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Sample records for arsenic cadmium copper

  1. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  2. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  3. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure.

  4. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  5. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  6. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River Basin, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, `carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., `bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carpand bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984–1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8–4.7 μg g-1 in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where

  7. Concentrations of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River basin, 1995.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 'carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., 'bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carp and bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984-1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8-4.7 microg g-(1) in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where

  8. Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York

    PubMed Central

    Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900’s led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay’s pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in μg/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

  9. Biomarkers of cadmium and arsenic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordberg, G.F. . E-mail: gunnar.nordberg@envmed.umu.se; Jin, T.; Hong, F.; Zhang, A.; Buchet, J.P.; Bernard, A.

    2005-08-07

    Advances in proteomics have led to the identification of sensitive urinary biomarkers of renal dysfunction that are increasingly used in toxicology and epidemiology. Recent animal data show that combined exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) gives rise to more pronounced renal toxicity than exposure to each of the agents alone. In order to examine if similar interaction occurs in humans, renal dysfunction was studied in population groups (619 persons in total) residing in two metal contaminated areas in China: mainly a Cd contaminated area in Zhejiang province (Z-area) and mainly a As contaminated area in Guizhou province (G-area). Nearby control areas without excessive metal exposure were also included. Measurements of urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-glucosaminidase (UNAG), retinol binding protein (URBP) and albumin (UALB) were used as markers of renal dysfunction. Urinary Cd (UCd) and total As (UTAs) were analyzed by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Urinary inorganic As and its mono- and di-methylated metabolites (UIAs) were determined by Hydride generation. Results. As expected, the highest UCd values occurred in Z-area (Geometric mean, GM 11.6 {mu}g/g crea) while the highest UTAs values occurred in G-area (GM = 288 {mu}g/g crea). Statistically significant increases compared to the respective control area were present both for UTAs, UCd and for UB2MG, UNAG and UALB in Z-area as well as in G-area. UIAs was determined only in Z area. In G-area, there was a clear dose-response pattern both in relation to UTAs and UCd for each of the biomarkers of renal dysfunction. An interaction effect between As and Cd was demonstrated at higher levels of a combined exposure to As and Cd enhancing the effect on the kidney. In Z-area an increased prevalence of B2MG-uria, NAG-uria and ALB-uria was found in relation to UCd, but no relationship to UTAs was found. A statistically significant relationship between UIAs and UB2MG

  10. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

    1986-03-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

  11. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. Methods A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940–2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Results Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure–response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m3 Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20–25 years. Conclusions These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m3 Cd. PMID:22271639

  12. Survey of arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead in kidney of cattle, horse, sheep and pigs from rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dokić, Maja; Sedak, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Trace element (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) concentrations were determined in the kidney of cattle, sheep, horses and pigs from rural areas of Croatia. Arsenic concentrations in kidney tissues ranged from 0.013 to 0.5 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in As kidney levels were observed among species. The highest levels of Cd and Hg were found in horses and ranged 0.029-47.4 and 0.009-0.13 mg kg(-1), respectively. The European Union maximum levels for Cd in kidney were exceeded by 92.3% of horses, 14% of cattle and 16% of sheep. The highest mean Cu levels were found in sheep and horse (8.53 and 8.45 mg kg(-1)). Mean Hg concentrations in kidney of cattle, sheep, horses and pigs were 0.051, 0.011, 0.034 and 0.094 mg kg(-1), respectively, and the highest levels of Pb were found in cattle (1.71 mg kg(-1)). Significant differences in Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations between animal species were observed.

  13. Copper-cadmium interaction in mice: effects of copper status on retention and distribution of cadmium after cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The role of increased dietary copper in altering the accumulation of cadmium and other metals in tissues, was investigated. Female Swiss-Webster mice were pretreated with cadmium or copper in drinking water for three weeks prior to cadmium exposure for an additional nine weeks, with sub groups from each dose level receiving Cu additions to the Cd supplemented water. In Cd pretreated animals, a significant decrease was observed in Cd concentrations in liver and kidney when Cu was added to Cd in drinking water. Cadmium levels in soluble protein fractions of liver of animals administered 5 ppm Cd were approximately three fold greater than that for the same Cd dose when Cu was added. The same was the case for the metallothionein-like protein fraction (MTP) of the liver cytosol. In copper pretreated animals similar trends were noted in that brain, spleen, liver (but not kidney) Cd levels were decreased in animals receiving Cu additions to the Cd dose. Increased binding of Cd to the MTP fraction was observed after both in vivo and in vitro exposure of intestinal mucosal cells to cadmium.

  14. Thermodynamic Modeling of Arsenic in Copper Smelting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunlin; Zhang, Ling; Jahanshahi, Sharif

    2010-12-01

    Published data on the activity coefficients of arsenic in liquid copper, matte and, slag have been reviewed, assessed, and used in the development of thermodynamic databases for solution models of melts. The databases were validated against the literature data on the equilibrium distribution of arsenic between the matte and the slag. The models and databases were used in investigating the effects of matte grade, slag chemistry, SO2 partial pressure, arsenic loading, and temperature on the equilibrium distribution of arsenic between the melts and gas phase during copper smelting and converting. The results obtained show that the continuous smelting processes operates close to equilibrium between condensed phases with most arsenic reporting to the gas phase. A comparison of the batch and continuous converting processes showed a considerable difference with respect to the elimination of the arsenic from condensed phases. These results indicate batch processes to be more efficient in the removal of arsenic through the gas stream.

  15. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals.

  16. Maternal exposure to arsenic and cadmium and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Tian, Xiaoxian; Liu, Zhen; Hu, Hui; Li, Xiaohong; Deng, Ying; Li, Nana; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hair arsenic and cadmium from 339 women with congenital heart defect (CHD)-affected pregnancies (case women) and 333 women with normal live births (control women) in China were estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The median levels of hair arsenic and cadmium in the case women were 98.30 (74.30-136.30)ng/g and 14.60 (8.30-32.50)ng/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than the levels in the control group (P<0.05). Arsenic concentrations ≥62.03ng/g were associated with increased risk for almost every CHD subtype, with a dose-response relationship. However, only the group with the highest cadmium levels (≥25.85ng/g) displayed an increased risk of CHDs (AOR 1.96; 95% CI 1.24-3.09), with a 2.81-fold increase found for the occurrence of conotruncal defects in their offspring. Furthermore, an interaction between arsenic and cadmium was observed. Our findings suggest that maternal exposure to arsenic and cadmium may be a significant risk factor for CHDs in offspring. Cadmium may have an enhancing effect on the association between arsenic and the risk of CHDs in offspring.

  17. Epigenetics in metal carcinogenesis: Nickel, Arsenic, Chromium and Cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Adriana; Costa, Max

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although carcinogenic metals have been known to disrupt a wide range of cellular processes the precise mechanism by which these exert their carcinogenic effects is not known. Over the last decade or two, studies in the field of metal carcinogenesis suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in metal-induced carcinogenesis. In this review we summarize the evidence demonstrating that exposure to carcinogenic metals such as nickel, arsenic, chromium, and cadmium can perturb DNA methylation levels as well as global and gene specific histone tail posttranslational modification marks. We also wish to emphasize the importance in understanding that gene expression can be regulated by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms and both these must be considered when studying the mechanism underlying the toxicity and cell-transforming ability of carcinogenic metals and other toxicants, and aberrant changes in gene expression that occur during disease states such as cancer. PMID:20461219

  18. Integrated management strategies for Arsenic and Cadmium in rice paddy environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is both a major staple food for human populations, and the major source of soil arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) transfer to the human food chain. Thus soil and crop accumulation of As and Cd have become major environmental issues globally. Arsenic and Cd contamination of soils and rice threatens ...

  19. Effect of cigarette smoking on copper, lead, and cadmium accumulation in human lens

    PubMed Central

    Cekic, O.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To identify cigarette smoking as a risk factor for development of cataract, to determine the importance of copper, lead, and cadmium in cataractogenesis, and to learn about any relation between those elements.
METHODS—Copper, lead, and cadmium concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 37 cataractous and nine normal human lenses.
RESULTS—All three element accumulations in lenses with cataract were statistically meaningful. Lenticular copper, lead, and cadmium were increased significantly with cigarette smoking. Cadmium had a positive correlation both with lead and copper in cataractous lenses.
CONCLUSION—The accumulation of copper, lead, and cadmium occurs in cataract. The probable source of cadmium in humans is cigarettes. Lenticular cadmium accumulation also increases copper and lead precipitation in the lens. Cigarette smoking might be cataractogenic.

 Keywords: cigarettes; cataract; copper; lead; cadmium PMID:9613387

  20. Effect of arsenic, cadmium and lead on the induction of apoptosis of normal human mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    DE LA FUENTE, H; PORTALES-PÉREZ, D; BARANDA, L; DÍAZ-BARRIGA, F; SAAVEDRA-ALANÍS, V; LAYSECA, E; GONZÁLEZ-AMARO, R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the apoptosis of human immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were incubated with increasing concentrations of these metals and then cellular apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and by DNA electrophoresis. We found that arsenic induced a significant level of apoptosis at 15 μm after 48h of incubation. Cadmium had a similar effect, but at higher concentrations (65 μm). In addition, cadmium exerted a cytotoxic effect on MNC that seemed to be independent of the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, concentrations of lead as high as 500 μm were nontoxic and did not induce a significant degree of apoptosis. Additional experiments showed that arsenic at concentrations as low as 1·0 μm had a significant pro-apoptotic effect when cells were cultured in the presence of this pollutant for more than 72. Non-T cells were more susceptible than T lymphocytes to the effect of arsenic and cadmium. Interestingly, MNC from children chronically exposed to arsenic showed a high basal rate of apoptosis and a diminished in vitro sensibility to this metalloid. Our results indicate that both arsenic and cadmium are able to induce apoptosis of lymphoid cells, and suggest that this phenomenon may contribute to their immunotoxic effect in vivo. PMID:12100024

  1. Global Fitness Profiling Identifies Arsenic and Cadmium Tolerance Mechanisms in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Ganguly, Abantika; Sun, Lingling; Suo, Fang; Du, Li-Lin; Russell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium [Cd(II)] and arsenic [As(III)] are widespread environmental toxicants responsible for multiple adverse health effects in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metal-induced cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, as well as the detoxification and tolerance pathways, are incompletely understood. Here, we use global fitness profiling by barcode sequencing to quantitatively survey the Schizosaccharomyces pombe haploid deletome for genes that confer tolerance of cadmium or arsenic. We identified 106 genes required for cadmium resistance and 110 genes required for arsenic resistance, with a highly significant overlap of 36 genes. A subset of these 36 genes account for almost all proteins required for incorporating sulfur into the cysteine-rich glutathione and phytochelatin peptides that chelate cadmium and arsenic. A requirement for Mms19 is explained by its role in directing iron–sulfur cluster assembly into sulfite reductase as opposed to promoting DNA repair, as DNA damage response genes were not enriched among those required for cadmium or arsenic tolerance. Ubiquinone, siroheme, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis were also identified as critical for Cd/As tolerance. Arsenic-specific pathways included prefoldin-mediated assembly of unfolded proteins and protein targeting to the peroxisome, whereas cadmium-specific pathways included plasma membrane and vacuolar transporters, as well as Spt–Ada–Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) transcriptional coactivator that controls expression of key genes required for cadmium tolerance. Notable differences are apparent with corresponding screens in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, underscoring the utility of analyzing toxic metal defense mechanisms in both organisms. PMID:27558664

  2. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  3. Anthropogenic sources of arsenic and copper to sediments in a suburban lake, Northern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Rice, Karen C; Conko, Kathryn M; Hornberger, George M

    2002-12-01

    Mass balances of total arsenic and copper for a suburban lake in densely populated northern Virginia were calculated using date collected during 1998. Mass-balance terms were precipitation; stream inflow, including road runoff; stream outflow; and contributions from leaching of pressure-treated lumber. More mass of arsenic and copper was input to the lake than was output the 1998 lake-retention rates were 70% for arsenic and 20% for copper. The arsenic mass balance compared well with a calculated annual mass accumulation in the top 1 cm of the lake sediments; however, the calculated contribution of copper to the lake was insufficient to account for the amount of copper in this zone. Leaching experiments were conducted on lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) to quantify approximate amounts of arsenic and copper contributed by this source. Sources to lake sediments included leaching of CCA-treated lumber (arsenic, 50%; copper, 4%), streamwater (arsenic, 50%; copper, 90%), and atmospheric deposition (arsenic, 1%; copper, 3%). Results of this study suggest that CCA-treated lumber and road runoff could be significant nonpoint sources of arsenic and copper, respectively, in suburban catchments.

  4. Anthropogenic sources of arsenic and copper to sediments in a suburban lake, Northern Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Conko, Kathryn M.; Hornberger, George M.

    2002-01-01

    Mass balances of total arsenic and copper for a suburban lake in densely populated northern Virginia were calculated using data collected during 1998. Mass-balance terms were precipitation; stream inflow, including road runoff; stream outflow; and contributions from leaching of pressure-treated lumber. More mass of arsenic and copper was input to the lake than was output; the 1998 lake-retention rates were 70% for arsenic and 20% for copper. The arsenic mass balance compared well with a calculated annual mass accumulation in the top 1 cm of the lake sediments; however, the calculated contribution of copper to the lake was insufficient to account for the amount of copper in this zone. Leaching experiments were conducted on lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) to quantify approximate amounts of arsenic and copper contributed by this source. Sources to lake sediments included leaching of CCA-treated lumber (arsenic, 50%; copper, 4%), streamwater (arsenic, 50%; copper, 90%), and atmospheric deposition (arsenic, 1%; copper, 3%). Results of this study suggest that CCA-treated lumber and road runoff could be significant nonpoint sources of arsenic and copper, respectively, in suburban catchments.

  5. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  6. Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium in starlings, 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Bean, J.R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) collected in 1973 at 51 sites throughout the continental United States were analyzed for mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium. All samples contained detectable levels of these elements. In general, residues were low: mercury residues ranged from <0.01 to 0.20 ppm: lead, from <0.10 10 3.20 ppm: cadmium, from <0.05 to 0.20 ppm: arsenic, from <0.05 to 1.40 ppm: and selenium, from 0.10 to 1.10 ppm. There was a significant overall decline in mercury and lead residues in starlings since 1971, and a significant increase in arsenic residues. Lead residues were significantly higher in starlings from urban areas than from rural areas.

  7. Uptake of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic by Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, L.; van der Lee, M. K.; Oonincx, D. G. A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed. An experiment was designed with 14 treatments, each in triplicate, per insect species. Twelve treatments used feed that was spiked with cadmium, lead or arsenic at 0.5, 1 and 2 times the respective maximum allowable levels (ML) in complete feed, as established by the European Commission (EC). Two of the 14 treatments consisted of controls, using non-spiked feed. All insects per container (replicate) were harvested when the first larva in that container had completed its larval stage. Development time, survival rates and fresh weights were similar over all treatments, except for development time and total live weight of the half of the maximum limit treatment for cadmium of the black soldier fly. Bioaccumulation (bioaccumulation factor > 1) was seen in all treatments (including two controls) for lead and cadmium in black soldier fly larvae, and for the three arsenic treatments in the yellow mealworm larvae. In the three cadmium treatments, concentrations of cadmium in black soldier fly larvae are higher than the current EC maximum limit for feed materials. The same was seen for the 1.0 and 2.0 ML treatments of arsenic in the yellow mealworm larvae. From this study, it can be concluded that if insects are used as feed materials, the maximum limits of these elements in complete feed should be revised per insect species. PMID:27846238

  8. Uptake of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic by Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Camenzuli, L; van der Lee, M K; Oonincx, D G A B

    2016-01-01

    Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed. An experiment was designed with 14 treatments, each in triplicate, per insect species. Twelve treatments used feed that was spiked with cadmium, lead or arsenic at 0.5, 1 and 2 times the respective maximum allowable levels (ML) in complete feed, as established by the European Commission (EC). Two of the 14 treatments consisted of controls, using non-spiked feed. All insects per container (replicate) were harvested when the first larva in that container had completed its larval stage. Development time, survival rates and fresh weights were similar over all treatments, except for development time and total live weight of the half of the maximum limit treatment for cadmium of the black soldier fly. Bioaccumulation (bioaccumulation factor > 1) was seen in all treatments (including two controls) for lead and cadmium in black soldier fly larvae, and for the three arsenic treatments in the yellow mealworm larvae. In the three cadmium treatments, concentrations of cadmium in black soldier fly larvae are higher than the current EC maximum limit for feed materials. The same was seen for the 1.0 and 2.0 ML treatments of arsenic in the yellow mealworm larvae. From this study, it can be concluded that if insects are used as feed materials, the maximum limits of these elements in complete feed should be revised per insect species.

  9. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health. PMID:27766178

  10. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, Jean D. . E-mail: jdbrender@aol.com; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-05-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62{mu}g/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation.

  11. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  12. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention.

  13. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food. The chronic toxic effects of lead include anemia, neuropathy, chronic renal disease and reproductive impairment. Lead is a carcinogen in three animal species. Cadmium causes emphysema, chronic renal disease, cancer of the prostate and possibly of the lung. Inorganic mercury causes gingivitis, stomatitis, neurologic impairment and nephrosis, while organic mercurials cause sensory neuropathy, ataxia, dysarthria and blindness. Arsenic causes dermatitis, skin cancer, sensory neuropathy, cirrhosis, angiosarcoma of the liver, lung cancer and possibly lymphatic cancer. PMID:7164433

  14. A study of the stability of cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide and cadmium sulfide copper-indium-diselenide solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, G.; Richard, N.; Gaines, G.

    1984-08-01

    Groups of high efficiency cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide solar cells were exposed to combinations of stresses designed to isolate and accelerate intrinsic degradation mechanisms. Stresses included elevated temperature, illumination intensity, and cell loading conditions. All stress exposures and tests were conducted in a benign (high purity argon) atmosphere. Two primary intrinsic modes of degradation were identified: degradation of the open circuit voltage under continuous illumination and nonzero loading was found to be self recovering upon interruption of illumination or upon shorting or reverse biasing the cells. It was attributed to traps in the depletion region. Recovery from decay of light generated current was not spontaneous but could be partially accomplished by annealing in a reducing (hydrogen) environment. It was attributed to changes in the stoichiometry of the copper sulfide under the influence of electric fields and currents.

  15. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian P; Punshon, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the-art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of arsenic and mercury within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established, but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences, which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation, and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal- and plant-based foods, particularly for arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs.

  16. [Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in bay bolete Xerocomus badius and tolerance limits].

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Chojnacka, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    In the article are reviewed available data on arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury contents of the fruiting bodies of Bay Bolete in Europe. Cadmium and lead contents of Bay Bolete at the sites unpolluted with those elements reaches up to 5 and 20 mg/kg dry matters, respectively (up to 0.50 and 2.0 mg/kg fresh weight), i.e. is a much more greater when compared to the tolerance limit of 1,0 and 2,0 mg/kg dry weight in force earlier in Poland. In the light of available analytical data a suggested tolerance limit for cadmium in Bay Bolete should be 5 mg per kg of dried fruiting bodies, and 20 mg per kg of dried fruiting bodies for lead.

  17. Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: comparisons with kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1981-10-01

    Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that of liver. Zinc concentrations increased with increasing cadmium concentrations in both liver and kidney. The relative increase of zinc with cadmium was more pronounced in liver than in kidney. However, the absolute increase of zinc was larger in kidney due to the much higher concentration of cadmium in kidney compared to liver. Any significant correlation between copper and cadmium, or copper and zinc, could not be revealed. Sephadex gel filtration was performed on supernatants from homogenates of kidney and liver from 19 of the horses. In both organs the major part of cadmium was recovered in protein fractions corresponding to metallothionein (MT), in which the increase of zinc also took place. The molar ratio between zinc and cadmium was higher in MT fractions obtained from liver than in MT fractions obtained from kidney.

  18. Extraction of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood by using wood vinegar.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Ahn, Byoung Jun; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, wood vinegar was used to extract chromium, copper, and arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements was evaluated using various concentrations of wood vinegar, extraction temperatures, and extraction periods. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements increased with increasing the concentration of wood vinegar and the extraction conditions, resulting in maximal removal rate of copper (95.7%), followed by arsenic (92.7%) and chromium (86.3%). Since wood vinegar afforded high levels of copper extraction, its use was extended to copper-based preservative-treated wood, wherein significant extraction of copper up to 97.6% and 95.7% was obtained from alkaline copper quats (ACQ)- and copper azole (CuAz)-treated sawdust, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the application of wood vinegar for the extraction of metal elements from CCA-treated wood.

  19. Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Copper localities that merit geological investigation are found in the western Chasai District, in North Waziristan Agency, and in the Salt Range in Mianwali and Sargodha Districts. No high-grade deposits have been .reported from these ,areas and if deposits are developed they will likely be low-grade, high-tonnage, disseminated deposits. Those localities reported from Chitral State are too remote and inaccessible to be of interest now. All lead localities found to date are of minor importance; there has been small production at one .locality in Chasai District and in the southern part of the Hazara District. Zinc, antimony, and arsenic are sparse in Pakistan and no important localities of these metals are reported.

  20. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods

    PubMed Central

    Punshon, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of As and Hg within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal and plant-based foods, in particular for arsenic, cadmium and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs. PMID:25938012

  1. Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Strubelt, O.; Kremer, J.; Tilse, A.; Keogh, J.; Pentz, K.R.; Younes, M.

    1996-02-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release , as well as liver weight, increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate, cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, but it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium`s influence on MDA in perfusate; but did not affect cadmium`s ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in preventing hepatic injury that might otherwise be induced through acute metal intoxication. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Uptake and toxicity of arsenic, copper, and silicon in Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Rofkar, Jordan R; Dwyer, Daryl F; Bobak, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the analysis of two aquatic plant species, Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor, with respect to tolerance and uptake of co-occurring arsenic, copper, and silicon for use in engineered wetlands. Plants were cultured in nutrient solution that was amended with arsenic (0 or 20 microM), copper (2 or 78 microM), and silicon (0 or 1.8 mM) either singly or in combination. We hypothesized that arsenic and copper would negatively affect the uptake of metals, growth, and pigmentation and that silicon would mitigate those stresses. Tolerance was assessed by measuring growth of biomass and concentrations of chlorophyll and anthocyanins. Both plant species accumulated arsenic, copper, and silicon; L. minor generally had higher levels on a per biomass basis. Arsenic negatively impacted A. caroliniana, causing a 30% decrease in biomass production and an increase in the concentration of anthocyanin. Copper negatively impacted L. minor, causing a 60% decrease in biomass production and a 45% decrease in chlorophyll content. Silicon augmented the impact of arsenic on biomass production in A. caroliniana but mitigated the effect of copper on L. minor. Our results suggest that mixtures of plant species may be needed to maximize uptake of multiple contaminants in engineered wetlands.

  3. Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, W.J.; Wood, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

  4. Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

    2012-10-30

    Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g).

  5. Effects of reaction conditions on the emission behaviors of arsenic, cadmium and lead during sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Hengda; Hu, Song; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A; Xiao, Yiming; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Long; Su, Sheng; Xiang, Jun

    2017-03-31

    Sewage sludge is an important class of bioresources whose energy content could be exploited using pyrolysis technology. However, some harmful trace elements in sewage sludge can escape easily to the gas phase during pyrolysis, increasing the potential of carcinogenic material emissions to the atmosphere. This study investigates emission characteristics of arsenic, cadmium and lead under different pyrolysis conditions for three different sewage sludge samples. The increased temperature (within 723-1123K) significantly promoted the cadmium and lead emissions, but its influence on arsenic emission was not pronounced. The releasing rate order of the three trace elements is volatile arsenic compounds>cadmium>lead in the beginning of pyrolysis. Fast heating rates promoted the emission of trace elements for the sludge containing the highest amount of ash, but exhibited an opposite effect for other studied samples. Overall, the high ash sludge released the least trace elements almost under all reaction conditions.

  6. Report of the key comparison CCQM-K108 determination of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shinichi; Kotzeva, Boriana; Kakoulides, Elias; Sxoina, Vasiliki; Fung, W. H.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yau, H. P.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Lee, C. L.; Kong, M. F.; Shin, Richard; Juan, Wang; Sin Yee, Ng; Uribe, Christian; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Silva Dutra, Emily; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Valiente, Liliana; Horvat, Milena; Jacimovic, Radojko; Oduor Okumu, Tom; Kang'Iri, Jacqueline; Owiti Orwa, Tabitha; Chao, Wei; Jingbo, Chao; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Yafa, Charun; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Chailap, Benjamat; Pharat, Yanee; Phukphattanachai, Pranee; Turk, Gregory C.; Long, Stephen; Murphy, K. E.; Davis, Clay; Ellisor, Michael; Merrick, Jeffrey; White, Ian; Saxby, David; Linsky, S. M.; Barzev, A.; Botha, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K108 key comparison was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratory. The participants used different measurement methods, though most of them used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for Cd and ICP-MS for total arsenic. Regarding arsenic speciation, all participants used ICP-MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of total arsenic and cadmium was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs or DIs for the measurement of the measurand at the level of less than 0.5 mg/kg. Regarding arsenic species (inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)), there was, however, a measurement problem still to be solved and that part of CCQM-K108 will be repeated. It is expected that arsenic, cadmium and other metals at mass fractions greater than approximately 0.1 mg/kg in rice flour can be determined by each participant using the same technique(s) employed for this key comparison to achieve similar uncertainties mentioned in the present report. Furthermore, the results of this key comparison can be utilised along with the IAWG core capability approach. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Nuclear lamins and progerin are dispensable for antioxidant Nrf2 response to arsenic and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazunori; Majumdar, Rima; Tsuji, Yoshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Lamins are important constituents of the nuclear inner membrane and provide a platform for transcription factors and chromatin. Progerin, a C-terminal truncated lamin A mutant, causes premature aging termed Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS). Oxidative stress appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of HGPS, although the mechanistic role of progerin remains elusive. Here we examined whether nuclear lamins are important for a cellular antioxidant mechanism, and whether progerin compromises it. We investigated the activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) which regulates various antioxidant genes including heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), following exposure to sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride in lamin knockdown human cell lines and primary HGPS human fibroblasts. Knocking down lamin A/C, or B, or all nuclear lamins simultaneously in three human cell lines (HaCaT, SW480, and K562) did not impair arsenite- or cadmium-induced activation of Nrf2. Progerin-expressing human primary HGPS fibroblasts showed lower basal levels of HMOX1 and NQO1 expression; however, in response to arsenic stress both normal and HGPS primary fibroblasts showed Nrf2 nuclear accumulation along with upregulation and phosphorylation of p62/SQSTM1 at Ser351, downregulation of Keap1, and comparable expression of an array of downstream Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. We also observed new forms of cleaved lamin A, B1 and B2 induced by cadmium stress although their roles in the Nrf2 antioxidant system need further investigation. These results suggest that the nuclear lamins and progerin have marginal roles in the activation of the antioxidant Nrf2 response to arsenic and cadmium.

  8. Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Kremer, J; Tilse, A; Keogh, J; Pentz, R; Younes, M

    1996-02-23

    The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the over range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Thus reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release into the perfusate, as well as liver weight, increased also in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters indicating more specific injury revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper in this respect. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate. Furthermore, whereas cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium's influence on MDA in perfusate; however, they did not affect cadmium's ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals investigated, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in

  9. Influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Nagan; Latha, Srinivasan; Sudha, Persu N; Renganathan, N Gopalan

    2013-02-01

    The influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan from simulated industrial wastewater is evaluated. Chitosan-clay blend with ratio of (1:1), (1:2), and (2:1) have been prepared, and these were used as membranes to remove copper and cadmium ions from synthetic industrial wastewater. The chemical parameters for quantities of adsorption of heavy metal contamination have been done, and the kinetics of adsorption has also been carried out. Clay provides enough absorbable sites to overcome mass transfer limitations. The number of absorbable sites for cadmium is more compared to copper, and thus the rate of recovery of cadmium is faster than copper, and the percentage removal of cadmium is more than copper at all times on clay over nylon 6. This difference indicates the influence of clay in the adsorption of heavy metals in comparison to synthetic polymer nylon 6. Rate constant for first-order kinetics of adsorption, k (1), for copper and cadmium is less than that of clay, which clearly indicates that clay, which is a natural polymer, is more kinetically favored compared to synthetic polymer. The difference in the intraparticle diffusion in both the natural and synthetic polymer is not much, and it suggests that the particle diffusion mechanism is the same in both cases. Copper and cadmium recovery is parallel at all times. The percentage of removal of copper increased with an increase in pH from 3 to 5. In the case of cadmium containing wastewater, the maximum removal of metal occurred at pH 5. The uptake amount of Cu(2+) ions on chitosan increased rapidly with increasing the contact time from 0 to 360 min and then reaches equilibrium after 360 min, and the equilibrium constant for copper and cadmium ions are more or less the same for the adsorption reaction. There are more adsorption sites for cadmium in the presence of clay and mass transfer limitation is avoided without resorting to rotation, which is the highlight of the

  10. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described.

  11. Sprinkler irrigation of rice fields reduces grain arsenic but enhances cadmium.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Meharg, Andrew A; Smolders, Erik; Manzano, Rebeca; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Albarrán, Ángel; López-Piñero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rice cultivated under flooded conditions has higher concentrations of arsenic (As) but lower cadmium (Cd) compared to rice grown in unsaturated soils. To validate such effects over long terms under Mediterranean conditions a field experiment, conducted over 7 successive years was established in SW Spain. The impact of water management on rice production and grain arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) was measured, and As speciation was determined to inform toxicity evaluation. Sprinkler irrigation was compared to traditional flooding. Both irrigation techniques resulted in similar grain yields (~3000 kg grain ha(-1)). Successive sprinkler irrigation over 7 years decreased grain total As to one-sixth its initial concentration in the flooded system (0.55 to 0.09 mg As kg(-1)), while one cycle of sprinkler irrigation also reduced grain total As by one-third (0.20 mg kg(-1)). Grain inorganic As concentration increased up to 2 folds under flooded conditions compared to sprinkler irrigated fields while organic As was also lower in sprinkler system treatments, but to a lesser extent. This suggests that methylation is favored under water logging. However, sprinkler irrigation increased Cd transfer to grain by a factor of 10, reaching 0.05 mg Cd kg(-1) in 7 years. Sprinkler systems in paddy fields seem particularly suited for Mediterranean climates and are able to mitigate against excessive As accumulation, but our evidence shows that an increased Cd load in rice grain may result.

  12. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  13. Association between GSTO2 polymorphism and the urinary arsenic profile in copper industry workers.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Leiliane; Hernández, Alba; Martínez, Valeria; Creus, Amadeu; Quinteros, Domingo; Marcos, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Two members of the recently identified Omega class glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GSTO1 and GSTO2) have been proposed to play a role in the response to arsenic exposure. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genes could be related with variations in the arsenic excretion profile and, consequently, with the individual response to chronic exposure. Exons and flanking regions of GSTO2 gene have been screened in two different ethnic groups (20 Europeans and 20 Chilean Indians), and the urinary arsenic patterns and the GSTO2 Asn142Asp polymorphism have been investigated in 207 copper mine workers occupationally exposed to arsenic. Three polymorphisms of GSTO2 already described were detected in Europeans and Chilean Indians, although with significant different allele frequencies. The genotyping for the Asn142Asp polymorphism revealed that almost no significant association exists between this change and the arsenic excretion profile. However, 142Asp change seems to be correlated with an increase in DMA excretion after age and total urinary arsenic adjustment (OR=3.61; P=0.05). Altogether, our findings indicate that ethnical differences should be taken into account for correlation studies between GST Omega polymorphisms and arsenic susceptibility, and that the 142Asp allozyme could modulate arsenic biotransformation and thereby arsenic toxicity.

  14. Toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida exposed to simulated soil solutions.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-12-01

    To improve our understanding of metal bioavailability to soil-living invertebrates, the effect of porewater composition on the toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida (Collembola) was investigated. Assuming that porewater is the main exposure route, F. candida was exposed to simulated soil solutions of different composition. Toxicity of copper was slightly lower in a calcium-only solution than in a multication solution. With increasing copper concentrations from 0.005 mM to 1.37 mM, internal copper concentrations similarly increased in both exposure solutions, suggesting that a single cation nutrient solution is suitable for testing F. candida. In the second experiment, animals were exposed for 7 d to copper and cadmium in simplified soil solutions with different calcium (0.2 mM, 0.8 mM, 3.2 mM, 12.8 mM) and pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0) levels. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values decreased with time in both the calcium and pH series. A hormetic-type effect was observed for copper in the second test, as well as in the calcium-only solution in the first experiment. Because of stronger hormesis, LC50s for copper were higher at lower calcium concentrations. For cadmium, LC50 values were higher at higher calcium concentrations, suggesting competition of calcium with the free cadmium ion. Toxicity of cadmium increased with decreasing pH, while copper was more toxic at intermediate pH. The results show that a toxicodynamics approach can help to improve the interpretation of metal toxicity to soil invertebrates, taking into account soil solution properties.

  15. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-08-14

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  16. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  17. Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla to cadmium and copper excess.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Backor, Martin; Kaduková, Jana

    2008-02-01

    Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) excess (3, 60, and 120 microM for 7 days) with special emphasis on phenolic metabolism were studied. Cu at 120 microM reduced chamomile growth, especially in the roots where it was more abundant than Cd. Notwithstanding the low leaf Cu amount (37.5 microg g(-1) DW) in comparison with Cd (237.8 microg g(-1) DW) at 120 microM, it caused reduction of biomass accumulation, F(v)/F(m) ratio and soluble proteins. In combination with high accumulation of phenolics, strong reduction of proteins and high GPX activity in the roots, this supports severe redox Cu properties. In terms of leaf phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, it seems that Cd had a stimulatory effect during the course of the experiment, whereas Cu was found to stimulate it after 7-day exposure. The opposite trend was visible in the roots, where Cd had a stimulatory effect at high doses but Cu mainly at the highest dose. This supports the assumption of different PAL time dynamics under Cd and Cu excess. A dose of 60 and 120 microM Cu led to 2- and 3-times higher root lignin accumulation while the same Cd doses increased it by 33 and 68%, respectively. A Cu dose of 120 microM can be considered as limiting for chamomile growth under conditions of present research, while resistance to high Cd doses was confirmed. However, PAL and phenolics seemed to play an important role in detoxification of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress.

  18. Sorption of cadmium and copper ions on natural and synthetic hydroxylapatite particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fernane, F.; Mecherri, M.O.; Sharrock, P. Hadioui, M.; Lounici, H.; Fedoroff, M.

    2008-05-15

    The sorption of divalent cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions on natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated by the batch method and under dynamic conditions in columns at 22 deg. C and pH 5. The effect of cadmium and copper concentration on sorption was studied. Both types of apatites are efficient, despite their different composition and morphology. The sorption mechanism involves an ion exchange for Cd(II), while Cu(II) leads to precipitation of a newly formed solid. Thus, the sorption efficiency depends on the experimental conditions and the specific physicochemical properties of the apatites used. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir equation.

  19. Interrelationships among zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in food, feces, and organs of humans.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, K; Iwao, S

    1978-08-01

    Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in 20 samples of food collected over a period of 20 days, 221 samples of feces collected over a period of 5 days from 19 males, 17 females, and 11 children and 85 samples each of renal cortex and liver from autopsied human cadavers in order to investigate the relationships among the four metals and among the various martices. In food the highest correlation was observed between copper and zinc (0.34). In feces the highest correlation was also between copper and zinc (0.45). In the highest correlation between cadmium and zinc (0.33), but that in the renal cortex was between copper and cadmium (0.52). These findings suggest that the relationships among the concentrations of the four metals in food and feces are almost equal to each other, but differ greatly from the concentrations in human organs due to the differing metabolic actions of the metals once they are absorbed into the body. In addition, it was observed that zinc and cadmium concentrations in the renal cortex increase with age, but copper and lead concentrations do not show much variation with age.

  20. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead in human hair and typical foods in eleven Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Li, Zhu; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Xiaosan; Shi, Weiming; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in 384 human hair samples and 445 purchased food samples from 11 cities in China. The mean concentrations of hair As, Cd and Pb were 0.23, 0.062 and 2.45mgkg(-1), respectively. The As, Cd and Pb concentrations in different foods were lower than the national maximum allowable contaminant levels. By comparison, males had higher hair As concentrations but lower Cd concentrations than females. When the interaction effects of gender and age were considered, males had the higher hair As, Cd and Pb concentrations in the 51-65 year-old age group. Residents of rural areas had higher hair As, Cd and Pb concentrations than people living in urban areas. Further analysis indicates that hair As, Cd and Pb concentrations and their changes with biological and environmental factors cannot be satisfactorily explained by the estimated intakes from purchased food.

  1. Sources, transport and alterations of metal compounds: an overview. I. Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the current state of knowledge of the salient aspects of the sources, transport, and alterations of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. This information is considered vital for a better assessment of the scope of potential human hazard to these ubiquitous toxicants and their compounds. Stress is focused on both natural and industrial activities, particularly on the latter's projected trends. Increasing use patterns per se of most of these metals, as well as aspects of waste disposal and the anticipated increased combustion of fossil fuels for power generation and space heating (particularly in the United States), are major causes of potential health concern. Additionally, attention is drawn to the need for increased research to fill the gaps in our knowledge in these vital areas, all in the hope of permitting a more facile identification and quantification of the potential hazard to exposure to these agents. PMID:7023934

  2. Embryotoxicity hazard assessment of cadmium and arsenic compounds using embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stummann, T C; Hareng, L; Bremer, S

    2008-10-30

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been successfully validated as an in vitro method for detecting embryotoxicity, showing a good overall test accuracy of 78% [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Seiler, A., Brown, N., Piersma, A., Brady, M., Clemann, N., Huuskonen, H., Paillard, F., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2002. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro embryotoxicity tests: results of the definitive phase and evaluation of prediction models. European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. Altern. Lab. Anim. 30, 151-176]. Methylmercury was the only strong in vivo embryotoxicant falsely predicted as non-embryotoxic making the metal the most significant outlayer [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Pohl, I., Seiler, A., Clemann, N., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2004. Validation of the Embryonic Stem Cell Test in the international ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests. Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 209-244]. The misclassification of methylmercury and the potential environmental exposure to developmental toxic heavy metals promoted our investigation of whether the EST applicability domain covers cadmium and arsenic compounds. The EST misclassified cadmium, arsenite and arsenate compounds as non-embryotoxic, even when including arsenic metabolites (methylarsonate, methylarsonous and dimethylarsinic). The reasons were the lack of higher cytotoxicity towards embryonic stem cells as compared to more mature cells (3T3 fibroblasts) or the absence of inhibition of cardiac differentiation by specific mechanisms rather than general cytotoxicity. Including EST data on heavy metals from the literature (lithium, methylmercury, trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium) revealed that the test correctly predicted the embryotoxic potential of three out of the seven heavy metals, indicating an insufficient predictivity for such metals. Refinement of the EST prediction model and inclusion of additional toxicological endpoints could

  3. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal runoff from soils fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not really known if heavy runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate arsenic (As) and copper (Cu)...

  4. Influence of co-contaminant exposure on the absorption of arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Ollson, Cameron J; Smith, Euan; Herde, Paul; Juhasz, Albert L

    2017-02-01

    Incidental ingestion of contaminated soil and dust is a major pathway for human exposure to many inorganic contaminants. To date, exposure research has focused on arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), however, these studies have typically assessed metal(loid) bioavailability individually, even when multiple elements are present in the same matrix. As a consequence, it is unclear whether interactions between these elements occur within the gastro-intestinal tract, which may impact absorption and accumulation. In this study, the influence of contaminant co-exposure was assessed using a mouse bioassay and soluble forms of As, Cd and Pb supplied in mouse chow as individual, binary and tertiary elemental combinations. Arsenic urinary excretion and Pb-liver accumulation were unaffected by As-Pb co-exposure (1-10 mg As kg(-1) and 3-30 mg Pb kg(-1)) while Cd-kidney accumulation was unaffected by the presence of As and/or Pb. However, Cd co-exposure decreased As urinary excretion and increased Pb-liver accumulation. It was hypothesized that Cd influenced arsenate absorption as a consequence of the impairment of phosphate transporters. Although the reason for increasing Pb-liver accumulation following Cd co-exposure is unclear, enhanced Pb accumulation may occur as a result of transport protein overexpression or changes in divalent metal compartmentalization.

  5. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008.

    PubMed

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was proposed to all inhabitants. Those with urinary cadmium levels over 1 μg/g creatinine were then tested for kidney damage. Urinary cadmium and arsenic levels were compared between participants with non-occupational exposure from Viviez and Montbazens, a nearby town not exposed to these two pollutants, in order to identify environmental factors contributing to impregnation. No case of lead poisoning was detected in Viviez, but 23 % of adults had urinary cadmium over 1 μg/g creatinine, 14 % of whom having markers of kidney damage. Viviez adults had higher levels of urinary cadmium, and to a lesser extent, higher levels of urinary arsenic than those from Montbazens. Consumption of local produce (vegetables and animals) and length of residence in Viviez were associated with higher urinary cadmium levels, independently of known confounding factors, suggesting persisting environmental exposure to contaminated soil. To conclude, health risks related to cadmium exposure were identified in the Viviez population living on contaminated soils. Lead and arsenic exposure did not pose health concerns. Interventions were proposed to reduce exposure and limit health consequences.

