climatic controls since the early XVth century in the palaeoflood records of a Mediterranean arroyo (Rambla de la Viuda, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M.; Benito, G.; Rico, M.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Sopeña, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Rambla de la Viuda arroyo is a representative ephemeral stream of the western Mediterranean area (NE Spain), both in terms of its torrential regime and land use history. A total of 10 stratigraphic profiles were described, located in areas of prevailing deposition of suspended clay, silts and fine sands, during flood events, along the canyon margins. The sedimentary comprises continuous sequences of slackwater flood deposits interbeded with episodic coluvial and edaphic horizons. The radiocarbon dating indicates that most of these deposits accumulated over the last 500 years. The stratigraphic and edaphological characterisation of the slack-water flood deposits, coluvial units and palaeosols, was supported biominerals content analysis (phytoliths), geochemical and documentary data (written historical documents). A high frequency and high magnitude palaeoflood period took place during the XV-XVII centuries (Phase I), which seem to correlate in time with general wetter conditions (higher presence of C3 photosynthetic pathway Poaceae and ligneous plants). During Phase I two well-developed palaeosols can be identified, which could correspond in time with two wetter than normal periods during ca.1550-1620 AD and 1670-1700 AD. Minimum flood discharges between 2000 m3s-1 and 1400 m3s-1 were estimated for this Phase. Phase II was characterised by episodic high magnitude floods (estimated minimum discharges between 1000-350 m3s-1), interrupted by coluvial deposits. This phase seems to be correlated in time with a period of higher climatic variability and general dry conditions as it can be inferred from the analysis of the phytoliths content on fluvial and coluvial sediments. Major drier conditions have occurred during middle XVIII century, where phytoliths indicate the presence of a C4 grassland, with less than 5% of riparian and dycots plants. Phytoliths content in this maximum driest period were of 5x103 phytoliths per gram of sediment (Acid-insoluble Fraction

  3. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... approximately 7.5 miles to U.S. Highway 101 at the intersection of Underwood Road. (7) Then east following Underwood Road to its intersection with the Posa de los Ositos Land Grant. (8) Then north following...

  4. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 9.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF..., California,” 7.5 minute series, edition of 1955; and (4) “Sycamore Flat, California,” 7.5 minute series... Monterey County, California. The beginning point is found on the “Sycamore Flat” U.S.G.S. map at...

  5. TENDENCIA DE LA TUBERCULOSIS EN LA REGIÓN SANITARIA V DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, AÑOS 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    CHIRICO, CRISTINA; SANJURJO, MYRIAM; IRIBARREN, SARAH; APPENDINO, ANDREA; ZERBINI, ELSA; ETCHEVARRIA, MIRTA

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis (TB) en la Región Sanitaria V (RSV), provincia de Buenos Aires. El estudio de tendencia permitió conocer un valor promedio de las variaciones de la tasa de incidencia (TI), calculadas por regresión lineal simple y expresadas como variación anual promedio (VAP). Se analizaron el número de casos notificados y TI por 100 000 habitantes de todas las formas de TB, los casos de TB pulmonar (TBP) y TBP confirmados por bacteriología, total casos por grupos de edad: 0 – 14; 15 – 29 y mayores de 64 años, entre el 1° de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. La declinación de la TI fue menor al 5% para todas las formas de TB e inferior en las TBP confirmadas bacteriológicamente. Los casos de TBP y TI más elevadas, se concentraron en el grupo de 15 a 29 años, con tendencia estable o ligeramente ascendente de la TI en la TBP bacilífera. El mismo comportamiento presentaron los casos de TBP infantil con confirmación bacteriológica. La mayor velocidad de descenso en la TI de la TBP se produjo en este grupo de edad, mientras que en mayores de 64 años, el descenso fue sostenido en el tiempo. La TB persiste como un riesgo de salud en la RSV, con casos en edades jóvenes, por lo que sigue siendo necesario fortalecer el control de la TB en esta región. PMID:26117604

  6. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with Upper Los Berros No. 2 Road in section 33, T. 32 S., R. 14 E.; (28) Then southwesterly, approximately 3.27 miles along the stream in Los Berros Canyon (of which approximately 2.0 miles are along Upper Los Berros No. 2 Road) to the point at which U.S. Highway 101 crosses said stream in section 35, T....

  7. 76 FR 7245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ....S.C. 1531 et seq.), in this final rule. For more information on the taxonomy, biology, and ecology..., 1994 (59 FR 64859); the final critical habitat rule published in the Federal Register on February 7, 2001 (66 FR 9414); the final revised critical habitat rule published in the Federal Register on...

  8. Chemical quality of sediment cores from the Laguna Madre, Laguna Atascosa and Arroyo Colorado, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Many contaminants introduced into the environment by human activities are hydrophobic, meaning they are relatively insoluble in water and, thus, are associated primarily with sediments. These contaminants include the organochlorine pesticides DOT and chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial facilities and urban areas, and heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and zinc. Understanding the occurrence of these contaminants in the environment requires sampling the sediments where the contaminants might be detected.

  9. Evaluation of Background Concentrations of Contaminants in an Unusual Desert Arroyo Near a Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cell - 12260

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, Richard P.; Morrison, Stan J.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages 27 sites that have groundwater containing uranium concentrations above background levels. The distal portions of the plumes merge into background groundwater that can have 50 μg/L or more uranium. Distinguishing background from site-related uranium is often problematic, but it is critical to determining if remediation is warranted, establishing appropriate remediation goals, and evaluating disposal cell performance. In particular, groundwater at disposal cells located on the upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale may have relatively high background concentrations of uranium. Elevated concentrations of nitrate, selenium, and sulfate accompany the uranium. LM used geologic analogs and uranium isotopic signatures to distinguish background groundwater from groundwater contaminated by a former uranium processing site. The same suite of contaminants is present in groundwater near former uranium processing sites and in groundwater seeps emanating from the Mancos Shale over a broad area. The concentrations of these contaminants in Many Devils Wash, located near LM's Shiprock disposal cell, are similar to those in samples collected from many Mancos seeps, including two analog sites that are 8 to 11 km from the disposal cell. Samples collected from Many Devils Wash and the analog sites have high AR values (about 2.0)-in contrast, groundwater samples collected near the tailings disposal cell have AR values near 1.0. These chemical signatures raise questions about the origin of the contamination seeping into Many Devils Wash. (authors)

  10. Characterization of streamflow, salinity, and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Rodney J.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use was characterized for 1992, 2002, and 2009 for site MA3. The common land-use change in the MA3 subwatershed was a conversion from previously irrigated agricultural land to urban land use. The MA3 subwatershed had 124 acres of irrigated land use converted to urban land use and 27.1 acres of unirrigated desert converted to urban land use from 1992 to 2009. Consistent with findings in previous land-use change reports, salinity and dissolved-selenium loading at site MA3 showed significant decreases as irrigated land was converted to urban land use.

  11. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1993. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 119 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 6 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 31 streamflow-gaging stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  12. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1992. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 124 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record streamflow station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 32 stream flow-gaging stations and 1 water-quality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and with other agencies.

  13. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line Except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 123 gaging stations; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 38 stations. Also included is l low-flow partial-record station and 22 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2001, Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Freeman, L.A.; Smithson, J.R.; Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.; Pope, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 128 gaging stations, stage and contents for 6 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 8 stations, water quality for 43 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 8 miscellaneous-measurement stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water resources data for California, water year 1976; Volume 2: Pacific Slope basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1976 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic-data section. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 130 streamflow-gaging stations, 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 6 miscellaneous measurement sites; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 3 stations; and water-quality records for 41 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water. quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 127 gaging stations, stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoir and water quality for 32 stations. Also included is 1 low-flow partial-record station and 22 waterquality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the u.s. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2000, Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.; Friebel, M.F.; Freeman, L.A.; Smithson, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 121 gaging stations, gage-height records for 10 stations, stage and contents for 6 lakes and reservoirs, and water quality for 34 stations. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 32 miscellaneous-measurement stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Water resources data for California; water year 1975; Volume 2: Pacific Slope basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1975 water year for California consist of records of streamflow and contents of reservoirs at gaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous sites; records of water quality including the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water; and records of water levels in selected observation wells. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic data section. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 2, Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, L.A.; Smithson, J.R.; Webster, M.D.; Pope, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 133 gaging stations, stage and contents for 8 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 6 stations, water quality for 43 streamflow-gaging stations and 5 partial-record stations. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 5 miscellaneous-measurement stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, W.F.; Trujillo, L.F.; Markham, K.L.; Palmer, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for. California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 125 streamflow-gaging stations and 1 low-flow partial-record station; stage and contents for 7 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation records for 4 stations; and water-quality records for 29 streamflow-gaging stations and 10 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 2, Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smithson, J.R.; Webster, M.D.; Pope, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Freeman, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations, stage and content records for 8 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 6 stations, and water-quality records for 43 streamflow-gaging stations and 5 water-quality partial-record stations. Also included are data for 1 low-flow partial-record station, and 1 miscellaneous-measurement station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. Predicting Event-Scale Floodplain Change with Coupled Hydrodynamic (ANUGA) and Landscape Evolution (CHILD) Models: a Case Study of the Rio Puerco Arroyo, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perignon, M. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Vincent, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    A powerful flood can alter channel geometry and conveyance capacity, erode or bury riparian vegetation, enhance or degrade the fertility of floodplain soils, and in extreme cases even change the entire channel pattern. A fundamental goal in fluvial hydrology and geomorphology is to understand these impacts at a quantitative and ultimately predictive level, yet our ability to forecast potential flood impacts is currently limited by our inability to both simulate the detailed hydraulics and the evolution of the topography during the flood through a numerical model. We present the first steps towards creating a predictive model of channel and floodplain evolution during a single flood event. We combined the hydrologic modules of the ANUGA software tool for 2D hydrodynamic modeling with the sediment transport and topographic evolution modules of the CHILD landscape evolution model to create a tool that can predict erosion and deposition on a model topography for short-period events. The resulting model solves the shallow-water equations using a finite volume method on a triangular mesh grid. The reliability of this new software was tested by performing a model run using the 2006 flood of the Rio Puerco in New Mexico as a case study. This event caused extensive erosion in a reach of the lower Rio Puerco where all vegetation had been removed by herbicides. This material was transported downstream, where it deposited across the channel and floodplain. LiDAR surveys were obtained for sections of the river in 2005 and then in 2010, providing a unique data set that brackets a major flood event and thereby making the Rio Puerco an ideal location for testing the performance of our model.

  4. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1984; Volume 2. Pacific Slope Basins from Arroyo Grande to Oregon State Line except Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.; Markham, K.L.; Piro, V.; Shelton, W.F.; Grillo, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1984 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 2 contains discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 11 stations; water levels for 9 observation wells. Also included are 2 low-flow partial-record stations and 19 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 4 SHOWS ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN FOREGROUND AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CENTER. LOOKING 316° NW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Constraining the Paleogene of South America: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimate proxy records from Cerro Bayo (Provincia de Salta, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Records of rapid climatic and ecological shifts in the past are crucial for understanding global systems and for predicting future impacts of climate change. Transient and broad scale hyperthermal events during the Paleogene, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), have been studied extensively through both marine records and a significant terrestrial record from North America. Despite this, little evidence exists from the climatic and ecological histories of other major landmasses, which limits the effectiveness of global climate response predictions. Here we present an integrated paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the early Paleogene from a site in central South America (Cerro Bayo, Argentina), including a new magnetostratigraphic age model, pedological and sedimentological interpretation, whole rock geochemical climate proxies, isotopic environmental proxies, and microfloral assemblages. Cerro Bayo is a 235-meter terrestrial section that exposes the Tunal, Mealla, and Maiz Gordo Formations, and based on magnetostratigraphic interpolation spans roughly 58—50 Mya, including both the PETM and EECO events. These formations are composed primarily of reddish sandstone and siltstone, much of which exhibits features characteristic of a moderate degree of pedogenesis (i.e., Inceptisols and Alfisols). High-resolution climate proxies derived from paleosol geochemical compositions highlight rapid increases in mean annual temperature (>5°C) and precipitation (>300 mm yr-1) during the PETM, as well as more gradual increasing temperature and precipitation trends leading up to the EECO. Carbon isotope stratigraphy through the section also indicates a sizable negative excursion (~4‰) during the PETM, and generally positive isotopic trends during the early Eocene. Phytolith biostratigraphy also details changes in local vegetation composition during climatic events that corresponds to similar patterns seen in terrestrial records from North America. Based on this integrated record from central South America it is likely that temperate latitudes in both hemispheres experienced similar magnitude and expression of climatic and ecological changes as a result of hyperthermal events (PETM, EECO) in the early Paleogene.

  8. 76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... possible amendment to the CDCAP on November 20, 2009 (74 FR 60291). At this time, BLM announces the joining... (Oviscanadensisnelsoni), endangered California condor (Gymnogypscalifornianus), and endangered arroyo toad...

  9. 77 FR 5045 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... take (survey, capture, handle, and release) the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense..., capture, handle, and release) the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) and arroyo...

  10. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE AND PART OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, SEEN FROM THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 6. PART 3 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PART 3 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-4 AND CA-265-J-5 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ENTERING LOS ANGELES RIVER UNDER RAILROAD TRESTLE AT RIGHT. LOOKING 268°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 76 FR 21914 - Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Order No. 6845 (56 FR 14865 (1991)), which withdrew 200 acres of public land from settlement, sale... to continue protection of the archaeological values at the Arroyo del Tajo Pictograph Site in Socorro... this extension to continue protection of the archaeological values at the Arroyo del Tajo...

  13. 9. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA265W10 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA-265-W-10 OF YORK BOULEVARD ACCESS ROAD FOR SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE BRIDWELL STREET AT CENTER PARALLEL TO PARKWAY. LOOKING 24°NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 10. PART 2 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA265W9 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PART 2 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA-265-W-9 OF YORK BOULEVARD ACCESS ROAD FOR SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE SMALL ISLAND FOR EXIT AND ENTRANCE LANES. LOOKING 70°ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Erosion, storage, and transport of sediment in two subbasins of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Pavich, M.J.; Ellwein, A.L.; Aby, S.; Clark, I.; Wieczorek, M.E.; Viger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Arroyos in the American Southwest proceed through cut-and-fill cycles that operate at centennial to millennial time scales. The geomorphic community has put much effort into understanding the causes of arroyo cutting in the late Quaternary and in the modern record (late 1800s), while little effort has gone into understanding how arroyos fill and the sources of this fill. Here, we successfully develop a geographic information system (GIS)-modeled sediment budget that is based on detailed field measurements of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition. Field measurements were made in two arroyo basins draining different lithologies and undergoing different land disturbance (Volcano Hill Wash, 9.30 km2; Arroyo Chavez, 2.11 km2) over a 3 yr period. Both basins have incised channels that formed in response to the late nineteenth-century incision of the Rio Puerco. Large volumes of sediment were generated during arroyo incision, equal to more than 100 yr of the current annual total sediment load (bed load + suspended load) in each basin. Downstream reaches in both arroyos are presently aggrading, and the main source of the sediment is from channel erosion in upstream reaches and first- and second-order tributaries. The sediment budget shows that channel erosion is the largest source of sediment in the current stage of the arroyo cycle: 98% and 80% of the sediment exported out of Volcano Hill Wash and Arroyo Chavez, respectively. The geomorphic surface most affected by arroyo incision and one of the most important sediment sources is the valley alluvium, where channel erosion, gullying, soil piping, and grazing all occur. Erosion rates calculated for the entire Volcano Hill Wash (-0.26 mm/yr) and Arroyo Chavez (-0.53 mm/yr) basins are higher than the modeled upland erosion rates in each basin, reflecting the large contributions from channel erosion. Erosion rates in each basin are affected by a combination of land disturbance (grazing) and lithology

  16. 40 CFR 81.355 - Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Adjuntas Municipio Aguada Municipio Aguadilla Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Anasco... Aguada Municipio Aguadilla Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Anasco Municipio Arecibo... Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Añasco Municipio Arecibo Municipio Arroyo...

  17. 40 CFR 81.355 - Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjuntas Municipio Aguada Municipio Aguadilla Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Anasco... Aguada Municipio Aguadilla Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Anasco Municipio Arecibo... Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Añasco Municipio Arecibo Municipio Arroyo...

  18. 22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer and date unknown. 'FLUME NO. 9, 'GAGE CANAL SYSTEM,' RIVERSIDE, CAL.' VIEW OF FLUME OVER TEQUESQUITE ARROYO. - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  19. Methylmercury poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, Froberg B, Furbee B. Heavy metals. In: Vincent J-L, Abraham E, Moore FA, ... 2011:chap 178. Velez LI, O'Connell EJ. Heavy metals. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  20. Depths of channels in the area of the San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    During December 1977 and January 1978 about 280 measurements were made of the depths of channels (arroyos) more than 6 feet deep in the San Juan Basin area. More than half of the measurements were made at sites where channel depths had been previously measured Between 1964 and 1969. Some channels in the western part of the basin had Been re-measured in 1969 and in 1971. The principal areas Being dissected by arroyos are near highlands along the margins of the Basin and in uplands in the northeastern part of the Basin. The most severe dissection by arroyos and the deepest arroyos--commonly Between 40 and 60 feet deep--are in the southeastern part of the Basin. Dissection By arroyos is least in the central part of the Basin near the Chaco River where most arroyos are less than 10 feet deep. Elsewhere, moderate dissection predominates with most arroyos Between 12 and 40 feet deep. Comparison of measurements made from 1964-71 with those made in 1977-78 shows that more channels in the western San Juan Basin were filling than were downcutting. Downcutting or filling was generally less than 2 feet. About two-fifths of the sites measured showed less than half a foot of downcutting or filling. Maximum downcutting was 4 feet along the Rio San Jose in the southeastern part of the basin. Maximum filling of 7 feet was along the Chaco River at the Chaco Canyon National Monument. Along ii other streams elsewhere in the western part of the basin, channels were filled 3 to 4.5 feet. The few measurements made in the southeastern San Juan Basin indicate that since 1964 downcutting has predominated over filling. Large floods during the summer of 1977 caused some change in channel depths in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Some of the channels appeared to have been filled during the years prior to the cutting that occurred from the 1977 floods. At other places, flood flows aggraded (filled) channels. The rate of erosion and arroyo formation in the entire San Juan Basin is

  1. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is presented. Finally, after describing ecological values of the salt marsh, the effect of the seawater pouring programme on aquifer piezometry and salinity is studied, assessing the possibility of applying this pilot scheme to other scenarios.

  2. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    , suggérant ainsi que la description par le modèle des relations rivière-nappe est correcte. Resumen Se ha utilizado el modelo MODFLOW, del Servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos, para simular el flujo de agua subterránea en la cuenca del arroyo del Azul, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objeto de evaluar el modelo hidrogeológico conceptual. Los niveles hidráulicos simulados ajustan satisfactoriamente con los niveles observados. Los resultados de la simulación indican que: (1) la recarga no es uniforme, sino que puede caracterizarse con tres zonas en las que sus valores decrecen en la medida en que decrece la pendiente, que guarda similitud con la distribución de suelos y características geomorfológicas y (2) la evapotranspiración sería mayor que la estimada en estudios previos, en los que se utilizó el método de Thornthwaite-Mather. La evapotranspiración estimada mediante la presente simulación concuerda con resultados de varios estudios independientes en la región. Respecto de la relación acuífero-río, existe un muy buen ajuste entre los aportes del acuífero al río simulados y los valores históricos de caudal base.

  3. 6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-7 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL (APPROXIMATELY 34° 5' BY 118° 12'30" ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). PART 1 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT RIGHT REAR (LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS NOS. 265-1 TO CA-265-5) AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES IS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 234° SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 8. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO. 2, SOUTH PORTAL SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO. 2, SOUTH PORTAL SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH PORTAL OF TUNNEL NO. 3. LOOKING 12°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 12. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO.1, SOUTH PORTAL.SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO.1, SOUTH PORTAL.SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH PORTAL OF TUNNEL NO. 2. LOOKING 140N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer unknown, October 1916. FORMER 'VICTORIA BRIDGE' (HOWE DECK TRUSS SUPPORTED BY TRESTLE) LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING STREETCAR AND THATCH-ROOFED, CANTILEVERED PEDESTRIAN PLATFORM - Victoria Bridge, Spanning Tequesquite Arroyo, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  7. 75 FR 77662 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Procedures for Implementing Section 102 of NEPA, published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46 FR... Project in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties, TX AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties,...

  8. 75 FR 21659 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Procedures for Implementing Section 102 of NEPA, published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46 FR... Project in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties, TX AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties,...

  9. Effects of Soldiers' Deployment on Children's Academic Performance and Behavioral Health. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Amy; Chandra, Anita; Martin, Laurie T.; Setodji, Claude Messan; Hallmark, Bryan W.; Campbell, Nancy F.; Hawkins, Stacy; Grady, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Long and frequent deployments, with short dwell times in between, have placed stresses on Army children and families already challenged by frequent moves and parental absences. RAND Arroyo Center was asked by the Army to examine the effects of parental deployments on children's academic performance as well as their emotional and behavioral…

  10. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ROAD. NOTE THAT GLOBE OF LAMP FIXTURE APPEARS TO HAVE MELTED. LOOKING 206°SSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 77 FR 71702 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. ] Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... Mascaras confluence. Approximately 100 feet +7338 upstream of Camino Del Norte. Arroyo De La Paz At...

  12. 5. PART 2 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PART 2 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-4 AND CA-265-J-6 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING 308°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 4. PART 1 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PART 1 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-5 AND CA-265-J-6 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. NOTE TUNNEL NO.1 NORTH PORTAL AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 268°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. SOLANO AVENUE ENTRANCE RAMP. NOTE SOLANO AVENUE OVERCROSSING AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOLANO AVENUE ENTRANCE RAMP. NOTE SOLANO AVENUE OVERCROSSING AT LEFT REAR AND CLOSED ACCESS RAMP BENEATH; PARK ROW BRIDGE AT CENTER REAR AND TUNNEL NO. 2. LOOKING 350°N - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Solano Avenue Underpass, Milepost 25.09, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 9. ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES AT AVENUE 60. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES AT AVENUE 60. NOTE RAILING AT LEFT FOR BRIDGE SEEN IN CA-265-T-8. LOOKING 308°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 3. REAR OF NORTH PORTAL TUNNEL NO.4. PART 1 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR OF NORTH PORTAL TUNNEL NO.4. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH PHOTOGRAPH CA-265-G-2-b. NOTE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR FREEWAY WIDENING OF HILL STREET EXIT. LOOKING 2°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Pablo J; Porta, Atilio A; Ronco, Alicia E

    2008-11-01

    Levels of glyphosate were determined in water, soil and sediment samples from a transgenic soybean cultivation area located near to tributaries streams of the Pergamino-Arrecifes system in the north of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Field work took into account both the pesticide application and the rains occurring after applications. The pesticide was analysed by HPLC-UV detection, previous derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). In addition, SoilFug multimedia model was used to analyse the environmental distribution of the pesticides. In the field, levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg/L, while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg/Kg. Temporal variation of glyphosate levels depended directly on the time of application and the rain events. The results obtained from the application of the model are in accordance with the values found in the field.

  18. Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic conditions in the eastern Andean piedmont of Mendoza (33°-34°S, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, A. E.; Zárate, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the late Quaternary alluvial record of the Andean piedmont between 33° and 34°S (Mendoza, Argentina) reconstructing the prevailing paleoenvironmental conditions and discussing their regional significance. The analysis was carried out along the outcrops of Arroyo La Estacada and its tributary Arroyo Anchayuyo, complementary sections were described at Arroyo Grande and Arroyo Yaucha. The sedimentological, stratigraphical and geochronological (radiocarbon and OSL dating) results as well as the paleoenvironmental interpretation are presented and discussed on the basis of the geomorphological units identified at the piedmont fluvial systems. Late Quaternary deposits of Arroyo La Estacada compose three main geomorphological units consisting of an extensive aggradational plain, a fill terrace and the present floodplain -which is not analyzed in this contribution-. At the aggradational plain a distal alluvial fan lithofacial association was determined, mainly related to overbank sheet fluid overflows and probably temporary inactive channels of sandy-like braided streams between ˜50 ka BP and the early Holocene. The mid-late Holocene fining upward alluvial sequence of the fill terrace corresponds to a sinuous fluvial system lithofacial association. The mid-to late Holocene alluvial sequence exposed at Arroyo Grande banks shows a fining upward sequence probably related to a sinuous fluvial system lithofacial association. Finally, in the Arroyo Yaucha the upper and lower terraces analyzed in this study record a Late Glacial and Holocene fining upward alluvial sequence of a sinuous fluvial system lithofacial association. The late Pleistocene - early Holocene dynamic of the Andean piedmont documents an interval of alluvial aggradation characterized by the occurrence of sandy systems similar to braided rivers in the distal fan environments. The mid-late Holocene is marked by aggradation in sinuous fluvial systems and by two major

  19. Precise Dating of Flood-Plain Stratigraphy Using Changes in Tree-Ring Anatomy Following Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. M.; Shafroth, P. B.; Vincent, K. R.; Scott, M. L.; Auble, G. T.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of sediment deposition rates from stratigraphy is typically limited by a scarcity of chronological information. We present a method for precise dating of sedimentary beds based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When stems of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima)and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) are buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried portions become narrower and vessels within the rings become larger. Observation of these changes can be combined with tree ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds that are at least 10 cm thick. Using a backhoe we dug trenches across the flood plain at three locations along the arroyo of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico. At each cross section we prepared a detailed stratigraphic description and excavated several tamarisks to depths as great as 5 meters. From each excavated tree we cut and sanded 10-50 slabs for tree-ring analysis. We cross-dated slabs within and between plants and used the burial signature in the tree rings to date all sedimentary beds in the stratigraphic profile near each plant. We then used the trench stratigraphy to convert depths of sediment deposition around individual trees to areas of deposition in the cross section. In the lower Rio Puerco introduction of tamarisk in 1926 occurred just prior to the beginning of channel narrowing and arroyo filling. Thus the tamarisks record a process of channel change to which they may have contributed. Aggradation has not been synchronous along the lower arroyo. For example, near Highway 6 and Belen, the flood plain has aggraded more than 2 m since 1970, while there has been little aggradation downstream at Bernardo. Much of the sediment deposition in levies at Highway 6 occurred during a flood in 1988. Future work will document longitudinal variation in the arroyo so that we can convert areas of sediment deposition in cross sections to volumes in the arroyo.

  20. Sediment Budgets the 'Old Fashioned' way for two Subbasins of the Rio Puerco, Central New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavich, M. J.; Gellis, A. C.; Clark, I.; Ellwein, A. L.; Aby, S.

    2005-12-01

    A sediment budget was constructed for two subbasins of the Rio Puerco watershed, Volcano Hill Wash (9.30 km2) and Arroyo Chavez (2.28 km2), using data collected from 1995 through 1998. The subbasins were selected based on differences in land use. Arroyo Chavez was considered more degraded than Volcano Hill Wash, the latter of which received a grazing management award. The grazing density in the Arroyo Chavez watershed was higher (7.3 animals per 100 hectares) than in the Volcano Hill Wash watershed (1.0 animals per 100 hectares). A gas pipeline and numerous dirt roads are located within the Arroyo Chavez subbasin; neither are present within the Volcano Hill Wash subbasin. The 'old fashioned' sediment budget refers to the approach that was used--determining the total sediment leaving a basin and accounting for that sediment with a variety of field-based, labor intensive techniques. A sediment station with an automatic suspended-sediment sampler was installed at the mouth of each stream to quantify the amount of sediment leaving the subbasins. Upland erosion was measured using erosion pins and sediment traps. Channel erosion was measured using surveyed channel cross sections, bank pins, and scour chains. Aeolian dust deposition was measured with dust traps. Each subbasin was divided into geomorphic surfaces using aerial photographs and field descriptions of soils, slopes, and vegetation cover. In Volcano Hill Wash subbasin, five geomorphic surfaces were delineated: mesa, steep colluvial slopes, alluvium/ colluvium, eolian/alluvium, and the alluvial valley floor. In the Arroyo Chavez subbasin, seven geomorphic surfaces were delineated: mesa, steep colluvial slopes, moderate sloping hillslopes, gently sloping hillslopes, alluvial fans, well-vegetated alluvial valley floor, and a sparsely vegetated alluvial valley floor. Upland erosion and channel erosion rates were summed for each geomorphic surface using a geographical information system (GIS). Results indicate that

  1. Discontinuous ephemeral streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, William B.

    1997-07-01

    Many ephemeral streams in western North America flowed over smooth valley floors before transformation from shallow discontinuous channels into deep arroyos. These inherently unstable streams of semiarid regions are sensitive to short-term climatic changes, and to human impacts, because hillslopes supply abundant sediment to infrequent large streamflow events. Discontinuous ephemeral streams appear to be constantly changing as they alternate between two primary modes of operation; either aggradation or degradation may become dominant. Attainment of equilibrium conditions is brief. Disequilibrium is promoted by channel entrenchment that causes the fall of local base level, and by deposition of channel fans that causes the rise of local base level. These opposing base-level processes in adjacent reaches are maintained by self-enhancing feedback mechanisms. The threshold between erosion and deposition is crossed when aggradational or degradational reaches shift upstream or downstream. Extension of entrenched reaches into channel fans tends to create continuous arroyos. Upvalley migration of fan apexes tends to create depositional valley floors with few stream channels. Less than 100 years is required for arroyo cutting, but more than 500 years is required for complete aggradation of entrenched stream channels and valley floors. Discontinuous ephemeral streams have a repetitive sequence of streamflow characteristics that is as distinctive as sequences of meander bends or braided gravel bars in perennial rivers. The sequence changes from degradation to aggradation — headcuts concentrate sheetflow, a single trunk channel conveys flow to the apex of a channel fan, braided distributary channels end in an area of diverging sheetflow, and converging sheetflow drains to headcuts. The sequence is repeated at intervals ranging from 15 m for small streams to more than 10 km for large streams. Lithologic controls on the response of discontinuous ephemeral streams include: (1

  2. Antibodies to Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Family Arenaviridae, Genus Arenavirus) in Cricetid Rodents from New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Barragán-Gomez, Artemio; Hanson, John Delton; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Arellano, Elizabeth; González-Cózatl, Francisco X.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco; Rogers, Duke S.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Blood samples from 4893 cricetid rodents were tested for antibody (immunoglobulin G) to Whitewater Arroyo virus and Amaparí virus to extend our knowledge of the natural host range and geographical distribution of Tacaribe serocomplex viruses in North America. Antibodies to arenaviruses were found in northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), oryzomys (Oryzomys spp.), deermice (Megadontomys nelsoni and Peromyscus spp.), harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.), and cotton rats (Sigmodon spp.) captured in New Mexico, Texas, or Mexico. Comparison of endpoint antibody titers to Whitewater Arroyo virus and Amaparí virus in individual blood samples indicated that the Tacaribe complex viruses enzootic in Texas and Mexico are antigenically diverse. PMID:20795917

  3. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Precipitation, Streamflow, Suspended-Sediment Loads and Yields, and Land-Condition Trend Analysis at the U.S. Army Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado, 1983 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, M.R.; Dupree, J.; Kuzmiak, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, began an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in precipitation, streamflow, suspended-sediment loads and yields, changes in land condition, effects of the tributaries on the Purgatoire River and the possible relation of effects from military training to hydrology and land conditions that have occurred at Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS) from 1983 through 2007. Data were collected for precipitation (19 stations) and streamflow and sediment load (5 tributary and 2 main-stem Purgatoire River stations) during 1983 through 2007 for various time periods. The five tributary stations were Van Bremer Arroyo near Model, Taylor Arroyo below Rock Crossing, Lockwood Canyon Creek near Thatcher, Red Rock Canyon Creek at the mouth, and Bent Canyon Creek at the mouth. In addition, data were collected at two Purgatoire River stations: Purgatoire River near Thatcher and Purgatoire River at Rock Crossing.

  4. Unconventional petroleum resources in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hallmark, F.O.

    1980-09-01

    The distribution, physical characteristics, and potential of some of the more significant unconventional deposits in California are described in this report: diatomaceous oil shale in southern San Joaquin Valley and Casmalia area-Santa Barbara County; oil and tar sands in Oxnard oil field, Arroyo Grande, Santa Maria Valley, Sisquoc area, Salinas Valley, Richfield tar sand; and minor deposits in Santa Cruz County, Point Arena area-Mendocino County, and McKittrick tar sands. (DLC)

  5. Integrating Multiple Distribution Models to Guide Conservation Efforts of an Endangered Toad

    PubMed Central

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models. PMID:26125634

  6. Watershed Fire Regime Effects On Particulate Organic Carbon Composition in Oregon and California Coast Range Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J. C.; Padgett, J. S.; Pasternack, G. B.; Gray, A. B.; Watson, E. B.; Warrick, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fire causes major changes to organic carbon, converting biological organic materials to pyrogenic-derived organic carbon (Py-OC), including black carbon. Wildfire also dramatically affects hydrological and erosion processes within watersheds, potentially increasing the erosion and discharge of Py-OC as particulate organic carbon (POC). We hypothesize that the proportion of the POC being discharged as Py-OC will be affected by the watershed’s fire regime, increasing with annual proportion of the watershed burned. During the 2008 and 2009 water years, suspended sediment samples were collected from the Alsea, Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Arroyo Seco Rivers draining the Coast Ranges of Oregon and California. Events and discharges of various magnitudes were captured in this sample set. This sample set also included suspended sediment collected from the Arroyo Seco River after a 2008 wildfire burned through a large portion of its watershed. Fine (<63 μm) and coarse (>63 μm) particulate material was analyzed for OC and N. We used cupric oxide oxidation to determine the contribution of Py-OC and unburned organic matter to the POC load of these rivers. The area weighted mean fire return interval decreases from the Douglas fir dominated forests in the Alsea River watershed in the north to the chaparral dominated Arroyo Seco River watershed in the south (Alsea > Umpqua > Eel > Salinas > Arroyo Seco). This translated into an increase in the proportion of each watershed burned from north to south. With the increase in annual proportion of watershed burned we found that the Py-OC content of coarse and fine POC increased from north to south. These results suggest that fire plays an important role in delivering POC to long-term carbon sinks in the coastal and ocean environment.

  7. A Comparison of the Astrometric Precision and Accuracy of Double Star Observations with Two Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Pablo; Fishbein, Amos E.; Hyland, Michael W.; Kight, Cheyne L.; Lopez, Hairold; Navarro, Tanya; Rosas, Carlos A.; Schachter, Aubrey E.; Summers, Molly A.; Weise, Eric D.; Hoffman, Megan A.; Mires, Robert C.; Johnson, Jolyon M.; Genet, Russell M.; White, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Using a manual Meade 6" Newtonian telescope and a computerized Meade 10" Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, students from Arroyo Grande High School measured the well-known separation and position angle of the bright visual double star Albireo. The precision and accuracy of the observations from the two telescopes were compared to each other and to published values of Albireo taken as the standard. It was hypothesized that the larger, computerized telescope would be both more precise and more accurate.

  8. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  10. Modern sediment yield compared to geologic rates of sediment production in a semi-arid basin, New Mexico: Assessing the human impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Pavich, M.J.; Bierman, P.R.; Clapp, E.M.; Ellevein, A.; Aby, S.

    2004-01-01

    In the semi-arid Arroyo Chavez basin of New Mexico, a 2.28 km2 sub-basin of the Rio Puerco, we contrasted short-term rates (3 years) of sediment yield measured with sediment traps and dams with long-term, geologic rates (???10 000 years) of sediment production measured using 10Be. Examination of erosion rates at different time-scales provides the opportunity to contrast the human impact on erosion with background or geologic rates of sediment production. Arroyo Chavez is grazed and we were interested in whether differences in erosion rates observed at the two time-scales are due to grazing. The geologic rate of sediment production, 0-27 kg m-2 a -1 is similar to the modern sediment yields measured for geomorphic surfaces including colluvial slopes, gently sloping hillslopes, and the mesa top which ranged from 0.12 to 1.03 kg m -2 a-1. The differences between modern sediment yield and geologic rates of sediment production were most noticeable for the alluvial valley floor, which had modern sediment yields as high as 3.35 kg m-2 a-1. The hydraulic state of the arroyo determines whether the alluvial valley floor is aggrading or degrading. Arroyo Chavez is incised and the alluvial valley floor is gullied and piped and is a source of sediment. The alluvial valley floor is also the portion of the basin most modified by human disturbance including grazing and gas pipeline activity, both of which serve to increase erosion rates. ?? 2004 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  11. Integrating Multiple Distribution Models to Guide Conservation Efforts of an Endangered Toad.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Michael L; Fisher, Robert N; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species' ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species' current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  12. Integrating Multiple Distribution Models to Guide Conservation Efforts of an Endangered Toad.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Michael L; Fisher, Robert N; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species' ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species' current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models. PMID:26125634

  13. Hermitian Operators Conjugate to Two-Mode Number-Difference Operator Studied in Entangled State Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-Fen

    2008-10-01

    In similar to the derivation of phase angle operator conjugate to the number operator by Arroyo Carrasco-Moya Cessay we deduce the Hermitian phase operators that are conjugate to the two-mode number-difference operator and the three-mode number combination operator. It is shown that these operators are on the same footing in the entangled state representation as the one of Turski in the coherent state representation.

  14. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features, and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.; Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The red MSS band 5 gives the sharpest definition of modern arroyos. On the best images, modern arroy0s can be distinguished as narrow as 150 to 200 feet in reaches where their contrast with adjacent areas is only moderate, and as narrow as 60 to 75 feet where their contrast is high. Both the red and infrared bands show differences is soils and vegetation. In the late fall and winter imagery, band 7 generally is the most useful for mapping the areas of the more erodible soils. A map at 1:1,000,000 scale has been prepared that shows all the arroyos within the 17,000 square mile study area that have been identified from ERTS-1 images. Also, from U-2 color infrared airphotos, a 1:125,000 scale map has been made of a 50 mile reach along San Simon Wash, in southeastern Arizona. This map shows not only the arroyo channels and narrow flood plains that have developed since 1890, but also areas within a few miles of the wash that are severely guilled, severely sheet-eroded, and moderately sheet-eroded. Two important effects of the third largest recorded flood of the upper Gila River also have been determined from the ERTS-1 images. The inundated area is best displayed on band 7, and the areas of severe sand/gravel erosion/deposition show best on band 5.

  15. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features, and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 multispectral images have been used, without additional data, to prepare three maps at 1:1 million scale of the 18,000 sq. mi. project area: (1) modern (post-1890 A. D.) arroyos and channels; (2) types of stream channels; and (3) potential erodibility of soils; surficial deposits, and bedrock. Also completed was the collection and compilation of ground truth geologic, soil, and hydrologic data. Field studies to obtain ground control for the photointerpretive mapping include: (1) measurements, at many sites, of the depth, width, and channel characteristics of arroyos and gullies, and cross profiles of stream channels, flood plains, and Holocene terraces; and (2) stratigraphic measurements of the Holocene alluvial deposits. Significant conclusions from these extensive stratigraphic studies are: Slow deposition of sediment was the dominant process on stream lowlands throughout the project area for at least 2000 years prior to 1890 A.D. The deposition was broken by only two relatively brief and minor erosional episodes of regional importance, when channels no more than a third of the depth of modern channels were cut. The modern erosion has produced within about 80 years substantially more and larger arroyos than any erosion episode during the last 2000 years, and the end is not in sight.

  16. Channel evolution and hydrologic variations in the Colorado River basin: Factors influencing sediment and salt loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.; Hereford, R.; Schumm, S.A.; Hayes, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and dissolved-solid (salt) loads decreased after the early 1940s in the Colorado Plateau portion of the Colorado River basin, although discharge of major rivers - the Colorado, Green and San Juan - did not change significantly. This decline followed a period of high sediment yield caused by arroyo cutting. Reduced sediment loads have previously been explained by a change in sediment sampling procedures or changes in climate, land-use and conservation practices. More recent work has revealed that both decreased sediment production and sediment storage in channels of tributary basins produced the decline of sediment and salt loads. Sediment production and sediment storage are important components of incised-channel evolution, which involves sequential channel deepening, widening and finally floodplain formation. Accordingly, the widespread arroyo incision of the late nineteenth century resulted initially in high sediment loads. Since then, loads have decreased as incised channels (arroyos) have stabilized and begun to aggrade. However, during the 1940s, a period of low peak discharges permitted vegetational colonization of the valley floors, which further reduced sediment loads and promoted channel stabilization. This explanation is supported by experimental studies and field observations. Both geomorphic and hydrologic factors contributed to sediment storage and decreased sediment and salt loads in the upper Colorado River basin. ?? 1991.

  17. Structural reinterpretation of the Ajo mining district, Pima County, Arizona, based on paleomagnetic and geochronologic studies.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Ajo mining district of southern Arizona is divided into two main structural blocks by the Gibson Arroyo fault. The eastern Camelback Mountain block contains the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary porphyry copper deposit which has been previously thought to be associated with the displaced apex of a large intrusion exposed by deeper erosion in the western Cardigan Peak block. However, unpublished U-Pb data support a mid-Tertiary age for the western intrusion. The following sequence of mid-Tertiary events in the district are indicated: 1) emplacement of the western intrusion, 2) movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault, 3) unroofing and perhaps tilting of the pluton approx 70o to the south along with the Camelback Mountain block, 4) syntectonic depositions of the Locomotive Fanglomerate and the Ajo Volcanics, 5) continued uplift and tilting to the south totaling 40o to 60o, 6) intrusion of the youngest dikes with attendant alteration and remagnetization of the host rocks, and 7) minor (?) oblique movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault.-from Authors

  18. Status of the California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) in the State of Baja California, México

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralta-Garcia, Anny; Hellingsworth, Bradford D.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Valdez-Villavicencio, Jorge H.; Ruiz-Campos, Gorgonio; Fisher, Robert N.; Cruz-Hernandez, Pedro; Galina-Tessaro, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) is a threatened species in the United States that has undergone population declines, especially in southern California. Due to the lack of information on the status of Mexican populations, we surveyed for the presence of R. draytonii in Baja California and assessed possible threats to population persistence. Our study area extended from the U.S.-Mexican border to the southern end of the distribution of the species in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We found R. draytonii at six of 15 historical sites, none at five proxy sites (i.e., alternative sites chosen because the historical record lacked precise locality data), and four at 24 additional sites. The 10 occupied sites are within three watersheds in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (two sites at Arroyo San Rafael, two sites at Arroyo San Telmo, and six sites at Arroyo Santo Domingo). We did not detect R. draytonii at 60% of historical sites, including the highest elevation site at La Encantada and multiple low-elevation coastal drainages, suggesting the species has declined in Baja California. The threats we noted most frequently were presence of exotic aquatic animal species, water diversion, and cattle grazing. Management of remaining populations and local education is needed to prevent further declines.

  19. Low-flow water-quality and discharge data for lined channels in Northeast Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1990 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, R.L.; McBreen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The water resources of the Albuquerque metropolitan area are under increasing scrutiny by Federal and State regulators. Because of a lack of available low-flow data for use in addressing potential water-quality problems, a project was established to collect low-flow water-quality and discharge data. The project was initiated under a current cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority. This report summarizes hydrologic data for that project collected between October 31, 1990, and September 3, 1994, at three sites in the lined channel network in northeast Albuquerque. The data collection network consisted of three sampling sites on Campus Wash, Embudo Arroyo, and the North Floodway Channel. The sites on Campus Wash and the North Floodway Channel were established at existing continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations; the Embudo Arroyo site was established at the site of an abandoned streamflow-gaging station. Data presented include site descriptions, instantaneous stream discharges measured at the time of sampling, and the results of the chemical analyses of the water-quality samples.

  20. Terrestrial habitat use by pacific pond turtles in a Mediterranean climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, G.B.; Scott, N.J.; Murphey, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Pacific pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) is a widespread aquatic turtle in the Pacific states, yet relatively little is known about its ecology. We radio-tracked 34 individuals during an 8 year period in 4 small coastal creeks in central California to determine their use of terrestrial upland habitats. Most of our turtles left the drying arroyos during late summer and returned after winter floods. Turtles spent an average of 111 days at these land refuges, which were located in woodland and coastal sage scrub habitats an average of 50 m from arroyos. Most gravid females left the creeks during June to oviposit in sunny upland habitats with low vegetation structure, such as grazed pastures. Nest sites were an average of 28 m from creeks. Terrestrial basking sites averaged 4.5 m from streams, but were only used for a few days. We believe the use of terrestrial upland sites was related to the Mediterranean climate and the resulting unique hydrodynamics of the small coastal arroyos (dry in summer and flooding in winter).

  1. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue

  2. Characterization of selenium in the lower Gunnison River basin, Colorado, 1988-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    Selenium concentrations in certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and lower Uncompahgre River, have exceeded the Colorado water-quality standard of 5 micrograms per liter for selenium. A task force was formed in 1998 that consists of various government agencies, private irrigation companies, and local residents to address the selenium concerns in the lower Gunnison River Basin. The task force, working with the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, needed more detailed information on selenium loading in the basin to develop viable alternatives for remediating selenium in the lower Gunnison River Basin. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected selenium data for tributaries of the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork of the Gunnison and in the North Fork Basin. The largest selenium load in a tributary stream was in the Uncompahgre River, which accounted for about 38 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River at Whitewater. The North Fork of the Gunnison River accounted for about 7 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River. Two tributaries east of Delta, Sunflower Drain and Bonafide Ditch, consist primarily of irrigation return flows and were other major selenium sources to the Gunnison River. Some tributaries in the lower North Fork Basin had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except for several streams draining the Uncompahgre Plateau, many tributaries to the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except during occasional rain and snowmelt events, selenium loading from nonirrigated desert areas was minimal. Detailed characterization studies were done in 1999-2000 on Cedar Creek and Loutzenhizer Arroyo, which contribute the largest tributary selenium loads to the Uncompahgre River. Selenium concentrations in Cedar Creek downstream from Miguel Road ranged from 12 to 28 micrograms per

  3. Detection of different South American hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-12-01

    Hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Old World, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)/Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS), in the New World. Serological methods are the most common approach used for laboratory diagnosis of HCPS, however theses methods do not allow the characterization of viral genotypes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by hantaviruses, enabling detection of few target sequence copies in the sample. However, most studies proposed methods of PCR with species-specific primers. This study developed a simple and reliable diagnostic system by RT-PCR for different hantavirus detection. Using new primers set, we evaluated human and rodent hantavirus positive samples of various regions from Brazil. Besides, we performed computational analyzes to evaluate the detection of other South American hantaviruses. The diagnostic system by PCR proved to be a sensible and simple assay, allowing amplification of Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Laguna Negra virus, Rio Mamore virus and Jabora virus, beyond of the possibility of the detecting Andes, Anajatuba, Bermejo, Choclo, Cano Delgadito, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran, Pergamino and Rio Mearim viruses. The primers sets designed in this study can detect hantaviruses from almost all known genetics lineages in Brazil and from others South America countries and also increases the possibility to detect new hantaviruses. These primers could easily be used both in diagnosis of suspected hantavirus infections in humans and also in studies with animals reservoirs.

  4. Asbestos in the western San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    1988-07-01

    Attention has recently been focused on high selenium concentrations in soil and water along the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley. The occurrence of chrysotile asbestos fibers, another trace substance, in soil and water on the west side of the valley near the city of Coalinga was first detected in 1980 when sampling was performed to identify the source of asbestos fibers in the California Aqueduct. Subsequent data collected primarily by the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) has shown the distribution of naturally occurring asbestos fibers in an area centered around the Arroyo Pasajero watershed. This paper discusses watershed geology, the new Idria serpentinite body, hydrology and sediment yield, asbestos measurement techniques, and asbestos distribution in the watershed. The New Idria serpentinite body, which constitutes only about 1% of the total Arroyo Pasajero drainage area, is the primary source of asbestos fibers detected on the alluvial fan deposits of the San Joaquin Valley floor. The asbestos fibers enter the arroyo tributaries in the upper watershed and are transported along with other sediment downstream to the alluvial fan. Stream channel bed and bank erosion in Pleasant Valley and the lower watershed yields additional sediment having low levels of asbestos fibers. Naturally occurring waterborne asbestos concentrations on the lower fan exceed the proposed EPA drinking water standard, a condition not uncommon elsewhere in California. Asbestos concentrations in fan soils are generally just below the level at which the soil could be classified as a hazardous waste by the California Administrative Code. These results demonstrate to what extent a very small portion of the watershed can contribute to downstream trace concentrations.