  6. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children

  7. Effect of copper and cadmium on three Malaysian tropical estuarine invertebrate larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Patel, T R; Colbo, M H

    1997-03-01

    Three species of tropical estuarine invertebrates were exposed to copper sulfate and cadmium chloride to investigate their potential as test specimens for sediment toxicity assays in the South-east Asian regions. The larvae of the reef sea urchin (Diadema setosum), the oyster (Crassostrea iradalei), and the mud crab (Scylla seratta Forskall) were used in the 48-hr assays with copper and cadmium as reference toxicants. In addition the sea urchin were tested for end point measurements at different stages of the larval development and a 60-min sperm bioassay. The study revealed that the sea urchin first cleavage, which is an assay end point and which takes place about 1 hr after fertilization, was the most sensitive stage for both toxicants, with copper being more toxic than cadmium. Sensitivity comparisons between the three invertebrate larvae revealed the mud crab zoea larvae to be most sensitive for cadmium with an LC50 value of 0.078 microgram/ml, while the sea urchin was more sensitive for copper, with EC50 values of 0.01 microgram/ml at the first cleavage stage and 0.04 microgram/ml at the pluteus larva stage. All the invertebrates tested gave responses that made them suitable test organisms for metal bioassays in the tropical estuarine environment.

  8. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kossowska, Barbara; Dudka, Ilona; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela; Szymańska-Chabowska, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Włodzimierz; Gancarz, Roman; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  9. Treatment of smelting residue for arsenic removal and recovery of copper using pyro-hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Atsushi; Takasaki, Yasushi; William, Tongamp; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Higuchi, Yasunori; Sunagawa, Shigeru; Ono, Eiki

    2010-09-15

    During pyro-metallurgical processing of non-ferrous metals, smelting residues such as smelter slag, flue gas, containing value metals and also harmful substances are inevitably generated as secondary product. For reduction of environmental loading and recovery of the value metals, such materials demand proper treatment options. In this research, some experimental steps were investigated to remove high arsenic (As: 19.5 wt%) and recover copper (Cu: 3.1 wt%) contained in such smelting residues. In the first-stage arsenic and other volatile materials were removed by pyro-metallurgical treatment and in the second-stage the treated residue from pyro-processing was treated in hydrometallurgical processing involving a two-stage leaching operation in H(2)SO(4) solution to dissolve the metals followed by solvent extraction using LIX-84I as extractant to recover dissolved Cu in final leached solution. The results showed that over 90% of arsenic in smelting residue was removed by volatilization and recovered as As(2)O(3) while copper content increased to 4.2 wt%. In the two-stage leaching process, first up to 90% of arsenic was selectively dissolved in 0.25 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution and second, the solids were further leached in 1.0 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution giving 85% of copper dissolution. Over 90% of copper dissolved into solution was recovered by solvent extraction. Finally over 99% of arsenic dissolved in the first-stage leach solution was co-precipitated with iron dissolved in second-stage leach solution after copper recovery.

  10. Arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) in Tarkwa a mining community.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Yaney, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) have gained increased importance in the diets of majority of people in developing countries such as Ghana. The concentration levels of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in Cocoyam (X. sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (C. esculenta) in Tarkwa and its surrounding villages a mining community in Ghana were measured in this study. From the results of the study, the levels of arsenic, cadmium and mercury in X. sagititolium and C. esculenta were higher than the WHO recommended levels. These root tubers absorb or uptake toxic chemicals from the soil as a result of the mining operations. This means that, the consumption of X. sagititolium and C. esculenta by humans from such environments may pose a serious health risk. There is therefore the need for a concerted effort by all to minimize the negative impact of gold mining in the study area.

  11. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  12. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Rastogi, S C

    1977-01-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chroimium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P less than 0-01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P less than 0-1). Nineteen per cent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally blood level of carboxyhaemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed. PMID:71915

  13. A comparative study of cadmium and copper in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) in regions with and without historic mining.

    PubMed

    Snively, Marian; Flaspohler, David J

    2006-10-01

    Mining activities can increase the bioavailability of metals in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Following over 100 years of copper mining in portions of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (UP) terrestrial ecosystems retain vast quantities of waste rock with traces of cadmium and large concentrations of copper. We compared liver cadmium and copper concentrations in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), a popular game bird from landscapes with and without historic mining. We also used chickens (Gallus domesticus) to determine whether mine waste was a direct source of liver cadmium. Cadmium and copper levels did not differ between mining areas in Michigan and non-mining areas in Wisconsin. We found nearly significant difference between sexes in cadmium levels. Cadmium levels for all chickens were below the method detection limit of the lab (0.03 mg/kg) and copper levels did not differ in the experimental chickens. These results suggest that the historic mining in the western UP is not leading to higher cadmium or copper uptake in grouse.

  14. Arsenic contaminated site at an abandoned copper smelter plant: waste characterization and solidification/stabilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chien-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2003-11-01

    A preliminary survey of an arsenic contaminated site from an abandoned copper smelting facility and feasibility study of using solidification/stabilization (S/S) process to treat the contaminant waste were undertaken. It was found that the waste, located in the three-flue gas discharge tunnels, contained 2-40% arsenic. The pH of the contaminated waste is extremely low (ranging from 1.8 to 3.6). The X-ray diffraction evidence indicates that the arsenic particles present in the flue gas mainly exist as As(III), or As(2)O(3). The total amount of arsenic contaminated waste is estimated to be 700 ton in the studied area. About 50% of the particle sizes are less than 2 mm. Arsenic is easily extracted from wastes with a variety of leaching solutions. In order to meet the arsenic leaching standard of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), an extremely high cement dosage is required in the S/S process (cement/waste weight ratio>6). The waste with lower particle size having higher specific surface area exhibits somewhat positive effect on the S/S performance. The use of fly ash from municipal waste incinerators, in conjunction with the reduced amount of cement, is able to meet the TCLP arsenic and lead standards. The use of lime alone could meet the TCLP arsenic standard, but lead leaching concentrations exceeded leaching Pb standard. The results of semi-dynamic leaching tests of some solidified samples indicate higher accumulated arsenic leaching concentrations after only a few leachant renewals.

  15. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  16. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information.

  17. Anthropogenic Sources of Arsenic and Copper to Sediments of a Suburban Lake, 1964-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, K. C.; Conko, K. M.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2002-05-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution from urbanization is becoming a widespread problem. Long-term monitoring data are necessary to document geochemical processes in urban settings and changes in sources of chemical contaminants over time. In the absence of long-term data, lake-sediment cores can be used to reconstruct past processes, because they serve as integrators of sources of pollutants from the contributing airshed and catchment. Lake Anne is a 10.9-ha man-made lake in a 235-ha suburban catchment in Reston, Virginia, with a population density of 1,116 people/km2. Three sediment cores, collected in 1996 and 1997, indicate increasing concentrations of arsenic and copper since 1964, when the lake was formed. The cores were compared to a core collected from a forested catchment in the same airshed that showed no increases in concentrations of these elements. Neither an increase in atmospheric deposition nor diagenesis and remobilization were responsible for the trends in the Lake Anne cores. Mass balances of sediment, arsenic, and copper were calculated using 1998 data on precipitation, streamwater, road runoff, and a laboratory leaching experiment on pressure-treated lumber. Sources of arsenic to the lake in 1998 were in-lake leaching of pressure-treated lumber (52%) and streamwater (47%). Road runoff was a greater (93%) source of copper than leaching of pressure-treated lumber (4%). Atmospheric deposition was an insignificant source (<3%) of both elements. Urbanization of the catchment was confirmed as a major cause of the increasing arsenic and copper in the lake cores through an annual historical reconstruction of the deposition of sediment, arsenic, and copper to the lake for 1964-1997. Aerial photography indicated that the area of roads and parking lots in the catchment increased to 26% by 1997 and that the number of docks on the lake also increased over time. The increased mass of arsenic and copper in the lake sediments corresponded to the increased amount of

  18. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  19. Health effects and arsenic species in urine of copper smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Janasik, Beata; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Winnicka, Renata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare indices of exposure in workers employed at different work posts in a copper smelter plant using neurophysiological tests and to evaluate the relationship between urinary arsenic species with the aid of sensitive respiratory and renal biomarkers. We have attempted to elucidate the impact of different arsenic speciation forms on the observed health effects. We focused on the workers (n = 45) exposed to atmospheres containing specific diverse mixtures of metals (such as those occurring in Departments of Furnaces, Lead and Electrolysis) compared to controls (n = 16). Subjective symptoms from the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system were recorded and visual evoked potential (VEP), electroneurography (ENeG) and electroencephalography (EEG) curves were analysed. Levels of airborne lead (PbA), zinc (ZnA) and copper (CuA) and Pb levels in blood (PbB) and the relationships between airborne As concentrations (AsA) and the urinary levels of the inorganic (iAs); As(+3), As(+5) and the organic; methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) arsenic species were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarker levels: Clara cell protein (CC16) in serum as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum, retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex-immunoassay (LIA). Abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, VEP, EEG and ENeG showed dominant subclinical effects in CNS and PNS of workers from Departments of Lead and Furnace. In group of smelters from Departments of Furnace exposed to arsenic above current TLV, excreted arsenic species As(+3) and As(+5) seemed to reduce the level of Clara cell protein (CC16), thereby reducing anti-inflammatory potential of the lungs and increasing the levels of renal biomarker (β2M) and copper in urine (CuU). The study confirmed

  20. Cadmium regulates copper homoeostasis by inhibiting the activity of Mac1, a transcriptional activator of the copper regulon, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong-Hyuk; Baek, In-Joon; Kang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chang, Miwha; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Choi, Il-Dong; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2010-10-15

    Cadmium is a toxic metal and the mechanism of its toxicity has been studied in various model systems from bacteria to mammals. We employed Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study cadmium toxicity at the molecular level because it has been used to identify the molecular mechanisms of toxicity found in higher organisms. cDNA microarray and Northern blot analyses revealed that cadmium salts inhibited the expression of genes related to copper metabolism. Western blotting, Northern blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that CTR1 expression was inhibited at the transcriptional level through direct inhibition of the Mac1 transcriptional activator. The decreased expression of CTR1 results in cellular copper deficiency and inhibition of Fet3 activity, which eventually impairs iron uptake. In this way, cadmium exhibits a negative effect on both iron and copper homoeostasis.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of serum nitrite and nitrate by copper-cadmium alloy.

    PubMed

    Sastry, K V H; Moudgal, R P; Mohan, J; Tyagi, J S; Rao, G S

    2002-07-01

    A macro and micro assay for the spectrophotometric determination of serum nitrite and nitrate was developed. Nitrite/nitrate in biological samples can be estimated in a single step by this method. The principle of the assay is the reduction of nitrate by copper-cadmium alloy, followed by color development with Griess reagent (sulfanilamide and N-naphthylethylenediamine) in acidic medium. This assay is sensitive to 1 microM nitrate and is suitable for different biological fluids, including sera with a high lipid concentration. The copper-cadmium alloy used in the present method is easy to prepare and can completely reduce nitrate to nitrite in an hour. The present method provides a simple, cost-effective assay for the estimation of stable oxidation products of nitric oxide in biological samples.

  2. Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Love, M.J.; Booker, T.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

  3. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu>Pb>Cd without alga and Pb>Cu>Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the "egg-box" model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  4. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  5. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  6. Arsenic- and cadmium-induced toxicogenomic response in mouse embryos undergoing neurulation

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Yu, Xiaozhong; Moreira, Estefania G.; Hong, Sungwoo; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2011-01-15

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are well-characterized teratogens in animal models inducing embryotoxicity and neural tube defects (NTDs) when exposed during neurulation. Toxicological research is needed to resolve the specific biological processes and associated molecular pathways underlying metal-induced toxicity during this timeframe in gestational development. In this study, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of As and Cd on gene expression in C57BL/6J mouse embryos exposed in utero during neurulation (GD8) to identify significantly altered genes and corresponding biological processes associated with embryotoxicity. We quantitatively examined the toxicogenomic dose-response relationship at the gene level. Our results suggest that As and Cd induce dose-dependent gene expression alterations representing shared (cell cycle, response to UV, glutathione metabolism, RNA processing) and unique (alcohol/sugar metabolism) biological processes, which serve as robust indicators of metal-induced developmental toxicity and indicate underlying embryotoxic effects. Our observations also correlate well with previously identified impacts of As and Cd on specific genes associated with metal-induced toxicity (Cdkn1a, Mt1). In summary, we have identified in a quantitative manner As and Cd induced dose-dependent effects on gene expression in mouse embryos during a peak window of sensitivity to embryotoxicity and NTDs in the sensitive C57BL/6J strain.

  7. Osmoregulation and antioxidant production in maize under combined cadmium and arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Ashraf, Umair; Fahad, Shah; Hassan, Waseem; Jan, Saad; Khan, Imran; Saleem, Muhammad Farrukh; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Wang, Longchang; Mahmood, Aqib; Samad, Rana Abdul; Tung, Shahbaz Atta

    2016-06-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the combined and individual effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) stress on osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant activities, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at different growth stages (45, 60, 75, 90 days after sowing (DAS)) of two maize cultivars viz., Dong Dan 80 and Run Nong 35. The Cd (100 μM) and As (200 μM) were applied separately as well as in combination (Cd + As) at 30 DAS. Results revealed pronounced variations in the behavior of antioxidants, osmolytes, and ROS in both maize cultivars under the influence of Cd and As stress. Activities of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX, GPX, GR) and non-enzymatic (GSH and AsA) antioxidants, generation of ROS, and accumulation of osmolytes were enhanced with the passage of time; therefore, the maximum values for these attributes were observed at 90 DAS for both cultivars. Exposure of plants to Cd or As stress considerably enhanced the antioxidant activities, ROS, and osmolyte accumulation compared with control, while combined application of Cd + As was more devastating in reducing plant biomass of both maize cultivars. Among cultivars, Dong Dan 80 was better able to negate the heavy metal-induced oxidative damage, which was associated with higher antioxidant activities, greater osmolytes accumulation, and lower ROS production in this cultivar.

  8. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in canned sardines commercially available in eastern Kentucky, USA.

    PubMed

    Shiber, John G

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen samples of canned sardines, originating from six countries and sold in eastern Kentucky, USA, were analyzed in composites of 3-4 fish each for total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and for mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition amalgamation and AAS. Results in μg/g wet: As 0.49-1.87 (mean: 1.06), Cd<0.01-0.07 (0.03), Pb<0.06-0.27 (0.11), Hg ND <0.09. Values fall generally within readings reported by others, but no internationally agreed upon guidelines have yet been set for As or Cd in canned or fresh fish. The incidence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with As ingestion is extraordinarily high here. With the role of food-borne As in human illness presently under scrutiny and its maximum allowable limits in fish being reviewed, more studies of this nature are recommended, especially considering the potential importance of small pelagic fishes as future seafood of choice.

  9. Proficiency testing program for the determination of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in seawater shrimp.

    PubMed

    Kong, Mei-Fung; Chan, Serena; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The proficiency testing (PT) program for 97 worldwide laboratories for determining total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in seawater shrimp under the auspices of the Asia-Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC) is discussed. The program is one of the APLAC PT series whose primary purposes are to establish mutual agreement on the equivalence of the operation of APLAC member laboratories and to take corrective actions if testing deficiencies are identified. Pooled data for Cd and Pb were normally distributed with interlaboratory variations of 21.9 and 34.8%, respectively. The corresponding consensus mean values estimated by robust statistics were in good agreement with those obtained in the homogeneity tests. However, a bimodal distribution was observed from the determination of total As, in which 14 out of 74 participants reported much smaller values (0.482-6.4 mg/kg) as compared with the mean values of 60.9 mg/kg in the homogeneity test. The use of consensus mean is known to have significant deviation from the true value in bi- or multimodal distribution. Therefore, the mode value, a better estimate of central tendency, was chosen to assess participants' performance for total As. Estimates of the overall uncertainty from participants varied in this program, and some were recommended to acquire more comprehensive exposure toward important criteria as stipulated in ISO/IEC 17025.

  10. Genotypic differences in arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    The contents of arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice were determined. Among 216 genotypes, the As, Hg, Pb and Cd contents were ranged from 5.06 to 296.45, 2.46 to 65.85, 4.16 to 744.95 and 5.91 to 553.40 ng/g, respectively. Six genotypes with lower contents of toxic metal elements were selected. The averages of As and Pb contents for indica rice were higher than those of japonica rice, while the averages of Hg and Cd contents were in contrast. Compared with white brown rice, the milled rice from black and red brown rice contained lower contents of four elements. Significant negative correlation was found between As content and alkaline spread value. Significant correlations were observed between As and aspartic acid (Asp) content, Hg and Asp or leucine contents, Pb and cysteine or methionine contents. Cd content was significantly negatively correlated with protein and 14 amino acid contents.

  11. Arsenic exposure levels in relation to different working departments in a copper mining and smelting plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingshan; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lin; Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Guifan

    2015-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure and the urine metabolite profiles of workers with different working departments, including administration (Group1), copper ore mining (Group2), copper ore grinding (Group3), electrolytic procession (Group4) and copper smelting (Group5) in a Copper mining and processing plant in China. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The highest urinary levels of iAs, MMA and DMA all were found in the Group 5. Group 4 workers had a higher iAs% and a lower PMI compared to Group 3. The urinary total As (TAs) levels of 54.7% subjects exceeded 50 μg/g Cr, and the highest percentage (93.3%) was found in Group 5, smelters. The results of the present study indicate that workers in copper production plant indeed exposed to As, especially for smelters and workers of electrolytic process.

  12. Electrokinetic remediation of wood preservative contaminated soil containing copper, chromium, and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Buchireddy, Prashanth R; Bricka, R Mark; Gent, David B

    2009-02-15

    As a result of wood treatment, and the recent banning of the copper, chromium, and arsenic (CCA) treated wood for residential use many CCA treatment facilities have been abandoned or being closed. Soil contamination resulting from CCA is common at these sites. In this study, the feasibility of electrokinetic technique to remove CCA from contaminated soil was investigated. To better understand the ionic mobility within the soil and to detect the generation and advancement of acid front, sampling ports were provided along the longitudinal axis of a test cell. To determine the effect of varying current, three tests were performed at different current densities of 5.9, 2.9, and 1.5mA/cm(2) for a period of 15 days. The initial concentrations of copper, chromium, and arsenic in the soil were 4800, 3100, and 5200mg/kg, respectively. Dilute nitric acid was used as an amendment to neutralize the hydroxyl ions produced at the cathode. Experiments resulted in removal efficiencies as high as 65% for copper, 72% for chromium, and 77% for arsenic. The results also indicated that the advancement of acid front favored desorption of metals from the soil and the metals were mobilized either as free cations or metal complexes. Chromium that was in its +6 valence state was transported as anion prior to its reduction. However, once the chromium was reduced to chromium(III) its transport direction reversed with transport being favored towards the cathode.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a study to evaluate the effect of coatings on dislodgeable arsenic, chromium, and copper residues on the surfaces of chromated copper arsenate (CAA) treated wood. Dislodgeable CCA, determined by wipe sampling the wood surfaces, was the primary evaluation criterion f...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA-TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 2 year study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of deck sealants in reducing or eliminating potential exposure to arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate-treated wood used in residential settings, like decks and playsets.

  15. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum to metallic compounds containing cadmium, lead, copper, manganese or zinc.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Corrêa; Weiblen, Carla; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer; de Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Verdi, Camila Marina; Gressler, Leticia Trevisan; Sangioni, Luís Antonio; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2016-11-05

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes pythiosis, an important and severe disease of difficult treatment that affects humans, domestic and wild animals. This infection is often described in horses in Brazil and humans in Thailand. In clinical practice, we have observed many cases that do not respond to available therapies, indicating the need to explore alternative therapeutic approaches. In this sense, studies using metal compounds in conjunction with available antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity. Thus, in this research, we tested in vitro activities of metallic compounds containing cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, or zinc against 23 isolates of P. insidiosum The assays were performed by broth microdilution based on CLSI M38-A2 document. The minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations were established for all isolates. Copper acetate and cadmium acetate showed the highest inhibitory effects, with minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 4-64 μg/ml and 16-256 μg/ml, respectively. The mean geometric for minimal fungicidal concentrations were, respectively, 26 μg/ml and 111.43 μg/ml for copper acetate and cadmium acetate. These results suggest that copper and cadmium can inhibit P. insidiosum growth, highlighting the greater inhibitory activity of copper acetate. In addition, our results propose that copper and/or cadmium compounds can be used in upcoming researches to formulate effective new complexed drugs against P. insidiosum in in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  17. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of zinc, cadmium, and copper metallothioneins: evidence for metal-binding cooperativity.

    PubMed Central

    Gehrig, P. M.; You, C.; Dallinger, R.; Gruber, C.; Brouwer, M.; Kägi, J. H.; Hunziker, P. E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of both well-characterized and novel metallothioneins (MTs) from various species were recorded to explore their metal-ion-binding modes and stoichiometries. The ESI mass spectra of the zinc- and cadmium-binding MTs showed a single main peak corresponding to metal-to-protein ratios of 4, 6, or 7. These findings combined with data obtained by other methods suggest that these MTs bind zinc or cadmium in a single predominant form and are consistent with the presence of three- and four-metal clusters. An unstable copper-specific MT isoform from Roman snails (Helix pomatia) could be isolated intact and was shown to preferentially bind 12 copper ions. To obtain additional information on the formation and relative stability of metal-thiolate clusters in MTs, a mass spectrometric titration study was conducted. One to seven molar equivalents of zinc or of cadmium were added to metal-free human MT-2 at neutral pH, and the resulting complexes were measured by ESI mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed that the formation of the four-metal cluster and of the thermodynamically less stable three-metal cluster is sequential and largely cooperative for both zinc and cadmium. Minor intermediate forms between metal-free MT, Me4MT, and fully reconstituted Me7MT were also observed. The addition of increasing amounts of cadmium to metal-free blue crab MT-I resulted in prominent peaks whose masses were consistent with apoMT, Cd3MT, and Cd6MT, reflecting the known structure of this MT with two Me3Cys9 centers. In a similar reconstitution experiment performed with Caenorhabditis elegans MT-II, a series of signals corresponding to apoMT and Cd3MT to Cd6MT species were observed. PMID:10716192

  18. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: Implications for population health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diawara, D.M.; Litt, J.S.; Unis, D.; Alfonso, N.; Martinez, L.A.; Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Carsella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. ?? Springer 2006.

  19. Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species.

    PubMed

    Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2006-08-09

    The daily intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) through the consumption of 14 edible marine species by the general population of Catalonia, Spain, was estimated. Health risks derived from this intake were also assessed. In March-April 2005, samples of sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp were randomly acquired in six cities of Catalonia. Concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined by ICP-MS. On the basis of recent fish and seafood consumption data, the daily intake of these elements was calculated for eight age/sex groups of the population. The highest As concentrations were found in red mullet, 16.6 microg/g of fresh weight, whereas clam and mussel (0.14 and 0.13 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively) were the species with the highest Cd levels. In turn, swordfish (1.93 microg/g of fresh weight) and mussel and salmon (0.15 and 0.10 microg/g of fresh weight) showed the highest concentrations of Hg and Pb, respectively. The highest metal intake through fish and seafood consumption corresponded to As (217.7 microg/day), Cd (1.34 microg/day), and Pb (2.48 microg/day) for male seniors, whereas that of Hg was observed in male adults (9.89 microg/day). The daily intake through fish and seafood consumption of these elements was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWI). The intakes of As, Cd, Pb, and total Hg by the population of Catalonia were below the respective PTWI values. However, the estimated intake of methylmercury for boys, 1.96 microg/kg/week, was over the PTWI.

  20. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models.

  1. Mitigation of cadmium and arsenic in rice grain by applying different silicon fertilizers in contaminated fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Wen, Shi-Lin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lu; Cen, Kuang; Sun, Guo-Xin

    2016-02-01

    A field experiment was established to support the hypothesis that application of different silicon (Si) fertilizers can simultaneously reduce cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentration in rice grain. The "semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer" treatment at the high application of 9000 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000) significantly reduced the As concentration in rice grain by up to 20.1%, compared with the control. Si fertilization reduces the Cd concentration in rice considerably more than the As concentration. All Si fertilizers apart from sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) exhibited a high ability to reduce Cd concentration in rice grain. The Si-calcium (CaSi) fertilizer is the most effective in the mitigation of Cd concentration in rice grain. The CaSi fertilizer applied at 9000 kg/ha (NPK+CaSi9000) and 900 kg/ha (NPK+CaSi900) reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 71.5 and 48.0%, respectively, while the Si-potash fertilizer at 900 kg/ha (NP+KSi900), the semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer at both 900 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi900) and 9000 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000), and the rice straw (NPK+RS) treatments reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 42, 26.5, 40.7, and 23.1%, respectively. The results of this investigation demonstrated the potential effects of Si fertilizers in reducing Cd and As concentrations in rice grain.

  2. Risk of laryngeal and nasopharyngeal cancer associated with arsenic and cadmium in the Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Molka, Feki-Tounsi; Hammami, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Rebai; Amel, Hamza-Chaffai

    2014-02-01

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals has long been recognized as being capable of increasing head and neck cancer (HNC) incidence, such as laryngeal (LC) and nasopharyngeal (NPC), among exposed human populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in the blood of 145 patients (LC and NPC) and 351 controls in order to establish a potential relationship between these factors and the occurrence of LC and NPC. Mean blood levels of As and Cd in patients (5.67 and 3.51 μg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (1.57 and 0.74 μg/L, respectively). The blood levels of As and Cd were mostly significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05) after controlling the other risk factors of HNC including tobacco smoking and chewing, and alcohol drinking. Cd levels in blood increase significantly with the number of occupational exposure years for patients (p<0.05). However, seafood was not found to be contributing as an exposure source. Among these risk factors, smoking (>30 pack years) and occupational exposure (>20 years) presented the most significant association with HNC (OR=10.22 and 10.38, respectively, p<0.001). Cd level in blood sample of cases that are occupationally exposed/tobacco users (smokers and chewers) were higher than that of non-occupationally exposed/nontobacco users (p<0.001). The logistic regression model illustrated that HNC (LC+NPC) was significantly associated with blood levels of As (OR=2.41, p<0.001) and Cd (OR=4.95, p<0.001).

  3. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Shen, Libo; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd. In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend. Compared to arsenate, there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted, and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil. In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions. Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha. The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment. Thus, water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice. Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd.

  4. Distribution and mobility of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated wood structures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hekap; Kim, Dong-Jin; Koo, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jeong-Gue; Jang, Yong-Chul

    2007-03-15

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is currently the most commonly used wood preservative in Korea. Questions, however, have been raised regarding the potential environmental impacts of metal leaching from CCA-treated wood to soil. Although a number of researchers from other countries have reported that chromium, copper, and arsenic do leach from CCA-treated wood over time, to date few field studies have been performed on those metals in soils adjacent to CCA-treated wood structures in Korea. The present study was conducted to determine the lateral and vertical distributions and accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected from CCA-treated wood structures. A total of fifty-five composite soil samples were collected from four CCA-treated wood structures of approximately one year in age. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties as well as for the total chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations. The chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations in soil samples adjacent to the structures were as high as 79.0, 98.9, and 128 mg/kg, respectively, compared to background soil samples (48.2, 26.9, and 6.27 mg/kg, respectively). Arsenic was more mobile in soil than chromium and copper. The concentration gradient of arsenic in soil was observed only to the depth of approximately 5 cm in one year of outdoor exposure, whereas chromium and copper apparently remained near the surface (approximately less than 1 cm) after their release. Future efforts should be made to observe seasonal impacts on the release of metals and incorporate metal speciation into determining more detailed mobility and distribution.

  5. Chemical Speciation and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic and Chromiumin Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood and Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Ruby, Michael V.; Lowney, Yvette W.; Holm,Stewart E.

    2005-10-12

    This research compares the As and Cr chemistry ofdislodgeable residues from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-treated woodcollected by two different techniques (directly from the board surfaceeither by rubbing with a soft bristle brush or from human hands aftercontact with CCA-treated wood), and demonstrates that these materials areequivalent in terms of the chemical form and bonding of As and Cr and interms of the As leaching behavior. This finding links the extensivechemical characterization and bioavailability testing that has been donepreviously on the brush-removed residue to a material that is derivedfrom human skin contact with CCA-treated wood. Additionally, thisresearch characterizes the arsenic present in biological fluids (sweatand simulated gastric fluid) following contact with these residues. Thedata demonstrate that in biological fluids, the arsenic is presentprimarily as free arsenate ions.Arsenic-containing soils were alsoextracted into human sweat to evaluate the potential for arsenicdissolution from soils at the skin surface. For soils from field sites,only a small fraction of the total arsenic is soluble in sweat. Based oncomparisons to reference materials that have been used in in vivo dermalabsorption studies, these findings suggest that the actual relativebioavailability via dermal absorption of As from CCA-residues and soilmay be well below the current default value of 3 percent used by U.S.EPA.

  6. Toxic effects of cadmium and copper on the isolated heart of dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Wang, X T; Wu, L; Mateescu, M A

    1999-08-13

    The adverse effects of heavy metal ions on the heart functions of lower vertebrates are largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Cu+ on the cardiac functions of the heart isolated from dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, including the epicardial electrocardiogram, ventricular developed pressure (VDP), and heart beating rate, were studied. Cadmium (10 to 100 microM) significantly decreased VDP of the isolated shark hearts in a reversible manner. However, heart beating rate was not affected by cadmium. Cadmium also induced a transient modification of the amplitude and the form of the QRS complex. Cupric ion transiently increased VDP in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas cuprous ion (1 to 100 microM) did not markedly alter the cardiac functions of shark. Cupric or cuprous ions did not change heart beating rate and electrocardiogram at concentrations of 10 to 100 microM. Our results, for the first time, demonstrated the effects of cadmium on shark heart and indicated that the cardiac effects of copper are valence dependent. An elucidation of heavy metal effects on fish cardiac functions will help to understand the complex toxicological properties of heavy metals in different species and tissues, and will provide information for management of pollution control and marine resource protection.

  7. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Lindsey M.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M.; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets. PMID:23365584

  8. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition.

  9. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, I.; Heinrich, J. . Inst. fuer Epidemiologie); Lippold, U. )

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m[sup 2] day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0.024, and 0.023 [micro]g/m[sup 2] day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home,and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  10. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    PubMed

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  11. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead).

  12. Alterations in antioxidant defense system of workers chronically exposed to arsenic, cadmium and mercury from coal flying ash.

    PubMed

    Zeneli, Lulzim; Sekovanić, Ankica; Ajvazi, Majlinda; Kurti, Leonard; Daci, Nexhat

    2016-02-01

    Humans are exposed to different stress factors that are responsible for over-production of reactive oxygen species. Exposure to heavy metals is one of these factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of chronic exposure to heavy metals through coal flying ash on the efficiency of antioxidative defensive mechanisms, represented by the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid. Nonessential elements such as arsenic and mercury levels showed a significant increase (p > 0.001) in the power plant workers rather than in the control subjects. There were no significant differences of blood cadmium between power plant workers and control subjects. We found a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between BAs/SZn (r = 0.211), BAs/BSe (r = 0.287), BCd/SCu (r = 0.32) and BHg/BSe (r = 0.263) in the plant workers. Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes and plasma ascorbic acid were significantly lower in power plants workers than in the control group (p < 0.002). We can conclude that levels of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in blood, despite their concentration within the reference values, significantly affect plasma ascorbic acid concentration, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, which are able to increase the risk of oxidative stress.

  13. Carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin mitigates toxicity of cadmium, cobalt, and copper during naphthalene biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Douglas R; Anderson, Phillip P; Schubert, Carissa M; Gault, Melissa B; Blanford, William J; Sandrin, Todd R

    2010-04-01

    Hazardous waste sites are commonly contaminated with both organic and metal pollutants. Many metal pollutants have been shown to inhibit organic pollutant biodegradation. We investigated the ability of a modified, polydentate cyclodextrin (carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin, CMCD) to reduce the toxicity of 33.4 microM cadmium, cobalt or copper during naphthalene degradation by a Burkholderia sp. in 120 h aerobic, batch studies. The highest investigated concentration of CMCD, 3340 microM, reduced cadmium, cobalt, and copper toxicity. With each metal, the length of the lag phase was reduced (by as much as 108 h with cobalt or copper), the cell yield was increased (by as much as a factor of 16 with cobalt), and the growth rate was increased (by as much as a factor of 31 with cobalt). The degrader was unable to use CMCD as the sole source of carbon and energy. Our data suggest that the ability of CMCD to complex metals plays an important role in its ability to mitigate metal toxicity and that CMCD has the potential to enhance biodegradation in organic and metal co-contaminated environments.

  14. Effect of cadmium on prenatal development and on tissue cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, B.

    1987-02-01

    Administration of 60 and 180 ppm Cd in the drinking water of female rats from Day 1 to Day 20 of gestation resulted in a pronounced accumulation of Cd in all organs examined with the highest increase in the intestinal wall. The copper concentration was decreased in the liver and in the intestine of females from both groups in a dose-dependent manner and in the blood of females given Cd (180 ppm). The zinc concentration was decreased only in the kidney and the intestine of females from the higher level group. The serum glucose level, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were not affected in maternal blood, but the hematocrit was reduced in fetal blood in the 60-ppm Cd group. The fetal body weight and length were decreased in both groups though litter size was not affected. The fetal growth retardation was not concomitant with an increase of Cd concentration or with a decrease of copper and zinc concentration in fetal organs. Cd concentration was not changed in the fetal brain, liver, and kidney and increased only in the gastrointestinal tract of fetuses from the 180-ppm Cd group. The zinc concentration was decreased in fetal liver in the 180-ppm group and in brain of fetuses from the 60-ppm Cd group. The copper concentration was decreased in the gastrointestinal tract and increased in kidney of fetuses from the higher level group.

  15. Absorption and translocation of copper and arsenic in an aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC. in oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Krayem, Maha; Baydoun, Mohamad; Deluchat, Véronique; Lenain, Jean-Francois; Kazpard, Véronique; Labrousse, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate copper and arsenic accumulation and translocation at a concentration of 100 μg/L of a submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum. The trophic level (eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions) of the medium was also considered. To achieve this goal, plants were incubated for 21 days in the presence of 100 μg/L of Cu or AsV. The heavy metal transfers from the contaminated medium to plants and into plant tissues was discussed in terms of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in tissues was analyzed in order to study the toxicity of these two contaminants. Our results show that copper was more accumulated in shoots, than roots, whereas the opposite trend was observed for arsenic. In addition, the two contaminants were more accumulated in oligotrophic than eutrophic medium. The BCF of copper in shoots was 1356 in oligotrophic condition, while that of arsenic was higher in roots about 620 in the same condition. The TF was less than 1 for arsenic, and higher than 1 for copper, indicating that watermilfoil restrains the translocation of arsenic to shoots, while it has a low capacity to control the translocation of an essential micronutrient like copper. An increase in MDA content was observed under Cu and As stress. On the basis of this experiment, M. alterniflorum has a higher accumulation potential of copper and arsenic, and therefore, it can be a good candidate for the phytofiltration of these two contaminants from water.

  16. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals.

  17. Phycoremediation and adsorption isotherms of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima and their effect on growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Mustafa A

    2016-09-01

    The current study tends to investigate the removal of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima, grown in different concentrations of cadmium and copper ions, as well to investigate their effects on growth and metabolism. Sorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were obtained for the quantitative description of cadmium and copper uptake by M. tenuissima. Langmuir model adequately to describe the data of biosorption for these metals. However, the Freundlich model could work well in case of Cu(2+) only. M. tenuissima appears to be more efficient for removing Cd(2+) ions than Cu(2+). However, the affinity constant of Cu(2+) on the biomass of M. tenuissima was higher than Cd(2+) indicating that M. tenuissima is more tolerant to Cd(2+) phytotoxicity than Cu(2+). FTIR analysis of algae with and without biosorption revealed the presence of carboxyl, amino, amide and hydroxyl groups, which were responsible for biosorption of Cd(+2) and Cu(+2) ions.

  18. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake.

  19. Effects of piezoelectricity on cadmium sulphide-copper sulphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of the effects of applied uniform and non-uniform stresses on copper sulphide-cadmium sulphide solar cells predict that uniform stress will not affect their performance, while non-uniform stress will. Changes in open-circuit voltage and capacitance resulting from piezoelectric effects are predicted to be proportional to the divergence of the piezoelectric polarization. Experiments performed on single crystal cells verified these calculations for uniform stresses, and for a particular non-uniform stress (uniaxial bending). The changes in the latter case were less than 1%. These experiments were extended to determine the growth face of crystallites in polycrystalline cells.

  20. The effect of copper, zinc, mercury and cadmium on some sperm enzyme activities in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sarosiek, Beata; Pietrusewicz, Marta; Radziwoniuk, Julita; Glogowski, Jan

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of copper, zinc, cadmium and mercury ions (100, 10 and 1 mg/l) on the activity of some enzymes of carp spermatozoa. Acid phosphatase activity was proved to be relatively insensitive to zinc ions, while copper, mercury and cadmium ions effectively inhibited the activity of this enzyme. Beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity was sensitive only to mercury ions. Lactic dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by heavy metals. Our results showed that, among the examined metals, mercury had the strongest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activities.

  1. Specific features of photoluminescence properties of copper-doped cadmium selenide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Tselikov, G. I.; Dorofeev, S. G.; Tananaev, P. N.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2011-09-15

    The effect of doping with copper on the photoluminescence properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots 4 nm in dimension is studied. The quenching of the excitonic photoluminescence band related to the quantum dots and the appearance of an impurity photoluminescence band in the near-infrared region are observed after doping of the quantum dots with copper. It is established that, on doping of the quantum dots, the photoluminescence kinetics undergoes substantial changes. The photoluminescence kinetics of the undoped quantum dots is adequately described by a sum of exponential relaxation relations, whereas the photoluminescence kinetics experimentally observed in the region of the impurity band of the copper-doped samples follows stretched exponential decay, with the average lifetimes 0.3-0.6 {mu}s at the photon energies in the range of 1.47-1.82 eV. The experimentally observed changes in the photoluminescence properties are attributed to transformation of radiative centers in the quantum dots when doped with copper atoms.

  2. FIELD-SCALE LEACHING OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM AND COPPER FROM WEATHERED TREATED WOOD

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, A. Rasem; Hu, Ligang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m2. Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m3), medium (4.8 kg/m3) and high (35.4 kg/m3) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m3 as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (<40 mg) in all CCA treated wood samples. Copper leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals’ leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. PMID:20053493

  3. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... basis for regulation and standard setting worldwide. The current recommended limit of arsenic in drinking-water is 10 μg/litre, although this guideline value is designated as provisional because of measurement difficulties and the practical difficulties in removing arsenic ...

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD, INTERIM DATA REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is approximately 20 months into a project to evaluate the performance of wood coatings as a way to prevent arsenic, chromium and copper exposure from the surfaces of CCA treated wood. Potential dermal exposure, as measured by wipe sampling dislodgeable CCA chemical from wood ...

  5. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (p<0.05). The results showed that Pb, Cd and As contents in 4.3%, 3.3% and 2.2% rice samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in sediments of coastal areas of northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Hu, Wenyou; Jiao, Wentao; Naile, Jonathan E; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P

    2010-01-01

    Distributions of arsenic and metals in surface sediments collected from the coastal and estuarine areas of the northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China, were investigated. An ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in the sediments was evaluated by three approaches: the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the degree of contamination, and two sets of SQGs indices. Sediments from the estuaries of the Wuli and Yalu Rivers contained some of the greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc. Median concentrations of cadmium and mean concentrations of lead and zinc were greater than background concentrations determined for the areas. All sediments were considered to be heavily polluted by arsenic, but moderately polluted by chromium, lead, and cadmium. Current concentrations of arsenic and metals are unlikely to be acutely toxic, but chronic exposures would be expected to cause adverse effects on benthic invertebrates at 31.4% of the sites.

  7. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  8. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  9. Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium in natural waters and simulated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Claudio; Soto-Salazar, César; Toral, M Inés

    2006-12-01

    Chemical, electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine the effectiveness of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium. The electrochemical process, which uses electrodes of commercial laminate steel, was applied to simulated wastewater containing 12 mg dm(-3) of copper, 4 mg dm(-3) of lead and 4 mg dm(-3) of cadmium. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as pH=7, flow rate=6.3 cm(3) min(-1) and a current density between 31 and 54 A m(-2). When the electrode geometric area and time of electrolysis reached critical values, the copper removal reached a maximum value of 80%. A linear relationship was identified between the current density and the mass of generated sludge. In addition, a linear relationship was found between specific energy consumption and current density. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of an industrial-scale electrolytic reactor.

  10. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  11. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu>Cd approximately Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb>Cu>Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  12. Effect of carbonate ion on precipitation treatment of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Waste water characteristics and their impact on the susceptibility of the waste to treatment are discussed. Many incidental or added constituents of a wastewater may affect the susceptibility of a metal in that wastewater to precipitation treatment. Among those constituents which may be widely variable with respect to both time and geographical location of an industrial facility, and which can influence precipitation efficiency, is the carbonate alkalinity initially present in the wastewater, or induced into the wastewater as a result of high wastewater treatment pH and consequent uptake of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Higher carbonate levels may have either an adverse or beneficial effect upon precipitate solubility, depending upon the particular metal and associated pH of precipitation treatment. This effect can be predicted from theoretical calculations, although the actual solubility level may differ from that predicted. With regard to cadmium, both theory and experimental results indicate a reduction in cadmium solubility with increasing carbonate, at treatment pH values below ph 11. on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, added carbonate is predicted to increase copper solubility. Theory predicts a tremendous reduction in lead solubility at trace levels of carbonate at all ph values below pH 12. The effect of carbonate on lead solubility becomes more complex, however, as carbonate level increases. At a treatment pH near 9, increased carbonate is predicted to increase lead solubility, while the reverse patten is predicted at pH near 6. These trends were confirmed by the experimental results.