  5. Effects of Riparian Vegetation on Topographic Change During a Large Flood Event, Rio Puerco, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perignon, M. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The nature and pattern of vegetation on floodplains strongly affect the morphological changes that result from large floods by increasing drag and steering the flow through the landscape. Quantifying those changes is only possible through the use of high-resolution, multi-temporal topographic datasets. In 2003, herbicides were sprayed on a section of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico, killing the tamarisk and sandbar willow on the floodplain and banks. A large flood in 2006 caused extensive erosion along the devegetated zone, widening the channel and eroding the floodplain. We use lidar differencing to quantify the topographic change that occurred along a 12-km reach of the arroyo immediately downstream of the sprayed section. We show that the pattern of deposition on the floodplain can be explained as the sum of two signals: the sediment concentration (which depends on the distance downstream of the sprayed reach), and local vegetation density. The presence of dense vegetation on the landscape, regardless of size or species, increases deposition by imparting a drag on the flow and reducing the boundary shear stress on the sediment surface. The spatial variability of sediment depth correlates with the size and spacing of stems: thick, widely spaced tamarisk trunks are associated with high variability in the depth of sedimentation, while dense but thin tamarisk and sandbar willow stems correlate with sheet-like deposits. Away from the influence of the sediment source, the erosion of the arroyo walls balances the deposition rate on the floodplain, resulting in widespread, uniform aggradation of the arroyo bottom.

  6. Shelf sandstones of Twowells tongue, Dakota sandstone, northwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, N.R.; Nummedal, D.

    1988-02-01

    The Dakota Sandstone of northwestern New Mexico is composed of basal continental strata and three marine sandstone tongues, which intertongue with the Mancos Shale. The late Cenomanian Twowells tongue was the last tongue deposited in the Dakota transgressive systems tract. This tongue is most commonly gradationally underlain by the Whitewater Arroyo shale tongue and abruptly overlain by the Rio Salado tongue of the Mancos Shale. Data collected from 85 outcrop sections and 180 electric well logs, from the San Juan, Acoma, and Zuni basins, indicates that the Twowells tongue represents three phases of marine deposition.

  7. Toarcian Carbon Isotope Chemostratigraphy (Fossil Wood and Bulk Organic Matter), Neuquén Basin Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Suwaidi, A. H.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Jenkyns, H.; Riccardi, A.; Damborenea, S.; Manceñido, M.; Baudin, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event or T-OAE (Early Jurassic, tenuicostatum-falciferum ammonite Zones: ~183 Ma) is characterized by globally near-synchronous deposition of black shales relatively enriched in organic carbon. A broad positive and intervening stepped negative excursion in δ13C (-2 to -7 ‰) is also recorded in marine and terrestrial organic matter and in pelagic and shallow-water carbonates deposited during the event indicating the introduction of isotopically light carbon dioxide in to the atmosphere during the T-OAE. Few records of the event exist outside of the Northern Hemisphere and confirmation of the global extent of the T-OAE and its associated Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) is essential to further our understanding of this event. This study expands on a pilot study from Arroyo Lapa, Argentina (Al-Suwaidi et al., 2011), and utilizes ammonite biostratigraphy, total organic carbon, and δ13Corg values in wood and bulk sediment from three locations in the Neuquén Basin, Argentina (Arroyo Lapa, Arroyo Serrucho and Chacay Melehue), providing a complete record of the T-OAE and the associated CIE in the Southern Hemisphere. The δ13C values from bulk organic matter are comparable with carbon-isotope datasets from coeval sections of black shale in England, Wales, Canada, Italy and Greece showing a stepped negative excursion of -6‰ leading up to the Andean tenuicostatum-hoelderi or its European equivalent the tenuicostatum-serpentinum (= ~falciferum) ammonite Zonal boundary. The data presented in this study contrasts with the work of Mazzini et al. (2011) from Arroyo Serrucho for the early Toarcian. Fossil wood records δ13Corg values as low as -32.5‰, indicating the introduction of isotopically light carbon dioxide in to the atmosphere during the excursion, and providing a record independent of any local oceanographic restriction. Combined marine and fossil wood chemostratigraphic data indicate that the T-OAE was recorded in the Southern

  8. KT boundary impact glasses from the Gulf of Mexico region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub impact crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.

  9. Application of ERTS-1 multispectral imagery to monitoring the present episode of accelerated erosion in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.; Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    An episode of accelerated arroyo-cutting and sheet erosion commenced about 1890 in southern Arizona, following several thousand years of generally sluggish erosion. For a 17,000-square-mile study area, ERTS-1 images, supplemented by ultrahigh-altitude (U-2 and RB-57) airphotos, are proving effective for producing the first comprehensive maps showing the distribution and seriousness of the post-1890 erosion features, for monitoring new erosion changes, and for assessing the effectiveness of ameliorative measures. Such data are essential for understanding and controlling the accelerated erosion, a key environmental problem in this region.

  10. Estimating hyperconcentrated flow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    Determining flow discharge in torrential mountain floods can help in managing flood risk. However, standard methods of estimating discharge have significant uncertainties. To reduce these uncertainties, Bodoque et al. developed an iterative methodological approach to flow estimation based on a method known as the critical depth method along with paleoflood evidence. They applied the method to study a flash flood that occurred on 17 December 1997 in the Arroyo Cabrera catchment in central Spain. This large flow event, triggered by torrential rains, was complex and included hyperconcentrated flows, which are flows of water mixed with significant amounts of sediment.

  11. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. I. Bragado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, R. A.; Milesi, G. E.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station, settled in the city of Bragado, Provincia de Buenos Aires, in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work thus ended a discussion about the Plaza San Martin. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. Channel-changing processes on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Lateral channel change on the mainly ephemeral Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, causes damage and has spawned costly efforts to control bank erosion. Aerial photographs, historical data, and field observations are used to document the history of channel change since 1936. Variability in the nature and degree of channel change over time and space is shown. Three major channel change processes are: (1) migration by bank erosion during meander migration or initiation; (2) avulsion by overbank flooding and flood plain incision; (3) widening by erosion of low, cohesionless banks during floods and arroyo widening by undercutting and mass wasting of deeply incised vertical walls. The first process generally is a product of low to moderate flows or waning high flows; the others result mainly from higher flows, though sensitive arroyo walls may erode during relatively low flows. Channel morphology, bank resistance, and hydrology are factors determining the dominant channel-changing process on a particular reach of the river. Present river morphology reflects high flows since the 1960's.

  13. Population Dynamics of an Insect Herbivore over 32 Years are Driven by Precipitation and Host-Plant Effects: Testing Model Predictions.

    PubMed

    Price, Peter W; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    The interaction between the arroyo willow, Salix lasiolepis Bentham, and its specialist herbivore, the arroyo willow stem-galling sawfly, Euura lasiolepis Smith (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), was studied for 32 yr in Flagstaff, AZ, emphasizing a mechanistic understanding of insect population dynamics. Long-term weather records were evaluated to provide a climatic context for this study. Previously, predictive models of sawfly dynamics were developed from estimates of sawfly gall density made between 1981 and 2002; one model each for drier and wetter sites. Predictor variables in these models included winter precipitation and the Palmer Drought Severity Index, which impact the willow growth, with strong bottom-up effects on sawflies. We now evaluate original model predictions of sawfly population dynamics using new data (from 2003-2012). Additionally, willow resources were evaluated in 1986 and in 2012, using as criteria clone area, shoot density, and shoot length. The dry site model accounted for 40% of gall population density variation between 2003 and 2012 (69% over the 32 yr), providing strong support for the bottom-up, mechanistic hypothesis that water supply to willow hosts impacts sawfly populations. The current drying trend stressed willow clones: in drier sites, willow resources declined and gall density decreased by 98%. The wet site model accounted for 23% of variation in gall population density between 2003 and 2012 (48% over 30 yr), consistent with less water limitation. Nonetheless, gall populations were reduced by 72%.

  14. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  15. Shelf sandstones of Twowells tongue, Dakota Sandstone, northwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, N.R.; Nummedal, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dakota Sandstone of northwestern New Mexico is composed of basal continental strata and three marine sandstone tongues, which intertongue was the Mancos Shale. The late Cenomanian Twowells tongue was the last tongue deposited in the Dakota transgressive systems tract. This tongue is most commonly gradationallly underlain by the Whitewater Arroyo shale tongue and abruptly overlain by the Rio Salado tongue of the Mancos Shale. Data collected from 85 outcrop sections and 180 electric well logs, from the San Juan, Acoma, and Zuni Basins, indicates that the Twowells tongue represents three phases of marine deposition. The White-water Arroyo shale tongue, the muddy burrowed facies, and the horizontally bedded facies of the Twowells tongue represent a shoaling-upward sequence (regressive phase) of shelf and shoreface deposition. The regressive phase is sharply overlain by an inferred transgressive cross-bedded facies. Erosional scour and an extensive pebble lag mark the contact between the regressive and the transgressive facies. In the Acoma basin, the transgressive cross-bedded facies describes a north-south oriented shelf-sand ridge 32 km long, 18 km wide, and 32 m thick.

  16. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    PubMed

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

  17. Elevated DDE and toxaphene residues in fishes and birds reflect local contamination in the lower Rio Grande valley Texas USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Kennedy, H.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Ribick, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A potential organochlorine pesticide problem was identified near Mission, Texas, by the National Park Monitoring Program. Fish samples from this site have consistently contained elevated levels of DDE since 1968. Surveys were made in 1976, 1978, and 1979 to determine the extent of organochlorine pesticide contamination in fishes and birds of the area. Freshwater fishes of Arroyo Colorado, a major waterway traversing the lower Rio Grande Valley, were highly contaminated with DDE and toxaphene residues compared to samples from other areas in the Valley; both DDE and toxaphene ranged up to 31.5 ppm wet wt in whole-fish composite samples. Median DDE residues in fish-eating bird carcasses from this area ranged up to 34 ppm wet wt, and 81 ppm in individual specimens. The levels of contaminants detected in fishes and birds were within, or above, the range producing adverse effects in certain species. The major sources of contamination to the Arroyo Colorado system likely stem from past and present use of persistent pesticides on surrounding croplands, and possibly from an abandoned pesticide plant at Mission, Texas.

  18. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the Lee Acres Landfill Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, K.D.; Williams, R.A.; King, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Identification of the presence of volatile organic compounds in liquid-waste lagoons in New Mexico at the Lee Acres landfill, beneath a refinery south of the landfill, and in nearby residential wells has led to an hydrologic investigation of the area. The alluvium underlying an arroyo adjacent to the landfill mostly consists of fine to coarse quartz sand with some silt, gravel, and clay zones. Thickness of the alluvium measured in 12 drill holes ranged from 13.7 to 61.5 ft. A seismic survey indicates that buried channels are incised as much as 26 ft into the bedrock surface in some areas. The depth to water in seven piezometers ranged from 26.6 to 34.9 ft. The configuration of the water table in the alluvium indicates that groundwater flow is controlled by unidentified recharge north of the landfill, recharge from a pond southeast of the landfill, discharge to pumping wells, discharge to the alluvium of the San Juan River south of the study area, and hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial material. There also may be additional recharge to or discharge from the underlying Nacimiento Formation and recharge from runoff in the arroyo. Terrain-conductivity measurements indicate that the water in the alluvium southwest of the landfill may be more conductive than water in the underlying sandstone. (USGS)

  19. Assessment of gully-control structures in the Rio Nutria watershed, Zuni reservation, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.; Cheama, Andres; Laahty, Vanissa; Lalio, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    During the latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, a major cycle of erosion, arroyo cutting, and gullying occurred in the southwestern United States. Since this erosion cycle began, many projects to control erosion, such as the Civilian Conservation Corps projects in the 1930s, were initiated. However, in the Southwestern United States few studies have documented the effect of these structures in reducing erosion or their effect on gully systems. As part of a watershed rehabilitation project on the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico, 47 structures made either of earth or rocks and 23 rock and brush structures were assessed. Sixty percent of the 47 earth or rock structures have breached and relative to dam height, 65 percent of 47 structures are more than 50 percent silted. Of the 23 rock and brush structures, 22 percent have breached or are close to breaching. Reasons for breaching of all structural types may be piping, scour immediately below the structures, large runoff and large drainage area, poor maintenance, headcutting, and active arroyo deepening and widening. In most cases, documentation does not exist on structure design, the specific purpose for a structure, or when these structures were built.

  20. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  1. Retrowedge-related Carboniferous units and coeval magmatism in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Santos, Joao O. S.; Dalponte, Marcelo; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neal

    2012-11-01

    The studied Carboniferous units comprise metasedimentary (Guaraco Norte Formation), pyroclastic (Arroyo del Torreón Formation), and sedimentary (Huaraco Formation) rocks that crop out in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina. They form part of the basement of the Neuquén Basin and are mostly coeval with the Late Paleozoic accretionary prism complex of the Coastal Cordillera, south-central Chile. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircon yielded a maximum depositional age of 374 Ma (Upper Devonian) for the Guaraco Norte Formation and 389 Ma for the Arroyo del Torreón Formation. Detrital magmatic zircon from the Guaraco Norte Formation are grouped into two main populations of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian) ages. In the Arroyo del Torreón Formation, zircon populations are also of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian), as well as of Late Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic ages. In both units, there is a conspicuous population of Devonian magmatic zircon grains (from 406 ± 4 Ma to 369 ± 5 Ma), indicative of active magmatism at that time range. The ɛHf values of this population range between -2.84 and -0.7, and the TDM-(Hf) are mostly Mesoproterozoic, suggesting that the primary sources of the Devonian magmatism contained small amounts of Mesoproterozoic recycled crustal components. The chemical composition of the Guaraco Norte Formation corresponds to recycled, mature polycyclic sediment of mature continental provenance, pointing to a passive margin with minor inputs from continental margin magmatic rocks. The chemical signature of the Huaraco Formation indicates that a magmatic arc was the main provenance for sediments of this unit, which is consistent with the occurrence of tuff—mostly in the Arroyo del Torreón Formation and very scarcely in the Huaraco Formation—with a volcanic-arc signature, jointly indicating the occurrence of a Carboniferous active arc magmatism during the deposition of the two units. The Guaraco Norte Formation is interpreted

  2. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture. PMID:26873560

  3. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture.

  4. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-09-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12-14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of - 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago, followed by

  5. A field guide for the assessment of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by

  6. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12–14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of − 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago

  7. The Role of Wildfire in the Export of Particulate and Pyrogenic Organic Carbon from a Small Mountainous River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J.; Warrick, J.; Goni, M.; Wheatcroft, R.; Pasternack, G.; Gray, A.; Watson, E.

    2012-04-01

    The delivery of particulate organic carbon (POC) from rivers to marine sediments is the major long-term sink of CO2 on Earth and a net source of oxygen over millennial time scales. Small mountainous river systems (SMRS) may be responsible for half of the POC delivery to global oceans. The flux of POC in SMRS has been thought to be regulated by hydro-geomorphic factors, such as runoff, tectonic uplift rates, and bedrock geology. To date, the role of landscape disturbances such as fire has not been investigated. Two large wildfires (1977 and 2008) in the chaparral-dominated Arroyo Seco watershed of California provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of fire on sediment and POC flux at the watershed-scale. Suspended sediments were measured before and after both fires while POC was measured after the 2008 wildfire. Relationships between sediment and sediment carbon concentration of the 2008 fire were used to determine POC flux as a result of the earlier 1977 fire. For two years after the 2008 Basin Complex POC fluxes were 25 and 50 times more than would be expected during a non-fire affected year (5.9 and 59.7 Mg/sq. km/yr during 2009 and 2010, respectively, versus 1.1 M/sq. km/yr-1 during non-fire year). This was driven fire caused increases in suspended sediment flux and an increase in suspended sediment carbon concentration. Flux weighted average organic carbon concentrations of suspended sediment collected from the Arroyo Seco River after the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire were over 3.2 times higher than pre-fire levels. Using a Monte Carlo analysis of fire and flooding we determine that over the long-term fire caused erosion and hydrological change is responsible for over 90% of the POC flux. Elemental, stable isotope, and biomarker analyses show that both burned and unburned organic matter has contributed to the elevated carbon concentrations as a result of enhanced surface erosion processes. Our preliminary results suggest that 25% of the POC discharged

  8. The Role of Wildfire in the Export of Particulate Organic Carbon from a Small Mountainous River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J. A.; Warrick, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Pasternack, G. B.; Gray, A. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    The delivery of particulate organic carbon (POC) from rivers to marine sediments is the major long-term sink of CO2 on Earth and a net source of oxygen over millennial time scales. Small mountainous river systems may be responsible for half of the POC delivery to global oceans. The flux of POC in SMRS has been thought to be regulated by hydro-geomorphic factors, such as runoff, tectonic uplift rates, and bedrock geology. To date, the role of landscape disturbances, such as fire, have not been fully investigated. Two large wildfires (1977 and 2008) in the chaparral-dominated Arroyo Seco watershed of California provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of fire on sediment and POC flux at the watershed-scale. Suspended sediments were measured before and after both fires while POC was measured after the 2008 wildfire. Relationships between sediment and sediment carbon concentration of the 2008 fire were used to determine POC flux as a result of the earlier 1977 fire. Particulate organic carbon concentrations of suspended sediment collected from the Arroyo Seco River after the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire were over 6 and 2 times larger than pre-fire levels during year 1 and 2, respectively. The 2008 Basin Complex wildfire was followed by a drier than normal year, and POC fluxes were 39 and 34 times more than would be expected during a non-fire affected year. Biomarker analyses of the suspended sediment from the Arroyo Seco River shows that both burned and unburned organic matter has contributed to the elevated carbon concentrations, probably as a result of enhanced surface erosion processes. The 1977 fire was followed by a very wet year and POC fluxes were 96 times larger than would be expected during a non-fire affected year. Using a Monte Carlo analysis of fire and flooding we determine that over the long-term fire is responsible for over an order of magnitude more POC export than flooding alone. While these fire-flood events may be rare, POC yield will be

  9. Vertical accumulation of potential toxic elements in a semiarid system that is influenced by an abandoned gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Martha A.; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana J.; Magallanes-Ordóñez, Víctor R.; Sánchez-González, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The mining zone at El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico, was exploited for gold extraction for 200 years. This area includes more than 100 abandoned mining sites. These sites contain mine tailings that are highly contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTE), such as As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Zn, and other associated elements. Over time, these wastes have contaminated the sediments in the adjacent fluvial systems. Our aim was to assess the vertical PTE variations in the abandoned mining zone and in the discharge of the main arroyo into a small lagoon at the Pacific Ocean. Sediments were collected from the two following locations in the mining zone near the arroyo basin tailings: 1) an old alluvial terrace (Overbank) and a test pit (TP) and 2) two sediment cores locations at the arroyo discharge into a hypersaline small lagoon. Samples were analyzed by ICP-MS, ICP-OES, and INAA and the methods were validated. The overbank was the most contaminated and had As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn concentrations of 8690, 226, 84,700, 17,400, and 42,600 mg kg-1, respectively, which decreased with depth. In addition, the TP contained elevated As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn concentrations of 694, 18.8, 5001, 39.2, and 4170 mg kg-1, respectively. The sediment cores were less contaminated. However, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn concentrations were greater than the concentrations that are generally found in the Earth's crust. The normalized enrichment factors (NEFs), which were calculated from the background concentrations of these elements in the system, showed that extremely severe As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn (NEF > 50) enrichment occurred at the overbank. The TP was severe to very severely enriched with As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn (NEF = 10-50). The sediment cores had a severe enrichment of As, Pb, and Zn (NEF = 10-25). Their vertical profiles showed that anthropogenic influences occurred in the historic sediment deposition at the overbank and TP and in the sediment cores. In addition, the As, Pb, and Zn

  10. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. II. Bahía Blanca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, G. E.; Vázquez, R. A.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station; settled in the city of Bahia Blanca; Provincia de Buenos Aires; in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work sets the geographical coordinates of the station and clears up some confusion about its true location. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Preliminary Geophysical Characterization of a CO2-Driven Geyser in the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Jensen, K. J.; Kelly, C.; Ryan, J. C.; Ferriz, H.; Kanjorski, N.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D. K.; Pellerin, L.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) a preliminary geophysical investigation was conducted in the vicinity of a cold CO2-driven geyser located at Chimayó, NM, along the eastern margin of the Rio Grand Rift. This geyser is of interest as a possible analog for CO2 leakage from deep saline-aquifer carbon sequestration projects. Observed water chemistry variations can be explained by mixing of a CO2-rich, high salinity brine rising into, and mixing with a shallow freshwater aquifer. Several large, basin bounding faults and numerous smaller normal faults cut the area of the well and may constitute the necessary conduit for the deep water. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the subsurface properties at the Chimayó geyser as well as regional structures that may influence groundwater flow in the area. Shallow transient electromagnetic (TEM) data and capactively-coupled resistivity (CCR) data were acquired in close proximity to the geyser. The CCR shows a near-surface resistive feature, possibly hematite-cemented Tesuque formation sediment, in close proximity to the geyser. A shallow, highly conductive layer delineated through modeling of the TEM data is postulated to be a fluid consistent with high levels of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) content. The well is located almost directly on the Roberts fault, which is antithetic to the basin bounding Chimayó fault 1.5 km to the east. Previously published hydrogeochemical studies associate this fault with high CO2 and TDS water along its strike. Deeper sounding TEM and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired along the Alamo Arroyo, 3 km to the southwest of the well. The Kelley Federal #1 Well located in this arroyo provides deep stratigraphic control to Pennsylvanian carbonate basement at 740 m. Tesuque formation conglomeritic alluvial fan deposits occur between 230 and 708 m and are overlain by finer grained basin floor deposits. The deep, coarse grained unit is thought to be a good

  12. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    This report evaluates the chemistry of seep water occurring in three desert drainages near Shiprock, New Mexico: Many Devils Wash, Salt Creek Wash, and Eagle Nest Arroyo. Through the use of geochemical plotting tools and multivariate statistical analysis techniques, analytical results of samples collected from the three drainages are compared with the groundwater chemistry at a former uranium mill in the Shiprock area (the Shiprock site), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The objective of this study was to determine, based on the water chemistry of the samples, if statistically significant patterns or groupings are apparent between the sample populations and, if so, whether there are any reasonable explanations for those groupings.

  13. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  14. Livermore Big Trees Park Soil Survey

    SciTech Connect

    McConachie, W.A.; Failor, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will sample and analyze soil in the Big Trees Park area in Livermore, California, to determine if the initial level of plutonium (Pu) in a soil sample taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in September 1993 can be confirmed. Nineteen samples will be collected and analyzed: 4 in the area where the initial EPA sample was taken, 2 in the nearby Arroyo Seco, 12 in scattered uncovered soil areas in the park and nearby school, and 1 from the sandbox of a nearby apartment complex. Two quality control (QC) samples (field duplicates of the preceding samples) win also be collected and analyzed. This document briefly describes the purpose behind the sampling, the sampling rationale, and the methodology.

  15. Transmission of an arenavirus in white-throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula), southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C. H.; Nabity, S.; Root, J. J.; Fulhorst, C. F.; Beaty, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, we conducted longitudinal studies of white- throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula) in southeastern Colorado. Forty-five (42.9%) of 105 female and 15 (26.8%) of 56 male N. albigula had antibodies against Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Sixteen female and three male N. albigula seroconverted during the study period, most of them during July-November, when population densities are highest. Analyses of longevity data, minimum numbers alive and infected, movements, and weight data suggest that the dominant mode of WWAV transmission among white-throated woodrats in Colorado is direct contact. WWAV was recently reported to cause fatal infection in humans. Our findings will lead to better assessment of the public health threat posed by infected woodrats and may be useful in predicting periods of increased risk for human infection. PMID:11384515

  16. A California Multidisciplinary Juvenile Court: Serving Sexually Exploited and At-Risk Youth.

    PubMed

    Liles, Brandi D; Blacker, Dawn M; Landini, Jenny L; Urquiza, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that 90% of youth in the juvenile justice system have experienced at least one traumatic event (Arroyo, ). One such traumatic event is the commercialized sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC). Over the past decade, governmental organizations and community agencies have recognized that the sexual exploitation of children is a significant problem in the United States. In California alone, human trafficking task forces have identified 1200 youth as victims of sexual exploitation from 2010 to 2012 (Walker, ). Youth who have experienced sexual exploitation often become involved in the juvenile justice system and present with unique challenges and needs. This article reviews recent public policy and community responses related to the needs of CSEC youth involved in the juvenile justice system. A case example from Sacramento, CA, is used to illustrate the key components, innovations, multidisciplinary collaborations, and challenges of creating a specialized court. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27117605

  17. Exposure to rodents and rodent-borne viruses among persons with elevated occupational risk.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Curtis L; Fulhorst, Charles F; Enge, Barryett; Winthrop, Kevin L; Glaser, Carol A; Vugia, Duc J

    2002-10-01

    Persons who have frequent contact with rodents as part of their occupation may be at increased risk of exposure to rodent-borne viruses such as Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWA), a New World arenavirus. Eighty-one persons with possible occupational exposure to rodents completed questionnaires and provided specimens for serologic testing. Seventy-two participants reported handling rodents as part of their job. The mean total number of rodents handled during participants' careers was approximately 2200. IgG antibody to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in serum from one (1.2%) participant. IgG antibody to SNV, WWA, and Amapari viruses was not detected in any of the serum specimens. Despite considerable exposure to rodents, participants did not have significant serological evidence of exposure to rodent-borne viruses. PMID:12391776

  18. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Loreto and part of the San Janier quadrangles, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, Hugh

    1988-01-01

    The Loreto area of Baja California Sur, Mexico, contains a diverse association of igneous, sedimentary, and metasedimentary rocks exposed in the foothills and arroyos between the Sierra La Giganta and Gulf of California. The Loreto area was selected for this study to examine the possible relation of the marine rocks to the opening of the Gulf of California, and to determine the stratigraphic and structural relations between basement rocks composed of granitic and prebatholithic rocks and overlying Tertiary (mainly Miocene) sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and by a sequence of Pliocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks. The Pliocene marine rocks lie in a structural depression informally called here, the Loreto embayment. This geologic map and report stem from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico that was initiated in 1982.

  19. Provenance of the Pendales Fm in the Sinu-San Jacinto Basin of Colombia's Caribbean margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, A.; Schonwalder, D.; Jaramillo, J.; Martens, U.

    2009-12-01

    Petrography of the Pendales Formation at Arroyo Henequén (Atlantico) revealed that conglomeratic lithoarenites and polymictic conglomerates contain detrital quartz, potassium feldspars, plagioclase, serpentinite, chert, epidote, tourmaline, actinolite and volcanic rock fragments. This composition indicates provenance from two sources, one mainly composed of ocean floor materials, and another composed of granites. Twenty U-Pb ages of detrital zircon form a single population ranging 80-65 Ma. This age is interpreted to reflect the time of magmatism of the granitic source. Taking into account paleogeographic reconstructions, the most likely source was the Leeward Antilles Arc. We propose that Pendales Formation was derived from a recycled orogen uplifted by the Pre-Andean orogeny during the Middle Eocene.

  20. Storm to Seasonal Nitrate Flushing and Relationship to Hydroclimatic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barco, J.; Wessel, C.; Gunawan, S.; Hogue, T. S.

    2009-05-01

    Coupled hydrological and geochemical cycles have historically been used to understand the mechanisms controlling chemical export at the watershed scale. Numerous studies have focused on stream geochemistry dynamics and particularly on the effects of nitrogen deposition on catchments and ecosystems. However, few studies have evaluated the variability in nitrate behavior in watersheds with different climate and hydrologic characteristics. Furthermore, storm nitrate dynamics (flushing) and corresponding relationship to discharge patterns, precipitation intensity, atmospheric deposition, and watershed properties is an area with few published studies. In the current study, we utilize hydrologic, geochemical and atmospheric data to better understand the primary processes controlling nitrate dynamics at monthly and seasonal time scales in ten watersheds located in the U.S. Stream data (discharge and nitrate concentrations) was obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Atmospheric deposition data was gathered from regional National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) sites. Collected data were assessed to evaluate nitrate dynamics for the period 2000-2006. Intra-storm nitrate variability was also evaluated in a watershed in Southern California (Arroyo Seco) where estimates of dry deposition are considered some of the highest in North America. Results from our analyses show that nitrate concentration appears to respond differently in the studied watersheds, exhibiting dilution effects in some watersheds and concentration effects in others. Discharge and nitrate concentrations during the 2009 winter reveal that the Arroyo Seco watershed is characterized by distinctive flushing of nitrates within storms. The role of specific hydrological events (size, intensity and duration) on the nitrate mobilization proved to be important as well as the accumulated nitrate pool available for mobilization. In general, results show a strong linkage between hydrological and

  1. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  2. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  3. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0-8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Patillas, Puerto Rico, March 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2010-01-01

    Lago Patillas is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin, in the municipality of Patillas in southern Puerto Rico, about 3 kilometers north of the town of Patillas and about 8 kilometers northeast of the town of Arroyo (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1914 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico along the towns of Arroyo, Guayama, Patillas, and Salinas. Irrigation releases are made through the outlet works into the Patillas Irrigation Canal that extends 32.2 kilometers from the Patillas dam to Rio Salinas. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill with a structural height of 44.80 meters, a top width of 4.57 meters, a base width of 190.49 meters, and a crest length of 325.21 meters. The spillway structure is physically separated from the earthfill dam, has an elevation of 58.21 meters above mean sea level, and has three radial arm gates (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin. The reservoir has a drainage area of 66.3 square kilometers. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez and others (1999). During March 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PREPA conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Patillas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 bathymetric survey data with previous 1997 data. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since April 1997.

  5. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    PubMed

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production. PMID:26974570

  6. (Energy projects in the Dominican Republic): Foreign trip report, May 14--26, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-06-21

    On May 14, the traveler left for Santo Domingo to gather data and negotiate the terms of a project agreement with the Asociacion de la Desarrollo de la Provincia Duarte in San Francisco de Macoris, Dominican Republic. Interviews with Asociacion management, local vendors and others involved in dissemination of small energy systems in the rural areas in the Dominican Republic, were held over a one week period. The terms of the project were discussed at length, concerns noted and an agreement was reached on a number of key items. A strategy and schedule were determined. The traveler left Santo Domingo on May 19, 1989 and arrived in Oak Ridge the following day.

  7. [Prevalence of rhinitis and asthma respiratory symptoms in Spanish working population].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teófila; Prieto-Andrés, Luis; López-González, Angel Arturo; Pérez-Francés, Carmen; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, M Victoria; Santamaría-Navarro, Cristina; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en salud laboral interesa conocer la prevalencia de los síntomas respiratorios relacionados con la rinitis y el asma en trabajadores españoles y sus variaciones por factores demográficos y laborales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue interrelacionar los síntomas respiratorios de vías altas y bajas. MÉTODOS: se solicitó a 2603 trabajadores de distintos sectores y provincias españolas contestar una encuesta que fue supervisada por un médico del trabajo.

  8. Hurricane effects on the coastline from Cabo San Lucas Bay, Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava-Sanchez, Enrique; Navarro-Lozano, Octavio; Murillo-Jimenez, Janette; Godinez-Orta, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    Cabo San Lucas, located on the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, is on the track of two to five hurricanes per year. Thus the purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of hurricanes on the stability of the coastline of San Lucas Bay. We apply GIS for determining inland geomorphology and conducted bathymetric surveys for the marine area. Results from previous sedimentological researches of fluvial, littoral and shallow marine environments were reanalyzed to determine the sedimentary processes responsible for the stability of the coastline. Also, we were monitoring beach profiles in the bay and also other beaches from the tip of the peninsula from 1997 to 2004 and recorded the effects of Hurricane Juliette in 2001 (category 3 in the Saffir-Simpson scale), which left an accumulative precipitation of 850 mm and formed waves of 8 m in height during the four days of maximum impact. We found out that inland and marine geomorphology, as well as littoral and alluvial sediment transport play a major role to keep the coastline relatively stable for at least the last 3,000 years. Geomorphology of the drainage basin is steep favoring the formation of flash floods that feed an alluvial fan to finally discharge sediments to the San Lucas Bay where a temporal fan-delta is developed during catastrophic rains. Marine morphology is dominated by the San Lucas submarine canyon, located on the southern half of the bay, whose canyon head is just at the foot of the beach (4 to 6 m in depth). On the northern half, there is a narrow submarine terrace with a break 40 m deep, covered mostly by fluvial sediments. At the littoral, there is only one dune ridge which is almost continuous and only cut by the arroyo. The dune ridge was dated at two levels; at the bottom, just above Pleistocene fluvial sediments and at the top, giving dates of 3200 and 800 years respectively. These dates are interpreted as an evidence for the stability of the dune ridge. The sand from the beach

  9. Abundance and Morphological Effects of Large Woody Debris in Forested Basins of Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Southern Andes mountain range represents an ideal location for studying large woody debris (LWD) in streams draining forested basins thanks to the presence of both pristine and managed woodland, and to the general low level of human alteration of stream corridors. However, no published investigations have been performed so far in such a large region. The investigated sites of this research are three basins (9-13 km2 drainage area, third-order channels) covered by Nothofagus forests: two of them are located in the Southern Chilean Andes (the Tres Arroyos in the Malalcahuello National Reserve and the Rio Toro within the Malleco Natural Reserve) and one basin lies in the Argentinean Tierra del Fuego (the Buena Esperanza basin, near the city of Ushuaia). Measured LWD were all wood pieces larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length, both in the active channel and in the adjacent active floodplain. Pieces forming log jams were all measured and the geometrical dimensions of jams were taken. Jam type was defined based on Abbe and Montgomery (2003) classification. Sediment stored behind log-steps and valley jams was evaluated approximating the sediment accumulated to a solid wedge whose geometrical dimensions were measured. Additional information relative to each LWD piece were recorded during the field survey: type (log, rootwad, log with rootwads attached), orientation to flow, origin (floated, bank erosion, landslide, natural mortality, harvest residuals) and position (log-step, in-channel, channel-bridging, channel margins, bankfull edge). In the Tres Arroyos, the average LWD volume stored within the bankfull channel is 710 m3 ha-1. The average number of pieces is 1,004 per hectare of bankfull channel area. Log-steps represent about 22% of all steps, whereas the elevation loss due to LWD (log-steps and valley jams) results in 27% loss of the total stream potential energy. About 1,600 m3 of sediment (assuming a porosity of 20%) is stored in the main channel

  10. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  11. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in rock magnetic properties are responsible for the many linear, short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are spatially associated with faults that cut Neogene basin sediments in the Rio Grande rift, including the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of the Santa Fe Group and prerift Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks document large variations of magnetic properties juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault. Mean volume magnetic susceptibilities generally increase upsection through eight map units: from 1.7 to 2.2E-4 in the prerift Eocene and Cretaceous rocks to 9.9E-4-1.2E-3 in three members of the Miocene Zia Formation of the Santa Fe Group to 1.5E-3-3.5E-3 in three members of the Miocene-Pleistocene Arroyo Ojito Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Rock magnetic measurements and petrography indicate that the amount of detrital magnetite and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite within the Santa Fe Group sediments are the predominant controls of their magnetic property variations. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size within the members of the Arroyo Ojito Formation (deposited in fluvial environments) but within members of the Zia Formation (deposited in mostly eolian environments) reaches highest values in fine to medium sands. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite is spatially associated with calcite cementation in the Santa Fe Group. Both oxidation and cementation probably reflect past flow of groundwater through permeable zones. Magnetic models for geologic cross sections that incorporate mean magnetic susceptibilities for the different stratigraphic units mimic the aeromagnetic profiles across the San Ysidro fault and demonstrate that the stratigraphic level of dominant magnetic contrast changes with

  12. Hydrogeological and Seismic Responses to Incoming Materials at the Non-Accreting Margin, Offshore the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. N.; Kameda, J.; Shimizu, M.; Ujiie, K.; Tsutsumi, A.; Ikehara, M.; Uno, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Hamada, Y.; Namiki, Y.; Kimura, G.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between temperature and the updip limit of seismicity has been demonstrated for accretionary margins where the incoming sediment is thick relative to basement relief (e.g., Oleskevich et al., JGR 1999). Here we show an example offshore the Osa Peninsula where this relationship does not appear to hold. At this non-accreting margin, the incoming sediment thickness is thin and the basement relief is substantial. The MW 6.4, 16 June 2002, Osa, Costa Rica earthquake occurred along the plate interface, 25 km landward of the trench at a depth of approximately 5-10 km (Arroyo et al., G3, 2014). Two-dimensional thermal models indicate that the temperature at this position is approximately 70-90° C (Harris et al., G3, 2010), and is cooler than the reported correlation between temperature and the updip limit of seismicity. We estimate the incoming fluid budget based on the 100 m section from the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project reference site (IODP Exp. 334 Site U1381) using porosity and bulk mineral assemblage based on X-ray diffraction analysis of core samples. The porosity (76%) combined with the water content in smectite (~40 vol.%) and biogenic silica (~24 vol.%), leads to a total sedimentary water influx estimate of 6.9 m3/yr per m of trench length. The dehydration source term is calculated with respect to silica diagenesis and clay diagenesis using the thermal model. Peak mineral dehydration occurs at temperatures of approximately ~100 °C, 40-30 km landward of the trench and 5-10 km landward of the shallowest seismicity (Arroyo et al., G3, 2014). These results suggest that in this region the presence of subducting bathymetric relief may be more important in influencing the updip extent of seismicity than the thermal regime. This interpretation is consistent with the observed patchy seismicity (Bilek et al. Geology, 2003) and emphasizes the importance of frictional heterogeneities along the subduction thrust (Bilek and Lay, GRL, 2002).

  13. Late Quaternary Offset of Alluvial Fan Surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, A.; Burgette, R. J.; Scharer, K. M.; Midttun, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierra Madre fault (SMF) is an east-west trending reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. The ~140 km long SMF is separated into four segments, we focus on the multi-stranded, ~60 km long Central Sierra Madre fault (CSMF; W118.3-W117.7) as it lacks a well-characterized long-term geologic slip rate. We combine 1-m lidar DEM with geologic and geomorphic mapping to correlate alluvial fan surfaces along strike and across the fault strands in order to derive fault slip rates that cross the CSMF. We have refined mapping on two sets of terraces described by Crook et al. (1987) and references therein: a flight of Q3 surfaces (after nomenclature of Crook et al., 1987; McFadden, 1982) in Arroyo Seco with distinct terraces ~30 m, ~40 m, ~50 m, and ~55 m above the modern stream and in Pickens Canyon divided a Q3 and Q2 surface, with heights that are ~35 m and ~25 m above the modern stream respectively. Relative degree of clast weathering and soil development is consistent with geomorphic relationships; for example, hues of 7.5 YR to 10 YR are typical of Q3, while hues of 10 YR to 2.5 Y are typical of Q2. A scarp in the Q3 surface at Arroyo Seco has a vertical offset of ~16 m and a scarp in the Q3 at Pickens Canyon has a vertical offset of ~14 m, while the Q2 surface is not faulted. Our Quaternary dating strategy is focused on dating suites of terraces offset along CSMF scarps in order to provide broader stratigraphic context for the cosmogenic radionuclide and luminescence dating. We will present (pending) cosmogenic radionuclide depth profiles from the Q3 surfaces. A better-constrained slip rate for the CSMF will improve earthquake hazard assessment for the Los Angeles area and help clarify the tectonic role of the SMF in the broader plate boundary system. Additionally, the fan chronology will provide information about the timing of alluvial fan aggradation and incision in the western Transverse Ranges.

  14. Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 Station fire in Los Angeles County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed for postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 drainage basins within the burned area and to generate maps of areas that may be inundated along the San Gabriel mountain front by the estimated volume of material. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as combined functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 1-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a 12-hour-duration, 2-year recurrence storm. Debris-flow inundation areas are mapped for scenarios where all sediment-retention basins are empty and where the basins are all completely full. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire. Tributary basins that drain into Pacoima Canyon, Big Tujunga Canyon, Arroyo Seco, West Fork of the San Gabriel River, and Devils Canyon were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, the potential to produce debris flows with volumes greater than 100,000 m3, and the highest Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking in response to both storms. The predicted high probability and large magnitude of the response to such short-recurrence storms indicates the potential for significant debris-flow impacts to any buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and downstream from the burned area. These areas will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 m3, and high

  15. Human and Host Species Transferrin Receptor 1 Use by North American Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Min; Fofana, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT At least five New World (NW) arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fevers in South America. These pathogenic clade B viruses, as well as nonpathogenic arenaviruses of the same clade, use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) of their host species to enter cells. Pathogenic viruses are distinguished from closely related nonpathogenic ones by their additional ability to utilize human TfR1 (hTfR1). Here, we investigate the receptor usage of North American arenaviruses, whose entry proteins share greatest similarity with those of the clade B viruses. We show that all six North American arenaviruses investigated utilize host species TfR1 orthologs and present evidence consistent with arenavirus-mediated selection pressure on the TfR1 of the North American arenavirus host species. Notably, one of these viruses, AV96010151, closely related to the prototype Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV), entered cells using hTfR1, consistent with a role for a WWAV-like virus in three fatal human infections whose causative agent has not been identified. In addition, modest changes were sufficient to convert hTfR1 into a functional receptor for most of these viruses, suggesting that a minor alteration in virus entry protein may allow these viruses to use hTfR1. Our data establish TfR1 as a cellular receptor for North American arenaviruses, highlight an “arms race” between these viruses and their host species, support the association of North American arenavirus with fatal human infections, and suggest that these viruses have a higher potential to emerge and cause human diseases than has previously been appreciated. IMPORTANCE hTfR1 use is a key determinant for a NW arenavirus to cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans. All known pathogenic NW arenaviruses are transmitted in South America by their host rodents. North American arenaviruses are generally considered nonpathogenic, but some of these viruses have been tentatively implicated in human fatalities. We show that these North American

  16. A water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 1; South county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Hord, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation made of rainfall, surface water, groundwater, and water quality monitoring networks in Salinas River basin in southern Monterey County, California, proposed all long-term rain gages be continued for extending short-term records and suggested the installation of two additional recording gages. Eight new storage rain gages were suggested at midaltitudes of east and west sides of Salinas Valley where few data are available. The evaluation revealed some short-term gaging stations could be discontinued because of good regression relations between them and the long-term stations Arroyo Seco near Soledad. Of 16 stations selected for the proposed network, 4 are new recording stations, 6 are new nonrecording streamflow and water quality sampling sites, 5 are existing stations, and the last is a station operated from 1969 to 1976; also included are water quality sampling stations on Lakes Nacimiento and San Antonio. The proposed groundwater network was developed from information on geology, geohydrology, and groundwater quality, high priority objectives for groundwater network, and consideration for providing good areal coverage of levels and water quality. Of 145 sites selected, 86 are existing monitoring wells. (USGS)

  17. Microbial source tracking in a coastal California watershed reveals canines as controllable sources of fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Jared S; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2014-08-19

    Elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, trigger coastal beach advisories and signal public health risks. Solving FIB pollution in suburban coastal watersheds is challenging, as there are many potential sources. The Arroyo Burro watershed in Santa Barbara, CA is an example, with its popular, but chronically FIB-contaminated beach. To address, a microbial source tracking study was performed. Surface waters were sampled over 2 years, FIB were quantified, and DNA was analyzed for host-associated fecal markers. Surf zone FIB were only elevated when the coastal lagoon was discharging. Among the fecal sources into the lagoon, including upstream human sources and coastal birds, canines were the most important. Canine sources included input via upstream creek water, which decreased after creek-side residences were educated about proper pet waste disposal, and direct inputs to the lagoon and surf zone, where dog waste could have been tidally exchanged with the lagoon. Based on this study, canine waste can be an influential, yet controllable, fecal source to suburban coastal beaches.

  18. Coeval 40Ar/39Ar Ages of 65.0 Million Years Ago from Chicxulub Crater Melt Rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites.

    PubMed

    Swisher, C C; Grajales-Nishimura, J M; Montanari, A; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Alvarez, W; Renne, P; Cedillo-Pardoa, E; Maurrasse, F J; Curtis, G H; Smit, J; McWilliams, M O

    1992-08-14

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of drill core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained within the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater in Yucatán, Mexico, has yielded well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the recent suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  19. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  20. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences. PMID:20623674

  1. Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, A; Peraza-Herrera, G; Moo-Llanes, D A; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Berzunza-Cruz, M; Becker-Fauser, I; Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2016-09-01

    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed.

  2. Channel change on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Cruz River, an ephemeral river that drains 8,581 square miles in southeastern Arizona, has a long history of channel instability. Since the late 19th century, lateral channel erosion has caused extensive property damage, particularly in Pima County. During the flood of 1983, about $100 million damage was caused in the Tucson area alone; most damage resulted from bank erosion on the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. The nature, magni- tude, location, and frequency of channel change on the Santa Cruz River were highly variable in time and space from 1936 through 1986 along a 70-mile reach in Pima County, Arizona. Four mechanisms of lateral channel change--channel migration, avulsion and meander cutoff, channel widening, and arroyo widening--were identified on the Santa Cruz River. The dominant mechanism in a reach depends on channel morphology and flood magnitude. The dominant vertical change has been degradation. The timing and magnitude of channel change at a particular location are controlled primarily by hydroclimatic factors such as magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of precipitation and floods. The location of channel change and its magnitude in response to a given discharge are controlled largely by topographic, geologic, hydraulic, and artificial factors. Although much of the present morphology of the Santa Cruz River is the result of recent large floods, a direct link between hydroclimatic con- ditions and channel change is not always evident because resistance of the channel to erosion varies with time. (USGS)

  3. Hydrology and chemical quality of ground water in Crowley County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug; Ryan, Barbara J.; Emmons, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    Significant quantities of groundwater can be obtained from several alluvial water-table aquifers possibly from two deep confined sandstone aquifers in Crowley County, Colo. The major water-table aquifer is the alluvium along the Arkansas River valley where well yields may be as much as 2,000 gallons per minute. Minor alluvial aquifers with well yields ranging from 5 to 200 gallons per minute occur in the drainage basins of Horse Creek, Bob Creek, and Sand Arroyo, and in alluvium underlying dune sand in the western part of the county. The Dakota Sandstone and the underlying Cheyenne Sandstone are the confined aquifers. The depth to the top of the Dakota Sandstone ranges from 700 to 3,600 feet below land surface. These aquifers are currently undeveloped but well yields may be as much as 275 gallons per minute. The chemical quality of water in the aquifers varies widely with dissolved solids ranging from about 400 to 8,000 milligrams per liter. On the basis of 35 analyses of water samples, only 2 samples met drinking-water standards for all constituents determined. In most instances, the water is suitable for agricultural uses. (USGS)

  4. Cool, wet conditions late in the Younger Dryas in semi-arid New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Stephen A.; Penner, William L.; Palacios-Fest, Manuel R.; Metcalf, Artie L.; Smith, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    A thick alluvial sequence in central New Mexico contains the Scholle wet meadow deposit that traces upstream to a paleospring. The wet meadow sediments contain an abundant fauna of twenty-one species of freshwater and terrestrial mollusks and ten species of ostracodes. The mollusks and ostracodes are indicative of a local high alluvial water table with spring-supported perennial flow but without standing water. Pollen analysis documents shrub grassland vegetation with sedges, willow, and alder in a riparian community. Stable carbon isotopes from the wet meadow sediments have δ13C values ranging from - 22.8 to - 23.3‰, indicating that 80% of the organic carbon in the sediment is derived from C3 species. The wet meadow deposit is AMS dated 10,400 to 9700 14C yr BP, corresponding to 12,300 to 11,100 cal yr BP and overlapping in time with the Younger Dryas event (YD). The wet meadow became active about 500 yr after the beginning of the YD and persisted 400 yr after the YD ended. The Scholle wet meadow is the only record of perennial flow and high water table conditions in the Abo Arroyo drainage basin during the past 13 ka.

  5. Rainfall-runoff in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area: Measurements, analyses and comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, C.E.; Ward, T.J.; Kelly, T.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years like many other cities in the Southwestern United States. While the US population grew by 37% between the 1970 and 2000 censuses, the growth for Albuquerque was 83%. More people mean more development and increased problems of managing runoff from urbanizing watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Albuquerque Arroyo Metropolitan Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA) and the City of Albuquerque has maintained a rainfall-runoff data collection program since 1976. The data from measured precipitation events can be used to verify hydrologic modeling. In this presentation, data from a representative gaged watershed is analyzed and discussed to set the overall framework for the rainfall-runoff process in the Albuquerque area. Of particular interest are the basic relationships between rainfall and watershed runoff response and an analysis of curve numbers as an indicator of runoff function. In urbanized areas, four land treatment types (natural, irrigated lawns, compacted soil, and impervious) are used to define surface infiltration conditions. Rainfall and runoff gage data are used to compare curve number (CN) and initial abstraction/uniform infiltration (IA/INF) techniques in an Albuquerque watershed. The IA/INF method appears to produce superior results over the CN method for the measured rainfall events.

  6. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  7. Presence of Oxyodontherium (Macraucheniidae, Litopterna) in the Río Quinto Formation, San Luis (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, Esperanza; Chiesa, Jorge; Ojeda, Guillermo

    2008-03-01

    This paper deals with the new mammal remains from the Río Quinto Formation, found at the Arroyo La Petra locality (San Luis, Argentina). They consist of an incomplete skull and two mandibular fragments of a macraucheniid, both with milk dentition and M1/m1 erupting, corresponding to a very young individual. Morfometrical characteristics of the specimens allow their identification as Oxyodontherium zeballosi and provide the first cranial data for this species. The holotype of this species is considered a juvenile individual. We maintain a conservative position in maintaining O. zeballosi as a valid species though based on juvenile specimens. However, a full systematic revision of the Family Macraucheniidae is needed to verify the validity and phylogenetic relationships of the taxa included in it. The identification of O. zeballosi indicates a late Miocene age for the fossiliferous level, which implies a cronoestratigraphic extension of the Río Quinto Formation, thus far considered as Pliocene in age. In addition, the presence of Oxyodontherium in San Luis Province increases the geographical distribution of this macrauchenid, whose record previously was limited to Miocene outcrops of the Paraná River (Entre Ríos Province). Its presence in the Mio-Pliocene beds of Uruguay is very doubtful because it is based on a metapodial.

  8. Preliminary geologic map of the Simi 7.5' quadrangle, Southern California, a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Campbell, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Simi Quadrangle covers an area of about 62 square miles in southern Ventura County. The Santa Clara River Valley occupies the northwestern corner of the quadrangle. Mountainous terrain of South Mountain and Oak Ridge characterizes the northern and central area. Elevation within the quadrangle ranges from about 250 feet along the arroyo bottoms to over 2200 feet. Steep, highly dissected slopes form much of the boundary of the area. In the southeast, Little Simi Valley, drained by Arroyo Simi/Arroyo Las Posas, separates the southern flank of Oak Ridge from the Las Posas Hills. The Las Posas upland area, a broad elevated region that slopes gently to the south, separates the South Mountain-Oak Ridge highlands from the Las Posas-Camarillo Hills between Little Simi Valley on the east and the Oxnard Plain on the west. This relatively low-lying area is also referred to as the Las Posas Valley. Numerous north-south-trending drainages cut South Mountain and Oak Ridge creating steep narrow canyons on north-facing slopes and wide flat-bottomed canyons with incised streams on south-facing slopes. A network of residential streets and ranch and oilfield roads that traverse the area from U.S. Highway 101 and State Highways 118, 23, and 126 provides access to the area. Current land use includes citrus and avocado orchards, oil well drilling and production, sand and gravel quarries, decorative-rock quarries, cattle grazing, suburban residential development, and golf courses. The oldest geologic unit mapped in the Simi Quadrangle is the upper Eocene to lower Miocene Sespe Formation. The Sespe Formation consists of alluvial fan and floodplain deposits of interbedded pebble-cobble conglomerate, massive to thick-bedded sandstone, and thin-bedded siltstone and claystone. In the northern part of the map area, Sespe Formation is overlain by and interfingers with the upper Oligocene to lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation that is composed of transitional and marine sandstone, siltstone, and

  9. Survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates and amphibians at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, USA: An evaluation of selected factors affecting species richness in ephemeral pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral aquatic habitats in Wupatki National Monument vary from naturally formed pools in arroyos over 5000 years old, to constructed catchment basins with ages estimated at 60-1000+ years old, and borrow pits and stock ponds 30-60 years old. The different ages of these pools provide different histories of colonization by amphibians and aquatic invertebrates, especially temporary pool specialists such as spadefoot toads and branchiopod crustaceans. Ten pools of five different origins and ages were surveyed in August and/or September 1997 for aquatic organisms; a total of 13 surveys were conducted. Twenty-two taxa were found, with the number of species in a pool during any survey ranging from one to 10. Species composition of the communities changed from one sampling date to the next within individual pools. Community structure is an amalgam of species with different dispersal mechanisms that are influenced by different pool characteristics. Age appears to have little effect overall, but may have influenced branchiopod presence/absence. Distance to permanent water, frequency of disturbance, and current pool size were correlated with presence/absence of some species.

  10. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  11. Co-occurrence of mylodontid sloths and insights on their potential distributions during the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Luciano; Fariña, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) for the last interglacial (LIG), the global last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene climatic optimum (HCO) were generated for three extinct South American Pleistocene mylodontid giant sloths, Glossotherium robustum, Lestodon armatus and Mylodon darwinii. They are recorded co-occurring in some localities including Arroyo del Vizcaíno site (AdV) in Uruguay. Co-occurrence records were studied based on the overlap of their generated areas of potential distributions, and compared with the available biome reconstructions of South America during the LGM to analyze their distribution patterns, ecological requirements and possible interactions between them. Our results suggest that these sloths could have co-existed mainly in the Chaco-Paraná Basin and the plains in the Río de la Plata area. Areas of high suitability were observed for submerged parts of the continental shelf that were exposed during the LGM showing an overall increase in potential habitat compared to the LIG and HCO. This suggests that there was a drastic reduction in total available areas of preferred habitat at the end of the Pleistocene. The co-occurrence of these sloths at the AdV site suggests the presence of vegetation indicative of mainly open, cold to temperate habitats but with mixed patches typical of humid climates.

  12. An appraisal of surface-water quality in the Alameda Creek Basin, California, October 1974-June 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopp, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Areal and seasonal variations in the quality of surface water in the Alameda Creek basin, California., from 1974 to 1979 were analyzed to determine the effects of wastewater discharges and imported water releases. Statistically significant differences were found among mean values of constituents in streamflow below the treated wastewater discharge points, imported water released from the South Bay Aqueduct, and the combined outflow at Alameda Creek near Niles. During periods before and after the drought of 1976-1977, concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, and total nitrate varied inversely with water discharge. From 1974 to 1976, decreases in nutrient values coincided with increased in imported water releases. Values of physical properties and chemical constituents decreased during the spring and summer of 1976. During the second winter of the drought, imported water was decreased, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and total nitrate increased dramatically in the water at Alameda Creek near Niles. At the upstream tributary, Arroyo de la Laguna, increased chemical property and constituent values during 1976 and 1977 were attributed to decreased natural flow, hence the greater contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Concentrations of several constituents exceeded limits set by the State water-quality objectives for the basin. With the return to normal flow levels in 1978-79, some concentrations returned to predrought levels. (USGS)

  13. Last glacial maximum environments in northwestern Patagonia revealed by fossil small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammone, Mauro N.; Hajduk, Adan; Arias, Pablo; Teta, Pablo; Lacey, Eileen A.; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Comparisons of historical and modern assemblages of mammals can yield important insights into patterns and processes of environmental change. Here, we present the first analyses of small mammal assemblages present in northern Patagonia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Using remains obtained from owl pellets excavated from an archeological cave site (Arroyo Corral I, levels VII-V, carbon dates of 22,400-21,530 cal yr BP), we generate estimates of the minimum number of individuals for all species detected; these estimates, in turn are used to determine relative species abundances. Comparisons of these data with similar analyses of small mammal remains obtained from a second archeological site (ACoII, levels IV-V, carbon dates of 10,010-9220 cal yr BP) as well as from modern owl pellets reveal pronounced changes in relative species abundance since the LGM. In particular, Euneomys chinchilloides and Ctenomys sociabilis - the predominant species during the LGM - declined markedly, suggesting a change from open, bare habitat punctuated by patches of wet meadows and shrubs to the more densely vegetated mosaic of ecotone habitats found in this region today. These data provide important new insights into the environmental changes that have occurred in northern Patagonia over the last 20,000 years.

  14. Ground-water recharge near Santa Fe, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recharge to the basin-fill aquifer near Santa Fe, New Mexico, was investigated using chloride mass-balance methods. Chloride concentrations in water in the unsaturated zone indicate no recharge in areas where runoff and flooding do not occur. The mass of chloride stored in the upper part of the unsaturated zone in these areas would take about 6,000 to 8,000 years to accumulate, assuming the present (1989) chloride fluxes. Chloride concen- trations in water in the unsaturated zone beneath arroyo channels indicate that recharge does occur in these areas; chloride concentrations in this recharge water at two sites ranged from 40 to 60 milligrams per liter. Estimates of mountain-front recharge using a chloride balance in drainage basins are about 2,320 acre-feet per year in the Santa Fe River drainage, 690 acre-feet per year in the Rio Tesuque drainage, and 830 acre-feet per year in the Anoyo Hondo drainage. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that little summer precipitation recharges the ground-water system and that winter precipitation results in most of the recharge water. Most hydrogen and oxygen isotope data for ground water in the area coincide with the local meteoric water line on a graph showing the relation between oxygen and hydrogen in ground water. This indicates that, on the basis of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of ground water and precipi- tation, evaporation of recharge water or ground water does not occur.

  15. 87Sr/86Sr sourcing of ponderosa pine used in Anasazi great house construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Amanda C.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Dean, Jeffery S.; Stein, John

    2005-01-01

    Previous analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios shows that 10th through 12th century Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, and (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) beams from the crest of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south. Here, we extend 87Sr/86Sr analysis to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) prevalent in the architectural timber at three of the Chacoan great houses (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo). Like the architectural spruce and fir, much of the ponderosa matches the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of living trees in the Chuska Mountains. Many of the architectural ponderosa, however, have similar ratios to living trees in the La Plata and San Juan Mountains to the north and Lobo Mesa/Hosta Butte to the south. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house or time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources. The multiple and distant sources for food and timber, now based on hundreds of isotopic values from modern and archeological samples, confirm conventional wisdom about the geographic scope of the larger Chacoan system. The complexity of this procurement warns against simple generalizations based on just one species, a single class of botanical artifact, or a few isotopic values.

  16. Using a watershed-based approach to manage and protect water resources in the Bear Canyon Watershed, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    Depending upon how people use land in a watershed, whether it be farming, livestock grazing, timber harvesting, mining, urbanization, or even recreation, all have significant impacts on the water moving through that watershed. This paper will focus on the urban watershed and how stormwater runoff from urbanization affects erosion, sedimentation, and water quality. It also will explore the potential of a watershed as the basis for managing and protecting water resources. Watershed-based management offers a clear look at how land-use changes affect not only water quality but also erosion and sedimentation; in addition, this approach develops preventive strategies to restore those affected water and land resources. The preventive strategies the author uses for this watershed can be applied to other New Mexico urban watersheds. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part shows how past and present land-use activities affect erosion, sedimentation, and water quality in the Bear Canyon arroyo system. The second part provides solutions to the problems of soil erosion and stormwater pollution in the urban areas through government intervention. The third part discusses how Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to limit or reduce stormwater pollution in residential and industrial areas.

  17. Effects of the catastrophic flood of December 1966, north rim area, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Aldridge, B.N.; Euler, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Precipitation from the unusual storm of December 1966 was concentrated on highlands in northern Arizona, southwestern Utah , southern Nevada, and south-central California and caused widely scattered major floods in the four States. In Arizona the largest amount of precipitation was in the north rim area of eastern Grand Canyon, where about 14 inches was measured. The largest flows occurred along Bright Angel Creek and the MilK Creek-Dragon Creek part of the Crystal Creek drainage basin. The maximum effects of the flood were along Milk Creek-Dragon Creek, where a mudflow caused extensive channel modification. Floods that occurred in the Bright Angel and Crystal Creek basins have a recurrence interval of only once in several centuries. The streamflow that resulted from the storm on the Kaibab Plateau caused considerable local scouring and deepening of channels, including some renewed arroyo cutting. The most catastrophic effects of the 1966 floods were caused by two mudflows that extended from the edge of the Kaibab Plateau along Dragon Creek in the Crystal Creek basin and Lava Creek in the Chuar Creek basin to the Colorado River. More than 10 other large mudflows occurred in Nankoweap, Kwagunt, Crystal, and Shinumo Creek basins. About 80 large debris slides left conspicuous scars in the amphitheaters at the heads of the side gorges, and at least 10 small slides occurred on the Kaibab Plateau. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Neohaematotrephus arayae n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomiformes: Cyclocoelidae) in Jacana spinosa (Aves: Charadriiformes: Jacanidae) from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, David; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas; Rodriguez, Beatriz

    2003-08-01

    Specimens of a species of cyclocoelid digenean inhabiting Jacana spinosa from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, most closely resemble Haematotrephus facioi (Brenes and Arroyo, 1962) Yamaguti, 1971, in the same host from Aranjuez, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, in having confluent vitelline follicles posteriorly, diagnostic of Neohaematotrophus, and in pharynx length, ovary width, and cirrus sac on the sinistral side. The new species is also highly similar in appearance to H. gendrei Dubois, 1959, also inhabiting a jacanid (from West Africa), which has vitelline follicles confluent posteriorly, and extending anteriorly to the intestinal bifurcation and genital pore opening immediately posterior to the anterior margin of the pharynx. Like H. facioi, H. gendrei has a relatively much shorter and broader cirrus sac than does the new species. Examination of the holotype and paratype of H. facioi confirmed that the specimens from Guanacaste differ in having a longer body, a larger ovary and eggs, and smaller testes. They also have the ovary on the sinistral rather than the dextral side of the body, genital pore anterior to the pharynx rather than at or posterior to the level of the posterior margin of the pharynx, longer and thinner cirrus sac, and eggs without eyespotted miracidia. Half the eggs in both specimens of H. facioi have well-developed eyespotted miracidia, whereas the typical condition for cyclocoelids is for virtually all eggs to exhibit eyespotted miracidia. Both H. facioi and H. gendrei are transferred to Neohaematotrophus, along with the new species.

  19. Beetles that live with ants (Carabidae, Pseudomorphini, Pseudomorpha Kirby, 1825): A revision of the santarita species group

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Terry L.; Amundson, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Western Hemisphere genus Pseudomorpha Kirby 1825 was last revised by Notman in 1925 based on only a few known species (22) and paltry few specimens (73); other authors have added an additional six species represented by 53 additional specimens since 1925. Baehr (1997) assigned three species from Australia to this genus, albeit in a new subgenus, Austropseudomorpha Baehr 1997. A recent study of collections from throughout the Americas (1757 specimens) has revealed numerous new species that can be arrayed across 19 species groups based on a suite of attributes, some used by Notman and others newly discovered. A taxonomic revision of the species contained in one of these species groups, santarita, is provided herein, as well as a distributional synopsis of the remaining 18 species groups. New species described herein are as follows, each with its type locality: Pseudomorpha huachineras p. n., Arroyo El Cocono, Sierra Huachinera, Sonora, México; P. patagonia sp. n., Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona; P.penablanca sp. n., Peña Blanca Lake, Arizona; P. pima sp. n., Madera Canyon (lower), Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona; P. santacruz sp. n., Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona; and P. santarita sp. n., Santa Rita Ranch, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. PMID:24363599

  20. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  1. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  2. Preliminary geologic map of the Simi 7.5' quadrangle, Southern California, a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Campbell, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Simi Quadrangle covers an area of about 62 square miles in southern Ventura County. The Santa Clara River Valley occupies the northwestern corner of the quadrangle. Mountainous terrain of South Mountain and Oak Ridge characterizes the northern and central area. Elevation within the quadrangle ranges from about 250 feet along the arroyo bottoms to over 2200 feet. Steep, highly dissected slopes form much of the boundary of the area. In the southeast, Little Simi Valley, drained by Arroyo Simi/Arroyo Las Posas, separates the southern flank of Oak Ridge from the Las Posas Hills. The Las Posas upland area, a broad elevated region that slopes gently to the south, separates the South Mountain-Oak Ridge highlands from the Las Posas-Camarillo Hills between Little Simi Valley on the east and the Oxnard Plain on the west. This relatively low-lying area is also referred to as the Las Posas Valley. Numerous north-south-trending drainages cut South Mountain and Oak Ridge creating steep narrow canyons on north-facing slopes and wide flat-bottomed canyons with incised streams on south-facing slopes. A network of residential streets and ranch and oilfield roads that traverse the area from U.S. Highway 101 and State Highways 118, 23, and 126 provides access to the area. Current land use includes citrus and avocado orchards, oil well drilling and production, sand and gravel quarries, decorative-rock quarries, cattle grazing, suburban residential development, and golf courses. The oldest geologic unit mapped in the Simi Quadrangle is the upper Eocene to lower Miocene Sespe Formation. The Sespe Formation consists of alluvial fan and floodplain deposits of interbedded pebble-cobble conglomerate, massive to thick-bedded sandstone, and thin-bedded siltstone and claystone. In the northern part of the map area, Sespe Formation is overlain by and interfingers with the upper Oligocene to lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation that is composed of transitional and marine sandstone, siltstone, and

  3. The church, the state and women's bodies in the context of religious fundamentalism in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Austria, Carolina S

    2004-11-01

    After almost 500 years of Spanish colonial rule, Canon law and laws of Spanish origin continue to dominate Philippine family, civil and penal law. Most if not all of these laws place serious limitations on the realisation of women's sexual and reproductive rights. Since 2002, the current president, Gloria Mocapagal Arroyo, has increasingly substituted church dogma for state policy, i.e. revoking the reproductive health and family planning policies of her predecessor, rejecting all modern contraceptive methods as forms of abortion, limiting government support for family planning to providing natural methods to married couples, and restricting access to emergency contraception. This article reflects on which advocacy methods will best serve the goals of sexual and reproductive rights when conservative church interests dominate state policy, as is currently the case in the Philippines. Religious fundamentalists, at one and the some time, argue for religious accommodation of their views by the state on the grounds of religious freedom but refuse to entertain, let alone accommodate, a plurality of views on women's sexuality. Thus, it is not enough to base a case in support of sexual and reproductive rights on the separation of church and state since, even though the State claims it is secular, it still manages to impose restrictions and control over women's bodies. PMID:15626200

  4. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Gustavo G.; Gutiérrez, María A.; Blasi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America. PMID:27683248

  5. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The chief results during the reporting period were three 1:1,000,000 scale maps made from one ERTS-1 frame (1085-17330, 16 October 1972) showing: (1) the three most important types of materials in terms of the modern erosion problem: the readily erodible soils, gravel piedmonts and basin-fill areas, and consolidated rocks; (2) alluvial fans (dissected and relatively undissected); and (3) (as an additional bonus) linear structural features. Eight key areas (small parts of the whole study area) were selected for detailed study, and mapping was started in two of them, by interpretation of ultrahigh (U-2 and RB-57) airphotos, supplemented by field studies. In these areas detailed mapping was done not only on the modern erosion phenomena (arroyos, gullies, modern flood plains and terraces, and areas of sheet erosion and deposition), but also other features pertinent to the erosion problem, such as slope-local relief, landforms rock units, soil particle size and erodibility, and classes of vegetative cover.

  6. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  7. Isostatic gravity map of the Point Sur 30 x 60 quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.T.; Morin, R.L.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a regional effort to investigate the tectonics and water resources of the central Coast Range. This map serves as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults in the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after removing variations caused by instrument drift, earth-tides, latitude, elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure), as expressed by the isostatic anomaly, reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust, which in turn can be related to rock type. Steep gradients in the isostatic gravity field often indicate lithologic or structural boundaries. Gravity highs reflect the Mesozoic granitic and Franciscan Complex basement rocks that comprise both the northwest-trending Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges, whereas gravity lows in Salinas Valley and the offshore basins reflect the thick accumulations of low-density alluvial and marine sediment. Gravity lows also occur where there are thick deposits of low-density Monterey Formation in the hills southeast of Arroyo Seco (>2 km, Marion, 1986). Within the map area, isostatic residual gravity values range from approximately -60 mGal offshore in the northern part of the Sur basin to approximately 22 mGal in the Santa Lucia Range.

  8. Elevation changes in the central transverse ranges near Ventura, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan-Banks, J. M.; Castle, R.O.; Ziony, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Profiles of elevation changes developed from repeated levelings in the east-trending Transverse Ranges near Ventura, California, reveal three general types of vertical movements: 1. (1) broadly defined regional tilting; 2. (2) sharply defined differential movements across recently active faults; and 3. (3) differential subsidence centering on producing oil fields. Down-to-the-southeast tilting is evident in profiles along the coast this sense of movement, however, is the inverse of that that may have prevailed during late Pleistocene time. Profiles along lines extending north and northwest from Ventura show prominent inflections formed by up-to-the-north differential movements that coincide roughly with the Red Mountain fault; this fault is a north-dipping reverse fault that displaces a Holocene(?) soil zone and along which scarps and sag ponds are preserved. A similar inflection coincides with the Padre Juan fault; post-Pleistocene activity on the Padre Juan, however, is uniquely indicated by the geodetic data. Contemporary integrity of the structural block extending northward from the Red Mountain fault is suggested by the apparent absence of differential movements across the Munson Creek, Tule Creek, Santa Ynez, and Arroyo Parida faults since at least 1934. Subsidence is recognized over both the Ventura and Rincon oil fields; although maximum subsidence has not been recorded in either case, 277 mm of differential subsidence was measured within the Ventura field between 1934 and 1968. ?? 1975.

  9. Coeval Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Carl C., III; Grajales-Nishimura, Jose M.; Montanari, Alessandro; Margolis, Stanley V.; Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Renne, Paul; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Maurrasse, Florentin J.-M. R.; Curtis, Garniss H.

    1992-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  10. Hydrologic data for the Puerco River basin, western New Mexico, October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Robert Louis; Rankin, Dale R.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected during October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992, in the Puerco River Basin, Western New Mexico, are summarized. The effects of uranium mining and a 1979 tailings pond spill, in combination with naturally occurring and potentially hazardous trace elements, have created a concern that surface water and ground water in the Puerco River Basin may be unsafe for irrigation, livestock watering, and domestic use; therefore, a data collection network was established to monitor the suitability of the water resources in the Puerco River Basin. The data collection network consisted of one streamflow-gaging station, three water-well dusters, and nine streambed sites. The network is located along a reach of the Puerco River beginning near the confluence of the Puerco River and Pipeline Arroyo and ending approximately 9 miles upstream from the New Mexico-Arizona State line. Data tabulated and presented include mean daily discharge, ground-water hydrographs, water quality, and sediment chemistry and particle-size distribution.

  11. Water-quality conditions and an evaluation of ground- and surface-water sampling programs in the Livermore-Amador Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, S.K.; Cascos, P.V.; Glass, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A program to monitor the ground- and surface water quality in the Livermore-Amador Valley has been operated since 1976. As of 1982, this monitoring network consisted of approximately 130 wells, about 100 of which were constructed specifically for this program, and 9 surface water stations. Increased demand on the groundwater for municipal and industrial water supply in the past has caused a decline in water levels and a gradual buildup of salts from natural surface-water recharge and land disposal of treated wastewater from waste treatment plants. Results of this study identify the salt buildup to be the major problem with the groundwater quality. Established water quality objectives for dissolved solids are exceeded in 52 of 130 wells. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate are also in excess of basin objectives and health standards. Water quality in both surface and groundwater is highly variable areally. Magnesium to calcium magnesium bicarbonate groundwater are found in the areas where most of the high volume municipal wells are located. Large areas of sodium bicarbonate water occur in the northern part of the valley. Except for two stations on Arroyo Las Positas which has sodium chloride water, surface water is mixed-cation bicarbonate water. (USGS)

  12. Trace elements and organic compounds associated with riverbed sediments in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin, Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) was mandated by the Texas Clean Rivers Act (Senate Bill 818) to assess water quality of rivers in Texas. Recent efforts to collect information for the assessment of water quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin have involved Federal agencies on both sides of the 1,248-mile U.S.-Mexico border?U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Secretaria de Desarollo Social (Secretary for Social Development, Mexico), National Water Commission of Mexico, and International Boundary and Water Commission?as well as State and local agencies in a spirit of international cooperation. Substantial efforts have been made to gather data needed to determine the quality of water and ecological status of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, especially at sites along the border (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to assess selected historical data of trace elements and organic compounds in riverbed sediments of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, and of the Pecos River and the Arroyo Colorado in Texas.

  13. Modern alluvial history of the Paria Rver drainage basin, southern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    1986-01-01

    Stream channels in the Paria River basin were eroded and partially refilled between 1883 and 1980. Basin-wide erosion began in 1883; channels were fully entrenched and widened by 1890. This erosion occurred during the well-documented period of arroyo cutting in the Southwest. Photographs of the Paria River channel taken between 1918 and 1940 show that the channel did not have a floodplain and remained wide and deep until the early 1940s. A thin bar (<50 cm), now reworked and locally preserved, was deposited at that time. Basin-wide aggradation, which began in the early 1940s, developed floodplains by vertical accretion. The floodplain alluvium, 1.3-3 m thick. consists of two units recognizable throughout the studied area. An older unit was deposited during a time of low flow and sediment yield whereas the younger unit was deposited during times of high flow, sediment yield, and precipitation. Tree-ring dating suggests that the older unit was deposited between the early 1940s and 1956, and the younger between 1956 and 1980. The units are not time transgressive, suggesting that deposition by knickpoint recession was not an important process. High peak-flood discharges were associated with crosion and low flood discharges with aggradation. The erosional or aggradational mode of the streams was determined principally by peak-flood discharge, which in turn was controlled by precipitation. ?? 1986.

  14. Uranium-series ages of marine terraces, La Paz Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sirkin, L.; Szabo, B. J.; Padilla, G.A.; Pedrin, S.A.; Diaz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of coral samples from raised marine terrace deposits between 1.5 and 10 m above sea level in the La Paz Peninsula area, Baja California Sur, yielded ages between 123 ka and 138 ka that are in agreement with previously reported results. The stratigraphy and ages of marine units near the El Coyote Arroyo indicate the presence of two high stands of the sea during the last interglacial or oxygen isotope substage 5e at about 140 ka and 123 ka. Accepting 5 m for the sea level during the last interglacial transgression, we calculate average uplift rates for the marine terraces of about ???70 mm/ka and 40 mm/ka. These slow rates of uplift indicate a relative stability of the La Paz peninsula area for the past 140 000 years. In contrast, areas of Baja California affected by major faultf experienced higher rates of uplift. Rockwell et al. (1987) reported vertical uplift rates of 180 to 300 mm/ka at Punta Banda within the Aqua Blanea fault zone in northern Baja California. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-02-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. PMID:8820587

  16. Continuous multi-criteria methods for crop and soil conservation planning on La Colacha (Río Cuarto, Province of Córdoba, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Cisneros, J. M.; Laguna, F. V.; Aguado, P. L.; Cantero, J. J.; Andina, D.; Sánchez, E.

    2012-08-01

    Agro-areas of Arroyos Menores (La Colacha) west and south of Río Cuarto (Prov. of Córdoba, Argentina) basins are very fertile but have high soil loses. Extreme rain events, inundations and other severe erosions forming gullies demand urgently actions in this area to avoid soil degradation and erosion supporting good levels of agro production. The authors first improved hydrologic data on La Colacha, evaluated the systems of soil uses and actions that could be recommended considering the relevant aspects of the study area and applied decision support systems (DSS) with mathematic tools for planning of defences and uses of soils in these areas. These were conducted here using multi-criteria models, in multi-criteria decision making (MCDM); first of discrete MCDM to chose among global types of use of soils, and then of continuous MCDM to evaluate and optimize combined actions, including repartition of soil use and the necessary levels of works for soil conservation and for hydraulic management to conserve against erosion these basins. Relatively global solutions for La Colacha area have been defined and were optimised by Linear Programming in Goal Programming forms that are presented as Weighted or Lexicographic Goal Programming and as Compromise Programming. The decision methods used are described, indicating algorithms used, and examples for some representative scenarios on La Colacha area are given.

  17. Remote sensing and hydrologic modeling of arid watersheds: A scale analysis: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this multiyear research effort is to model long-term (10/sup 2/--10/sup 4/ yrs), cut and fill cycles in arid region fluvial systems (arroyos). Historic and geologic (late Quaternary) data bases indicate that arid region fluvial systems have oscillated between periods of pronounced aggradation and degradation. This cyclic behavior has affected both water and sediment discharge from arid watersheds as well as ecosystem habitats along hillslopes and valley bottoms. One of the primary causes that has been proposed for this cyclic activity is climatic change for gradual (glacial-interglacial) and catastrophic (volcanic eruptions, el Nino) rates of climatic change on a global scale. The immediate goal of this multiyear research effort is to modify existing numeric hydrologic models (SPUR, KINEROS) which utilize as input multilayered, co-registered remotely sensed data for the prediction of surface hydrology and sediment erosion, transport and deposition in arid region watersheds. It is hypothesized that different types of co-registered, remotely sensed data including digital elevation data sets (DEDS), multispectral scanner (TM, SPOT), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) can be used in conjunction with limited ground truth data to predict values of input parameters for numeric watershed hydrology models and thus to compute watershed hydrologic and sedimentologic characteristics.

  18. Preservation of large titanosaur sauropods in overbank fluvial facies: A case study in the Cretaceous of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2007-04-01

    Patagonia exhibits a particularly abundant record of Cretaceous dinosaurs with worldwide relevance. Although paleontological studies are relatively numerous, few include taphonomic information about these faunas. This contribution provides the first detailed sedimentological and taphonomical analyses of a dinosaur bone quarry from northern Neuquén Basin. At Arroyo Seco (Mendoza Province, Argentina), a large parautochthonous/autochthonous accumulation of articulated and disarticulated bones that represent several sauropod individuals has been discovered. The fossil remains, assigned to Mendozasaurus neguyelap González Riga, correspond to a large (18-27-m long) sauropod titanosaur collected in the strata of the Río Neuquén Subgroup (late Turoronian-late Coniacian). A taphonomic viewpoint recognizes a two-fold division into biostratinomic and fossil-diagenetic processes. Biostratinomic processes include (1) subaerial biodegradation of sauropod carcasses on well-drained floodplains, (2) partial or total skeletal disarticulation, (3) reorientation of bones by sporadic overbank flows, and (4) subaerial weathering. Fossil-diagenetic processes include (1) plastic deformation of bones, (2) initial permineralization with hematite, (3) fracturing and brittle deformation due to lithostatic pressure; (4) secondary permineralization with calcite in vascular canals and fractures, and (5) postfossilization bone weathering. This type of bone concentration, also present in Rincón de los Sauces (northern Patagonia), suggests that overbank facies tended to accumulate large titanosaur bones. This taphonomic mode, referred to as "overbank bone assemblages", outlines the potential of crevasse splay facies as important sources of paleontological data in Cretaceous meandering fluvial systems.

  19. Stable isotopes of nitrogen in plants of contaminated soils and sediments by an abandoned gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, O. F.; Sanchez, A.; Marmolejo, A. J.; Magallanes, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    Mining industry is an economic activity which generates high ecological impact. In the mining district "El Triunfo", the concentration of potential toxic elements (PTE: As, Cd, Hg, Sb) have exceeded 50 times allowable limits. Nowadays, environmental pollution levels can be evaluated through the use of stable isotopes of N. For this, isotopic analysis of nitrogen and concentrations of metals and metalloids were considered in the area where plants are exposed (Prosopis spp., Parkinsonia spp. and Salicornia spp.) Polluted sediments were collected over 48 km of the Las Gallinas-El Hondo-El Carrizal arroyo. PTE concentrations, with a previous acidic digestion (HF, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were determined by ICP-MS. As and Sb were determined by NAA. For N isotopes, obtained samples were grounded to fine powder in an agate mortar with an acetone rinse between samples then analyzed by an EA-IRMS. Results showed that plants growing on the tailings decreased their δ15N proportionally to the metal concentration in the area.

  20. The church, the state and women's bodies in the context of religious fundamentalism in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Austria, Carolina S

    2004-11-01

    After almost 500 years of Spanish colonial rule, Canon law and laws of Spanish origin continue to dominate Philippine family, civil and penal law. Most if not all of these laws place serious limitations on the realisation of women's sexual and reproductive rights. Since 2002, the current president, Gloria Mocapagal Arroyo, has increasingly substituted church dogma for state policy, i.e. revoking the reproductive health and family planning policies of her predecessor, rejecting all modern contraceptive methods as forms of abortion, limiting government support for family planning to providing natural methods to married couples, and restricting access to emergency contraception. This article reflects on which advocacy methods will best serve the goals of sexual and reproductive rights when conservative church interests dominate state policy, as is currently the case in the Philippines. Religious fundamentalists, at one and the some time, argue for religious accommodation of their views by the state on the grounds of religious freedom but refuse to entertain, let alone accommodate, a plurality of views on women's sexuality. Thus, it is not enough to base a case in support of sexual and reproductive rights on the separation of church and state since, even though the State claims it is secular, it still manages to impose restrictions and control over women's bodies.

  1. Beetles that live with ants (Carabidae, Pseudomorphini, Pseudomorpha Kirby, 1825): A revision of the santarita species group.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Terry L; Amundson, Lauren M

    2013-01-01

    The Western Hemisphere genus Pseudomorpha Kirby 1825 was last revised by Notman in 1925 based on only a few known species (22) and paltry few specimens (73); other authors have added an additional six species represented by 53 additional specimens since 1925. Baehr (1997) assigned three species from Australia to this genus, albeit in a new subgenus, Austropseudomorpha Baehr 1997. A recent study of collections from throughout the Americas (1757 specimens) has revealed numerous new species that can be arrayed across 19 species groups based on a suite of attributes, some used by Notman and others newly discovered. A taxonomic revision of the species contained in one of these species groups, santarita, is provided herein, as well as a distributional synopsis of the remaining 18 species groups. New species described herein are as follows, each with its type locality: Pseudomorpha huachineras p. n., Arroyo El Cocono, Sierra Huachinera, Sonora, México; P. patagonia sp. n., Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona; P.penablanca sp. n., Peña Blanca Lake, Arizona; P. pima sp. n., Madera Canyon (lower), Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona; P. santacruz sp. n., Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona; and P. santarita sp. n., Santa Rita Ranch, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona.

  2. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-02-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes.

  3. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Daniela S.; Soria, Javier A.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M.; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C.; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.—Arroyo, D. S., Soria, J. A., Gaviglio, E. A., Garcia-Keller, C., Cancela, L. M., Rodriguez-Galan, M. C., Wang, J. M., Iribarren, P. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy. PMID:23073832

  4. Diversity among Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Family Arenaviridae) Associated with the Southern Plains Woodrat (Neotoma micropus)

    PubMed Central

    Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Mauldin, Matthew R.; Bradley, Robert D.; Fulhorst, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    The southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) is the principal host of Catarina virus in southern Texas and a natural host of other North American Tacaribe serocomplex viruses. The objectives of this study were to increase our knowledge of the genetic diversity among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses associated with N. micropus and to define better the natural host relationships of these viruses. Pairwise comparisons of complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences and complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences revealed a high level of genetic diversity among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses associated with N. micropus in western Oklahoma, southern New Mexico, and northern and southern Texas. Collectively, the results of Bayesian analyses of nucleotide sequences and pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences confirmed that the arenaviruses associated with N. micropus in Oklahoma and New Mexico should be included in the Whitewater Arroyo species complex, and indicated that that the arenaviruses associated with N. micropus in northern Texas are strains of a novel arenaviral species – tentatively named “Middle Pease River virus”. Together, the results of assays for arenavirus and assays for anti-arenavirus antibody in 54 southern plains woodrats and 325 other rodents captured at 2 localities suggested that the southern plains woodrat is the principal host of Middle Pease River virus in northern Texas. PMID:24161346

  5. Coeval 40Ar/39Ar Ages of 65.0 Million Years Ago from Chicxulub Crater Melt Rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites.

    PubMed

    Swisher, C C; Grajales-Nishimura, J M; Montanari, A; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Alvarez, W; Renne, P; Cedillo-Pardoa, E; Maurrasse, F J; Curtis, G H; Smit, J; McWilliams, M O

    1992-08-14

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of drill core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained within the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater in Yucatán, Mexico, has yielded well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the recent suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site. PMID:17789640

  6. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A.; Rodríguez-Morata, Clara; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Rubiales, Juan M.; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a total of 287 increment cores from 178 disturbed Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) which yielded indications on 212 growth disturbances related to past flash flood impact. In combination with local archives, meteorological data, annual forest management records and highly-resolved terrestrial data (i.e., LiDAR data and aerial imagery), the dendrogeomorphic time series allowed dating 25 flash floods over the last three centuries, with a major event leaving an intense geomorphic footprint throughout the catchment in 1936. The analysis of meteorological records suggests that the rainfall thresholds of flash floods vary with the seasonality of events. Dated flash floods in the 20th century were primarily related with synoptic troughs owing to the arrival of air masses from north and west on the Iberian Peninsula during negative indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The results of this study contribute considerably to a better understanding of hazards related with hydrogeomorphic processes in central Spain in general and in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park in particular.

  7. Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, A; Peraza-Herrera, G; Moo-Llanes, D A; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Berzunza-Cruz, M; Becker-Fauser, I; Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2016-09-01

    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed. PMID:27040367

  8. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24431579

  9. [Study on the nutritional risk of autonomous non-institutionalized adult elder people].

    PubMed

    Montejano Lozoya, Raimunda; Ferrer Diego, Rosa Ma; Clemente Marín, Gonzalo; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Valorar el estado nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados, en centros sociales, mediante la escala MNA y analizar su distribución según las variables sociodemográficas: sexo, edad, estado civil, convivencia, estudios y ámbito rural o urbano. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 660 adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados en centros sociales de la provincia de Valencia. Los sujetos fueron evaluados en 12 centros sociales seleccionados mediante un muestreo estratificado por bloques. Los criterios de inclusión en el estudio fueron: tener 65 años o más, vivir en el domicilio, tener autonomía funcional, residir más de un año en la provincia de Valencia, acudir periódicamente a centros sociales y querer colaborar. Se usó el MNA para la valoración nutricional. Resultados: De los 660 sujetos incluidos en el estudio, el 48,33% son hombres y el 51,6% mujeres, la edad media es de 74,3 ± 6,57 años. El 23,3% de los encuestados presenta riesgo de malnutrición. El odds de prevalencia del riesgo de malnutrición es mayor en: mujeres respecto a hombres (OR = 1,43), personas ≥?85 años respecto al grupo de 65-69 años (OR = 2,27), personas viudas respecto a casadas o con pareja estable (OR = 1,82) y en personas sin estudios respecto a las que disponen de algún nivel de estudios (OR = 1,73). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de riesgo nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados en centros sociales de la provincia de Valencia alcanza a una de cada cuatro personas, siendo más elevada en personas viudas (en su mayor parte mujeres mayores, que viven solas) y en personas sin estudios.

  10. Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

    2013-05-01

    The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

  11. Critical Dynamics in Quenched 2D Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, F.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium dynamics across phase transitions is a subject of intense investigations in diverse physical systems. One of the key issues concerns the validity of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scaling law for spontaneous defect creation. The KZ mechanism has been recently studied in cold atoms experiments. Interesting open questions arise in the case of 2D systems, due to the distinct nature of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. Our studies rely on the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We perform systematic numerical simulations of the spontaneous emergence and subsequent dynamics of vortices in a uniform 2D Bose gas, which is quenched across the BKT phase transition in a controlled manner, focusing on dynamical scaling and KZ-type effects. By varying the transverse confinement, we also look at the extent to which such features can be seen in current experiments. Financial support from EPSRC and Provincia Autonoma di Trento.

  12. The Italian registry of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Clemente, C; Orazi, A; Rilke, F

    1988-01-01

    After a review of the incidence data on malignant soft-tissue tumors in Italy (Registro dei Tumori della Regione Lombardia, provincia di Varese), Europe (nine European Cancer Registries considered representative of various geographical areas) and extra-European countries (data of ten World Cancer Registries), the aim and the organization of the Italian Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry are described. The collection system is based on dedicated forms prepared for the computerization of all data. From 1.1.1985 to 31.3.1987, 207 cases of malignant and potentially malignant soft-tissue tumors entered the Registry, with exclusion of those sarcomas arising in viscera. The distribution, categorized by histologic type, sex and site, and the preliminary results on relapses and metastases are reported.

  13. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889).

  14. Redescription of Gyropus parvus (Ewing, 1924) (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) from tucos-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys ) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C

    2010-02-01

    A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described.

  15. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889). PMID:21516641

  16. The Observatory-Camping: a place of posible apprenticeship to the education and popularization of the Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, H. D.; Gastaud, C.; Pattini, N.; Aquilano, R.

    The development of Astronomy in the Educations area presents limitations as: poor equipment, trouble in managing space and time, difficulty to make experiences. The sky contaminations in the city, because of the luminosity, make the astronomical observation just impossible. But, the formal education has a wonderful media for the Astronomy: camping; this activity is very close to physical education. The proposal is the transformation of camping in "observatory-camping", to introduce astronomical concepts by the exploration of the sky. The methodology for this job is the observation of the sky by the eyes, first, and then making use of binoculars and a telescope, far from urban centres. Finally, this experience has place in the Planta de Campamentos N° 7502 (Máximo Paz, Santa Fe), which belongs to Ministerio de Educación de la Provincia de Santa Fe. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. State of malnutrition in cuban hospitals; a needed update.

    PubMed

    Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Justificación: El Estudio Cubano de Desnutricion Hospitalaria, conducido en el bienio 1999 – 2001 con 1,905 pacientes atendidos en 12 hospitales de 6 provincias del pais, revelo una tasa de desnutricion hospitalaria del 41.2%. Transcurrida una decada de aquella indagacion, se impone la actualizacion de este estimado. Objetivo: Actualizar el estado de la desnutricion hospitalaria en Cuba. Material y método: La presencia de desnutricion en 1,664 pacientes ingresados en 12 hospitales de 8 provincias del pais entre Marzo del 2012 y Marzo del 2014 se documento mediante la Encuesta Subjetiva Global (ESG). El estado de los procesos hospitalarios de cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales se evaluo con la Encuesta de Nutricion Hospitalaria (ENH). Resultados: La tasa corriente de desnutricion hospitalaria fue del 36.9% (Δ = +4.3%; p < 0.05). Las tasas de completamiento de los ejercicios hospitalarios de evaluacion nutricional y de uso de terapias de replecion nutricional fueron superiores. Conclusiones: Transcurridos 10 anos de la primera edicion del Estudio ELAN CUBA, se aprecian modestos avances en la identificacion y el tratamiento de la desnutricion en los hospitales en Cuba. Se percibe que la formacion e insercion de nutricionistas verticalizados en la actuacion hospitalaria haya contribuido al cambio observado. Asimismo, la actividad de la Sociedad Cubana de Nutricion Clinica y Metabolismo en el avance de las disciplinas de la terapia nutricional, la nutricion artificial y el metabolismo puede haber servido para un mejor reconocimiento del problema de salud representado por la desnutricion hospitalaria.

  18. [PREVALENCE OF THINNESS, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG 4-TO-6-YEAR-OLD SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN IN 2013; SITUATION IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT].

    PubMed

    González García, Alberto; Álvarez Bueno, Celia; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Sánchez López, Mairena; Solera Martínez, Montserrat; Díez Fernández, Ana; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    Introducción y objetivos: tanto el exceso de peso como la delgadez se relacionan con diversos problemas de salud que pueden continuar hasta la edad adulta. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron estimar la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 4-6 años de las provincias de Cuenca y Ciudad Real (España), mediante criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y comparar estas cifras con otros estudios europeos. Métodos: estudio observacional-transversal que incluyó a 1.585 escolares realizado en septiembre de 2013. Las mediciones de peso y talla fueron realizadas por enfermeras entrenadas y mediante procedimientos estandarizados. El estatus ponderal se definió según los criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad y la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: según criterios del Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Obesidad, la prevalencia de delgadez, sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 20,51%, 11,84% y 8,58%, respectivamente; y del 3,97%, 13,92% y 10,79% cuando se utilizaron los criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo ni provincia para ninguna categoría de estatus ponderal. Para ambos criterios, la prevalencia de delgadez fue menor a medida que aumentaba la edad, mientras que la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue mayor. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de exceso de peso podría haber tocado techo en España, aunque continúa siendo un importante problema de salud pública. El aumento de la prevalencia de bajo peso debería ocupar un lugar relevante en las intervenciones de salud pública.

  19. ORIBATID MITE INFESTATION IN THE STORED CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Li, Chaopin

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: investigar el estado reproductivo de los ácaros oribátidos y sus rasgos biológicos en el almacenamiento de medicinas a base de hierbas chinas tradicionales. Métodos: sesenta y tres tipos de medicinas a base de hierbas chinas tradicionales extraídas de raíces y tallos almacenadas fueron recopilados en Huainan City, en la provincia de Anhui. Los ácaros fueron aislados por Shakesieve y Tullgren, y su identificación y recuento se realizó mediante microscopio de luz. Resultados: trece de cada 63 muestras estaban infestadas por los ácaros oribátidos, lo que supone un 21,67% (13/60). Un total de 11 especies de ácaros oribátidos, pertenecientes a 6 familias, fueron encontrados en las 13 muestras, y las especies más abundantes fueron: Scheloribates laevigatus (36,19%), Scheloribates latipes (28,35%) y Trhypochthpnius japonicus (19,72%). El promedio de densidad reproductiva de los ácaros oribátidos fue de alrededor de 4,51 individuos/g; el índice de riqueza de especies, el índice de diversidad y la uniformidad del índice de especies fue 1,14, 1,581 y 0,212, respectivamente. Conclusión: se detectó la presencia de ácaros oribátidos en las hierbas medicinales chinas almacenadas de Huainan City, en la provincia de Anhui, China, lo que sugiere que la técnica convencional de almacenamiento y procesamiento debe mejorarse a fin de garantizar la calidad y la seguridad de los medicamentos a base de hierbas.

  20. [Fingolimod: effectiveness and safety in routine clinical practice. An observational, retrospective, multi-centre study in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Mallada, J; Perez-Carmona, N; Berenguer-Ruiz, L; Sanchez-Perez, R; Martin-Gonzalez, R; Sola-Martinez, D; Mola, S; Lopez-Arlandis, J M; Vela-Yebra, R; Gabaldon-Torres, L; Freire-Alvarez, E; Garcia-Escriva, A; Sempere, A P

    2016-09-01

    Introduccion. Los estudios postautorizacion son importantes para confirmar si los resultados de los ensayos clinicos se reproducen en la practica clinica habitual. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del fingolimod en la practica clinica en la provincia de Alicante. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio multicentrico retrospectivo de pacientes con esclerosis multiple remitente tratados con fingolimod. Se recogen las caracteristicas demograficas, clinicas y farmacologicas. Se describe la efectividad del farmaco –tasa anualizada de brotes (TAB) y porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes– al año y a los dos años de tratamiento en relacion con el año previo y datos de efectos secundarios. Resultados. Se incluyo a 89 pacientes. El tratamiento previo fue inmunomodulador (interferon beta o acetato de glatiramero) en 54 pacientes y natalizumab en 32. Cincuenta pacientes cambiaron por fracaso con el inmunomodulador y 31 por serologia positiva del virus JC (VJC+). La TAB global disminuyo el 67,3% el primer año (p < 0,0001) y el 84,1% el segundo (p = 0,0078). Disminuyo en los pacientes con fracaso del inmunomodulador (el 85,6% el primer año, p < 0,0001; el 88,9% el segundo año, p = 0,0039) y aumento de forma no significativa en los pacientes VJC+ en el primer año. El porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes en la poblacion global aumento del 32,6 al 68,1% en el primer año (p < 0,0019) y al 82,6% en el segundo (p = 0,0215). Este aumento no se observo en los pacientes VJC+. Trece pacientes tuvieron efectos secundarios, que obligaron a la retirada del farmaco en dos de ellos. Conclusion. En la practica clinica de la provincia de Alicante, el fingolimod mostro una efectividad y una seguridad ligeramente superiores a las de los ensayos clinicos.

  1. Elemental Analysis and Comparison of Bulk Soil Using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almirall, J.

    2012-04-01

    . Results for both LA-ICP-MS and µXRF were generally consistent for most elements, resulting in good intra-laboratory precision (< 8 % RSD for LA-ICP-MS; < 20 % RSD for µXRF) and low bias (< 10% for LA-ICP-MS; < 35 % for µXRF), which are important characteristics for forensic comparison of soils. Linear calibration curves were also obtained for both µXRF and LIBS. Results for LIBS showed good precision (< 15 %) and bias (< 15 %) for most elements. Limits of detection for trace and minor elements were in the 0.01 - 1 ppm range for LA-ICP-MS and 1 to 200 ppm for LIBS. Finally, the results of a study comparing the bulk elemental composition from soil collected in different locations in Florida and in Canada for the purposes of providing forensic information as part of a broader forensic examination of soil samples are also reported. 1. L Arroyo, T Trejos, P.R. Gardinali, and J.R. Almirall, Optimization and Validation of a LA-ICP-MS Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Soils and Sediments, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 2009, 64(1), 14-25. 2. L Arroyo, T Trejos, T Hosick, S Machemer, JR. Almirall, and PR Gardinali, Analysis of Soils and Sediments by Laser Ablation ICP-MS: An Innovative Tool for Environmental Forensics, J. of Environmental Forensics, 2010, 11(4), 315-327. 3. SC Jantzi and JR. Almirall, Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Analytical and Bioanalyt. Chem, 2011, 400(10) 3341-3351.