  13. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  14. A baseline study of levels of mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Maage, Amund; Valdersnes, Stig; Nedreaas, Kjell

    2013-02-15

    This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and liver of more than 800 Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 sites in the Barents Sea are reported. The highest concentration of both mercury in the muscle and cadmium in the liver was found in cod caught in the western part of the Barents Sea, while the highest concentration of total arsenic was found in cod from the eastern part. The arsenic concentrations varied greatly among individual fish, ranging from 0.3 to 170 mg kg(-1) wet weight in the muscle. Such high levels of total arsenic have never previously been reported in any fish, and the primary factor for these high concentrations is likely to be the shrimp in the cod diet.

  15. Cadmium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cadmium ; CASRN 7440 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  16. Carcinogenic risk of chromium, copper and arsenic in CCA-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Nakano, Chihiro; Wenting, Wu; Ohnuma, Shoko; Kato, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    We showed that 2.1% of 233 pieces of lumber debris after the Great East Japan Earthquake was chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Since hexavalent chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and pentavalent arsenic (As) in the debris may be diffused in the air via incineration, we exposed human lung normal (BEAS-2B) and carcinoma (A549) cells to Cr, Cu and As at the molar ratio in a representative CCA-treated wood. Co-exposure to 0.10 μM Cr and 0.06 μM As, which solely had no effect on colony formation, synergistically promoted colony formation in BEAS-2B cells, but not A549 cells, with activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Sole exposure and co-exposure to Cu showed limited effects. Since previous reports showed Cr and As concentrations to which human lungs might be exposed, our results suggest the importance to avoid diffusion of Cr and As in the air via incineration of debris including CCA-treated wood after the disaster.

  17. Precipitation and Characterization of Arsenate Phases from Calcium-Copper-Iron-Arsenic Oxide-Sulfate Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Mario Alberto

    The scope of this thesis is the study of three Fe(III)-As(V) hydrothermal systems. The first one is the Fe(III)-AsO4-SO 4 system and crystalline phases that are produced under high temperature (150-225°C); this was studied to clear up previous contradicting information on this system in relation to industrial arsenic products that are formed during the autoclave processing of arsenical sulphide gold feedstocks and asses their arsenic stability. The second system studied was Cu(II)-Fe(III)-AsO 4-SO4 system at 150°C; this was investigated due to its relevance to industrial pressure leaching of copper concentrates. This system was studied in order to examine the possible effect of copper on the precipitation of scorodite. Finally, the structural and molecular examination of two members of the Ca(II)-Fe(III)-AsO4 system, namely yukonite (synthetic and natural and arseniosiderite was undertaken due to their relatively unknown nature and the potential role play in controlling arsenic release in tailings.

  18. Synthesis of cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads as immunosensing probes for the detection of AFP, CEA and PSA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Liu, Na; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-08-15

    A double-water-in-oil-emulsion procedure was designed to synthesize cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads less than 200n m diameter under mild conditions. The cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads can be activated to immobilize biomacromolecules and can directly produce distinctive electrochemical signals. Using the novel alginate nanobeads labeled with antibodies as electrochemical probes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed using AFP, CEA and PSA as model analytes. This proposed immunosensor shows wide linear range with detection limits of 0.01, 0.0086 and 0.0075 ng mL(-1) for AFP, CEA and PSA, respectively. Analysis of clinical serum samples using this immunosensor was well consistent with the data determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It suggested that the alginate nanobeads electrochemical probes could be generally extended to other multiple analytes detection.

  19. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  20. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium using the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of Bacillus sp., from solar salterns.

    PubMed

    Shameer, Syed

    2016-12-01

    Extracellular Polysaccharides (EPS) from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a great deal of research interest as they protect the producer from different stresses including antibiotics, ionic stress, desiccation and assist in bio-film formation, pathogenesis, adhesion, etc. In this study haloalkaliphilic Bacillus sp., known to cope with osmophilic stress, was selected and screened for EPS production. The EPS were isolated, partially purified and chemical characteristics were documented using liquid FT-IR followed by assessment of heavy metal biosorption (lead, copper and cadmium) using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The EPS extracted from three isolates B. licheniformis NSPA5, B. cereus NSPA8 and B. subtilis NSPA13 showed maximum biosorption of Lead followed by Copper and Cadmium. Of the tested isolates, the EPS from isolate B. cereus NSPA8 showed maximum (90 %) biosorption of the lead.

  1. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark Patrick Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  2. Cadmium in blood of Tunisian men and risk of bladder cancer: interactions with arsenic exposure and smoking.

    PubMed

    Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Khlifi, Rim; Mhiri, Mohamed-Nabil; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2013-10-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between low-level blood arsenic (As) and bladder cancer risk among Tunisian men but questions remain regarding confounding by cadmium (Cd), a well-established bladder carcinogen. A case-control study of Tunisian men was re-examined to assess the levels of cadmium in blood and reparse the association between the simultaneous exposure to these metals and bladder cancer risk. Levels of blood Cd were significantly twice higher among cases than in controls (P<0.05) and were positively correlated with smoking and age. Additionally, analysis of metal levels among non-smokers according to the region of residence showed very high blood Cd and As levels for the coastal regions of Sfax and central Tunisia. After controlling for potential confounders, for low blood As levels (<0.67 μg/L), the OR for blood Cd was 4.10 (95 % CI 1.64-10.81), while for higher levels (>0.67 μg/L), it was reduced to 2.10 (CI, 1.06-4.17). Adjustment for Cd exposure did not alter the risk associated to As exposure. This study is the first to report the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of bladder cancer occurrence in interaction with smoking and As exposure. Smoking is shown to be the main exposure source to Cd in the Tunisian population but also environmental pollution seems to be responsible of Cd exposure among non-smokers. Exposure assessment studies encompassing a wider population are needed.

  3. Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.E.; Gross, S.B.; Yeager, D.W.; Meiners, B.G.; Gartside, P.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Trace metal contents of human tissues and total body burdens are useful for studies of nutrition and certain diseases. Data are summarized and analyzed for individuals exposed to the normal Cincinnati environment, for 29 tissues from 55 cadavers for lead and ash concentrations, and from 26 cadavers for cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Total body burdens also were calculated and correlated against each other and age. The distributions for ash, copper, and zinc were close to normal, but those for lead and cadmium were closer to lognormal. Bone lead increased with age, whereas soft tissue lead did not. The calculated mean percentage of total body lead in the bones ranged from 78% at age 20 to 96% at age 80. Correlations of blood concentrations with total body burdens were negligible for cadmium and zinc. For copper the correlation coefficient was a poor 0.54. For lead in blood vs soft tissue burden it was a very poor 0.37, and vs total body lead it was negligible. Thus the use of blood samples as a convenient clinical measure of body burdens for these metals may be of limited value. These and other findings provide a useful bank of information for health studies.

  4. Application of anodic stripping voltammetry for zinc, copper, and cadmium quantification in the aqueous humor: implications of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Vassiliki S; Kanellopoulou, Dimitra G; Gartaganis, Sotirios P; Koutsoukos, Petros G

    2009-12-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) procedure, using mercury film electrode, was optimized and applied to determine the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and copper in the aqueous humor. Concentration levels as low as 1 ppb of the test metals was possible to be detected using short electrolysis times (120 s) and microquantities of aqueous humor (up to 35 μL). As a first application of the voltammetric analysis of trace metals in the aqueous humor, the role of the three selected trace elements in the pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome was examined. Samples from aqueous humor were collected during cataract extraction from patients with and without PEX. The zinc and copper concentration levels in the aqueous humor did not show statistically significant difference in the study and control group. Cadmium was detected in a small number of samples, without however statistical differences between the two groups. ASV proved to be a highly precise and sensitive tool for the quantification of heavy metal ions in aqueous humor. Further studies may lead to useful conclusions for the role of zinc, copper, or cadmium in PEX syndrome.

  5. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  6. Direct determination of cadmium and copper in seawater using a transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman-effect background corrector.

    PubMed

    Chan, M S; Huang, S D

    2000-02-07

    Methods for the direct determination of copper and cadmium in seawater were described using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and a longitudinal Zeeman effect background corrector. Ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine copper. The mixture of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine cadmium. The matrix interference was removed completely so that a simple calibration curve method could be applied. This work is the first one with the capability of determining cadmium in unpolluted seawater directly with GFAAS using calibration curve based on simple aqueous standards. The accuracy of the methods was confirmed by analysis of three kinds of certified reference saline waters. The detection limits (LODs), with injection of a 20-mul aliquot of seawater sample, were 0.06 mug l(-1) for copper and 0.005 mug l(-1) for cadmium.

  7. Levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clays for oral use on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, N M; Klerx, W N M; Kooijman, M; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women in Africa, Asia and Suriname, and some immigrants in Western societies, traditionally consume clay products known by a variety of names such as mabele, calabash chalk, sikor and pimba. Furthermore, clay is used for health purposes in Western societies. Because certain clays can contain high levels of metals and metalloids, the aim of this study was to determine lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clay products for oral use available on the Dutch market. Traditional clays originating from Africa (n = 10) and Suriname (n = 26), and health clays (n = 27) were sampled from 2004 up to and including 2012. Total metal and metalloid contents were measured by ICP-MS and showed maximum levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium of 99.7, 45.1, 2.2 and 0.75 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. In the absence of maximum limits for these type of clays, the potential exposure was estimated from the determined concentration, the estimated daily use level of the clays, and the estimated bioaccessibility of the different metals and arsenic. The intake estimates were compared with existing health-based guidance values. For lead, the use of 34 of the 36 traditional clays and two of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit by up to 20-fold. Use of 15 of the 35 traditional clays and 11 of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit for inorganic arsenic by up to 19-fold. Although limited bioaccessibility from the clay may limit the exposure and exceedance of the health-based guidance values, it was concluded that lead and arsenic intakes from some clay products could be of concern also because of their use by pregnant women and the potential developmental toxicity. As a result the use of these products, especially by pregnant women, should be discouraged.

  8. Optimal Soil Eh, pH, and Water Management for Simultaneously Minimizing Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Honma, Toshimitsu; Ohba, Hirotomo; Kaneko-Kadokura, Ayako; Makino, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Ken; Katou, Hidetaka

    2016-04-19

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in rice grains are a human health concern. We conducted field experiments to investigate optimal conditions of Eh and pH in soil for simultaneously decreasing As and Cd accumulation in rice. Water managements in the experiments, which included continuous flooding and intermittent irrigation with different intervals after midseason drainage, exerted striking effects on the dissolved As and Cd concentrations in soil through changes in Eh, pH, and dissolved Fe(II) concentrations in the soil. Intermittent irrigation with three-day flooding and five-day drainage was found to be effective for simultaneously decreasing the accumulation of As and Cd in grain. The grain As and Cd concentrations were, respectively, linearly related to the average dissolved As and Cd concentrations during the 3 weeks after heading. We propose a new indicator for expressing the degree to which a decrease in the dissolved As or Cd concentration is compromised by the increase in the other. For minimizing the trade-off relationship between As and Cd in rice grains in the field investigated, water management strategies should target the realization of optimal soil Eh of -73 mV and pH of 6.2 during the 3 weeks after heading.

  9. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health.

  10. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q; Hu, Q; Khan, S; Wang, Z; Lin, A; Du, X; Zhu, Y

    2007-03-05

    The toxicity effect of two deleterious elements of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36 TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49 TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd can not explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  11. Co-exposure of arsenic and cadmium through drinking water and tobacco smoking: risk assessment on kidney dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Arain, Muhammad B; Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Afridi, Hassan I; Sarajuddin; Brehman, Kapil D; Panhwar, Haleem; Arain, Sadaf S

    2015-01-01

    The combined exposure of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) causes more pronounced renal toxicity. The study aimed to evaluate the level of As and Cd in biological samples (blood and urine) of adults males, age ranged (30-50 years) exposed referent (ER) and exposed kidney patients (EKP), consumed contaminated drinking water of lake and smoking local cigarettes manufactured by tobacco plants grown on agricultural soil, irrigated with contaminated lake water. For comparative purpose age matched nonexoposed referent (NR) and nonexposed kidney patient (NKP), consumed municipal treaded water and smoking branded cigarette were also selected. The As and Cd levels in drinking water, biological samples, tobacco of branded and nonbranded cigarettes were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The As and Cd concentrations in lake water were higher than the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization for drinking water. The As and Cd levels in local cigarette tobacco were found to be 3- to 4-folds higher than branded cigarettes. The biochemical parameters especially urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) of ER, EKP, ER, and EKP subjects were studied as a biomarkers of renal dysfunction. The NAG values were found to be higher in EKP as compared to NKP (p < 0.01). The linear regressions showed higher correlations between As and Cd concentrations in water versus blood and urine samples of EKP (r = 0.71-0.78 and 0.68-0.72), as compared to NKP (p < 0.05).

  12. Phytofiltration of arsenic and cadmium by using an aquatic plant, Micranthemum umbrosum: phytotoxicity, uptake kinetics, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shariful; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are noxious and carcinogenic pollutants that can be removed from water by using emerging, ecofriendly, phytofiltration technology that employs Micranthemum umbrosum. After culturing M. umbrosum for 7 days in a hydroponic experiment, accumulation of 1219±44.11 µg As g(-1) and 799.40±30.95 µg Cd g(-1) were observed in the leaves, from 1000 µg As L(-1) and 1000 µg Cd L(-1) of water, respectively. Plant and water samples were analyzed for assessing the As and Cd accumulations, translocations, phytotoxic effects, uptake mechanisms and kinetics, and for evaluating the potential of M. umbrosum in As and Cd phytofiltration. The uptake pattern was leaf>stem>root for both pollutants. The plant showed higher resistance to As than to that to Cd. Uptake of inorganic As species was much greater than that of organic As and was found at above the substrate concentration. However, Cd showed similar uptake pattern to that of inorganic As species, and the data was better fit to a non-linear than a linear model. Low molecular weight substances that have thiol group(s) may be responsible for the binding of As in plants whereas Cd showed a different mechanism to that of As. M. umbrosum showed good As phytofiltration capabilities without any phytotoxic effects, but it was found to be a moderate accumulator of Cd with some phytotoxic effect compare to some other previously studied plant.

  13. Proteomic and metabolomic responses in D-shape larval mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Yu, Deliang

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are the main metal/metalloid contaminants in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea, China. In this work, a combined proteomic and metabolomic approach was applied to investigate the biological effects of Cd and As (V) in the early life stage (D-shape larvae) of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Results indicated that Cd was a potential immune toxicant to D-shape larval mussel because of the numerous proteomic responses related to immune system. Additionally, Cd induced oxidative stress, cellular injury and disturbance in nucleic acid metabolism in D-shape larval mussels. However, only two identified proteins were significantly altered in As (V)-treated group, suggesting that D-shape larval mussel was less sensitive to As (V) than to Cd at protein level. These two proteins in response to As (V) suggested that As (V) influenced anti-oxidative system and cell proliferation in D-shape larval mussels. Metabolic responses indicated that Cd and As (V) induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism in D-shape larval mussels via different metabolic pathways. In addition, Cd reduced lipid metabolism as well. This work demonstrated that a combination of proteomics and metabolomics could provide an insightful view in the biological effects of pollutants in mussel M. galloprovincialis at an early life stage.

  14. Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc concentrations in kidneys of grey wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S R; Blunck, S A; Petersen, K N; Jones, E M; Koval, J C; Misek, R; Frick, J A; Cluff, H D; Sime, C A; McNay, M; Beckman, K B; Atkinson, M W; Drew, M; Collinge, M D; Bangs, E E; Harper, R G

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc levels were measured in the kidneys of 115 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from Idaho, Montana and Alaska (United States), and from the Northwest Territories (Canada). No significant differences in the levels of iron or copper were observed between locations, but wolf kidneys from more northern locations had significantly higher cadmium levels (Alaska > Northwest Territories > Montana ≈ Idaho), and wolves from Alaska showed significantly higher zinc than other locations. Additionally, female wolves in Alaska had higher iron levels than males, and adult wolves in Montana had higher copper levels than subadults.

  15. Micronucleus frequency in copper-mine workers exposed to arsenic is modulated by the AS3MT Met287Thr polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Paiva, Leiliane; Creus, Amadeu; Quinteros, Domingo; Marcos, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been demonstrated to be the key enzyme in the metabolism of arsenic as it catalyses the methylation of arsenite and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) to form methylated arsenic species, which have higher toxic and genotoxic potential than the parent compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate if genetic variation in the AS3MT gene influences arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage, measured by the micronucleus (MN) assay. AS3MT Met287Thr allele frequencies and MN values were determined for 207 subjects working in the copper-mine industry, who were exposed to variable levels of arsenic. The urinary arsenic profile was used as individual biomarker of arsenic exposure. Results indicate that the MN frequencies found in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the exposed population poorly correlate with the levels of total arsenic content in urine. Nevertheless, when workers were classified according to their AS3MT Met287Thr genotypes, significantly higher MN values were observed for those carrying the variant allele [odds ratio (OR), 3.4 (1.6-5.2); P=0.0003)]. To our knowledge, these results are the first to show that genetic variation in AS3MT, especially the Met287Thr polymorphism, may play a role in modulating the levels of arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic.

  16. Association of Dietary Intake and Biomarker Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury among Asian Populations in the United States: NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E.; Delclos, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have recently shown that biomarker levels of selected metals are higher in Asians than in other U.S. ethnic groups, with important differences within selected Asian subgroups. Much of this difference may be dietary in origin; however, this is not well established. Objective: We evaluated dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among U.S. Asians. Methods: We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hr dietary intake recall data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total Dietary Study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression. Further, estimated food consumption and metal intake levels were compared between Asians and other racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Mexican American, and other Hispanic) and within three Asian subgroups (Chinese, Indian Asian, and other Asians). Results: Significant associations (p < 0.05) were found between biomarker levels and estimated dietary metal intake for total and inorganic arsenic and mercury among Asians. Asians had the highest daily fish and rice consumption across the racial/ethnic groups. Fish was the major contributor to dietary mercury and total arsenic intake, whereas rice was the major contributor to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. Fish consumption across the Asian subgroups varied, with Asian Indians having lower fish consumption than the other Asian subgroups. Rice consumption was similar across the Asian subgroups. Conclusions: We confirmed that estimated dietary intake of arsenic (total and inorganic) and mercury is significantly associated with their corresponding biomarkers in U.S. Asians, using nationally representative data. In contrast, estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead were not significantly associated

  17. Comparison of extractants for plant-available zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, A.U.; Bates, T.E.; Soon, Y.K.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find a suitable extractant(s) for plant-available metals in metal contaminated soils. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. Fordhook Giant) was grown in greenhouse pots on 46 Ontario soils varying in degree of contamination with metals. The soils had been contaminated with metals to varying degrees over a period of years. After 40 days, the plants were harvested and Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu concentrations were measured. Each soil was extracted with nine different extractants: aqua regia, 0.01M EDTA, 0.005M DTPA, 0.02M NTA, 0.5N CH/sub 3/COOH, 1N CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/, 0.6N HCl + 0.05N AlCl/sub 3/, (COOH)/sub 2/ + (COONH/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O. Zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper concentrations in Swiss chard were correlated with the amounts of soil Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu removed by each extractant. Of the nine soil extractants, CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/ was the best predictor of plant-available Zn if only extractable Zn and soil pH were included as independent variables in a regression equation. Acetic acid was the best extractant for prediction of both plant-available Cd and Ni when soil pH was included in the equation. Attempts to find a suitable soil extractant for plant-available Cu were unsuccessful.

  18. Biosorption studies on copper (II) and cadmium (II) using pretreated rice straw and rice husk.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Law, F Y; Chan, Y H M

    2015-07-25

    This study investigated the adsorption and removal behaviour of copper (Cu) (II) and cadmium (Cd) (II) ions using rice husk and rice straw in aqueous solutions. Different parameters were used to investigate their adsorption performance in saline conditions and the optimal level of biosorption at different pH levels. The main parameters were pH (3, 6 and 9), initial concentration level of heavy metals (Cu (II) 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L and Cd (II) 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L, respectively), salinity (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) and contact time (ranging from 3 to 60 min). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyse the removal efficiency and sorption capacity of the pretreated rice husk and rice straw. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity generally increased with the pH and reached a plateau in alkaline conditions. The percentage removal of Cu (II) by rice husk reached 97 % at pH 9 and 95 % by rice straw at pH 6. Biosorption performance increased in the absence of NaCl. Kinetic studies for both metals revealed that the biosorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) onto rice straw and husk was pseudo-second order.

  19. Oxidative status of Matricaria chamomilla plants related to cadmium and copper uptake.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Backor, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) uptake by the plants of Matricaria chamomilla and relation to activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) up to 7 days of exposure to 3, 60 and 120 microM Cd or Cu was studied. Cd content in rosettes was ca. 10-fold higher in comparison to Cu while Cu was preferentially accumulated in the roots. In line with this observation, increase of CAT and GPX activity was similar in rosettes of Cd and Cu-treated plants, indicating non-redox active properties of Cd and low Cu accumulation. In the roots, Cu showed strong pro-oxidant effect, as judged from extreme stimulation of CAT and GPX, followed by increase of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. However, GPX seemed to be more important for alleviation of oxidative stress (ca. 93-250-fold higher activity in 120 microM Cu-treated roots). Cd had substantially lower influences and stimulated GR activity more than Cu. Activities of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes in relation to its accumulation are also discussed.

  20. [Biochemical changes associated with cadmium and copper stress in germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.)].

    PubMed

    Mihoub, Asma; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were germinated for four days over two sheets of filter paper moistened with H2O (control) and 5 mM Cd(NO3)2 or CuSO4 (treated). The relationship between heavy-metal stress and breakdown of storage compounds was studied. Germination rate and growth of radicle decreased, while the water content in stressed seeds remained around the control values. Cotyledons changed their biochemical constituents: disorders in the contents of micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn), free amino acids and soluble sugars were found. Decline of alpha-amylase activity as well as acid phosphatase were also observed, whereas beta-amylase and alkaline phosphatase ones were not modified by heavy-metal treatments. These results suggest that the inhibition of seed germinations after exposure to cadmium or copper is not the consequence of starvation in water uptake by seed tissues, but may be due to a failure in the reserve mobilization process from cotyledons.

  1. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  2. Metals in cyanobacteria: analysis of the copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic homeostasis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Huertas, María José; López-Maury, Luis; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-09

    Traces of metal are required for fundamental biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Cyanobacteria metal homeostasis acquires an important role because the photosynthetic machinery imposes a high demand for metals, making them a limiting factor for cyanobacteria, especially in the open oceans. On the other hand, in the last two centuries, the metal concentrations in marine environments and lake sediments have increased as a result of several industrial activities. In all cases, cells have to tightly regulate uptake to maintain their intracellular concentrations below toxic levels. Mechanisms to obtain metal under limiting conditions and to protect cells from an excess of metals are present in cyanobacteria. Understanding metal homeostasis in cyanobacteria and the proteins involved will help to evaluate the use of these microorganisms in metal bioremediation. Furthermore, it will also help to understand how metal availability impacts primary production in the oceans. In this review, we will focus on copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic (a toxic metalloid) metabolism, which has been mainly analyzed in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  3. Metals in Cyanobacteria: Analysis of the Copper, Nickel, Cobalt and Arsenic Homeostasis Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, María José; López-Maury, Luis; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Traces of metal are required for fundamental biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Cyanobacteria metal homeostasis acquires an important role because the photosynthetic machinery imposes a high demand for metals, making them a limiting factor for cyanobacteria, especially in the open oceans. On the other hand, in the last two centuries, the metal concentrations in marine environments and lake sediments have increased as a result of several industrial activities. In all cases, cells have to tightly regulate uptake to maintain their intracellular concentrations below toxic levels. Mechanisms to obtain metal under limiting conditions and to protect cells from an excess of metals are present in cyanobacteria. Understanding metal homeostasis in cyanobacteria and the proteins involved will help to evaluate the use of these microorganisms in metal bioremediation. Furthermore, it will also help to understand how metal availability impacts primary production in the oceans. In this review, we will focus on copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic (a toxic metalloid) metabolism, which has been mainly analyzed in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:25501581

  4. Monitoring of copper, arsenic and antimony levels in agricultural soils impacted and non-impacted by mining activities, from three regions in Chile.

    PubMed

    De Gregori, Ida; Fuentes, Edwar; Rojas, Mariela; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of the concentration of three important environmental elements that are often found together in mineral deposits and then associated with mining activities; copper, arsenic and antimony. These elements were determined in 26 different agricultural soils from regions I, II and V in Chile, zones where the most important and biggest copper industries of this country are located. As background levels of these elements in soils have not been well established, in this study, both, impacted and non-impacted agricultural soils from different regions were considered. The relationships between the concentrations of these elements in soils were also examined. The concentration ranges for copper, arsenic and antimony were 11-530; 2.7-202 and 0.42-11 mg kg(-1) respectively. The copper concentrations in non-polluted soils from the north and central zone of Chile were similar. However, three sites from the north region have copper concentration as higher as 100 mg kg(-1), values that exceed the critical concentration for copper in soils. The concentration of arsenic and antimony in the north soils were higher than in non-impacted ones and, in the case of arsenic, greatly exceeded the world average concentration reported for this element in soils. The highest arsenic and antimony concentrations were found in Calama and Quillagua soils, two different sites in the Loa valley. The arsenic/antimony concentration ratio was higher in Quillagua soil. The high concentrations of three elements determined in impacted soils from region V (Puchuncaví and Catemu valleys) clearly shows the impact produced in this zone by the industrial and mining activities developed in their proximities. At Puchuncaví valley a clear decrease was observed in copper, arsenic and antimony concentrations in soils on the function of the distance from the industrial complex "Las Ventanas", and all concentrations exceeded the reported critical values for this matrix. Instead at

  5. Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead and copper in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms in an emission area of a copper smelter and a mercury smelter.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, L; Zimmermannová, K; Kalac, P

    2000-01-31

    Four metals were determined by AAS techniques in 56 samples of 23 wild mushroom species collected in a heavily polluted area in eastern Slovakia in 1997 and 1998. The area has been contaminated from historical polymetallic ores mining and smelting and by emissions from a mercury smelter between 1969 and 1993 and from a copper smelter since 1951. No significant differences in metal concentrations (P < 0.05) were found in four species when comparing the periods 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. Considerable contamination of most species was observed mainly for mercury and cadmium. The highest levels of mercury, up to 50 mg kg-1 dry matter, were found in Boletus reticulatus, Lycoperdon perlatum and Marasmius oreades, and of cadmium up to 20 mg kg-1 dry matter in Xerocomus chrysenteron and Lycoperdon perlatum. The latter species also had extremely high lead and copper concentrations in hundreds of milligrams per kilogram dry matter. Concentrations of mercury and copper in caps of four Boletaceae species were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in stipes.

  6. The analysis of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and nickel content in human bones from the upper Silesian industrial district.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, I; Czernicki, K; Aleksandrowicz, R

    1995-01-10

    The concentration of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and nickel in autopsy samples of bones from adults living in the Upper Silesian industrial district (Poland)--an ecological disaster region--was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (flame and flameless GF AAS). Lead concentrations ranged from 20 micrograms/g to 200 micrograms/g bone wet weight, cadmium from 0.4 microgram/g to 1.5 micrograms/g bone wet weight. About one-fourth of the bones examined from Silesia, contained lead in the range from 100 micrograms/g to 200 micrograms/g. The were no significant differences in zinc, copper and nickel concentration between the control groups. The samples were mineralized in a microwave digestion system. To avoid anomalous results caused by the influence of the matrix Ca3 (PO4)2--the procedure of lead determination was carried out at a temperature of 2000 degrees C, the cadmium determination at a temperature of about 1200 degrees C.

  7. DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 and prostate-specific antigen genes expression induced by arsenic, cadmium, and chromium on nontumorigenic human prostate cells.

    PubMed

    El-Atta, Hend M Abo; El-Bakary, Amal A; Attia, Afaf M; Lotfy, Ahmed; Khater, Shery S; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Abdalla, Hussein Abdelaziz

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Metals are recognized as chemical carcinogens where chronic exposures to such metals are implicated in the development of cancer, including prostate cancer. This in vitro study demonstrates the relative death sensitivity of prostatic (RWPE-1) cells to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) as environmental pollutants through its apoptotic effects and the effect of these chemicals on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene expression as a marker for their carcinogecity. RWPE-1 cells were divided into three groups that were treated with As, Cd, and Cr in three replicates, at three different concentrations for each metal for 48 h. A control group consisted of untreated RWPE1 cells was used. Apoptosis was assessed using comet assay and caspase 3 gene expression; meanwhile, PSA gene expression was evaluated by semiqualitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). One of the novel findings of this study is that arsenic and cadmium at low concentrations decreased apoptosis of RWPE-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner while chromium induced significant concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis. Yet, at the highest concentrations, apoptosis was relatively more induced by all chemicals. Arsenic was the most chemical inhibiting apoptosis in RWPE-1 cells at low concentration. While at the moderate and highest concentrations, cadmium was the most inhibiting chemical of RWPE-1 cells' apoptosis. No distinct differences between treated and untreated cells for PSA gene expression were observed. It can be concluded that As and Cd, at low concentrations, can reduce apoptosis of prostatic cells in a concentration-dependent manner while chromium induced it; however, all metal salts used in this study did not induce PSA gene expression.

  8. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  9. Magnetite recovery from copper tailings increases arsenic distribution in solution phase and uptake in native grass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunjia; Huang, Longbin

    2017-01-15

    Reprocessing magnetite-rich copper (Cu) tailings prompted a concern about arsenic (As) risks in seepage water and revegetated plants at Ernest Henry Cu Mine (EHM) in North Queensland, Australia, due to the closely coupled relationship between iron (Fe) minerals and As mobility. The magnetite removal alone significantly decreased the content of crystalline Fe minerals and the maximum arsenate (As(V)) sorption capacity of the resultant tailings. A glasshouse experiment with native grass Red Flinders (Iseilema Vaginiflorum) was conducted with the reprocessed (low magnetite (LM)) and original (high magnetite (HM)) tailings, which were amended with 5% sugarcane residue (SR) as a basal treatment in combination with 0, 1 and 5% pine-biochar (BC). The organic matter treatments and plant growth stimulated the formation of secondary Fe minerals. The amount of extractable amorphous Fe in the amended and revegetated HM tailings was significantly higher than those in the LM. Arsenic forms in the specifically sorbed and the sorbed by amorphous Fe oxides were significantly increased by the SR amendment in the LM tailings, but which were decreased in the HM, compared to the unamended tailings. Soluble As levels in the porewater of the LM under revegetation were significantly higher (300-1150 μg As L(-1)) than those (up to 45-90 μg As L(-1)) in HM tailings in the same treatment, which led to the higher As concentrations in the plants grown in the LM tailings. In particular, root As concentration (62-146 mg kg(-1)) in the LM tailings was almost a magnitude higher than those (8-17 mg kg(-1)) in the HM. The present results confirmed the initial expectation that the recovery of magnetite from the Cu tailings significantly elevated the risk of As solubility in the tailings by decreasing As sorption capacity and increasing soluble As levels. Thus, it would be beneficial to retain high contents of magnetite in the top layer (e.g., root zone) of the Cu tailings for managing As

  10. Genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistance among Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, heavy metal resistance was primarily encountered in certain clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa). All arsenic-resistant isolates harbored the arsenic resistance cassette previously identified in pLI100; ECIa harbored additional arsenic resi...

  11. [Lead, cadmium, copper and zinc content in vegetables, gooseberry fruit and soil from gardening plots of Lublin].

    PubMed

    Kowalska-Pyłka, H; Kot, A; Wierciński, J; Kursa, K; Wałkuska, G; Cybulski, W

    1995-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, copper and zinc contents in vegetables, fruits of gooseberries and in soil of Lublin gardening plots "Pionier" and "Podzamcze" both situated along heavy traffic streets, and "Pionier" additional to the close vicinity of automobile factory were determined by atomic absorption spectrophofometry. Statistical analysis of the results respected the streets or factory distances from the gardening plots, and the species of the vegetables. Levels of the determined elements in the most of the samples were lower than permitted by the Ministry of Health Regulation established in 1993. According to that Regulation a slight exceeding of zinc content in the red beetroots and in the overground parts of the leak were found. Lead content in the parsley root and in the dill was close to the tolerance limit. Both lead and cadmium of the soil of "Podzamcze" gardening plot significantly exceeded the levels considered as tolerable for unpolluted grounds, whereas the soil of "Pionier" contained lead close to limit of tolerance level.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of arsenic in concentrates and copper-base alloys by the molybdenum blue method after separations by iron collection and xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1977-02-01

    A method for determining 0.0001-1% of arsenic in copper, nickel, molybdenum, lead and zinc concentrates is described. After sample decomposition, arsenic is separated from most of the matrix elements by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric oxide from an ammoniacal medium. Following reprecipitation of arsenic and iron, the precipitate is dissolved in approximately 2 M hydrochloric acid and the solution is evaporated to a small volume to remove water. Arsenic(V) is reduced to the tervalent state with iron(II) and separated from iron, lead and other co-precipitated elements by chloroform extraction of its xanthate from an 11M hydrochloric acid medium. After oxidation of arsenic(III) in the extract to arsenic(V) with bromine-carbon tetrachloride solution, it is back-extracted into water and determined by the molybdenum blue method. Small amounts of iron, copper and molybdenum, which are co-extracted as xanthates, and antimony, which is co-extracted to a slight extent as the chloro-complex under the proposed conditions, do not interfere. The proposed method is also applicable to copper-base alloys.

  13. Effects from a short-term exposure to copper or cadmium in gravid females of the livebearer fish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the reproductive effects of a 10-day maternal metal exposure in the live-bearing western mosquitofish. We exposed gravid females to 0.15µM copper or cadmium and monitored reproduction-related variables over the subsequent 8-month breeding season. Females gave birth to 1-5 broods, a number not affected by the exposure. Their first brood's size was reduced following exposure to either metal, while this effect was still evident for the second brood of copper-exposed females. Metal-exposed females also had more premature births, abortions, and broods containing dead offspring; these last two effects were still evident in second broods. The time-till-first-birth was reduced while the time-interval between first and second brood was increased in cadmium-exposed females, but not in copper-exposed ones. This study demonstrated that short-term metal exposure affects a variety of reproductive measures and that effects can still occur in broods that developed well after the end of the females' exposure.

  14. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J.; Merrick, B. Alex; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  15. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bio-indicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans. PMID:19953418

  16. Detection of bioavailable cadmium, lead, and arsenic in polluted soil by tailored multiple Escherichia coli whole-cell sensor set.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qihui; Ma, Anzhou; Wang, Thanh; Lin, Jianqiang; Wang, Hailin; Du, Binghai; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2015-09-01

    Microbial whole-cell sensor has been widely used to assess bioavailability and risk of toxic elements, but their environmental use is still limited due to the presence of other interfering pollutants and the nonspecific binding in cells, which leads to inaccurate results. Here, we proposed a strategy combining Escherichia coli sensor set with binary regression models for the specific detection of bioavailable cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) in a co-polluted environment. Initial tests suggested that the sensor set respectively termed pcadCluc, pzntRluc, and parsRluc could be classified into two groups according to their specific response to Cd, Pb, and As: group 1 (pcadCluc and pzntRluc) induced by a Cd-Pb mix and group 2 (parsRluc) induced by a Cd-As mix. Based on the variance in responses of each sensor to mixtures of target elements, three binary linear equations for two sensor groups were set up to calculate the individual concentrations in the mixture solutions. This method was then used to quantify the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As in soils from a co-polluted mining region and to compare the results with other methods. Results showed that the conventional single target sensor method overestimated the bioavailability of each element, while sensor set was credible for accurate bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As quantification and comparable with the results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Our method can potentially be extended to cover the specific detection of other bioavailable toxic elements in different environmental settings.

  17. Redox effects on release kinetics of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, and vanadium in Wax Lake Deltaic freshwater marsh soils.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg; Frohne, Tina; White, John R; DeLaune, Ron D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chloride (Cl(-)), aliphatic and aromatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfate ( [Formula: see text] ) on the release of dissolved arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and vanadium (V) were studied in Louisiana freshwater marsh Wax Lake Delta soil (Mississippi River) using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted from reducing (-60 mV) to stepwise oxidizing (+491 mV) conditions. The initial pH was 7.4 and decreased under reducing conditions to 4.9, and remained constant during the increase of EH. Concentrations of As (1.3-120.5 μg L(-1)), V (0.9-48.6 μg L(-1)), Fe, DOC, and the specific UV absorbance increased under reducing conditions and decreased with rising EH. Release of As and V appeared to be related to changes of EH/pH, co-precipitation with Fe oxides, and the release of dissolved aromatic carbon compounds. Concentrations of soluble Cd (4.8-11.2 μg L(-1)), Mn, [Formula: see text] , and Cl(-) increased under oxidizing conditions. Release of Co (166.6-258.2 μg L(-1)) was related to the chemistry of Fe, Mn and DOC. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis indicated the potential for the microbial community to be involved in biogeochemical processes such as the formation of sulfides, oxidation and reduction of compounds, and the bio-methylation of elements such as As. Overall, we measured a release of As and V under anoxic conditions, while oxic conditions favored the release of Cd. These results outline concern on the potential risk of mobilization of toxic elements in temporary waterlogged soils for agricultural purposes in deltaic ecosystems.

  18. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium.

    PubMed

    Pelch, Katherine E; Tokar, Erik J; Merrick, B Alex; Waalkes, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10μM Cd for 11weeks (CTPE) or 5μM iAs for 29weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (>25-fold) and S100P (>40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (>15-fold) and NTM (>1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status.

  19. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  20. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process.

  1. Cadmium, lead and their mixtures with copper: Paracentrotus lividus embryotoxicity assessment, prediction, and offspring quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Buono, Silvia; Cremisini, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the combined effects of three heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium) on the fertilization and offspring quality of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus at EC50, NOEL, and EC1 concentrations. The observed data were compared with the predictions derived from approaches of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) in order to evaluate the proper prediction of the observed mixture toxic effect. The P. lividus embryotoxicity of trace metals decreases as follows: Cu > Pb > Cd at all toxicity concentration tested. EC50 mixture revealed less toxic only than Cu; EC50 was 0.80 (± 0.07) mg/l, the offspring malformations were mainly P1 type (skeletal alterations) up to 20% mixture concentration, and P2 type from 70% concentration. The NOEL and EC1 mixtures evidenced that all compounds contribute to the overall toxicity, even if present at low concentrations: the former EC50 was 0.532 (± 0.058) mg/l and the latter was 1.081 (± 0.240) mg/l. The developmental defects observed were mainly P1 type in both mixtures. Both CA and IA models did not accurately predict mixture toxicity for EC50 and NOEL mixtures. Instead, EC1 mixture effects seemed well represented by the IA model. The protective action of the CA model, although quite accurate when applied to simple biological systems like algae and bacteria, but failed to represent the worst-case in this study with more complex organisms. It would be useful to introduce in the models one or more factors that take into account the complexity of these biological systems.

  2. Stress-related physiological effects in fish exposed to combinations of copper and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1995-12-31

    During waterborne exposure, heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are not only taken up by fish gills, but also exert their primary toxic effect on this tissue. When the adaptive responses of the animals are inadequate, symptoms of stress have been observed. Tolerance for toxicants depends on specific physiological and biochemical accommodation of this tissue, partly regulated hormonally by products from the pituitary-interrenal axis. Cortisol not only modulates bronchial ion mechanisms but also regulates intermediate metabolism. The hormone is released in response to various stressful stimuli, such as heavy metals, and has been put forward as a stress index. Despite the increasing knowledge about the toxic mechanisms of sublethal concentrations of either Cu or Cd for fish, little is known about the effects of combined Cu/Cd exposure. The potential toxic effects of mixtures of heavy metals for fish is a subject of growing interest. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects on fish exposed during 6 days to sublethal waterborne Cu and Cd concentrations, singly and in combination. It is demonstrated that although Cu and Cd have metal-specific effects, the effects observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish were not simple additive or synergistic, as demonstrated by metal accumulation in organs, chloride cell numbers, active ion transport activities and plasma ion composition. For several of these parameters, more deleterious effects were observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish than could have been predicted from effects observed in single Cu or Cd exposed fish. Plasma cortisol levels were increased in Cu-exposed fish, but an increase was not observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish. It is argued that the absence of this cortisol response contributes to the inadequate reaction of the combined Cu/Cd exposed fish.

  3. Investigating the distribution of dissolved copper, zinc, silver and cadmium in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, D. J.; Cullen, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    A stated goal of the GEOTRACES program is to better understand the large-scale distribution of trace metals in the marine environment. A characteristic feature of the soft Lewis acid metals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag) and cadmium (Cd) is their correlation with the major algal nutrients. These correlations imply that the proximate control on the distribution of these metals is microbial uptake at the ocean surface, sinking associated with particulate organic matter and subsequent remineralization in the ocean interior. Combined with sedimentary records of past metal concentrations such correlations can provide much needed information on water mass circulation and nutrient cycling in the paleo-ocean. Today, as trace nutrients and/or toxins these metals help shape microbial community composition and influence productivity. Here we present depth profiles through the low dissolved oxygen waters of the north Pacific which show decoupling of trace metal-macronutrient relationships driven by depletion anomalies of trace metal concentrations in the broad, low oxygen layer. Similar anomalies have been previously reported in permanently anoxic layers (e.g. fjords) or in waters in contact with suboxic sediments and attributed to sulfidic removal of soft trace metals. The observed trace metal behavior and trace metal-macronutrient relationships in the oxygen minimum layer in the northeastern Pacific is consistent with the possibility of sulfidic scavenging of soft metals and the formation of insoluble metal sulfides in the water column. Implications of this influence on the basin scale distribution of soft metals like Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd through scavenging in the spreading low oxygen layer in the northeastern Pacific are discussed.