  2. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Rio Grande and its U.S. tributaries: spatial and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Dethloff, Gail M; Bartish, Timothy M; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2005-11-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites on rivers of the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998 to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Rio Grande and on the Arroyo Colorado and Pecos River in Texas (TX), New Mexico (NM), and Colorado. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were the targeted species. Fish were examined in the field for internal and external visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Whole fish from each station were composited by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods, and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from lower RGB stations contained greater concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by a general gradient of residue concentrations and biomarker responses. A minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted in fish from the upper RGB. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 microg/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from the Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM, a condition documented in previous studies. Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations were greatest in fish from sites in the central RGB; Se concentrations in fish from the Pecos River at Red Bluff Lake, TX and from the Rio Grande at Langtry, TX and Amistad International Reservoir, TX exceeded

  3. Effects of Varying Shrub Density on Erosion and Deposition During a Large Flood, Rio Puerco, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Vincent, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    A large flood in August 2006 following saltcedar control efforts along a 12-km segment of the Rio Puerco provided an opportunity to measure the effects of varying shrub density on down-valley flood flow and sediment transport. Post-flood field observations in two 3-km long arroyo segments, one in the sprayed reach and one downstream from the sprayed reach, indicate the density and distribution of woody vegetation had a substantial effect on locations and magnitudes of sediment erosion and deposition. In the reach sprayed with herbicide three years before the flood, in which dense woody stems covered only about 30% of the pre-flood (2005) floodplain, average channel width increased by 63% during the flood. Downstream from the sprayed reach, where both pre-and post-flood shrubs covered 50% of the floodplain, erosion was limited to sites where flood flow through sharp bends undercut the arroyo wall. Flow and suspended sediment transport were computed for two 500-m-long floodplain segments, one in the sprayed reach and one downstream from the sprayed reach. Large volumes of fine-grain sediment (fine to very fine sand and silt) were available for transport during the flood in both reaches. In the reach sprayed with herbicide, dense canopy (dominantly saltcedar; Tamarix spp.) remained only within 10-m-wide linear bands oriented along the present or former channel and in isolated, small shrubs scattered about the floodplain. Downstream from the sprayed reach, adjacent shrub bands were closely spaced, with canopies touching in many areas. Mature saltcedar along the Rio Puerco have rigid, dense stems more than 2 m high, whereas floodplain flow depths during the August 2006 event were on the order of 1 m. Drag on the stems was computed using the average stem density (average stem diameter divided by average stem spacing squared) determined from a large number of measurements along the Rio Puerco, 0.35 m-1 (Friedman and others, unpublished data, 2004). Computations of flow

  4. Urban development under extreme hydrologic and weather conditions for El Paso-Juarez: Recommendations resulting from hydrologic modeling, GIS, and remote sensing analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    During the 2006 El Paso-Juarez flood there were many concerns regarding the capability of the existing stormwater system to handle 50- and 100-year flood events in El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico area. Moreover in 2008, a considerable wet year from the normal 223 mm of annual precipitation for El Paso demonstrated that the area could very well received large amounts of precipitation at localized areas in short periods of time, representing a great flood threat to residents living in areas prone to flood. Some climate change projections for the area are exactly what had occurred over the last two decades; an increased number of torrential rainstorms over smaller concentrated pieces of land separated by longer years of drought between rainstorms. This study consisted in three projects focused on three critical regions within the El Paso-Juarez area that were greatly affected by the 2006 Flood. The goal was to identify if natural arroyos or the existent built stormwater system, could properly managed the projected precipitation patterns. The three projects described in this dissertation touch on the following points: (a) the importance of a reliable precipitation model that could accurately describes precipitation patterns in the region under extreme drought and wet climates conditions; (b) differences in land use/land cover characteristics as factors promoting or disrupting the possibility for flooding, and (c) limitations and capabilities of existent stormwater systems and natural arroyos as means to control flooding. Conclusions and recommendations are shown below, which apply not only to each particular project, but also to all study areas and similar areas in the El Paso-Juarez region. Urbanization can improve or worsen a pre-existing natural stormwater system if built under its required capacity. Such capacity should be calculated considering extreme weather conditions, based on a denser network of precipitation stations to capture the various microclimates

  5. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading from Surface Water and Groundwater to Sweitzer Lake, Colorado, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. Sweitzer Lake was placed on the State 303(d) list as impaired with respect to dissolved selenium. In Colorado, the Water Quality Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is required to develop total maximum daily loads of selenium for the 303(d) list segments. The U.S. Geological survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading from surface water and ground water to Sweitzer Lake to support the total maximum daily loads development process. Surface-water and groundwater data were collected to quantify selenium concentrations and loads to Sweitzer Lake from October 2006 to October 2007. These data were used to determine the amount of selenium load (pounds annually) that would need to be reduced for the contributing sources (surface water and groundwater) to meet the State chronic aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium, herein referred to as 'a load reduction.' Selenium concentration data were also compared to the State acute aquatic-life standard of 18.4 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium. Both surface-water and groundwater-quality samples collected during this study were found to exceed the chronic standard. Surface-water quantity and quality data were collected at Garnet Canal Diversion and Diversion Drain. Groundwater flux data were collected at 10 seepage-meter sires in Sweitzer Lake, and groundwater-quality data were collected at a groundwater seep and inferred from a January 2007 sample collected at Garnet Canal Diversion. Selenium concentrations and loads were greater at Garnet Canal Diversion than those observed at Diversion Drain. Approximately one-third of Garnet Canal Diversion-s Streamflow originates from Loutzenhizer Arroyo. Selenium concentrations observed during previous studies at Loutzenhizer Arroyo indicate high

  6. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Thousand Oaks 7.5' Quadrangle, Southern California: A Digital Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Campbell, Russell H.

    1995-01-01

    Thousand Oaks is located in Arroyo Conejo, a region spanning both southeastern Ventura County and extreme northwest Los Angeles County in southern California. It was discovered in 1542 by Spanish explorer Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo and eventually became part of the Spanish Rancho El Conejo land grant (conejo means 'rabbit' in Spanish, of which there are many in the area). It is located in the Santa Monica Mountains in the northwestern part of the greater Los Angeles area. The area is bordered by the San Fernando Valley and the city of Los Angeles to the east, Simi Hills to the north, Las Posas Hills and the Santa Rosa Valley to the northwest, Conejo Mountain (also known as Conejo Hills) and Oxnard Plain to the west, and the Santa Monica Mountains and Malibu to the southwest. The geology of the surrounding Santa Monica Mountains is dominated by a sequence of Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These include the Tertiary Modelo Formation and the upper part of the Topanga Formation, other minor Tertiary rocks, and Miocene volcanic and intrusive rocks of the Conejo Formation. The basement units within the Santa Monica Mountains are a series of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Conejo Formation underlies much of the surrounding watersheds. The younger Tertiary sedimentary Modelo and Upper Topanga Formations flank the Conejo to the north and south. On the north slope of the Santa Monica Mountains where the Arroyo Conejo and Thousand Oaks are located, the Tertiary formations are gently folded. The south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains is structurally dominated by the Malibu Coast Fault that runs along the foot of the mountains. This fault, and associated structures, creates a complex geologic setting on the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains. The active nature of the Malibu Coast fault and associated structures accounts for the steep and rugged coastal topography. The most widely exposed rock units in the area are the Plio

  7. The role of fluvial geomorphic analysis and historical ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of historical ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of historical watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between historical ecology and modern geomorphic analysis as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider

  8. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Rio Grande and its U.S. tributaries: Spatial and temporal trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Dethloff, G.M.; Bartish, T.M.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites on rivers of the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998 to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Rio Grande and on the Arroyo Colorado and Pecos River in Texas (TX), New Mexico (NM), and Colorado. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were the targeted species. Fish were examined in the field for internal and external visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Whole fish from each station were composited by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods, and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from lower RGB stations contained greater concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by a general gradient of residue concentrations and biomarker responses. A minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted in fish from the upper RGB. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 ??g/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from the Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM, a condition documented in previous studies. Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations were greatest in fish from sites in the central RGB; Se concentrations in fish from the Pecos River at Red Bluff Lake, TX and from the Rio Grande at Langtry, TX and Amistad International Reservoir, TX exceeded published

  9. Rock magnetic characteristics of faulted sediments with magnetic anomalies: A case study from the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. R.; Grauch, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution airborne surveys in the Rio Grande rift have documented abundant short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies generated at faults within basin sediments. We present a rock magnetic study bearing on the source of a10-20-nT linear anomaly over the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in outcrop in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) values (SI vol) from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of Santa Fe Group and pre-rift sedimentary rocks juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault have lognormal distributions with well-defined means. These averages generally increase up section through eight map units: from 1.7E-4 to 2.2E-4 in the pre-rift Cretaceous and Eocene rocks, from 9.9E-4 to 1.2E-3 in three units of the Miocene Zia and Cerro Conejo Formations of the Santa Fe Group, and from 1.5E-3 to 3.5E-3 in three units of the Miocene-Pliocene Arroyo Ojito and Ceja Formations of the Santa Fe Group. Remanent magnetization is not important; Koenigsberger ratios are less than 0.3 for Santa Fe Group samples. Rock magnetic parameters (e.g., ARM/MS and S ratios) and petrography indicate that detrital magnetite content and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite are the predominant controls of magnetic property variations within the Santa Fe Group sediments. Magnetite is present in rounded detrital grains (including both homogeneous and subdivided types) and as fine inclusions in volcanic rock fragments. Santa Fe Group sediments with highest magnetic susceptibility have greatest magnetic-grain size as indicated by lowest ARM/MS ratios. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size to pebbly sand within the fluvial Arroyo Ojito Formation. In contrast, MS reaches highest values in fine to medium sands in eolian Zia Formation. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite and resultant lower MS is spatially associated with calcite cementation

  10. Marked spatial gradient in the topographic evolution of the Andes spanning the Chilean flat-slab transition: evidence from stable isotope paleoaltimetry and zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, G. D.; McPhillips, D. F.; Giambiagi, L.; Garzione, C. N.; Mahoney, J. B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The major changes in the subduction angle of the Nazca plate are often hypothesized to have important consequences for the tectonic evolution of the Andes. Temporal and spatial patterns of topographic growth and exhumation are indicators that should help elucidate any linkages to subduction angle. Here, we combine observations from stable isotope paleoaltimetry with detrital zircon double dating between 30 and 35°S to demonstrate a consistent increase in surface and rock uplift in the Andes south of 32°S. The stable isotope data are from Miocene pedogenic carbonates collected from seven different basin sequences spanning different tectonic and topographic positions in the range. Paleoelevations between 1 km and 1.9 km are calculated using modern local isotope-elevation gradients along with carbonate-formation temperatures determined from clumped isotope studies in modern soils. Present day, low elevation foreland localities were at their present elevations during the Miocene, while three of the intermontane basins experienced up to 2 km of surface uplift between the end of deposition during the late Miocene and present. Detrital zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and U-Pb double dating in three modern drainage basins (Tunuyán, Arroyo Grande and Río de los Patos) reveals clear Miocene exhumation signals south of the flat slab with no recent exhumation apparent at 32°S. The exhumation pattern is consistent with paleoaltimetry results. Interestingly, the maximum inferred surface uplift is greatest where the crust is thinnest, and the timing of the observed changes in elevation and exhumation has not been linked to any documented episodes of large-magnitude crustal shortening in the eastern half of the range. The spatial pattern of surface uplift and exhumation seems to mimic the Pampean flat slab's geometry, however, it could be equally well explained by eastward migration of a crustal root via ductile deformation in the lower crust and is not related to flat-slab subduction.

  11. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California

    PubMed Central

    Holston, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  12. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán.

  13. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, J. ); Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N.H.M.; Alvarez, W. ); Hildebrand, A.R. ); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. ); Lowrie, W. ); Asaro, F. )

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. The authors interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal 'spherule bed' contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded 'laminated beds' contains intraclasts can abundant plant debris, and may the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin 'ripple beds' composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 {plus minus} 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Their observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  14. Erosion assessment at the Petroglyph National Monument area, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    Areas of the Petroglyph National Monument, specifically those located along the West Mesa escarpment, are being affected by erosion and gullying. A reconnaissance along the 17-mile-long escarpment identified 50 gullies. The gullies were given a qualitative ranking of Class I, least erosion, to Class IV, highest erosion. Of the 50 gullies identified, 21 were assigned Class I, 22 to Class II, 6 to Class III, and 1 to Class IV. Although the gullies may not be a direct threat to petroglyphs, the effects of gullying may have a greater effect on the aesthetics of the monument and the residences located downgradient from a gully. Most of the gullies were found along the northern part of the escarpment. This area, which is more developed than the southern areas of the escarpment, contains many dirt roads and nonpaved foot and bicycle paths. These features channel surface runoff and increase erosion. Thirty of the 50 gullies were noted as being connected to the runoff from dirt roads. High-intensity storms during the summer of 1991 may have caused or increased gullying. Analyses of these storms indicate recurrence intervals of rainfall of no more than 2 years. Indirect measurements of peak discharge in La Boca Negra Arroyo after the August 22, 1991, storm indicate that this runoff event may have a frequency of no more than 10 years. Regional frequency reports on rainfall and data collected at the rain gages indicate that gullying and erosion that occurred during the summer of 1991 were not a result of infrequent rainfall or runoff events.

  15. Mobilization of selenium from the Mancos Shale and associated soils in the lower Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Mills, Taylor J.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Keith, Gabrielle; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates processes controlling mobilization of selenium in the lower part of the Uncompahgre River Basin in western Colorado. Selenium occurs naturally in the underlying Mancos Shale and is leached to groundwater and surface water by limited natural runoff, agricultural and domestic irrigation, and leakage from irrigation canals. Soil and sediment samples from the study area were tested using sequential extractions to identify the forms of selenium present in solid phases. Selenium speciation was characterized for nonirrigated and irrigated soils from an agricultural site and sediments from a wetland formed by a leaking canal. In nonirrigated areas, selenium was present in highly soluble sodium salts and gypsum. In irrigated soils, soluble forms of selenium were depleted and most selenium was associated with organic matter that was stable under near-surface weathering conditions. Laboratory leaching experiments and geochemical modeling confirm that selenium primarily is released to groundwater and surface water by dissolution of highly soluble selenium-bearing salts and gypsum present in soils and bedrock. Rates of selenium dissolution determined from column leachate experiments indicate that selenium is released most rapidly when water is applied to previously nonirrigated soils and sediment. High concentrations of extractable nitrate also were found in nonirrigated soils and bedrock that appear to be partially derived from weathered organic matter from the shale rather than from agricultural sources. Once selenium is mobilized, dissolved nitrate derived from natural sources appears to inhibit the reduction of dissolved selenium leading to elevated concentrations of selenium in groundwater. A conceptual model of selenium weathering is presented and used to explain seasonal variations in the surface-water chemistry of Loutzenhizer Arroyo, a major tributary contributor of selenium to the lower Uncompahgre River.

  16. Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Stream Chemistry in an Urban Fringe Watershed in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.; Barco, J.; Rademacher, L.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological, geochemical and biological watershed processes involved in ecosystem evolution involves numerous scientific challenges. The transition from undisturbed to urbanized landscapes has impacted ecosystems worldwide. Of critical concern is ecosystem degradation in undisturbed watersheds due to regional atmospheric deposition. This study focuses on the undeveloped, upper reaches of the Arroyo Seco watershed, located on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles basin, where estimates of dry deposition are considered some of the highest in North America. Weekly water quality grab samples were collected from April 2004 to December 2006 and analyzed for standard geochemical constituents. Atmospheric wet deposition for different constituents was obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) site located in eastern Los Angeles County. Hydrologic, geochemical and atmospheric data were assessed at various time scales to evaluate current hydro-geochemical dynamics and ecosystem response to the impacts of large-scale regional urbanization. For almost all the constituents, streamwater concentrations are higher in the fall and lower in the spring, while atmospheric wet deposition values are higher in the summer and lower in the winter. The streamwater chemistry also exhibits interannual variation which can be primarily explained by the interactions of the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. Seasonal stream concentration-discharge relationships were developed using a hyperbolic dilution model. In general, the developed model results in a better fit for the cations rather than anions. Model results were used to predict seasonal and annual mass loadings to downstream urban streams. Both observations and model predictions indicate the watershed is a sink for atmospheric nitrate and a source for various cations.

  17. Pleistocene and holocene beaches and estuaries along the Southern Barrier of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico I.; Cortizo, Luis C.; Schnack, Enrique J.

    The Buenos Aires aggradation plain has a good record of Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. To the east of the Tandilia Range, the elevations of the Pleistocene beaches respond to the tectonic behaviour of the Salado Basin. Holocene beaches indicate a maximum transgression higher than 2 m. The low relief permitted an extended horizontal record of beach/chenier plains interfingered with estuarine environments (coastal lagoons, marshes) covered by a sandy (Eastern) barrier. Between the Tandilia and Ventania ranges, the location of Pleistocene and Holocene beaches are related to a former higher relief; i.e. they are attached to low-altitude cliffs and underneath cliff-top dunes composing the Southern Barrier. At Claromecó, Pleistocene gravel beaches, mostly composed of caliche pebbles, occur at heights between 4 and 7 m, and are overlying estuarine Pleistocene environments. Beaches of the same age are at a level of 10 m at Mar del Plata Harbour and Arroyo Sotelo (west of Mar Chiquita Lagoon). Holocene beaches found at Punta Mogotes and Costa Bonita are at higher altitudes than on the Eastern Barrier (ca. 2-4 m). The Holocene estuarine sequences are related laterally to present operating inlets (Las Brusquitas, La Ballenera, Quequén Grande, Claromecó, Quequén Salado). They are seldon thicker than 2.4 m, and comprise basal layers of black muds; towards the top, the layers are thinner, of coarser grain size and white colours. Grain-size analyses were performed comparatively on Pleistocene, mid-Holocene and present beaches. Sangamonian beaches aregravelly or coarser than medium sand (mean). Holocene beaches are usually coarser than medium sand, but dominantly shelly to the north of Mar del Plata, and composed of volcanic clasts to the south of this city. Modern beaches are dominated by fine sand, except at some erosive beaches between the Mar del Plata capes. They have a lesser content of shells than those of mid-Holocene.

  18. Constraining Glacial Runoff Contributions to Water Resources in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia using Environmental Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Z.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Warming temperatures in recent decades have contributed to substantial reductions in glaciers in many mountain regions around the globe, including the South American Andes. Melting of these glaciers taps water resources accumulated in past climates, and the diminishing ice marks a decrease in a nonrenewable water source that begs the question: how will future water supplies be impacted by climate change. Water resource management and climate adaptation efforts can be informed by knowledge of the extent to which glaciers contribute to seasonal streamflows, but remote locations and scant monitoring often limit this quantification. In Bolivia, more than two million people draw water from watersheds fed, in part, by glaciers. The amount to which these glaciers contribute to the water supply, however, is not well constrained. We apply elemental and isotopic tracers in an end-member mixing model to quantify glacial runoff contributions to local water supplies. We present oxygen and deuterium isotopes and major anion concentrations (sulfate and chloride) of shallow groundwater, streams, reservoirs, small arroyos, and glacial runoff. Isotopic and anion mixing models suggest between 45-67% of the water measured in high altitude streams originated from within the glacial footprint during the 2011 wet season, while glacial runoff contributed about 42-53% of the water in reservoirs in the 2012 dry season. Data also show that shallow groundwater is connected to glacial-fed streams. Any future decrease in glacial runoff may contribute to a reduction in surface water supplies and lower groundwater levels downstream, perhaps below the depth of hand-dug wells common in rural communities.

  19. Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

    2013-12-01

    Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire.

  20. Climate scenarios for the American Southwest in the next century

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    The climate of the Southwest US is governed by two separate large-scale regimes during the course of the year. In the winter half-year, disturbances in the westerlies supply 40--80% of the annual total precipitation in the region. The precipitation is associated with frontal systems sweeping from the west and north through the area, and with the development of upper level troughs and occasional cutoff lows in the upper atmosphere. During the summer half-year, and particularly during the months of July--September, a monsoonal-type circulation system develops along western Mexico and extends into the desert areas of the US Southwest producing locally heavy thunderstorms and floods. In early fall, eastern Pacific hurricanes, occasionally recurving to the north and east across northwestern Mexico, can also produce widespread rains and locally severe flooding in the region. With regards to future changes in climate forced by increasing atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations, the question arises, as to whether the annual precipitation in the region will be more affected by changes in the winter-time regime, that is, through a modification of the polar jet stream and associated extratropical cyclone tracks, or whether an increase in the summer monsoon system will, at least in part, make up for a potential winter decline in precipitation. An increase in convective summer-season rainfall will also be accompanied by enhanced soil erosion, arroyo cutting, greater sediment loads in the region`s streams, and other problems. Climatic changes resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect will be superimposed on a rich spectrum of naturally occurring climatic variability at the relevant time scales that are of interest here, namely, decadal to century fluctuations.

  1. Adaptation of microalgae to a gradient of continuous petroleum contamination.

    PubMed

    Carrera-Martinez, Daniel; Mateos-Sanz, Aranzazu; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2011-01-25

    In order to study adaptation of microalgae to petroleum contamination, we have examined an environmental stress gradient by crude oil contamination in the Arroyo Minero River (AMR), Argentina. Underground crude oil has constantly leaked out since 1915 as a consequence of test drilling for possible petroleum exploitation. Numerous microalgae species proliferated in AMR upstream of the crude oil spill. In contrast, only four microalgal species were detected in the crude oil spill area. Species richness increases again downstream. Microalgae biomass in the crude oil spill area is dominated by a mesophile species, Scenedesmus sp. Effects of oil samples from AMR spill on photosynthetic performance and growth were studied using laboratory cultures of two Scenedesmus sp. strains. One strain (Se-co) was isolated from the crude oil spill area. The other strain (Se-pr) was isolated from a pristine area without petroleum contamination. Crude oil has undetectable effects on Se-co strain. In contrast crude oil rapidly destroys Se-pr strain. However, Se-pr strain can adapt to low doses of petroleum (≤ 3% v/v total hydrocarbons/water) by means of physiological acclimatization. In contrast, only rare crude oil-resistant mutants are able to grow under high levels of crude oil (≥ 10% v/v total hydrocarbons/water). These crude oil-resistant mutants have arisen through rare spontaneous mutations that occur prior to crude oil exposure. Species richness in different areas of AMR is closely connected to the kind of mechanism (genetic adaptation vs. physiological acclimatization) that allows adaptation. Resistant-mutants are enough to assure the survival of microalgal species under catastrophic crude oil spill.

  2. The restructuring of the Environmental Restoration Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.

    1995-09-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) has supported this country through 50 years of research and development primarily in the area of nuclear weapons and energy. As a result of the Laboratory`s activities, contamination of the environment occurred. The cleanup of contaminated areas and the prevention of further contamination has become an important part of the Laboratory`s new mission: the reduction of the nuclear danger. The cleanup of the Laboratory is somewhat unique. It is a very large site. It includes 43 square miles of Laboratory land that will continue to be in industrial use or under institutional control for decades or centuries to come. It also includes about 25 square miles of former Laboratory land that has been converted to residential use, the Los Alamos townsite. The unusual topography and hydrogeology of the site was shaped during the last million years through the eruption of a huge volcano and the ensuing erosion of the tuff-basalt plateau into 19 canyons and associated finger-like mesas. During the early phase of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, 2,100 sites were identified as potential release sites. Sites range from a few hundred square feet to a few acres in area. Contamination depths range from a few to 100 feet. Typical contaminants are chemicals, heavy metals, radioactive constituents, and high explosives. Of greatest concern are surface contamination, migration of the contaminants along the surface into creeks and arroyos of the canyons and ultimately into the Rio Grande, and migration through the earth into the drinking water aquifers.

  3. Field guide to Cretaceous-tertiary boundary sections in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Gerta; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Adatte, Thierry; Macleod, Norman; Lowe, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This guide was prepared for the field trip to the KT elastic sequence of northeastern Mexico, 5-8 February 1994, in conjunction with the Conference on New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, held in Houston, Texas. The four-day excursion offers an invaluable opportunity to visit three key outcrops: Arroyo El Mimbral, La Lajilla, and El Pinon. These and other outcrops of this sequence have recently been interpreted as tsunami deposits produced by the meteorite impact event that produced the 200 to 300-km Chicxulub basin in Yucatan, and distributed ejecta around the world approximately 65 m.y. ago that today is recorded as a thin clay layer found at the K/T boundary. The impact tsunami interpretation for these rocks has not gone unchallenged, and others examining the outcrops arrive at quite different conclusions: not tsunami deposits but turbidites; not KT at all but 'upper Cretaceous.' Indeed, it is in hopes of resolving this debate through field discussion, outcrop evaluation, and sampling that led the organizers of the conference to sanction this field trip. This field guide provides participants with background information on the KT clastic sequence outcrops and is divided into two sections. The first section provides regional and logistical context for the outcrops and a description of the clastic sequence. The second section presents three representative interpretations of the outcrops by their advocates. There is clearly no way that these models can be reconciled and so two, if not all three, must be fundamentally wrong. Readers of this guide should keep in mind that many basic outcrop observations that these models are based upon remain unresolved. While great measures were taken to ensure that the information in the description section was as objective as possible, many observations are rooted in interpretations and the emphasis placed on certain observations depends to some degree upon the perspective of the author.

  4. Geoarchaeological investigations at the Winger site: A Late Paleoindian bison bonebed in Southwestern Kansas, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandel, R.D.; Hofman, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Winger site is a deeply buried Late Paleoindian bison bonebed in a playa basin on the High Plains of midcontinental North America. The site is one of few stratified, Late Paleoindian bison kills recorded in the region. The bonebed is exposed in the bank of an intermittent stream that cut into the edge of the playa basin. Avocational archaeologists excavated a small portion of the exposed bonebed in the early 1970s and reported flakes in association with the skeletal remains. Limited reinvestigations of the site were undertaken in 2001, and a monthlong excavation was conducted in 2002 to assess the stratigraphy, geochronology, and archaeology. The bonebed is 35 ni long in a buried soil developed in fine-grained basin fill overlain by early Holocene alluvium (arroyo fill). Recent alluvium overlies a soil developed in the early Holocene alluvium, and modern deposits of eolian sand 2 to to < 35 cm thick mantle the site area. Artifacts found at the site include two Allen points and a flake tool discovered in the bone bed, and a biface and Allen point fragment in disturbed bonebed deposits. Excavation of 9 m2 of the bone bed revealed some fully articulated skeletons, and taphonomic observations suggest some of the bison collapsed while standing in a playa or pond margin setting. The remains of at least six bison are represented in the excavated sample from 2002, but many more animals are represented in the bonebed. A 14C age of ca. 9000 yr B.P. was determined on collagen from bison rib fragments. This age is consistent with the diagnostic artifacts found at Winger. ?? 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.

    2004-12-01

    A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

  6. Eleventh workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Counsil, J.R.

    1986-01-23

    The Eleventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 21-23, 1986. The attendance was up compared to previous years, with 144 registered participants. Ten foreign countries were represented: Canada, England, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and Turkey. There were 38 technical presentations at the Workshop which are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Six technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published and one presentation is not published. In addition to these 45 technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by J. E. Mock from the Department of Energy. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Jim Combs of Geothermal Resources International, Inc. We thank him for his presentation on GEO geothermal developments at The Geysers. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the Workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, E. Iglesias, A. Moench, S. Prestwich, and K. Pruess. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank J.W. Cook, J.R. Hartford, M.C. King, A.E. Osugi, P. Pettit, J. Arroyo, J. Thorne, and T.A. Ramey for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Eleventh Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract DE-AS03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. January 1986 H.J. Ramey, Jr. P. Kruger R.N. Horne W.E. Brigham F.G. Miller J.R. Counsil

  7. 87Sr/86Sr sourcing of ponderosa pine used in Anasazi great house construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, A.C.; Betancourt, J.L.; Quade, Jay; Patchett, P.J.; Dean, J.S.; Stein, J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios shows that 10th through 12th century Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, and (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) beams from the crest of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south. Here, we extend 87Sr/86Sr analysis to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) prevalent in the architectural timber at three of the Chacoan great houses (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo). Like the architectural spruce and fir, much of the ponderosa matches the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of living trees in the Chuska Mountains. Many of the architectural ponderosa, however, have similar ratios to living trees in the La Plata and San Juan Mountains to the north and Lobo Mesa/Hosta Butte to the south. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house or time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources. The multiple and distant sources for food and timber, now based on hundreds of isotopic values from modern and archeological samples, confirm conventional wisdom about the geographic scope of the larger Chacoan system. The complexity of this procurement warns against simple generalizations based on just one species, a single class of botanical artifact, or a few isotopic values. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modern sedimentation patterns in Laguna de Medina, Southern Spain, derived from lake surface and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van ´t Hoff, Jasmijn; Schröder, Tabea; Reicherter, Klaus; Held, Peter; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014 and March 2015, a 25.66 m long sediment core (Co1313) was retrieved from the centre of Laguna de Medina, a small endorheic salt lake in Cádiz, SW Spain. This record covers the last 9.000 years, thus providing an unique archive for Holocene climatic and environmental changes with extraordinary high temporal resolution. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analysed on the sediment core, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and its catchment under known environmental conditions were investigated on a set of 46 lake sediment surface samples and 32 soil surface sediment samples from the lake and the close surroundings, respectively. These samples were analysed for bulk mineralogy (XRD), chemical composition (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (TS) contents (elemental analyser). Based on the mineralogical, geochemical and granulometrical data, the lake can be divided into four zones. The northern shore is characterized by particularly high quartz contents and coarse grain sizes. This reflects input from ancient terraces of the Guadalete River that are exposed in that area. The southern shore is characterised by high calcite contents due to sediment supply from the Cretaceous ´Capas rojaś, a series of Subbetic deep-water marl- and limestones. The southeastern and to a lesser extend the northwestern shores show particularly high dolomite contents, reflecting the Triassic dolomites outcroping in the southeastern catchment. The southeastern shore furthermore is also influenced by strong terrestrial input of the Triassic Keuper facies from the most important inlet, Arroyo Fuente Bermeja, as reflected by high contents of Ti, K, Al, Fe, Rb in the lake sediments. The last zone comprises only a small part of the western shore and is characterized by a relatively high gypsum amount. This does not reflect the geology in the catchment

  9. Composition and provenance of Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial sediments of the eastern Andean piedmont between 33 and 34° S (Mendoza Province, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, A.; Blasi, A.; Zárate, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Andean cordillera, and its piedmont in the central western Argentina, has been long considered as one of the main source areas of detritus for the Chaco-Pampean plain sand dune fields and loess/loess-like deposits of central Argentina. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the composition of the late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial deposits of the Andes cordillera piedmont, from 33° to 34° S. The results are interpreted in the context of the regional geology, tectonic setting of the study area and its implications in the continent-wide perspective of modern alluvial sands proposed by Potter (1994). Sampling was conducted at the alluvial stratigraphic sequences of four study sites along three Andean piedmont arroyos; modal mineralogy in the very fine sand fraction (3 phi to 4 phi) was determined using standard petrographic microscope methods. Q:F:LF average compositions indicate that the Late Pleistocene-Holocene very fine-grained alluvial sands of the Cordillera Frontal piedmont reflects the modern lithic arenites of the Argentine Association reported by Potter (1994). The results show two geologically distinct sources in the catchment areas, volcaniclastic and metamorphic rocks. High concentrations of mica and volcanic glass are likely related to particle morphologies and to the deposition sedimentary environment recorded in the alluvial sequences—floodplains. The overabundance of micas over the volcanic glass in the mid-late Holocene alluvial sequence indicates the drainage of a metamorphic area at the expense of other lithological sources. Source areas are located mainly in the Frontal cordillera, and to a lesser extent, in the piedmont Tertiary deposits, another likely source for the analyzed Quaternary alluvial sediments. The mineralogical signature of the late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial sequences is in agreement with the composition of the southern Pampean sand mantles, loess and loess-like deposits mainly formed by a volcanic mineral

  10. Supplement analysis for Greenville Gate access to Kirschbaum Field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program proposes to provide additional access to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area. This additional access would alleviate traffic congestion at the East Gate entrance to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from Greenville Road during periods of heavy construction for the NIF. The new access would be located along the northeastern boundary of LLNL, about 305 m (1,000 ft) north of the East Gate entrance. The access road would extend from Greenville Road to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area and would traverse an existing storm water drainage channel. Two culverts, side by side, and a compacted road base would be installed across the channel. The security fence that runs parallel to Greenville Road would be modified to accommodate this new entrance and a vehicle gate would be installed at the entrance of Kirschbaum Field. The exiting shoulder along Greenville Road would be converted into a new turn lane for trucks entering the new gate. This analysis evaluates the impacts of constructing the Kirschbaum Field bridge and access gate at a different location than was analyzed in the NIF Project specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and the Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. Issues of concern addressed in this supplement analysis include potential impacts to wetlands downstream of the access bridge, potential impacts to the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) listed as threatened on the federal listing pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1974, and potential impacts on the 100-yr floodplain along the Arroyo Las Positas.

  11. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants. PMID:25026682

  12. DDE mercury, and selenium in Biota, sediments, and water of the Rio Grande-Rio Bravo Basin, 1965-1995.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Wainwright, S E

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of contaminant stressors on biota of the Rio Grande was conducted to identify relevant contaminant issues, assess exposure and ecological effects, identify data gaps, and determine potential risks. Most contaminant data were from studies conducted during 1965-1995 in the Lower Rio Grande, on the Texas side of the river, within a 100-km boundary from Falcon Dam to the mouth. Contaminants most frequently reported were organochlorine compounds (OCs) and trace elements. The number of records for OCs and trace elements was at least twofold greater for fish than for birds, mammals, or reptiles. Of the OCs, p,p'-DDE was the most commonly reported. Among the trace elements, Hg was one of the most frequently reported; however, Se, As, Pb, Cu, and Zn were also common. The highest concentrations of OCs and trace elements were reported predominantly from Lower Rio Grande Valley locations, with approximately 68% of the highest values detected from Falcon Dam to the mouth of the river. Twenty-six (20%) of the locations with maximum concentrations corresponded to portions of Llano Grande Lake and the Arroyo Colorado. Recent analyses of birds and fish indicate that levels of DDE are currently much lower than in the 1970s or 1980s in Rio Grande wildlife. This apparent decline does not apply to Hg and Se levels in birds and fish, which have remained more or less constant, but may have increased over the years in some locations. Hg was of particular concern because of high levels found recently in addled eggs of aplomado falcons and in their potential prey. Hg was elevated in fish from the Big Bend area. Also, Se in fish sampled in 1993 and 1994 was near or above the threshold for potential effects in fish-eating wildlife. Future investigations should evaluate the potential impacts of Hg and Se on aquatic and terrestrial species from selected sites of concern. PMID:9751032

  13. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, J.; Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N. H.; Alvarez, W.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  14. Geostatistical three-dimensional modeling of oolite shoals, St. Louis Limestone, southwest Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    In the Hugoton embayment of southwestern Kansas, reservoirs composed of relatively thin (<4 m; <13.1 ft) oolitic deposits within the St. Louis Limestone have produced more than 300 million bbl of oil. The geometry and distribution of oolitic deposits control the heterogeneity of the reservoirs, resulting in exploration challenges and relatively low recovery. Geostatistical three-dimensional (3-D) models were constructed to quantify the geometry and spatial distribution of oolitic reservoirs, and the continuity of flow units within Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. Lithofacies in uncored wells were predicted from digital logs using a neural network. The tilting effect from the Laramide orogeny was removed to construct restored structural surfaces at the time of deposition. Well data and structural maps were integrated to build 3-D models of oolitic reservoirs using stochastic simulations with geometry data. Three-dimensional models provide insights into the distribution, the external and internal geometry of oolitic deposits, and the sedimentologic processes that generated reservoir intervals. The structural highs and general structural trend had a significant impact on the distribution and orientation of the oolitic complexes. The depositional pattern and connectivity analysis suggest an overall aggradation of shallow-marine deposits during pulses of relative sea level rise followed by deepening near the top of the St. Louis Limestone. Cemented oolitic deposits were modeled as barriers and baffles and tend to concentrate at the edge of oolitic complexes. Spatial distribution of porous oolitic deposits controls the internal geometry of rock properties. Integrated geostatistical modeling methods can be applicable to other complex carbonate or siliciclastic reservoirs in shallow-marine settings. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of wildfire on the sediment yield of a coastal California watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Hatten, J.A.; Pasternack, G.B.; Gray, A.B.; Goni, M.A.; Wheatcroft, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of two wildfires separated by 31 yr in the chaparral-dominated Arroyo Seco watershed (293 km) of California provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of wildfire on suspended-sediment yield. Here, we compile discharge and suspended-sediment sampling data from before and after the fires and show that the effects of the postfire responses differed markedly. The 1977 Marble Cone wildfire was followed by an exceptionally wet winter, which resulted in concentrations and fluxes of both fine and coarse suspended sediment that were ˜35 times greater than average (sediment yield during the 1978 water year was 11,000 t/km2/yr). We suggest that the combined 1977–1978 fire and flood had a recurrence interval of greater than 1000 yr. In contrast, the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire was followed by a drier than normal year, and although suspended-sediment fluxes and concentrations were significantly elevated compared to those expected for unburned conditions, the sediment yield during the 2009 water year was less than 1% of the post–Marble Cone wildfire yield. After the first postfire winters, sediment concentrations and yield decreased with time toward prefire relationships and continued to have significant rainfall dependence. We hypothesize that the differences in sediment yield were related to precipitation-enhanced hillslope erosion processes, such as rilling and mass movements. The millennial-scale effects of wildfire on sediment yield were explored further using Monte Carlo simulations, and these analyses suggest that infrequent wildfires followed by floods increase long-term suspended-sediment fluxes markedly. Thus, we suggest that the current approach of estimating sediment yield from sediment rating curves and discharge data—without including periodic perturbations from wildfires—may grossly underestimate actual sediment yields.

  16. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Burton, C.A.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the structure of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages and their associations with environmental variables at 17 sites on streams of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin in Southern California. All assemblages exhibited strong differences between highly urbanized sites in the valley and the least-impacted sites at the transition between the valley and undeveloped mountains. Results within the urbanized area differed among taxa. Periphyton assemblages were dominated by diatoms (>75% of total taxa). Periphyton assemblages within the urbanized area were not associated with any of the measured environmental variables, suggesting that structure of urban periphyton assemblages might be highly dependent on colonization dynamics. The number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) taxa included in macroinvertebrate assemblages ranged from 0 to 6 at urbanized sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages had significant correlations with several environmental variables within the urban area, suggesting that stream size and permanence were important determinants of distribution among the species able to survive conditions in urban streams. Only 4 of 16 fish species collected were native to the drainage. Fish assemblages of urbanized sites included two native species, arroyo chub Gila orcuttii and Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae, at sites that were intermediate in coefficient of variation of bank-full width, depth, bed substrate, and water temperature. Alien species dominated urbanized sites with lesser or greater values for these variables. These results suggest that urban streams can be structured to enhance populations of native fishes. Continued study of urban streams in the Santa Ana River basin and elsewhere will contribute to the basic understanding of ecological principles and help preserve the maximum ecological value of streams in highly urbanized areas.

  17. Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Leake, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

  18. Adaptation of microalgae to a gradient of continuous petroleum contamination.

    PubMed

    Carrera-Martinez, Daniel; Mateos-Sanz, Aranzazu; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2011-01-25

    In order to study adaptation of microalgae to petroleum contamination, we have examined an environmental stress gradient by crude oil contamination in the Arroyo Minero River (AMR), Argentina. Underground crude oil has constantly leaked out since 1915 as a consequence of test drilling for possible petroleum exploitation. Numerous microalgae species proliferated in AMR upstream of the crude oil spill. In contrast, only four microalgal species were detected in the crude oil spill area. Species richness increases again downstream. Microalgae biomass in the crude oil spill area is dominated by a mesophile species, Scenedesmus sp. Effects of oil samples from AMR spill on photosynthetic performance and growth were studied using laboratory cultures of two Scenedesmus sp. strains. One strain (Se-co) was isolated from the crude oil spill area. The other strain (Se-pr) was isolated from a pristine area without petroleum contamination. Crude oil has undetectable effects on Se-co strain. In contrast crude oil rapidly destroys Se-pr strain. However, Se-pr strain can adapt to low doses of petroleum (≤ 3% v/v total hydrocarbons/water) by means of physiological acclimatization. In contrast, only rare crude oil-resistant mutants are able to grow under high levels of crude oil (≥ 10% v/v total hydrocarbons/water). These crude oil-resistant mutants have arisen through rare spontaneous mutations that occur prior to crude oil exposure. Species richness in different areas of AMR is closely connected to the kind of mechanism (genetic adaptation vs. physiological acclimatization) that allows adaptation. Resistant-mutants are enough to assure the survival of microalgal species under catastrophic crude oil spill. PMID:21216344

  19. Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

  20. Comprehensive Representation of Hydrologic and Geomorphic Process Coupling in Numerical Models: Internal Dynamics and Basin Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Bras, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    Landscape morphology has an important control on the spatial and temporal organization of basin hydrologic response to climate forcing, affecting soil moisture redistribution as well as vegetation function. On the other hand, erosion, driven by hydrology and modulated by vegetation, produces landforms over geologic time scales that reflect characteristic signatures of the dominant land forming process. Responding to extreme climate events or anthropogenic disturbances of the land surface, infrequent but rapid forms of erosion (e.g., arroyo development, landsliding) can modify topography such that basin hydrology is significantly influenced. Despite significant advances in both hydrologic and geomorphic modeling over the past two decades, the dynamic interactions between basin hydrology, geomorphology and terrestrial ecology are not adequately captured in current model frameworks. In order to investigate hydrologic-geomorphic-ecologic interactions at the basin scale we present initial efforts in integrating the CHILD landscape evolution model (Tucker et al. 2001) with the tRIBS hydrology model (Ivanov et al. 2004), both developed in a common software environment. In this talk, we present preliminary results of the numerical modeling of the coupled evolution of basin hydro-geomorphic response and resulting landscape morphology in two sets of examples. First, we discuss the long-term evolution of both the hydrologic response and the resulting basin morphology from an initially uplifted plateau. In the second set of modeling experiments, we implement changes in climate and land-use to an existing topography and compare basin hydrologic response to the model results when landscape form is fixed (e.g. no coupling between hydrology and geomorphology). Model results stress the importance of internal basin dynamics, including runoff generation mechanisms and hydrologic states, in shaping hydrologic response as well as the importance of employing comprehensive

  1. Historical evolution of the drainage network at the basin scale using aerial orthophotography in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Mora, Jose; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil management has major implications on the drainage systems in agricultural catchments. Management practices, such as ploughing the gully perimeter and gully filling, remove the vegetation and natural features associated with natural streams contributing to the landscape simplification and accelerating erosion processes. This study evaluated the temporal evolution of several key parameters of the drainage network at the Arroyo Galapagares basin over a period of six decades, from a set of existing orthophotographies, since the first available (1956) to the present (2011). The area of the catchment is 80 km2, being representative of the Campiña, a rolling landscape covered by field crops on mostly Vertisol soils, in Southern Spain. The complete drainage network of the basin was digitized, defining the thalweg and the perimeter of the channels. Since the distinction between the actual channel surface and surrounding weed-covered surface is not reliable by means of merely orthophotography inspection, the limits between the field crops and the drainage network surface provided a measure of the magnitude of non-cultivated areas. Using the digitization results, the temporal variation of three parameters were assessed: network length, channel sinuosity and non-cultivated surface. The results of this analysis showed that a significant reduction of sinuosity occurred during the study period, as well as temporary decreases in the network length as a consequence of land levelling and gully filling. Moreover, a sustained growth of non-cultivated areas was observed at the upstream gullies (low-level order streams) due to the intensification of gully erosion, especially during the last decade.

  2. Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

    2013-12-01

    Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire. PMID:23912423

  3. Active Crustal Shortening Interpreted Through its Fluvial Signature: Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, B. L.; Keller, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    This study utilizes GIS based topographic analysis of three, ten, and 30-meter resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in ArcGIS to investigate a fluvial system and determine fold growth direction, future and past channel abandonment locations, and stream incision rates. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis of westward fold growth, to test if surface uplift is occurring faster than channel denudation adjacent to faults, and to quantify maximum and minimum stream incision rates. The Santa Barbara Fold Belt (SBFB) is an area of active crustal shortening comprised of an east-west trending group of reverse faults and folds. This study focus in detail on three folds; the Mesa anticline, the Mission Ridge anticline, and More Ranch-Elwood anticline, and four streams; Atascadero Creek, Arroyo Burrow Creek, Mission Creek, and Sycamore Creek. Results demonstrate the hypothesis of westward fold propagation holds true based on westward diverted streams and increasing elevation of abandoned stream channels away from the fold nose. Three out of four streams investigated display one abrupt westward diversion along strike of Mission Ridge Fault as a response to topographic ridges located in the hanging wall adjacent the fault. Knick points found in long channel profiles also coincide with faults demonstrating present day surface uplift is greater than bedrock incision and future channel abandonment may occur at these locations. Maximum and minimum stream incision rates calculated based on previously dated debris flows and marine terraces provide rates of 5 and 0.72 mm/yr, respectively.

  4. Paleoearthquake recurrence on the East Paradise fault zone, metropolitan Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon

    2000-01-01

    A fortuitous exposure of the East Paradise fault zone near Arroyo de las Calabacillas has helped us determine a post-middle Pleistocene history for a long-forgotten Quaternary fault in the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Mapping of two exposures of the fault zone allowed us to measure a total vertical offset of 2.75 m across middle Pleistocene fluvial and eolian deposits and to estimate individual surface-faulting events of about 1, 0.5, and 1.25 m. These measurements and several thermoluminescence ages allow us to calculate a long-term average slip rate of 0.01 ± 0.001 mm/yr and date two surface-faulting events to 208 ± 25 ka and 75 ± 7 ka. The youngest event probably occurred in the late Pleistocene, sometime after 75 ± 7 ka. These data yield a single recurrence interval of 133 ± 26 ka and an average recurrence interval of 90 ± 10 ka. However, recurrence intervals are highly variable because the two youngest events occurred in less than 75 ka. Offsets of 0.5-1.25 m and a fault length of 13-20 km indicate that surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes on the East Paradise fault zone had probable Ms or Mw magnitudes of 6.8-7.0. Although recurrence intervals are long on the East Paradise fault zone, these data are significant because they represent some of the first published slip rate, paleoearthquake magnitude, and recurrence information for any of the numerous Quaternary faults in the rapidly growing Albuquerque-Rio Rancho metropolitan area.

  5. Tomographic PIV: principles and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarano, F.

    2013-01-01

    A survey is given of the major developments in three-dimensional velocity field measurements using the tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The appearance of tomo-PIV dates back seven years from the present review (Elsinga et al 2005a 6th Int. Symp. PIV (Pasadena, CA)) and this approach has rapidly spread as a versatile, robust and accurate technique to investigate three-dimensional flows (Arroyo and Hinsch 2008 Topics in Applied Physics vol 112 ed A Schröder and C E Willert (Berlin: Springer) pp 127-54) and turbulence physics in particular. A considerable number of applications have been achieved over a wide range of flow problems, which requires the current status and capabilities of tomographic PIV to be reviewed. The fundamental aspects of the technique are discussed beginning from hardware considerations for volume illumination, imaging systems, their configurations and system calibration. The data processing aspects are of uppermost importance: image pre-processing, 3D object reconstruction and particle motion analysis are presented with their fundamental aspects along with the most advanced approaches. Reconstruction and cross-correlation algorithms, attaining higher measurement precision, spatial resolution or higher computational efficiency, are also discussed. The exploitation of 3D and time-resolved (4D) tomographic PIV data includes the evaluation of flow field pressure on the basis of the flow governing equation. The discussion also covers a-posteriori error analysis techniques. The most relevant applications of tomo-PIV in fluid mechanics are surveyed, covering experiments in air and water flows. In measurements in flow regimes from low-speed to supersonic, most emphasis is given to the complex 3D organization of turbulent coherent structures.

  6. Evaluating dryland ecological and river restoration using repeat LiDAR and hydrological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, W. M.; DeLong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in the collection of multitemporal, high-resolution topographic data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have done a great deal to increase our ability to quantify the details of landscape change. Both Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) can be used to easily assess how Earth surface processes affect landscape form to a level of precision that was previously more difficult to attain. A comprehensive approach using ALSM, TLS-TLS comparison, and hydrological monitoring is being used to assess the effectiveness of a large scale ecological and river restoration effort by the Cuenca los Ojos Foundation at San Bernardino Ranch near Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. In the study area, historical arroyo cutting and changes in land use led to the abandonment of a ciénega wetland and resulted in widespread ecological destruction. The current land managers have employed engineering methods in order to restore stream and ciénega ecology, including the installation of large rock gabions, earthen berms, and concrete spillways along channels. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the use of dam and gabion structures leads to stream aggradation, flash flood dampening, and ultimately, increased available water and reestablishment of historic wetland plant and animal communities. We present results from LiDAR change detection that includes 2007-2011 ALSM to TLS change, and several 2011-2012 TLS-TLS comparisons. We also present results from streamflow monitoring, field observation, and monitoring of shallow groundwater and soil moisture conditions. Preliminary results show that channel aggradation occurs rapidly upstream of engineered structures. However, the apparent dampening of sediment transport by the structures leads to less aggradation and even incision immediately downstream of structures. Peak flood flows are decreased by the reservoirs formed behind large earthen berms. After several years of water retention

  7. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  8. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Sewage Samples to Determine Oral Polio Vaccine Circulation Duration and Mutation After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738

  9. Sources of groundwater nitrate revealed using residence time and isotope methods

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K B; Ekwurzel, B; Esser, B K; Hudson, G B; Moran, J E

    2004-10-07

    Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, CA, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, {delta}{sup 15}N values greater than 10{per_thousand} indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low-nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations up to 53 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1}. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos increases the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. The low {delta}{sup 15}N value (3.1{per_thousand}) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer. In addition to these anthropogenic sources, natural nitrate background levels between 15 and 20 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1} are found in deep wells with residence times greater than 50 years.

  10. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hart, Dirk

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  11. A multivalent vaccination strategy for the prevention of Old World arenavirus infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Botten, Jason; Whitton, J Lindsay; Barrowman, Polly; Sidney, John; Whitmire, Jason K; Alexander, Jeff; Kotturi, Maya F; Sette, Alessandro; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Arenaviruses cause severe human disease ranging from aseptic meningitis following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection to hemorrhagic fever syndromes following infection with Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Lassa virus (LASV), Machupo virus (MACV), Sabia virus (SABV), or Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Cellular immunity, chiefly the CD8(+) T-cell response, plays a critical role in providing protective immunity following infection with the Old World arenaviruses LASV and LCMV. In the current study, we evaluated whether HLA class I-restricted epitopes that are cross-reactive among pathogenic arenaviruses could be identified for the purpose of developing an epitope-based vaccination approach that would cross-protect against multiple arenaviruses. We were able to identify a panel of HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from the same region of the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) of LASV (GPC spanning residues 441 to 449 [GPC(441-449)]), LCMV (GPC(447-455)), JUNV (GPC(429-437)), MACV (GPC(444-452)), GTOV (GPC(427-435)), and WWAV (GPC(428-436)) that displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-A*0201 and were recognized by CD8(+) T cells in a cross-reactive manner following LCMV infection or peptide immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Immunization of HLA-A*0201 mice with the Old World peptide LASV GPC(441-449) or LCMV GPC(447-455) induced high-avidity CD8(+) T-cell responses that were able to kill syngeneic target cells pulsed with either LASV GPC(441-449) or LCMV GPC(447-455) in vivo and provided significant protection against viral challenge with LCMV. Through this study, we have demonstrated that HLA class I-restricted, cross-reactive epitopes exist among diverse arenaviruses and that individual epitopes can be utilized as effective vaccine determinants for multiple pathogenic arenaviruses.

  12. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán. PMID:11537752

  13. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    utilized Santa Barbara coastal zone, including Arroyo Burro Beach Park, Leadbetter Beach, East Beach, and “Butterfly Beach.” There are ongoing coastal erosion problems associated with both development and natural processes; between 1933–1934 and 1998, cliff erosion in the map area occurred at rates of about 0.1 to 1 m/yr, the largest amount (63 m) occurring at Arroyo Burro in the western part of the map area. In addition, development of the Santa Barbara Harbor, which began in 1928, lead to shoaling west of the harbor as the initial breakwater trapped sand, as well as to coastal erosion east of the harbor. Since 1959, annual harbor dredging has mitigated at least some of the downcoast erosion problems. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Drift rates have been estimated to be about 400,000 tons/yr at Santa Barbara Harbor. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) San Ysidro Creek, Oak Creek, Montecito Creek, Sycamore Creek, Mission Creek, Arroyo Burro, and Atascadero Creek. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 40 to 50 km southeast of Santa Barbara, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.4° to 0.8°) so that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are about 45 m in the east and about 75 m in the west. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north

  14. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Mokelumne area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, A.M.; Gale, H.S.; Thomas, H.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1939-01-01

    The Mokelumne River basin of central California comprises portions of the California Trough and the Sierra Nevada section of the Pacific Mountain system. The California Trough is divisible into four subsections-the Delta tidal plain, the Victor alluvial plain, tlie river flood plains and channels, and the Arroyo Seco dissected pediment. These four subsections comprise the land forms produced by the Mokelumne River and other streams since the Sierra Nevada attained its present height in the Pleistocene epoch. The Victor alluvial plain rises eastward from the Delta plain and abuts on the dissected Arroyo Seco pediment; in the Mokelumne area it is 12 to 16 miles wide and slopes between 5 and 8 feet in a mile. It includes relatively extensive tracts that are intensively cultivated and irrigated with water pumped from wells. The Victor plain has been compounded of overlapping alluvial fans along the western base of the Sierra Nevada. It is prolonged eastward into the pediment by tongues of alluvium along several of the present streams; thus it seems likely that the present stream pattern in the eastern part of the area has been fixed since dissection of the pediment began. Three of the four major streams-the Mokelumne and Cosumnes Rivers and Dry Creek-traverse the Victor plain in trenches which are 15 to 40 feet deep at the heads of their respective alluvial fans but which die out toward the west. The floors of these trenches, the historic flood plains, are from 100 yards to a mile wide. The exceptional major stream, which has not entrenched itself, is the Calaveras River. The Arroyo Seco pediment, which lies east of the Victor plain, was initially at least 8 to 15 miles wide and lay along the western foot of the Sierra Nevada entirely .across the Mokelumne area. Its numerous remnants decline 15 to 35 feet in a mile toward the west. The Sierra Nevada section adjoins and lies east of the California Trough. Its major ridge crests define a volcanic plain whose westward

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    utilized Santa Barbara coastal zone, including Arroyo Burro Beach Park, Leadbetter Beach, East Beach, and “Butterfly Beach.” There are ongoing coastal erosion problems associated with both development and natural processes; between 1933–1934 and 1998, cliff erosion in the map area occurred at rates of about 0.1 to 1 m/yr, the largest amount (63 m) occurring at Arroyo Burro in the western part of the map area. In addition, development of the Santa Barbara Harbor, which began in 1928, lead to shoaling west of the harbor as the initial breakwater trapped sand, as well as to coastal erosion east of the harbor. Since 1959, annual harbor dredging has mitigated at least some of the downcoast erosion problems. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Drift rates have been estimated to be about 400,000 tons/yr at Santa Barbara Harbor. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) San Ysidro Creek, Oak Creek, Montecito Creek, Sycamore Creek, Mission Creek, Arroyo Burro, and Atascadero Creek. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 40 to 50 km southeast of Santa Barbara, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.4° to 0.8°) so that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are about 45 m in the east and about 75 m in the west. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north

  16. [Nutrition-related risk factors in autonomous non-institutionalized adult elderly people].

    PubMed

    Montejano Lozoya, A Raimunda; Ferrer Diego, Rosa M; Clemente Marín, Gonzalo; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves; Sanjuan Quiles, Angela; Ferrer Ferrándiz, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    Objetivos: Determinar factores asociados al riesgo nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos no institucionalizados. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 660 adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados. Los participantes fueron evaluados en 12 centros sociales (provincia de Valencia) seleccionados mediante un muestreo estratificado por bloques. Criterios de inclusión: tener 65 años o más, vivir en el domicilio, poseer autonomía funcional, residir más de un año en la provincia de Valencia, acudir periódicamente a los centros sociales y colaborar voluntariamente en el estudio. Se usa el MNA para la valoración nutricional y se recogen factores asociados al estado nutricional en una encuesta adhoc. Resultados: De los 660 sujetos estudiados, el 48,33% son hombres y el 51,67% mujeres, la edad media es de 74,3±6,57 años. El 23,33% presentan riesgo de malnutrición. Los factores independientes asociados al riesgo de malnutrición, con el odds de prevalencia ajustada, son: no poseer estudios (OR=2,29), sentir soledad (OR=2,34), mantener dietas controladas (OR=0,55), un apetito escaso (OR=2,56), número de fracciones en la ingesta diaria (OR=0,66), sufrir xerostomía (OR=1,72), tener dificultades para deglutir (OR=2,30), el número de enfermedades crónicas (OR=1,38) y haber sufrido enfermedades agudas en el último año (OR=2,03). Un incremento en el IMC se asocia a un buen estado nutricional (OR=0,85). Estos factores nos han permitido clasificar correctamente a un 80% de los pacientes encuestados. Conclusiones: Tener numerosas enfermedades crónicas, haber sufrido enfermedades agudas recientes, mantener dietas sin control, sufrir xerostomía y dificultad para deglutir, comer pocas veces al día y con escaso apetito, sentirse solo y no tener estudios son factores que, permiten predecir el riesgo de malnutrición en los adultos mayores.

  17. PREVALENCE OF DISORDERED EATING ATTITUDES AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN WUHU, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiegen; Lu, Mi; Tian, Li; Lu, Wei; Meng, Fanxiang; Chen, Changang; Tang, Tianmiao; He, Lianping; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: el proposito de este estudio es evaluar la situación actual de trastornos alimenticios y sus factores relacionados entre los estudiantes universitarios de la provincia de Anhui, y proporcionar una base para la intervención sanitaria. Métodos: este es un estudio transversal. En el estudio se incluyeron estudiantes universitarios a los que se les realizaron exámenes de salud rutinarios y que completaron cuestionarios que consisten en información general y sobre las actitudes alimentarias: test-26 (EAT-26). Según el test EAT-26, una puntuación de 20 o mayor indica que el sujeto presenta trastornos alimentarios. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el software de SPSS13.0. Resultados: en el estudio se incluyeron un total de 1.328 estudiantes de una universidad de Wuhu (469 hombres y 859 mujeres). En nuestro estudio, la proporción de trastornos alimentarios de hombres y mujeres y el total de estudiantes fueron 5,3%, 4,0%, 4,5%, respectivamente. La proporción de trastornos alimentarios entre los estudiantes cuya familia poseía unos ingresos anuales < 10.000 RMB, 10.000-30.000 RMB, 30.000-60.000 RMB y > 60.000 fueron 4,2%, un 3,9%, 4.3% y 6,9%, respectivamente. Un hallazgo interesante es que los estudiantes son más propensos a padecer trastornos alimentarios si sus padres tienen más educación. Conclusiones: nuestra investigación revela que la situación actual respecto a trastornos alimentarios en la provincia de Anhui es relativamente baja. El nivel de educación de los padres puede ser relacionado con las actitudes de los estudiantes universitarios. Es esencial aumentar la conciencia y la comprensión de los trastornos de la alimentación y sus factores de riesgo asociados con respecto a los estudiantes universitarios cuyos padres tienen una educación superior.

  18. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain; Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortes Castell, E; Rizo-Baeza, M M; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Rizo-Baeza, J; Gil Guillén, V

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: La edad materna es una variable preponderante en el análisis epidemiológico del nacimiento prematuro. Los estudios muestran que en las edades extremas de la vida materna hay un riesgo de nacimiento prematuro que genera una tasa elevada de morbilidad neonatal. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de las edades extremas de mujeres residentes en la provincia de Albacete sobre de nacimientos prematuros. Método: Se realizó un estudio explicativo, retrospectivo de casos-control durante el periodo de 1 de enero de 2008 a 31 de diciembre de 2011. El estudio se basó en la revisión de los registros de recién nacidos del Centro de Cribado Neonatal de la provincia de Alicante. Se incluyeron todos los recién nacidos pretérmino, es decir, entre las semanas 22 y 36 de gestación (5.295 de 78.391 recién nacidos, lo que representa un 6,75% de prematuridad), y una muestra aleatoria de los nacimientos con más de 37 semanas de gestación (grupo control). Se estudió la edad materna como variable independiente y la prematuridad como variable dependiente. Resultados: El estudio muestra claramente un mayor riesgo de prematuridad entre las madres adolescentes en comparación con el siguiente grupo más cercano en edad, lo que se confirmó por una distribución significativamente distinta con el test Chi cuadrado (p < 0,0001) con una OD para los grandes prematuros de 2,41 (1,51-3,24) y de 1,71 (1,32-2,19) para los prematuros. Esta probabilidad también fue mayor en madres con edades de más de 40 años con una OD de 1,86 (1,39-2,48) y de 1,66 (1,44- 1,91) para recién nacidos grandes prematuros y prematuros, respectivamente. Discusión: Los resultados muestran claramente que las madres adolescentes y las más mayores tienen mayor riesgo de hijos prematuros o con bajo peso al nacimiento, lo que motiva la necesidad de establecer intervenciones educacionales para disminuir el problema, a partir de los resultados de esta investigación.

  19. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  20. Exhumation of the Argentine Andes, 32°- 34° S: detrital (U-Th)/He and U-Pb zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, D.; Hoke, G. D.; Van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K. V.

    2014-12-01

    The central Argentine Andes exhibit variable morphology along-strike due to some combination of slab subduction angle, inherited crustal structure, and climate. Structural mapping and thermochronology has suggested minimal exhumation (~1 km), except perhaps along some major river valleys. However, few thermochronologic results have been reported. In order to better understand the variability of exhumation along-strike, we sampled 3 rivers for detrital zircon and measured both (U-Th)/He and U-Pb ages using laser ablation methods. The sample sites span the southern edge of flat-slab subduction. The northern- and southernmost watersheds each cover ~2000 km2 and include elements of both the Principal and Frontal Cordilleras. The central watershed (~200 km2) is largely restricted to the Frontal Cordillera. The geology of the Principal Cordillera is diverse, but the Frontal Cordillera is composed primarily of Permo-Triassic volcanic rocks of the Choiyoi Formation. Preliminary results (n = 27) from the smaller, central Arroyo Grande watershed show that zircons are almost always reset, in the sense that a given zircon's (U-Th)/He cooling age is significantly younger than its U-Pb crystallization age. Of these, 2 grains have cooling ages <5 Ma, and 7 have ages <25 Ma. To the south, in the larger Rio Tunuyan (n = 27) watershed, 13 reset zircons have cooling ages <5 Ma, and 6 of these have U-Pb ages that are characteristic of the Frontal Cordillera (ranging from 220 to 272 Ma). To the north, in the upper Río de los Patos catchment (n = 30), only 3 reset zircons have ages <25 Ma, and these zircons lack Frontal Cordilleran U-Pb ages (17, 43, and 323 Ma). The abundance of reset (U-Th)/He ages is notable in all 3 watersheds. Laser (U-Th)/He closure temperatures vary according to the geometry of the zircon, the geometry of the laser spot, and the cooling rate. For an average zircon among our samples, at an assumed cooling rate of 10° C/Myr, the closure temperature is

  1. Alkaline magmatism in the Amambay area, NE Paraguay: The Cerro Sarambí complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Velázquez, V. F.; Azzone, R. G.; Paula, G. S.

    2011-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in the northeastern region of Paraguay (Amambay Province) is represented by stocks, plugs, dikes, and dike swarms emplaced into Carboniferous to Triassic-Jurassic sediments and Precambrian rocks. This magmatism is tectonically related to the Ponta Porã Arch, a NE-trending structural feature, and has the Cerro Sarambí and Cerro Chiriguelo carbonatite complexes as its most significant expressions. Other alkaline occurrences found in the area are the Cerro Guazú and the small bodies of Cerro Apuá, Arroyo Gasory, Cerro Jhú, Cerro Tayay, and Cerro Teyú. The alkaline rocks comprise ultramafic-mafic, syenitic, and carbonatitic petrographic associations in addition to lithologies of variable composition and texture occurring as dikes; fenites are described in both carbonatite complexes. Alkali feldspar and clinopyroxene, ranging from diopside to aegirine, are the most abundant minerals, with feldspathoids (nepheline, analcime), biotite, and subordinate Ti-rich garnet; minor constituents are Fe-Ti oxides and cancrinite as the main alteration product from nepheline. Chemically, the Amambay silicate rocks are potassic to highly potassic and have miaskitic affinity, with the non-cumulate intrusive types concentrated mainly in the saturated to undersaturated areas in silica syenitic fields. Fine-grained rocks are also of syenitic affiliation or represent more mafic varieties. The carbonatitic rocks consist dominantly of calciocarbonatites. Variation diagrams plotting major and trace elements vs. SiO 2 concentration for the Cerro Sarambí rocks show positive correlations for Al 2O 3, K 2O, and Rb, and negative ones for TiO 2, MgO, Fe 2O 3, CaO, P 2O 5, and Sr, indicating that fractional crystallization played an important role in the formation of the complex. Incompatible elements normalized to primitive mantle display positive spikes for Rb, La, Pb, Sr, and Sm, and negative for Nb-Ta, P, and Ti, as these negative anomalies are

  2. Evidence for dextral transtensional development of the Rio Grande rift, from the Bear Mountains and the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, S.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Dextral faulting of late Eocene age associated with latest Laramide deformation has been noted for some time along the margins of, and adjacent to, the Rio Grande rift (RGr) in central NM. Recent mapping of the Hell's Mesa (HM) fault zone in the Bear Mountains and of the Comanche/Santa Fe fault zone along the western margin of the RGr at the Lucero uplift has constrained dextral deformation to extend into the Miocene, at least, and possibly into the Pliocene. The HM fault zone forms the eastern margin of the Mulligan Gulch graben between the Bear and Gallinas Mountains to the west. The main ridge of the Bear Mountains is structurally down-dropped by the HM fault and is part of the graben. This ridge is a topographic high, composed of interbedded rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and basaltic andesite flows of the Oligocene to early Miocene Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, faulted against Eocene sediments of the Baca Formation, and Eocene to early Oligocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Datil Group. The western margin of the RGr in the Albuquerque basin along the Lucero uplift, defined by the Comanche fault zone is structurally continuous with portions of the HM fault zone that make a right overstep through the down-dropped Navajo gap area at the southwest corner of the basin. The Comanche fault zone shows dextral-oblique shear geometry along an anastomosing zone of faulting up to 1 km wide. This zone has been intruded by hypabyssal basaltic rocks that have yielded a whole-rock K-Ar date of 27.1 Ma. In the Carrizo Arroyo (CA) area, slickenside lineations on these dikes show a strong dextral component of movement similar to that of the HM zone. The Santa Fe fault is a reverse fault for some distance north of CA. Motion on this fault has disrupted coarse sediments that contain clasts of the ca. 4.0 Ma Carrizo Mesa basalt. These observations are interpreted to indicate that dextral deformation has persisted at least through the earliest stage of extension.

  3. Developing a geomorphic approach for ranking watersheds for rehabilitation, Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Cheama, A.; Lalio, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of past erosion problems on the Zuni Indian Reservation in western New Mexico, the US Congress in 1990 authorized the Zuni Tribe to begin a program for watershed rehabilitation. This paper describes an approach to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation for the Zuni Reservation. The approach was based on data collected during a 3-year study on geomorphic and anthropogenic characteristics of the Rio Nutria Watershed, including data on (i) arroyo cross-sectional changes, (ii) erosion-control structures, and (iii) sheetwash erosion. Results of this 3-year study indicated that 61 of 85 channel cross-sections aggraded and channels with lower width-to-depth ratios eroded. Results on assessment of erosion-control structures, some dating back to the 1930's, indicated that 60% of earthen dams and 22% of rock-and-brush structures were breached or flanked in the Rio Nutria Watershed. Sheetwash erosion measured on five land-cover sites (sagebrush, pasture, chained pin??on and juniper, unchained pin??on and juniper, and ponderosa pine) indicated chained pin??on and juniper sites and pasture sites had the highest volume-weighted sediment concentrations of 13,000 and 9970 ppm, respectively. Based on interpretations of the 3-year study in the Rio Nutria Watershed, a two-stage approach was developed to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation on the Zuni Reservation. In the first stage, the reservation was divided into eight major watersheds, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. In the second stage, the watershed with the most potential for erosion was divided into sub-basins, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. Quantitative and qualitative information on physical and anthropogenic factors were used at each stage to rank the watersheds. Quantitative physical data included headcut density, percentage of bare ground, percentage of chained area, channel width-to-depth ratio, change in

  4. The Strontium Fingerprint and Footprint: Using 87Sr/86Sr to Find the Sources and Range of Architectural Timber Acquisition of Great House Construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Reynolds, A. C.; Quade, J.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the spatial and temporal patterns of timber acquisition by great house builders in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios from annually-dated, architectural logs in 10^{th} to 12^{th} century structures are compared to the 87Sr/86Sr of modern tree stands from the surrounding mountains. Although not a stable isotope system, the long half-life of the 87Sr parent (87Rb, t1/2 = 48.8 Ga) yields a stable isotope system on the timescales used to determine the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. The small mass difference among strontium's isotopes eliminates measurable biologic or kinetic fractionation at earth surface conditions. Strontium tracer studies, however, do require distinct end-member ratios to be feasible. Strontium isotopes, alone or in combination with other isotopes, provide a simple way to study and trace the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. Over the 150 km-wide Chaco Basin, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern trees range from 0.7055 to 0.7192. 87Sr/86Sr ratios from this and other studies show that during great house construction Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away in all directions. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) architectural beams from the high crests of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south, and (3) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the low slopes of the La Platas and San Juan Mountains to the north, the San Pedro Mountains to the east, the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains and nearby mesas. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo) or by time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources from the beginning of large scale construction in or around Chaco Canyon. This is contrary to the view that

  5. Characterization and evaluation of channel and hillslope erosion on the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Like many areas of the southwestern United States, the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, has high rates of erosion, ranging from 95 to greater than 1,430 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. Erosion on the Zuni Indian Reservation includes channel erosion (arroyo incision and channel widening) and hillslope (sheetwash) erosion. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 3-year (1992-95) study on channel erosion and hillslope erosion in the portion of the Rio Nutria watershed that drains entirely within the Zuni Indian Reservation. Results of the study can be used by the Zuni Tribe to develop a plan for watershed rehabilitation. Channel changes, gully growth, headcuts, and changes in dirt roads over time were examined to characterize and evaluate channel erosion in the Rio Nutria watershed. Channel cross-sectional changes included width, depth, width-to-depth ratio, area, and geometry. Relative rates of gully growth, headcuts, and changes in dirt roads over time were examined using aerial photographs. Results of resurveys conducted between 1992 and 1994 of 85 channel cross sections indicated aggradation of 72 percent of cross sections in three subbasins of the Rio Nutria watershed. Forty-eight percent of resurveyed cross sections showed an increase in cross-sectional area and erosion; nine of these are in tributaries. Some channels (43 percent) aggraded and increased in cross-sectional area. This increase in cross- sectional area is due mostly to widening. Channel widening is a more pervasive form of erosion than channel scour on the Zuni Indian Reservation. The tops of channels widened in 67 percent and the bottoms of channels widened in 44 percent of resurveyed cross sections. Narrow, deep triangular channels are more erosive than rectangular cross sections. Five land-cover types--three sites on mixed-grass pasture, two sites on sites on unchained pi?on and juniper, one site on sagebrush, one site on ponderosa pine, and two sites on chained pi?on and juniper

  6. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of

  7. Process-Based Model for Computation of Erosion and Deposition on Shrub-Protected Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, J. W.; Smith, J.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of erosion and deposition rates on riverbanks requires a detailed knowledge of the near-bank boundary shear stress field. Riverbanks typically are irregular in planiform geometry owing to the presence of vegetation on them, and the effects of vegetation-caused bank irregularity in reducing flow in the neighborhood of the toes of banks must be taken into account in calculating the appropriate boundary shear stress fields. Form drag on roots, stems, and branches of shrubs and trees that protrude into the flow must be carefully evaluated. Methods for calculating the boundary shear stress and sediment transport fields on and near vegetated banks have been developed over the past several years. More recently, the direct effects of roots, stems, and branches in reducing the shear stresses on banks have been investigated in conjunction with research on arroyo channels having nearly trapezoidal cross sections and banks covered with sandbar willow and tamarisk. A model for computing flow and sediment transport in such channels is presented and then used to demonstrate the relative importance of the various environmental factors and their interactions. The primary environmental factors include (1) the cross-sectional geometry of the flow, which controls the structure of the cross-sectional distribution of the streamwise-averaged boundary shear stress, (2) the micro topography of the bed and banks, which determines the local ratio of streamwise-averaged boundary shear stress to skin friction and, thus, the cross-sectional structure of the sediment transport field in the channel, and (3) the bed-sediment size distribution, which controls the importance of density stratification in the flow and, thereby, the vertical structure of the velocity field. The model demonstrates that woody vegetation on sloping banks affects the flow in several ways. First, it forces the high velocity core toward the center of the channel, increasing the streamwise-averaged boundary

  8. Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

    Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion

  9. Geospatial Data Fusion and Multigroup Decision Support for Surface Water Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.; Green, R. T.; Xie, H.

    2010-12-01

    Social networking and social media have gained significant popularity and brought fundamental changes to many facets of our everyday life. With the ever-increasing adoption of GPS-enabled gadgets and technology, location-based content is likely to play a central role in social networking sites. While location-based content is not new to the geoscience community, where geographic information systems (GIS) are extensively used, the delivery of useful geospatial data to targeted user groups for decision support is new. Decision makers and modelers ought to make more effective use of the new web-based tools to expand the scope of environmental awareness education, public outreach, and stakeholder interaction. Environmental decision processes are often rife with uncertainty and controversy, requiring integration of multiple sources of information and compromises between diverse interests. Fusing of multisource, multiscale environmental data for multigroup decision support is a challenging task. Toward this goal, a multigroup decision support platform should strive to achieve transparency, impartiality, and timely synthesis of information. The latter criterion often constitutes a major technical bottleneck to traditional GIS-based media, featuring large file or image sizes and requiring special processing before web deployment. Many tools and design patterns have appeared in recent years to ease the situation somewhat. In this project, we explore the use of Web 2.0 technologies for “pushing” location-based content to multigroups involved in surface water quality management and decision making. In particular, our granular bottom-up approach facilitates effective delivery of information to most relevant user groups. Our location-based content includes in-situ and remotely sensed data disseminated by NASA and other national and local agencies. Our project is demonstrated for managing the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program in the Arroyo Colorado coastal river basin

  10. Satellite-Based Investigations of the Transition from an Oceanic to Continental Transform Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Meghan

    1998-01-01

    Detailed characterization of neotectonics evolution of the Valle de San Felipe and Arroyo Grande regions in northern Baja California. Reoccupied GEOMEX GPS sites, and occupied a regional GPS (Global Positioning System) network. The Baja California peninsula in Mexico offers a unique setting for studying the kinematic evolution of a complex, active strike-slip/rift plate boundary. We are currently conducting remote sensing, geologic, and geodetic studies of this boundary. The combined data sets will yield instantaneous and time integrated views of its evolution. This proposal solicits renewed funding from NASA to support remote sensing and geologic studies. During the late Cenozoic, Baja California has been the locus of changing fault geometry that has accommodated components of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific plates. Contemporary slip between the two plates occurs in a broad zone that encompasses much of southern California and the Baja California Peninsula. The transfer of slip across this zone in southern California is relatively well understood. South of the border, the geometry and role of specific faults and structural provinces in transferring plate margin deformation across the peninsula is enigmatic. Results We use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery of the Baja California Peninsula to identify recent and active faults, and then conduct field studies that characterize the temporal and spatial structural evolution of the plate margin. These data address questions concerning the neotectonic development of the Gulf of California, the Baja California Peninsula, and their role in evolution of the post-Miocene Pacific - North American plate boundary. Moreover, these studies provide constraints on the geometry of active faults, allowing more exact understanding of the results of ongoing NASA-supported geodetic experiments. In addition, anticipated publication of the TM scenes will provide a widely available geological data base for relatively

  11. A revised burial dose estimation procedure for optical dating of youngand modern-age sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L.J.; Roberts, R.G.; Galbraith, R.F.; DeLong, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of genuinely zero-age or near-zero-age grains in modern-age and very young samples poses a problem for many existing burial dose estimation procedures used in optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating. This difficulty currently necessitates consideration of relatively simplistic and statistically inferior age models. In this study, we investigate the potential for using modified versions of the statistical age models of Galbraith et??al. [Galbraith, R.F., Roberts, R.G., Laslett, G.M., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia: Part I, experimental design and statistical models. Archaeometry 41, 339-364.] to provide reliable equivalent dose (De) estimates for young and modern-age samples that display negative, zero or near-zero De estimates. For this purpose, we have revised the original versions of the central and minimum age models, which are based on log-transformed De values, so that they can be applied to un-logged De estimates and their associated absolute standard errors. The suitability of these 'un-logged' age models is tested using a series of known-age fluvial samples deposited within two arroyo systems from the American Southwest. The un-logged age models provide accurate burial doses and final OSL ages for roughly three-quarters of the total number of samples considered in this study. Sensitivity tests reveal that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models are capable of producing accurate burial dose estimates for modern-age and very young (<350??yr) fluvial samples that contain (i) more than 20% of well-bleached grains in their De distributions, or (ii) smaller sub-populations of well-bleached grains for which the De values are known with high precision. Our results indicate that the original (log-transformed) versions of the central and minimum age models are still preferable for most routine dating applications

  12. High spatial resolution geochemistry and textural characteristics of 'microtektite' glass spherules in proximal Cretaceous-Paleogene sections: Insights into glass alteration patterns and precursor melt lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belza, Joke; Goderis, Steven; Smit, Jan; Vanhaecke, Frank; Baert, Kitty; Terryn, Herman; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we have conducted spatially resolved trace element analysis on fresh, unaltered microtektite glasses linked to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary Chicxulub crater and on their surrounding alteration phases. This unique approach offers the opportunity to study in situ and at high spatial resolution both the mixing of different target lithologies and the variation of the major and trace element budget during the alteration process. In addition, two-dimensional element distribution maps reveal important geochemical information beyond the capabilities of single spot laser drilling. Glasses from two localities in opposite quadrants from the source crater were studied. At the Beloc locality (Haiti), the glass population is dominated by the presence of yellow high-Ca glass and black andesitic glass formed by admixture of carbonate/dolomite/anhydrite platform lithologies with crystalline basement. These glasses alter according to the well-established hydration-palagonitization model postulated for mafic volcanic glasses. REEs become progressively leached from the glass to below the detection limit for the applied spot size, while immobile Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta passively accumulate in the process exhibiting both inter-element ratios and absolute concentrations similar to those for the original glass. In contrast, The Arroyo El Mimbral locality (NE Mexico) is characterized by abundant green glass fragments high in Si, Al and alkalis, and low in Mg, Ca, Fe. Low Si black glass is less abundant though similar in composition to the black glass variety at Beloc. The alteration pattern of high-Si, Al green glass at the Mimbral locality is more complex, including numerous competing reaction processes (ion-exchange, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral precipitation) generally controlled by the pH and composition of the surrounding fluid. All green, high-Si, Al glasses are hydrated and

  13. Was all that Los Angeles River flood control concrete necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzert, W. C.; Regalado, S. S.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    In 1938, heavy rains over the Los Angeles Basin resulted in widespread and costly flooding of the Los Angeles River floodplain. In response to the resultant damage, 51 miles of the River was concreted from the San Fernando Valley to the Pacific Ocean. Today proposals to modify the river to capture more water and to restore it to a more natural state have been approved. Through comparison of rainfall data, we test whether channelization can adequately handle the extreme flooding events occurring since 1938. Between February 27th to March 3rd 1938, two major storms resulted in 14.1 inches of rain in Pasadena, CA leading to the flooding of the Los Angeles River, 115 fatalities, the destruction of 5,601 buildings, and to $627 million (2011 dollars) in damages. Downtown Los Angeles averages 15 inches of precipitation a year, while the San Gabriel Mountains, where most of the Los Angeles River watershed rainfall is collected, typically receive more than 40 inches of rain annually. Eight record storms, each with rainfall totals over 11 inches, since the 1938 flood could have created devastating deluges were it not for channelization. Presently, at full stage the channelized Los Angeles River can accommodate a discharge of 129,000 cfs. During the 1938 flood event the discharge peaked at 68,000 cfs above Arroyo Seco and 79,000 cfs below Firestone Blvd. A similar storm event today would have led to increased discharge due to urbanization. Since 1938, the greatest discharge recorded at the same stations was 52,200 and 74,400 cfs during the February 16th 1980 storm. Although damage was substantial during this storm, river channelization prevented fatalities and much damage. To date, the channelization of the Los Angeles River has been successful in flood control. However, our research shows that southern California precipitation is becoming more intense which may result in increased flooding. Any future modifications to the river must be prepared to handle the extreme flooding

  14. The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event: A Southern Hemisphere record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Bernárdez, Enrique; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    Toarcian age. The carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter reveals a negative excursion of ~ 5‰, which correlates with the excursion recorded during the T-OAE in NW European sections and in the Arroyo Lapa section, Neuquén Basin (Al-Suwaidi et al., 2010). Interestingly, the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) preserved in the interval equivalent to the T-OAE appears relatively low (< 1 wt. %) compared to the values of most European sections (> 5 wt. %). Additional analyses of clay, phosphorus and mercury contents are underway and will assist in our study of the impact of the T-OAE in this particular part of the world.

  15. Tectonic repetitions of the Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation in the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Geometry, kinematics and structural implications for Andean building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turienzo, M.; Sánchez, N.; Dimieri, L.; Lebinson, F.; Araujo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Neuquén Basin, developed in a retroarc setting in the central-west of Argentina, contains more than 6000 m of Mesozoic marine and continental sedimentary rocks. These rocks were deformed during the Andean orogeny leading to several thick and thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts. The Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation is composed by a thick marine succession predominantly of black shales in which highlights a thin fluvial-aeolian sandy interval named Avilé Member. The Avilé Member, one of the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Neuquén Basin, constitutes an excellent structural marker. At the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, the strong mechanical anisotropy given by the contrasting lithology of the Avilé Member within the Agrio Formation favored the location of detachments along the shales and ramps affecting the sandstones during the Andean compression. Detailed field mapping at the Chacay Melehue area allowed us to recognize tectonic repetitions of the Avilé Member, which form imbrications in the simplest case whereas in other places constitute a more complex combination of imbrications, including fault-bend folding that duplicates stratigraphic sequences and fault-propagation folding that deforms more intensely the duplicated units. Along three structural cross-sections we illustrate the geometry of these tectonic repetitions of the Agrio Formation, which in the northern area have an eastward-vergence and in the central and southern regions show a clear westward-vergence. A tear fault along the arroyo Chacay Melehue could explain this vergence change. Forward modeling of the structures at the central cross-section, where a backthrust system produced imbrication, duplication and folding of the Agrio Formation, allows us to propose a balanced kinematic reconstruction of this complex structure and to compare the features produced at different stages of the deformation sequence with field observations. Our kinematic interpretation shows that the

  16. The SCEC 3D Community Fault Model (CFM-v5): An updated and expanded fault set of oblique crustal deformation and complex fault interaction for southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, C.; Plesch, A.; Sorlien, C. C.; Shaw, J. H.; Hauksson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Southern California represents an ideal natural laboratory to investigate oblique deformation in 3D owing to its comprehensive datasets, complex tectonic history, evolving components of oblique slip, and continued crustal rotations about horizontal and vertical axes. As the SCEC Community Fault Model (CFM) aims to accurately reflect this 3D deformation, we present the results of an extensive update to the model by using primarily detailed fault trace, seismic reflection, relocated hypocenter and focal mechanism nodal plane data to generate improved, more realistic digital 3D fault surfaces. The results document a wide variety of oblique strain accommodation, including various aspects of strain partitioning and fault-related folding, sets of both high-angle and low-angle faults that mutually interact, significant non-planar, multi-stranded faults with variable dip along strike and with depth, and active mid-crustal detachments. In places, closely-spaced fault strands or fault systems can remain surprisingly subparallel to seismogenic depths, while in other areas, major strike-slip to oblique-slip faults can merge, such as the S-dipping Arroyo Parida-Mission Ridge and Santa Ynez faults with the N-dipping North Channel-Pitas Point-Red Mountain fault system, or diverge with depth. Examples of the latter include the steep-to-west-dipping Laguna Salada-Indiviso faults with the steep-to-east-dipping Sierra Cucapah faults, and the steep southern San Andreas fault with the adjacent NE-dipping Mecca Hills-Hidden Springs fault system. In addition, overprinting by steep predominantly strike-slip faulting can segment which parts of intersecting inherited low-angle faults are reactivated, or result in mutual cross-cutting relationships. The updated CFM 3D fault surfaces thus help characterize a more complex pattern of fault interactions at depth between various fault sets and linked fault systems, and a more complex fault geometry than typically inferred or expected from

  17. Chromium Isotopes in Marine Carbonates - an Indicator for Climatic Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Gaucher, C.

    2010-12-01

    (VI) reduction in groundwater: a detailed time-series study of a point-source plume. Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 44, p. 1043-1048. J.A. Izbicki et al. (2008) Chromium, chromium isotopes and selected trace elements, western Mojave Desert, USA. Applied Geochemistry, v.23, p. 1325-1352. R. Frei et al. (2009) Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature, v. 461, p. 250-253. C. Gaucher et al. (2004) Chemostratigraphy of the Lower Arroyo del Soldado Group (Vendian, Uruguay) and palaeoclimatic implications. Gondwana Research, v.7, p. 715-730

  18. Surface-water and suspended-sediment inflow and outflow for Nutria Reservoir No 3, Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, March 1994 to September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Surface-water and suspended-sediment inflow to and outflow from Nutria Reservoir No. 3 on the Zuni Indian Reservation, western New Mexico, were calculated. The period of study was March 3, 1994, to September 30, 1995. Total runoff into Nutria Reservoir No. 3 during the study period was 6,812 acre-feet. During the study period, 24,310 tons of suspended sediment was transported into Nutria Reservoir No. 3, and 259 tons of suspended sediment was transported out of Nutria Reservoir No. 3. Runoff during the study period, recorded at an upstream gage with 25 years of record, was 137 percent higher than that for a 19-month period similar to the study period. This may indicate that suspended-sediment loads transported into Nutria Reservoir No. 3 also were larger than average. Based on the difference between inflow and outflow of suspended sediment, 24,050 tons of suspended sediment was deposited in Nutria Reservoir No. 3. From March 1994 to May 1994 the spillway elevation of Nutria Reservoir No. 3 was raised to allow water to be diverted into an adjacent reservoir, Nutria Reservoir No. 4. This flow and sediment transported into Nutria Reservoir No. 4 were not recorded. If the elevation of the spillway had not been raised, suspended- sediment loads recorded downstream from Nutria Reservoir No. 3 would have been larger and the calculated amount of sediment deposited in Nutria Reservoir would have been smaller. Of the total suspended-sediment load entering Nutria Reservoir No. 3 during the study period, 94 percent was transported by an arroyo, Garcia Draw. Garcia Draw drains only 15 percent of the total drainage area of Nutria Reservoir No. 3 and contributed less than 5 percent of the total surface runoff to the reservoir. The average annual amount of sediment deposited in Nutria Reservoir No. 3 during the study was 15,355 tons. By using a dry-weight density of 99.4 pounds per cubic foot for the deposited sediment, the annual volume of sediment deposited in Nutria Reservoir

  19. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  20. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-11-18

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, {delta}{sup 15}N values greater than 10{per_thousand} indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1}. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low {delta}{sup 15}N value (3.1{per_thousand}) in this location implicates synthetic

  1. Incorporating multi-platform remote sensing products for prediction of post-fire hydrologic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires are increasing in intensity and size across the western US, and more than half of the 20 largest fires in California have occurred within the last decade. Development in southern California has increased and as a result many homes at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) are affected by fire events themselves and post-fire processes. Current management efforts are mostly concentrated around immediate post-fire effects (first storm season); however, burned systems are often altered for prolonged periods of time, creating long-term concerns for downstream communities at the WUI. Previous work in two southern Californian watersheds, City Creek and Devil Canyon, shows lack of vegetation recovery and significant changes in annual and seasonal discharge for the post-fire study period (seven years). Applying remotely sensed data streams enhances monitoring of large and ungauged burned areas at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The goal of the current study is to integrate remote sensing data from multiple satellite platforms to improve prediction of the spatial and temporal variability of key hydrological variables controlling post-fire response. Remote sensing data streams from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat are used to derive a range of land surface parameters and evaluate ecosystem and hydrologic recovery for the Arroyo Seco, an urban-fringe watershed in southern California burned by the 2009 Station Fire. A UCLA remotely-sensed evapotranspiration (ET) product is used to provide insight on vegetation growth and plant water availability. A UCLA MODIS-AMSR-E soil moisture product is used to evaluate the spatial variability of post-fire surface soil moisture and coupled storm runoff response. A range of other parameters, surface temperature, albedo and vegetation indices, are also evaluated to provide insight on the spatial variability of watershed recovery. Predicting the short and long-term risks of post-fire floods, debris

  2. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  3. Recurrence of Mexican long-tongued bats (Choeronycteris mexicana) at historical sites in Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Bogan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana) is 1 of 3 migratory, nectarivorous bats that seasonally occur in the extreme southwestern United States (US); the other 2 species are Leptonycteris curasoae and L. nivalis. Unlike the species of Leptonycteris, C. mexicana is not known to form large maternity colonies and is rarely encountered in groups of more than 12 individuals (Hoffmeister 1986). Possibly because of a propensity to form small roosting groups, the number of C. mexicana historically encountered is relatively low compared to other bat species. Although the range of C. mexicana extends from the southwestern United States into Honduras, less than 1500 individuals have been documented since its discovery in 1844 (Petryszyn and Cockrum In Press). Roosting and habitat needs of C. mexicana are poorly understood and it is unclear how such requirements might influence the apparent scarcity of these bats. Choeronycteris mexicana is known to roost in a variety of situations, typically in shallow caves or near the entrances of more extensive structures (Arroyo-Cabrales et al. 1987). Roost sites have been reported from various vegetation zones, including tropical deciduous forests at southern latitudes (Davis and Russell 1954), but roosts are frequently found in oak-conifer woodlands in the northern part of its range (Hoffmeister 1986). Mexican long-tongued bats are known to feed on nectar, pollen, or fruit of various flowering plants throughout their range (Gardner 1977). Although mutualistic relationships likely exist between C. mexicana and its food plants, very little is known about the role that this species plays as a pollinator or seed disperser of such plants. The identification and elucidation of mutualistic relationships are necessary steps toward effectively conserving ecosystems in the southwestern US (Allen-Wardell et al. 1998). Given the potential importance of C. mexicana as a pollinator and its apparent scarcity in the southwest US, current

  4. A Groundwater flow Model of the Colorado River Delta to Support Riparian Habitat Restoration in Northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddock, T.; Feirstein, E.; Baird, K. J.; Ajami, H.

    2007-05-01

    Quantification of groundwater flow dynamics and of the interactions among groundwater, surface water, and riparian vegetation, represent key components in the development of a balanced restoration plan for functional riparian ecosystems. A groundwater model was developed using MODFLOW 2000 to support of riparian restoration along the Colorado River Delta (Mexico: Baja California, Sonora). The Colorado River is widely recognized as one of the most modified and allocated rivers in the United States. For over 50 years flows into the Delta were severely reduced by the requirements of an emergent American West. However, subsequent to discharge pulses associated with the filling of Lake Powell, and the increased precipitation that accompanied ENSO cycles, a semblance of a native riparian habitat has been observed in the Delta since the 1980's (Zamora- Arroyo et al. 2001). The Delta and the riparian ecosystems of the region have since become the focus of a substantial body of multidisciplinary research. The research goal is to understand water table dynamics with particular attention to stream-aquifer interactions and groundwater behavior in the root zone. Groundwater reliant transpiration requirements were quantified for a set of dominant native riparian species using the Riparian ET (RIP-ET) package, an improved MODFLOW evapotranspiration (ET) module. RIP-ET simulates ET using a set of eco-physiologically based curves that more accurately represents individual plant species, reflects habitat complexity, and deals spatially with plant and water table distribution. When used in conjunction with a GIS based postprocessor (RIP-GIS.net), RIP-ET provides the basis for mapping groundwater conditions as they relate to user-specified plant groups. This explicit link between groundwater and plant sustainability is a driver to restoration design and allows for scenario modeling of various hydrologic conditions. Groundwater requirements determined in this research will be used by

  5. The rain-triggered Atenquique volcaniclastic debris flow of October 16, 1955 at Nevado de Colima Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo, R.; Macías, J. L.; Sarocchi, D.; Bursik, M.; Rupp, B.

    2008-06-01

    On October 16, 1955, at 10:45 a.m. (local time), after three days of intense rain (140 mm) that was twice the monthly average precipitation, a devastating flood surge formed a volcaniclastic debris flow on the eastern slopes of Nevado de Colima Volcano. Nearly simultaneous flood surges formed in the Arroyo Seco, Los Platanos, and Dos Volcanes ravines that coalesced with the larger flow in the Atenquique ravine. At each confluence with a tributary, the flow was diluted. The texture and structure of the preserved 1955 deposits near high water marks indicate that the downstream flow was mainly in the lower range of debris flow concentration (60% sediment concentration by weight). Downstream the tributaries, the flood encountered a ˜ 0.06 × 10 6 m 3 water reservoir that failed, significantly increasing the surge volume. Additional entrained sediment also increased the flow volume. Downstream, the flood wave reached the town of Atenquique as an 8-9 m catastrophic wave causing the death of more than 23 people, the partial destruction of the town, and losses of ˜ 13,000,000 pesos (˜ 1 million US dollars today) to a paper mill and company facilities. According to eyewitness accounts the flood wave had a peak discharge that lasted ca. 10 to 15 minutes at Atenquique. Deposits at the site and the high-water marks observed from photographs of the town's church indicate that sediment concentration was ca. 60 wt.%. The flood continued for about 1 km to its junction with the Tuxpan River where it was diluted by mixing with normal flood flow. The deposits covered an area of ˜ 1.2 km 2 and had a minimum volume of ˜ 3.2 × 10 6 m 3. The main deposit consists of a single unit, averaging 4 m in thickness, with weak textural variations that suggest surging within the flood wave. The deposit is heterolithologic and consists of boulders set in a matrix of sand-size sediment, with polymodal or bimodal distributions and normal grading varying with distance from source. The town of

  6. Gohieria fusca (Acari: Astigmata) found in the filter dusts of air conditioners in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo

    2014-10-06

    Objetivo: La Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1902) se reproduce en la harina de trigo, arroz, maíz, piensos, salvado de trigo y los medicamentos a base de hierbas, además de en otros productos almacenados; este ácaro puede tener una reactividad cruzada de leve a moderada con alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo domésticos, una importante fuente de alérgenos de interior asociada al asma y otras afecciones alérgicas. Los sistemas de aire acondicionado son indispensables en edificios públicos y civiles, y las pantallas de estos aparatos son los lugares donde más se acumula el polvo. Se realizó este estudio con el fin de investigar si la Gohieria fusca puede reproducirse en las pantallas de los acondicionadores de aire instalados en espacios públicos o viviendas en la ciudad de Wuhu, provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: Se recogieron 430 muestras de polvo de los filtros de los sistemas de aire acondicionado en la cafeterías de centros educativos, mercados, hoteles y edificios civiles entre junio y septiembre de 2013, y se aisló la Gohieria fusca de dichas muestras. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la Gohieria fusca estaba presente en 98 de las 430 muestras (22,79%), y la tasa de reproducción fue significativa en los filtros del aire acondicionado de diferentes espacios (c2=18.294, P.

  7. STUDY OF ACAROID MITES POLLUTION IN STORED FRUIT-DERIVED CHINESE MEDICINAL MATERIALS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-fa; Li, He-xia; Xu, Peng-fei; Xu, Hai-feng; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: investigar las especies y la densidad de reproducción de ácaros en productos medicinales chinos almacenados derivados de la fruta en la provincia de Anhui. Métodos: muestras de productos medicinales chinos almacenados derivados de la fruta fueron recogidos a partir de 30 herbolarios y almacenes en 17 ciudades de Anhui, donde se detectó la reproducción de ácaros. Resultados: se detectaron 20 especies de ácaros en 33 muestras, pertenecientes a 15 géneros, 5 familias de ácaros respectivamente, entre los cuales T. putrescentiae, A. farinae, C. lactis y C. berlesei son las especies predominantes. Conclusión: los productos medicinales chinos almacenados derivados de la fruta en la zona de Anhui sufren una grave contaminación por ácaros. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar medidas dinámicas para controlar la reproducción de ácaros en un esfuerzo por reducir los daños en los productos medicinales.

  8. A new species of Phrynopus (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the central Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Mamani, Luis; Malqui, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the humid grassland of Distrito de Comas, Provincia Concepcion, Department of Junin. The new species is diagnosed by the lack of dentigerous processes of vomers, tympanic annulus and membrane imperceptible through the skin, males with nuptial pads and vocal slits, warty dorsal skin, and aerolate throat, belly and ventral surfaces of thighs, by possessing pronounced subconical tubercles in the post-tympanic area, by having rounded finger and toe tips with no disc structure, and by its overall dark brown to black coloration with few white and yellow spots in the dorsum and a dark-brown belly with white to gray blotches. Specimens were found under stones at a single area of the central Peruvian Andes at elevations between 4205-4490 m.a.s.l. The eggs had an average diameter of 4.3 mm. With the description and naming of the new species, the genus Phrynopus now contains 26 species, all of them endemic to Peru, and five of which are restricted to Departamento Junin. PMID:25081770

  9. "SeismoSAT" project results in connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Živčić, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele; Delazer, Heimo

    2016-04-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are collecting, analysing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time. Up to now the data exchange between the seismic data centres relied on internet: this however was not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason, in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2014) aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As already presented in the past, the general technical schema of the project has been outlined, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected and the hardware has been purchased and installed. Right before the end of its financial period, the SeismoSAT project proved to be successful guaranteeing data connection stability between the involved data centres during an internet outage.