  4. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12-60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17-30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46-60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80-25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541-1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349-9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs.

  5. Baseline Blood Levels of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Residents of Beijing Suburb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μ/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μ/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μ/L; for blood Pb, <100 μ/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μ/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. PMID:25836720

  6. Microbial community structure and activity in arsenic-, chromium- and copper-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Riina; Kairesalo, Timo; Häggblom, Max M

    2004-01-01

    Microbial community structure, potential microbial activity and As resistance were affected by arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) contamination in soils of abandoned wood impregnating plants. Contaminated soils differed in the concentrations of soil acid-soluble and total water-soluble As, Cr and Cu, and in the concentration of bioavailable As analyzed with a bacterial sensor. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) profiles indicated that exposure to high metal contamination or subsequent effects of this exposure permanently changed microbial community structure. The total number of colony forming units (CFU) was not affected by metal contamination and the As(V)-resistant bacterial ratio to total heterotrophic plate counts was high (0.5-1.1) and relatively independent of the concentration of As. In contrast, the proportion of As(III)-resistant bacteria was dependent on the concentration of As in the soils and a significant positive relationship was found between the bioavailability of As and the proportion of As(III)-resistant bacteria. Dominant As-resistant isolates from contaminated soils were identified by their fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles as Acinetobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Serratia species. No differences were noted in glucose mineralization among contaminated and control soil samples within sites. Based on [(14)C]glucose mineralization the community was able to compensate for the reduced diversity. According to t-RFLP results, this was not due to a reversion towards the unexposed community, but mainly due to the appearance of new dominating species. This study, combining complementary culture-dependent and -independent methods, suggests that microbes are able to respond to soil metal contamination and maintain metabolic activity apparently through changes in microbial community structure and selection for resistance.

  7. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  8. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  9. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Arsenic, Lead, Chromium, and Cadmium in a Metal-contaminated Histosol

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, X.; Schulze, D

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and mineralogical forms of As, Pb, Cr, and Cd were studied in a metal-contaminated organic soil (Histosol) that received runoff and seepage water from a site that was once occupied by a lead smelter. Soil samples were collected from different depth intervals during both wet and dry seasons and analyzed using bulk powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD), and micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy. There was a clear pattern of mineral distribution with depth that indicated the presence of an intense redox gradient. The oxidized reddish brown surface layer (0-10 cm) was dominated by goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and poorly crystalline akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH). Lead and arsenic were highly associated with these Fe oxides, possibly by forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) was abundant in the layer as well, particularly for samples collected during dry periods. Fe(II)-containing minerals, such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), were identified in the intermediate layers (10-30 cm) where the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides occurred. A number of high-temperature minerals, such as mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2Si{sub 2}O), corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and wustite (FeO) were identified in the subsurface and they probably formed as a result of a burning event. Several sulfide minerals were identified in the most reduced layers at depths > 30 cm. They included realgar (AsS), alacranite (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}), galena (PbS), and sphalerite (Zn, Fe{sup 2+})S, and a series of Fe sulfides, including greigite (Fe{sup 2+}Fe{sub 2}{sup 3+} S{sub 4}), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), mackinawite (FeS), marcasite (FeS{sub 2}), and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Most of these minerals occurred as almost pure phases in sub-millimeter aggregates and appeared to be secondary phases that had precipitated from

  10. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  11. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  12. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  13. Screening of Blood Levels of Mercury, Cadmium, and Copper in Pregnant Women in Dakahlia, Egypt: New Attention to an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Motawei, Shimaa M; Gouda, Hossam E

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood levels of cadmium, mercury, and copper were measured in 150 pregnant women attending to the antenatal care in Mansoura University Hospital in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The mean ± SD of blood mercury, cadmium, and copper levels were found to be far from their levels in the population surveys carried in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and Canada. Heavy metal intoxication and accumulation is a major health hazard. Developing countries, including Egypt, still lack many of the regulatory policies and legislations to control sources of pollution exposure. This should be dealt with in order to solve this problem and limit its health consequences.

  14. Chromated Arsenicals (CCA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a wood preservative pesticide containing chromium, copper, and arsenic that protects wood against termites, fungi, mites and other pests that can degrade or threaten the integrity of wood products.

  15. Concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in boar semen and relation to the spermatozoa quality.

    PubMed

    Massányi, Peter; Trandzík, Jozef; Nad, Pavol; Koréneková, Beáta; Skalická, Magdaléna; Toman, Robert; Lukác, Norbert; Strapák, Peter; Halo, Marko; Turcan, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel as well as its relation to spermatozoa quality was investigated. The semen samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of copper in boar semen was 1.64 +/- 0.28 mg kg(-1) and of iron 16.14 +/- 10.35 mg kg(-1). The concentration of zinc in boar semen reached an average value of 171.74 +/- 64.72 mg kg(-1) and the level of cadmium reached 0.01-0.16 mg kg(-1) with the average value of 0.05 mg kg(-1). The analysis of lead showed that the concentration of this element in boar semen was 0.02 +/- 0.03 mg kg(-1) and the average level of nickel was 0.06 +/- 0.08 mg kg(-1). The total percentage of pathological spermatozoa was 9.82 +/- 1.47%. Detail analysis determined 3.18% of separated flagellum, 2.26% knob twisted flagellum, 0.88% flagellum torso, 0.85% flagellum ball, 0.42% broken flagellum, 0.23% retention of the cytoplasmic drop, 0.14% small heads, 0.03% large heads, and 1.83% forms other of pathological changes. Correlation analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between copper and lead (r = 0.52). High correlation between small head and knob twisted tail (r = 0.67), small head and broken flagellum (r = 0.88) as well as between small head and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.73) was determined.

  16. D-penicillamine capped cadmium telluride quantum dots as a novel fluorometric sensor of copper(II).

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Rezaei, Rahim; Razmi, Habib; Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    D-penicillamine-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (DPA-capped CdTe QDs) were synthesized as the new fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystal in aqueous solution. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used for characterization of the QDs. Based on the quenching effect of Cu(2+) ions on the fluorescence intensity of DPA-capped CdTe QDs, a new fluorometric sensor for copper(II) detection was developed that showed good linearity over the concentration range 5 × 10(-9)-3 × 10(-6) M with the detection limit 0.4 × 10(-9) M. Owing to the strong affinity of the DPA to copper(II), the sensor showed appropriate selectivity for copper(II) compared with conventional QDs. The DPA-capped CdTe QDs was successfully applied for determination of Cu(2+) concentration in river, well and tap waters with satisfactory results.

  17. Potential Influence of Selenium, Copper, Zinc and Cadmium on L-Thyroxine Substitution in Patients with Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Z; Jovanovic, D; Bogdanovic, G; Trifunovic, J; Mutic, J

    2017-02-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, it is known that some trace elements, as Selenium, Copper, and Zinc are essential for thyroid gland fuction and thyroid hormone metabolism. Moreover, there were some metals effect that suggested patterns associated with overt thyroid disease. Aim of study: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), chronic autoimune inflamation of thyroid gland with cosequtive hipothyroidism, is common disease in Serbia, and we thought it is worthwile to explore potential effects of essential and toxic metals and metalloides on thyroid function and ability to restore euthyroid status of them. Results: This cross-sectional, case-control, study investigated the status of essential elements (Selenium,Copper,and Zinc) and toxic metals and metalloides (Al, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Be, Pb and Ni) from the blood of 22 female, patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and overt hypothyroidism, and compared it with those of 55 female healthy persons. We tried to establish the presence of any correlation between previous mentioned elements and thyroid function in hypothyroid patients and healthy participants. Conclusions: The results of our study suggested that the blood concentration of essential trace elements, especially the ratio of Copper, and Selenium may influence directly thyroid function in patients with HT and overt hypothyroidism.Thus, our findings may have implication to life-long substitution therapy in terms of l-thyroxine dose reduction. Furthermore, for the first time, our study shown potential toxic effect of Cadmium on thyroid function in HT patients, which may implicate the dose of l-thyroxine substitution.

  18. [Development of ICP-OES, ICP-MS and GF-AAS Methods for Simultaneous Quantification of Lead, Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Soft Drinks].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed methods to quantify lead, total arsenic and cadmium contained in various kinds of soft drinks, and we evaluated their performance. The samples were digested by common methods to prepare solutions for measurement by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). After digestion, internal standard was added to the digestion solutions for measurements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. For measurement by GF-AAS, additional purification of the digestion solution was conducted by back-extraction of the three metals into nitric acid solution after extraction into an organic solvent with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Performance of the developed methods were evaluated for eight kinds of soft drinks.

  19. Physical, chemical and antimicrobial characterization of copper-bearing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Popko, Domenic; Bagley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, silver, and zinc are elements with strong antimicrobial properties. Among them, copper is more environmentally friendly and has both good antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been shown that copper can even be effective against new viruses such as avian influenza (H5N1). Development of copper-bearing materials for various applications, therefore, is receiving increased attention. The Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan was the largest native copper mining regions of North America at the turn of the 20th century. Copper was extracted by mining the copper-rich basaltic rock, and steamdriven stamp mills were used to process a great volume of low-grade ores, resulting in huge amounts of crushed waste ore called stamp sands. Approximately 500 million tons of stamp sand were discarded. This material is investigated in this study as an example for the development of antimicrobial materials.

  20. Blood concentration of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead in horses and its relation to hematological and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Halo, Marko; Formicki, Grzegorz; Lukac, Norbert; Cupka, Peter; Schwarcz, Pavol; Kovacik, Anton; Tusimova, Eva; Kovacik, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution results in serious health hazards to animals and blood analysis serves as a good alternative for health status assessment. The target of this study was to analyze the concentration of selected metals in equine blood, to analyze the blood parameters and to find possible correlations. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of healthy adult horses. The highest concentration of all elements was found in whole blood (Cu 3.84 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Cd = 0.81 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Zn 26.67 ± 14.12 mg L(-1); Pb 9.33 ± 5.76 mg L(-1)). Higher concentrations of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead were detected in blood clots compared to blood sera (44.04%). A similar tendency was found for cadmium (50%), zinc (13.08%) and lead (46.02%), which showed generally higher concentrations in blood clots (cells). Correlation analysis proved some relations between analyzed elements. In blood clots there is a strong positive correlation between Cd - Pb (r = 0.93) and Zn - Pb (r = 0.71) was detected. For biochemical and hematological parameters mainly medium correlations were detected. Obtained results prove different correlations of analyzed elements in blood components as well as the effect on parameters of blood biochemical and hematological profiles.

  1. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H N; Huang, N M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection.

  2. Lipid peroxidation in the gill and hepatopancreas of Oziotelphusa senex senex fabricius during cadmium and copper exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P.S. ); Bhagyalakshmi, A. )

    1994-11-01

    Environmental contamination by metals has increased in recent years due to the excessive use of metals in agriculture and industry. Due to their bioconcentration, immutable and non-degradable properties, these metals constitute a major source of pollutants. Among these metals cadmium, lead and mercury are non-essential, where as copper, iron, manganese, and zinc are essential elements. They are required in trace amounts by all forms of life but are toxic when present in excess. Considerable information is available on the toxic effects of cadmium on biological mechanisms at all integration levels, such as molecular, biochemical, physiological and behavioural, in animals. It is also well known that heavy metal contamination alters cellular physiology, particularly by affecting aspects such as transport across plasma membranes, mitochondrial functions, lysosomal stability etc. Even though it has been demonstrated that the in vitro addition of heavy metals stimulates membrane lipid peroxidation, the in vivo effects exerted by different cations on this process are still not clear. The present work reports the effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu and Cd on lipid peroxidation in the tissues of the edible freshwater crab, Oziotelphusa senex senex. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. The Role of Blood Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in Development and Severity of Acne Vulgaris in a Nigerian Population.

    PubMed

    Ikaraoha, C I; Mbadiwe, N C; Anyanwu, C J; Odekhian, J; Nwadike, C N; Amah, H C

    2017-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder affecting human beings. There is a paucity of report on the role of heavy metals-lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)-globally, and trace metals-zinc (Zn) and copper (Cd)-particularly in Nigeria in the development/severity of acne vulgaris. This study is aimed to determine the blood levels of some heavy metals-cadmium and lead-and trace metals-zinc and copper-in acne vulgaris sufferers in a Nigerian population. Venous blood samples were collected from a total number of 90 non-obese female subjects consisting of 30 mild, 30 moderate and 30 severe acne vulgaris sufferers for blood Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn determination. They were age-matched with 60 females without acne vulgaris who served as the control subjects. Acne sufferers had significantly higher blood Cd and Pb (P = 0.0143 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significantly different blood levels of Cu and Zn (P = 0.910 and P = 0.2140 respectively) compared to controls. There were significant progressive increases in blood levels of Cd and Pb (P = 0.0330 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significant differences in the mean blood level of Cu and Zn (P = 0.1821 and P = 0.2728 respectively) from mild to moderate and severe acne vulgaris sufferers. Increases in blood Cd and Pb may play critical roles in the pathogenesis/severity of acne vulgaris, while Cu and Zn seem to play less significant roles in the development of this disorder in this environment.

  4. Renal and Neurologic Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in Children: Evidence of Early Effects and Multiple Interactions at Environmental Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    de Burbure, Claire; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Leroyer, Ariane; Nisse, Catherine; Haguenoer, Jean-Marie; Mutti, Antonio; Smerhovský, Zdenek; Cikrt, Miroslav; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Razniewska, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Marek; Bernard, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic are common environmental pollutants in industrialized countries, but their combined impact on children’s health is little known. We studied their effects on two main targets, the renal and dopaminergic systems, in > 800 children during a cross-sectional European survey. Control and exposed children were recruited from those living around historical nonferrous smelters in France, the Czech Republic, and Poland. Children provided blood and urine samples for the determination of the metals and sensitive renal or neurologic biomarkers. Serum concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, and β2-microglobulin were negatively correlated with blood lead levels (PbB), suggesting an early renal hyperfiltration that averaged 7% in the upper quartile of PbB levels (> 55 μg/L; mean, 78.4 μg/L). The urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein, Clara cell protein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase was associated mainly with cadmium levels in blood or urine and with urinary mercury. All four metals influenced the dopaminergic markers serum prolactin and urinary homovanillic acid, with complex interactions brought to light. Heavy metals polluting the environment can cause subtle effects on children’s renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, which reinforces the need to control and regulate potential sources of contamination by heavy metals. PMID:16581550

  5. Survival and hepatic metallothionein in developing rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of zinc, copper, and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Buttle Lake on Vancouver Island, B.C. are exposed to metal contamination originating from a copper and zinc mining operation at Myra Falls near the head of the lake. In order to properly assess the risk to a population of rainbow trout in Buttle Lake, the authors initiated a long-term exposure of rainbow trout from hatch including the swim-up stage. Copper, zinc or cadmium are known to induce metallothionein in mammals and as a mixture of metals, induce hepatic metallothionein in rainbow trout. Investigation of hepatic metallothionein concentrations in wild rainbow trout from Buttle Lake and in lakes of the Campbell River downstream showed a correlation with metal concentrations in the water. Rainbow trout held in situ for 4 weeks showed the same correlation. In this report they determined whether or not the degree of contamination was correlated with concentrations of metallothionein in the livers of rainbow trout exposed to the mixture of metals during the early life stages.

  6. Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treating copper and cadmium-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lim, Poh-Eng; Ong, Soon-An; Seng, Chye-Eng

    2002-02-01

    The application of simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes in the same reactor is known to be effective in the removal of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants in various kinds of wastewater. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the two processes under sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation in treating copper and cadmium-containing synthetic wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent. The SBR systems were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE periods in the ratio of 0.5: 3.5: 1.0: 0.75 :0.25 for a cycle time of 6 h. In the presence of 10 mg/L Cu(II) and 30 mg/L Cd(II), respectively, the average COD removal efficiencies were above 85% with the PAC dosage in the influent solution at 143 mg/L compared to around 60% without PAC addition. Copper(II) was found to exert a more pronounced inhibitory effect on the bioactivity of the microorganisms compared to Cd(II). It was observed that the combined presence of Cu(II) and Cd(II) did not exert synergistic effects on the microorganisms. Kinetic study conducted for the REACT period showed that the addition of PAC had minimized the inhibitory effect of the heavy metals on the bioactivity of microorganisms.

  7. Emissions of chromium, copper, arsenic, and PCDDs/Fs from open burning of CCA-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Shirley J; Linak, William P; Gullett, Brian K; King, Charles J; Touati, Abderrahmane; Huggins, Frank E; Chen, Yuanzhi; Shah, Naresh; Huffman, Gerald P

    2005-11-15

    Aged and weathered chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood was burned in an open burn research facility to characterize the air emissions and residual ash. The objectives were to simulate, to the extent possible, the combustion of such waste wood as might occur in an open field or someone's backyard; to characterize the composition and particle size distribution (PSD) of the emitted fly ash; to determine the partitioning of arsenic, chromium, and copper between the fly ash and residual ash; and to examine the speciation of the CCA elements. This work reports preliminary air emission concentrations and estimated emission factors for total particulate matter, arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) totals and toxic equivalents (TEQs). The partitioning of As, Cr, and Cu between the emitted fly ash and residual ash is examined and thermochemical predictions from the literature are used to explain the observed behavior. Results indicate a unimodal fly ash PSD between 0.1 and 1.0 microm diameter. In addition to a large carbonaceous component, between 11 and 14% of the As present in the burned CCA treated wood was emitted with the air emissions, with the remainder present in the residual ash. In contrast, less than 1% of both the Cr and Cu present in the wood was emitted with the air emissions. PCDD/F levels were unremarkable, averaging 1.7 ng TEQ/kg of treated wood burned, a value typical for wood combustion. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was unable to resolve inorganic particles consisting of Cu, Cr, or As in the wood samples, but X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy confirmed that the oxidation states of the CCA elements in the wood were Cu2+, Cr3+, and As5+. SEM examination of the fly ash samples revealed some inorganic microcrystals within the mostly carbonaceous fly ash, while XAFS spectroscopy of the same samples showed that the oxidation states after combustion were mixed Cu+ and

  8. Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2010-03-01

    Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands.

  9. Mortality and LC50 values for several stages of the marine copepod Tigriopus brevicornis (Müller) exposed to the metals arsenic and cadmium and the pesticides atrazine, carbofuran, dichlorvos, and malathion.

    PubMed

    Forget, J; Pavillon, J F; Menasria, M R; Bocquené, G

    1998-07-01

    The toxicity of three insecticides (carbofuran, dichlorvos, malathion), an herbicide (atrazine), and two metals (arsenic and cadmium) to ovigerous females, copepodids, and nauplii of Tigriopus brevicornis was determined by 96-h semistatic (or static-renewal) bioassays. Freshly prepared aqueous stock solutions of these pesticides and metals were diluted to appropriate concentrations. Mortalities were recorded and test solutions were changed completely each day up to 96 h. The rate of mortality was analyzed for linear regressions, and LC50 values were determined by probit analysis. LC50 values for ovigerous T. brevicornis females were 153.2 micrograms liter-1 for atrazine, 59.9 micrograms liter-1 for carbofuran, 47.9 micrograms liter-1 for cadmium, 27.5 micrograms liter-1 for arsenic, 24.3 micrograms liter-1 for malathion, and 4.6 micrograms liter-1 for dichlorvos. Comparison of the overall toxicities of these pesticides and metals indicated that dichlorvos was the most toxic substance to T. brevicornis, followed by malathion, arsenic, cadmium, carbofuran, and atrazine. Available LC50 data indicate that marine copepods are more sensitive to pollutants than Daphnia magna, Acartia tonsa, and Tisbe battagliai, or as sensitive as the mysid Mysidopsis bahia.

  10. Radiotracer study of the adsorption of organic compounds on gold. adsorption of chloroacetic and phenylacetic acid, and the effects of cadmium, copper, and silver adatoms on it

    SciTech Connect

    Horani, G.; Andreev, V.N.; Vazarinov, V.E.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the adsorption of monochloroacetic and phenylacetic acid (MA and PA, respectively) by the radiotracer technique on gold-plated gold electrodes in acidic solutions. The authors also study the effect of cadmium, copper, and silver adatoms on these processes. The adsorption of MA was measured as a function of potential of the electrode. Data from these measurements are presented. Data show that cadmium, copper, and silver ions present in the solution have no effect on the adsorption of PA at potentials where they are not adsorbed on the gold surface. It is confirmed that the radiotracer technique will be as effective in adsorption studies on the gold-plated gold electrode as it was in the case of the platinized platinum electrode.

  11. Distribution of arsenic and trace metals in the floodplain agricultural soil of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Dewan Ali; DelValls, Tomas Angel; Blasco, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic contaminated groundwater of Bangladesh is one of the largest natural calamities of the world. Soil samples were collected from floodplain agricultural land of Faridpur and Dhamrai regions to estimate the concentration of arsenic and other trace metals (copper, nickel, zinc, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, cobalt, mercury, and manganese). Average arsenic in Faridpur soil was recorded more than three times higher than the world limit and nearly five times higher than that of Dhamrai. The average copper, chromium and cobalt both in Faridpur and Dhamrai agricultural soil were also higher than the Dutch and the world standards. Both Fardipur and Dhamrai soil contain low amount of selenium in comparison to world limit (0.7 mg kg(-1)). A poor correlation between manganese and arsenic was noticed in Faridpur. This may be played a subordinate role in the fixation of arsenic in soil. This study also reveals that the area which has arsenic and trace metal contaminated groundwater may also contain high level of arsenic and trace metals in the agricultural soil due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater.

  12. Induction of micronuclei and binuclei in blood, gill and liver cells of fishes subchronically exposed to cadmium chloride and copper sulphate.

    PubMed

    Cavas, Tolga; Garanko, Natasha N; Arkhipchuk, Victor V

    2005-04-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and Peppered cory (Corydoras paleatus) were evaluated as target species to perform genotoxicity tests for heavy metals. Fishes were exposed to different doses of cadmium (0.005-0.1 mg/L) and copper (0.01-0.25 mg/L) for 21 days. Hexavalent chromium at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as a positive control. Frequencies of micronuclei and binuclei were evaluated comparatively in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells and liver cells. As a result it was observed that, fish species and their tissues showed differential sensitivity to the heavy metal treatment. In general, frequencies of micronucleated and binucleated cells significantly increased following the exposure for 21 days to copper, cadmium and chromium. On the other hand, gill and liver cells showed higher frequencies of micronuclei and binuclei than erythrocytes. Our results indicated the formation of micronuclei and binuclei in fish cells caused by their exposure to cadmium, copper and chromium, thus verifying results obtained earlier on mammals, which indicated that these heavy metals have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The suitability of the micronucleus assay in native fish species for the screening of aquatic genotoxicants is highlighted and the importance of target tissue selection in the piscine micronucleus test is emphasized.

  13. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-03

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples.

  14. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H. N; Huang, N. M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5–120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  15. Effective phototransformation in a heterostructure based on copper(I) oxide and cadmium tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelovanova, G. N.; Patrusheva, T. N.

    2017-02-01

    We present a heterostructure consisting of anodic copper oxide Cu2O on a copper substrate and a transparent Cd-Sn-O conducting film for use in solar cells. Focusing on simplicity and the availability of film fabrication techniques, we chose anodic oxidation for forming the Cu2O film and the extraction-pyrolysis technique for forming the transparent Cd-Sn-O conducting layer. We demonstrate the possibility of considerable enhancement of the phototransformation efficiency in the Cu-Cu2O/Cd-Sn-O structure over this parameter in the Cu-Cu2O structure.

  16. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from CCA-treated wood and their potential impacts on landfill leachate in a tropical country.

    PubMed

    Kamchanawong, S; Veerakajohnsak, C

    2010-04-01

    This study looks into the potential risks of arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from disposed hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in a tropical climate. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Waste Extraction Test (WET) were employed to examine new CCA-treated Burseraceae and Keruing woods, weathered CCA-treated teak wood, and ash from new CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. In addition, a total of six lysimeters, measuring 2 m high and 203 mm in diameter were prepared to compare the leachate generated from the wood monofills, construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, containing CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. The TCLP and WET results showed that the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached higher metal concentrations (i.e. 9.19-17.70 mg/L, 1.14-5.89 mg/L and 4.83-23.89 mg/L for arsenic, chromium, and copper, respectively) than the CCA-treated Keruing wood (i.e. 1.74-11.34 mg/L, 0.26-3.57 mg/L and 0.82-13.64 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively). Ash from the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached significantly higher metal concentrations (i.e. 108.5-116.9 mg/L, 1522-3862 mg/L and 84.03-114.4 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively), making this type of ash of high concern. The lysimeter study results showed that the MSW lysimeter exhibited higher reducing conditions, more biological activities and more dissolved ions in their leachates than the wood monofill and C&D debris lysimeters. All leachates generated from the lysimeters containing the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood contained significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in comparison to those of the untreated wood: in the range of 0.53-15.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that the disposal of CCA-treated Burseraceae wood in an unlined C&D landfill or a MSW landfill has the potential to contaminate groundwater.

  17. Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, David E.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    1996-01-01

    For the measurement of As, Cd, Pb, and Tl in urine or whole blood, judicious choices of internal standard elements for matrix correction and the development of a refined isobaric arsenic correction are necessary to produce accurate ICP-MS results. Ga and Rh are chosen as internal standards for As and Cd respectively. Bi is better for the correction of Pb and Tl than Re. An empirically derived equation relating the measurement of 16O 35Cl to the 40Ar 35Cl contribution to the arsenic signal at mass 75 is refined by measuring the responses at mass 51 and 75 for urines with added hydrochloric acid. Overall, ICP-MS results for blood and urine are within 6% of Zeeman GFAAS results for patient samples. For surveys, the overall average of ICP-MS results is within 3% of target.

  18. BIOAVAILABILITY OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA CONTAMINATED SOILS AND DUSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is estimated that 70% of single family homes have pressure-treated wood decks or porches and 14% of playground equipment uses pressure-treated wood. This popular form of wood contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which is an antimicrobial pesticide and is currently underg...

  19. BIOAVAILABILITY OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FOR CCA CONTAMINATED SOILS AND DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is estimated that 70% of single family homes have pressure-treated wood decks or porches and 14% of playground equipment uses pressure-treated wood. This popular form of wood contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which is an antimicrobial pesticide and is currently underg...

  20. EMISSIONS OF CHROMIUM, COPPER, ARSENIC AND PCDDS/FS FROM OPEN BURNING OF CCA TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aged and weathered chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood was burned in an open burn research facility to characterize the air emissions and residual bottom ash. In addition to continuous measurements of gases and temperature, samples were collected to characterize the emis...

  1. Tissue concentrations as the dose metric to assess potential toxic effects of metals in field-collected fish: Copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Meador, James P

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the available literature linking whole-body tissue concentrations with toxic effects in fish species for copper and cadmium. The variability in effect concentration for both copper and cadmium among species occurred within an order of magnitude for all responses, whereas the range for lethal toxicity based on water exposure spanned approximately 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Fish tissue concentrations causing adverse effects were just above background concentrations, occurring between 1 μg/g and 10 μg/g for copper and 0.1 μg/g to 4 μg/g for cadmium. The results also show that salmonids are especially sensitive to cadmium, which appears to be a function of chemical potency. No studies were found that indicated adverse effects without increases in whole-body concentration of these metals. This narrow range for dose-response implies that a toxicological spillover point occurs when the detoxification capacity of various tissues within the animal are exceeded, and this likely occurs at a similar whole-body concentration for all naïvely exposed fish species. Elevated whole-body concentrations in fish from the field may be indicative of possible acclimation to metals that may or may not result in effects for target species. Acclimation concentrations may be useful in that they signal excessive metal concentrations in water, sediment, or prey species for a given site and indicate likely toxic effects for species unable to acclimate to excess metal exposure. Using tissue residues as the dose metric for these metals provides another line of evidence for assessing impaired ecosystems and greater confidence that hazard concentrations are protective for all fish species.

  2. Evaluation of arsenic, cobalt, copper and manganese in biological Samples of Steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Afridi, H I; Kazi, T G; Kazi, N G; Jamali, M K; Arain, M B; Sirajuddin; Kandhro, G A; Shah, A Q; Baig, J A

    2009-02-01

    The determination of trace and toxic elements in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) of human beings is an important clinical test. The aim of our present study was to determine the concentration of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), in biological samples of male production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QW) of steel mill, with aged 25-55 years, to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure. For comparison purpose, the same biological samples of unexposed healthy males of same age group were collected as control subjects. The determination of all elements in biological samples was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The accuracy of the As, Cu, Co and Mn measurements was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) and for comparative purposes conventional wet acid digestion method was used on the same CRMs. No significant differences were observed between the analytical results and the certified values, using both methods (paired t-test at P > 0.05). The results indicate that concentrations of As, Cu, Co and Mn in all three biological samples of the exposed workers (QW and PW) were significantly higher than those of the controls. The possible correlation of these elements with the etiology of different physiological disorders is discussed. The results were also demonstrated the need of attention for improvements in workplace, ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  3. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  4. Distribution of arsenic and copper in sediment pore water: an ecological risk assessment case study for offshore drilling waste discharges.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of synthetic based fluids (SBFs), drilling cuttings are not very dispersive in the water column and settle down close to the disposal site. Arsenic and copper are two important toxic heavy metals, among others, found in the drilling waste. In this article, the concentrations of heavy metals are determined using a steady state "aquivalence-based" fate model in a probabilistic mode. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to determine pore water concentrations. A hypothetical case study is used to determine the water quality impacts for two discharge options: 4% and 10% attached SBFs, which correspond to the best available technology option and the current discharge practice in the U.S. offshore. The exposure concentration (CE) is a predicted environmental concentration, which is adjusted for exposure probability and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals. The response of the ecosystem (RE) is defined by developing an empirical distribution function of predicted no-effect concentration. The pollutants' pore water concentrations within the radius of 750 m are estimated and cumulative distributions of risk quotient (RQ=CE/RE) are developed to determine the probability of RQ greater than 1.

  5. Joint Toxicity of Arsenic, Copper and Glyphosate on Behavior, Reproduction and Heat Shock Protein Response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunbiao; Ezemaduka, Anastasia N; Li, Zhuheng; Chen, Zhanyan; Song, Chuantao

    2017-04-01

    The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used in 24-h acute exposures to arsenic (As), copper (Cu) and glyphosate (GPS) and to mixtures of As/Cu and As/GPS to investigate the effects of mixture exposures in the worms. A synergistic type of interaction was observed for acute toxicity with the As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures. Sublethal 24-h exposures of 1/1000, 1/100 and 1/10 of the LC50 concentrations for As, Cu and GPS individually and for As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures were conducted to observe responses in locomotory behavior (head thrashing), reproduction, and heat shock protein expression. Head thrash frequency and reproduction exhibited concentration dependent decreases in both individual and combined exposures to the tested chemical stressors, and showed synergistic interactions even at micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, the HSP70 protein level was significantly increased following exposure to individual and combined chemical stressors in wild-type C. elegans. Our findings establish for the first time the effects of exposure to As/GPS and As/Cu mixtures in C. elegans.

  6. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  7. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal.

  8. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    PubMed Central

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  9. Coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mendoza, Daniel; Moreno, Adriana Quiroz; Zapata-Perez, Omar

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the role of phytochelatins and metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance of black mangrove Avicennia germinans, 3-month-old seedlings were exposed to cadmium or copper for 30 h, under hydroponic conditions. Degenerate Mt2 and PCS primers were synthesized based on amino acid and nucleotide alignment sequences reported for Mt2 and PCS in other plant species found in GenBank. Total RNA was isolated from A. germinans leaves and two partial fragments of metallothionein and phytochelatin synthase genes were isolated. Gene expression was evaluated with reverse transcripatase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification technique. Temporal analysis showed that low Cd2+ and Cu2+ concentrations caused a slight (but not significant) increase in AvMt2 expression after a 16 h exposure time, while AvPCS expression showed a significant increase under the same conditions but only after 4h. Results strongly suggest that the rapid increase in AvPCS expression may contribute to Cd2+ and Cu2+ detoxification. Moreover, we found that A. germinans has the capacity to over-express both genes (AvMt2 and AvPCS), which may constitute a coordinated detoxification response mechanism targeting non-essential metals. Nonetheless, our results confirm that AvPCS was the most active gene involved in the regulation of essential metals (e.g., Cu2+) in A. germinans leaves.

  10. Early defense responses in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea exposed to copper and cadmium: Transcriptional and histochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Aurélie; Minguez, Laëtitia; Giambérini, Laure; Rodius, François

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the early effects of copper (10 and 50 μg L(-1)), cadmium (2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1)) and mixtures of these metals in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea exposed for 12 h in laboratory. Transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), pi-class glutathione S-transferase (pi-GST), metallothionein (MT) in digestive gland and gills, and response of lysosomal system and neutral lipids in digestive gland were determined after the exposure period. Results showed that lysosomal system, neutral lipids content, and mRNA levels were modified, suggesting their early response against oxidative stress and their important role in cell integrity. The integrated biomarker response was calculated and showed that the effects of the combinations of Cu and Cd on the biomarker responses are additive. MT and pi-GST mRNA expression correspond to the largest ranges of response. As efficient biomarkers should have an early warning capacity, SOD, CAT, Se-GPx, pi-GST, MT transcripts levels, lysosomal system, and neutral lipids could be used as biomarkers of metal contamination in the aquatic environment.

  11. Combined toxicity of cadmium and copper in Avicennia marina seedlings and the regulation of exogenous jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongzheng; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Jun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2015-03-01

    Seedlings of Avicennia marina were exposed to single and combined metal treatments of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a factorial design, and the combined toxicity of Cu and Cd was tested. The effects of the exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on chlorophyll concentration, lipid peroxidation, Cd and Cu uptake, antioxidative capacity, endogenous JA concentration, and type-2 metallothionein gene (AmMT2) expression in seedlings of A. marina exposed to combined metal treatments were also investigated. A binary mixture of low-dose Cd (9 µmolL(-1)) and high-dose Cu (900 µmolL(-1)) showed toxicity to the seedlings, indicated by the significant augmentation in leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduction in leaf chlorophylls. The toxicity of the combined metals was significantly alleviated by the addition of exogenous JA at 1 µmolL(-1), and the chlorophyll and MDA contents were found to be restored to levels comparable to those of the control. Compare to treatment with Cd and Cu only, 1 and 10 µmolL(-1) JA significantly enhanced the ascorbate peroxidase activity, and 10 µmolL(-1) JA significantly decreased the uptake of Cd in A. marina leaves. The relative expression of leaf AmMT2 gene was also significantly enhanced by 1 and 10 µmolL(-1) JA, which helped reduce Cd toxicity in A. marina seedlings.

  12. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition of root and shoot lipids in Zea mays under copper and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chaffai, R; Seybou, T N; Marzouk, B; El Ferjani, E

    2009-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The Cu-treated roots showed a marked increase (about 2-fold) in the phospholipid (PL) content, while the Cd-treated roots showed a slight but insignificant increase. The steryl lipid SL/PL ratio was markedly decreased in response to Cu stress, and therefore, may indicate an activated phospholipid biosynthesis and turnover, in response to damage caused by Cu stress. The double bond indices of chloroplastic lipids: phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) revealed a similar but not identical pattern of change. The PG and MGDG contents in shoots were markedly decreased under Cu (by 53 and 48%) and Cd (by 78 and 65%) stress. The increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots induced by both metals indicates lipid peroxidation. Generally, in the presence of Cu fatty acid composition was markedly modulated but to lesser extent under Cd stress. These results suggest that changes in the fatty acid composition under Cu and Cd stress conditions are metal-specific and may therefore result in differential metal tolerance.

  13. Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C

    2015-03-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture.

  14. Partition and determination of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in marine suspended particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Rantala, R T; Loring, D H

    1985-01-01

    A method for the determination of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the total and acetic acid (25%) soluble fraction of suspended particulate matter collected on Nuclepore membranes is described. The acetic acid leaching was carried out in a modified Millipore vacuum filtration apparatus. The total sample and the acetic insoluble fraction were decomposed in teflon bombs with HF/aqua regia. Flame or graphite furnace AAS was used for metal determinations. Sequential acetic acid extractions (3) show that on the average 76.4-92.0% of the metals are removed with the first extraction. Cadmium is potentially most easily available to biota with 90.4% of the total metal concentration located in the acetic acid soluble fraction.

  15. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Metal-Poor Stars: New Detections of Phosphorus, Germanium, Arsenic, Selenium, Cadmium, Tellurium, Lutetium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum, Gold, and More!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy with HST/STIS provides a 30% increase in the number of elements that can be detected in metal-poor stars. Although nearly every element from hydrogen through bismuth is probably present in most metal-poor stars, not all elements can be detected. The resonance lines of the dominant species of some elements are only found in the UV in late-type stars. The chemical compositions of these stars reflect the history of stellar nucleosynthesis from the first stars to today. Here, I present a summary of recent work that has expanded the chemical inventory in metal-poor stars using UV spectroscopy conducted using HST/STIS. The highlights include new detections of phosphorus, germanium, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold in metal-poor stars. These detections reveal new insights into stellar nucleosynthesis in the earliest generations of massive stars, provide new constraints on the r-process, and open new channels for chemically-tagging stars that have assembled to form the Milky Way stellar halo.

  16. Determination of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium in fertilizers by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kane, Peter F; Hall, William L

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing regulatory interest in the non-nutritive metals content of fertilizer materials, but at present there is no consensus analytical method for acid digestion and instrument detection of those elements in fertilizer matrixes. This lack of method standardization has resulted in unacceptable variability of results between fertilizer laboratories performing metals analysis. A method has been developed using microwave digestion with nitric acid at 200 degrees C, followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry instrument detection, for the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, and selenium. The method has been collaboratively studied, and statistical results are here reported. Fourteen collaborators were sent 62 sample materials in a blind duplicate design. Materials represented a broad cross section of fertilizer types, including phosphate ore, manufactured phosphate products, N-P-K blends, organic fertilizers, and micro-nutrient materials. As much as possible within the limit of the number of samples, materials were selected from different regions of the United States and the world. Limit of detection (LOD) was determined using synthetic fertilizers consisting of reagent grade chemicals with near zero levels of the non-nutritive elements, analyzed blindly. Samples with high iron content caused the most variability between laboratories. Most samples reasonably above LOD gave HorRat values within the range 0.5 to 2.0, indicating acceptable method performance according to AOAC guidelines for analyses in the mg/kg range. The method is recommended for AOAC Official First Action status.

  17. Genome Wide Association Mapping of Grain Arsenic, Copper, Molybdenum and Zinc in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown at Four International Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Gareth J.; Douglas, Alex; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Pinson, Shannon R. M.; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C.; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, M. Rafiqul; Islam, Shofiqul; Duan, Guilan; Zhu, Yongguan; Salt, David E.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Price, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA) mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel). This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel. PMID:24586963

  18. Genome wide association mapping of grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown at four international field sites.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Douglas, Alex; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Pinson, Shannon R M; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, M Rafiqul; Islam, Shofiqul; Duan, Guilan; Zhu, Yongguan; Salt, David E; Meharg, Andrew A; Price, Adam H

    2014-01-01

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA) mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼ 300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel). This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel.

  19. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  20. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  1. Concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in bull and ram semen and relation to the occurrence of pathological spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Massányi, P; Trandzik, J; Nad, P; Koreneková, B; Skalická, M; Toman, R; Lukac, N; Halo, M; Strapak, P

    2004-01-01

    In this study the concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in bull and ram semen and relation of these metals to spermatozoa morphology was investigated. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that copper concentration was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in ram semen in comparison with bull semen. The zinc concentration was higher in bull semen in comparison with ram semen. The iron and cadmium concentrations in the semen were similar. Higher concentration of lead was found in ram semen. Higher levels of nickel were found in ram semen in comparison with bulls. In bull semen 11.79+/-4.88% of pathological spermatozoa was found. Higher occurrence of pathological spermatozoa was in ram semen (17.17+/-3.76) in comparison with the semen of bulls. Separated tail, tail torso, and knob twisted tail were the most frequent forms of pathological spermatozoa in both species. Correlation analysis in bulls showed high positive relation between iron and zinc (r = 0.72), nickel and separated tail (r = 0.76), separated tail and tail torso (r = 0.71), tail torso and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r=0.72), and between tail ball and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.78). In rams high positive correlation between cadmium and lead (r=0.98), nickel and separated tail (r=0.77), separated tail and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r=0.69), knob twisted tail and retention of cytoplasmic drop (r=0.78), and between knob twisted tail and other pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.71) was found. High negative correlation in ram semen was observed between copper and nickel (r=0.71), copper and separated tail (r=0.70), and between iron and tail torso (r=0.67). The results suggest that the studied metals have a direct effect on spermatozoa quality.

  2. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  3. Inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of six elements in a variety of geological materials. Sixteen reference materials are analysed by this technique to demonstrate its use in geochemical exploration. Samples are decomposed with nitric, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume. The elements are determined in two groups based on compatibility of instrument operating conditions and consideration of crustal abundance levels. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn are determined as a group in the 50-ml sample solution under one set of instrument conditions with the use of scatter correction. Limitations of the scatter correction technique used with the fluorescence instrument are discussed. Iron and Mn are determined together using another set of instrumental conditions on a 1-50 dilution of the sample solution without the use of scatter correction. The ranges of concentration (??g g-1) of these elements in the sample that can be determined are: Cd, 0.3-500; Cu, 0.4-500; Fe, 85-250 000; Mn, 45-100 000; Pb, 5-10 000; and Zn, 0.4-300. The precision of the method is usually less than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) over a wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy is shown by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference materials.

  4. Compositions and methods for removing arsenic in water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok Jagannth [El Cerrito, CA

    2011-02-22

    Compositions and methods and for contaminants from water are provided. The compositions comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates for use in removing the contaminant from the water. Contacting water bearing the contaminant with the substrates can substantially reduce contaminant levels therein. Methods of oxidizing the contaminants in water to facilitate their removal by the ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates are also provided. The contaminants include, but are not limited to, arsenic, selenium, uranium, lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium and vanadium, their oxides and soluble salts thereof.

  5. Ferric minerals and organic matter change arsenic speciation in copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Yunjia; Menzies, Neal W; Wehr, J Bernhard; de Jonge, Martin D; Howard, Daryl L; Kopittke, Peter M; Huang, Longbin

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with Cu ore minerals, with the resultant risk that As can be released offsite from mine tailings. We used synchrotron-based fluorescence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) imaging to provide in situ, laterally-resolved speciation of As within tailings which differed in magnetite content (5-12%) and organic matter content (0-5%). Although the total As content was lower in tailings with low magnetite (LM), the soluble (pore water) As was actually 7-times higher in LM tailings than in high magnetite (HM) tailings. Additionally, amendment with 5% sugarcane mulch residues (SMR) (for revegetation) further increased soluble As due to the dissolution and oxidation of arsenopyrite or orpiment. Indeed, in HM tailings, arsenopyrite and orpiment initially accounted for 88% of the total As, which decreased to 48% upon the addition of SMR - this being associated with an increase in As(V)-ferrihydrite from 12% to 52%. In LM tailings, the pattern of As distribution and speciation was similar, with As as As(V)-ferrihydrite increasing from 57% to 75% upon the addition of SMR. These findings indicate that changes in ore processing technology, such as the recovery of magnetite could have significant environmental consequences regarding the As mobilisation and transformation in mine tailings.

  6. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal-arsenic polluted soil.

    PubMed

    González, V; García, I; Del Moral, F; Simón, M

    2012-02-29

    A metal-arsenic polluted soil from sulphide-mine waste was treated, in all possible combinations, with two different amounts of marble sludge (98% CaCO3), compost (41% organic carbon), and Byferrox (70% Fe). Lixiviate and pore water from each treated and untreated soil were analysed, and lettuce-seed bioassays were performed. None of the treatments decreased the electrical conductivity of lixiviates or the concentrations of all pollutants found in both solutions. Marble sludge and compost increased the pH values and decreased the zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations in both solutions while increasing the arsenic concentrations in the lixiviates. Byferrox did not alter the physicochemical parameters or the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, or lead in either solution but significantly decreased the arsenic concentrations in pore water. Compared with the Byferrox treatment, the mixture of marble sludge and Byferrox decreased redox potential values, increasing the arsenic concentrations in both solutions and the electrical conductivity of the pore water. All lixiviates were highly phytotoxic and seeds did not germinate. Pore-water phytotoxicity was related to electrical conductivity values and heavy-metal concentrations. The combination of marble sludge and compost was most effective at diminishing toxicity in lettuce. The soils treated with Byferrox, alone or mixed with marble sludge or compost, were the most phytotoxic.

  7. Cadmium sulphide solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, P.J.; Verheijen, A.W.

    1984-07-31

    The invention relates to the manufacture of cadmium sulphide solar cells. A cell is formed of a glass substrate 10, a front contact 12 made, for example, of tin oxide, a cadmium sulphide layer 14 and a copper sulphide layer 16, the junction between the layers 14 and 16 is photovoltaic. In order to form a rear contact 18 on the copper sulphide layer, the invention proposes vapor depositing a mixed layer of copper and copper oxide onto the sulphide layer. The invention also describes a method of heat treatment following the formation of the rear contact in order to optimise the electrical performance of the cell.

  8. Orogenic-type copper-gold-arsenic-(bismuth) mineralization at Flatschach (Eastern Alps), Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Johann G.; Leitner, Thomas; Paar, Werner H.

    2015-10-01

    Structurally controlled Cu-Au mineralization in the historic Flatschach mining district (Styria, Austria) occurs in a NE-SW to NNE-WSW oriented vein system as multiple steep-dipping calcite-(dolomite)-quartz veins in amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks (banded gneisses/amphibolites, orthogneisses, metagranitoids) of the poly-metamorphosed Austroalpine Silvretta-Seckau nappe. Vein formation postdated ductile deformation events and Eoalpine (Late Cretaceous) peak metamorphism but predated Early to Middle Miocene sediment deposition in the Fohnsdorf pull-apart basin; coal-bearing sediments cover the metamorphic basement plus the mineralized veins at the northern edge of the basin. Three gold-bearing ore stages consist of a stage 1 primary hydrothermal (mesothermal?) ore assemblage dominated by chalcopyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite. Associated minor minerals include alloclasite, enargite, bornite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth and matildite. Gold in this stage is spatially associated with chalcopyrite occurring as inclusions, along re-healed micro-fractures or along grain boundaries of chalcopyrite with pyrite or arsenopyrite. Sericite-carbonate alteration is developed around the veins. Stage 2 ore minerals formed by the replacement of stage 1 sulfides and include digenite, anilite, "blue-remaining covellite" (spionkopite, yarrowite), bismuth, and the rare copper arsenides domeykite and koutekite. Gold in stage 2 is angular to rounded in shape and occurs primarily in the carbonate (calcite, Fe-dolomite) gangue and less commonly together with digenite, domeykite/koutekite and bismuth. Stage 3 is a strongly oxidized assemblage that includes hematite, cuprite, and various secondary Cu- and Fe-hydroxides and -carbonates. It formed during supergene weathering. Stage 1 and 2 gold consists mostly of electrum (gold fineness 640-860; mean = 725; n = 46), and rare near pure gold (fineness 930-940; n = 6). Gold in stage 3 is Ag-rich electrum (fineness 350-490, n = 12), and has a

  9. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the equine liver and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of specific elements in the equine liver and kidneys are of practical relevance since horses are not only food-producing animals, but also partially serve as an indicator for the environmental pollution, as the basic feed includes plants like grass, grain and fruits. In this study, the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) were measured in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla of 21 horses (8 male; 13 female; aged between 5 months-28 years), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparable Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in the liver and renal cortex, while approximately 50% lower concentrations were measured in the renal medulla. The lowest Sr, Cd and Se, but the highest Mn, Sb and Pb concentrations were measured in the liver. The Ba concentrations were comparable in the renal cortex and medulla, but lower in the liver of the horses. Gender-related differences were observed for Cd, Mn and Cr, with higher Cd concentrations in the liver, but lower Mn concentrations in the renal cortex and lower Cr concentrations in the renal medulla of female horses. Age-related differences were detected for most measured elements, however, the animal number per age-group was only low. In conclusion, the present study provides important reference data for the storage of Sr, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Sb, Se and Pb in the liver and kidneys of horses, which are of practical relevance for an evaluation of the exposure of horses to these elements, either via feed or the environment.

  10. Biosorption of lead(II), cadmium(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) by anaerobic granular biomass.

    PubMed

    Hawari, Alaa H; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2006-03-01

    Biosorption is potentially an attractive technology for treatment of wastewater for retaining heavy metals from dilute solutions. This study investigated the feasibility of anaerobic granules as a novel type of biosorbent, for lead, copper, cadmium, and nickel removal from aqueous solutions. Anaerobic sludge supplied from a wastewater treatment plant in the province of Quebec was used. Anaerobic granules are microbial aggregates with a strong, compact and porous structure and excellent settling ability. After treatment of the biomass with Ca ions, the cation exchange capacity of the biomass was approximately 111 meq/100 g of biomass dry weight which is comparable to the metal binding capacities of commercial ion exchange resins. This work investigated the equilibrium, batch dynamics for the biosorption process. Binding capacity experiments using viable biomass revealed a higher value than those for nonviable biomass. Binding capacity experiments using non-viable biomass treated with Ca revealed a high value of metals uptake. The solution initial pH value affected metal sorption. Over the pH range of 4.0-5.5, pH-related effects were not significant. Meanwhile, at lower pH values the uptake capacity decreased. Time dependency experiments for the metal ions uptake showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached almost 30 min after metal addition. It was found that the q(max) for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ ions, were 255, 60, 55, and 26 mg/g respectively (1.23, 0.53, 0.87, and 0.44 mmol/g respectively). The data pertaining to the sorption dependence upon metal ion concentration could be fitted to a Langmiur isotherm model. Based on the results, the anaerobic granules treated with Ca appear to be a promising biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater due to its optimal uptake of heavy metals, its particulate shape, compact porous structure, excellent settling ability, and its high mechanical strength.

  11. Effects of organic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of cadmium and copper in spiked formulated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the partitioning and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) spiked into formulated sediments containing two types of organic matter (OM), i.e., cellulose and humus. Amendments of cellulose up to 12.5% total organic carbon (TOC) did not affect partitioning of Cd or Cu between sediment and pore water and did not significantly affect the toxicity of spiked sediments in acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. In contrast, amendments of natural humus shifted the partitioning of both Cd and Cu toward greater concentrations in sediment and lesser concentrations in pore water and significantly reduced toxic effects of both metals. Thresholds for toxicity, based on measured metal concentrations in whole sediment, were greater for both Cd and Cu in sediments amended with a low level of humus (2.9% TOC) than in sediments without added OM. Amendments with a high level of humus (8.9% TOC) eliminated toxicity at the highest spike concentrations of both metals (sediment concentrations of 12.4 ??g Cd/g and 493 ??g Cu/g). Concentrations of Cd in pore water associated with acute toxicity were similar between sediments with and without humus amendments, suggesting that toxicity of Cd was reduced primarily by sorption to sediment OM. However, toxic effects of Cu in humus treatments were associated with greater pore-water concentrations than in controls, suggesting that toxicity of Cu was reduced both by sorption and by complexation with soluble ligands. Both sorption and complexation by OM tend to make proposed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on total metal concentrations more protective for high-OM sediments. Our results suggest that the predictive ability of SQGs could be improved by models of metal interactions with natural OM in sediment and pore water.

  12. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in cultured oysters under two contrasting climatic conditions in coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba

    2011-09-01

    In order to determine the metal concentrations in cultured oysters from four coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, several individuals of Crassostrea gigas and C. corteziensis were collected and their cadmium, copper, lead and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentration of metals in oyster soft tissue was Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. In two lagoons, Cd concentrations (10.1-13.5 μg g(-1) dw) exceeded the maximum level allowed according to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM-031-SSA1-1993), which is equivalent to the WHO recommended Cd levels in organisms used for human consumption.

  13. [Intake of trace elements and heavy metals with the diet of 2-14 years old children. Zinc, manganese, copper, fluoride, iodine, selen; lead, cadmium, mercury (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stolley, H; Kersting, M; Droese, W

    1981-04-01

    For 2-14 year old children the intake of the trace elements zinc, manganese, copper, fluoride, iodine, selen, and of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium and mercury is calculated from their food intake. The results give a representative statement of the average supply of trace elements and of the average intake of heavy metals with the diet of children in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is shown that the choice of foodstuffs for the diet has an important influence on the supply of trace elements.

  14. Effect of short term oral cadmium exposure in rats fed low zinc and low copper diets

    SciTech Connect

    Panemangalore, M.; Lee, C.J.; Wilson, K.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of 0, 0.15 and 5.0 ppm Cd in drinking water was determined in 10 week old F-344 rats fed either control - C (30 ppm Zn + 5 ppm Cu), low Zn - LZn (5 ppm Zn), low copper - LCu (0.5 ppm Cu) and low Zn + low Cu - LZn + LCu (5 ppm Zn + 0.5 ppm Cu) diets for 8 weeks. All groups gained about 9 g/wk and neither the decrease in dietary Zn and Cu levels or Cd exposure altered wt gain or food intake (14 g/day). Liver Zn levels averaged about 19 mg/g in all groups and were unaffected by either diet or Cd exposure; but metallothionein (MT) concentration increased from 19..mu..g/g to 40 ..mu..g/g in groups exposed to 5.0 ppm Cd and was lower in rats given LZn and LZn + LCu diet (pless than or equal to0.05). In contrast, kidney Zn levels declined in groups fed LZn + LCu diets, but exposure to Cd maintained Zn levels. Kidney MT concentration fell in response to LZn, LCu and LZn + LCu diets, while exposure to 5.0 ppm Cd elevated MT concentration almost 3 fold, however, LZn and LCu diets decreased the extent of MT induction (pless than or equal to0.05). Kidney Zn levels appear to be more susceptible to modulation by dietary Zn and Cu levels, and oral Cd exposure.

  15. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere.

  16. Effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene, arsenic, cadmium, and lead on oxidative stress and toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Sasikumar; Peng, Cheng; Ng, Jack C

    2016-12-01

    Mixed contamination of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) is a major environmental and human health concern. The mixture toxicity data on these co-contaminants are important for their risk assessment. In this study, we have determined the mixture toxicity of As, Cd and Pb, and B[a]P with As, Cd or Pb in HepG2 cells. The binary mixtures of Cd + As, Cd + Pb and As + Pb and B[a]P + metals (B[a]P + As, B[a]P + Cd and B[a]P + Pb) were evaluated for their interaction on the cytotoxicity using the MTS assay. A full factorial design (4 × 5) was used to determine the interaction toxicity and all the six mixtures showed significant interaction on the cytotoxicity. We further investigated the role of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and antioxidant defense mechanism (total glutathione (GSH) level) with the observed cytotoxicity. The mixtures of metals reduced the total GSH level and increased the ROS generation, respectively. In the case of mixtures of B[a]P and metals, both total GSH level and ROS generation were increased. Overall, the binary mixtures of metals and B[a]P with metals caused a dose dependent toxicity to HepG2 cells. The results also showed a significant contribution of oxidative stress to the observed toxicity and the potential protective role of the total GSH level against this mixture toxicity. The findings of interaction between B[a]P and metals might have an impact on the potential human health risk of this mixtures at contaminated sites.

  17. The availabilities of arsenic and cadmium in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The role of soil extractable and plant silicon.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Ding, Xiaodong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Shirong; Yi, Jicai; Liu, Chuanping; Xu, Xianghua; Wang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Adequate silicon (Si) can greatly boost rice yield and improve grain quality through alleviating stresses associated with heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). The soil plant-available Si is relatively low in South China due to severe desilicification and allitization of the soils in this region. Conversely, pollution of heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of this region occurs widely, especially As and Cd pollution in paddy soil. Therefore, evaluating the plant availability of Si in paddy soil of South China and examining its correlation with the availability of heavy metals and metalloids are of great significance. Accordingly, in our study, 107 pairs of soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields contaminated by As and Cd in South China. Significantly positive correlations between Si in rice plants and Si fractions in soils extracted with citric acid, NaOAc-HOAc buffer, and oxalate-ammonium oxalate buffer suggest that these extractants are more suitable for use in extracting plant-available Si in the soils of our present study. Significantly negative correlations between different Si fractions and As or Cd in rice plant tissues and negative exponential correlations between the molar ratios of Si to As/Cd in rice roots, straws, husks or grains and As/Cd in rice grains indicate that Si can significantly alleviate the accumulation of As/Cd from soils to the rice plants. Finally, a contribution assessment of soil properties to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains based on random forest showed that in addition to Si concentrations in soil or rice plants, other factors such as Fe fractions and total phosphorus also contributed largely to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains. Overall, Si exhibited its unique role in mitigating As or Cd stress in rice, and our study results provide strong field evidence for this role.

  18. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  19. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  20. Prediction of cadmium concentration in selected home-produced vegetables.

    PubMed

    Bešter, Petra Karo; Lobnik, Franc; Eržen, Ivan; Kastelec, Damijana; Zupan, Marko

    2013-10-01

    Soil contaminated with cadmium presents a potential hazard for humans, animals and plants. The latter play a major role in the transfer of cadmium to the food chain. The uptake of cadmium and its accumulation by plants is dependent on various soil, plants and environmental factors. In order to identify soil properties with statistically significant influence on cadmium concentration in vegetables and to reduce the collection of data, time and costs, regression models can be applied. The main objective of this research was to develop regression models to predict the concentration of cadmium in 9-vegetable species: zucchini, tomato, cabbage, onion, potato, carrot, red beet, endive and chicory, based on soil properties. Soil samples were collected from 123 home gardens of the Municipality of Celje and 59 of these gardens were also included in vegetable sampling. The concentration of elements (e.g. arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) in the samples was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Single (for cabbage, potato, red beet and chicory) and multiple (for tomato, onion, carrot and endive) linear regression models were developed. There was no statistically significant regression model for zucchini. The most significant parameter for the influencing the cadmium concentration in vegetables was the concentration of cadmium in soil. Other important soil properties were the content of organic matter, pH-value and the concentration of manganese. It was concluded that consuming carrots, red beets, endives, onions, potatoes and chicory which are grown in gardens with Cd concentrations (mgkg(-1) DW) above 2.4, 3.2, 6.3, 7.9, 8.3 and 10.9, respectively, might represent an important contribution to dietary Cd exposure.

  1. Arsenic and chromium partitioning in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter; Hopp, Luisa; Nico, Peter S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Peiffer, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    This research combined the use of selective extractions and x-ray spectroscopy to examine the fate of As and Cr in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Iron was enriched in the upper 30 cm due to a previous one-time treatment of the soil with Fe(II). High oxalate-soluble Al concentrations in the Bs horizon of the soil and micro-XRD data indicated the presence of short-range ordered aluminosilicates (i.e. proto-imogolite allophane, PIA). In the surface layers, Cr, as Cr(III), was partitioned between a mixed Fe(III)/Cr(III) solid phase that formed upon the Fe(II) application (25-50%) and a recalcitrant phase (50-75%) likely consisting of organic material such as residual CCA-treated wood. Deeper in the profile Cr appeared to be largely in the form of extractable (hydr)oxides. Throughout the soil, As was present as As(V). In the surface layers a considerable fraction of As was also associated with a recalcitrant phase, probably CCA-treated woody debris, and the remainder was associated with (hydr)oxide-like solid phases. In the Bs horizon, however, XAS and XRF findings strongly pointed to the presence of PIA acting as an effective adsorbent for As. This research shows for the first time the relevance of PIA for the adsorption of As in natural soils.

  2. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szedon, J. R.; Biter, W. J.; Dickey, H. C.

    1982-03-08

    The most important accomplishments during this period were to demonstrate and to elucidate further the complex effects that occur during the aging of Cu/sub 2/S/CdS thin-film solar cells in flowing wet oxygen. There are two distinct effects. At constant illumination, the short-circuit current of cells aged at room temperature consistently decreases with time. The second effect, related to diode opposing current, is more involved and may result from several competing mechanisms. Over the short term (approx. 4 to 5 hours), the magnitude of diode opposing current decreases. After approx. 20 hours of aging, opposing current generally returns to the level achieved after hydrogen annealing which immediately preceded the aging sequence. Optical measurements of the spectral transmission of the Cu/sub 2/S layers in a cell content have been made using a silicon detector epoxied to the back of a CdS cell after the copper foil substrate was removed. There is no significant change in Cu/sub 2/S transmission behavior for wavelengths ranging from 525 to 1000 nm during wet-oxygen aging for periods of 2 to 36 hours. This suggests that the decrease in J/sub SC/ at constant illumination, for the aging experiments in a flowing wet-oxygen ambient, arises because of changes in minority-carrier transport properties of the Cu/sub 2/S. Before developing a method for using an epoxied silicon detector to measure optical behavior of the Cu/sub 2/S layer, we explored the possibility of using a junction-containing wafer of silicon as a substrate for deposited CdS films. Some monolithic structures were successfully fabricated. Comparisons were made of CdS grain structure details in the junction detector area and in an adjacent metallized area.

  3. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szedon, J.R.; Biter, W.J.; Abel, J.A.; Dickey, H.C.; Shirland, F.A.

    1981-02-27

    The purpose of this work has been to identify aspects of cell fabrication and treatment which are critical for achieving high efficiency Cu/sub 2/S/CdS solar cells. In approaching the problem several comparisons were made of the effects of specific steps in two methods of cell fabrication. These methods had previously given cells of about 6% and a maximum of 9% efficiency. Three areas requiring special attention and specific means to achieve acceptable results were identified. (1) The Cu/sub 2/S/CdS heterojunction area must be minimized. If single source evaporations of CdS are made on substrates whose temperatures (approx. 220/sup 0/C) are monitored and controlled using welded thermocouples, the CdS films will have adequately large grains (grain diameter greater than or equal to 2 ..mu..m) and will not develop significant etch pits during texturing in a mild etchant solution. (2) The termination of the wet barrier processing steps must be done carefully. An acceptable termination involves minimizing the amount of cuprous chloride retained on the cell surface during transfer to a rinsing stage while providing adequate exclusion of air from the space above the surface of the cuprous chloride solution. (3) Once formed, the Cu/sub 2/S layer should not be exposed to high temperatures (>100/sup 0/C) for long periods of time (> 5 min) if surface adsorbed moisture or oxygen are present. Heat treatments in ampoules under flowing hydrogen atmospheres should be preceded and followed by periods of at least 30 minutes at room temperature in the reducing ambient. If all these precautions are taken, wet chemical barrier processing of thermally evaporated CdS films on zinc-plated copper foil substrates yields cells of nearly 8% conversion efficiency without AR coating.

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum L67 glycoprotein protects against cadmium chloride toxicity in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Sooyeon; Oh, Sejong; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-03-01

    The food and water we consume may be contaminated with a range of chemicals and heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, and mercury by accumulation through the food chain. Cadmium is known to be one of the major components in cigarette smoke and can cause lesions in many organs. Some lactobacilli can bind and remove heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and copper. However, the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity and inhibition by probiotics are not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that glycoprotein (18 kDa) isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum L67 protected RAW 264.7 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (100 µM). Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of cadmium using the MTT assay and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, and assessed activities of activator protein kinase C (PKC-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, activator protein (AP)-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases using immunoblot. Our results indicated that glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. It also significantly suppressed inflammatory factors such as AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Our findings suggest that the 24-kDa glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 might be used as a food component for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion.

  5. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

  6. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  7. Flotation-separation and ICP-AES determination of ultra trace amounts of copper, cadmium, nickel and cobalt using 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Omid Reza; Safavi, Afsaneh

    2005-09-01

    A rapid flotation method for separation and enrichment of ultra trace amounts of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions from water samples is established. At pH 6.5 and with sodium dodecylsulfate used as a foaming reagent, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ were separated simultaneously with 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid (ACDA) added to 1 l of aqueous solution. The proposed procedure of preconcentration is applied prior to the determination of these four analytes using inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The effects of pH, concentration of ACDA, applicability of different surfactants and foreign ions on the separation efficiency were investigated. The preconcentration factor of the method is 1000 and the detection limits of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions are 0.078, 0.075, 0.072 and 0.080 ng ml(-1), respectively.

  8. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R; Glaholt, Stephen P; Colbourne, John K; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2013-10-15

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1-mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species.

  9. Kinetic and equilibrium studies for the adsorption process of cadmium(II) and copper(II) onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry method.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Tang, Biyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Zeng, Xiandong; Duan, Haiyan; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Wanzhi

    2009-08-15

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium(II) and copper(II) during the adsorption process onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed. The concentration of the free metal ions was successfully detected by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on the mercaptoethane sulfonate (MES) modified gold electrode, while the P. aeruginosa was efficiently avoided approaching to the electrode surface by the MES monolayer. And the anodic stripping peaks of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) appear at -0.13 and 0.34V respectively, at the concentration range of 5-50 microM, the peak currents of SWASV present linear relationships with the concentrations of cadmium and copper respectively. As the determination of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) was in real time and without pretreatment, the kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process were studied and all the corresponding regression parameters were obtained by fitting the electrochemical experimental data to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the biosorption isotherms. And there were some differences in the amount of metal ion adsorbed at equilibrium (q(e)) and other kinetics parameters when the two ions coexisted were compared with the unaccompanied condition, which were also discussed in this paper. The proposed electrode system provides excellent platform for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in complex biosorption process.

  10. Influence of a mine tailing accident near Doñana National Park (Spain) on heavy metals and arsenic accumulation in 14 species of waterfowl (1998 to 2000).

    PubMed

    Gómez, G; Baos, R; Gómara, B; Jiménez, B; Benito, V; Montoro, R; Hiraldo, F; González, M J

    2004-11-01

    This article presents the impact on waterbirds in Doñana National Park (Spain) of an accidental release of 5 million m3 acid waste produced by the processing of pyrite ore. Heavy metals (zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead) and arsenic were measured in several soft tissues (liver, kidney, and muscle) taken from 14 waterfowl species collected between April 1998 and May 2000. The main source of copper and zinc found in the waterfowl species examined was the spill waste, whereas cadmium, lead, and arsenic could also came from other sources. Kidney was the primary organ for cadmium and lead accumulation, whereas liver accumulated the most zinc and copper. Arsenic was concentrated in both muscle and liver tissue. The degree of contamination of the area where the birds lived, their age, their sex their size, and the time since the spill were found to have less influence than species and trophic level on the accumulation of metal in organs and tissues. Four species (Anser anser, Ciconia ciconia, Larus ridibundus, and Porphyrio porphyrio) were found to have the highest levels of the 5 elements.

  11. Case studies--arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chou, C H Selene J; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2003-08-01

    Arsenic is found naturally in the environment. People may be exposed to arsenic by eating food, drinking water, breathing air, or by skin contact with soil or water that contains arsenic. In the U.S., the diet is a predominant source of exposure for the general population with smaller amounts coming from drinking water and air. Children may also be exposed to arsenic because of hand to mouth contact or eating dirt. In addition to the normal levels of arsenic in air, water, soil, and food, people could by exposed to higher levels in several ways such as in areas containing unusually high natural levels of arsenic in rocks which can lead to unusually high levels of arsenic in soil or water. People living in an area like this could take in elevated amounts of arsenic in drinking water. Workers in an occupation that involves arsenic production or use (for example, copper or lead smelting, wood treatment, pesticide application) could be exposed to elevated levels of arsenic at work. People who saw or sand arsenic-treated wood could inhale/ingest some of the sawdust which contains high levels of arsenic. Similarly, when pressure-treated wood is burned, high levels of arsenic could be released in the smoke. In agricultural areas where arsenic pesticides were used on crops the soil could contain high levels of arsenic. Some hazardous waste sites contain large quantities of arsenic. Arsenic ranks #1 on the ATSDR/EPA priority list of hazardous substances. Arsenic has been found in at least 1,014 current or former NPL sites. At the hazardous waster sites evaluated by ATSDR, exposure to arsenic in soil predominated over exposure to water, and no exposure to air had been recorded. However, there is no information on morbidity or mortality from exposure to arsenic in soil at hazardous waste sites. Exposure assessment, community and tribal involvement, and evaluation and surveillance of health effects are among the ATSDR future Superfund research program priority focus areas

  12. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men.

    PubMed Central

    Telisman, S; Cvitković, P; Jurasović, J; Pizent, A; Gavella, M; Rocić, B

    2000-01-01

    Blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to Pb and 51 reference subjects. All of the subjects lived in Zagreb, Croatia. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of BPb, ALAD, and/or EP with reproductive parameters indicated a Pb-related decrease in sperm density, in counts of total, motile, and viable sperm, in the percentage and count of progressively motile sperm, in parameters of prostate secretory function (SfZn, acid phosphatase, and citric acid in seminal fluid), and an increase in abnormal sperm head morphology, serum testosterone, and estradiol. These associations were confirmed by results of multiple regression, which also showed significant (p < 0. 05) influence of BCd, SZn, SCu, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, or age on certain reproductive parameters. These effects were mainly of lower rank and intensity as compared to Pb-related reproductive effects, whereas BCd contributed to a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology and serum testosterone. No significant Pb- or Cd-related influence was found on levels of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C(4) and fructose in seminal fluid or on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in serum. The seminal fluid concentrations of Pb (SfPb) and Cd (SfCd) were measured in 118 of the 149 subjects, and a highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlation was found between BPb and SfPb levels (r = 0.571) and between BCd and SfCd levels (r = 0.490). The overall study results indicate that even moderate exposures to Pb (BPb < 400 microg/L) and Cd (BCd < 10 microg/L) can significantly reduce human

  13. Maternal and neonatal scalp hair concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead: relationship to some lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Razagui, Ibrahim B-A; Ghribi, Ibrahim

    2005-07-01

    Postpartum scalp hair samples from 82 term-pregnancy mother/ neonate pairs were analyzed for their concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations had geometric means (and 99% confidence intervals) of 122.5 microg/g (117.9--131.5 microg/g) and 146.9 microg (141.5--156.7 microg/g) respectively. Corresponding Cu values were 18.4 microg/g (17.6--23.8 microg/g) and 6.7 microg/g (6.3--7.6 microg/g). Those of Cd were 0.49 microg/g (0.47--0.69 microg/g) in the mothers and 0.57 microg/g (0.55--0.86 microg/g) in the neonates. For Pb, they were 7.95 microg/g (7.60--9.32 microg/g) and 4.56 microg/g (4.39--5.56 microg/g). Cigarette smoking, despite its relatively low prevalence (19.5%), was associated with lower Zn and higher Cd and Pb concentrations and in lower Zn/Cd and Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios. Smoking also altered interelemental relationships, particularly those of Zn with Cd and Pb and those between Cd and Pb. Smoking frequency appeared to show negative dose-response effects on maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations, Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios, and birth weight. Mothers with a history of oral contraceptive (OC) usage had significantly higher Cu concentrations and lower Zn/Cu molar concentration ratios than non users, with the highest Cu concentrations and lowest Zn/Cu values being associated with third-generation OCs. No similar effects were elicited in the respective neonatal Cu concentrations. Neither alcohol consumption nor prenatal supplementation with iron and/or folic acid had discernible effects on the maternal or neonatal elemental concentrations. The data from this study suggest that in a given population of term-pregnancy mothers and neonates, significant interindividual variations in hair trace element concentrations can occur, irrespective of commonality of general environment, and that lifestyle factors, including cigarette

  14. Role of the copper-oxygen defect in cadmium telluride solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwine, Caroline R.

    Thin-film CdTe is one of the leading materials used in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. One way to improve device performance and stability is through understanding how various device processing steps alter defect states in the CdTe layer. Photoluminescence (PL) studies can be used to examine radiative defects in materials. This study uses low-temperature PL to probe the defects present in thin-film CdTe deposited for solar cells. One key defect seen in the thin-film CdTe was reproduced in single-crystal (sX) CdTe by systematic incorporation of known impurities in the thin-film growth process, hence demonstrating that both copper and oxygen were necessary for its formation. Polycrystalline (pX) thin-film glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe structures were examined. The CdTe layer was grown via close-spaced sublimation (CSS), vapor transport deposition (VTD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD). After CdTe deposition, followed by a standard CdC12 treatment and a ZnTe:Cu back contact, a PL peak was seen at ˜1.46 eV from the free back surface of all samples (1.456 eV for CSS and PVD, 1.460-1.463 eV for VTD). However, before the Cu-containing contact was added, this peak was not seen from the front of the CdTe (the CdS/CdTe junction region) in any device with CdTe thickness greater than 4 mum. The CdCl2 treatment commonly used to increase CdTe grain size did not enhance or reduce the peak at ˜1.46 eV relative to the rest of the PL spectrum. When the Cu-containing contact was applied, the PL spectra from both the front and back of the CdTe exhibited the peak at 1.456 eV. The PL peak at ˜1.46 eV was present in thin-film CdTe after deposition, when the dominant impurities are expected to be both Cu from the CdTe source material and O introduced in the chamber during growth to assist in CdTe film density. Since Cu and/or O appeared to be involved in this defect, PL studies were done with sX CdTe to distinguish between the separate effects of Cu or O and the combined effect of Cu and O

  15. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  16. Net Fluxes of Dissolved Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Nitrogen and Phosphorus from the Gironde Estuary (France): Seasonal Variations and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Boutier, B.; Chiffoleau, J.-F.

    2000-10-01

    The Gironde Estuary (south-western France), because of high contamination with metals and the proximity of large oyster-farming areas, has been a reference study site for 20 years. Research performed to date suggests a trend toward decontamination of the estuary, but a lack of information on seasonal variations has made difficult the evaluation of interannual changes. This study, which examines data obtained during five cruises over a 1-year period, takes into account various seasonal and hydrodynamic conditions. The fluctuations in dissolved net fluxes at the outlet of the upper estuary and the As, Cd, Cu, Zn, N and P concentrations are related to the season (January, February, May and October) or freshwater flow (400 to 1600 m 3 s -1). Large seasonal variations are observed for As, Cu, N and P, and fluxes differ 3- to 4-fold according to the sampling month. Seasonal variations in net Cd and Zn fluxes are slight and relatively insignificant according to the confidence interval. For the other elements studied, the relationship with the river flow accounts for most of the seasonal variations. In the long-term, an increase in fluxes is found for nutrients, despite large seasonal differences. For Cd, the trend toward long-term decontamination is more clearly established, confirming the data of the French Mussel Watch, whereas the amplitude of seasonal variations masks any long-term trend for Cu. This study makes clear that when estuaries are subjected to marked fluctuations in freshwater flows and climatic conditions, an analysis of the concentrations or instantaneous fluxes of the various elements must be interpreted only as a part of the annual geochemical cycle.

  17. Novel erm(T)-Carrying Multiresistance Plasmids from Porcine and Human Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 That Also Harbor Cadmium and Copper Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T.; Zarazaga, Myriam; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination. PMID:23629701

  18. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  19. Novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids from porcine and human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination.

  20. Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Affum, Andrews Obeng; Osae, Shiloh Dede; Nyarko, Benjamin Jabez Botwe; Afful, Samuel; Fianko, Joseph Richmond; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Adomako, Dickson; Acquaah, Samuel Osafo; Dorleku, Micheal; Antoh, Emmanuel; Barnes, Felix; Affum, Enoch Acheampong

    2015-02-01

    In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+) and Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3

  1. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  2. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  3. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article

  4. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Simultaneous Detection of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead using A Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Carbamoylphosphonic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana ); Lin, Yuehe ); Fryxell, Glen E. ); Busche, Brad J. )

    2004-01-30

    A new sensor was developed for simultaneous detection of cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), and lead (Pb2+), based on the voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with carbamoylphosphonic acid (acetamide phosphonic acid) self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS). The adsorptive stripping voltammetry technique involves preconcentration of the metal ions onto Ac-Phos SAMMS under an open circuit, then electrolysis of the preconcentrated species, followed by a square wave potential sweep towards positive values. Factors affecting the preconcentration process were investigated. The voltammetric responses increased linearly with the preconcentration time from 1 to 30 minutes or with metal ion concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ppb. The responses also evolved in the same fashion as adsorption isotherm in the pH range of 2-6. The metal detection limits were 10 ppb after 2 minutes preconcentration and improved to 0.5 ppb after 20 minutes preconcentration.

  6. Expression of a Vacuole-Localized BURP-Domain Protein from Soybean (SALI3-2) Enhances Tolerance to Cadmium and Copper Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Qiu, Jianbin; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Zheng, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+) but not hard metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu2+ or Cd2+ stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd2+) and copper (Cu2+) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd2+ or Cu2+ in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

  7. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2009-05-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles.

  8. Comparative Genomics Analysis of a New Exiguobacterium Strain from Salar de Huasco Reveals a Repertoire of Stress-Related Genes and Arsenic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Severyn, Juan; Remonsellez, Francisco; Valenzuela, Sandro L.; Salinas, Cesar; Fortt, Jonathan; Aguilar, Pablo; Pardo-Esté, Coral; Dorador, Cristina; Quatrini, Raquel; Molina, Franck; Aguayo, Daniel; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Saavedra, Claudia P.

    2017-01-01

    The Atacama Desert hosts diverse ecosystems including salt flats and shallow Andean lakes. Several heavy metals are found in the Atacama Desert, and microorganisms growing in this environment show varying levels of resistance/tolerance to copper, tellurium, and arsenic, among others. Herein, we report the genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of a new Exiguobacterium strain, sp. SH31, isolated from an altiplanic shallow athalassohaline lake. Exiguobacterium sp. SH31 belongs to the phylogenetic Group II and its closest relative is Exiguobacterium sp. S17, isolated from the Argentinian Altiplano (95% average nucleotide identity). Strain SH31 encodes a wide repertoire of proteins required for cadmium, copper, mercury, tellurium, chromium, and arsenic resistance. Of the 34 Exiguobacterium genomes that were inspected, only isolates SH31 and S17 encode the arsenic efflux pump Acr3. Strain SH31 was able to grow in up to 10 mM arsenite and 100 mM arsenate, indicating that it is arsenic resistant. Further, expression of the ars operon and acr3 was strongly induced in response to both toxics, suggesting that the arsenic efflux pump Acr3 mediates arsenic resistance in Exiguobacterium sp. SH31. PMID:28377753

  9. Comparative Genomics Analysis of a New Exiguobacterium Strain from Salar de Huasco Reveals a Repertoire of Stress-Related Genes and Arsenic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Castro-Severyn, Juan; Remonsellez, Francisco; Valenzuela, Sandro L; Salinas, Cesar; Fortt, Jonathan; Aguilar, Pablo; Pardo-Esté, Coral; Dorador, Cristina; Quatrini, Raquel; Molina, Franck; Aguayo, Daniel; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Saavedra, Claudia P

    2017-01-01

    The Atacama Desert hosts diverse ecosystems including salt flats and shallow Andean lakes. Several heavy metals are found in the Atacama Desert, and microorganisms growing in this environment show varying levels of resistance/tolerance to copper, tellurium, and arsenic, among others. Herein, we report the genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of a new Exiguobacterium strain, sp. SH31, isolated from an altiplanic shallow athalassohaline lake. Exiguobacterium sp. SH31 belongs to the phylogenetic Group II and its closest relative is Exiguobacterium sp. S17, isolated from the Argentinian Altiplano (95% average nucleotide identity). Strain SH31 encodes a wide repertoire of proteins required for cadmium, copper, mercury, tellurium, chromium, and arsenic resistance. Of the 34 Exiguobacterium genomes that were inspected, only isolates SH31 and S17 encode the arsenic efflux pump Acr3. Strain SH31 was able to grow in up to 10 mM arsenite and 100 mM arsenate, indicating that it is arsenic resistant. Further, expression of the ars operon and acr3 was strongly induced in response to both toxics, suggesting that the arsenic efflux pump Acr3 mediates arsenic resistance in Exiguobacterium sp. SH31.

  10. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future.

  11. Infrared cadmium selenide photoconductor and process of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, S.

    1987-02-17

    The process is described of making an infrared responsive cadmium selenide photoconductor comprising the steps of preparing a blend of cadmium selenide, copper-containing cadmium selenide mix and cadmium chloride, and firing the blend at a temperature of about 425/sup 0/C.

  12. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  13. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

  14. Reduced cadmium body burden in cadmium-exposed calves fed supplemental zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Lamphere, D.N.; Dorn, C.R.; Reddy, C.S.; Meyer, A.W.

    1984-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of practical supplemental dietary zinc to modify the cadmium content in edible bovine tissues and to identify copper interactions with cadmium and zinc. The effect of supplemental zinc (200 or 600 ..mu..g/g) on the concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and copper in liver, kidney cortex, muscle, and blood of calves fed 50 ..mu..g/g cadmium for 60 days was evaluated. Blood samples were collected before and eight times after starting to feed cadmium or cadmium plus zinc. Liver, kidney, and muscle samples were collected when calves were slaughtered (baseline, at beginning of experimental feeding; cadmium-fed, at end of 60 days feeding). The cadmium concentrations of all sample types collected were markedly increased by the feeding of cadmium. Feeding 600 ..mu..g/g supplemental zinc significantly increased the zinc concentrations of liver, kidney cortex, and blood and decreased the cadmium accumulation in these organs as well as muscle. The copper concentrations of muscle or blood were not altered by feeding cadmium with or without zinc but those of liver and kidney cortex were significantly increased by higher dietary levels of zinc and cadmium. The potential use of dietary zinc salts in reducing cadmium body burden in food animals suspected or known to have high cadmium intakes is suggested.

  15. Arsenic, copper, and zinc contamination in soil and wheat during coal mining, with assessment of health risks for the inhabitants of Huaibei, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gao Ling; Lou, Lai Qing; Zhang, Shuai; Xia, Xue Wei; Cai, Qing Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to investigate arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contamination in agricultural soils and wheat crops at two areas in Huaibei, China. Area A is in the proximity of Shuoli coal mine. In area B, three coal mines and a coal cleaning plant were distributed. The potential health risk of As, Cu, and Zn exposure to the local inhabitants through consumption of wheat grains was also estimated. The results showed that significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn were found in soils collected from area B than in those from area A. Arsenic concentrations in wheat sampled from area A were negatively correlated with the distance from the coal mine (p<0.001). Concentrations of Cu and Zn in wheat seedlings and grains collected from area B were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in those collected from area A, with the exception of Zn in wheat seedlings. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in most wheat grain samples were above the permissible limits of Cu and Zn in edible plants set by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The hazard index of aggregate risk through consumption of wheat grains was 2.3-2.4 for rural inhabitants and 1.4-1.5 for urban inhabitants. The average intake of inorganic As for rural inhabitants in Huaibei was above 10 μg day(-1). These findings indicated that the inhabitants around the coal mine are experiencing a significant potential health risk due to the consumption of locally grown wheat.