  10. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

    PubMed

    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una enfermedad cronica que afecta al 0,5-1% de la poblacion, mayormente de inicio durante la infancia. Un tercio de los pacientes evoluciona hacia una forma refractaria al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos, lo que plantea al equipo de salud un desafio terapeutico. La dieta cetogenica (DC) es un tratamiento no farmacologico efectivo utilizado como un metodo alternativo para el tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria. Objetivos. Es necesario establecer directrices para utilizar la DC adecuadamente y asi expandir su conocimiento y utilizacion en paises hispanoparlantes. El Comite Nacional de Dieta Cetogenica, dependiente de la Sociedad Argentina de Neurologia Infantil, elaboro este consenso para estandarizar el uso de la DC basandose en la bibliografia publicada y la experiencia clinica. El grupo esta formado por neuropediatras, medicos nutricionistas y licenciadas en nutricion de cinco provincias de Argentina pertenecientes a 10 centros que aplican la DC como tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria. Desarrollo. Se exponen temas tales como la seleccion del paciente, el asesoramiento a la familia antes del tratamiento, las interacciones de la DC con la medicacion anticonvulsionante, los suplementos, el control de efectos adversos y la retirada de dicha dieta. Conclusiones. La DC es un tratamiento util para los pacientes pediatricos con epilepsia intratable. Es fundamental la educacion y colaboracion del paciente y la familia. El tratamiento debe llevarlo a cabo un equipo interdisciplinar experimentado, siguiendo un protocolo. La formacion de un grupo nacional interdisciplinar, y la publicacion de este consenso, ofrece la posibilidad de orientar a nuevos centros en su implantacion.

  11. Sitios de interés astronómico en el Noroeste Argentino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Mosconi, M.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    Se presenta la distribución geográfica de nubosidad en la región comprendida entre las latitudes 23o y 28o Sur, y las longitudes 66o y 69o Oeste, obtenida a partir del análisis de imágenes GOES, tomadas durante los años 1999 al 2002 inclusive. Del análisis de esta información, se revelan como de gran interés las áreas circundantes a los Salares de Antofalla y de Arizaro, en la región de la Puna, en las provincias de Catamarca y Salta. Se hacen comentarios sobre sitios explorados en estas regiones y sobre las posibilidades de asentamientos de grandes facilidades astronómicas en la región. Se complementa la presentación con información tectónica, topográfica y logística de relevante importancia y, finalmente, se discute sobre la selección de emplazamientos para dos estaciones meteorológicas automáticas de la Universidad de Cornell, en las áreas mencionadas.

  12. Tourism and landscape in South Tyrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Werner; Reeh, Tobias

    2011-12-01

    An increasing number of the people responsible for promoting tourism understand the necessity of landscape conservation and sustainable development. Sustainability and the maintenance of regional identity depend on the kind of tourism that takes account of the landscape and stops short of a blind modification of it, for instance through the installation of inappropriate large-scale tourist infrastructure. Since the 1970s South Tyrol, Italy's most northern province (Autonome Provinz Bozen/Südtirol; Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Alto Adige), has engaged in tourism of outstanding quality, centreed on the existing landscape potential. Until today this has been the basis for successful tourism development. In the meantime however, there have been calls in South Tyrol for a quantitative expansion, founded on the implementation of an artificial touristic infrastructure and products. As is the case in many other alpine regions, this could be detrimental to the quality of the landscape. Supported by tourism research and based on the authors' own long-standing experience, this article analyzes the development and trends of tourism in South Tyrol from a geographical perspective and takes a critical look at the various planning prospects and the problems which might evolve for the landscape and for tourism marketing.

  13. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  14. [The levels of bone mineralization are influenced by body composition in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Correa Rodríguez, Maria; Rueda Medina, Blanca; González Jiménez, Emilio; Navarro Pérez, Carmen Flores; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Existe controversia acerca del efecto del sobrepeso y la obesidad en la mineralización ósea en la adolescencia. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar el nivel de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) en una población de adolescentes y estudiar su relación con la composición corporal. Material y método: La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 157 adolescentes (93 mujeres y 64 varones) de la provincia de Granada (España). La edad media fue de 14,22 ± 1,41 años. Se valoró la DMO mediante osteosonografía del calcáneo. Los parámetros densitométricos fueron: coeficiente de atenuación de banda ancha (BUA), T-score yZ-score. La composición corporal se determinó con bioimpedanciómetro. Resultados: Los sujetos con obesidad y sobrepeso presentaron valores mayores en el BUA frente a los sujetos con normopeso (95,4± 17,77 y 90,0±1,08 vs. 81,1±17,79) encontrándose diferencias significativas (p.

  15. A new derived and highly polymorphic chromosomal race of Liolaemus monticola (Iguanidae) from the 'Norte Chico' of Chile.

    PubMed

    Lamborot, M

    1998-06-01

    A multiple Robertsonian fission chromosomal race of the Liolaemus monticola complex in Chile is described and is shown to be the most derived and the most complex among the Liolaemus examined thus far. The 29 karyotyped lizards analysed from the locality of Mina Hierro Viejo, Petorca, Provincia de Valparaiso, Chile, exhibited a diploid chromosomal number ranging from 42 to 44, and several polymorphisms. The polymorphisms included: a pair 1 fission; a pair 2 fission plus a pericentric inversion in one of the fission products, which moved the NOR and satellite from the tip of the long arm of the metacentric 2 to the short arm of the fission product; a fission in pair 3; a polymorphism for an enlarged chromosome pair 6; and a polymorphism for a pericentric inversion in pair 7. This population is fixed for a fission of chromosome pair 4. A total of 76% of the lizards analysed were polymorphic for one or more pairs of chromosomes. We have compared these data with other Liolaemus monticola chromosomal races and calculated the Hardy-Weinberg ratios for the polymorphic chromosome pairs in this Multiple-Fission race. Karyotypic differences between the Northern (2n = 38-40) and the Multiple-Fission (2n = 42-44) races were attributed mainly to Robertsonian fissions, an enlarged chromosome and pericentric inversions involving the macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair. PMID:9688513

  16. Diatoms in coal: Miocene Venado Formation, Limon Basin, Costa Rica, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.D.; Coates, D.A.; Bradbury, J.P.; Bohor, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Diatoms occur in coal in the Venado Formation on the southwest flank of the Limon Basin in Provincia Alajuela, northern Costa Rica. The Venado Formation contains more than 300 m of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, limestones, and coal beds that crop out on the northeast flank of the Cordillera de Tilaran. Coal beds of unknown extent and correlation occur mainly in the middle part of the formation. The coal deposit here named informally the Pataste coal bed. Coal samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray analyzer attachment. Part A contains abundant diatoms and macerated diatom material and rare spicules of freshwater sponges. Diatoms identified are Melosira ambigua, Pinularia, Eunotia spp. and Achnathes exigua. Parts B and C of the coal bed contain fewer diatom remains and more sponge spicules than part A. The common presence of Melosira ambigua in A implies the proximity of open-water lacustrine environments. The other diatom species are benthic or bottom-dwelling forms that lived in slightly acidic, humic-rich paludal environments. Presumably, the swamp in which the coal was formed was most extensive during the deposition of A, and became progressively restricted thereafter. The increase of sponge spicules relative to diatoms in B and C suggests progressively, shallower lacustrine or restricted swamp conditions. The comparatively great abundance of biogenic opaline material in the coal is due to the influx of silica form a volcanic source represented by the tonstein layers.

  17. [Cognitive performance and quality of life in multiple sclerosis in Gipuzkoa].

    PubMed

    Sistiaga, Andone; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Aliri, Jone; Gaztañaga, Mirari; Acha, Joana; Arruti, Maialen; Otaegui, David; Olascoaga, Javier

    2014-04-16

    Introduccion. El deterioro cognitivo y la presencia de sintomas depresivos, comunes en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple, inciden en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Objetivo. Describir la calidad de vida, la afectacion cognitiva y los niveles de depresion, en relacion con otras variables clinicas, en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple de la provincia de Gipuzkoa. Pacientes y metodos. Se evaluo neuropsicologicamente a 114 pacientes. Se incluyeron el MSQoL-54 y el inventario de depresion de Beck para evaluar la calidad de vida y los niveles de depresion. Se emprendieron tres analisis principales: comparacion del rendimiento cognitivo entre subtipos, analisis de correlacion entre variables clinicas, neuropsicologicas y de calidad de vida, y analisis sobre los efectos del genero en el rendimiento cognitivo. Resultados. Se halla en la esclerosis multiple un patron neuropsicologico caracterizado por enlentecimiento en el procesamiento de la informacion y dificultades atencionales. La calidad de vida se relaciona con sintomas depresivos y con el rendimiento cognitivo global pero no con factores clinicos como la tasa de brote o la duracion de la enfermedad. Los datos confirman un peor rendimiento cognitivo en los hombres, sobre todo en la memoria auditiva verbal. Conclusiones. El genero se presenta como un factor modulador en el impacto de la enfermedad sobre el rendimiento cognitivo, que refuerza el interes de estudios que clarifiquen el origen de dichas diferencias. Ademas, la calidad de vida muestra una mayor relacion con la adaptacion a la enfermedad que con sus sintomas.

  18. [Waist-hip ratio as a predictor of arterial hypertension risk in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel Ángel; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2013-11-01

    Resumen: Objetivos: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron verificar la existencia de una asociación significativa entre el estado nutricional de los alumnos y los valores del índice de cintura-cadera. En segundo lugar, comprobar una posible correlación entre los valores del índice de cintura-cadera y los niveles de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Muestra y metodología: Una población de 1001 adolescentes de entre 9 y 17 años de edad, pertenecientes a 18 centros educativos de las provincias de Granada y Almería. Se realizó una valoración completa del estado nutricional de los alumnos mediante antropometría así como la determinación de la presión arterial a todos los alumnos. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos confirman una prevalencia de normopeso del 85,01%, frente a una tasa de sobrepeso del 9,99% y de obesidad del 4,99% para ambos sexos y con independencia de la edad. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre el estado nutricional y su relación los valores del índice cintura–cadera (F=118,060; p.

  19. [Weight-for-age percentile curves for the population of Catamarca province (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    López Barbancho, Diego; Terán de Frutos, José Manuel; Candelas González, Nieves; Díaz de Luna, María Cristina; Marrodán Serrano, María Dolores; Lomaglio, Delia Beatriz

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: La evaluación del desarrollo fetal y del peso al nacimiento es un objetivo prioritario en el ámbito de la epidemiología nutricional y de la salud pública. En la actualidad, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) no dispone de curvas específicas de peso al nacimiento para las distintas semanas gestacionales al considerar que las características socioeconómicas, ecológicas y étnicas de los distintos grupos humanos influyen en sus propios patrones de crecimiento. Objetivo: La presente investigación desarrolla las curvas percentilares de peso por edad gestacional para las poblaciones residentes en la provincia de Catamarca. Métodos: El procesamiento de los datos se llevó a cabo con el programa SPSS y para la posterior realización de las curvas percentilares se utilizó el programa LMS Chart Maker pro, a partir de un total de 22.576 nacimientos ocurridos entre 1994 y 2003. Discusión y conclusiones: Dichas curvas posibilitarán en el futuro una mejor valoración del desarrollo intrauterino y del peso de los recién nacidos en esta región del Noroeste de Argentina.

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate conditions -characterized by the concentration of the precipitation in the seasons of autumn and spring, the low temperatures in winter and extremely warm and dry summers- determine that ground cover by adventitious (or cover crop) vegetation shows significant seasonal and annual variability. In addition, its spatial variability associates also, partially, to water availability among the landscape. This is especially relevant in olive orchards, an agricultural system under high erosion risk in the region where the establishment of herbaceous cover has proved to improve soil protection reducing erosion risk, as well as the improvement of soil properties (Gómez et al., 2009). All these benefits are based on small scale studies where full ground cover by the cover crop is relatively easy to obtain. However, few information is available about the actual ground cover achieved at farm scale, although preliminary observations suggests that this might be extremely variable (Gómez and Giráldez, 2009). This study presents the preliminary results evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover by adventitious vegetation (the preferred option by farmers to achieve a cover crop) in two commercial olive farms during 2 hydrological years (2011-2012). The study was conducted in two farms located in the province of Cordoba, Southern Spain. Both were olive orchards grown under deficit irrigation systems and present a gauge station where rainfall, runoff and sediment loads have been measured from the year 2005. The soil management in "La Conchuela" farm was based in the use of herbicide in the line of olive trees to keep the bare soil all year round, and the application of selective herbicide in the lane between the olive trees to promote the grown of graminaceae grasses . In addition, the grass is mechanically killed in June. In the another farm, "Arroyo Blanco", the grass spontaneous cover is allowed until mid-spring in which is also

  1. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  2. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate conditions -characterized by the concentration of the precipitation in the seasons of autumn and spring, the low temperatures in winter and extremely warm and dry summers- determine that ground cover by adventitious (or cover crop) vegetation shows significant seasonal and annual variability. In addition, its spatial variability associates also, partially, to water availability among the landscape. This is especially relevant in olive orchards, an agricultural system under high erosion risk in the region where the establishment of herbaceous cover has proved to improve soil protection reducing erosion risk, as well as the improvement of soil properties (Gómez et al., 2009). All these benefits are based on small scale studies where full ground cover by the cover crop is relatively easy to obtain. However, few information is available about the actual ground cover achieved at farm scale, although preliminary observations suggests that this might be extremely variable (Gómez and Giráldez, 2009). This study presents the preliminary results evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover by adventitious vegetation (the preferred option by farmers to achieve a cover crop) in two commercial olive farms during 2 hydrological years (2011-2012). The study was conducted in two farms located in the province of Cordoba, Southern Spain. Both were olive orchards grown under deficit irrigation systems and present a gauge station where rainfall, runoff and sediment loads have been measured from the year 2005. The soil management in "La Conchuela" farm was based in the use of herbicide in the line of olive trees to keep the bare soil all year round, and the application of selective herbicide in the lane between the olive trees to promote the grown of graminaceae grasses . In addition, the grass is mechanically killed in June. In the another farm, "Arroyo Blanco", the grass spontaneous cover is allowed until mid-spring in which is also

  4. Geohydrology of Storage Unit III and a combined flow model of the Santa Barbara and foothill ground-water basins, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freckleton, John R.; Martin, Peter; Nishikawa, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    The city of Santa Barbara pumps most of its ground water from the Santa Barbara and Foothill ground-water basins. The Santa Barbara basin is subdivided into two storage units: Storage Unit I and Storage Unit III. The Foothill basin and Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara basin have been studied extensively and ground-water flow models have been developed for them. In this report, the geohydrology of the Santa Barbara ground- water basin is described with a special emphasis on Storage Unit III in the southwestern part of the basin. The purposes of this study were to summarize and evaluate the geohydrology of Storage Unit III and to develop an areawide model of the Santa Barbara and Foothill basins that includes the previously unmodeled Storage Unit III. Storage Unit III is in the southwestern part of the city of Santa Barbara. It is approximately 3.5 miles long and varies in width from about 2,000 feet in the southeast to 4,000 feet in the north-west. Storage Unit III is composed of the Santa Barbara Formation and overlying alluvium. The Santa Barbara Formation (the principal aquifer) consists of Pleistocene and Pliocene(?) unconsolidated marine sand, silt, and clay, and it has a maximum saturated thickness of about 160 feet. The alluvium that overlies the Santa Barbara Formation has a maximum saturated thickness of about 140 feet. The storage unit is bounded areally by faults and low-permeability deposits and is underlain by rocks of Tertiary age. The main sources of recharge to Storage Unit III are seepage from Arroyo Burro and infiltration of precipitation. Most of the recharge occurs in the northwest part of the storage unit, and ground water flows toward the southeast along the unit's long axis. Lesser amounts of recharge may occur as subsurface flow from the Hope Ranch subbasin and as upwelling from the underlying Tertiary rocks. Discharge from Storage Unit III occurs as pumpage, flow to underground drains, underflow through alluvium in the vicinity of Arroyo

  5. Ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Carlsbad, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, William E.

    1945-01-01

    irrigation use. A large part of the water in the Carlsbad limestone emerges in the spring area north of Carlsbad, and a part of it moves into the valley fill in Dark Canyon Arroyo. The water in the fill of Dark Canyon Arroyo moves laterally into the limestone of the Rustier formation. The water moving eastward in the valley fill and Rustier limestone becomes progressively more mineralized and in the farmland area in the Carlsbad Irrigation Dstrict it is unfit for domestic use. In addition, highly mineralized water seeping from the farmlands and canals in the Carlsbad Irrigation District commingles with the water from the west, and the resulting mixture is undesirable even for watering stock, although if necessity it is much used for that purpose. Water occurs in channels of the Carlsbad limestone, and wells drilled into it generally obtain large yields id hard but potable water. The municipal supply of the city of Carlsbad is derived from 4 wells (1940) in the Carlsbad limestone. The aquifer has a high transmissibility in the vicinity of Carlsbad, as was shown by a test made on one of the wells owned by Southwestern Public Service Co. This well has a specific capacity of 275 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The present withdrawal of water from wells penetrating the aquifers in the Carlsbad limestone averages about 4 second-feet (about 2,600,00 gallons a day). The average flow emerging in the spring area in the Pacos River north of Carlsbad is about 60 second-feet (about 40 million gallons a day). It appears that about 12 second-feet of this flow (about 8 million gallons a day) comes from aquifers in the Carlsbad limestone and that the remainder represents leakage from Lake Avalon and the canal system. The valley fill is less permeable than the Carlsbad limestone but in some places sufficient yields are obtained for irrigation purposes. A test made on a well in the fill just south of Carlsbad showed the aquifer in that locality to have a transmissibility of about 60

  6. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS IN SPANISH POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Orgaz Gallego, María Pilar; Bermejo López, Pablo; Tricio Armero, Miguel Angel; Abellán Alemán, José; Solera Albero, Juan; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: los objetivos de este estudio fueron estimar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico y cada uno de sus componentes en mujeres menopáusicas mayores de 45 años de la provincia de Cuenca (España), con el fin de conocer su riesgo cardiovascular y el control metabólico de los principales factores de riesgo. Método: estudio observacional, transversal con selección aleatoria de 716 mujeres entre 3.108 menopáusicas mayores de 45 años. El síndrome metabólico se identificó de acuerdo con la definición del NCEP-ATP III. El riesgo cardiovascular se calculó con la tabla SCORE en las menores de 65 años y se utilizaron los estándares de la American Diabetes Association “ADA” para estimar el control metabólico. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS.19. Resultados: la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico fue del 61,7% (IC95% 56,9-66,4). La prevalencia de cada componente fue: hipertensión arterial: 95,8% (IC95% 95,7-95,8), obesidad abdominal: 91% (IC95% 90,9-91,0), niveles bajos de HDLc: 70% (IC95% 69,8-69,9), hipertrigliceridemia: 56,9% (IC95% 56,4-56,9), hiperglucemia: 54,3% (IC95% 54,2-54,3). El riesgo cardiovascular fue moderado hasta los 65 años y alto en la mayoría de las mujeres que superaban esa edad. El control metabólico fue muy bueno para la glucemia, malo para la presión arterial sistólica y peor para los niveles de lípidos. El mal control de la presión sanguínea se asoció a ser mayor de 65 años, hipertensa y recibir terapia antidiabética, mejorando cuando la limitación física para actividades moderadas y la ansiedad aumentaban. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en mujeres postmenopáusicas de la provincia de Cuenca es la más alta de España. La hipertensión y la obesidad abdominal son los componentes más frecuentes. El riesgo cardiovascular es moderado–alto en la postmenopausia; sin embargo, el control de la hipertensión arterial sistólica y del perfil lipídico es

  7. The Patagonian Orocline: Paleomagnetic evidence of a large counter-clockwise rotation during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, Fernando; Roperch, Pierrick; Herve, Francisco; Ramirez, Cristobal; Arriagada, Cesar

    2014-05-01

    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure, the Patagonian Orocline. Despite the fact that this major structure was already described by Alfred Wegener in his famous textbook in 1929, few paleomagnetic studies have been attempted to describe the rotations associated with the formation of the Patagonian Orocline. In this study we present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from more than 130 sites obtained from the Ultima Esperanza region (NS structures at ~51°S) to Península Hardy, south of the Beagle Channel at ~55°S. 45 sites were sampled in early-cretaceous gabbros (gabbro complex), mid-cretaceous tonalites and granodiorites (Canal Beagle group) and Paleocene intrusive rocks (Seno Año Nuevo group) from the South Patagonian batholith, 4 sites from the late Jurassic Hardy formation, a volcanic succession outcropping in Hardy Peninsula and Stewart Island, 9 sites were drilled in the lower cretaceous sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes Basin, 3 sites from the Tortuga ophiolite, a quasi-oceanic crust related to the opening of the Rocas Verdes basin. 80 sites were sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Magallanes fold and thrust belt and Magallanes Basin. Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations (ChRMs) obtained from the Rocas Verdes Basin tectonic province correspond to secondary magnetizations postdating the early phase of folding. Pyrrhotite is the main magnetic carrier in some of these sites. ChRMs from the South Patagonian Batholith correspond to a primary magnetization. These rocks record about 90° counterclockwise rotations south of the Beagle channel. Few sites from sediments of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt have stable ChRM. The available paleomagnetic results show that no rotation has occurred in the Provincia of Ultima Esperanza (51.5°S), at least, for the last 60 Ma. In the southern part of Provincia de Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego

  8. [Reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical activity in normal weight adolescents and overweight].

    PubMed

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; de Arruda, Miguel; Camargo, Cristiane; Cossio Bolaños, Marco A

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: En los últimos años se ha reportado altos niveles de obesidad relacionados con bajos niveles de actividad física, lo que muestra la necesidad de su valoración como elementos de la salud y calidad de vida. Objetivo: Verificar la capacidad de reproductibilidad de un cuestionario de AF en adolescentes escolares clasificados como normopeso, con sobrepeso y con obesidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 1306 adolescentes escolares (562 hombres y 744 mujeres) de tres instituciones educativas Municipales de la provincia de Talca (Chile). El rango de edad fue de 12,0 a 17,9 años. Se evaluó el peso y la estatura y se calculó el Índice de Masa Corporal. Se utilizó los puntos de corte del CDC-2000 para la clasificación en categorías nutricionales (normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad). Se aplicó una encuesta de actividad física a los tres grupos estudiados. Resultados: Se identificaron 388 hombres y 533 mujeres con normopeso, 131 hombres y 169 mujeres con sobrepeso, 43 hombres y 42 mujeres con obesidad. En ambos sexos el alfa de Cronbach mostró altos valores de confiabilidad. En hombres (con normopeso 0,80, con sobrepeso 0,77 y con obesidad 0,83) y en mujeres (con normopeso 0,79, con sobrepeso 0,77 y con obesidad 0,76). Conclusión: El instrumento utilizado mostró alta capacidad de reproductibilidad, tanto en adolescentes normopesos, con sobrepeso y con obesidad. Estos resultados sugieren el uso cotidiano en la encuesta para valorar los patrones de AF a gran escala, independientemente del estado nutricional en la que se encuentren.

  9. [Assessment of therapeutic passive hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy that need interhospital transport].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ruiz, José A; Lagares-Franco, Carolina; Rodríguez-Molina, Óscar; Cordero-Cañas, Enrique; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Introduccion. La hipotermia inducida durante las primeras horas de vida del recien nacido es un tratamiento eficaz para reducir la mortalidad y secuelas graves en neonatos que han sufrido un episodio de hipoxia perinatal. Este procedimiento requiere una asistencia universalizada independiente del centro donde haya nacido, siendo necesario su traslado al hospital de referencia. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia del traslado interhospitalario del neonato con encefalopatia hipoxico-isquemica en hipotermia pasiva. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo de series de casos con caracter retrospectivo. Se estudiaron neonatos de la provincia de Cadiz que precisaron hipotermia inducida. Se incluyo a un total de 46 neonatos en el analisis: 33 de ellos (71,74%) precisaron traslado por el Servicio de Traslados de Pacientes Criticos (grupo TPC); el resto (28,26%) nacio en el centro de referencia. Resultados. Ambos grupos son comparables en edad gestacional al nacimiento, sexo, peso y grado de encefalopatia hipoxico-isquemica. Se analizan variables relacionadas con la aplicacion de la hipotermia, y en el grupo TPC se analizan variables relacionadas con el traslado. No se aprecian diferencias significativas entre los grupos en la efectividad-consecuencia de la terapia neuroprotectora con hipotermia al alta hospitalaria (p = 0,159). No se encuentran complicaciones derivadas del traslado interhospitalario. Conclusiones. El traslado interhospitalario del neonato en hipotermia terapeutica realizado de forma pasiva es efectivo, seguro y necesario para el cumplimiento de la terapia. Es preciso consensuar la asistencia con el servicio de referencia, estableciendo guias en cuanto al soporte y rango de temperatura adecuada, consolidando asi una asistencia integral.

  10. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  11. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Elgart, Jorge F.; González, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Although test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent around 50% of diabetes treatment cost in Argentina, little is known about their current use and relationship with different types of treatment. We therefore aimed to estimate the current use of test strips and identify the major use drivers and the percentage they represent of total prescription costs in 2 entities of the social security system (SSS) of Argentina. Observational retrospective study measuring test strip prescriptions delivered by pharmacies from the province of Buenos Aires (8115 records collected during 3 months provided by the Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) of affiliates with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from 2 large entities of the SSS system. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG was 97.5 ± 70.1. This number varied according to treatment: monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. Test strips represented a higher percentage of the total prescription cost in people under OAD monotherapy (84.6%) and lower in those with insulin analogs (46.9%). In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG and its impact on the total prescription cost depends on the kind of such treatment. Since it has been shown that patients’ education and prescription audit can optimize test strip use and treatment outcomes, implementation of such strategies could appropriately support, optimize, and reduce ineffective test strip use in people with T2DM. PMID:25208965

  12. Preliminary report on the intestinal parasites and their diversity in captive Chinese alligators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Zhou, Yongkang; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Tang, Xiaoniu; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-20

    Objetivo: Aunque los parásitos intestinales son comúnmente detectados en los cocodrilos salvajes o en criados en cautividad en otras partes del mundo, existen muy pocos informes el caso concreto del caimán chino criado en cautividad (Alligator sinensis), ya que sólo están distribuidos en las zonas del sur del río Yangtze. El presente trabajo fue realizado para investigar los parásitos intestinales y su diversidad en las especies de cocodrilo chino. Métodos: En mayo y octubre de 2013, se recopilaron aleatoriamente un total de 328 muestras fecales de caimanes chinos en cautividad de un centro de cría en el sur de la provincia de Anhui. Resultados: Fueron identificados tres géneros de protozoos (Entaoeba, Eimeria e Isospora), cinco géneros de nematodos (Ascaris, Dujardin Ascaris, Capillaria, Toxocara y Strongylus), dos géneros de trematodos (Echinostoma y Clonorchis) y dos familias de trematodos (Schistosomatidae y Cryptogonimidae), de los cuales la mayor prevalencia correspondió a Dujardin Ascaris y producían la mayor tasa de infección (14,33%); entaoeba se situó en el segundo puesto (13,11%). El número de especies, índice de riqueza, índice de diversidad y de equitatividad fue superior en los meses de julio y agosto, y éstos, relativamente más para caimanes jóvenes y sub-adultos. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados apuntan la prevalencia de la infección por parásitos intestinales en caimanes chinos en cautividad y ello exige nuestra atención, ya sea para controlar o prevenir la propagación de la enfermedad parasitaria intestinal a los seres humanos, o para la conservación de esta especie en peligro de extinción.

  13. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: use, frequency drivers, and cost in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    Although test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent around 50% of diabetes treatment cost in Argentina, little is known about their current use and relationship with different types of treatment. We therefore aimed to estimate the current use of test strips and identify the major use drivers and the percentage they represent of total prescription costs in 2 entities of the social security system (SSS) of Argentina. Observational retrospective study measuring test strip prescriptions delivered by pharmacies from the province of Buenos Aires (8115 records collected during 3 months provided by the Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) of affiliates with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from 2 large entities of the SSS system. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG was 97.5 ± 70.1. This number varied according to treatment: monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. Test strips represented a higher percentage of the total prescription cost in people under OAD monotherapy (84.6%) and lower in those with insulin analogs (46.9%). In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG and its impact on the total prescription cost depends on the kind of such treatment. Since it has been shown that patients' education and prescription audit can optimize test strip use and treatment outcomes, implementation of such strategies could appropriately support, optimize, and reduce ineffective test strip use in people with T2DM. PMID:25208965

  14. [Family factors influence active commuting to school in Spanish children].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Carlos; Villa-González, Emilio; Pérez-López, Isaac J; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Chillón, Palma

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El desplazamiento activo al colegio contribuye a aumentar los niveles de actividad física en niños. Los factores familiares pueden determinar dicho comportamiento. Objetivo: El objetivo fue analizar la asociación de la actividad laboral y el desplazamiento al trabajo de los padres con el modo de desplazamiento de sus hijos. Método: Participaron 721 familias de 4 colegios de la provincia de Granada. Las familias completaron un cuestionario sobre el modo de desplazamiento de sus hijos, la actividad laboral y el modo de desplazamiento de los padres, y la distancia y tiempo del trayecto al colegio de sus hijos. Las asociaciones entre la actividad laboral de las familias y modo de desplazamiento al trabajo con el desplazamiento activo al colegio de sus hijos se estudiaron con regresión logística binaria ajustando por distancia al colegio y edad de los hijos. Resultados: Los niños cuyos padres y madres no trabajaban eran más propensos a ir de forma activa al colegio que aquellos donde ambos trabajaban (p = 0,023; OR: 2,67; 95% IC: 1,14-6,23). Los niños cuyos padres y madres se desplazaban de forma activa al trabajo eran más propensos a ir de forma activa al colegio que aquellos donde ambos padres se desplazaban de forma pasiva al trabajo (p = 0,014; OR: 6,30; 95% IC: 1,45-27,26). Conclusión: Los factores familiares estaban relacionados con el modo de desplazamiento de los niños al colegio: en familias con desempleo y en familias con empleo donde los padres se desplazan al trabajo de forma activa, los hijos parecen ser más activos.

  15. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley. PMID:26250261

  16. "SeismoSAT" project state of the art: connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Zivcic, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centres relies on internet: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As it will be illustrated, the general technical schema of the project has been approved, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected, the hardware has been purchased and installed, and the all SeismoSAT project is in testing phase.

  17. "SeismoSAT" project results in connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Živčić, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. Up to now the data exchange between the seismic data centres relied on internet: this however was not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As already presented in the past, the general technical schema of the project has been approved, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected and the hardware has been purchased and installed. We will here illustrate the SeismoSAT project final tests and results.

  18. [C-reactive protein as a biochemical marker of cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel A; Schmidt-Ríovalle, Jacqueline

    2013-11-01

    Resumen: Objetivos: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar el perfil metabólico de la población de estudio. En segundo lugar, verificar una asociación significativa entre el estado nutricional de los sujetos y los niveles séricos de proteína-C reactiva. Por último, comprobar la existencia de una correlación entre los niveles séricos de proteína-C reactiva y los valores del índice de cintura-cadera. Muestra y metodología: Una población de 1001 adolescentes de entre 9 y 17 años de edad, pertenecientes a 18 centros educativos de las provincias de Granada y Almería. Se evaluó el estado nutricional de los alumnos mediante antropometría. Para el estudio metabólico, se practicó una extracción sanguínea mediante punción venosa a cada alumno, analizando proteína-C reactiva, glucemia basal, ceruloplasmina, hemoglobina glicosilada (HBA1c), insulina basal, niveles séricos de lipoproteína (a) y ácidos grasos de cadena larga (NEFA). Resultados: El estudio bioquímico evidenció un perfil metabólico normal, destacando niveles séricos de proteína-C reactiva, glucemia basal, ceruloplasmina, hemoglobina glicosilada, insulina basal, lipoproteína (a) y ácidos grasos libres ligeramente superiores en chicos. Se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p.

  19. Subclinical eating disorders in female medical students in Anhui, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Wei; Nie, Miao; Kang, Yao-Wen; He, Lian-Ping; Jin, Yue-Long; Yao, Ying-Shui

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: Este estudio transversal exploró la prevalencia de los trastornos de la Alimentación (eds) y posibles factores asociados (síntomas depresivos, ansiedad y BMI, etc) sobre EDS en mujeres estudiantes de medicina en China. Métodos: un total de 1135 estudiantes en Wuhu, provincia de Anhui fueron seleccionadas para participar en esta encuesta.La encuesta recoge datos sociodemográficos, síntomas depresivos, ansiedad y conductas alimentarias de estudiantes. Resultados: los estudiantes en situación de riesgo para los trastornos alimentarios eran 2,17%.Trastorno alimenticio riesgo fue más frecuente en los estudiantes con la relación de los estudiantes con la pobre padre, mala relación con los padres, los alumnos con alto índice de masa corporal, los estudiantes que son la excesiva atención a la propaganda de adelgazamiento, y estudiantes cuyos familiares tienen una dieta.Además, la media de las puntuaciones para los factores psicológicos de la depresion y la ansiedad fueron mayores en los estudiantes con trastorno alimentario riesgo.Un modelo de regresion lineal multiple fue producido que muestran que la depresión, la ansiedad, el alto nivel de IMC, centrándose en la propaganda y la dieta de adelgazamiento, condición entre parientes eran factores de riesgo de tener un trastorno alimenticio y riesgo. Conclusiones: una importante fracción de mujeres estudiantes de medicina en Anhui están en alto riesgo de desarrollo de trastornos de la alimentación.Una intervención integral centrado en el entorno familiar y manejo de emociones deben ser diseñados para prevenir la ocurrencia de tales trastornos entre los estudiantes de medicina que, sin duda, obstaculizar la disponibilidad de servicios médicos de confianza en el futuro.

  20. Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces.

    PubMed

    Pekin, Burak K

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural intensification is thought to pose a significant threat to species, little is known about its role in driving biodiversity loss at regional scales. I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity. I determined butterfly species presence in each province from data on known butterfly distributions and calculated agricultural chemical use as the proportion of agricultural households that use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. I used constrained correspondence analyses and regression-based multimodel inference to determine the effect of environmental variables on species composition and richness, respectively. The variation in butterfly species composition across the provinces was largely explained (78%) by the combination of agricultural chemical use, particularly pesticides, and climatic and land-cover variables. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey. Accordingly, policies that mitigate agricultural intensification and promote low-input farming practices are crucial for protecting threatened species from extinction in rapidly industrializing nations such as Turkey. Efectos del Uso Extensivo de Agroquímicos sobre la Diversidad de Mariposas en Provincias Turcas.

  1. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-07-30

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley.

  2. Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces.

    PubMed

    Pekin, Burak K

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural intensification is thought to pose a significant threat to species, little is known about its role in driving biodiversity loss at regional scales. I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity. I determined butterfly species presence in each province from data on known butterfly distributions and calculated agricultural chemical use as the proportion of agricultural households that use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. I used constrained correspondence analyses and regression-based multimodel inference to determine the effect of environmental variables on species composition and richness, respectively. The variation in butterfly species composition across the provinces was largely explained (78%) by the combination of agricultural chemical use, particularly pesticides, and climatic and land-cover variables. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey. Accordingly, policies that mitigate agricultural intensification and promote low-input farming practices are crucial for protecting threatened species from extinction in rapidly industrializing nations such as Turkey. Efectos del Uso Extensivo de Agroquímicos sobre la Diversidad de Mariposas en Provincias Turcas. PMID:23869856

  3. [Home-based rehabilitation in the functional recovery of patients with cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    López-Liria, Remedios; Ferre-Salmerón, Rocío; Arrebola-López, Clara; Granados-Valverde, Rocío; Gobernado-Cabero, Miguel Ángel; Padilla-Góngora, David

    2013-06-16

    Introduccion. El estudio de la eficacia en los tratamientos de rehabilitacion aplicados a pacientes con secuelas tras una enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV) resulta decisivo en la actualidad para planificar su abordaje desde la sanidad publica y mejorar las directrices de evaluacion y tratamiento existentes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas que presentan los pacientes que han sufrido ECV atendidos por las unidades moviles de rehabilitacion-fisioterapia (UMRF) y como influyen estos tratamientos sobre su recuperacion funcional. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo prospectivo en 124 pacientes derivados a las UMRF de la provincia de Almeria entre 2008 y 2011. Se analizaron variables (pre y postratamiento) como las caracteristicas y antecedentes personales, indice de Barthel, escala de espasticidad de Ashworth modificada, dolor (hombro) y escala neurologica canadiense. Resultados. La muestra final estuvo compuesta por 106 participantes (edad media: 73,72 años). El proceso discapacitante fue isquemico en un 77,4%, y la hipertension, el factor de riesgo mas prevalente (81%). La media del indice de Barthel inicial fue de 31,04, y la media del indice final, de 57,62 (t = –11,75; p < 0,001). La escala canadiense mostro una evolucion favorable en el nivel de conciencia, orientacion y lenguaje (p < 0,001). El 56,2% de los pacientes recibio alta por mejoria, sin precisar rehabilitacion ambulatoria adicional. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan una importante mejora funcional en los pacientes tratados en las UMRF. La rehabilitacion domiciliaria se plantea como una herramienta necesaria para las personas con mayor vulnerabilidad clinica y sin acceso a los cuidados ambulatorios, que logra los beneficios de tratamientos que son efectivos.

  4. An Evaluation of Selected Extraordinary Floods in the United States Reported by the U.S. Geological Survey and Implications for Future Advancement of Flood Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty flood peak discharges determine the envelope curve of maximum floods documented in the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. These floods occurred from 1927 to 1978 and are extraordinary not just in their magnitude, but in their hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics. The reliability of the computed discharge of these extraordinary floods was reviewed and evaluated using current (2007) best practices. Of the 30 flood peak discharges investigated, only 7 were measured at daily streamflow-gaging stations that existed when the flood occurred, and 23 were measured at miscellaneous (ungaged) sites. Methods used to measure these 30 extraordinary flood peak discharges consisted of 21 slope-area measurements, 2 direct current-meter measurements, 1 culvert measurement, 1 rating-curve extension, and 1 interpolation and rating-curve extension. The remaining four peak discharges were measured using combinations of culvert, slope-area, flow-over-road, and contracted-opening measurements. The method of peak discharge determination for one flood is unknown. Changes to peak discharge or rating are recommended for 20 of the 30 flood peak discharges that were evaluated. Nine floods retained published peak discharges, but their ratings were downgraded. For two floods, both peak discharge and rating were corrected and revised. Peak discharges for five floods that are subject to significant uncertainty due to complex field and hydraulic conditions, were re-rated as estimates. This study resulted in 5 of the 30 peak discharges having revised values greater than about 10 percent different from the original published values. Peak discharges were smaller for three floods (North Fork Hubbard Creek, Texas; El Rancho Arroyo, New Mexico; South Fork Wailua River, Hawaii), and two peak discharges were revised upward (Lahontan Reservoir tributary, Nevada; Bronco Creek, Arizona). Two peak discharges were indeterminate because they were concluded to have been debris flows with peak

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley study unit, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; analysis of selected nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.; Radell, M.J.; Richey, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    estimated load were nearly two orders of magnitude larger at this station relative to upstream stations. Cochiti Lake allows suspended sediment to settle, thus the resulting concentration is substantially lower downstream from the reservoir. Downstream from Cochiti Lake, concentrations again increased due to inflow from tributaries, other ephemeral streams and arroyos, and agricultural and urban areas. Two ephemeral tributaries (Rio Puerco and Rio Salado, which are south of Albuquerque) contribute substantial amounts of suspended sediment to the Rio Grande. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the Rio Grande just downstream from Elephant Butte Dam decreased by nearly three orders of magnitude due to settling in the reservoir. Concentrations then increased due to agricultural and urban impacts downstream from the reservoir. Nutrients in ground water in the study unit do not appear to be a widespread problem. However, localized areas that have elevated nitrate concentrations have been documented. The largest median nitrate concentration was found in water from wells located in the Basin and Range-mountains-urban data stratum (3.0 milligrams per liter) and the smallest median nitrate concentration was found in water from wells located in the Southern Rocky Mountains-mountains-forest data stratum (0.08 milligram per liter). Few (3 percent) nitrate concentrations in water from wells in all data strata were greater than 10 milligrams per liter, and most (82 percent) were less than 2 milligrams per liter. Comparison of nitrate concentrations in water from wells located in specific land-use settings across all hydrogeologic settings, with the exception of the Colorado Plateau, indicated that the largest median nitrate concentration was associated with rangeland land use and that larger nitrate concentrations were found in water fr

  6. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  7. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    operations may affect archeologic sites within the river corridor, even above the annual flood limit (Hereford and others, 1993, Yeatts, 1996, 1997; Thompson and Potochnik, 2000; Draut and others, 2005). (The annual-flood zone is defined here by the mean annual predam flood of 2,410 m3/s; the 'predam flood limit', the highest elevation at which fluvial deposits are present locally, was approximately equivalent to a rare, major flood of 8,500 m3/s; Topping and others, 2003.) Of about 500 archeologic sites documented between Glen Canyon Dam and Separation Canyon (255 river miles), more than 330 are considered to be within the area of potential effect (APE) of dam operations (Fairley and others, 1994; Neal and others, 2000; Fairley, 2005). The APE was designated by the National Park Service (NPS) to include the area below the peak stage of the 1884 flood; though previously believed to have reached 8,490 m3/s, this flood was shown by Topping and others (2003) to have peaked at 5,940 m3/s. Archeologic research and monitoring in Grand Canyon National Park focus increasingly on the potential effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the landscape in which these sites exist. Many archeologic sites in or on sedimentary deposits are being eroded, owing to eolian deflation and gully incision (Leap and others, 2000; Neal and others, 2000; Fairley, 2003, 2005). Hereford and others (1993) first suggested that gully incision of sedimentary deposits, and the base level to which small drainage systems respond, were linked to dam operations; they hypothesized that pronounced arroyo incision, which occurs during rainfall runoff, was caused by lowering of the effective base level at the mouths of ephemeral drainages to meet the new postdam elevation of high-flow sediment deposition, about 3 to 4 m below the lowest predam alluvial terraces. Thompson and Potochnik (2000) modified that hypothesis to include the restorative effects of fluvial deposition in the mouths of gullies and ar

  8. Geologic map of the Rio Puerco quadrangle, Bernalillo and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2003-01-01

    The Rio Puerco quadrangle is located southwest of Albuquerque in central New Mexico and covers part of the western part of the Isleta Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and the University of New Mexico have conducted geologic mapping on the Isleta Reservation and vicinity as part of the Middle Rio Grande Basin Project. The map area contains surficial deposits, calcic soils, fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco, deposits of the Santa Fe Group, and three volcanic fields. The area is characterized by predominantly north-trending normal faults with generally down-to-the-east movement. Post-Santa Fe Group deposits are composed of surficial deposits (Pleistocene-Holocene) and fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco (Pleistocene-Holocene). The surficial deposits are divided into eolian, alluvial, colluvial, and landslide deposits. The fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco consist of four terrace and present channel deposits. The Santa Fe Group is divided into lower and upper parts. The lower part of the Santa Fe Group is exposed near the southwestern corner of the study area where deposits consist of reddish-brown mudstone and sandstone correlated to the Popotosa Formation (Unit 1) of Lozinsky and Tedford (1991). They interpreted deposition of the unit in a basin-floor playa setting. The Popotosa Formation is in fault contact to the east with deposits of the upper Santa Fe Group. The upper Santa Fe Group is derived from major tributary fluvial systems (ancestral Rio Puerco Puerco and possibly the Rio San Jose drainages) draining the adjacent Colorado Plateau and Sierra Nacimiento and correlated to parts of Kelley's (1977) Ceja Formation of the Santa Fe Group and equivalent to Machette's (1978) Sierra Ladrones Formation, Connell's Arroyo Ojito Formation (Connell and others, 1999, and Maldonado's lithofacies of the Isleta Reservation (Maldonado and Atencio,1998a, b). The group also locally includes a fine- grained unit

  9. Environmental Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M A; Sanchez, L; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Ward, R

    2002-09-01

    of the measurements taken in calendar year 2001. The chapter provides dose estimates from exposure to radiological materials in the ambient air. Chapter 6, Sewer Monitoring, describes the extensive real-time and routine sampling efforts undertaken to characterize the radiological and nonradiological materials in the sewer effluent leaving the LLNL Livermore site. Chapter 7, Surface Water Monitoring, is a compendium of data from many types of surface water, including storm water runoff, rainwater, drinking water, the Livermore site Drainage Retention Basin, and cooling tower water. Monitoring of discharges occurring during maintenance of Arroyo Las Positas is also discussed. Chapter 8, Groundwater Remediation, summarizes CERCLA activities undertaken at the Livermore site and Site 300 during calendar year 2001. It is a summary of reports prepared for CERCLA compliance and contains many maps delineating the extent of contaminant transport in groundwater. Chapter 9, Groundwater Monitoring, contains information about monitoring undertaken to confirm that no new additional sources of contamination of groundwater exist, and to demonstrate compliance with RCRA-permitted closure of disposal areas at Site 300. Chapter 10, Soil and Sediment Monitoring, provides the data collected in the annual soils monitoring program, including plots of historic medians for contaminants of interest, such as plutonium and uranium. Chapter 11, Vegetation and Foodstuff Monitoring, summarizes the data collected in the quarterly vegetation sampling and the annual sampling of local wines for tritium. The chapter provides dose estimates, including estimates for organically bound tritium, for exposures to vegetation and wine produced in the vicinity of LLNL. Chapter 12, Environmental Radiation, describes the direct environmental radiation measurements obtained for the Livermore site and Site 300. The measurement method and results are explained. Chapter 13, Radiation Dose Assessment, discusses sources

  10. Sequence stratigraphic and sedimentologic significance of biogenic structures from a late Paleozoic marginal- to open-marine reservoir, Morrow Sandstone, subsurface of southwest Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Alissa, A.; Carr, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated ichnologic, sedimentologic, and stratigraphic studies of cores and well logs from Lower Pennsylvanian oil and gas reservoirs (lower Morrow Sandstone, southwest Kansas) allow distinction between fluvio-estuarine and open marine deposits in the Gentzler and Arroyo fields. The fluvio-estuarine facies assemblage is composed of both interfluve and valley-fill deposits, encompassing a variety of depositional environments such as fluvial channel, interfluve paleosol, bay head delta, estuary bay, restricted tidal flat, intertidal channel, and estuary mouth. Deposition in a brackish-water estuarine valley is supported by the presence of a low diversity, opportunistic, impoverished marine ichnofaunal assemblage dominated by infaunal structures, representing an example of a mixed, depauperate Cruziana and Skolithos ichnofacies. Overall distribution of ichnofossils along the estuarine valley was mainly controlled by the salinity gradient, with other parameters, such as oxygenation, substrate and energy, acting at a more local scale. The lower Morrow estuarine system displays the classical tripartite division of wave-dominated estuaries (i.e. seaward-marine sand plug, fine-grained central bay, and sandy landward zone), but tidal action is also recorded. The estuarine valley displays a northwest-southeast trend, draining to the open sea in the southeast. Recognition of valley-fill sandstones in the lower Morrow has implications for reservoir characterization. While the open marine model predicts a "layer-cake" style of facies distribution as a consequence of strandline shoreline progradation, identification of valley-fill sequences points to more compartmentalized reservoirs, due to the heterogeneity created by valley incision and subsequent infill. The open-marine facies assemblage comprises upper, middle, and lower shoreface; offshore transition; offshore; and shelf deposits. In contrast to the estuarine assemblage, open marine ichnofaunas are characterized by a

  11. Decision Theories used in Areas Planning around La Colacha Basin (Cordoba, Argentina) considering Natural and Human Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cisneros, Jose M.; Andina, Diego

    2010-05-01

    The authors of U.P.M. have had relations with Argentine Universities and Administrations, in part with J.M.Cisneros that is Professor at Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto in Prov. de Córdoba Arg., and have applied Decision Theories with Mathematic tools for the planning of defences and uses of soils in these areas and especially of La Colacha bassin enlarged with larger areas around it as "Cuenca de los Arroyos Menores" at West and South of Rio Cuarto. These large flat lands have loess soils brought by winds from Los Andes that are much far at West, there is a very old line of not high mountains at West near the study area from which rivers flow with little slopes to somehow lower flat areas at West with some marshes. Rivers through loess get regressive erosions with rains forming kilometres long ditches in the loess called "cárcavas" some meters deep and quite large across otherwise flat agricultural lands, and J.M. Cisneros, that has numerous publications about local soil uses, has directed diverse genie rural works to halt the regression of some of them. Part of the study is about protection against floods and "cárcavas". There are famous experiences and records of higher inundations of large areas by rivers. Latitude of Rio Cuarto is 31°25' South, that area is temperate refreshed by south winds, Zonda föhn winds from West being hotter and drier, and there are monsoons and so winter in July is dry and summer and December has rains, that average 829mm per year. Wind erosion and fires occur frequently on these loess soils in winter. This is an excellent area for agriculture but some actual uses may be not sustainable in long term such as excesses with genetically engineered soy, and the authors have studied aided with mathematical models (ELECTRE I, PROMETHEE and Expert Choice) the preferences of various alternative systems of land use (Autochthonous forest, High value forest, Traditional farms, Erosion control Crop with agriculture use, and Erosion control

  12. Holocene vegetation, fire and erosional history of City of Rocks National Reserve, South-Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weppner, K.; Pierce, J. L.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Climate exerts a primary control over vegetation, fire occurrence and fire-related erosion; however, vegetation is responsible for fire pattern, frequency and intensity (i.e. fire regime), as well as the nature of the fire-related erosional response (e.g. debris flows, sheet floods). Over short timescales (months to years), climate controls the availability and moisture content of vegetation as fuel. Over longer timescales (100 to 1,000 years), climate modulates the composition and structure of plant populations, which alters the associated fire regime. To explore these relationships, we compare an alluvial charcoal stratigraphy with a woodrat midden reconstruction of vegetation at City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO), south-central Idaho. CIRO is relatively shallow-sloped terrain (mean slope ~15.6°), but bedrock knobs of erodible granite make basins responsive recorders of erosion. CIRO is dominated today by pinyon-juniper woodland, with the main species, Pinus monophylla (single-needle pinyon) and Juniperus osteosperma (Utah Juniper), occurring at their northern limits and presumed to have arrived in the late Holocene. Radiocarbon dating of 37 alluvial charcoal samples from 16 field sites in arroyos, stream terraces and alluvial fans show five episodes of enhanced fire activity. Early Holocene fires (11.7-9.5 ka) burned during shifting climate after the LGM. Mid-Holocene fires (7.2-6.7 ka) burned during a prolonged period of low lake levels (reconstructed from regional lakes and the nearby Lake Bonneville record) preceded by an extended wet period. Moderate fire activity (2.5-2 ka) corresponds to the arrival of pinyon, and follows a 2 ka period of relatively wetter conditions (~4-2 ka), indicated by regional midden records. Late Holocene fires (850-700 cal yr BP) occurred during the MCA, when regional lake levels were low and pinyon density increased. The greatest peak in fire occurred at ~550 cal yr BP during the LIA, after the establishment of pinyon as the

  13. Gulf of California Sediment and Proxy SST Records Suggest a Post 6 ka Development of the Arizona Monsoon and Solar Forcing of Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Bukry, D.