  16. Epidemiologic study of renal function in copper smelter workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-03-01

    A medical cross-sectional examination of a copper smelter work force was undertaken after environmental contamination with lead, cadmium and arsenic had been documented. A total of 920 subjects was examined, including active smelter employees, retired workers and copper mine employees who had never worked in the smelter. Slight to moderate absorption of lead and cadmium was definitely present in the active copper smelter employees, who had significantly higher levels of Pb-B, ZPP and Cd-B than retired employees and miners. Cd-U levels were higher in retired workers, who were also older and had, as a group, longer duration of exposure in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the level considered critical for nephrotoxicity, in any of the subjects. Median Cd-B level for active workers was 2.75 ..mu..g/L. Lead absorption was characterized by a relatively small proportion (16.7%) of active employees with Pb-B levels 40 ..mu..g/dL or higher. That kidney function could be impaired by long-term exposure in the smelter was only indirectly suggested. Effects on renal function at the low levels of cadmium and lead absorption that were observed in this smelter population are minimal. 21 references, 8 figures, 21 tables.

  17. Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) coordination polymers based on 5-(Pyrazinyl) tetrazolate ligand: Structure, photoluminescence, theoretical calculations and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui-Fen; Yang, Wen-Bin; Lin, Lang; Guo, Xiang-Guang; Dui, Xue-jing; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Zhang, Cui-Juan

    2013-05-01

    Two μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged metal complexes, ([CdI(PTZ)(H₂O)]·H₂O)ₙ1 and ([Cu(PTZ)₂]·H₂O)ₙ2 (HPTZ=5-(pyrazinyl) tetrazolate), were hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analyses and spectrum techniques. In 1, cadmium ions are bridged by tridentate μ₂-κ²N2,N5:κ¹N1 chelating PTZ⁻ ligand and halide linkers into an infinite 1D chain, while in 2 copper ions are connected by tridentate μ₂-κ²N7,N12:κ¹N8 and bidentate μ₂-κ¹N1:κ¹N2 chelating-bridging PTZ⁻ ligands to form a 1D castellated chain structure. Compound 1 displays phosphorescence with a lifetime of ~7.74 ms in the visible region, and the origin of the luminescent emission is primary assigned to the combination of ligand-centered emission, metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer, which has been probed by the density of states (DOS) calculations. Magnetic measurement reveals that compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. - Graphical abstract: Two new complexes based on 5-(pyrazinyl) tertrazolate, namely ([CdI(PTZ)(H2O)]·H2O)n and ([Cu(PTZ)2]·H2O)n have been synthesized and characterized. Compound 1 exhibits interesting green luminescence. Compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. Highlights: • We report two novel 1D μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged Cd(II) and Cu(II) compounds. • The cadmium(II) compound exhibits a green luminescence. • Theoretical calculations were conducted to elucidate the green luminescence. • The Cu(II) compound exhibits an anti-ferromagnetic ordering.

  18. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  19. Nanostructured iron(III)-copper(II) binary oxide: a novel adsorbent for enhanced arsenic removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Ren, Zongming; Zhang, Xiwang; Chen, Jing

    2013-08-01

    To obtain a highly efficient and low-cost adsorbent for arsenic removal from water, a novel nanostructured Fe-Cu binary oxide was synthesized via a facile co-precipitation method. Various techniques including BET surface area measurement, powder XRD, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the synthetic Fe-Cu binary oxide. It showed that the oxide was poorly crystalline, 2-line ferrihydrite-like and was aggregated with many nanosized particles. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, pH adsorption edge and regeneration of spent adsorbent. The results indicated that the Fe-Cu binary oxide with a Cu: Fe molar ratio of 1:2 had excellent performance in removing both As(V) and As(III) from water, and the maximal adsorption capacities for As(V) and As(III) were 82.7 and 122.3 mg/g at pH 7.0, respectively. The values are favorable, compared to those reported in the literature using other adsorbents. The coexisting sulfate and carbonate had no significant effect on arsenic removal. However, the presence of phosphate obviously inhibited the arsenic removal, especially at high concentrations. Moreover, the Fe-Cu binary oxide could be readily regenerated using NaOH solution and be repeatedly used. The Fe-Cu binary oxide could be a promising adsorbent for both As(V) and As(III) removal because of its excellent performance, facile and low-cost synthesis process, and easy regeneration.

  20. Arsenic and Chromium Concentrations in Sand and Soil Below Play Structures Constructed With Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCR) Treated Wood in San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polly, J.; Delos Santos, D.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Santo, D.; Beier, J.

    2006-12-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in the construction of outdoor play structures has been CCA-treated wood. In December 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency classified CCA as a restricted use product, for use only by certified pesticide applicators. Of the City of San Francisco's 142 play structures, 92 are constructed with CCA pressure-treated wood. Eighty-five were tested by the City of San Francisco and 34 play structures tested positive for As by wipe tests of the play structures themselves. The SF-ROCKS high school outreach program hypothesized that we would find significant levels of As and Cr, in the sand or clay below each structure due to the weathering and flaking off of the CCA-treated wood. We visited 18 of the playgrounds that showed the highest levels of As and sampled the sand and clay beneath the structures for the presence of transported As and Cr. We collected 2-3 samples from varying depth at each of the 11 playgrounds that had not yet been replaced by the City of San Francisco. Sand and clay samples were then extracted and analyzed for As and Cr totals. This study outlines the As and Cr concentrations present in the sand and clay below each CCA-treated wood play structure we visited in San Francisco.

  1. Transport and interaction of arsenic, chromium, and copper associated with CCA-treated wood in columns of sand and sand amended with peat.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ligang; Diez-Rivas, Cristina; Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong

    2010-02-01

    Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the transport and interaction of As, Cr, and Cu associated with CCA-treated wood in sand with and without peat amendment. Results showed that leaching behavior of As, Cr, and Cu in these substrates were totally different. Substrate characteristics and microorganism activity posed distinct effects on the transport and transformation of these three elements. Arsenic was rapidly leached out from the columns with or without the amendment of peat, while Cr remained in all columns during the entire experimental period (215d). Copper was leached out only in the substrate column without peat. The presence of microorganism clearly facilitated the transport of As, while it did not show obvious effects on the transport of Cr and Cu. Interactions among these three elements were observed during the processes of adsorption and transport. The adsorption of Cu on soil was enhanced with the adsorption of As, likely caused by a more negatively charged soil surface because of As adsorption. The adsorption of Cr on soil increased the adsorption of As due to the additional As binding sites induced by Cr adsorption. These results suggest that As concentrations in the soil affected by CCA-treated wood could largely exceed predictions based on soil adsorption capacity for As. The evaluation of the impact on human health associated with CCA-treated wood should take consideration of the distinct transport characteristics of three elements and their interactions in soils.

  2. Season changes of cadmium and copper levels in stem-boring larvae of Agapanthia villosoviridescens (coleoptera) on salt marshes of the Westerschelde estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminga, M.A.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Poley-Vos, C.H.; van Soelen, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of heavy metals in insects, including their developmental stages, have been widely used to monitor the penetration of these pollutants in various ecosystems. There are few reports dealing with seasonal changes in heavy metal content of insects. The seasonal pattern found in one herbivorous insect closely followed seasonal trends in metal contamination levels in the local vegetation. No data are available on season changes in insect larvae. To obtain more detailed information on seasonal changes of heavy metal levels in insects and their relation with the seasonally changing conditions in the habitat, the authors studied the time course of cadmium and copper concentrations in larvae of the longhorn beetle Agapanthia villosoviridescens. These live as stem-borers in the salt marsh halophyte Aster tripolium. The authors collected larvae from three salt marshes along the Westerschelde estuary. This estuary is severely polluted by heavy metals originating mainly from upstream sources; a large fraction of these metals is retained within the estuary. The fringing salt marsh soils, which are a sink for trace metals, show a gradient in pollution, with levels of heavy metals generally increasing in upstream direction. Salt marsh halophytes growing on these marshes show uptake of metals from the soil. Further transfers of heavy metals through the natural food chains on these salt marshes have not been investigated sofar.

  3. Potential risks of copper, zinc, and cadmium pollution due to pig manure application in a soil-rice system under intensive farming: a case study of Nanhu, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiachun; Yu, Xiulin; Zhang, Mingkui; Lu, Shenggao; Wu, Weihong; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], and cadmium [Cd]) pollution of soils from pig manures in soil-rice ( L.) systems under intensive farming was investigated, taking Nanhu, China, as the case study area. Two hundred pig manures and 154 rice straws, brown rice samples, and corresponding surface soil (0-15 cm) samples were collected in paddy fields from 150 farms in 16 major villages within the study area. The mean Cu and Zn concentrations in pig manures consistently exceeded the related standard. About 44 and 60% of soil samples exceed the Chinese Soil Cu and Cd Environmental Quality Standards, respectively. The concentration of Cu, Zn, and Cd in brown rice did not exceed the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard. There was a significant positive correlation between total Cu and Zn contents in soil and application rate of pig manures. Strong correlation was observed between the extractable Cu, Zn, and Cd in soil and the Cu, Zn, and Cd contents in the brown rice. The spatial distribution maps of Cu and Zn concentrations in brown rice, straw, and extractable soil Cu and Zn concentration also showed similar geographical trends. Further analyses on heavy metals loading flux and accumulation rates from pig manure applied suggested that Cu and Cd contents in soil currently have already exceeded the maximum permissible limit, and Zn, if still at current manure application rates, will reach the ceiling concentration limits in 9 yr. This study assists in understanding the risk of heavy metals accumulating from pig manure applications to agricultural soils.

  4. Linking Oxidative Stress and Magnitude of Compensatory Responses with Life-Stage Specific Differences in Sensitivity of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to Copper or Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Doering, Jon A; Sun, Jianxian; Beitel, Shawn C; Shekh, Kamran; Patterson, Sarah; Crawford, Sarah; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B; Hecker, Markus

    2016-09-06

    Sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) has been shown to significantly differ as a function of life-stage. This study investigated oxidative stress, metal homeostasis, and associated compensatory responses as potential mechanisms of this sensitivity pattern in three early life-stages. Sturgeon were most sensitive to Cu at 15 days post hatch (dph), which was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Genes involved with amelioration of oxidative stress were significantly less inducible at this stage than in older, less sensitive fry. At 48 dph, acute lethality of sturgeon exposed to Cd was greatest and body LPO was significantly induced by 3.5-fold at 5 μg Cd/L. Moreover, there was a small but significant increase in antioxidative responses. At 139 dph, sturgeon were most tolerant to Cu and Cd and accumulation of these metals was least. Also, expression of metallothionein (MT) and apoptotic genes were greatest while expression of metal transporters was reduced and concentration of LPO was not different from controls. Our results suggest that life-stage specific sensitivity of white sturgeon to metals is complex, encompassing differences in the ability to mount compensatory responses important for metal homeostasis and combating oxidative stress and concomitant damages.

  5. Simultaneous real-time assay of copper and cadmium ions by infrared photo diode electrode implanted in the muscle of live fish.

    PubMed

    Young Ly, Suw; Keun Kim, Jong

    2009-01-01

    The electrical circuit of an infrared photodiode electrode (IPE) was used in the simultaneous assay of copper and cadmium ions. The electrode's cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and square-wave (SW) stripping voltammetric optimum conditions were examined. Results for 0-160 mg L(-1) and 50-400 microg L(-1) SW Cu(II) Cd(II), the relative standard deviation of 0.158 Cu(II), 0.077 Cd(II) (n = 15) using 20.0 mg L(-1) have been obtained at optimum conditions. The low detection limit (S/N) was attained to be at 14.71 microg L(-1)(2.31 x 10(-7) mol L(-1)) Cu(II) and 18.42 microg L(-1)(1.63 x 10(-7) mol L(-1)) Cd(II). The handmade electrode was implanted deep in the muscle of live fish and interfaced with an electrochemical workstation. Real-time analytical application was performed on the online assay of living tissue as the specimen was moving. The methods are deemed useful in interfaced assay for physiological control, nanodiode fabrication, and in the production of laboratory on a biochip.

  6. Simultaneous determination of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry using a glassy carbon-mercury-film electrode.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcelo Firmino; Saczk, Adelir Aparecida; Okumura, Leonardo Luiz; Fernandes, Andréa Pires; De Moraes, Mercedes; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2004-09-01

    A new, versatile, and simple method for quantitative analysis of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry is described. These metals can be quantified by direct dissolution of fuel ethanol in water and subsequent voltammetric measurement after the accumulation step. A maximum limit of 20% ( v/ v) ethanol in water solution was obtained for voltammetric measurements without loss of sensitivity for metal species. Chemical and operational optimum conditions were analyzed in this study; the values obtained were pH 2.9, a 4.7-microm thickness mercury film, a 1,000-rpm rotation frequency of the working electrode, and a 600-s pre-concentration time. Voltammetric measurements were obtained using linear scan (LSV), differential pulse (DPV), and square wave (SWV) modes and detection limits were in the range 10(-9)-10(-8) mol L(-1) for these metal species. The proposed method was compared with a traditional analytical technique, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), for quantification of these metal species in commercial fuel ethanol samples.

  7. Slurry preparation by high-pressure homogenization for cadmium, copper and lead determination in cervine liver and kidney by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y; Marshall, W D; Blais, J S

    1996-04-01

    Homogenization with a flat valve homogenizer in combination with high-speed blending was evaluated for the preparation of slurries suitable for the ETAAS determination of cadmium, copper and lead concentrations in six SRMs and in frozen cervine liver and kidney. Fresh tissue (approximately 2 g) or powdered SRM (approximately 0.1 g) was dispersed, at high speed, in 20 ml of ethanol-water (1 + 9 v/v) containing 0.25% m/m tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The resulting suspension was passed through a high-pressure flat valve homogenizer. Determinations performed on the resulting homogenate, provided estimates for Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations that were within 27, 23 and 18% of the certified values, respectively, for the six SRMs. In all instances, the experimental results did not differ significantly from the certified values. For frozen tissues there was good agreement between the concentrations as determined by slurry homogenization-ETAAS and conventional digestion-ICP-MS. In addition, no significant differences were detected between the slopes of the calibration curves for external standards and standard additions to homogenized sample (SRMs or fresh tissue). Moreover, replicate determinations of analyte concentrations in slurries at various times post-preparation did not detect any segregation of the homogenates during 6 d. For these matrices at least, short-term sample storage had no discernible effect on the analyte apparent concentrations. The applicability of the process was limited only by the levels of contaminating Pb and Cu introduced into the sample by the homogenizer.

  8. Toxicity of arsenic in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning arsenic toxicity to humans. Citations examine arsenic assays, neurological effects, epidemiological studies, arsenic levels in drinking water, carcinogenesis, excretion studies, and industrial sources of arsenic poisoning. The interaction of arsenic with other heavy metals such as cadmium and lead is also discussed. In vivo and in vitro studies are described. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THIN FILM CADMIUM SULFIDE SOLAR CELLS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOLAR CELLS , *CADMIUM COMPOUNDS, FILMS, SULFIDES, VAPOR PLATING, VACUUM APPARATUS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, TITANIUM, COPPER COMPOUNDS, CHLORIDES, INDIUM, MOLYBDENUM, SILICON COMPOUNDS, MONOXIDES, SURFACE PROPERTIES, ENERGY CONVERSION.

  10. Effect of magnesium supplementation on the distribution patterns of zinc, copper, and magnesium in rabbits exposed to prolonged cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bulat, Zorica; Dukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Biljana; Bulat, Petar; Vujanović, Dragana; Buha, Aleksandra; Matović, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate whether magnesium (Mg) supplementation may prevent Cd-induced alterations in zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) status in rabbits. For this purpose, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mg were estimated in blood, urine, and organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, skeletal muscle, and bone) of rabbits given Cd (10 mg/kg b.w.) and rabbits cotreated with Mg (40 mg/kg b.w.) orally, as aqueous solutions of Cd chloride and Mg acetate every day for 4 weeks. Samples were mineralized with conc. HNO₃ and HClO₄ (4:1) and metals concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Magnesium supplementation succeeded to overcome Cd-induced disbalance of investigated bioelements. Beneficial effects of Mg were observed on Zn levels in blood and urine, on Cu levels in urine, and on Mg levels in blood. Magnesium pretreatment also managed to counteract or reduce all Cd-induced changes in levels of Cu and Mg in organs, while it did not exert this effect on Zn levels. These findings suggest that enhanced dietary Mg intake during Cd exposure can have at least partly beneficial effect on Cd-induced alterations in homeostasis of zinc, copper, and magnesium.

  11. Photocatalytic Activities of Copper Doped Cadmium Sulfide Microspheres Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray-Pyrolysis Method.

    PubMed

    Su, Jinzhan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yubin; Liu, Maochang

    2016-06-15

    Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is a superior method for preparing and synthesizing spherical particles of metal oxide or sulfide semiconductors. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) photocatalysts with different sizes and doped-CdS with different dopants and doping levels have been synthesized to study their properties of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water. The CdS photocatalysts were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence-spectrometry (XRF), UV-Vis absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study their morphological and optical properties. The sizes of the prepared CdS particles were found to be proportional to the concentration of the metal nitrates in the solution. The CdS photocatalyst with smaller size showed a better photocatalytic activity. In addition, Cu doped CdS were also deposited and their photocatalytic activities were also investigated. Decreased bandgaps of CdS synthesized with this method were found and could be due to high density surface defects originated from Cd vacancies. Incorporating the Cu elements increased the bandgap by taking the position of Cd vacancies and reducing the surface defect states. The optimal Cu-doped level was found to be 0.5 mol % toward hydrogen evolution from aqueous media in the presence of sacrificial electron donors (Na₂S and Na₂SO₃) at a pH of 13.2. This study demonstrated that ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is a feasible approach for large-scale photocatalyst synthesis and corresponding doping modification.

  12. Statistical evaluation of environmental contamination, distribution and source assessment of heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) in some lagoons and an estuary along the coastal belt of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adokoh, C K; Obodai, E A; Essumang, D K; Serfor-Armah, Y; Nyarko, B J B; Asabere-Ameyaw, A

    2011-10-01

    An environmental pollution investigation was carried out to determine the concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) (heavy metals) in the surface water and river water bed sediments of lagoons and estuaries along the coastal belt of Ghana. The study assessed the environmental pollution situation and evaluated their sources and distribution of these metals. The total concentrations of Al, As, Cd, and Hg were determined by the neutron activation analysis technique. Water and sediment samples were collected from the Benya, Fosu, and Narkwa lagoons in the Central Region and from the Pra estuary in the western part of Ghana. Some indices, such as contamination factor, pollution-load index, contamination degree, and geoaccumulation index, were used to assess eco-environmental quality of the sampling sites. The analysis indicated that the Fosu lagoon was fairly polluted with Cd. The investigation indicated a highly localized distribution pattern closely associated with the two pollution sources (garbage/solid waste dumps and industrial activities) along the coastal belt. The resulting environmental deterioration required a concerted evaluative effort by all stakeholders.

  13. Activity of the AtMRP3 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants is increased by cadmium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead but not by zinc and iron.

    PubMed

    Zientara, Katarzyna; Wawrzyńska, Anna; Lukomska, Jolanta; López-Moya, José Rafael; Liszewska, Frantz; Assunção, Ana G L; Aarts, Mark G M; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2009-02-05

    Characterization of the function, regulation and metal-specificity of metal transporters is one of the basic steps needed for the understanding of transport and accumulation of toxic metals and metalloids by plants. In this work GUS was used as a reporter for monitoring the activity of the promoter of the AtMRP3 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene encoding an ABC-transporter, expression of which is induced by heavy metals. The AtMRP3 promoter-GUS fusion expression cassette was introduced into the genome of two model plants, A. thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The promoter induces GUS activity in the roots as well as in the shoots upon metal exposure. Similar responses of the AtMRP3 promoter to the presence of the selected metals was observed in both plant species. Cadmium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead strongly activated the transcription of the reporter gene, while zinc and iron had no impact. The AtMRP3 promoter thus seems to be a useful new tool in designing plants that can be used for biomonitoring of environmental contaminations.

  14. Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, J.B.; Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

  15. Effect of age on acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in individual-metal exposures to Daphnia magna neonates.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Meyer, Joseph S

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, variability was high among replicate acute cadmium (Cd) Daphnia magna lethality tests (e.g., >10-fold range of median effect concentrations [EC50s]), less among zinc (Zn) tests, and relatively low for copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) tests. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) protocol includes starting toxicity tests with neonates less than 24 h old, the authors hypothesized that age-related differences in sensitivity to metals might occur even within that relatively narrow age range. Daphnia magna neonates were collected during 3 age windows (0-4 h, 10-14 h, and 20-24 h old) and immediately exposed to each of the 4 metals for 48 h using the standard USEPA protocol. In repeated sets of tests during different weeks, the Cd EC50 of the youngest neonates was approximately 10-fold greater than the EC50 of the oldest neonates (i.e., Cd was less toxic to the youngest neonates) and the EC50 of neonates aged 10 h to 14 h was intermediate. Age-related differences were negligible in Cu, Ni, and Zn tests. Therefore, variability in toxicity of Cd may partly be caused by temporal variability in neonate age at the start of toxicity tests. Decreasing the age range of D. magna used in toxicity tests could help to improve the accuracy and precision of toxicity models, particularly for metal mixtures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:113-119. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Huso huso) to a sub-lethal level of copper and cadmium in freshwater and brackish water environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Caspian Sea basin, sturgeons spend the larval and juvenile stages in freshwaters of rivers and then, they migrate to brackish waters of the sea where they grow and mature. With regard to the elevation of the metal concentrations in coastal waters and sediments of the Caspian Sea and its adjacent rivers, it is likely that juvenile sturgeon are exposed to sub-lethal levels of metals during seawater entry process. We compared the biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Beluga, Huso huso) exposed to a sub-lethal level of copper (Cu, 20 μg/L) and cadmium (Cd, 300 μg/L) in freshwater (FW, 0 ppt) and brackish water (BW, 11 ppt) for seven days. The results showed that the levels of plasma glucose increased significantly in BW and in all metal exposed groups. Also, plasma cortisol concentrations showed significant increases when juveniles were exposed to BW, Cu(FW/BW) and Cd(BW). The activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly in BW compared with FW. Moreover, Cu and Cd exposure enhanced the activity of SOD in BW, while SOD did not show any changes in FW. The levels of tissue and plasma proteins as well as plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and liver Catalase (CAT) activity remained constant when animals were exposed to Cu/Cd in both FW and BW environments. Our data indicate that exposure of juvenile beluga to BW stimulated the general biochemical responses of stress such as cortisol and glucose, while sub-lethal exposure to Cu and Cd caused oxidative stress in BW environment but not in FW. PMID:24499513

  17. Syntheses and structures of discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) supramolecular complexes based on 1,4-diacylthiosemicarbazone ligands.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chen; Zhang, Si-Si; Li, Zuo-Yin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Lin, Mei-Jin; Huang, Chang-Cang

    2016-02-01

    Thiosemicarbazides and their metal complexes have attracted considerable interest because of their biological activities and their flexibility, which allows the ligands to bend and rotate freely to accommodate the coordination geometries of various metal centres. Discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes have been prepared by crystallization of N-[2-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)hydrazinecarbonothioyl]propanamide (H3L) with Cu(CH3COO)2 or Cd(NO3)2 in a dimethylformamide/methanol mixed-solvent system at room temperature, affording the complexes di-μ-acetato-bis{μ4-1-[(2-oxidophenyl)carbonyl]-2-(propanamidomethanethioyl)hydrazine-1,2-diido}tetracopper(II) dimethylformamide disolvate, [Cu4(C11H10N3O3S)2(C2H3O2)2]·2C3H7NO, (I), and bis{μ2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)formamido](propanamidomethanethioyl)azanido}bis[(4,4'-bipyridine)nitratocadmium(II)] dihydrate, [Cd2(C11H12N3O3S)2(NO3)2(C10H8N2)2]·2H2O, (II). Complex (I) consists of four Cu(II) cations, two μ4-bridging trianionic ligands and two μ2-bridging acetate ligands, while complex (II) is composed of two Cd(II) cations, two μ2-bridging monoanionic ligands, two nitrate ligands and two 4,4'-bipyridine ligands. These discrete complexes are connected by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. Compared with (I), the phenolic hydroxy group and hydrazide N atom of the thiosemicarbazide ligand of (II) are not involved in coordination and lead to a binuclear Cd(II) complex. This different coordination mode may be attributed to the larger ionic radius of the Cd(II) ion compared with the Cu(II) ion.

  18. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  19. Copper and cadmium effects on growth and extracellular exudation of the marine toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella: 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Herzi, Faouzi; Jean, Natacha; Zhao, Huiyu; Mounier, Stéphane; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2013-10-01

    In this study, metal contamination experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper and cadmium on the growth of the marine toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and on the production of dissolved organic matter (Dissolved Organic Carbon: DOC; Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter: FDOM). This species was exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu(2+) (9.93 × 10(-10)-1.00 × 10(-7)M) or Cd(2+) (1.30 × 10(-8)-4.38 × 10(-7)M), to simulate polluted environments. The drastic effects were observed at pCu(2+)=7.96 (Cu(2+): 1.08 × 10(-8)M) and pCd(2+)=7.28 (Cd(2+): 5.19 × 10(-8)M), where cyst formation occurred. Lower levels of Cu(2+) (pCu(2+)>9.00) and Cd(2+) (pCd(2+)>7.28) had no effect on growth. However, when levels of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) were beyond 10(-7)M, the growth was totally inhibited. The DOC released per cell (DOC/Cell) was different depending on the exposure time and the metal contamination, with higher DOC/Cell values in response to Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), comparatively to the control. Samples were also analyzed by 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy, using the Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) algorithm to characterize the FDOM. The PARAFAC analytical treatment revealed four components (C1, C2, C3 and C4) that could be associated with two contributions: one, related to the biological activity; the other, linked to the decomposition of organic matter. The C1 component combined a tryptophan peak and a characteristic humic substances response, and the C2 component was considered as a tryptophan protein fluorophore. The C3 and C4 components were associated to marine organic matter production.

  20. Development of a water-effect ratio for copper, cadmium, and lead for the Great Works River in Maine using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Salvelinus fontinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.M.; Askew, A.M.; Foster, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The control of chemicals discharged to suface waters of the United States is an important objective of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) as specified by the Clean Water Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends a combination of chemical-specific and whole-effluent toxicity limits in NPDES permits to accomplish this objective. The requirements for toxicity testing and whole effluent toxicity limitations in NPDES permits are based on the narrative toxicity water quality standards, and, in some cases, numerical toxicity standards present in EPA regulations. Because national water quality criteria were developed to protect the biological integrity of all surface waters in the US, they may require modification for site-specific applications. As an alternative to national criteria, site-specific criteria can be tailored specifically to the local ecosystem. Site-specific factors like chemical quality of receiving water, flow, temperature and species composition play a major role in developing alternative discharge limits. The hazard posed by a chemical when released to wastewater and consequently to a receiving system is a function of concentration, bioavailability and influence of site conditions. The site-specific evaluation of toxicity of a chemical combines a knowledge of the properties which influence the behavior of a chemical such as partitioning, chelation, speciation, adsorption to solids, and interaction with other chemicals present in the matrix and an understanding of the toxicity of the chemical and its potential for bioaccumulation. The primary objective of this study was to develop water effect-ratios for cadmium, copper and lead which can be used to derive site-specific water quality criteria for process water discharged from a metal finishing plant. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper and cadmium exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Matthews, Amber L; Raine, Jason C; Niyogi, Som

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Trios (1 male: 2 female; n=5) of fish were exposed for 21days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Cd), (ii) waterborne Cu (75μg/L), (iii) waterborne Cd (5μg/L), and (iv) Cu and Cd mixture (75 and 5μg/L, respectively). Reproductive output (cumulative egg production) was significantly reduced by Cu but not by Cd. Interestingly however, no spawning occurred in fish exposed to the mixture of waterborne Cu and Cd. In general, both Cu and Cd accumulation in target tissues (gill, liver, gonad and carcass) increased significantly in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, and no interaction between Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in any tissues, except in the liver where Cu accumulation was significantly reduced by Cd. The expression of female hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) was most significantly elevated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, whereas vitellogenin gene expression was reduced maximally in the same exposure. Similarly, the hepatic expression of the metallothionein gene was most significantly upregulated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture. Moreover, the circulating estradiol level in females was significantly decreased only during the co-exposure of waterborne Cu and Cd. Overall, the present study indicates that the interaction of chronic waterborne Cu and Cd exposure may elicit greater than additive effect on reproductive output in fish.

  2. Functional characterization of a csoR-cueA divergon in Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCNWSX0360, involved in copper, zinc and cadmium cotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Mingzhe; Lu, Mingmei; Li, Zhefei; Shen, Xihui; Chou, Minxia; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    Random mutagenesis in a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCNWSX0360 (Bln0360) using Tn5 identified five copper (Cu) resistance-related genes. They were functionally sorted into three groups: transmembrane transport (cueA and tolC); oxidation (copA); and protection of the membrane barrier (lptE and ctpA). The gene cueA, together with the upstream csoR (Cu-sensitive operon repressor), constituted a csoR-cueA divergon which plays a crucial role in Cu homeostasis. Deletion of cueA decreased the Cu tolerance of cells, and complementation of this mutant restored comparable Cu resistance to that of the wild-type. Transcriptional and fusion expression analysis demonstrated that csoR-cueA divergon was up-regulated by both the monovalent Cu+ and divalent Zn2+/Cd2+, and negatively regulated by transcriptional repressor CsoR, via a bidirectional promoter. Deletion of csoR renders the cell hyper-resistant to Cu, Zn and Cd. Although predicted to encode a Cu transporting P-type ATPase (CueA), cueA also conferred resistance to zinc and cadmium; two putative N-MBDs (N-terminal metal binding domains) of CueA were required for the Cu/Zn/Cd tolerance. Moreover, cueA is needed for nodulation competitiveness of B. liaoningense in Cu rich conditions. Together, the results demonstrated a crucial role for the csoR-cueA divergon as a component of the multiple-metal resistance machinery in B. liaoningense. PMID:27725778

  3. Biochemical responses of ecological importance in males of the austral South America amphipod Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker, 1942 exposed to waterborne cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Anabella; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2014-02-01

    The use of physiological parameters as sensitive indicators of toxic stress from exposure to different pollutants is an important issue to be studied. Hyalella curvispina is a Neotropical amphipod often used in ecotoxicological evaluations. This work aimed to quantify biochemical responses of ecological importance in H. curvispina males under stress exposure to sublethal concentrations of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd); in order to obtain basic physiological data as indicators of early effect on this species, on track to its standardization. In order to evaluate the physiological, biochemical and energetic status of the exposed animals, the following endpoints were selected: content of glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, arginine, arginine phosphate, levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Our results show that the concentrations of Cu (135 and 175 µg/L) and Cd (6.5 and 10.5 µg/L) tested altered most of the biochemical variables measured (glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, arginine phosphate, TBARS, and SOD and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activities). In addition, neither the levels of glycerol and arginine nor CAT activity were affected by exposure to either metal. Energy metabolism was similarly affected both by exposure to Cu and exposure to Cd. The results obtained show the existence of an energy imbalance associated with oxidative damage, suggesting a comprehensive response. This work represents a first contribution of the evaluation of the effect of two heavy metals in some parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism of H. curvispina males. The results indicate these parameters can provide a sensitive criterion for the assessment of early ecotoxicological effects of Cu and Cd in laboratory assays, on a native species representative of the zoobenthic and epiphytic communities of South America.

  4. Mineral commodity profiles: Cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Plachy, Jozef

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Cadmium is a soft, low-melting-point metal that has many uses. It is similar in abundance to antimony and bismuth and is the 63d element in order of crustal abundance. Cadmium is associated in nature with zinc (and, less closely, with lead and copper) and is extracted mainly as a byproduct of the mining and processing of zinc. In 2000, it was refined in 27 countries, of which the 8 largest accounted for two-thirds of world production. The United States was the third largest refiner after Japan and China. World production in 2000 was 19,700 metric tons (t) and U.S. production was 1,890 t. In the United States, one company in Illinois and another in Tennessee refined primary cadmium. A Pennsylvania company recovered cadmium from scrap, mainly spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The supply of cadmium in the world and in the United States appears to be adequate to meet future industrial needs; the United States has about 23 percent of the world reserve base.

  5. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  6. Accumulation of copper, chromium, and arsenic in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from laboratory and field exposures to wood treated with chromated copper arsenate type C

    SciTech Connect

    Adler-Ivanbrook, L.; Breslin, V.T.

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the uptake of Cu, Cr, and As leached from southern yellow pine (SYP) treated with chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C), as well as effects on mortality and growth, in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to CCA-C-treated wood at a preservative retention of 40 kg/m{sup 3} and control (nontreated) SYP in laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments for 9 months in 1994 and 3 months in 1995. Mussels were sampled at regular intervals to evaluate possible short- and long-term exposure effects., Individual mussels were measured to determine the length, dry weight, and condition index. Mussel tissues were than analyzed for Cu, Cr, and As. Results showed few significant differences in condition index, dry weight, and length between CCA-C-exposed and control mussels. In addition, no statistically significant differences in mortality were found between the mussels exposed to CCA-C-treated and nontreated SYP in the laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments. Significant differences in Cu, As, and Cr contents in mussel tissues between treatments were few, and generally cannot be attributed to exposure to CCA-C-treated SYP. The lack of Cu, Cr, and As uptake from CCA-C-treated SYP was attributed to the low, although continuous, rate of release of these elements from CCA-C-treated wood and to the experimental design, which allowed continuous flushing, prohibiting the accumulation of these elements in the water surrounding the mussels.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: Arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a gray metal rarely encountered as a free element, but is widely distributed in minerals and ores that contain copper, iron and lead. Arsenic is often found in groundwater as a result of the natural weathering of rock and soil.

  8. Zinc, cadmium, and copper mobility and accumulation in reeds (Phragmites australis) in urban sediments from two stormwater infiltration basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, J.-P.; Saulais, S.; Delolme, C.

    2012-04-01

    organic matter and metals than "Minerve". For example, Zn contents are equal to 400 mg/kgDW in "Grézieu" whereas it is equal to 80 mg/kgDW in "Minerve". In the most contaminated basin "Grézieu", metals mobility is mainly controlled by their association with carbonates and organic matter. Thus, copper associated with organic matter may represent almost 70% of the total copper content. In the "Minerve" sediment, the metals are distributed on the different sediment components, with very stable associations on the different mineral phases. The reed accumulates more metal in the context of the most contaminated basin (Grézieu), but without any differences in bioconcentration factors. The high metal contents in "Grézieu" sediments limited also the growth of reed. Moreover, for "Grézieu" sediment, characteristics evolve with the seasons. Thus, texture decreases from June to December in parallel with an increase in organic matter and metals in the sediment deposit.

  9. Polyamines and heavy metal stress: the antioxidant behavior of spermine in cadmium- and copper-treated wheat leaves.

    PubMed

    Groppa, María D; Tomaro, María L; Benavides, María P

    2007-04-01

    Polyamine metabolism, as well as spermine (Spm) antioxidant properties, were studied in wheat leaves under Cd2+ or Cu2+ stress. The oxidative damage produced by both metals was evidenced by an increased of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and a significant decrease in glutathione under both metal treatments. Ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were reduced by both metals to values ranging from 30% to 64% of the control values. Conversely, copper produced a raise in superoxide dismutase activity. The high putrescine (Put) content detected under Cd2+ stress (282% over the control) was induced by the increased activity of both enzymes involved in Put biosynthesis, arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, only ODC activity was increased in wheat leaves subjected to Cu2+ stress, leading to a lower Put rise (89% over the controls). Spermidine (Spd) content was not affected by metal treatments, while Spm was significantly reduced. Pretreatment with Spm completely reverted the metals-induced TBARS increase whereas metals-dependent H2O2 deposition on leaf segments (revealed using diaminobenzidine), was considerably reduced in Spm pretreated leaf segments. This polyamine failed to reverse the depletion in APOX activity and glutathione (GSH) content produced by Cd2+ and Cu2+, although it showed an efficient antioxidant behavior in the restoration of GR activity to control values. These results suggest that Spm could be exerting a certain antioxidant function by protecting the tissues from the metals-induced oxidative damage, though this effect was not enough to completely avoid Cd2+ and Cu2+ effect on certain antioxidant enzymes, though the precise mechanism of protection still needs to be elucidated.

  10. A baseline study of metals in cod (Gadus morhua) from the North Sea and coastal Norwegian waters, with focus on mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Nilsen, Bente M; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-07-15

    This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and livers of 516 cod caught at 22 positions in the North Sea were analysed. An additional 687 cod were caught from 13 fjords and coastal areas along the coast of Norway. Three out of 1203 samples of muscle exceeded the maximum limit of 0.5 mg Hg kg(-1) wet weight set by the EU for foodstuffs. The mercury concentration in cod muscle was higher and the cadmium concentration in the liver was lower in the North Sea and coastal areas in the southern part of Norway than in the Barents Sea and coastal areas in the northern part of Norway. These differences are perhaps caused by differences in the cod diet.

  11. Epidemiologic study of renal function in copper smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, R; Valciukas, J A; Weber, J P; Malkin, J; Selikoff, I J

    1984-01-01

    A medical cross-sectional examination of a copper smelter work force was undertaken after environmental contamination with lead, cadmium and arsenic had been documented. A total of 920 subjects was examined, including active smelter employees, retired workers and copper mine employees who had never worked in the smelter. Slight to moderate absorption of lead and cadmium was definitely present in the active copper smelter employees, who had significantly higher levels of Pb-B, ZPP and Cd-B than retired employees and miners. Cd-U levels were higher in retired workers, who were also older and had, as a group, longer duration of exposure in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 micrograms/g creatinine, the level considered critical for nephrotoxicity, in any of the subjects. Median Cd-B level for active workers was 2.75 micrograms/L. Lead absorption was characterized by a relatively small proportion (16.7%) of active employees with Pb-B levels 40 micrograms/dL or higher. We were particularly interested in exploring the possibility that simultaneous exposure to lead and cadmium, although at levels not associated with nephrotoxicity for each metal separately, could result in renal function impairment. Distribution patterns of BUN and serum creatinine levels were unremarkable. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels were less than 200 micrograms/g creatinine in 95% of copper smelter employees. There were no significant correlations between urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels and Cd-U, Cd-B, Pb-B and ZPP or between urinary beta 2-microglobulin excretion and serum creatinine or BUN levels. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels were significantly correlated with age in the copper smelter workers, but not in the miners. Nevertheless, in the absence of any significant correlations between urinary beta 2-microglobulin and Cd-U, Cd-B, a causal relationship with cadmium absorption cannot be affirmed. That kidney function could be impaired by long-term exposure in the smelter was only

  12. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  13. The Density and Length of Root Hairs Are Enhanced in Response to Cadmium and Arsenic by Modulating Gene Expressions Involved in Fate Determination and Morphogenesis of Root Hairs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Ramin; Kim, Dong G.; Kim, Jin A.; Hwang, Seongbin

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of Arabidopsis to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic [arsenite, As(III)] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III) downregulated TTG1 and GL2 (negative regulators of fate determination) and upregulated GEM (positive regulator), suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III). Cd and As(III) increased the transcript levels of genes involved in root hair initiation (RHD6 and AXR2) and root hair elongation (AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, and EIN2) except CTR1. DR5::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed a higher DR5 expression in the root tip, suggesting that Cd and As(III) increased the auxin content in the root tip. Knockdown of TTG1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased root hair density and decreased root hair length compared with the control (Col-0) on 1/2 MS media. This phenotype may be attributed to the downregulation of GL2 and CTR1 and upregulation of RHD6. By contrast, gem mutant plants displayed a decrease in root hair density and length with reduced expression of RHD6, AXR2, AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, CTR1, and EIN2. Taken together, our results indicate that fate determination, initiation, and elongation of root hairs are stimulated in response to Cd and As(III) through the modulation of the expression of genes involved in these processes in Arabidopsis. PMID:27933081

  14. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element.

  15. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions.

  16. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies.

    PubMed

    Adams, William J; DeForest, David K; Tear, Lucinda M; Payne, Kelly; Brix, Kevin V

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents long-term monitoring data for 19 elements with a focus on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), in surface water (2002-2011), brine shrimp (2001-2011), and brine flies (1995-1996) collected from Great Salt Lake (GSL, Utah, USA). In open surface waters, mean (±standard deviation [SD]; range; n) As concentrations were 112 (±22.1; 54.0-169; 47) and 112 μg/L (±35.6; 5.1-175; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 16.3 μg/g (±5.6; 5.1-35.2; 62) dry weight (dw) in brine shrimp. Mean (±SD; range; n) Cu concentrations were 4.2 (±2.1; 1.3-12.5; 47) and 6.9 μg/L (±6.6; 1.9-38.1; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 20.6 μg/g (±18.4; 5.4-126; 62) dw in brine shrimp. Finally, mean (±SD; range; n) dissolved and total recoverable Se concentrations were 0.6 (±0.1; 0.4-1.2; 61) and 0.9 μg/L (±0.7; 0.5-3.6; 89), respectively, and 3.6 μg/g (±2.2; 1.1-14.9; 98) dw in brine shrimp. Thus, Se in open lake surface waters was most often in the range of 0.5-1 μg/L, and concentrations in both surface water and brine shrimp were comparable to concentrations measured in other monitoring programs for the GSL. Temporally, the statistical significance of differences in mean dissolved or total recoverable As, Cu, and Se concentrations between years was highly variable depending which test statistic was used, and there was no clear evidence of increasing or decreasing trends. In brine shrimp, significant differences in annual mean concentrations of As, Cu, and Se were observed using both parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches, but, as for water, there did not appear to be a consistent increase or decrease in concentrations of these elements over time.