    2007-12-01

    Summer monsoonal rains in Arizona and adjacent areas are mainly due to pulses of moisture traveling northward up the Gulf of California (GOC). Modern studies reveal that northern GOC SSTs must exceed 26 deg. C before monsoonal rainfall develops in Arizona and western New Mexico, and over 80 percent of the rainfall in this region occurs after northern GOC SSTs exceed 28.5 deg. C. Warming of GOC occurs progressively from south to north in the late spring, as northwest winds, which dominate in the late fall to early spring, decrease in strength, and tropical waters penetrate northward along the western coast of the GOC. Sediment (CaCO3 and opal) and microfossil (diatom and silicoflagellate) proxies spanning the past 15,000 years from cores in the central GOC suggest that waters of the northern GOC were too cold between ca. 11 and 6 ka to allow development of monsoonal rains in Arizona. Evidence for a post 6 ka intensification of monsoonal rains in Arizona and adjacent areas includes: 1) increased frequency of arroyo cutting in Arizona after ca. 5 ka, 2) increased evidence of paleofloods in Arizona and SW Utah after ca. 6 ka, and 3) the renewal of aggradation of alluvial fans in the Mojave Dessert at ca. 6 ka after a lull in their formation between ca. 11 and 6 ka. Supportive pollen evidence includes : 1) the late Holocene appearance of summer flowering annuals and C-{4} grasses in SE Arizona, and 2) the post 6 ka appearance of a warm, mixed biome in the highlands of northwest Mexico. Other pollen evidence and the scarcity of early and middle Holocene packrat middens in the American southwest, however, have been cited as evidence of increased monsoonal rains during the early and middle parts of the Holocene It is likely that the Gulf of Mexico was the main source of monsoonal moisture in the American southwest prior to ca. 6 ka, especially in the regions east of Arizona. A northward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Caribbean prior to ca. 5.4 ka

  14. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading for Selected Sites in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 1978-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. The U.S. Geologic Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading in the Lower Gunnison River Basin to support the development of total maximum daily selenium loads at sites that represent the cumulative contribution to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list segments. Analysis of selenium loading included quantifying loads and determining the amount of load that would need to be reduced to bring the site into compliance, referred to as 'the load reduction,' with the State chronic aquatic-life standard for dissolved selenium [85th percentile selenium concentration not to exceed 4.6 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)], referred to as 'the water-quality standard.' Streamflow and selenium concentration data for 54 historical water-quality/water-quantity monitoring sites were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data sources. Three methods were used for analysis of selenium concentration data to address the variable data density among sites. Mean annual selenium loads were determined for only 10 of the 54 sites due to data availability limitations. Twenty-two sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations that exceeded the water-quality standard, 3 sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations less than the State standard, and 29 sites could not be evaluated with respect to 85th percentile selenium concentration (sample count less than 5). To bring selenium concentrations into compliance with the water-quality standard, more than 80 percent of the mean annual selenium load would need to be reduced at Red Rock Canyon, Dry Cedar Creek, Cedar Creek, Loutzenhizer Arroyo, Sunflower Drain, and Whitewater Creek. More than 50 percent of the mean annual load would need to be reduced at Dry Creek to bring the site into compliance with the water

  15. Geochemical fine-sediment tracers in San Francisco Bay and its outer coast: the role of local watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, R. K.; Barnard, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment enters San Francisco Bay (SFB) through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the Golden Gate, and local watersheds. Inputs from local watersheds have become increasingly important since the 1940s when large-scale impoundments began upstream of the Delta. The goals of this study are to determine whether fine sediment from local watersheds have distinct geochemical signatures, and if these can be used to determine whether locally-derived sediment accumulates in SFB. Retention of fine sediment is essential if accretion of shallow and intertidal habitats is to keep pace with sea level rise. Total contents of chromium (Cr), lanthanum (La), thorium (Th), zirconium (Zr), rare earth elements (REE), and twenty five other elements were determined by ICP-MS in the fine or "mud" fraction (<63 μm) of river, tributary, bay, and outer coast bed sediment. SFB and outer coast sediment was collected in January 2012 after a 5-day storm. River and tributary sediment was collected between 2010-2012. REE contents were normalized to a shale composite (NASC). In comparison to granitic material from the Sierra Nevada, local watersheds contain ultramafic Franciscan rocks in the Coast Range, volcanic deposits near Napa and Sonoma, and ancient marine sedimentary rocks. Fine sediment from the Sacramento River was enriched in heavy REE (HREENASC) and Cr, while that from the San Joaquin River was enriched in light REE (LREENASC) and Th. Petaluma River and Sonoma Creek fine sediments were distinguished by middle REE (MREENASC) enrichments and low Cr contents consistent with felsic volcanic rocks. In contrast, fine sediments in Napa River and Wildcat Creek had relatively flat REENASC patterns and intermediate to high Cr contents that suggest a Franciscan influence. The same was true for fine sediment in Marin creeks (Arroyo del Presidio and Corte Madera) and two South Bay tributaries (Guadelupe River and San Francisquito Creek). San Francisquito Creek fine sediment was uniquely

  16. Numerical modeling of debris avalanches at Nevado de Toluca (Mexico): implications for hazard evaluation and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieco, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2007-05-01

    The present study concerns the numerical modeling of debris avalanches on the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Mexico) using TITAN2D simulation software, and its application to create hazard maps. Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age, located in central México near to the cities of Toluca and México City; its past activity has endangered an area with more than 25 million inhabitants today. The present work is based upon the data collected during extensive field work finalized to the realization of the geological map of Nevado de Toluca at 1:25,000 scale. The activity of the volcano has developed from 2.6 Ma until 10.5 ka with both effusive and explosive events; the Nevado de Toluca has presented long phases of inactivity characterized by erosion and emplacement of debris flow and debris avalanche deposits on its flanks. The largest epiclastic events in the history of the volcano are wide debris flows and debris avalanches, occurred between 1 Ma and 50 ka, during a prolonged hiatus in eruptive activity. Other minor events happened mainly during the most recent volcanic activity (less than 50 ka), characterized by magmatic and tectonic-induced instability of the summit dome complex. According to the most recent tectonic analysis, the active transtensive kinematics of the E-W Tenango Fault System had a strong influence on the preferential directions of the last three documented lateral collapses, which generated the Arroyo Grande and Zaguàn debris avalanche deposits towards E and Nopal debris avalanche deposit towards W. The analysis of the data collected during the field work permitted to create a detailed GIS database of the spatial and temporal distribution of debris avalanche deposits on the volcano. Flow models, that have been performed with the software TITAN2D, developed by GMFG at Buffalo, were entirely based upon the information stored in the geological database. The modeling software is built upon equations

  17. Developing a geomorphic approach for ranking watersheds for rehabilitation, Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Cheama, Andres; Lalio, Sheldon M.

    2001-03-01

    As a result of past erosion problems on the Zuni Indian Reservation in western New Mexico, the US Congress in 1990 authorized the Zuni Tribe to begin a program for watershed rehabilitation. This paper describes an approach to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation for the Zuni Reservation. The approach was based on data collected during a 3-year study on geomorphic and anthropogenic characteristics of the Rio Nutria Watershed, including data on (i) arroyo cross-sectional changes, (ii) erosion-control structures, and (iii) sheetwash erosion. Results of this 3-year study indicated that 61 of 85 channel cross-sections aggraded and channels with lower width-to-depth ratios eroded. Results on assessment of erosion-control structures, some dating back to the 1930s, indicated that 60% of earthen dams and 22% of rock-and-brush structures were breached or flanked in the Rio Nutria Watershed. Sheetwash erosion measured on five land-cover sites (sagebrush, pasture, chained piñon and juniper, unchained piñon and juniper, and ponderosa pine) indicated chained piñon and juniper sites and pasture sites had the highest volume-weighted sediment concentrations of 13,000 and 9970 ppm, respectively. Based on interpretations of the 3-year study in the Rio Nutria Watershed, a two-stage approach was developed to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation on the Zuni Reservation. In the first stage, the reservation was divided into eight major watersheds, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. In the second stage, the watershed with the most potential for erosion was divided into sub-basins, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. Quantitative and qualitative information on physical and anthropogenic factors were used at each stage to rank the watersheds. Quantitative physical data included headcut density, percentage of bare ground, percentage of chained area, channel width-to-depth ratio, change in channel

  18. Sequence stratigraphic and sedimentologic significance of biogenic structures from a late Paleozoic marginal- to open-marine reservoir, Morrow Sandstone, subsurface of southwest Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buatois, Luis A.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Alissa, Abdulrahman; Carr, Timothy R.

    2002-09-01

    Integrated ichnologic, sedimentologic, and stratigraphic studies of cores and well logs from Lower Pennsylvanian oil and gas reservoirs (lower Morrow Sandstone, southwest Kansas) allow distinction between fluvio-estuarine and open marine deposits in the Gentzler and Arroyo fields. The fluvio-estuarine facies assemblage is composed of both interfluve and valley-fill deposits, encompassing a variety of depositional environments such as fluvial channel, interfluve paleosol, bay head delta, estuary bay, restricted tidal flat, intertidal channel, and estuary mouth. Deposition in a brackish-water estuarine valley is supported by the presence of a low diversity, opportunistic, impoverished marine ichnofaunal assemblage dominated by infaunal structures, representing an example of a mixed, depauperate Cruziana and Skolithos ichnofacies. Overall distribution of ichnofossils along the estuarine valley was mainly controlled by the salinity gradient, with other parameters, such as oxygenation, substrate and energy, acting at a more local scale. The lower Morrow estuarine system displays the classical tripartite division of wave-dominated estuaries (i.e. seaward-marine sand plug, fine-grained central bay, and sandy landward zone), but tidal action is also recorded. The estuarine valley displays a northwest-southeast trend, draining to the open sea in the southeast. Recognition of valley-fill sandstones in the lower Morrow has implications for reservoir characterization. While the open marine model predicts a "layer-cake" style of facies distribution as a consequence of strandline shoreline progradation, identification of valley-fill sequences points to more compartmentalized reservoirs, due to the heterogeneity created by valley incision and subsequent infill. The open-marine facies assemblage comprises upper, middle, and lower shoreface; offshore transition; offshore; and shelf deposits. In contrast to the estuarine assemblage, open marine ichnofaunas are characterized by a

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    developed yet its surface water system encompasses two arroyos, an engineered detention basin (Lake Haussmann), storm channels, and wetlands. Conversely, the more rural Site 300 includes approximately 7,000 acres of largely undeveloped land with many natural tributaries, riparian habitats, and wetland areas. These wetlands include vernal pools, perennial seeps, and emergent wetlands. The watersheds within which the Laboratory's sites lie provide local and community ecological functions and services which require protection. These functions and services include water supply, flood attenuation, groundwater recharge, water quality improvement, wildlife and aquatic habitats, erosion control, and (downstream) recreational opportunities. The Laboratory employs a watershed approach to protect these surface water systems. The intent of this approach, presented in this document, is to provide an integrated effort to eliminate or minimize any adverse environmental impacts of the Laboratory's operations and enhance the attributes of these surface water systems, as possible and when reasonable, to protect their value to the community and watershed. The Laboratory's watershed approach to surface water protection will use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Framework and guiding principles of geographic focus, scientifically based management and partnerships1 as a foundation. While the Laboratory's unique site characteristics result in objectives and priorities that may differ from other industrial sites, these underlying guiding principles provide a structure for surface water protection to ensure the Laboratory's role in environmental stewardship and as a community partner in watershed protection. The approach includes pollution prevention, continual environmental improvement, and supporting, as possible, community objectives (e.g., protection of the San Francisco Bay watershed).

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of spontaneous grass cover as a control measure of soil loss: a study case in an olive orchard microcatchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Vanderlinden, Karl; Pedrera-Parrilla, Aura; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    , drainage area, height, richness and apparent electrical conductivity. The mean annual cover percentage varied from 23% to 36% with a coefficient of variation of 57% and 6%, respectively. On the seasonal scale, the cover varied between 0.2% and 50% . Significant effects of accumulated precipitation during the precedubg 15 days on the cover percentage were detected. In addition, a permanent aggregated pattern of spontaneous grass was observed for different seasonal surveys with abundant preceding rainfall. No clear correlations were found with physical attributes with the exception of electrical conductivity (50 cm-depth). Finally, the differences found in the hydrological responses for similar events with different degrees of soil cover highlighted the role that spontaneous vegetation plays in the sediment discharge control during humid periods. REFERENCES: Perry, J. N., 1998. Measures of spatial pattern for counts. Ecology 79: 1008-1017. E. V. Taguas, C. Arroyo, A. Lora, G. Guzmán, K. Vanderlinden. J. A. Gómez. 2015. Exploring the linkage between spontaneous grass cover biodiversity and soil degradation in two olive orchard microcatchments with contrasting environmental and management conditions. SOIL, 1, 651-664.

  1. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  2. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    transport to streams and irrigation drains that are tributary to the Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Colorado Rivers. Selenium concentrations in about 64\\x11percent of water samples collected from the lower Gunnison River and about 50 percent of samples from the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line exceeded the U.S.\\x11Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 5\\x11micrograms per liter for protection of aquatic life. Almost all selenium concentrations in samples collected during the nonirrigation season from Mancos Shale areas exceeded the aquatic-life criterion. The maximum selenium concentrations in surface-water samples were 600\\x11micrograms per liter in the Uncompahgre Project area and 380\\x11micrograms per liter in the Grand Valley. Irrigation drainage from the Uncompahgre Project and the Grand Valley might account for as much as 75 percent of the selenium load in the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line. The primary source areas of selenium were the eastern side of the Uncompahgre Project and the western one-half of the Grand Valley, where there is extensive irrigation on soils derived from Mancos Shale. The largest mean selenium loads from tributary drainages were 14.0 pounds per day from Loutsenhizer Arroyo in the Uncompahgre Project and 12.8 pounds per day from Reed Wash in the Grand Valley. Positive correlations between selenium loads and dissolved-solids loads could indicate that salinity-control projects designed to decrease dissolved-solids loads also could decrease selenium loads from the irrigated areas. Selenium concentrations in irrigation drainage in the Grand Valley were much higher than concentrations predicted by simple evaporative concentration of irrigation source water. Selenium probably is removed from pond water by chemical and biological processes and incorporated into bottom sediment. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 47 micrograms per gram from a pond on the eastern side of the

  3. 2014 annual summary of the lower Gunnison River Basin Selenium Management Program water-quality monitoring, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henneberg, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    using water-quality samples collected during WYs 2011–2014. The instantaneous 85th percentiles for samples for WY 2014 ranged from 1.1 µg/L at Uncompahgre River at Colona to 125 µg/L at Loutzenhizer Arroyo at North River Road.A trend analysis was completed for Whitewater to determine if dissolved-selenium loads are increasing or decreasing. The trend analysis indicates a decrease of 8,000 lb from WY 1986 to WY 2014, a 34.8 percent reduction during the time period, and an additional 6.2 percent reduction from a reported 28.6 percent reduction during WYs 1986–2008. The trend analysis for WY 1992 to WY 2014 indicates a decrease of 5,800 lb per year, or 27.9 percent.

  4. Mathematical Decision Models Applied for Qualifying and Planning Areas Considering Natural Hazards and Human Dealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Elena; Andina, Diego

    2014-05-01

    The authors were involved in the use of some Mathematical Decision Models, MDM, to improve knowledge and planning about some large natural or administrative areas for which natural soils, climate, and agro and forest uses where main factors, but human resources and results were important, natural hazards being relevant. In one line they have contributed about qualification of lands of the Community of Madrid, CM, administrative area in centre of Spain containing at North a band of mountains, in centre part of Iberian plateau and river terraces, and also Madrid metropolis, from an official study of UPM for CM qualifying lands using a FAO model from requiring minimums of a whole set of Soil Science criteria. The authors set first from these criteria a complementary additive qualification, and tried later an intermediate qualification from both using fuzzy logic. The authors were also involved, together with colleagues from Argentina et al. that are in relation with local planners, for the consideration of regions and of election of management entities for them. At these general levels they have adopted multi-criteria MDM, used a weighted PROMETHEE, and also an ELECTRE-I with the same elicited weights for the criteria and data, and at side AHP using Expert Choice from parallel comparisons among similar criteria structured in two levels. The alternatives depend on the case study, and these areas with monsoon climates have natural hazards that are decisive for their election and qualification with an initial matrix used for ELECTRE and PROMETHEE. For the natural area of Arroyos Menores at South of Rio Cuarto town, with at North the subarea of La Colacha, the loess lands are rich but suffer now from water erosions forming regressive ditches that are spoiling them, and use of soils alternatives must consider Soil Conservation and Hydraulic Management actions. The use of soils may be in diverse non compatible ways, as autochthonous forest, high value forest, traditional

  5. Geomorphic and Structural Analysis of the Verona-Williams-Pleasanton fault zone and implications for seismic hazard, eastern San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, T. L.; Unruh, J. R.; Hoirup, D. F.; Barry, G.; Pearce, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Folds and thrust faults adjacent to and beneath the Livermore Valley have accommodated Quaternary crustal shortening between major dextral faults of the eastern San Andreas fault system. The Verona and Williams faults are NE-dipping thrust or reverse faults that have uplifted the Pliocene-Pleistocene Livermore gravels along the western and southern margins of the valley. The Williams fault extends ~13 km northwest from the Mt. Lewis seismic trend to the sinistral Las Positas fault, which forms the southern margin of the valley. A 3-km left step along the Las Positas fault separates the surface traces of the Verona and Williams faults. The Verona fault extends ~8 km northwest from the stepover to southwestern Livermore Valley. It is possible that the Las Positas fault extends to the base of the seismogenic crust and separates the Verona and Williams faults into two kinematically independent structures. Alternatively, the Verona and Williams faults may merge downdip into a common thrust fault plane, with the Las Positas fault confined to the hanging wall as a tear fault. The Verona and Williams faults exhibit geomorphic evidence for late Quaternary fault rupture propagating to or very near the ground surface. The Williams fault tightly folds and overturns the Livermore gravels, and appears to form scarps that impound late Quaternary alluvium and cross Holocene landslide deposits. Many Holocene(?) alluvial fans exhibit distinct convex longitudinal profiles across the fault trace suggesting active folding above the Verona fault. The geomorphic position of a stream-terrace remnant suggests that >7 m of tectonic uplift is possible across the Verona fault during the late Quaternary. Surficial geologic mapping and geomorphic analysis of the ancestral Arroyo Valle drainage system reveals numerous paleochannels that generally decrease in elevation (age) to the northwest, and provide useful isochronous markers delineating a subtle tectonic uplift in western Livermore Valley

  6. Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2004-01-01

    and sulfur hexafluoride from 288 wells and springs in parts of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. The surface-water data collected as part of this study include monthly measurements of major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water, chlorofluorocarbons, and tritium content at 14 locations throughout the basin. Additional data include stable isotope analyses of precipitation and of ground water from City of Albuquerque production wells collected and archived from the early 1980?s, and other data on the chemical and isotopic composition of air, unsaturated zone air, plants, and carbonate minerals from throughout the basin. The data were used to identify 12 sources of water to the basin, map spatial and vertical extents of ground-water flow, map water chemistry in relation to hydrogeologic, stratigraphic, and structural properties of the basin, determine radiocarbon ages of ground water, and reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions in the basin over the past 30,000 years. The data indicate that concentrations of most elements and isotopes generally parallel the predominant north to south direction of ground-water flow. The radiocarbon ages of dissolved inorganic carbon in ground water range from modern (post-1950) to more than 30,000 years before present, and appear to be particularly well defined in the predominantly siliciclastic aquifer system. Major sources of water to the basin include (1) recharge from mountains along the north, east and southwest margins (median age 5,000-9,000 years); (2) seepage from the Rio Grande and Rio Puerco (median age 4,000-8,000 years), and from Abo and Tijeras Arroyos (median age 3,000-9,000 years); (3) inflow of saline water along the southwestern basin margin (median age 20,000 years); and (4) inflow along the northern basin margin that probably represents recharge from the Jemez Mountains during the last glacial period (median age 20,000 years). Water recharged from the Jemez Mountains

  7. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Boland, John M

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  8. 2014 annual summary of the lower Gunnison River Basin Selenium Management Program water-quality monitoring, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henneberg, Mark F.

    2016-08-10

    using water-quality samples collected during WYs 2011–2014. The instantaneous 85th percentiles for samples for WY 2014 ranged from 1.1 µg/L at Uncompahgre River at Colona to 125 µg/L at Loutzenhizer Arroyo at North River Road.A trend analysis was completed for Whitewater to determine if dissolved-selenium loads are increasing or decreasing. The trend analysis indicates a decrease of 8,000 lb from WY 1986 to WY 2014, a 34.8 percent reduction during the time period, and an additional 6.2 percent reduction from a reported 28.6 percent reduction during WYs 1986–2008. The trend analysis for WY 1992 to WY 2014 indicates a decrease of 5,800 lb per year, or 27.9 percent.

  9. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    particular subarea using the different methods. Mountain-front recharge ranged from 0.7 to 15 percent of total annual precipitation in the subareas (percent recharge). Some of the smallest values of percent recharge were in the subareas in the southern part of the basin, which generally have low altitudes. The larger percent-recharge values were from subareas with higher altitudes. With existing information, determining which of the mountain- front recharge estimates is most accurate and the reasons for discrepancies among the different estimates is not possible. The chloride-balance method underestimates recharge if the chloride concentration used in the calculations for precipitation is too small or the chloride concentration in recharge is too large. Water-yield regression methods overestimate recharge if the amount of evapotranspiration of water that infiltrates into the channel bed of arroyos during runoff from summer thunderstorms is large.

  10. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    , Crema Valdemanco. In Cadalso de los Vidrios it is marketed under the commercial name of Gris Cadalso and Rosa Cadalso. Biotite granites without cordierite or amphibole and the most representative historic quarries are in San Lorenzo del Escorial, Valdemorillo, Robledo de Chavela, Colmenar de Arroyo, Chapinería and Navas del Rey. In Zarzalejo is marketed under the commercial name of Gris Escorial. Leucogranites in Manzanares el Real, San Martín de Valdeiglesias or La Cabrera there are historical quarries. In the Cadalso de los Vidrios is exported under the commercial name Blanco Ártico, Blanco Cristal and Oro Cristal. The Piedra Berroqueña province meets the requirements proposed to be nominated for GHSP. This nomination will contribute to better understanding and dissemination of an area with attractive economic aspects that focuses on the use of its resources. Thus, the Piedra Berroqueña remains part of the heritage of the province, whether used as a replacement stone for restoration of heritage buildings or when used for new buildings. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Community of Madrid under the GEOMATERIALS 2 project (S2013/MIT-2914). The authors are members of the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group: "Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio" (ref. 921349).

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Muros, José Joaquín; Cofre-Bolados, Cristian; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Castro-Sánchez, Manuel; Linares-Manrique, Marta; Chacón-Cuberos, Ramón

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la sociedad actual está experimentando reducciones significativas en los niveles de actividad física, y estos niveles de sedentarismo están asociados a un aumento de la obesidad. Objetivo: describir y analizar las relaciones entre composición corporal, realización de actividad física y condición física, además de describir los índices de sobrepeso/obesidad de una muestra de escolares de la provincia de Santiago (Chile). Material y métodos: se diseñó un estudio transversal con una muestra representativa de 515 alumnos (10,6 ± 0,5). Se determinaron diferentes índices antropométricos (IMC y porcentaje graso), así como la actividad física y la condición física (capacidad aeróbica y fuerza muscular máxima en tren superior e inferior). Resultados: alrededor del 55% de la muestra estudiada presentó problemas de sobrepeso/obesidad. Los valores de volumen de oxígeno máximo (VO 2 máx) y fuerza del tren superior fueron estadísticamente superiores en el grupo de los niños que en el de las niñas. Los alumnos clasificados como obesos presentaron unos niveles superiores de porcentaje graso, así como unos niveles inferiores de actividad física y de condición física que el grupo con normopeso. Se encontró una correlación negativa entre las puntuaciones del PAQ-C (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children) y los parámetros antropométricos, así como entre los parámetros antropométricos y los valores obtenidos en todas las pruebas de condición física. Conclusión: ante los alarmantes niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad infantil detectados en Santiago parece de importante relevancia crear planes de intervención centrados en la mejora de la condición física; los grupos con problemas de sobrepeso y obesidad y los grupos de sexo femeninos donde se debería hacer una mayor incidencia.

  12. [Evaluation of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of enteral formulas in public hospitals of Santiago (Chile)].

    PubMed

    Lara González, Sandra; Domecq Jendres, C; Atalah Samur, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    Antecedentes: La Elaboración de fórmulas enterales está sujeta a diversos riesgos de contaminación. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y la Organización para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO) han emitido alertas y recomendaciones para su prevención, sugiriendo la estandarización y protocolización de todos los procedimientos involucrados. Objetivo: Elaborar y evaluar el cumplimiento de los criterios técnicos de una Pauta de Verificación de Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura, con relación a elaboración, conservación y administración de fórmulas enterales en hospitales de la provincia de Santiago. Material y métodos: Los criterios de verificación consideraron Planta Física, Equipamiento e Implementación, Normas Higiénicas y Sanitarias, Recurso Humano, Organización y Administración, Garantía de Inocuidad y Aseguramiento de la Calidad. Se definieron 639 criterios, 309 de Riesgo Tipo 1, por mayor riesgo de producir contaminación. El estudio se hizo por observación de las Unidades de Central de Fórmulas Enterales y entrevista con el profesional encargado. Se analizó la mediana de cumplimiento de cada grupo de criterios de riesgo tipo 1 y total. Resultados: Se evaluaron públicos 14 hospitales. El grado de cumplimiento de los 639 alcanzó una mediana de 33,2% (p25-75 31,6% -40,4%), con el valor más bajo para planta física con 27,9% (p25-75 23,9% -38,2%) y el mayor para recurso humano con 52,4% (p25-75 44,1%-52,4%). La mediana de grado de cumplimiento para Criterios Riesgo Tipo 1, fue sólo de 31,8% (p25-75 27,5% - 41,2%). Conclusión: La mayoría de las Unidades evaluadas, cumple con menos de la mitad de las recomendaciones internacionales o del Ministerio de Salud de Chile. Se deben elaborar protocolos y capacitar al personal para asegurar la calidad e inocuidad en la elaboración de fórmulas enterales y reducir los riesgos de infección.

  13. Budapest: A Random Walk in Science and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, László

    Hungary forms a linguistic island in Europe among the Germanic and Slavic nations. Both ethnically and linguistically, Hungarians are of Finno-Ugric origin. Millennia ago their ancient home was somewhere in the region of the Kama river near the Ural mountains.2 The conquest of the region around the Danube river occurred at the end of the 9th century. Between 12 BC and 433 AD the Romans dwelled in the Carpathian basin.The capital of Provincia Pannonia was Aquincum, which is now Óbuda, a part of Budapest. Aquincum was an important fortress of the Roman legions and also had a civilian area. Many of its ruins are preserved in good condition, and the remnants of an important 3rd-century crossing point of the Danube river can be seen next to the Erzsébet bridge in Pest. The three towns, Óbuda and Buda on the hilly western side of the Danube river and Pest on the flat eastern side, were united to form Budapest in 1872.3 There also were other important Roman towns in Pannonia such as Sopianae (Pécs), Scarbantia (Sopron), Savaria (Szombathely), and Gorsium (Tác). After the collapse of the Roman Empire in 433 AD, Attila the Hun ruled in the Carpathian basin. The Avars and Slavic tribes arrived there about 568 AD and the Francs in 803 AD.4 Francis S. Wagner comments further: In the time of the Magyar [Hungarian] Conquest Slavs, Germans and some other peoples already lived there. The Magyars, characteristically, did not enslave them as did earlier the Huns and the Avars to native populations. The economy of the Magyars was built on the contemporary feudal system and not on the barbarian exploitation of subjugated peoples. And, furthermore, while the Huns and the Avars occupied primarily the Great Hungarian Plains, the central base of the Magyar Conquest lay in Dunántúl (Transdanubia): that is, in the very neighborhood of [the] Western cultural sphere. These circumstances, as well as the specific concept of the nomadic nation as practiced by the Magyars, helped develop

  14. [DIETARY HABITS AND FEEDING BELIEFS OF PEOPLE WITH CROHN'S DISEASE].

    PubMed

    García-Sanjuán, Sofía; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Sanjuán-Quiles, Ángela; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Crohn es una enfermedad crónica de etiopatogenia desconocida. Las consecuencias que esta enfermedad provoca a nivel nutricional dependen de varios factores. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre las prácticas nutricionales que adoptan estos pacientes una vez diagnosticados. Objetivo: explorar la experiencia de los afectados en relación con la ingesta alimentaria, con el objetivo futuro de comprender dichas experiencias y diseñar intervenciones eficaces y adecuadas. Metodología y sujetos: se empleó un diseño cualitativo basado en el enfoque etnográfico. Se realizaron 19 entrevistas semiestructuradas, hasta conseguir la saturación de la información, a afectados por la enfermedad de Crohn, en la provincia de Alicante y, posteriormente, se realizó el análisis temático. Resultados: cinco categorías con sus respectivas subcategorías de análisis fueron identificadas a partir de los datos sobre la experiencia de alimentación de las personas entrevistadas. 1) Creencias sobre nutrición y EC, 2) Modificación de los hábitos alimentarios, 3) Búsqueda de información sobre alimentación y EC, 4) El papel de los profesionales, 5) Autogestión. Conclusiones: el conocimiento de los hábitos dietéticos de la persona con EC en una población en la que su dieta se presupone que culturalmente es reconocida como saludable, nos puede dar pautas de abordaje o apoyo profesional tanto en materia de prevención, promoción y educación para la salud, así como sobre su nivel organizativo en las instituciones sanitarias, cosas que actualmente no se tienen en cuenta, puesto que el abordaje de la EC es meramente clínico y con enfoque patológico, pero no desde una perspectiva de salud, fomentando hábitos saludables desde la multidisciplinariedad.

  15. [Breastfeeding and cognitive development; interference evaluation by "5 digits test"].

    PubMed

    Pérez Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Iribar Ibabe, M Concepción; Peinado Herreros, José María; Miranda León, M Teresa; Campoy Folgoso, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Introducción y objetivo: Numerosos estudios han intentado demostrar que la duración de la lactancia materna se relaciona con un mejor desarrollo cognitivo en la edad escolar. En el presente estudio se evalúa el potencial efecto beneficioso a largo plazo de la alimentación con leche materna durante los primeros meses de vida, no sólo sobre el desarrollo cognitivo, sino también como posible prevención del déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Esta valoración resulta de especial interés en la sociedad actual en la que se han incrementado de forma muy notable los déficits de atención en la infancia, unidos o no a trastornos de hiperactividad. Material y Métodos: Un total de 103 niños, escolarizados en primer curso de Educación Primaria, 6 años de edad, (47 niños y 56 niñas), fueron reclutados en diferentes colegios de la provincia de Granada de áreas urbanas, semiurbanas y rurales. Se analizó la velocidad de procesamiento cognitivo y la capacidad de enfocar la atención y reorientarla tras un suceso de distracción, mediante el test de los cinco dígitos (5-DGT), variante del test de interferencia de Stroop. Resultados: Los datos demuestran una correlación lineal entre una mayor duración de la lactancia materna y mejores resultados en todas las pruebas del test. Resultan altamente significativas (P ≤0,001) las comparaciones para las pruebas de lectura y alternancia, entre aquellos niños que fueron alimentados con leche materna durante 6 meses frente a los que sólo recibieron esta alimentación durante su primer mes de vida. Conclusión: El estudio valida la hipótesis inicial, demostrando una mayor velocidad de resolución y una menor interferencia en el grupo de niños alimentados con pecho al menos durante los 6 primeros meses. Los datos obtenidos deberían refrendarse en un posterior estudio, con una mayor muestra, ya que resulta de suma importancia reforzar el consejo de lactancia materna durante al menos los 6 primeros meses de vida

  16. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  17. The relationship between beverage intake and weight status in children: the Cuenca study.

    PubMed

    Milla Tobarra, Marta; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Lahoz García, Noelia; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: El consumo de bebidas está cobrando mayor importancia en las investigaciones actuales en relación a una posible asociación con la epidemia de obesidad infantil. La influencia de la actividad física en este consumo de fluidos ha sido escasamente estudiada y la resistencia cardiorespiratoria (RCR) puede resultar un marcador fiable para su valoración. Nuestro estudio analiza la ingesta de fluidos y su relación con el estatus ponderal ajustado por RCR en niños de 9-11 años. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que participaron 373 niños de 9-11 años de colegios de la provincia de Cuenca (España). Para obtener la ingesta de bebidas, se realizó la media de dos recordatorios de 24 horas obtenidos mediante el programa YANA-C, validado para el estudio HELENA. La condición física cardiorrespiratoria fue evaluada a través del test de 20 metros ida y vuelta. Resultados: La ingesta media de líquidos fue de 1483,39 ml/día, y la energía proveniente de fluidos supone un 16% del aporte energético diario. Las bebidas suponen el 40% del aporte de azúcares ingeridos en la dieta. Las bebidas más consumidas en niños son los zumos naturales y las bebidas lácteas. Las niñas delgadas consumen más leches enteras y bebidas refrescantes “light” que sus homólogas con peso normal y sobrepeso-obesidad. Conclusiones: Los niños con exceso de peso consumen menos zumos naturales y bebidas lácteas, y las niñas consumen menos leches enteras y bebidas refrescantes “light” que sus compañeras en normopeso. Es de gran importancia revisar los hábitos de hidratación de los escolares para establecer conclusiones fiables sobre cuál es la mejor forma de hidratarse en diferentes situaciones para evitar ganancias ponderales.

  18. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" project: connecting seismic data centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Lenhardt, W.; Rauch, M.; Živčić, M.; Steiner, R.; Fabris, P.; Bertoni, M.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002 OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2004, 2010). The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area (Fig. 1). At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on their internet connections: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since the reliability of standard internet connections is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (PCBZ, Italy), OGS, ZAMG subsidiary in Tirol (ZAMG Tirol) and ARSO joined in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2012) aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. ARSO does not belong to the Interreg Italia-Austria region: for this reason ARSO joined the SeismoSAT project as an "associated partner", which, according to Interreg rules can not be funded. ARSO participation in the project is therefore at the beginning limited in benefiting only indirectly from improvement in the robustness of the data exchange between the other data centers, while eventually fully taking part in the project if other sources of funding will be available. The project is in a

  19. [EVALUATION OF GYM USERS' DIET WITH MUSCLE DYSMORPHIA (BIGOREXIA)].

    PubMed

    Martínez Segura, Asier; Cortés Castell, Ernesto; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Gil Guillén, Vicente F

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: se muestra un estudio novedoso en el cual se ha analizado la dieta entre usuarios de gimnasio de la provincia de Alicante que padecen dismorfia muscular (DM). Metodología: se analizaron 141 gimnastas varones de varias salas de musculación de Alicante (zona urbana del sureste español) de edad entre 18-45 años, que persiguen el aumento de su masa muscular. Se tuvieron en cuenta el IMC (kg/m2) y la dieta realizada durante 24 horas. Y se ha determinado si padecían o no DM, a través de la Escala de satisfacción muscular. Resultados: la muestra está constituida por 141 varones, de los cuales 45 padecen DM y 96 no, según la Escala de satisfacción muscular. Se calculó el consumo de proteínas, siendo superior a 1,5 g/kg/día en el grupo sin DM y superior a 2 g/kg/día en el grupo con DM. Al analizar los demás macronutrientes los resultados indican que la proporción de hidratos de carbono, grasas y sus porcentajes según grado de insaturación están dentro de las recomendaciones, excepto el colesterol, que las supera, y la cantidad de fibra, que es ligeramente inferior. En relación a los micronutrientes en todos los casos están dentro de las recomendaciones excepto en el caso del yodo, que en los DM es ligeramente inferior. Conclusión: los individuos con DM realizan una dieta normocalórica y adecuada en hidratos de carbono y lípidos; sin embargo, los valores de proteína ingerida exceden los límites propuestos según la evidencia científica para el desarrollo de masa muscular en los deportes de fuerza.

  20. [ANDALIES project: consumption, offer and promotion of healthy eating habits within secondary schools in Andalusia].

    PubMed

    González Rodríguez, Angustias; García Padilla, Francisca M; Martos Cerezuela, Ildefonso; Silvano Arranz, Agustina; Fernández Lao, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Introducción. El contexto escolar destaca como uno de los factores influyentes en las prácticas alimentarias de los-las adolescentes. Las prácticas de consumo alimentario durante la jornada escolar, la oferta de las cafeterías y las actividades de promoción propuestas desde los centros son objetos de atención creciente para la salud comunitaria. Objetivos. Describir las prácticas alimentarias del alumnado durante la jornada escolar; conocer la oferta de las cafeterías escolares y establecimientos periféricos; y valorar si los centros de secundaria son entornos favorecedores de una alimentación saludable. Diseño y muestra. Estudio descriptivo transversal durante los cursos 2010-2012. Unidades de muestreo: centros de secundaria públicos (95) y alumnado (8.068). Muestreo polietápico por conglomerados: selección aleatoria y estratificada por provincia y tamaño de hábitat. Elección del alumnado: muestreo sistemático de aulas. Resultados. El 77,5% del alumnado desayuna en casa: lácteo con cereal (40,9%) o ingesta líquida (29,2%); el 70,3% come algo en el centro y eligen el bocadillo de embutidos mayoritariamente. La fruta, anecdótica (2,5%) y, el zumo comercial, my frecuente (63,3%). El 75% consume chucherías siendo significativamente superior en centros con cafeterías. Las cafeterías ofertan multitud de productos desaconsejados: refrescos (97,3%), embutidos (91,8%), golosinas y fritos envasados (89%). Ausencia de control de la oferta en los centros (68,42%); solo el 28,4% de directivos conocen la ley que la regula. El 72,5% de los centros realiza promoción de la alimentación con rasgos de efemérides. El 71,5% de los centros tienen en sus alrededores comercios que abastecen al alumnado. Discusión. Encontramos una baja protección de la salud alimentaria del alumnado debido a: déficits alimentarios del alumnado; baja calidad de la oferta en cafeterías escolares y locales externos e inexistencia de actividades de promoción en los centros

  1. [Nutritional risk factors to users in dysmorphia muscular strength of room].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Segura, Asier; Cortés Castell, Ernesto; Martínez-Amorós, Natalia; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: Se muestra un estudio novedoso en el cual se han analizado la prevalencia y el tipo de suplementos consumidos entre usuarios de gimnasio de la provincia de Alicante que padecen dismorfia muscular (DM). Metodología: Se analizaron gimnastas de varias salas de musculación de Alicante (zona urbana del sureste español), donde se recogieron las medidas de 141 varones de edad comprendida entre 18-45 años, que persiguen el aumento de su masa muscular. Se tuvieron en cuenta el IMC (kg/m2), si consumían suplementos y que tipos. Y se ha determinado si padecían o no DM, a través de la Escala de satisfacción muscular. Resultados: La muestra está constituida por 141 varones, de los cuales 45 son DM y 96 no lo son. Un 89,9% y un 71,9% consumen o han consumido suplementos respectivamente. El consumo de los suplementos: proteínas, hidratos de carbono y creatina han resultado significativamente mayores entre los DM (p=0,007, p=0,016 y p=0,016 respectivamente). Los resultados del test Kidmed no han resultado significativos según el test Chi-cuadrado, pero con un porcentaje de dieta mediterránea superior en el grupo de los que padecen DM. Según el análisis multivariante son factores de riesgo el consumo de suplementos con una OR = 3.4 (IC95% = 1.1-10.9; p=0,041), el estar en sobrepeso con una OR = 20.9 (IC95% = 2.2-195.6; p=0,008) y ser obesos con OR = 15.5 (IC95% = 1.6-145.8; p=0,017). Conclusión: La prevalencia de consumo de suplementos tanto en DM como en no DM ha dado valores relativamente altos con respecto a la mayoría de estudios. Los suplementos mas consumidos fueron proteínas, creatina e hidratos de carbono. El riesgo de padecer DM aumenta con el grado de obesidad y el grado en que se consumen suplementos.

  2. FATTY ACID PROFILE OF TWO CURED MEAT PRODUCTS: DRY-CURED HAM AND CECINA.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Domingo; Menéndez, Rosa Ana; Sanz, José Javier; García-Fernández, María Del Camino

    2015-07-01

    Introducción y objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de dos derivados cárnicos curados-madurados, relativamente similares en cuanto a composición y proceso de elaboración: el jamón (JA) y la cecina (CE), haciendo una revisión de los resultados obtenidos desde el punto de vista de los efectos individuales que los principales ácidos grasos de consumo dietético tienen sobre la salud humana. Materiales y métodos: para ello se tomaron 10 muestras de 100 g de jamón y de cecina en distintos establecimientos de la provincia de León, España. Se extrajo la grasa y se metiló para posteriormente realizar el análisis de los ácidos grasos resultantes mediante cromatografía de gases masas. Resultados y discusión: los perfiles lipídicos obtenidos para el JA y la CE presentaron diferencias significativas (p < 0,01), con los siguientes valores para las fracciones lipídicas mayoritarias, ácidos grasos saturados (SFA), ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA) y ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA), respectivamente: 42,86%, 43,27% y 13,87 para el JA y 46,87%, 46,96% y 6,20% para la CE. Los porcentajes de SFA y MUFA fueron mayores en la CE en detrimento de los PUFA, en concreto de la serie n-6, para la que se obtuvieron valores de 11,06% en JA y de 3,91% en CE. En ambos productos el ácido graso detectado en mayor cantidad fue un ácido graso monoinsaturado, el ácido oleico, con porcentajes del 37,28% en JA y 38,48% en CE. Otros dos ácidos grasos presentes en porcentajes elevados respecto al total de la grasa fueron dos ácidos grasos saturados: el ácido palmítico, 20,63% en JA y 22,95% en CE, y el ácido esteárico, 18,65% en JA y 17,14% en CE.

  3. [Utility of self-reported anthropometric data for evaluation of obesity in the Spanish population; study EPINUT-ARKOPHARMA].

    PubMed

    Marrodán, María Dolores; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Villarino, Antonio; Alférez-García, Irene; González-Montero de Espinosa, Marisa; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Sánchez-Álvarez, María; Cabañas, María Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En epidemiología es frecuente recabar el peso y talla mediante cuestionario, pero la inexactitud de los datos auto-referidos puede sesgar el resultado de la evaluación. El objetivo es validar el auto-reporte en población adulta española enfatizando el efecto de la edad y la condición nutricional de los sujetos. Material y métodos: La muestra consta de 9.294 adultos (8.072 mujeres y 1.222 varones) reclutados en centros de orientación dietética dependientes de los laboratorios Arkopharma en 46 provincias españolas. Se preguntaron peso y talla midiéndose posteriormente y calculando las diferencias entre parámetros auto-referidos y reales. Se evaluó el error en la estima del Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) considerando el efecto de la edad y la condición nutricional (T de Student y regresión lineal múltiple). Se analizó la concordancia entre la clasificación realizada a partir del IMC auto-referido y antropométrico mediante el test de Kappa. Resultados y discusión: Utilizando datos auto-referidos, el IMC se infravalora (2,62% en varones; 3,10% en mujeres). El error aumenta con la edad y en las categorías nutricionales extremas. El acuerdo en la evaluación nutricional a partir del IMC auto-referido y real es bueno, clasificándose de manera correcta el 74,71% de los varones y el 89,5 % de las mujeres (Kappa: 0,695 y 0,782 respectivamente). Conclusiones: Teniendo en cuenta el efecto de la edad y de la condición nutricional sobre el auto-conocimiento del tamaño corporal, se recomienda cautela en el empleo de cuestionarios encaminados a la valoración epidemiológica.

  4. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  5. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    ), Argentina, Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT), Argentina, Secretaría de Estado de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF), Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing, The European Physical Journal (EPJ), EDP Science, Societa Italiana di Fisica and Springer. Adriana Serquis, Carlos Balseiro and Pablo Bolcatto

  6. [Vitamin D intake in a representative sample of Spanish population aged 7-16 years. Differences in the contribution and in the food sources of the vitamin according to age].

    PubMed

    Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; López-Sobaler, Ana María; López Plaza, Bricia; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Ortega Anta, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La vitamina D juega un importante papel en el mantenimiento de la salud ósea y prevención de la aparición de diversas enfermedades. Muy pocos alimentos son fuente natural de esta vitamina y, además, éstos no se consumen de manera habitual, siendo las fuentes dietéticas más importantes el pescado azul y la yema del huevo. Objetivos: Analizar la ingesta y las fuentes de vitamina D en escolares de 7-16 años. Métodos: Se estudió una muestra representativa de la población española de 7 a 16 años (n = 1.976), seleccionada en diez provincias españolas. El estudio dietético se realizó por registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla. Resultados y discusión: La ingesta media de vitamina D (1,63 (0,96-3,35) μg/día) fue inferior a la recomendada (IR) en un 85,4% de los estudiados, estando influenciada por la edad (OR = 0,935; IC: 0,889-0,983; p < 0,01). La principal fuente de vitamina D fueron los huevos (27,7%) seguidos de cereales (25,8%), pescados (20,9%) y lácteos (12,7%). Además, se ha observado que es más fácil cubrir las ingestas recomendadas de vitamina D cuanto mayor es el consumo de pescado (r = 0,734; p < 0,001), y que por cada ración que aumenta el consumo de este grupo de alimentos el riesgo de no cubrir las IR de vitamina D disminuye un 72,5%. Conclusiones: La ingesta de vitamina D es inferior a la recomendada en un elevado porcentaje de los estudiados. Teniendo en cuenta que los pescados juegan un importante papel en el aporte de vitamina D de los niños y adolescentes españoles, aumentar el consumo de este grupo de alimentos resulta deseable. Los niños de menor edad merecen atención especial.