  17. Industrial contributions of arsenic to the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K W

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic is present in all copper, lead, and zinc sulfide ores and is carried along with those metals in the mining, milling and concentrating process. Separation, final concentration and refining of by-product arsenic as the trioxide is achieved at smelters. Arsenic is the essential consistent element of many compounds important and widely used in agriculture and wood preservation. Lesser amounts are used in metal alloys, glass-making, and feed additives. There is no significant recycling. Current levels of arsenic emissions to the atmosphere from smelters and power plants and ambient air concentrations are given as data of greatest environmental interest. PMID:908308

  18. Heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauser, James E.

    1982-09-01

    Volatilization of secondary metals such as arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, during the smelting of copper ores, is important because of environmental and resource considerations. The Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, has been studying copper concentrate roasting in conjunction with the volatility of these minor constituents. Some unusual vaporization behavior initiated this supplemental paper which shows that when the mixed sulfides of arsenic and antimony are heated, the volatilization of arsenic is retarded and the volatilization of antimony increased. Mixed oxides of arsenic and antimony also exhibit exceptional volatilization behavior. These anomalous vaporization behaviors are attributed to the formation of heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony, but the colligative properties of solutions may also be a factor.

  19. Studies of arsenic incorporation and P-type doping in epitaxial mercury cadmium telluride thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandian, Majid

    Doped layer semiconductor structures provide possibilities for novel electronic devices. Growth of Hg1-xCdxTe by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) allows precise control over the doping profile and position of heterojunctions as well as structural properties of this ternary alloy. Even though n-type doping using indium is well established, little is known about p-type doping in this material system by MBE. Several elements such as Ag, Au, Sb, Bi and P have been previously used, however high diffusion coefficient and amphoteric behavior of these atoms in HgCdTe has restricted their use in heterojunction devices where control over doping profiles and concentrations is needed. We investigated arsenic incorporation efficiency as a function of As 4 flux and growth temperature. The sticking coefficient of As is substantially higher at lower growth temperature compared to growth at 190°C. For samples grown at 170°C, the etch pit density (EPD) is higher compared to p-type As doped samples grown at 190°C. Higher EPD is associated with columnar twin defects observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of low growth temperature samples. Growth at low temperature of 170°C causes Hg rich condition promoting twin formation. Therefore, growth of p-type layers doped with As at low temperatures require optimization of II/VI flux ratio to eliminate columnar twin defects. It is possible to incorporate As at normal MBE growth temperature of 190°C but very high flux of As has to used to overcome low sticking coefficient of As at these temperatures. We proposed a mechanism for the activation of As involving Hg vacancies (VHg··) where Te is moved to a Hg vacancy, leaving behind a Te vacancy, which is then filled by an As atom. The Te that is now on a Hg site (i.e., Te antisite) migrates to the surface and leaves the crystal.

  20. Dinuclear cadmium(II), zinc(II), and manganese(II), trinuclear nickel(II), and pentanuclear copper(II) complexes with novel macrocyclic and acyclic Schiff-base ligands having enantiopure or racemic camphoric diamine components.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jue-Chao; Chu, Zhao-Lian; Huang, Wei; Wang, Gang; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2010-07-05

    Four novel [3 + 3] Schiff-base macrocyclic ligands I-IV condensed from 2,6-diformyl-4-substituted phenols (R = CH(3) or Cl) and enantiopure or racemic camphoric diamines have been synthesized and characterized. Metal-ion complexations of these enantiopure and racemic [3 + 3] macrocyclic ligands with different cadmium(II), zinc(II), manganese(II), nickel(II), and copper(II) salts lead to the cleavage of Schiff-base C horizontal lineN double bonds and subsequent ring contraction of the macrocyclic ligands due to the size effects and the spatial restrictions of the coordination geometry of the central metals, the steric hindrance of ligands, and the counterions used. As a result, five [2 + 2] and one [1 + 2] dinuclear cadmium(II) complexes (1-6), two [2 + 2] dinuclear zinc(II) (7 and 8), and two [2 + 2] dinuclear manganese(II) (9 and 10) complexes together with one [1 + 1] trinuclear nickel(II) complex (11) and one [1 + 2] pentanuclear copper(II) complex (12), bearing enantiopure or racemic ligands, different substituent groups in the phenyl rings, and different anionic ligands (Cl(-), Br(-), OAc(-), and SCN(-)), have been obtained in which the chiral carbon atoms in the camphoric backbones are arranged in different ways (RRSS for the enantiopure ligands in 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7-10 and RSRS for the racemic ligands in 3, 6, 11, and 12). The steric hindrance effects of the methyl group bonded to one of the chiral carbon atoms of camphoric diamine units are believed to play important roles in the formation of the acyclic [1 + 1] trinuclear complex 11 and [1 + 2] dinuclear and pentanuclear complexes 6 and 12. In dinuclear cadmium(II), zinc(II), and manganese(II) complexes 1-10, the sequence of separations between the metal centers is consistent with that of the ionic radii shortened from cadmium(II) to manganese(II) to zinc(II) ions. Furthermore, UV-vis, circular dichroism, (1)H NMR, and fluorescence spectra have been used to characterize and compare the structural

  1. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    PubMed

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  2. Characterizing aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams with elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don; Nimick, David A.; MacConnell, Elizabeth; Hogstrand, Christer

    2003-01-01

    Abandoned tailings and mine adits are located throughout the Boulder River watershed in Montana. In this watershed, all species of fish are absent from some tributary reaches near mine sources; however, populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontitalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cut-throat trout O. clarki are found further downstream. Multiple methods must be used to investigate the effects of metals released by past mining activity because the effects on aquatic life may range in severity, depending on the proximity of mine sources. Therefore, we used three types of effects—those on fish population levels (as measured by survival), those on biomass and density, and those at the level of the individual (as measured by increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and increases in concentrations of tissue metals)—to assess the aquatic health of the Boulder River watershed. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the water column were associated with increased mortality of trout at sites located near mine waste sources. The hypertrophy (swelling), degeneration (dying), and necrosis of epithelial cells observed in the gills support our conclusion that the cause of death was related to metals in the water column. At a site further downstream (lower Cataract Creek), we observed impaired health of resident trout, as well as effects on biomass and density (measured as decreases in the kilograms of trout per hectare and the number per 300 m) and effects at the individual level, including increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and tissue concentrations of metals.

  3. Monitored Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 2 – Assessment for Non-Radionuclides Including Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Nitrate, Perchlorate, and Selenium

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document represents the second volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with non-radionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contaminants. V...

  4. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, R H

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties.

  6. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and thallium in total digested sediment samples and available fractions by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy (ET AAS).

    PubMed

    Álvarez, María Á; Carrillo, Génesis

    2012-08-15

    This study describes the optimization and validation of a quick and simple method for the simultaneous determination of total content and available fractions of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl in sediments by ET AAS, which has been proved to be useful for environmental research. The optimization was carried out using a 3(3) Box-Behnken factorial design which was applied to matrices of total digestion and to stages 1 and 2 of the modified BCR sequential extraction scheme for sediments in order to determine the appropriate atomization temperatures and masses for the chemical modifiers: Pd(NO(3))(2) and Mg(NO(3))(2). The simultaneous determination of the elements in all matrices considered was performed, without the use of chemical modifiers at atomization temperatures of 1700 °C for Cd and Tl, and 2100 °C for As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb, using a standard calibration curve for calibration purposes. The characteristic masses and limits of detection obtained were 36.5, 1.8, 6.5, 28, 34, 46.5 and 48 ρg and 0.11, 0.001, 0.022, 0.04, 0.2, 0.03 and 0.003 μg g(-1) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl, respectively. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing three sediment certified reference materials (CRM NCS DC 73315 and LKSD-4 for total content and BCR 701 for available fractions). Good accuracy was obtained (tested statistically, P=0.05, and shown by the high recovery for each element in each matrix), except for total As in the matrix of total digestion, where losses of the analyte could be attributed to sample treatment with HNO(3). The precision of the procedure was between 0.6% and 6%.

  7. Cadmium toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lichuan; Zhang, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a well-known environmental pollutant with distinctly toxic effects on plants. It can displace certain essential metals from a wealth of metalloproteins, and thus disturb many normal physiological processes and cause severe developmental aberrant. The harmful effects of cadmium stress include, but are not limited to: reactive oxygen species overproduction, higher lipid hydroperoxide contents, and chloroplast structure change, which may lead to cell death. Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to alleviate environmental cadmium stress, e.g., cadmium pump and transporting cadmium into the leaf vacuoles. This mini-review focuses on the current research into understanding the cellular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity on cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and cell wall formation in plants. PMID:22499203

  8. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  9. Cadmium Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    including cadmium! Cadmium Replacements (With MIL-DTL-38999 Designations) Zn/Ni (Class Z) Per ASTM B 841, type D (black) Electroless Nickel plus... Electroless nickel / PTFE (Durmalon®) Electroplated Aluminum (Alumiplate®) Electroplated tin-zinc (SnZn) Control: cadmium with hexavalent chromate... electroless nickel / PTFE performed well Electroplated aluminum performed did not perform well on connectors Electroplated aluminum did not

  10. Earthworms Produce phytochelatins in Response to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Alan J.; Bennett, Mark H.; Morris, Ceri A.; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations. PMID:24278409

  11. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Liebeke, Manuel; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Anderson, Craig J; Lawlor, Alan J; Bennett, Mark H; Morris, Ceri A; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Bundy, Jacob G

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  12. Genome wide association mapping of grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum, and zinc in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown at four international field sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carried out genome-...

  13. Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, L

    1977-01-01

    The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306

  14. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOEpatents

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  15. Poisoned Playgrounds: Arsenic in "Pressure-Treated" Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Renee; Walker, Bill

    This study of 180 pressure-treated wood samples shows that treated wood is a much greater source of arsenic exposure for children than arsenic-contaminated drinking water. The report determines that an average 5-year-old, playing less than 2 weeks on a chromated-copper-arsenate-treated (CCA) wood play set would exceed the lifetime cancer risk…

  16. Bacillus flexus strain As-12, a new arsenic transformer bacterium isolated from contaminated water resources.

    PubMed

    Jebeli, Mohammad Ahmadi; Maleki, Afshin; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Kalantar, Enayatollah; Izanloo, Hassan; Gharibi, Fardin

    2017-02-01

    A total of 14 arsenic-resistant bacteria were isolated from an arsenic-contaminated travertine spring water in the central district of Qorveh county, Kurdistan Province, Iran. One of strains designated As-12 was selected for further investigation because of its ability to transform arsenic. The strain was identified by cultural, morphological and biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Finally, the growth characteristics of the isolate were investigated in a chemically defined medium which included varied ranges of environmental factors such as pH, temperature and salinity. Moreover, the resistance of this strain to some heavy metals was evaluated. The bacterium was a Gram-positive, endospore-forming with all other characteristics of the genus Bacillus. It revealed maximum similarity at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus flexus. The optimum growth of the strain was observed at 38 °C, pH 9 and 2% salinity. This strain was resistant to heavy metals such as zinc, chromium, lead, nickel, copper, mercuric and cadmium at concentrations of 15 mM, 15.5 mM, 11.5 mM, 12 mM, 11 mM, 5.5 mM, and 1 mM, respectively. The isolated bacterium was able to reduce As (V) to As (III) (about 28%) and oxidize As (III) to As (V) (about 45%) after 48 h of incubation at 37 °C. In conclusion, Bacillus flexus strain As-12, was identified as an arsenic transformer, for the first time.

  17. A PROBABILISTIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE ( CAA )-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS: PART 2 SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood) was developed to examine children's exposure and dose to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, as described in Part 1 of this two part paper. This Part 2 paper discusses sensitivity and uncertainty analyses conducted to assess the key m...

  18. The Impact of Varied Fertilisation on the Concentration of Cadmium and Copper in Organs of Willow Trees (Salix Viminalis) / Wpływ Zróznicowanego Nawożenia Na Zawartość Kadmu I Miedzi W Wierzbie Wiciowej (Salix Viminalis )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieciechowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the impact of varied fertilisation with sewage sludge on the concentration of cadmium and copper in willow organs during the first three years of cultivation. The lowest mean concentration of cadmium in Salix viminalis biomass was found in the plantation fertilised only with mineral fertilisers. The mean content of copper in the biomass of plants fertilised with mineral fertilisers was higher than the content of this metal in plants grown in non-fertilised soil by 23.4%. It has been shown that the method of fertilisation does not have an impact on the cadmium allocation in different organs. The highest content of cadmium and copper in the willow biomass was found in the foliage (1,76 mg/kgd.m. and 12,73 mg/kgd.m. respectively). W pracy określono wpływ zróżnicowanego nawożenia osadami ściekowymi na zmiany zawartości kadmu i miedzi w wierzbie wiciowej przez pierwsze trzy lata uprawy. Najmniejszą średnią zawartość kadmu w biomasie Salix viminalis wykazano dla plantacji nawożonej mineralnie. Średnia zawartość miedzi w biomasie roślin nawożonych mineralnie była o ok. 23,4% większa od zawartości tego metalu w roślinach uprawianych na glebie nienawożonej. Wykazano, że sposób nawożenia nie wpływa na miejsce kumulowania się kadmu w roślinie. Najwyższe zawartości kadmu i miedzi odnotowano w próbkach listowia Salix viminalis (odpowiednio 1,76 mg/kgs.m. i 12,73 mg/kgs.m.).

  19. Bacterial resistance to arsenic protects against protist killing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuli; Li, Xuanji; Pal, Chandan; Hobman, Jon; Larsson, D G Joakim; Saquib, Quaiser; Alwathnani, Hend A; Rosen, Barry P; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rensing, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Protists kill their bacterial prey using toxic metals such as copper. Here we hypothesize that the metalloid arsenic has a similar role. To test this hypothesis, we examined intracellular survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum). Deletion of the E. coli ars operon led to significantly lower intracellular survival compared to wild type E. coli. This suggests that protists use arsenic to poison bacterial cells in the phagosome, similar to their use of copper. In response to copper and arsenic poisoning by protists, there is selection for acquisition of arsenic and copper resistance genes in the bacterial prey to avoid killing. In agreement with this hypothesis, both copper and arsenic resistance determinants are widespread in many bacterial taxa and environments, and they are often found together on plasmids. A role for heavy metals and arsenic in the ancient predator-prey relationship between protists and bacteria could explain the widespread presence of metal resistance determinants in pristine environments.

  20. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations.

  1. Seasonal variability in cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and iron concentrations in the three major fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea in Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria: impact of wash-off into the lake.

    PubMed

    Ongeri, David M K; Lalah, Joseph O; Wandiga, Shem O; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Michalke, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Trace metals Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) were analyzed in edible portions of three main finfish species namely Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea sampled from various beaches of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya, in order to determine any seasonal and site variations and the results showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Fe during the wet season compared to the dry season for all the three species indicating the impact of wash-off into the lake during the rainy periods. The overall mean concentrations of the heavy metals (in μg/g dry weight) in all combined samples ranged from 0.17-0.40 (Cd), 0.47-2.53 (Pb), 2.13-8.74 (Cu), 28.9-409.3 (Zn) and 31.4-208.1 (Fe), respectively. It was found that consumption of Rastrineobola argentea can be a significant source of heavy metals especially Zn, to humans, compared with Lates niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus, if only the muscle parts of the latter two are consumed.

  2. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  3. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  4. Hepatic and renal concentrations of copper and other trace elements in hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Kafue and Luangwa Rivers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwase, M; Almli, B; Sivertsen, T; Musonda, M M; Flåøyen, A

    2002-09-01

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were studied in samples collected from hippopotami from the Kafue River in the Kafue National Park and the Luangwa River in the Southern Luangwa National Park in Zambia. There were no significant differences between trace element concentrations in the tissues of the hippopotami taken in the Kafue River and the Luangwa River. The concentrations of copper and other essential elements were similar to those reported in normal domestic and wild ruminants. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not led to any accumulation of elements in tissues of the hippopotami in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations observed may serve as reference for similar future studies on hippopotami.

  5. 40 CFR 437.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Antimony Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Silver Tin Titanium Vanadium Zinc (2... n-Decane Fluoranthene n-Octadecane Metal parameters Antimony Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper... parameters Antimony Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Silver Tin Titanium...

  6. 40 CFR 437.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Antimony Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Silver Tin Titanium Vanadium Zinc (2... n-Decane Fluoranthene n-Octadecane Metal parameters Antimony Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper... parameters Antimony Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Silver Tin Titanium...

  7. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this research, we investigated the accumulation of arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) in rice grain under different soil conditions in standard straighthead-resistant and straighthead-susceptible cultivars, Zhe 733 and Cocodrie, respectively. Results demonstrated that,...

  8. Arsenic, inorganic

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Arsenic , inorganic ; CASRN 7440 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  9. Lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, calcium and magnesium in SPF male rats exposed to a dilution of automotive exhaust gas throughout their lives.

    PubMed

    Stupfel, M; Valleron, A J; Radford, E

    1983-12-15

    Male pathogen free CFE albino Sprague Dawley rats were exposed 8 h per day, 5 days per week, for three years to a 1/1000 dilution of automotive exhaust gas, containing 58 ppm carbon monoxide, 0.37% carbon dioxide, 23 ppm nitrogen oxides, 2 ppm aldehydes, less than 5 mg/l hydrocarbons and 8.5 micrograms/m3 lead. Lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption in the femurs and tibias of the rats which died during the experiment. A comparison with two control groups revealed that the only significant difference in the elements measured in the bones was a 500% increase in lead concentration. The calculations of the correlations between the percentages of the elements in bones, the ages and the body weights of the rats, as well as cluster analysis, did not show consistent variations of the water, calcium, magnesium concentrations nor of the other studied metals related to this increase in lead concentration. Moreover, longevity was the same in the 3 groups of rats, but the body weight was statistically smaller (4%) in the group exposed to the auto exhaust dilution.

  10. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  11. Simultaneous automatic electrochemical detection of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead ions in environmental samples using a thin-film mercury electrode and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-12-30

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933).

  12. Selective reduction of Cr(VI) in chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) mixed waste streams using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shan; Jiang, Wenjun; Rashid, Mamun; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2015-02-03

    The highly toxic Cr(VI) is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) in the presence of arsenate, As(V), and copper, Cu(II). The rapid conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI) reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI) is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II) and As(V) does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI) reduction. The Cr(VI) reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  13. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  14. Effect of metallothionein core promoter region polymorphism on cadmium, zinc and copper levels in autopsy kidney tissues from a Turkish population

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Mergen, Goerkem; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2010-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding, low molecular weight proteins and are involved in pathophysiological processes like metabolism of essential metals, metal ion homeostasis and detoxification of heavy metals. Metallothionein expression is induced by various heavy metals especially cadmium, mercury and zinc; MTs suppress toxicity of heavy metals by binding themselves to these metals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the - 5 A/G metallothionein 2A (MT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex from autopsy cases. MT2A core promoter region - 5 A/G SNP was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method using 114 autopsy kidney tissues and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were found as 87.7% homozygote typical (AA), 11.4% heterozygote (AG) and 0.9% homozygote atypical (GG). In order to assess the Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the same autopsy kidney tissues, a dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system was used and the average levels of Cd, Zn and Cu were measured as 95.54 {+-} 65.58 {mu}g/g, 181.20 {+-} 87.72 {mu}g/g and 17.14 {+-} 16.28 {mu}g/g, respectively. As a result, no statistical association was found between the - 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene and the Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex (p > 0.05), but considerably high accumulation of Cd was monitored for individuals having AG (151.24 {+-} 60.21 {mu}g/g) and GG genotypes (153.09 {mu}g/g) compared with individuals having AA genotype (87.72 {+-} 62.98 {mu}g/g) (p < 0.05). These results show that the core promoter region polymorphism of metallothionein 2A increases the accumulation of Cd in human renal cortex.

  15. The effects of point pollutants-originated heavy metals (lead, copper, iron, and cadmium) on fish living in Yeşilırmak River, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Polat, Fatih; Akın, Şenol; Yıldırım, Alper; Dal, Tarık

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the association between heavy metals in water and cyprinids sampled from the Yeşilırmak River stretch, which is frequently exposed to pollutant sources (a sugar production factory (Turhal) and solid wastes dump area (Taşlıçiftlik) was explored, and the oxidative effects of heavy metals on cyprinids were evaluated through analyzing some liver enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and cortisol. The heavy metal concentrations of both fish and water, collected from three different locations along the river during the summer of 2011 and winter of 2010 (Turhal, Taşlıçiftlik, and Gümenek), were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The water and fish liver heavy metal concentrations exhibited increasing trends from upstream (Gümenek) to downstream (Turhal). The water and liver samples collected during the summer had higher heavy metal concentrations than those obtained during the winter. The mean heavy metal concentrations increased from Gümenek to Turhal. The liver heavy metal concentrations were higher than those in the water and exhibited almost the same increasing trend from Gümenek to Turhal. Positive relationships between liver and water heavy metal concentrations, especially for cadmium (R (2) = 0.91) and lead (R (2) = 0.98), were obtained. Among the liver enzymes, only MDA followed the same increasing trend from Gümenek to Turhal as was obtained for heavy metals. On the other hand, CAT and SOD had a contrary spatial pattern of change to those of heavy metals and MDA. Although the values of heavy metals and MDA in Taşlıçiftlik were between the two other locations, fish inhabiting this locality had significantly higher values of cortisol, which is an indication of the other stress-causing factors for fish.

  16. The extent of arsenic and of metal uptake by aboveground tissues of Pteris vittata and Cyperus involucratus growing in copper- and cobalt-rich tailings of the Zambian copperbelt.

    PubMed

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sracek, Ondra; Knésl, Ilja; Ettler, Vojtěch; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2011-08-01

    The extent of arsenic (As) and metal accumulation in fronds of the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) and in leaves of Cyperus involucratus, which grow on the surface of an old flotation tailings pond in the Zambian Copperbelt province, was studied. The tailings consist of two types of material with distinct chemical composition: (1) reddish-brown tailings rich in As, iron (Fe), and other metals, and (2) grey-green tailings with a lower content of As, Fe, and other metals, apart from manganese (Mn). P. vittata accumulates from 2350 to 5018 μg g(-1) As (total dry weight [dw]) in its fronds regardless of different total and plant-available As concentrations in both types of tailings. Concentrations of As in C. involucratus leaves are much lower (0.24-30.3 μg g(-1) dw). Contents of copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) in fronds of P. vittata (151-237 and 18-38 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) and in leaves of C. involucratus (96-151 and 9-14 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) are high, whereas concentrations of other metals (Fe, Mn, and zinc [Zn]) are low and comparable with contents of the given metals in common plants. Despite great differences in metal concentrations in the two types of deposited materials, concentrations of most metals in plant tissues are very similar. This indicates an exclusion or avoidance mechanism operating when concentrations of the metals in substrate are particularly high. The results of the investigation show that Chinese brake fern is not only a hyperaccumulator of As but has adapted itself to high concentrations of Cu and Co in flotation tailings of the Zambian Copperbelt.

  17. Minimization of lead and copper interferences on spectrophotometric determination of cadmium using electrolytic deposition and ion-exchange in multi-commutation flow system.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, J A; Oliveira, A P; Freshi, G P; Dakuzaku, C S; de Moraes, M

    2000-12-04

    A new strategy for minimization of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) interferences on the spectrophotometric determination of Cd(2+) by the Malachite green (MG)-iodide reaction using electrolytic deposition of interfering species and solid phase extraction of Cd(2+) in flow system is proposed. The electrolytic cell comprises two coiled Pt electrodes concentrically assembled. When the sample solution is electrolyzed in a mixed solution containing 5% (v/v) HNO(3), 0.1% (v/v) H(2)SO(4) and 0.5 M NaCl, Cu(2+) is deposited as Cu on the cathode, Pb(2+) is deposited as PbO(2) on the anode while Cd(2+) is kept in solution. After electrolysis, the remaining solution passes through an AG1-X8 resin (chloride form) packed minicolumn in which Cd(2+) is extracted as CdCl(4)(2-). Electrolyte compositions, flow rates, timing, applied current, and electrolysis time was investigated. With 60 s electrolysis time, 0.25 A applied current, Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) levels up to 50 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively, can be tolerated without interference. For 90 s resin loading time, a linear relationship between absorbance and analyte concentration in the 5.00-50.0 mug Cd l(-1) range (r(2)=0.9996) is obtained. A throughput of 20 samples per h is achieved, corresponding to about 0.7 mg MG and 500 mg KI and 5 ml sample consumed per determination. The detection limit is 0.23 mug Cd l(-1). The accuracy was checked for cadmium determination in standard reference materials, vegetables and tap water. Results were in agreement with certified values of standard reference materials and with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry at 95% confidence level. The R.S.D. for plant digests and water containing 13.0 mug Cd l(-1) was 3.85% (n=12). The recoveries of analyte spikes added to the water and vegetable samples ranged from 94 to 104%.

  18. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  19. Sequestration of cadmium and copper by recombinant rainbow trout and human metallothioneins and by chimeric (mermaid and fishman) proteins with interchanged domains.

    PubMed

    Kille, P; Lees, W E; Darke, B M; Winge, D R; Dameron, C T; Stephens, P E; Kay, J

    1992-04-25

    A family of synthetic genes was constructed encoding a rainbow trout metallothionein (MT), a human MT, and two chimeric molecules which contained respectively (i) the N-terminal (or head) domain of human MT followed by the C-terminal (or tail) domain of a fish MT (termed mermaid MT) and (ii) the head domain of fish MT fused with the tail domain of human MT (denoted fishman MT). These were expressed in Escherichia coli and the four recombinant proteins were purified to homogeneity therefrom. All four were found to bind 7 g atoms of Cd(II) per mol; at pH 7.0, but not at pH 8.6, four Cd(II) ions were sequestered preferentially in the tail (or alpha) domain. Reciprocally, copper was found to bind preferentially in the head (or beta) domain. The human and fishman MTs displayed a stoichiometry of 12 g atoms of Cu(I) per mol, while rainbow trout and mermaid MTs bound only 10. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the different positional organization of cysteine residues close to the N and C termini of mammalian and piscine metallothioneins.

  20. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic.

  1. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice. PMID:26778863

  2. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  3. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  4. Assessing the combination of iron sulfate and organic materials as amendment for an arsenic and copper contaminated soil. A chemical and ecotoxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Peñalosa, Jesús M

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of combining iron sulfate and organic amendments (paper mill sludge, olive mill waste compost and olive tree pruning biochar) for the remediation of an As- and Cu-contaminated soil was evaluated. Changes in As and Cu fractionation and solubility due to the application of the amendments was explored by leachate analysis, single and sequential extractions. Also, the effects on Arrhenatherum elatius growth, germination of Lactuca sativa and toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri were assessed. The combination of iron sulfate and the organic amendments efficiently reduced As solubility and availability through the formation of amorphous iron oxides, while organic matter did not seem to mobilize As. At the same time, copper fractionation was strongly affected by soil pH and organic matter addition. The soil pH significantly influenced both As and Cu mobility. Within all the amendments tested, FeSO4 in combination with compost showed to be the most suitable treatment for the overall remediation process, as it reduced As and Cu availability andenhanced soil nutrient concentrations and plant growth. In sipte of contradictory trends between chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests, we can still conclude that the application of organic amendments in combination with reactive iron salts is a suitable approach for the remediation of soils contaminated by Cu and As.

  5. THE CELLUAR METABOLISM OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the methylation of arsenic produces intermediates and terminal products that exceed inorganic arsenic in potency as enzyme inhibitors, cytotoxins, and genotoxins, the methylation of arsenic is properly regarded as an activation process. The methylation of arsenic is an e...

  6. Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Mickey

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)

  7. The ecology of arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid whose name conjures up images of murder. Nonetheless, certain prokaryotes use arsenic oxyanions for energy generation, either by oxidizing arsenite or by respiring arsenate. These microbes are phylogenetically diverse and occur in a wide range of habitats. Arsenic cycling may take place in the absence of oxygen and can contribute to organic matter oxidation. In aquifers, these microbial reactions may mobilize arsenic from the solid to the aqueous phase, resulting in contaminated drinking water. Here we review what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature.

  8. The possible role of gradual accumulation of copper, cadmium, lead and iron and gradual depletion of zinc, magnesium, selenium, vitamins B2, B6, D, and E and essential fatty acids in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    2000-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a much higher incidence among caucasians that in any other race. Furthermore: females are much more susceptible than males and white females living in colder, wetter areas are much more susceptible than those living in warmer areas. On the other hand, menstruating women have increased copper (Cu) absorption and half-life, so they tend to accumulate more Cu than males. Moreover, rapidly growing girls have an increased demand for zinc (Zn), but their rapidly decreasing production of melatonin results in impaired Zn absorption, which is exacerbated by the high Cu levels. The low Zn levels result in deficient CuZnSuperoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), which in turn leads to increased levels of superoxide. Menstruating females also often present with low magnesium (Mg) and vitamin B6 levels. Vitamin B6 moderates intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production and extracellular Mg is required for NO release from the cell, so that a deficiency of these nutrients results in increased NO production in the cell and reduced release from the cell. The trapped NO combines with superoxide to form peroxinitrite, an extremely powerful free radical that leads to the myelin damage of MS. Iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation also increase superoxide production. Which explains MS in males, who tend to accumulate Fe much faster and Cu much less rapidly than females. Since vitamin D is paramount for Mg absorption, the much reduced exposure to sunlight in the higher latitudes may account for the higher incidence in these areas. Moreover, vitamin B2 is a cofactor for xanthine oxidase, and its deficiency exacerbates the low levels of uric acid caused by high Cu levels, resulting in myelin degeneration. Finally Selenium (Se) and vitamin E prevent lipid peroxidation and EPA and DHA upregulate CuZnSOD. Therefore, supplementation with 100 mg MG, 25 mg vit B6, 10 mg vit B2, 15 mg Zn and 400 IU vit D and E, 100 microg Se, 180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA per day

  9. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  10. Cadmium and the kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; characteristics of early kidney dysfunction; the critical concentration concept; critical concentrations of cadmium in kidney cortex; and prognosis. PMID:6734547

  11. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... been measuring total arsenic concentrations in foods, including rice and juices, through its Total Diet Study program ... found in certain food and beverage products, including rice, fruit juices and juice concentrates. How does arsenic ...

  12. Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstrations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s research for the new Arsenic Rule focused on the development and evaluation of innovative methods and cost-effective technologies for improving the assessment and control of arsenic contamination.

  13. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Fact Sheet on Arsenic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is found in combination with either inorganic or organic substances to form many different compounds. Inorganic arsenic compounds are found in soils, sediments, and groundwater.

  15. Extended Abstracts of the U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of Mercury Cadmium Telluride Held in Orlando, Florida on October 11-13, 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    ELECTRICAL, COMPUTER, AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE TROY, NEW YORK 12180 Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT or Hg 1-. Cd.Te...compensation. The n-type doping levels generally observed were in the range 2 to 4 x 101 cm- 3 , for layers of 20-30% cadmium composition. Arsenic...which is one order of magnitude smaller than Na. -34 I - 35 IMPROVEMENTS IN THE DOPING OF MERCURY CADMIUM TELLURIDE FILMS GROWN BY MOLECULAR BEAM

  16. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  17. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  18. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  19. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  20. Cadmium and zinc relationships.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Piscator, M

    1978-08-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in kidney and liver have been measured under different exposure situations in different species including man. The results show that zinc increases almost equimolarly with cadmium in kidney after long-term low-level exposure to cadmium, e.g., in man, horse, pig, and lamb. In contrast, the increase of zinc follows that of cadmium to only a limited extent, e.g., in guinea pig, rabbit, rat, mouse, and chicks. In liver, the cadmium--zinc relationship seems to be reversed in such a way that zinc increases with cadmium more markedly in laboratory animals than in higher mammals. These differences between cadmium and zinc relationships in humans and large farm animals and those in commonly used laboratory animals must be considered carefully before experimental data on cadmium and zinc relationships in laboratory animals can be extrapolated to humans.

  1. ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-the-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation also includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research st...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  3. ARSENIC SOURCES AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has identified a number of potential and current links between environmental arsenic releases and the management of operational and abandoned landfills. Many landfills will receive an increasing arsenic load due to the disposal of arsenic-bearing solid residuals ...

  4. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  5. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  6. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  7. Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Asaduzzaman, Md; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-11-15

    The study assesses the daily consumption by adults of arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water and home-grown vegetables in a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. Most of the examined elements in drinking water were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values except As. The median concentrations of As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Mn, nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables were 90 μg kg(-1), 111 μg kg(-1), 0.80 mg kg(-1), 168 μg kg(-1), 13 mg kg(-1), 2.1 mg kg(-1), 65 mg kg(-1), 1.7 mg kg(-1), and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. Daily intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, manganese (Mn), Ni, and Zn from vegetables and drinking water for adults were 839 μg, 2.9 μg, 20.8 μg, 5.5 μg, 0.35 mg, 56.4 μg, 2.0mg, 49.1 μg, and 1.3mg, respectively. The health risks from consuming vegetables were estimated by comparing these figures with the WHO/FAO provisional tolerable weekly or daily intake (PTWI or PTDI). Vegetables alone contribute 0.05 μg of As and 0.008 mg of Cu per kg of body weight (bw) daily; 0.42 μg of Cd, 8.77 mg of Pb, and 0.03 mg of Zn per kg bw weekly. Other food sources and particularly dietary staple rice need to be evaluated to determine the exact health risks from such foods.

  8. Hygroscopic and Chemical Properties of Aerosols collected near a Copper Smelter: Implications for Public and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Csavina, Janae; Shingler, Taylor; Dey, Stephen; Brechtel, Fred J.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions near active copper smelters and mine tailings in the southwestern United States pose a potential threat to nearby environments owing to toxic species that can be inhaled and deposited in various regions of the body depending on the composition and size of the particles, which are linked by particle hygroscopic properties. This study reports the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved chemical and hygroscopic properties of particles next to an active copper smelter and mine tailings by the towns of Hayden and Winkelman in southern Arizona. Size-resolved particulate matter samples collected near an active copper smelter were examined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol particles collected at the measurement site are enriched in metals and metalloids (e.g. arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and water-uptake measurements of aqueous extracts of collected samples indicate that the particle diameter range of particles most enriched with these species (0.18–0.55 µm) overlaps with the most hygroscopic mode at a relative humidity of 90% (0.10–0.32 µm). These measurements have implications for public health, microphysical effects of aerosols, and regional impacts owing to the transport and deposition of contaminated aerosol particles. PMID:22852879

  9. Evolution of copper resistance in the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae through acquisition of integrative conjugative elements and plasmids.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Elena; Straub, Christina; Künzel, Sven; Templeton, Matthew D; McCann, Honour C; Rainey, Paul B

    2017-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer can precipitate rapid evolutionary change. In 2010 the global pandemic of kiwifruit canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) reached New Zealand. At the time of introduction, the single clone responsible for the outbreak was sensitive to copper, however, analysis of a sample of isolates taken in 2015 and 2016 showed that a quarter were copper resistant. Genome sequences of seven strains showed that copper resistance - comprising czc/cusABC and copABCD systems - along with resistance to arsenic and cadmium, was acquired via uptake of integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), but also plasmids. Comparative analysis showed ICEs to have a mosaic structure, with one being a tripartite arrangement of two different ICEs and a plasmid that were isolated in 1921 (USA), 1968 (NZ) and 1988 (Japan), from P. syringae pathogens of millet, wheat and kiwifruit respectively. Two of the Psa ICEs were nearly identical to two ICEs isolated from kiwifruit leaf colonists prior to the introduction of Psa into NZ. Additionally, we show ICE transfer in vitro and in planta, analyze fitness consequences of ICE carriage, capture the de novo formation of novel recombinant ICEs, and explore ICE host-range.

  10. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  11. Arsenic geochemistry and health.

    PubMed

    Duker, Alfred A; Carranza, E J M; Hale, Martin

    2005-07-01

    Arsenic occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is widely distributed in the environment. Natural mineralization and activities of microorganisms enhance arsenic mobilization in the environment but human intervention has exacerbated arsenic contamination. Although arsenic is useful for industrial, agricultural, medicinal and other purposes, it exerts a toxic effect in a variety of organisms, including humans. Arsenic exposure may not only affect and disable organs of the body, especially the skin, but may also interfere with the proper functioning of the immune system. This paper, therefore, generally highlights the toxic effects of arsenic as well as its mobilization in the natural environment and possible controls. It also briefly attempts to outline the impact of arsenic on the immune system, whose alteration could lead to viral/bacterial infections.

  12. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  13. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  14. Impact of Arsenic Treatment Techniques on Distribution Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will summarize the results of the distribution water quality studies (arsenic, lead, and copper) of the demonstration program. The impact of the treatment systems by type of system (adsorptive media, coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, etc) will be shown by co...

  15. ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE METHYLATION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenic into methylated products is a multistep process that yields mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. In recent years, it has become apparent that formation of methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic is not necessarily a detoxification...

  16. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  17. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  18. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  19. Release of accumulated arsenic from distribution pipes into tap water after arsenic treatment of source water- presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic arsenic (As) is known to incorporate from source well water onto the scales of distribution system pipes such as iron, copper, galvanized steel and even plastic containing internal buildup of iron coatings (Lytle et al., 2010, 2004; Schock, 2015; Reiber and Dostal, 2000). W...

  20. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Oden, C P; Schweitzer, J S; McDowell, G M

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min.

  2. Beyond regulations: industry voluntary ban in arsenic use.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Lily

    2013-12-15

    Firms play a key role in pollution abatement and control by engaging in beyond-compliance actions without the force of law in voluntary programs. This study examines the effectiveness of a bilateral voluntary agreement, one type of voluntary programs, negotiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the pressure-treated wood industry to phase-out the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a poisonous arsenic compound. Arsenic is ranked number one on the EPA's priority list of hazardous substances. Unlike a majority of earlier studies on voluntary programs, dynamic panel estimation and structural break analysis show that while a technological innovation in semiconductors is associated with arsenic use increases, the CCA voluntary agreement is associated with a reduction in arsenic use to levels not seen since the 1920s. A voluntary ban in arsenic acid by pesticide manufacturers in the agriculture sector has also contributed to arsenic reductions. Furthermore, the results suggest that environmental activism has played a role in curbing arsenic use. Increasing stakeholder pressures, as measured by membership in the Sierra Club, improves voluntary agreement effectiveness.

  3. Arsenic-resistant proteobacterium from the phyllosphere of arsenic-hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) reduces arsenate to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Raman, Suresh Babu; Kertulis, Gina; Ma, Lena

    2006-07-01

    An arsenic-resistant bacterium, AsRB1, was isolated from the fronds of Pteris vittata grown in a site contaminated with copper chromium arsenate. The bacterium exhibited resistance to arsenate, arsenite, and antimony in the culture medium. AsRB1, like Pseudomonas putida, grew on MacConkey and xylose-lactose-desoxycholate agars and utilized citrate but, unlike P. putida, was positive for indole test and negative for oxidase test. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that AsRB1 is a proteobacterium of the beta subclass, related to Pseudomonas saccharophila and Variovorax paradoxus. Following an exogenous supply of arsenate, most arsenic occurred as arsenite in the medium and the cell extracts, suggesting reduction and extrusion of arsenic as the mechanism for arsenic resistance in AsRB1.

  4. Anionic sorbents for arsenic and technetium species.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, Daniel A.; Moore, Robert Charles; Bontchev, Ranko Panayotov; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Two sorbents, zirconium coated zeolite and magnesium hydroxide, were tested for their effectiveness in removing arsenic from Albuquerque municipal water. Results for the zirconium coated zeolite indicate that phosphate present in the water interfered with the sorption of arsenic. Additionally, there was a large quantity of iron and copper present in the water, corrosion products from the piping system, which may have interfered with the uptake of arsenic by the sorbent. Magnesium hydroxide has also been proven to be a strong sorbent for arsenic as well as other metals. Carbonate, present in water, has been shown to interfere with the sorption of arsenic by reacting with the magnesium hydroxide to form magnesium carbonate. The reaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR and shows that hydrogen bonding between an oxygen on the arsenic species and a hydrogen on the Mg(OH)2 is most likely the mechanism of sorption. This was also confirmed by RAMAN spectroscopy and XRD. Technetium exists in multiple oxidation states (IV and VII) and is easily oxidized from the relatively insoluble Tc(IV) form to the highly water soluble and mobile Tc(VII) form. The two oxidation states exhibit different sorption characteristics. Tc(VII) does not sorb to most materials whereas Tc(IV) will strongly sorb to many materials. Therefore, it was determined that it is necessary to first reduce the Tc (using SnCl2) before sorption to stabilize Tc in the environment. Additionally, the effect of carbonate and phosphate on the sorption of technetium by hydroxyapatite was studied and indicated that both have a significant effect on reducing Tc sorption.