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Muros, José Joaquín; Cofre-Bolados, Cristian; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Castro-Sánchez, Manuel; Linares-Manrique, Marta; Chacón-Cuberos, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la sociedad actual está experimentando reducciones significativas en los niveles de actividad física, y estos niveles de sedentarismo están asociados a un aumento de la obesidad. Objetivo: describir y analizar las relaciones entre composición corporal, realización de actividad física y condición física, además de describir los índices de sobrepeso/obesidad de una muestra de escolares de la provincia de Santiago (Chile). Material y métodos: se diseñó un estudio transversal con una muestra representativa de 515 alumnos (10,6 ± 0,5). Se determinaron diferentes índices antropométricos (IMC y porcentaje graso), así como la actividad física y la condición física (capacidad aeróbica y fuerza muscular máxima en tren superior e inferior). Resultados: alrededor del 55% de la muestra estudiada presentó problemas de sobrepeso/obesidad. Los valores de volumen de oxígeno máximo (VO 2 máx) y fuerza del tren superior fueron estadísticamente superiores en el grupo de los niños que en el de las niñas. Los alumnos clasificados como obesos presentaron unos niveles superiores de porcentaje graso, así como unos niveles inferiores de actividad física y de condición física que el grupo con normopeso. Se encontró una correlación negativa entre las puntuaciones del PAQ-C (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children) y los parámetros antropométricos, así como entre los parámetros antropométricos y los valores obtenidos en todas las pruebas de condición física. Conclusión: ante los alarmantes niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad infantil detectados en Santiago parece de importante relevancia crear planes de intervención centrados en la mejora de la condición física; los grupos con problemas de sobrepeso y obesidad y los grupos de sexo femeninos donde se debería hacer una mayor incidencia. PMID:27238792

  8. [Evaluation of the nutritional status, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in a population of adolescents in the cities of Granada and Almeria (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Montero Alonso, Miguel A; González-Jiménez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el estado nutricional e índice de resistencia insulínica mediante HOMA en una población de adolescentes, así como establecer correlaciones entre el estado nutricional de los sujetos, la existencia o no de resistencia a la acción insulínica y el riesgo de padecer hipertensión arterial. Muestra y metodología: Una población de 1001 adolescentes de entre 9 y 17 años de edad, pertenecientes a 18 centros educativos de las provincias de Granada y Almería. Se realizó una valoración completa del estado nutricional de los alumnos mediante antropometría. Para el estudio metabólico, se practicó una extracción sanguínea mediante punción venosa a cada alumno, analizando glucosa basal, insulina basal, índice HOMAIR. Además, se valoró hemoglobina glicosilada (HBA1c), niveles séricos de lipoproteína (a) y ácidos grasos de cadena larga (NEFA). Para el cálculo del índice de resistencia a la insulina, se utilizó el modelo matemático propuesto por Matthews (Homeostasis Model Assessment - HOMAIR), aplicando la fórmula HOMAIR = (insulina x glucosa)/22,5. Resultados: La valoración del estado nutricional reveló un progresivo incremento en los valores de las variables antropométricas a medida que el estado nutricional de los sujetos empeoraba, describiéndose una prevalencia de normopeso del 85,01%, frente a una tasa de sobrepeso del 9,99% y de obesidad del 4,99% para ambos sexos y con independencia de la edad. El estudio metabólico evidenció niveles séricos significativamente más elevados (p < 0,0001) de HBA1c, insulina basal, glucemia basal, NEFA basal, lipoproteína (a) y HOMA IR entre adolescentes con obesidad frente a aquellos otros en situación de normopeso o sobrepeso. Conclusiones: La obesidad constituye un grave problema de salud entre la población de adolescentes estudiada, determinado el desarrollo precoz de trastornos metabólicos, hasta ahora propios de la etapa adulta circunstancia

  9. Migration of recharge waters downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson basin aquifer, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Erin E. B.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Chris; Bassett, R. L.

    'origine thermonucléaire permettent de caractériser qualitativement les cheminements de l'eau et leurs vitesses. Les isotopes stables ne mettent pas en évidence un effet d'altitude. Les teneurs en tritium indiquent que quelques sources et certains puits fournissent une eau ancienne, alors que l'eau de la plupart des sources date des années soixante ou est plus récente. Resumen Los acuíferos en las cuencas aluviales áridas del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de América se recargan principalmente por la infiltración procedentes de los arroyos y playas de las propias cuencas y por entradas a lo largo de los límites de las mismas. La cuenca de Tucson, en el sudeste de Arizona es una de ellas. Las Montañas de Santa Catalina forman el contorno septentrional de esta cuenca y reciben una precipitación de más del doble (700mm/año) que la media de la propia cuenca (unos 300mm/año). En este estudio, se utilizaron isótopos ambientales para investigar la infiltración a través de fracturas y juntas superficiales. Se obtuvieron muestras de manantiales y de la escorrentía en las Montañas de Santa Catalina, así como de pozos ubicados al pie de las mismas. Los isótopos estables (Deuterio y Oxígeno-18) y el Tritio procedente de las bombas termonucleares permitieron la caracterización cualitativa de las líneas de flujo y de las velocidades. Los datos procedentes de la medida de isótopos estables no parecen presentar un efecto de altitud. Los valores de Tritio indican que aunque algunos pozos y manantiales descargan agua previa a los ensayos termonucleares, la mayoría descargan aguas de fecha posterior a 1960.

  10. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    the compilation of geographic, geologic, and hydrologic data and estimation of hydraulic properties and flows. The model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water flow for the period 1891-1993. Sources of water to the regional ground-water flow system are natural and artificial recharge, coastal landward flow from the ocean (seawater intrusion), storage in the coarse-grained beds, and water from compaction of fine-grained beds (aquitards). Inflows used in the regional flow model simulation include streamflows routed through the major rivers and tributaries; infiltration of mountain-front runoff and infiltration of precipitation on bedrock outcrops and on valley floors; and artificial ground-water recharge of diverted streamflow, irrigation return flow, and treated sewage effluent. Most natural recharge occurs through infiltration (losses) of streamflow within the major rivers and tributaries and the numerous arroyos that drain the mountain fronts of the basin. Total simulated natural recharge was about 114,100 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for 1984-93: 27,800 acre-ft/yr of mountain-front and bedrock recharge, 24,100 acre-ft/yr of valley-floor recharge, and 62,200 acre-ft/yr of net streamflow recharge. Artificial recharge (spreading of diverted streamflow, irrigation return, and sewage effluent) is a major source of ground-water replenishment. During the 1984-93 simulation period, the average rate of artificial recharge at the spreading grounds was about 54,400 acre-ft/yr, 13 percent less than the simulated natural recharge rate for streamflow infiltration within the major rivers and tributaries. Estimated recharge from infiltration of irrigation return flow on the valley floors averaged about 51,000 acre-ft/yr, and treated sewage effluent averaged about 9,000 acre-ft/yr. Artificial recharge as streamflow diversion to the spreading grounds has occurred since 1929, and treated-sewage effluent has been discharged to stream channels since 1930. Under

  11. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    confusion entre "infiltration" et "recharge". C'est ainsi que la loi laisse entendre que l'infiltration à partir des lits de rivières le long du champ captant central favorise la recharge de cette zone. En réalité, les différences de perméabilité entre les alluvions du lit et les dépôts sous-jacents remplissant le bassin peuvent provoquer un écoulement sous-jacent. En outre, même si une recharge par l'eau de la rivière Colorado se produit dans cette zone, la nappe sera progressivement salifiée. Les restrictions imposées par la loi quant à l'utilisation de l'eau de la station centrale d'Arizona affectent les quatre outils réglementaires du Code des eaux souterraines de l'Arizona de 1980, en ce qu'ils concernent la zone de gestion active de Tucson: (a) l'augmentation de l'approvisionnement (b) les conditions requises pour les prélèvements d'eau souterraine et les autorisations; (c) les conditions requises pour le plan de gestion, en particulier la pérennité du concessionnaire et les résultats en matière de qualité de l'eau et (d) la condition que tous les nouveaux districts aient recours à des ressources en eau renouvelables à la place de l'eau souterraine. Les demandes concernant la mise en oeuvre de la loi ont conduit jusqu'à l'arrêt des activités normales des instances politiques. Resumen El Acta de Protección de los Usuarios de Agua de Tucson, Arizona (EE.UU.) de 1995 (el Acta) se aprobó a raíz de las quejas de los usuarios de agua de Tucson que recibían agua tratada por el Proyecto de Arizona Central (CAP). Las consecuencias del Acta demuestran las incertidumbres y dificultades que se producen cuando se le pide al público que vote sobre temas muy técnicos. Los requerimientos de recarga del Acta desprecian incertidumbres hidrogeológicas al confundir entre "infiltración" y "recarga". Así, el Acta dice que la infiltración en los canales de los arroyos a lo largo del Campo de Producción Central aumentará la recarga a dicho campo. De

  12. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  13. Winter feeding habits of the mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Kassidy; Fair, Jeanne M

    2008-01-01

    The Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides) is found in western North America and is known for the blue color that completely covers the male (Martin et al. 1951). The Mountain Bluebird habitat spans through the Rocky Mountains as well as the Sierra Cascade regions, but winters in the milder parts of this geographic area which includes New Mexico (Martin, et al. 1951). However, Mountain Bluebirds in New Mexico are often permanent residents as well (unpublished data). During the summer breeding months, the Mountain Bluebird consumes 92% of its diet in insects as well as other animal matter (Bent, 1942). However, little is known about the diet of Mountain Bluebirds in the winter. From December 2004 through February 2005, approximately 40 Mountain Bluebirds flocked together in Nambe, New Mexico. The arroyo habitat includes One-seed Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Silver Sagebrush (Artemisia cana), and sparse Narrowleaf Cottonwood (Populus angustifolia). Our focus was to analyze the winter feeding habits of the Mountain Bluebird in the northern area of New Mexico. We collected a total of 115.97 grams Mountain Bluebirds droppings from the pond in the study area. We sorted through the droppings to distinguish between different food types consumed, and found that the winter diet consisted primarily of fruit seeds. This is supported by Martin et al. (1951) who states that fruits constitute most of the small proportion of plant material in the diet of the Mountain Bluebird. Power and Lombardo (1996) who determined from stomach contents obtained over an entire period of a year the Mountain Bluebird diet consist of grapes, currants, elderberries, sumac seeds, mistletoe seeds, and hackberry seeds. The main fruit found was that of the One-Seed Juniper which weighed 105.7 grams (91.2% of material collected). The One-Seed Juniper is one of five of juniper species found in Northern New Mexico (Foxx and Hoard 1995). The One-Seed Juniper can be found in the southwestern United States

  14. Evaluation and proposed study of potential ground-water supplies, Gallup area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiss, William L.

    1975-01-01

    buried alluvium in the Late Tertiary valleys is unknown. Water enters the volcanic rocks as rainfall and snowmelt and probably passes quickly into and through, the underlying alluvium into Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The Gallup Sandstone in the lower part of the Mesaverde Group and the San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone (combined) are potential sources of water in the North Plains-Malpais area. Sustained yields of 500 to 800 gallons per minute (30 to 50 l/s) can be expected from wells completed in the Gallup Sandstone of Cretaceous age in areas west and north of the Zuni uplift. Properly completed wells tapping the Dakota Sandstone of Cretaceous age and the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member of the Morrison Formation of Jurassic age locally yield 100 to 250 gallons per minute (6 to 15 l/s) north and east of Gallup. Additional supplies of ground water could be developed from these aquifers. However, arrangements to purchase or lease the water would probably need to be made before these resources could be exploited. Approximately 3,000 gallons per minute (190 l/s) of ground water is being pumped from the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation at two uranium mines located about 12 miles (20 km) northeast of Gallup in the Church Rock mining district. The water is pumped into settling ponds at the surface. Effluent from the ponds is allowed to flow into arroyos draining into the Puerco River. Some of the waste water will be used in an ore-processing mill that is expected to be constructed near the mines. However, additional waste water will probably be available from other mines that reportedly will be located in the same mining district. Water salvaged from the current mining operations and (or) pumped from abandoned uranium mines constitutes the most readily available and dependable source of new ground-water supplies for the city of Gallup. The water contains dissolved uranium but is otherwise of better quality than that now avai

  15. [Nutritional status of the persons living with HIV/AIDS; its relationship with T CD4+ cells counts].

    PubMed

    Linares Guerra, Elisa Maritza; Santana Porbén, Sergio; Carrillo Fornés, Olimpia; León Sánchez, Maria Amparo; Sanabria Negrín, José Guillermo; Acosta Núñez, Nadia; Pla Cruz, Alina; Coniell Linares, Emilia

    2013-11-01

    Justificación. La desnutrición puede presentarse en las personas con VIH/sida (PVIH/sida), y asociarse con deterioro del sistema inmune. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación entre el estado nutricional de la PVIH/sida y el conteo de las células T CD4+. Diseño del estudio. Observacional, analítico y transversal. Métodos. El estado nutricional de 217 PVIH/sida domiciliados en la provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba (Hombres: 72.4%; Edad en el momento del diagnóstico del VIH/sida: < 30 años: 62.2%; Conteos CD4+ < 350 células.mm-3: 32,2%; Terapia antirretroviral: 33.2%) se estableció indistintamente mediante el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), la Evaluación Subjetiva Global (ESG) y el algoritmo de Chang. Se evaluó la asociación entre el estado nutricional y el conteo de CD4+ mediante las correspondientes razones de disparidades (OR), estimadas indistintamente de las razones de los productos cruzados de la tabla 2 x 2 de contingencia, o de los coeficientes del modelo de regresión logística. Resultados. La frecuencia de desnutrición fue dependiente del método de evaluación nutricional: IMC: 3.7%; Algoritmo de Chang: 8.8%; ESG: 10.6%; respectivamente. El estado nutricional se asoció débilmente con los conteos CD4+: IMC: ORTablaContingencia = 3.69 (p > 0.05); Algoritmo de Chang: ORTablaContingencia = 2.55 (p = 0.047); y ESG: ORTablaContingencia = 1.72 (p > 0.05); respectivamente. Ajustada la serie de datos según la terapia antirretroviral (TARV), la asociación entre los CD4+ y el estado nutricional fue como sigue: IMC: ORRegresiónLogística = 0.367 (p = 0.083); Algoritmo de Chang: ORRegresiónLogística = 2.604 (p = 0.050); y ESG: ORRegresiónLogística = 1.714 (p = 0.232); respectivamente. Conclusiones. La instauración de la TARV modifica apreciablemente la asociación que pudiera existir entre el sistema inmune y el estado nutricional. La disminución en los conteos de CD4+ en una PVIH/sida se asocia débilmente con el deterioro de los indicadores

  16. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    , Venezuela Leopoldo Soto, Chile Michael Tendler, Sweden Carlos Varandas, Portugal Henry Riascos, Colombia Ivan Vargas-Blanco, Costa Rica Local Organizing Committee Luis Bilbao (Chairman) Fernando Minotti (Vice-Chairman) Luis Bernal, UNMDP Alejandro Clausse, PLADEMA-CNEA Graciela Gnavi, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Fausto Gratton, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Diana Grondona, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Héctor Kelly, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Adriana Márquez, INFIP, CONICET-UBA María Milanese, UNCPBA César Moreno, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Sponsors Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) Centro Latino-Americano de Física (CLAF) Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMP) Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN) Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires (ANCBA) Conference poster

  17. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en

  18. [SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN THE CANARY ISLANDS].

    PubMed

    Bello Lujan, Luis M; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Gutiérrez García, Luisa Esther; García Hernández, José Angel; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2015-10-01

    Introducción y objetivo: desde 1976, el término bajo peso al nacer (BPN) se aplica a todos los recién nacidos con un peso inferior a 2.500 g. y constituye el factor más importante que afecta a la mortalidad neonatal y a la morbilidad en la infancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las asociaciones entre los factores biológicos, socioeconómicos y sanitarios y el bajo peso en el recién nacido en las islas Canarias. Material y método: se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal, con los ficheros de las gestantes del 2011 y 2012 (n = 11,768) del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno de Gran Canaria, que representó el 66,3% de todos los partos de la provincia para esos años, excluyéndose del análisis los datos correspondientes a los embarazos múltiples (393) (3,3%). Se analizaron la distribución y la frecuencia del peso según características sociodemográficas; los porcentajes se compararon con el test de la 2, las medias con el t-test y las medianas con el test de Wilcoxon para datos independientes. Aquellas variables que mostraron asociación con el bajo peso en el análisis univariado fueron introducidas en un análisis logístico multidimensional. Resultados: en la distribución del peso al nacer se observó un exceso de niños con bajo peso (9,3%), de los cuales el 62,1% fueron pretérmino. Las madres de estos niños son más delgadas, de menor talla y tienen un IMC promedio de < 18,5 kg/m2, así como un promedio de edad de 31,5 años. Se observó igualmente que existe un incremento entre la edad de la madre y el bajo peso, aunque el efecto no es lineal; de hecho, los aumentos del riesgo de BPN se aceleran a medida que aumenta la edad. Cuando el IMC de la madre decrece, aproximadamente por debajo de 25, aumenta linealmente el riesgo de bajo peso. Las OR más elevadas corresponden al retraso fetal en el crecimiento intrauterino (CIR) (OR = 6,3; IC-95% = 5,3; 7,4), la hipertensión/eclampsia (OR = 3,2; IC-95% = 2

  19. [Food sources and adequacy of intake of omega 3 and omega-6 fatty acids in a representative sample of Spanish adults].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; González Rodríguez, Liliana G; Villalobos Cruz, Tania K; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; López Sobaler, Ana María

    2013-11-01

    Introducción y Objetivos: Teniendo en cuenta la importancia sanitaria del aporte de ácidos grasos omega 3 y omega 6 y ante la escasez de estudios sobre el tema en colectivos españoles se plantea la conveniencia de conocer la ingesta de estos ácidos grasos, su adecuación a los objetivos nutricionales marcados y sus fuentes alimentarias en una muestra representativa de la población española. Métodos: Se ha estudiado un colectivo de 1068 adultos (521 varones y 547 mujeres) de 17 a 60 años, seleccionados en diez provincias españolas, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población, a nivel nacional. Se determino la ingesta de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGP), ácidos grasos omega-3, α-linolénico (ALA), ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA), docosahexaenoico (DHA), ácidos grasos omega-6, ácido linoléico (LA) y araquidónico, en g/día y en porcentaje de la energía, utilizando un “Registro del consumo de alimentos” durante 3 días consecutivos, incluyendo un domingo, recogiendo también datos personales, sanitarios y antropométricos de los individuos estudiados. Resultados y Discusión: Mientras que la ingesta de grasa total y grasa saturada fue superior a la marcada como aconsejable en el 89.2% y 93.3% de los individuos, respectivamente, sin embargo con la ingesta de AGP sucede lo contrario, siendo más frecuente el aporte insuficiente (79.2% de los estudiados tienen ingesta menor del 6% de la energía). Resulta especialmente bajo el aporte de ácidos grasos omega-3 (1.850.82 g/día), que proporcionan menos del 1% de la energía en el 85.3% de los individuos, en concreto el ALA (1.400.55 g/día) no supera el 0.5% de la energía en el 53.7% de los casos y el EPA+DHA (0.550.58 g/día) no superan los 0.5 g/día en el 64.6%. Por otra parte, el aporte de ácidos grasos omega-6 fue más adecuado (10,953.79 g/día) y en concreto el de LA (10.773.76 g/día) supuso menos del 3% de la energía en el 25.5% de los estudiados. Las

  20. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    dominant fragmentation mechanism. Unlike many locations of the IPB, fiamme-rich pyroclastic units were not identified at Lousal. The ore deposits occur in close proximity with this volcanic centre that may have driven hydrothermal circulation that led to ore formation. The volcanic rocks show intense chloritic alteration, indicating that the mineralizing event occurred after most of the rhyolitic units have emplaced. The massive sulfides show abundant sedimentary structures which is not typical in the massive sulfide deposits of the IPB. The Lousal 50 Mt massive sulfide deposit consists of at least 11 ore bodies and was exploited until 1988 mainly for pyrite. The ores mined averaged 0.7% Cu, 0.8%Pb e 1.4%Zn (Strauss, 1971). These relatively low base metal grades led to an evaluation of the contents and distribution of high-tech element in the ore bodies, which would improve the economic viability of mining the deposit. This evaluation is currently focusing on the distribution and mineralogy of selenium, as ores mined in the past were known to be rich in this element. This work benefits from research projects INCA (PTDC/CTE-GIN/67027/2006; Characterization of crucial mineral resources for the development of renewable energy technologies: The Iberian Pyrite Belt ores as a source of indium and other high-technology elements) and project ARCHYMEDES II (POCTI/CTA/45873/2002), both funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia. REFERENCES Strauss, G.K., 1970. Sobre la geologia de la provincia piritifera del Suroeste de la Peninsula Iberica y sus yacimientos, en especial sobre la mina de pirita de Lousal (Portugal): Memoria del IGME 77, 1-266. Tornos, F., 2006. Environment of formation and styles of volcanogenic massive sulfides: The Iberian Pyrite Belt. Ore Geology Reviews 28, 259-307.

  1. [Calcium and vitamin D intakes in a representative sample of Spanish women; particular problem in menopause].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa María; González Rodríguez, Liliana G; Navia Lombán, Beatriz; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; López Sobaler, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentos: La acelerada desmineralización ósea que se produce en menopausia está muy condicionada por la ingesta de calcio y vitamina D, por lo que profundizar en la adecuación de la dieta en estos nutrientes, en mujeres menopáusicas constituye el objetivo del presente estudio. Métodos: Se estudió una muestra representativa de la población femenina espAÑOla de 17 a 60 AÑOs (n = 547), seleccionada en diez provincias, aunque el colectivo de 108 mujeres menopáusicas (45-60 AÑOs) es objeto de atención prioritaria. El estudio dietético se realizó por registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla, lo que permitió calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC). Resultados: La ingesta de calcio en menopausia (M) (992,1 ± 340,7 mg/día) fue inferior a la recomendada (IR) en un 79,6% de las estudiadas (menor del 67% de las IR en el 30,6%). El aporte de vitamina D (3,08 ± 3,6 μg/día) es todavía más desfavorable, pues en mujeres M supone un 61,1% de lo recomendado, con 85,2% que no alcanzan las IR y un 75,9% que no llegan a cubrir el 67% de lo recomendado. Un 72,6% de las mujeres estudiadas (68,5% de mujeres M) no cubren las IR ni para calcio ni para vitamina D, mientras que cubren lo recomendado para ambos nutrientes solo un 4,0% del total (3,7% de mujeres M). Aplicando un análisis de regresión logística para ver cual es la modificación dietética que puede favorecer el lograr cubrir con las IR para el calcio y la vitamina D, simultáneamente, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de la edad y del IMC, se observa que el principal condicionante es el consumo de productos lácteos [OR = 0,188 (0,108-0,327; p < 0,001)] y analizando solo mujeres M se obtiene la misma influencia [OR = 0,252 (0,067-0,946; p < 0,05)]. Se observa un descenso del IMC al aumentar la densidad de la dieta en calcio (r = -0,106) y en vitamina D (r = -0,099), lo que pone de relieve una posible intervención de

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    De Abajo Larriba, Ana Beatriz; Díaz Rodríguez, Ángel; González-Gallego, Javier; Méndez Rodríguez, Enrique; Álvarez Álvarez, María Jesús; Capón Álvarez, Jessica; Peleteiro Cobo, Beatriz; Mahmoud Atoui, Omar; De Abajo Olea, Serafín; Martínez de Mandojana Hernández, Juan

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: estimar la prevalencia del tabaquismo y analizar cómo se diagnostican y se trata a los fumadores diagnosticados de EPOC.Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, transversal, multicéntrico (30 centros salud de la provincia de León). Incluyó pacientes mayores de 35 años diagnosticados y tratados de EPOC. Variables analizadas: edad, sexo, hábitat, datos antropométricos, tabaquismo, número de paquetes/año, cooximetría, dependencia (escala analógico-visual), motivación (test de Fagerström), autoeficacia, estado anímico, intentos previos, terapia cognitivo-conductual, tratamiento farmacológico (TSN, bupropión, vareniclina) y recaídas. Los resultados se expresan con sus IC al 95,5%.Resultados: se incluyó a 833 pacientes, el 85,8% varones, edad media: 64,69 (53,66-75,61) años y 20,65 (4,47-36,8) años de evolución de la EPOC. El 86,67% (80,30-93,30) tenían antecedentes de tabaquismo (n = 722), de 35,26 (17,87-52,64) años de evolución, con consumo medio 28,36 (9,60-46,86) paquetes año, p < 0,001, siendo el 58% fumadores severos. El 57,4% (53,90-60,60) son exfumadores. El 29,3% (26,40-32,70) fumadores activos declarados vs. 35,11% (33,90-37,12) fumadores diagnosticados por cooximetría p < 0,05. Los 288 fumadores activos, presentaban baja motivación (49,80%), alta dependencia (49,5%), actitud negativa (52,60%), bajo estado de ánimo (32,05%), con 2,72 (1,74-3,67) intentos para dejar de fumar, p < 0,0001. La terapia conductivo-conductual (TCC) combinado con tratamiento farmacológico se realizó en el 55,8% (52,2-54,9), p < 0,05; La intervención más efectiva fue TCC combinada con vareniclina logrando una abstinencia del 29,86%. En total dejaron de fumar un 51,05% (49,49-52,70) de los pacientes con EPOC, p < 0,001.Conclusiones: la prevalencia de tabaquismo en la EPOC en nuestro medio continúa siendo inadmisiblemente elevada. Es necesaria una mayor implicación para disminuir su impacto en la salud de estos pacientes.

  3. PREFACE: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    . Role of Nuclear Techniques in Environment Problems. Applications of Nuclear Techniques relevant for Civil Security (contraband and explosive detection, search for Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nuclear Safeguards). Nuclear Applications in Space Research. Material and Structure Testing in Research and Industry. New contributions of Nuclear Techniques to the solution of the Energy Production problems and Nuclear Waste Transmutation. Emerging experimental techniques, new detectors and new modeling tools. During the Monday morning Session of the Conference, the 2005 IBA-EUROPHYSICS PRIZE for Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine, sponsored by the Belgian company IBA, was awarded to the two laureates Werner Heil (Mainz) and Pierre Jean Nacher (Paris) for the development of spin polarized 3He targets by optical pumping and their applications in nuclear science and medicine. The meeting was a real success, with 18 invited talks, 66 contributed talks and 31 posters and an overall participation, during five full days, of around 150 scientists from different European and non-European countries. It also hosted a three day industrial exhibition of a selection of Companies that sponsored the event. The Organisers take thos opportunity to thank the University of Pavia, the Amministrazione Comunale di Pavia and the Provincia di Pavia, as well as all exhibitors (Ametek, Ansaldo Superconduttori, Caen, Else, Hamamatsu, IBA, Micos, Micron Semiconductor), for their support of the Conference. The Organisers finally wish to thank the Scientific Secretary of the Conference, Dr Andrea Fontana of INFN Pavia, for the huge amount of work done in preparing the Conference, Mr Claudio Casella of the Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of the University of Pavia for technical support and the Conference staff, Dr Gaia Boghen and the graduate students Federica Devecchi and Silvia Franchino, for their invaluable help. The very effective and professional work of the staff of

  4. Short and long term chemical and isotopic variations of Lake Trasimeno (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frondini, Francesco; Dragoni, Walter; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Donnini, Marco; Morgantini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    -surface atmospheric temperature observed in the last decades. References - Dragoni W., et al. (2015) - Possible response of two water systems in Central Italy to climatic changes. In "Advances in Watershed Hydrology" (T. Moramarco, S. Barbetta, L. Brocca, Eds), pp.397-424. Publications, LLC, USA. ISBN-13: 978-1-887-20185-8 - Dragoni W., et al. (2012): Bilancio idrico del Lago Trasimeno. In "Tutela Ambientale del lago Trasimeno", a cura di Martinelli A., Libri/Arpa Umbria, pp. 403. ISBN: 978-88-905920-03 (in Italian). - Dragoni W. (2004): The Lake Trasimeno and the Climatic Variations - Il Lago Trasimeno e le Variazioni Climatiche. Progetto informativo dell'assessorato all'Ambiente della Provincia di Perugia, Servizio Gestione e Difesa Idraulica, pp. 60, Perugia. - Ludovisi, A., Gaino, E., 2010. Meteorological and water quality changes in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy) during the last fifty years. J. Limnol. 69, 174-188.

  5. A mobile GPR system for evaluating road landslide damage and effectiveness of the restoration works at Potenza District scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Bavusi, M.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    system regards its high sampling speed allowing to gather a radargram with velocities greater than 50 Km/h. The system is able to acquire up to 100 Km per day of geo-referred radargrams. In order to test the system and the automatic processing routines needed in order to process a huge amount of data, several surveys have been preformed on few roads affected by landslides. The results of the GPR mobile system have been compared and integrated with the outcomes of surveys performed by a GSSI SIR 3000 System with a 400 MHz ground coupled antenna so to achieve information about the section of the road to depths significant for a reliable monitoring and in this work some acquisition examples are described and discussed. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from Provincia di Potenza. Moreover the authors would like to thank Valter Baroncini of Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A for his availability and professionality demonstrated during the preparation of the mobile system.

  6. Association between magnesium-deficient status and anthropometric and clinical-nutritional parameters in posmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    López-González, Beatriz; Molina-López, Jorge; Florea, Daniela Ioana; Quintero-Osso, Bartolomé; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Planells del Pozo, Elena Ma

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Durante la menopausia se produce un aumento de peso y de pérdida de masa ósea debido a la disminución hormonal producida durante este periodo y a otros factores como la nutrición. La deficiencia de magnesio podría ser un factor de riesgo para la obesidad y la osteoporosis. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado clínico-nutricional en una población de mujeres postmenopáusicas, evaluando la ingesta y los niveles séricos de magnesio, y su correlación con parámetros antropométricos, como el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la grasa corporal, así como con parámetros bioquímicos asociados. Sujetos y Metodología: En el estudio participaron 78 mujeres sanas en situación de postmenopausia de la provincia a de Granada, con edades comprendidas entre los 44-76 años. La muestra se dividió en dos grupos de edad: grupo 1, mujeres postmenopáusicas con edad menor de 58 años y grupo 2, de edad mayor o igual a 58 años. Se registraron parámetros antropométricos y se valoró la ingesta nutricional mediante recordatorio de 72 horas, obteniendo las RDAs a través del programa Nutriber®. Para valorar los parámetros bioquímicos se realizó una extracción de sangre y el magnesio se analizó mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica de llama (FAAS) en muestras de eritrocitos y plasma previamente mineralizadas por vía húmeda. Resultados: Nuestros resultados muestran que el 37.8% de las mujeres presentan sobrepeso. La ingesta de magnesio encontrada en nuestra población es insuficiente en el 36% de las mujeres, mientras que la deficiencia de magnesio plasmático y eritrocitario corresponde al 23% y el 72% de las mujeres, respectivamente. Se observaron correlaciones significativas positivas entre el aporte de magnesio en la dieta y el aporte de calcio, de fósforo, y los niveles plasmáticos de prealbúmina, además de con una menor relación cintura/cadera. Los niveles de magnesio en eritrocito se correlacionaron con los niveles de triglicéridos y

  7. Short and long term chemical and isotopic variations of Lake Trasimeno (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frondini, Francesco; Dragoni, Walter; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Donnini, Marco; Morgantini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    -surface atmospheric temperature observed in the last decades. References - Dragoni W., et al. (2015) - Possible response of two water systems in Central Italy to climatic changes. In "Advances in Watershed Hydrology" (T. Moramarco, S. Barbetta, L. Brocca, Eds), pp.397-424. © 2015 Water Resources Publications, LLC, USA. ISBN-13: 978-1-887-20185-8 - Dragoni W., et al. (2012): Bilancio idrico del Lago Trasimeno. In "Tutela Ambientale del lago Trasimeno", a cura di Martinelli A., Libri/Arpa Umbria, pp. 403. ISBN: 978-88-905920-03 (in Italian). - Dragoni W. (2004): The Lake Trasimeno and the Climatic Variations - Il Lago Trasimeno e le Variazioni Climatiche. Progetto informativo dell'assessorato all'Ambiente della Provincia di Perugia, Servizio Gestione e Difesa Idraulica, pp. 60, Perugia. - Ludovisi, A., Gaino, E., 2010. Meteorological and water quality changes in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy) during the last fifty years. J. Limnol. 69, 174-188.

  8. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  9. Prediction of seasonal water-table fluctuations in La Pampa and Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanco, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The fluctuation of the water table east of La Pampa province and northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, influences agricultural production in the region because it is closely related to the alternation of dry and wet periods. Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies have been used as predictors to forecast atmospheric variables in different regions of the world. The objective of this work is to present a simple model to forecast seasonal rainfall using SST distribution in the Pacific Ocean as a predictor. Once the relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuations was established, a methodology for the prediction of water-table fluctuations was developed. A good agreement between observed and predicted water-table fluctuations was found when estimating water-table fluctuations in the summer and autumn seasons. Résumé. Les fluctuations de la nappe à l'est de la province de La Pampa et au nord-ouest de la province de Buenos Aires (Argentine) influence la production agricole de la région parce qu'elle est étroitement liée à l'alternance de saisons sèches et humides. Les anomalies de la température de surface de l'océan (SST) ont été utilisées comme prédicteurs pour prévoir les variables atmosphériques dans différentes régions du monde. L'objectif de ce travail est de présenter un modèle simple de prévision des précipitations saisonnières en utilisant comme prédicteur la distribution des SST dans l'Océan Pacifique. Une fois que la relation entre les fluctuations des précipitations et celles de la nappe a été établie, une méthodologie de prédiction des variations de la nappe a été mise au point. Un bon accord entre les variations de la nappe observées et celles prédites a été trouvé pour les estimations des variations de nappe en été et en automne. Resumen. La fluctuación del nivel freático al este de la provincia de La Pampa y al nordeste de la de Buenos Aires (Argentina) repercute en la producción agr

  10. Coupled prediction of flash flood response and debris flow occurrence in an alpine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, William

    2015-04-01

    Coupled prediction of flash flood response and debris flow occurrence in an alpine basin Author(s): William Amponsah1, E.I. Nikolopoulos2, Lorenzo Marchi1, Roberto Dinale4, Francesco Marra3,Davide Zoccatelli2 , Marco Borga2 Affiliation(s): 1CNR - IRPI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127, Padova, ITALY, 2Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova,VialeDell'Università 16, 35020, Legnaro PD, ITALY 3Department of Geography, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ISRAEL 4Ufficio Idrografico, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy This contribution examines the main hydrologic and morphologic metrics responsible for widespread triggering of debris-flows associated with flash flood occurrences in headwater alpine catchments.To achieve this objective, we investigate the precipitation forcing, hydrologic responses and landslides and debris-flow occurrences that prevailed during the August 4-5, 2012 extreme flash flood on the 140 km2 Vizze basin in the Eastern Alps of Italy. An intensive post-event survey was carried out a few days after the flood. This included the surveys of cross-sectional geometry and flood marks for the estimation of the peak discharges at multiple river sections and of the initiation and deposition areas of several debris flows. Rainfall estimates are based on careful analysis of weather radar observations and raingauge data. These data and observations permitted the implementation and calibration of a spatially distributed hydrological model, which was used to derive simulated flood hydrographs in 58 tributaries of the Vizze basin. Of these, 33 generated debris-flows, with area ranging from 0.02 km2 to 10 km2, with an average of 1.5 km2. With 130 mm peak event rainfall and a duration of 4 hours (with a max intensity of 90 mm h-1 for 10 min), model-simulated unit peak discharges range from 4 m3 s-1 km-2for elementary catchments up to 10 km2 to 2 m3 s-1 km-2 for catchments in the range of 50 - 100 km2. These are very high

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    De Abajo Larriba, Ana Beatriz; Díaz Rodríguez, Ángel; González-Gallego, Javier; Méndez Rodríguez, Enrique; Álvarez Álvarez, María Jesús; Capón Álvarez, Jessica; Peleteiro Cobo, Beatriz; Mahmoud Atoui, Omar; De Abajo Olea, Serafín; Martínez de Mandojana Hernández, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: estimar la prevalencia del tabaquismo y analizar cómo se diagnostican y se trata a los fumadores diagnosticados de EPOC.Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, transversal, multicéntrico (30 centros salud de la provincia de León). Incluyó pacientes mayores de 35 años diagnosticados y tratados de EPOC. Variables analizadas: edad, sexo, hábitat, datos antropométricos, tabaquismo, número de paquetes/año, cooximetría, dependencia (escala analógico-visual), motivación (test de Fagerström), autoeficacia, estado anímico, intentos previos, terapia cognitivo-conductual, tratamiento farmacológico (TSN, bupropión, vareniclina) y recaídas. Los resultados se expresan con sus IC al 95,5%.Resultados: se incluyó a 833 pacientes, el 85,8% varones, edad media: 64,69 (53,66-75,61) años y 20,65 (4,47-36,8) años de evolución de la EPOC. El 86,67% (80,30-93,30) tenían antecedentes de tabaquismo (n = 722), de 35,26 (17,87-52,64) años de evolución, con consumo medio 28,36 (9,60-46,86) paquetes año, p < 0,001, siendo el 58% fumadores severos. El 57,4% (53,90-60,60) son exfumadores. El 29,3% (26,40-32,70) fumadores activos declarados vs. 35,11% (33,90-37,12) fumadores diagnosticados por cooximetría p < 0,05. Los 288 fumadores activos, presentaban baja motivación (49,80%), alta dependencia (49,5%), actitud negativa (52,60%), bajo estado de ánimo (32,05%), con 2,72 (1,74-3,67) intentos para dejar de fumar, p < 0,0001. La terapia conductivo-conductual (TCC) combinado con tratamiento farmacológico se realizó en el 55,8% (52,2-54,9), p < 0,05; La intervención más efectiva fue TCC combinada con vareniclina logrando una abstinencia del 29,86%. En total dejaron de fumar un 51,05% (49,49-52,70) de los pacientes con EPOC, p < 0,001.Conclusiones: la prevalencia de tabaquismo en la EPOC en nuestro medio continúa siendo inadmisiblemente elevada. Es necesaria una mayor implicación para disminuir su impacto en la salud de estos pacientes. PMID:27571673

  12. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  13. [State of food and nutritional care in public hospitals of Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2014-10-03

    Justificación: El Estudio ELAN Ecuatoriano de Desnutrición Hospitalaria en los hospitales públicos del Ecuador devolvió una tasa de desnutrición del 37.1% [Gallegos Espinosa S, Nicolalde Cifuentes M, Santana Porbén S; para el Grupo Ecuatoriano de Estudio de la Desnutrición Hospitalaria. Estado de la desnutrición en los hospitales del Ecuador. Nutr Hosp (España) 2014;30:425-35]. La desnutrición hospitalaria podría ser la resultante de prácticas culturales institucionales que afectan el estado nutricional del enfermo. Objetivos: Presentar el estado corriente de los cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales que se le ofrecen al enfermo atendido en los hospitales públicos del Ecuador. Material y Método: El estado de los cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales provistos a 5,355 enfermos atendidos en 36 hospitales de 23 provincias del país se documentó mediante la Encuesta de Nutrición Hospitalaria (ENH), conducida dentro del Estudio ELAN. La ENH registró el completamiento de los ejercicios de evaluación nutricional, el estado del uso de la vía oral, el tiempo de ayuno, el uso de suplementos dietéticos orales, y la implementación y conducción de esquemas de Nutrición artificial (Enteral/ Parenteral); respectivamente. Resultados: Menos del 0.1% de las historias clínicas tenía un diagnóstico de desnutrición dentro de las listas de problemas de salud del paciente. Menos de la mitad de los pacientes había sido tallado y pesado al ingreso. La Albúmina sérica y los Conteos Totales de Linfocitos estaban registrados en el momento del ingreso en solo el 13.5% y el 59.2% de las instancias, respectivamente. El valor corriente del Peso solo se anotó en el 59.4% de los pacientes con una estadía³ 15 días. Se indicó algún tipo de suplemento dietético en solo el 3.5% de los pacientes no desnutridos en los que concurrían estrés metabólico significativo y/o ingresos dietéticos disminuidos. A pesar de que se identificaron hasta 10 indicaciones diferentes

  14. 8th Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and 7th Clinical Engineering Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, Gustavo Javier; Ballarin, Virginia L.

    2011-12-01

    President Dr Gustavo Meschino Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Comittee Dr Gustavo Abraham Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Mg Rubén Acevedo Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos Ing Pablo Agüero Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Ing Mariela Ambrustolo Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Ricardo Armentano Universidad Favaloro Dra Virginia L Ballarin Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Josefina Ballarre Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dr Eduardo Blotta Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Ing Marco Benalcázar Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Mg Freddy Geovanny Benalcázar Palacios Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, Ecuador Dr Roberto Boeri Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET - INTEMA Dra Agustina Bouchet Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Ariel Braidot Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos Dr Marcel Brun Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Silvia Ceré Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Ing Fernando Clara Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Raúl Correa Prado Universidad Nacional de San Juan Bioing Pablo Cortez Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Teresita R Cuadrado Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Ing Eduardo De Forteza Universidad Favaloro Dra Mariana Del Fresno Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires Dr Martín Diaz Informática Médica Hospital Aleman de Buenos Aires - GIBBA Ing Julio César Doumecq Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Mg Ana María Echenique Universidad Nacional de San Juan Bioing Pedro Escobar Universidad Nacional del Centro, Olavarría, Pcia de Buenos Aires Dr Fernando Daniel Farfán Universidad Nacional de Tucumán Dr Carmelo Felice Universidad Nacional de Tucumán - CONICET Dr Elmer Fernández Universidad Católica de Córdoba - CONICET Ing José Flores Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos Dr Arturo Gayoso Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Bioing Agustina Garcés Universidad Nacional de San

  15. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    .5194/soil-1-687-2015, Keesstra, S.D., Geissen, V., van Schaik, L., Mosse., K., Piiranen, S., 2012. Soil as a filter for groundwater quality. Current Opinions in Environmental Sustainability 4, 507-516.doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2012.10.007 Lieskovský, J., Kenderessy, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in: A case study in vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM Land Degradation and Development, 25 (3), 288-296. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2162 Ligonja P. J., Shrestha R. P. 2015. Soil erosion assessment in kondoa eroded area in Tanzania using universal soil loss equation, geographic information systems and socioeconomic approachLand Degradation and Development, 26 (4), 367-379. DOI: 10. 1002/ldr. 2215 Mukherjee, A., Zimmerman, A.R., Hamdan, R., Cooper, W.T.Physicochemical changes in pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) after 15 months of field aging(2014) Solid Earth, 5 (2), pp. 693-704. DOI: 10.5194/se-5-693-2014 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S. S., Santoro, A., Cerdà, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research, 117, 140-147. Smith, P., Cotrufo, M.F., Rumpel, C., Paustian, K., Kuikman, P.J., Elliott, J.A., McDowell, R., Griffiths, R.I., Asakawa, S., Bustamante, M., House, J.I., Sobocká, J., Harper, R., Pan, G., West, P.C., Gerber, J.S., Clark, J.M., Adhya, T., Scholes, R.J., Scholes, M.C., 2015. Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity as key drivers of ecosystem services provided by soils. SOIL 1, 665-685. doi:10.5194/soil-1-665-2015 Taguas, E.V., Arroyo, C., Lora, A., Guzmán, G., Vanderlinden, K., Gómez, J.A., 2015. Exploring the linkage between spontaneous grass cover biodiversity and soil degradation in two olive orchard microcatchments with contrasting environmental and management conditions. SOIL, 1, 651-664. doi:10.5194/soil-1-651-2015 Yazdanpanah, N., Mahmoodabadi, M., and Cerdà, A. The impact of organic amendments on soil hydrology

  16. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée à la précipitation d'un carbonate alcalino-terreux et à la dissolution de sels par capillarité. Resumen La salinización es el proceso por el cual la concentración de sales disueltas en el agua o el suelo aumenta por causas naturales o antrópicas. El contenido de agua se reduce por uno o una combinación de los siguientes mecanismos: evaporación, evapotranspiración, hidrólisis y goteo entre acuíferos. La salinidad aumenta en la dirección del flujo subterráneo, desde los puntos de recarga hacia los de descarga. La salinización se puede explicar por dos modelos químicos que se pueden definir como erosión y deposición y que están de acuerdo con los clásicos procesos geológicos que tienen los mismos nombres. Se conocen cinco procesos de salinización de suelos ligados al agua o a la extracción de la misma en climas áridos o semiáridos. En todos los casos que se presentan el agua subterránea es el principal agente geológico de transmisión, acumulación y descarga de sales. A escala de pequeña cuenca, en Australia Occidental y del Sur, el agua se pierde mediante evapotranspiración e hidrólisis. El agua subterránea salina fluye a lo largo de los cauces de los arroyos y se acumula en los paleocanales, que actúan como depósitos, hasta que finalmente descarga en los lagos, donde se acumula la mayor parte de la salinidad. En los hummocks de la Zona Norte de los Grandes Llanos de Canadá y EEUU, la recarga localizada y el tipo de descarga provocan que la salinización tenga lugar fundamentalmente en las depresiones. A escala regional y en cuencas cerradas este mismo mecanismo provoca playas o lagos salinos. En los acuíferos continentales de los rift del Sudán, la salinidad se incrementa a lo largo de las líneas de flujo subterráneo y se concentra en el límite distal. La zona salina en cada rift forma una cresta cerrada que se manifiesta en los mapas piezom

  17. EDITORIAL: Optical tomography and digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupland, Jeremy; Lobera, Julia

    2008-07-01

    terms the papers we present describe closely related holographic techniques that address application areas within the field of engineering. The application of digital holography to 3D fluid flow measurement is addressed by several authors. Salah et al demonstrate the simplicity of digital holography with an in-line multiple exposure holographic system using a low-cost laser diode. Soria and Atkinson discuss limitations of low NA holography in fluid velocimetry and demonstrate the potential of a multiple camera, in-line technique which they call Tomographic Digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (Tomo-HPIV). Problems caused by the twin images (real and virtual) of in-line HPIV are described by Ooms et al. It is shown how sign ambiguity can be eliminated and bias errors suppressed by the application of a suitable threshold in piecewise correlation of the reconstructed field. Denis et al explain the problem of twin image removal as a deconvolution process and compare suppression algorithms based on wavelet decomposition. This process can be considered as an inverse problem and the benefits of this approach are discussed with reference to particulate holograms by Gire et al. Of course, the twin image problem can be solved by off-axis holographic geometries which, in effect, add a carrier modulation. Arroyo presents a comparison of carrier modulation strategies that have been presented in the literature and shows circumstances in which the information in each of the real and virtual images can be separated when the sensor resolution is less than that required by the NA of the objective. State-of-the-art digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is presented by Kühn et al. This paper uses an off-axis geometry that simultaneously records images at two wavelengths. The microscope allows the surface profile to be measured from a single recording and sub-nanometre axial resolution is demonstrated. Another interesting application of DHM is addressed by Grilli et al. They

  18. Determination of aquifer roof extending under the sea from variable-density flow modelling of groundwater response to tidal loading: case study of the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianmei; Chen, Chongxi; Ji, Menrui

    d'un aquifère qui s'étend sous la mer à partir des données concernant les effets de marée sur les eaux souterraines dans le bassin de la rivière Jahe, dans la province de Shandong, Chine. La limite de salinité est déterminée en faisant converger les fluctuations des hauteurs piézométriques avec les valeurs calculées, et les paramètres de l'aquifère sont estimés dans la zone s'étendant sous la mer. L'incidence de la longueur de l'aquifère sous la mer sur les fluctuations des niveaux est étudiée. On en conclut que la longueur du toit de l'aquifère sous la mer peut correspondre à certains aquifères paramètres dans la zone d'extrapolation. Par conséquent, la limite de salinité déterminée à partir des effets de marée est l'équivalent d'une limite hydrodynamique plutôt que la véritable limite de l'aquifère. El principal objetivo de los estudios sobre intrusiones de agua salada en acuíferos costeros confinados es predecir la posición de la interfase agua dulce-agua salada, la cual puede determinarse a partir de la longitud del techo del acuífero que se extiende por debajo del mar. Los registros de niveles de agua subterránea afectados por las mareas puede utilizarse para inferir las condiciones hidrológicas y determinar los parámetros hidráulicos de un acuífero que se extiende por debajo del mar. En este artículo se ha desarrollado un modelo de flujo tri-dimensional de agua subterránea de densidad variable para determinar la longitud del techo equivalente de un acuífero que se extiende por debajo del mar a partir de datos, afectados por la marea, de niveles de agua subterránea en la Cuenca del Río Jahe, Provincia Shandong, China. El límite hacia el océano se obtiene por convergencia de fluctuaciones de presiones hidráulicas observadas en pozos con valores calculados, y se estiman los parámetros del acuífero en la zona extendida. Se estudian los impactos de la longitud del techo del acuífero y los parámetros del acu

  19. Social orientations and adolescent health behaviours in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Skultéti, Dóra; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-02-01

    influenciadas por una variedad de factores sociales, incluyendo las orientaciones sociales, la comparación social, así como la capacidad de competencia. La meta principal de este estudio fue el investigar el rol que pueden jugar estas orientaciones sociales sobre las conductas de salud (tanto perjudiciales como promotoras de salud). Los datos fueron obtenidos en escolares de la escuela secundaria (N = 548; edad 14-20 años; 39.9 por ciento hombres) en dos provincias de la zona sur de Hungría. Los cuestionarios autoadministrados incluyen preguntas sobre datos socio-demográficos como edad, sexo, nivel educativo de los padres y autoevaluación del estatus socio-económico; logros académicos, conductas de salud, competitividad y comparación social. Los análisis de regresión múltiple sugieren que aquellos participantes con altos puntajes en la capacidad de competencia estaban más comprometidos con el uso de substancias, un patrón que no está considerado dentro de las conductas de promoción de la salud. Por otro lado la comparación social estuvo asociada con bajos niveles de uso de substancias. Adicionalmente en relación a las conductas perjudiciales para la salud, tanto la competitividad como la comparación social interactuaban con el sexo. Se pudo observar que ambas variables de la orientación social eran más importantes para los muchachos. La comparación social también contribuye con las conductas promotoras de salud entre los muchachos. Estos descubrimientos apoyan la idea de que el rol de las ori