  5. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Elena; Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhongwen; Jhangri, Gian S.; Lu, Xiufen; Fok, Nelson; Gabos, Stephan; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Increasing concerns over the use of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in playground structures arise from potential exposure to arsenic of children playing in these playgrounds. Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children’s exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative amounts of arsenic on the hands of children in contact with CCA-treated wood structures or sand in playgrounds. We compared arsenic levels on the hands of 66 children playing in eight CCA playgrounds with levels of arsenic found on the hands of 64 children playing in another eight playgrounds not constructed with CCA-treated wood. The children’s age and duration of playtime were recorded at each playground. After play, children’s hands were washed in a bag containing 150 mL of deionized water. Arsenic levels in the hand-washing water were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results show that the ages of the children sampled and the duration of play in the playgrounds were similar between the groups of CCA and non-CCA playgrounds. The mean amount of water-soluble arsenic on children’s hands from CCA playgrounds was 0.50 μg (range, 0.0078–3.5 μg). This was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the mean amount of water-soluble arsenic on children’s hands from non-CCA playgrounds, which was 0.095 μg (range, 0.011–0.41 μg). There was no significant difference in the amount of sand on the children’s hands and the concentration of arsenic in the sand between the CCA and non-CCA groups. The higher values of arsenic on the hands of children playing in the CCA playgrounds are probably due to direct contact with CCA-treated wood. Washing hands after play would reduce the levels of potential exposure because most of the arsenic on children’s hands was washed off with water

  6. Genetic basis of arsenite and cadmium tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, Michael; Perrone, Gabriel G; Kristiansson, Erik; Traini, Mathew; Ye, Tian; Dawes, Ian W; Nerman, Olle; Tamás, Markus J

    2009-01-01

    Background Arsenic and cadmium are widely distributed in nature and pose serious threats to the environment and human health. Exposure to these nonessential toxic metals may result in a variety of human diseases including cancer. However, arsenic and cadmium toxicity targets and the cellular systems contributing to tolerance acquisition are not fully known. Results To gain insight into metal action and cellular tolerance mechanisms, we carried out genome-wide screening of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid and homozygous diploid deletion mutant collections and scored for reduced growth in the presence of arsenite or cadmium. Processes found to be required for tolerance to both metals included sulphur and glutathione biosynthesis, environmental sensing, mRNA synthesis and transcription, and vacuolar/endosomal transport and sorting. We also identified metal-specific defence processes. Arsenite-specific defence functions were related to cell cycle regulation, lipid and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and the cytoskeleton whereas cadmium-specific defence functions were mainly related to sugar/carbohydrate metabolism, and metal-ion homeostasis and transport. Molecular evidence indicated that the cytoskeleton is targeted by arsenite and that phosphorylation of the Snf1p kinase is required for cadmium tolerance. Conclusion This study has pin-pointed core functions that protect cells from arsenite and cadmium toxicity. It also emphasizes the existence of both common and specific defence systems. Since many of the yeast genes that confer tolerance to these agents have homologues in humans, similar biological processes may act in yeast and humans to prevent metal toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:19284616

  7. Functional characterization of Gram-negative bacteria from different genera as multiplex cadmium biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bereza-Malcolm, Lara; Aracic, Sanja; Kannan, Ruban; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E

    2017-03-16

    Widespread presence of cadmium in soil and water systems is a consequence of industrial and agricultural processes. Subsequent accumulation of cadmium in food and drinking water can result in accidental consumption of dangerous concentrations. As such, cadmium environmental contamination poses a significant threat to human health. Development of microbial biosensors, as a novel alternative method for in situ cadmium detection, may reduce human exposure by complementing traditional analytical methods. In this study, a multiplex cadmium biosensing construct was assembled by cloning a single-output cadmium biosensor element, cadRgfp, and a constitutively expressed mrfp1 onto a broad-host range vector. Incorporation of the duplex fluorescent output [green and red fluorescence proteins] allowed measurement of biosensor functionality and viability. The biosensor construct was tested in several Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Enterobacter. The multiplex cadmium biosensors were responsive to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10µgml(-1), as well as several other heavy metals, including arsenic, mercury and lead at similar concentrations. The biosensors were also responsive within 20-40min following exposure to 3µgml(-1) cadmium. This study highlights the importance of testing biosensor constructs, developed using synthetic biology principles, in different bacterial genera.

  8. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-02-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem.

  9. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed Central

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-01-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem. PMID:488037

  10. Arsenic-Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Sean; Zancosky, Krysia; Farah, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide has brought about tremendous advancement in the treatment of acute promyelocytic myelogenous leukemia (APML). In most instances, the benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks associated with their respective safety profiles. Although acute pancreatitis is not commonly associated with arsenic toxicity, it should be considered as a possible side effect. We report a case of arsenic-induced pancreatitis in a patient with APML. PMID:22606427

  11. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  12. Cadmium - a metallohormone?

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th Century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers. PMID:19362102

  13. Cadmium - A metallohormone?

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers.

  14. Relationship between soil copper content and copper content of selected crop plants in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Badilla-Ohlbaum, R; Ginocchio, R; Rodríguez, P H; Céspedes, A; González, S; Allen, H E; Lagos, G E

    2001-12-01

    A survey of copper levels in agricultural soils of central Chile revealed two soil clusters-one with a mean copper level of 162 mg/kg and one with a mean copper level of 751 mg/kg of soil. Samples of soils from both soil clusters were characterized on the basis of physicochemical characteristics, and copper extractability was compared by saturation and CaCl2 extraction as well as an acid-leaching procedure (TCLP). We also measured the copper content of various tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and onion (Allium cepa) crops growing on these soils. Other than copper levels, soils from the two clusters were quite similar, with slightly greater levels of molybdenum and cadmium in the high-copper soils. Within each cluster, extracted copper levels and total soil copper levels were not correlated. However, the three extraction procedures solubilized significantly more copper from the high-Cu soils. Mineralogical characterization of the soil particles and depth profiles of soil metal levels in a subsample of sites suggested that highly insoluble copper ore and mining wastes might account for the high copper levels. Neither total nor extractable copper levels allowed statistical prediction of the levels of copper in plant tissue. The edible tissues of both crops had the same mean copper content, regardless of the copper soil level. However, copper contents of stems and leaves were significantly higher for plants growing on the high-Cu soils. These results show that in these soils, high copper levels are associated with very insoluble copper species and thus low bioavailability of copper to crop plants.

  15. Characterization studies on the cadmium-binding proteins from two species of New Zealand oysters

    SciTech Connect

    Nordberg, M.; Nuottaniemi, I.; Cherian, M.G.; Nordberg, G.F.; Kjellstroem, T.; Garvey, J.S.

    1986-03-01

    Two different types of New Zealand oysters - Ostrea lutaria (OL) and Crassostrea glomerata (CG) - contained different concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium. Both kinds of oysters were shown by gel filtration (G-75) to contain cadmium and zinc in fractions corresponding to a high molecular weight protein which was heat labile. OL oysters contained cadmium in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 6500. The cadmium-binding protein in these fractions was heat-stable. This protein contained no detectable amounts of zinc and was not present in the CG oysters. CG oysters contained cadmium and zinc in a polypeptide with low molecular weight (MW 1000). The cadmium-binding oyster proteins are minimally reactive in a competitive binding radioimmunoassay in comparison to the reactivity of a typical vertebrate metallothionein; the proteins may be metallothioneins, but, if so, they do not exhibit the principal determinants characteristic of vertebrate metallothioneins.

  16. Cadmium and calcium uptake in the mollusc donax rugosus and effect of a calcium channel blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sidoumou, Z.; Gnassia-Barelli, M.; Romeo, M.

    1997-02-01

    Donax rugosus, a common bivalve mollusc in the coastal waters of Mauritania, has been studied for trace metal concentrations as a function of sampling site (from South of Mauritania to the North of this country) and of season. In this paper, the uptake of cadmium was experimentally studied in the different organs of D. rugosus. Since metals such as cadmium, copper and mercury may alter calcium homeostasis, calcium uptake was also studied in the animals treated with cadmium. Since calcium is taken up through specific channels, it appears that metals inhibit Ca uptake by interacting with these channels in the plasma membrane. Cadmium and calcium have very similar atomic radii, thus cadmium may be taken up through the calcium channels, particularly through voltage-dependent channels. The uptake of cadmium and calcium by D. Rugosus was therefore also studied in the presence of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. U.S. Army Toxic Metal Reduction Program: Demonstrating Alternatives to Hexavalent Chromium and Cadmium in Surface Finishing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-18

    used in pretreatments 75% reduction in Cd associated with Cr(VI) finishes Reduction in toxic materials/waste (e.g., cyanide , phosphate sludge) 7...II Cadmium Oxide, Sodium Cyanide , Cadmium, Nickel Chloride, Iridite Hard Chrome Plate SAE AMS-QQ-C-320 Chromic Acid Copper Plating ASTM 2418F...Copper Cyanide , Sodium Cyanide , Sodium Dichromate Electroless Nickel AMS2404F Nickel Chloride Magnesium Anodize - Conversion Coating AMS-M-3171 Type

  18. Pollution by Arsenic, Mercury and other Heavy Metals in Sunchulli mining district of Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terán Mita, Tania; Faz Cano, Angel; Muñoz, Maria Angeles; Millán Gómez, Rocio; Chincheros Paniagua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. This is the case of the National Area of Apolobamba Integrated Management (ANMIN of Apolobamba) in La Paz, Bolivia, where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to the present, with very little gold extraction and very primitive mineral processing technology; in fact, mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes of the gold concentration, which is burned outdoors to recover the gold. Sunchullí is a representative mining district in ANMIN of Apolobamba where mining activity is mainly gold extraction and its water effluents go to the Amazonian basin; in this mining district the productivity of extracted mineral is very low but the processes can result in heavy-metal contamination of the air, water, soils and plants. Due to its high toxicity, the contamination by arsenic and mercury create the most critical environmental problems. In addition, some other heavy metals may also be present such as lead, copper, zinc and cadmium. These heavy metals could be incorporated in the trophic chain, through the flora and the fauna, in their bio-available and soluble forms. Inhabitants of this area consume foodcrops, fish from lakes and rivers and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals pollution by gold mining activities in Sunchullí area. In Sunchullí two representative zones were distinguished and sampled. Zone near the mining operation site was considered as affected by mineral extraction processes, while far away zones represented the non affected ones by the mining operation. In each zone, 3 plots were established; in each plot, 3 soil sampling points were selected in a random manner and analysed separately. In each sampling point, two samples were taken, one at the surface, from 0-5 cm depth (topsoil), and the other between 5

  19. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Pollutant Loading Rates Pollutant Cumulative pollutant loading rate (kilograms per hectare) Arsenic 41... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  20. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  1. Arsenic contamination in the Kanker district of central-east India: geology and health effects.

    PubMed

    Pandey, P K; Sharma, R; Roy, M; Roy, S; Pandey, M

    2006-10-01

    This paper identifies newer areas of arsenic contamination in the District Kanker, which adjoins the District Rajnandgaon where high contamination has been reported earlier. A correlation with the mobile phase episodes of arsenic contamination has been identified, which further hinges on the complex geology of the area. Arsenic concentrations in both surface and groundwater, aquatic organisms (snail and water weeds) soil and vegetation of Kanker district and its adjoining area have been reported here. The region has been found to contain an elevated level of arsenic. All segments of the ecoysystem are contaminated with arsenic at varying degrees. The levels of arsenic vary constantly depending on the season and location. An analysis of groundwater from 89 locations in the Kanker district has shown high values of arsenic, iron and manganese (mean: 144, 914 and 371 microg L(-1), respectively). The surface water of the region shows elevated levels of arsenic, which is influenced by the geological mineralised zonation. The most prevalent species in the groundwater is As(III), whereas the surface water of the rivers shows a significant contamination with the As(V) species. The analysis shows a bio-concentration of the toxic metals arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. Higher arsenic concentrations (groundwater concentrations greater than 50 microg L(-1)) are associated with sedimentary deposits derived from volcanic rocks, hence mineral leaching appears to be the source of arsenic contamination. Higher levels of arsenic and manganese in the Kanker district have been found to cause impacts on the flora and fauna. A case study of episodic arsenical diarrhoea is presented.

  2. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE CCA (CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE) ON TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for re...

  3. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  4. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  5. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  6. Hygroscopic and chemical properties of aerosols collected near a copper smelter: implications for public and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Csavina, Janae; Shingler, Taylor; Dey, Stephen; Brechtel, Fred J; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2012-09-04

    Particulate matter emissions near active copper smelters and mine tailings in the southwestern United States pose a potential threat to nearby environments owing to toxic species that can be inhaled and deposited in various regions of the body depending on the composition and size of the particles, which are linked by particle hygroscopic properties. This study reports the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved chemical and hygroscopic properties of particles next to an active copper smelter and mine tailings by the towns of Hayden and Winkelman in southern Arizona. Size-resolved particulate matter samples were examined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol particles collected at the measurement site are enriched in metals and metalloids (e.g., arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and water-uptake measurements of aqueous extracts of collected samples indicate that the particle diameter range of particles most enriched with these species (0.18-0.55 μm) overlaps with the most hygroscopic mode at a relative humidity of 90% (0.10-0.32 μm). These measurements have implications for public health, microphysical effects of aerosols, and regional impacts owing to the transport and deposition of contaminated aerosol particles.

  7. In vitro gastrointestinal bioavailability of arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated utility poles.

    PubMed

    Pouschat, Priscilla; Zagury, Gerald J

    2006-07-01

    Because of the potentially high arsenic concentrations found in soils immediately adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood structures and utility poles, CCA-contaminated soil ingestion may be a significant exposure route to arsenic for children. Therefore, a strong need exists to provide accurate data on oral relative bioavailability (RBA) of arsenic (in vivo or in vitro) in field-collected CCA-contaminated soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess arsenic bioaccessibility in contaminated soils collected near in-service CCA-treated utility poles, (2) to determine the influence of soil properties and arsenic fractionation on arsenic bioaccessibility, and (3) to estimate an average daily arsenic intake from incidental soil ingestion. Arsenic bioaccessibility (in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) method) was determined on surface soil samples collected immediately adjacent to 12 CCA-treated utility poles after 18 months of service. Bioaccessible arsenic was also determined in 3 certified reference materials. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (<300 microm) varied from 37 +/- 2 to 251 +/- 12 mg/kg, irrespective of soil organic matter contentwith the major soil-bound arsenic species being As(V). Arsenic bioaccessibility ranged between 25.0 +/- 2.7 and 66.3 +/- 2.3% (mean value 40.7 +/- 14.9%). The mean value was in agreement with the in vivo arsenic RBA reported by Casteel et al. (2003) in soil near CCA-treated utility poles. Bioaccessible arsenic was positively correlated with total organic carbon content (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and with water-soluble arsenic (2 = 0.51, p < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with clay content (r2 = 0.43, p < 0.05). Using conservative exposure parameters, the mean daily arsenic intake from incidental ingestion of contaminated soil near CCA-treated utility poles was 0.18 +/- 0.09 microg As kg(-1) d(-1). This arsenic intake appeared negligible compared to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic from water and food

  8. Resistance of Permafrost and Modern Acinetobacter lwoffii Strains to Heavy Metals and Arsenic Revealed by Genome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mindlin, Sofia; Petrenko, Anatolii; Kurakov, Anton; Beletsky, Alexey; Mardanov, Andrey; Petrova, Mayya

    2016-01-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing of five permafrost strains of Acinetobacter lwoffii (frozen for 15-3000 thousand years) and analyzed their resistance genes found in plasmids and chromosomes. Four strains contained multiple plasmids (8-12), which varied significantly in size (from 4,135 to 287,630 bp) and genetic structure; the fifth strain contained only two plasmids. All large plasmids and some medium-size and small plasmids contained genes encoding resistance to various heavy metals, including mercury, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, and arsenic compounds. Most resistance genes found in the ancient strains of A. lwoffii had their closely related counterparts in modern clinical A. lwoffii strains that were also located on plasmids. The vast majority of the chromosomal resistance determinants did not possess complete sets of the resistance genes or contained truncated genes. Comparative analysis of various A. lwoffii and of A. baumannii strains discovered a number of differences between them: (i) chromosome sizes in A. baumannii exceeded those in A. lwoffii by about 20%; (ii) on the contrary, the number of plasmids in A. lwoffii and their total size were much higher than those in A. baumannii; (iii) heavy metal resistance genes in the environmental A. lwoffii strains surpassed those in A. baumannii strains in the number and diversity and were predominantly located on plasmids. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed.

  9. Sex, age, and tissue specific accumulation of eight metals, arsenic, and selenium in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Rautio, Anni; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Valtonen, Anu; Ikonen, Mirva; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Holopainen, Ismo J; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2010-11-01

    Many insectivores have been shown to be sensitive to heavy metals and therefore suitable for biomonitoring purposes. In Finland, the hibernation period of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is long, and during hibernation the stress caused by environmental toxins may be crucial. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) were measured in a population of hedgehogs in the town of Joensuu in eastern Finland during the summers of 2004 and 2005. The analyzed tissues were kidney, liver, hair, and spine. The sampled hedgehogs (n = 65) were mainly road-killed animals. As expected, the concentrations of heavy metals were low because the hedgehogs were living in a comparatively unpolluted area. Significant increases with age were found in Cd concentrations (kidney, liver, and spine) and some essential elements (Se in spine, kidney, and liver; Mo in kidney and liver; Cu in spine; Fe in liver; and Mn in spine). Age accumulation and correlations between Se and Cd and between Mo and Cd may indicate the protective roles of Se and Mo against Cd toxicity in hedgehogs, in which Cd is already at comparatively low concentrations. Sex had no significant effect on concentrations of the elements studied. In conclusion, age is an important parameter to be taken into account when studying heavy-metal concentrations in hedgehogs and other insectivores.

  10. Resistance of Permafrost and Modern Acinetobacter lwoffii Strains to Heavy Metals and Arsenic Revealed by Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kurakov, Anton; Beletsky, Alexey; Mardanov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing of five permafrost strains of Acinetobacter lwoffii (frozen for 15–3000 thousand years) and analyzed their resistance genes found in plasmids and chromosomes. Four strains contained multiple plasmids (8–12), which varied significantly in size (from 4,135 to 287,630 bp) and genetic structure; the fifth strain contained only two plasmids. All large plasmids and some medium-size and small plasmids contained genes encoding resistance to various heavy metals, including mercury, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, and arsenic compounds. Most resistance genes found in the ancient strains of A. lwoffii had their closely related counterparts in modern clinical A. lwoffii strains that were also located on plasmids. The vast majority of the chromosomal resistance determinants did not possess complete sets of the resistance genes or contained truncated genes. Comparative analysis of various A. lwoffii and of A. baumannii strains discovered a number of differences between them: (i) chromosome sizes in A. baumannii exceeded those in A. lwoffii by about 20%; (ii) on the contrary, the number of plasmids in A. lwoffii and their total size were much higher than those in A. baumannii; (iii) heavy metal resistance genes in the environmental A. lwoffii strains surpassed those in A. baumannii strains in the number and diversity and were predominantly located on plasmids. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:27795957

  11. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  12. Nonstoichiometry of crystalline cadmium selenide

    SciTech Connect

    Kharif, Ya.L.; Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1987-08-01

    A highly sensitive physicochemical method is developed for determining the cadmium concentration (10/sup -5/ at. % for a 10 g sample weight), dissolved in cadmium selenide. The nonstoichiometry of cadmium selenide crystals is studied after high-temperature annealing at 870-1370/sup 0/K in cadmium vapor. For the first time, it is discovered that in the investigated crystals the dissolved cadmium exists primarily in the form of electrically neutral defects, which are presumably clusters of selenium vacancies with low mobility.

  13. Binational arsenic exposure survey: methodology and estimated arsenic intake from drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B

    2012-04-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  14. Geochemistries of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and related elements in sediments of puget sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crecelius, E.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Carpenter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The natural distributions of arsenic, antimony mercury, chromium, cobalt, iron, aluminum, and carbon in the surface sediments of Puget Sound are perturbed by two major anthropogenic sources of trace metals: a copper smelter near Tacoma, Wash., that discharges large amounts of arsenic and antimony, and a chlor-alkali plant in Bellingham, Wash., which, in the recent past, discharged significant amounts of mercury. Arsenic and antimony inputs from the smelter over the past 80 years are evident in sediment cores whose accumulation rates have been determined by the lead-210 technique. An arsenic budget for Puget Sound reveals the importance of atmospheric input resulting from smokestack emissions of the smelter. Chemical extraction studies of sediments showed that more than 82% of the mercury was associated with easily oxidizable organic matter, whereas about 50% of both arsenic and antimony was associated with extractable iron and aluminum compounds.

  15. 40 CFR 444.18 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Standards for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, titanium and zinc are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  16. 40 CFR 444.18 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Standards for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, titanium and zinc are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recoverable), cyanide and total phenols Antimony Arsenic Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Zinc Cyanide Total phenolic compounds Volatile organic compounds...

  18. Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Fariduddin, Atm

    2002-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. This effect depends on several factors, such as the amount of water hyacinth, amount of arsenic present in the water, duration of exposure, and presence of sunlight and air. On the basis of the present study, the authors suggest that water hyacinth is useful for making arsenic-contaminated drinking water totally arsenic free. Water hyacinth provides a natural means of removing arsenic from drinking water at the household level without monetary cost.

  19. HRTEM/AEM and SEM study of fluid-rock interactions: Interaction of copper, silver, selenium, chromium, and cadmium-bearing solutions with geological materials at near surface conditions, with an emphasis on phyllosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1992-05-01

    Biotite has been reacted with acidic solutions, at 25'' +/-3''C, bearing silver (Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), selenium (selenite), chromium (hexavalent Cr), and copper (CuSO{sub 4}). The experiments were open to the atmosphere. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that biotite sorbs and reduces Ag+(aq) to metallic silver. Polygonal precipitates and inclusions of metallic silver (with diameters ranging from 10's of angstroms to > {ge} {mu}m) are concentrated on the edges of the biotite flakes and also in the interlayer region. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of biotites reacted with selenite-bearing solutions show that the oxidation state of selenium sorbed on the surface of biotite is Se{sup 4+}. XPS of biotites reacted with Cr{sup 6+}-bearing solutions show that the oxidation state of chromium sorbed on the surface of biotite is Cr{sup 3+}. Copper-bearing solutions were reacted with low-F biotite in contrast to our previous work with high-F biotite (Olden et al., in press). Results indicate that low-F biotite absorbs more readily and extensively than high-F biotite. Further work on copper-enriched biotite from the chrysocolla zone has revealed that the mode of copper incorporation in biotite is more complex than previously described.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ingested Inorganic Arsenic (2005 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP), and Office of Water (OW) requested the SAB to provide advice to the Agency on several issues about the mode of carcinogenic action of various arsenic species and the implications of these issues for EPA's assessment of the cancer hazard and risks of organic and inorganic arsenic. The panel will review an OPP Science Issue Paper (with an attachment prepared by ORD) and a revised hazard and dose response assessment/characterization for inclusion in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) prepared by OW. Inorganic arsenic is used for hardening copper and lead alloys. It also is used in glass manufacturing as a decolorizing and refining agent, as a component of electrical devices, in the semiconductor industry, and as a catalyst in the production of ethylene oxide.

  1. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Copper hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  3. Infrared birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide.

    PubMed

    Chenault, D B; Chipman, R A

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of the birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide from 2.5 to 16.5µm obtained with a rotating sample spectropolarimeter are presented. Because of the similarity in the birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide, a highly achromatic IR retarder can be constructed from a combination of these materials. The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for cadmium sulfide are estimated in the region from 10.6 to 15 µm and for cadmium selenide from 10.6 to 16.5 µm by combining these birefringence data with an extrapolation of previous dispersion relations.

  4. ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation

    David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National
    Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  5. Evaluation and application of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique using a mixed-binding gel layer for measuring inorganic arsenic and metals in mining impacted water and soil.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Trang; Zhang, Hao; Noller, Barry

    2012-11-20

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) equipped with a Chelex or ferrihydrite binding gel has been designed to enable the measurement of either labile metal species or inorganic arsenic, respectively. In the mine impacted environment, metals and metalloids commonly coexist in a variety of species. This study, for the first time reports the performance of the DGT with a mixed-binding layer (MBL), consisting of Chelex and ferrihydrite for measurements of both metals and arsenic in a single assay. The MBL that consists of a combination of Chelex and ferrihydrite at a ratio of 1:2 has the greatest binding capacity for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The elemental concentrations measured by using MBL-DGT (C(DGT)) were comparable (92-104%) with the original test solution concentrations (C(SOL)). The measurement of As by using MBL-DGT was consistent across a wide pH range (3-8) and ionic strength (0.001-0.1 M). At high pH (9), As measurement was slightly affected (∼80%). The measurements of Cd, Pb, and Zn were affected at low pH (<3) and high pH (9). Measurements of Cd, Cu, and Pb were affected at low ionic strength (0.001 M). At high ionic strength (0.1 M), measurements of Cd; Cu and Pb were slightly affected. The capacity of MBL-DGT for quantitative measurement in a multielements solution is effectively limited to 15 μg for As and 70 μg for metals per MBL-DGT device. Good correlations (p < 0.01) between MBL-DGT measurements and ferrihydrite or Chelex DGT were obtained for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water and soil with exception for Cd and Cu (p < 0.05) when deployed in soil.

  6. Containing arsenic-enriched groundwater tracing lead isotopic compositions of common arsenical pesticides in a coastal Maine watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.; Robinson, Glipin R.; Colvin, A.S.; Lipfert, G.; Reeve, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenical pesticides and herbicides were extensively used on apple, blueberry, and potato crops in New England during the first half of the twentieth century. Lead arsenate was the most heavily used arsenical pesticide until it was officially banned. Lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, and sodium arsenate have similar Pb isotope compositions: 208Pb207Pb = 2.3839-2.4722, and 206Pb207Pb = 1.1035-1.2010. Other arsenical pesticides such as copper acetoarsenite (Paris green), methyl arsonic acid and methane arsonic acid, as well as arsanilic acid are widely variable in isotope composition. Although a complete understanding of the effects of historical use of arsenical pesticides is not available, initial studies indicate that arsenic and lead concentrations in stream sediments in New England are higher in agricultural areas that intensely used arsenical pesticides than in other areas. The Pb isotope compositions of pesticides partially overlap values of stream sediments from areas with the most extensive agricultural use. The lingering effects of arsenical pesticide use were tested in a detailed geochemical and isotopic study of soil profiles from a watershed containing arsenic-enriched ground water in coastal Maine. Acid-leach compositions of the soils represent lead adsorbed to mineral surfaces or held in soluble minerals (Fe- and Mn-hydroxides, carbonate, and some micaceous minerals), whereas residue compositions likely reflect bedrock compositions. The soil profiles contain labile Pb (acid-leach) showing a moderate range in 206Pb 207Pb (1.1870-1.2069), and 208Pb207Pb (2.4519-2.4876). Isotope values vary as a function of depth: the lowest Pb isotope ratios (e.g.,208Pb206Pb) representing labile lead are in the uppermost soil horizons. Lead contents decrease with depth in the soil profiles. Arsenic contents show no clear trend with depth. A multi-component mixing scheme that included lead from the local parent rock (Penobscot Formation), lead derived from combustion of

  7. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  8. Geochemistry, geochronology, mineralogy, and geology suggest sources of and controls on mineral systems in the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada; with geochemistry maps of gold, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and sulfur; and with a section on lead associations, mineralogy and paragenesis, and isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Hoffman, James D.; Doe, Bruce R.; Foord, Eugene E.; Stein, Holly J.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    distribution patterns that suggest specific sources and lithologic influences on deposition, as well as multiple episodes of mineralization. Principal episodes of mineralization are Late Cretaceous (molybdenum and tungsten in and near granite; silver at Belmont and Silver Point mines), early Oligocene [tourmaline and base- and precious-metals around the granodiorite of Dry Canyon stock as well as at Manhattan(?)], late Oligocene (gold at Round Mountain and Jefferson), and Miocene (gold at Manhattan). Most likely principal sources of molybdenum, tungsten, silver, and bismuth are Cretaceous granites; of antimony, arsenic, and mercury are intermediate-composition early Oligocene intrusives; and of gold are early and late Oligocene and early Miocene magmas of the volcanic cycle. Lead may have been derived principally from Cretaceous granitic magma and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Several areas prospective for undiscovered mineral deposits are suggested by spatial patterns of element distributions related to geologic features. The Manhattan district in the vicinity of the White Caps mine may be underlain by a copper-molybdenum porphyry system related to a buried stock; peripheral high-grade gold veins and skarn deposits may be present below deposits previously mined. The Jefferson district also may be underlain by a copper-molybdenum porphyry system related to a buried stock, it too with peripheral high-grade gold deposits. The Bald Mountain Canyon belt of small gold veins has potential for deeper deposits in buried porous ash-flow tuff similar to the huge Round Mountain low-grade gold-silver deposit. Several other areas have potential for a variety of mineral deposits. Altogether the geochemical, geochronologic, mineralogic, and geologic evidence suggests recurring mineralizing episodes of varied character, from Late Cretaceous to late Tertiary time, related to a long-lived hot spot deep in the crust or in the upper mantle. Granite plutons of Late Cretaceous age were minerali

  9. Arsenic Speciation in Wastes Resulting From Pressure Oxidation, Roasting and Smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, D.

    2010-11-01

    Arsenic commonly occurs in elevated concentrations in some gold and base-metal deposits. Mining and metallurgical processing of gold and base-metal ores results in solid wastes, effluents, and air emissions containing high concentrations of arsenic. Such wastes form an important source of anthropogenic arsenic in the environment. The nature and occurrence of arsenic in solid wastes are complex and highly variable. A combination of microanalytical tools and techniques including XAFS were used to determine the form and speciation of arsenic in wastes resulting from pressure oxidation, roasting and smelting, and impacted soil. As K-edge and Fe K-edge XAFS analyses of the pressure oxidation residues indicate that arsenic in tetrahedral coordination is corner-linked to 5 to 6 FeO{sub 6} octahedra that are edge- and perhaps face-sharing. During roasting of refractory gold ores, oxidation of As to As{sub 2}O{sub 5} species may be incomplete, which is detrimental to not only gold recovery but also the tailings management options. As K-edge XANES spectra indicate that more than one-third of the arsenic released from a copper smelter stack is composed of As{sup 3+} species. Most likely arsenic species in the smelter-impacted soil include arsenolite, goethite with adsorbed As{sup 5+}, monomethylarsonic acidm, and tetramethylarsonium iodide.

  10. Arsenic (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Arsenic The Basics Arsenic is an ...

  11. Cadmium migration in aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of temperature, the nature of separator material, charge and discharge, carbonate contamination, and the mode of storage are studied with respect to the migration of active material from the negative toward the positive plate. A theoretical model is proposed which takes into account the solubility of cadmium in various concentrations of hydroxide and carbonate at different temperatures, the generation of the cadmiate ion, Cd(OH)3(-), during discharge, the migration of the cadmiate ion and particulate Cd(OH)2 due to electrophoretic effects and the movement of electrolyte in and out of the negative plate and, finally, the recrystallization of cadmiate ion in the separator as Cd(OH)2. Application of the theoretical model to observations of cadmium migration in cycled cells is also discussed.

  12. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  13. The environmental geochemistry of Arsenic – An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowell, Robert J; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is one of the most prevalent toxic elements in the environment. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are determined by a complex series of controls dependent on mineralogy, chemical speciation, and biological processes. The element was first described by Theophrastus in 300 B.C. and named arsenikon (also arrhenicon; Caley and Richards 1956) referring to its “potent” nature, although it was originally considered an alternative form of sulfur (Boyle and Jonasson 1973). Arsenikon is believed to be derived from the earlier Persian, zarnik (online etymology dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=arsenic). It was not until the thirteenth century that an alchemist, Albertus Magnus, was able to isolate the element from orpiment, an arsenic sulfide (As2S3). The complex chemistry required to do this led to arsenic being considered a “bastard metal” or what we now call a “metalloid,” having properties of both metals and non-metals. As a chemical element, arsenic is widely distributed in nature and can be concentrated in many different ways. In the Earth’s crust, arsenic is concentrated by magmatic and hydrothermal processes and has been used as a “pathfinder” for metallic ore deposits, particularly gold, tin, copper, and tungsten (Boyle and Jonasson 1973; Cohen and Bowell 2014). It has for centuries been considered a potent toxin, is a common poison in actual and fictional crimes, and has led to significant impacts on human health in many areas of the world (Cullen 2008; Wharton 2010).

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  15. PATHWAY OF INORGANIC ARSENIC METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A remarkable aspect of the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans is its conversion to methylated metabolites. These metabolites account for most of the arsenic found in urine after exposure to inorganic arsenic. At least some of the adverse health effects attributed to inor...

  16. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  17. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  18. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  19. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  20. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Andrea

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  1. Cadmium-free copper indium gallium diselenide hybrid solar cells comprising a 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, Manuel; Simon, Christoph; Kuhn, Johannes; Bürkert, Linda; Cemernjak, Marco; Dimmler, Bernhard; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells are the most efficient thin film photovoltaic devices today. In this work, we investigate CIGS/organic hybrid solar cells comprising a semi-transparent metal top electrode and a wide band gap organic semiconductor as buffer layer. Depositing the organic semiconductor from solution, we fabricate Cd-free solar cells exhibiting about the same efficiency as their counterparts comprising CdS and significantly higher open-circuit voltages as compared to buffer-free devices. Although the organic molecules do not cover the CIGS surface homogeneously, their use enables prolonged charge carrier lifetimes according to impedance spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Natural hot spots for gain of multiple resistances: arsenic and antibiotic resistances in heterotrophic, aerobic bacteria from marine hydrothermal vent fields.

    PubMed

    Farias, Pedro; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Branco, Rita; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Susana; Hansen, Lars; Sorensen, Soren; Morais, Paula V

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for multiple antibiotic resistances that have been associated with resistance/tolerance to heavy metals, with consequences to public health. Many genes conferring these resistances are located on mobile genetic elements, easily exchanged among phylogenetically distant bacteria. The objective of the present work was to isolate arsenic-, antimonite-, and antibiotic-resistant strains and to determine the existence of plasmids harboring antibiotic/arsenic/antimonite resistance traits in phenotypically resistant strains, in a nonanthropogenically impacted environment. The hydrothermal Lucky Strike field in the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic, between 11°N and 38°N), at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, protected under the OSPAR Convention, was sampled as a metal-rich pristine environment. A total of 35 strains from 8 different species were isolated in the presence of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. ACR3 and arsB genes were amplified from the sediment's total DNA, and 4 isolates also carried ACR3 genes. Phenotypic multiple resistances were found in all strains, and 7 strains had recoverable plasmids. Purified plasmids were sequenced by Illumina and assembled by EDENA V3, and contig annotation was performed using the "Rapid Annotation using the Subsystems Technology" server. Determinants of resistance to copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and chromium as well as to the antibiotics β-lactams and fluoroquinolones were found in the 3 sequenced plasmids. Genes coding for heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance in the same mobile element were found, suggesting the possibility of horizontal gene transfer and distribution of theses resistances in the bacterial population.

  3. Natural Hot Spots for Gain of Multiple Resistances: Arsenic and Antibiotic Resistances in Heterotrophic, Aerobic Bacteria from Marine Hydrothermal Vent Fields

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Pedro; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Branco, Rita; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Susana; Hansen, Lars; Sorensen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for multiple antibiotic resistances that have been associated with resistance/tolerance to heavy metals, with consequences to public health. Many genes conferring these resistances are located on mobile genetic elements, easily exchanged among phylogenetically distant bacteria. The objective of the present work was to isolate arsenic-, antimonite-, and antibiotic-resistant strains and to determine the existence of plasmids harboring antibiotic/arsenic/antimonite resistance traits in phenotypically resistant strains, in a nonanthropogenically impacted environment. The hydrothermal Lucky Strike field in the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic, between 11°N and 38°N), at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, protected under the OSPAR Convention, was sampled as a metal-rich pristine environment. A total of 35 strains from 8 different species were isolated in the presence of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. ACR3 and arsB genes were amplified from the sediment's total DNA, and 4 isolates also carried ACR3 genes. Phenotypic multiple resistances were found in all strains, and 7 strains had recoverable plasmids. Purified plasmids were sequenced by Illumina and assembled by EDENA V3, and contig annotation was performed using the “Rapid Annotation using the Subsystems Technology” server. Determinants of resistance to copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and chromium as well as to the antibiotics β-lactams and fluoroquinolones were found in the 3 sequenced plasmids. Genes coding for heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance in the same mobile element were found, suggesting the possibility of horizontal gene transfer and distribution of theses resistances in the bacterial population. PMID:25636836

  4. Metal accumulation in the tissues of grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) from fresh water around a copper mine in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Ni, Hong-Gang; Chen, Feng; Luo, Zhuan-Xi; Shen, Heqing; Liu, Liangpo; Wu, Peng

    2012-07-01

    Mining effluents are the main source of metals in the surrounding aquatic environment. The mining district of Purple Mountain has a history of copper mining for more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of metal bioaccumulation in the aquatic creatures from the Tingjiang river catchment affected by the mining activities. In this study, we collected grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) from four sites, and analyzed the accumulation of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in ten tissues (scale, skin, muscle, gill, liver, kidney, fish maw, heart, stomach, and intestine) of the fish samples. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations (micrograms per gram wet weight) of Ni (0.263), Cu (69.2), Zn (84.0), As (0.259), Cd (0.640), Hg (0.051), and Pb (0.534) were noted in the liver, gill, and kidney tissues, whereas the highest concentrations of Cr (0.356) and Mn (62.7) were detected in the skin and intestine, respectively. These results gave a better understanding of the variability of metals distribution in different fish tissues. In comparison with the sample sites, metals (especially Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb) in liver, gill, kidney, stomach, and intestine showed more inter-site differences than other tissues. The inter-site differences also revealed that site 1 and 2 increased fish uptake of Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb, which may indicate that the copper mine and urban effluents contributed to high levels of these metals in aquatic environments in site 1 and 2. A potential food safety issue may emerge depending on the mining activities in this region because some metals in a few tissue samples exceeded the guideline values for human consumption of fish.

  5. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds--cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium deselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarized the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds;evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Cadmium in caribou and muskoxen from the Canadian Yukon and Northwest Territories.

    PubMed

    Gamberg, M; Scheuhammer, A M

    1994-04-15

    Cadmium, zinc, copper and metallothionein concentrations were measured in liver and kidney tissue of caribou and muskoxen collected from various sites in the Canadian Yukon and Northwest Territories. Cadmium concentrations in caribou tissues were substantially higher than in muskoxen for all age classes and were comparable to concentrations reported for caribou from northern Québec and Norway. No geographical site differences in cadmium concentration were observed. Cadmium concentrations were positively correlated with age for both caribou and muskoxen. The highest cadmium concentration observed (166 micrograms/g dry wt.) was in renal tissue of a 15-year-old caribou. Metal concentrations tended to be higher in spring than in fall for animals of comparable age. Renal cadmium concentrations were highly correlated with metallothionein concentrations, especially for cadmium concentrations exceeding 20 micrograms/g (dry wt.). It is estimated that the regular weekly consumption of kidney tissue from Arctic caribou of any age, and from muskoxen older than 1 year, will probably cause the WHO provisional weekly tolerable intake of cadmium to be exceeded.

  7. Lung cancer in a non-ferrous smelter: the role of cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Ades, A E; Kazantzis, G

    1988-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was examined in a cohort of 4393 men employed at a zinc-lead-cadmium smelter. There was an excess of lung cancer (overall SMR = 124.5, 95% confidence interval 107-144) which was particularly evident for those employed for more than 20 years. A statistically significant trend in SMRs with increasing duration of employment was apparent. Quantitative estimates of exposure to cadmium and ordinal rankings for lead, arsenic, zinc, sulphur dioxide, and dust were used to calculate cumulative exposures from job histories. Matched logistic regression was used to compare the cumulative exposures of cases of lung cancer to those of controls matched for date of birth and date of starting work and surviving at the time of death of the matched cases. The increasing risk of lung cancer associated with increasing duration of employment could not be accounted for by cadmium and did not appear to be restricted to any particular process or department. Although lung cancer mortality was associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to arsenic and to lead, it was not possible to determine whether the increased risk might be due to arsenic, lead, or to other contaminants in the smelter. These results are compared with findings from other non-ferrous smelters. PMID:3395580

  8. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ); )

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  9. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  10. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  11. Geographical variation in inorganic arsenic in paddy field samples and commercial rice from the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Carey, Manus; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Green, Andy J; Meharg, Andrew A

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated total arsenic and arsenic speciation in rice using ion chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (IC-ICP-MS), covering the main rice-growing regions of the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The main arsenic species found were inorganic and dimethylarsinic acid. Samples surveyed were soil, shoots and field-collected rice grain. From this information soil to plant arsenic transfer was investigated plus the distribution of arsenic in rice across the geographical regions of Spain and Portugal. Commercial polished rice was also obtained from each region and tested for arsenic speciation, showing a positive correlation with field-obtained rice grain. Commercial polished rice had the lowest i-As content in Andalucia, Murcia and Valencia while Extremadura had the highest concentrations. About 26% of commercial rice samples exceeded the permissible concentration for infant food production as governed by the European Commission. Some cadmium data is also presented, available with ICP-MS analyses, and show low concentration in rice samples.

  12. ELUCIDATING THE PATHWAY FOR ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of arsenic is part of a metabolic pathway that converts inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Hence, in humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic, methyl and dimethyl arsenic account for most of the arsenic that is excreted in the ...

  13. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  14. Cadmium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive account of current research on the chemistry and toxicology of cadmium in natural waters. The first four chapters focus on the sources (natural vs. anthropogenic), behavior, and fate of cadmium in natural waters. These are followed by three chapters on the biocycling and effects of cadmium on freshwater biota. The ecotoxicity of cadmium to marine biota are covered by the next two chapters. The final chapter presents a succinct review of the analytical chemistry of cadmium in natural waters.

  15. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.